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Sample records for bridge bearings

  1. PROVIDING SERVICEABILITY OF STRUCTURAL BEARING TYPES FOR ROADWAY BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Polyuga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the description of structural bearing types for roadway bridges and their classification is given. Special attention is paid to effective bearings with elastomeric materials – rubber, pot, spherical ones. Characteristic defects of structural bearings and demands of serviceability are noticed.

  2. Ældre betonbroers bæreevne (Load bearing capacity of old concrete bridges)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    1999-01-01

    Two old bridges have been analysed in connection with their demolition. The first one is a pedestrian bridge, the Gefion bridge, from 1894. This is the first bridge of reinforced concrete in Denmark. Here the creep in the concrete severely have changed the way in which the load on the bridge was ...... carried. - The other is a motor way bridge from 1939, which were reinforced 1991 with external steel plates on the areas of shear on the beams. Four beams were carried to our laboratory and load tested. The steel plates have doubled the load bearing capacity of the beams....

  3. Shaking Table Tests of Curved Bridge considering Bearing Friction Sliding Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific to severe damage to curved bridges in earthquakes caused by the excessive force of the fixed bearings and piers, a new seismic design method on curved bridges considering bearing friction sliding isolation is proposed in this paper. Seismic model bridge and isolation model bridge with similarity ratio of 1/20 were made and the shaking table comparison test was conducted. The experimental results show that the isolation model curved bridge suffered less seismic damage than the seismic model curved bridge. The fundamental frequencies of the seismic model bridge and isolation model bridge decreased and the damping ratio increased with the increase of seismic intensity. Compared with seismic curved bridge, the maximum reduction rates of peak acceleration along the radial and tangential directions on the top of pier of the isolation model curved bridge were 47.3% and 55.5%, respectively, and the maximum reduction rate of the peak strain on the bottom of pier of the isolation model curved bridge was 43.4%. For the isolation model curved bridge, the maximum reduction rate of peak acceleration on the top of pier was 24.6% compared with that on the bottom of pier. The study results can provide experimental basis for the seismic design of curved bridges.

  4. Improving seismic behaviour of bridges with lead rubber bearing in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Golzar, M. J.; Azharian, M.; Behrouzyar, H. Kh.

    2011-01-01

    Construction of roads in Iran has received a considerable attention during these years. In this issue, the special geographic conditions of this country make bridge structures vital. Because of seismic location of Iran, attention to the reduction of risks is needed. Previous studies on seismic response of bridges prove the effective rules of isolators against the tremendous usage of elastomeric bearings in Iran. Lead rubber bearing (LRB) is on...

  5. Generalized fragility curves for bearing-supported skew bridges, for arbitrary angle of incidence of the seismic action

    OpenAIRE

    Moschonas, I. F.; Kappos, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous work by the authors and their co-workers an analytical methodology for the derivation of seismic fragility curves for bridges was proposed. Bridges were classified into three main categories according to their seismic energy dissipation mechanism: bridges with yielding piers of the column type, bridges with bearings and non-yielding piers of the wall type, and bridges with bearings and yielding piers of the column type. Then, damage states were defined using deck displacement at...

  6. Interaction of Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings in Bridge Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Nittmannová Ľubica; Magura Martin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the behavior of reinforced elastomeric bearings under various loads. They are made of special types of bearings. The experimental verification of these special bearings has been tested on various types of loading. The results of the experimental measurements are compared with the results of the numerical modeling and calculations according to the standard assumptions in STN EN 1337-3. In the conclusion, the results are summarized for the selected types ...

  7. Interaction of Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings in Bridge Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nittmannová Ľubica

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the behavior of reinforced elastomeric bearings under various loads. They are made of special types of bearings. The experimental verification of these special bearings has been tested on various types of loading. The results of the experimental measurements are compared with the results of the numerical modeling and calculations according to the standard assumptions in STN EN 1337-3. In the conclusion, the results are summarized for the selected types of bearings.

  8. Nonlinear Seismic Response Analysis of Curved and Skewed Bridge System with Spherical Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Linzell, Daniel G.; Junwon Seo; Jong Wan Hu

    2013-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) modeling approach to investigate nonlinear seismic response of a curved and skewed bridge system is proposed. The approach is applied to a three-span curved and skewed steel girder bridge in the United States. The superstructure is modeled using 3D frame elements for the girders, truss elements for the cross-frames, and equivalent frame elements to represent the deck. Spherical bearings are modeled with zero-length elements coupled with hysteretic material models. Non...

  9. Bearing Capacity Analyses for the Great Belt East Bridge Anchor Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carsten Steen; Clausen, Carl J. Frimann; Andersen, Henrik

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between different methods of bearing capacity analyses: Upper Bound Method. Limit Equilibrium Analysis and Finite Element Analysis. For the Great Belt East Bridge anchor blocks it was concluded that these methods of calculation agree within 5%. However, for cases...

  10. Design and experimental verification of a new multi-functional bridge seismic isolation bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-xi XING; Hao WANG; Ai-qun LI; Ji-rong WU

    2012-01-01

    A new multi-functional bridge seismic isolation bearing (MFBSIB) is designed and its mechanical model is developed in this paper.Combining an upper sliding device and a lower energy dispassion isolation device effectively,the new MFBSIB can adjust the deformation caused by temperature,vehicle breaks,and concrete creep,etc.,in addition to dissipating energy.The switch of ‘slide-isolation' is achieved and the efficiency of both upper and lower parts is validated through experiment with a model.The shear performance curve established in this paper is verified to be efficient in describing the mechanical characteristics of the bearing through experiment.It is proved through both numerical calculation and experimental analysis that the new MFBSIB is endowed with enough vertical rigidity,good energy dissipation ability,stable overall performance,and good realization in expected goals.Its performance is slightly influenced by shear stress,while affected by vertical pressure,loading frequency,slide limit,etc.,diversely.The results could provide reference for study and application of the new MFBSIB.

  11. ANALYSIS OF CAUSES OF BEARING DAMAGE OF BRIDGE SUPPORT OF STACKER-RECLAIMER ZGOT 15400.120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz SMOLNICKI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An example of the analysis of a large-size slewing bearing supporting the bridge of the largest in Poland stacker-reclaimer. The turning node was constructed based on the catalogue slewing bearing with four-point contact. The analysis was performed in order to identify the causes of rapid degradation of the bearing. In addition to the macroscopic tests, not described in this article, to verify the correct configuration of the supporting components and to determine the distribution of the loading, the FEM model was build, including the original replacement elements for modelling balls with four-point contact. The measurements of strain of occurred loading were also conducted. Particular attention was paid to the catalogue selection procedures of slewing bearings. The results of no compatibility between algorithms published by various manufacturers of bearings was shown.

  12. Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The famous physicist made for his scholars this riddle. A fellow encountered a bear in a wasteland. There was nobody else there. Both were frightened and ran away. Fellow to the north, bear to the west. Suddenly the fellow stopped, aimed his gun to the south and shot the bear. What colour was the bear?

  13. Catalytic oxidation of water and alcohols by a robust iron(iii) complex bearing a cross-bridged cyclam ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng; Kwong, Hoi-Ki; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2015-08-01

    An iron(iii) complex bearing a cross-bridged cyclam ligand (4,11-dimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazabicyclo[6.6.2]hexadecane) is an efficient catalyst for the oxidation of both water and alcohols using sodium periodate as the oxidant. In catalytic water oxidation a maximum turnover number (TON) of 1030 is achieved, while in catalytic alcohol oxidation >95% conversions and yields can be obtained. PMID:26126521

  14. 水平分散型支座在江顺大桥引桥的应用%Application of Shear-Force-Distributed Bearings in the Approach Bridges of Jiangshun Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋娜芳

    2014-01-01

    抗震设计是连续梁桥的设计难点之一。广东江顺大桥引桥采用水平分散型支座代替常规的盆式支座,经对比分析发现:水平分散型支座能降低结构刚度,延长结构周期,减小结构的地震内力,提高结构抗震性能;且剪切位移能力较大,能满足结构较大的地震位移需求。%The seismic design of continuous beam bridge is usually the difficult part of the whole design. In the seismic design of the approach bridges of Jiangshun Bridge in Guangdong Province,the new type shear-force-distributed bearings are selected instead of the conventional pot bearings. Comparative analysis reveals that:the stiffness of the bridge can be reduced and the period extended when using the shear-force-distributed bearings,which makes the seismic demands considerably lower. In the meanwhile,the seismic displacement demand of the structure is enlarged but still within the limit of the bearings due to their featured shears displacement capacity. The overall consequence is that the seismic performance of the bridge is improved when using this new type of bearing.

  15. Electrochemical investigation into the electron transfer mechanism of a diiron hexacarbonyl complex bearing a bridging naphthalene moiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The electron transfer of a diiron hexacarbonyl complex with naphthalene moiety as its bridging linkage undergoes both ECE and EE pathways. In the ECE process, the second reduction potential is inversed, not more negative than the first one, and the dianion derived from the EE process may isomerise to that generated from the ECE process. - Highlights: • A diiron hexacarbonyl complex with naphthalene moiety as its bridging linkage. • In the electron transfer, both ECE and EE pathways co-exist. • In the ECE process, the second reduction potential is inversed, not more negative than the first one. - Abstract: Electrochemical investigations and chemical reduction of the diiron hexacarbonyl complex bearing a 1,8-naphthalene moiety bridging linkage into which a ferrocenyl group was deliberately incorporated were performed. The complex exhibited two reduction and two oxidation processes in dichloromethane. Our results revealed that the first reduction could be assigned to an ECE (Electrochemical, Chemical and Electrochemical) mechanism with the second potential inversed. When the monoanion generated in the first reduction underwent, in part, the ECE mechanism, the rest of the monoanion continued to accept the second electron without involving a coupled chemical reaction, so called EE (Electrochemical and Electrochemical) mechanism. The two mechanisms co-existed in the electron transfer and compete with each other. By both increasing scanning rate and lowering temperature, the coupled reaction in the ECE mechanism could be effectively suppressed whereas the second reduction is highly irreversible. The coupled chemical reaction following the EE process might lead to the same dianion as that produced in the ECE processes. Although chemical reduction and re-oxidation were unsuccessful of confirming the transformation between the two dianions, DFT calculations did support this proposed chemical reaction

  16. Analysis on Bearing Capacity of Tunnel-Type Anchorage of a Long-Span Suspension Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yu; Wei Jun; Yang Manjuan; Li Hao; Liu Hongqing

    2005-01-01

    Due to complicated rock structure and environment, a prototype test for a tunnel-type anchorage is infeasible. Based on the rock mass parameters from tests, a three-dimensional (3D) elasto-plastic analysis was performed to simulate the influence of the construction procedure of Siduhe bridge with tunnel-type anchorage (TTA) in Hubei Province, China. The surrounding rock and concrete anchorage body were simulated by 8 nodes 3D brick elements. The geostatic state of the complex geometric structure was established with initial data. The in-situ concrete casting of the anchorage body and excavation of the rock mass were simulated by tetrahedral shell elements. The results show that the surrounding rock is in an elastic state under the designed cable force. The numerical overloading analysis indicates that the capacity of the surrounding anchorage is 7 times that of the designed cable force. The failure pattern shows that two anchorage bodies would be pulled out in the end. The maximum shear stress appears 10 m before the back anchorage face. The maximum range influenced by the TTA under ultimate loads is about 16 m.

  17. 某曲线梁桥双支座反力调整%A Curved Girder Bridge Double Bearing Anti-force Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庚

    2012-01-01

    Taking interchange rubber plate with a reaction force adjustment as an example, the paper is to introduce continuous beam bridge to use steel structure as scaffold platform when rubber bearings hanging in the air or bearing shifted, changes of deck cross slope, beam body occurring displacement, and on the platform, set slid, top up (shift) beam jack, using ordered rising of jack to conduct righting, pan, adjustable slope elevation, consolidation, replacement of bearings and fallen beam in place for beam body, so that on the beam is situated in the design position step by step, in order to restore normal use of bridge.%以某立交板式橡胶支座反力调整为例,介绍连续梁桥在橡胶支座脱空或支座发生位移、桥面横坡发生变化、梁体发生各项位移时,采用钢结构作为支架构建操作平台,平台上设置滑道,顶升(移)梁体千斤顶,利用千斤顶的有序起项,对梁体进行起顶扶正、平移、调坡抬高,加固、更换支座和落梁就位,使梁体一步一步地就位于设计位置,以恢复桥梁正常使用.

  18. Synthesis, Structure and Luminescent Properties of Polymeric Copper(Ⅰ) Halide Complexes Bearing Phosphine and N-donor Bridging Ligands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three polymeric copper(Ⅰ) halide complexes bearing phosphine and N-donor bridging ligands, [(PPh3)2Cu2(μ-Br)2(μ-4,4'-bipy)]∞ 1 (bipy=bipyridine), [(PPh3)2Cu2(μ-Br)2(μ-bpe)]∞ 2 (bpe=trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene) and [(PPh3)2Cu2(μ-Cl)2(μ-bpe)]∞ 3, were synthesized by the multilayer diffusion method, and the structures were refined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complex 1 crystallizes in triclinic, space group P-1 with a=9.122(3), b=9.322(3), c=13.201(4) (A),α=106.440(4), β=105.965(5), γ=94.167(5)°, V=1021.3(6) (A), Mr=967.62, Z=1,Dc=1.573 g/cm3, F(000)=486,μ=3.111 mm-1, the final R=0.0383 and wR=0.0960 for 2792observed reflections (I > 2σ(Ⅰ)). Complex 2 crystallizes in triclinic, space group P-1 with a=9.420(3), b=10.209(4), c=12.407(4)(A), α=104.136(6), β=108.132(5), γ=95.338(6)°, V=1081.0(7)(A), Mr=496.83, Z=2, Dc=1.526 g/cm3, F(000)=500,μ=2.941 mm-1, the final R=0.0445 and wR=0.1117 for 3251 observed reflections (I> 2σ(Ⅰ)). Complex 3 crystallizes in triclinic,space group P-1 with a=8.32(1), b=11.53(2), c=13.94(3)(A), α=109.57(3), β=93.85(3), γ=97.28(3)°, V=1242(4)(A)3, Mr=1074.59, Z=1, Dc=1.436 g/cm3, F(000)=548,μ=1.279 mm-1,the final R=0.0786 and wR=0.1586 for 2266 observed reflections (I > 2σ(Ⅰ)). The complexes exhibit intensive solid-state photoluminescence tentatively assigned to an admixture of triplet intraligand (IL) and metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excited state.

  19. Applied Research of Techniques for Bridge Plate-Type Rubber Pad Bearing Inspecting%梁桥板式橡胶支座检查技术应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云峰; 王彤

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes reasons for hang in the air of bridge plate-type rubber pad bearing,introduces the bridge support inspecting mirror and inspecting instrument,which provide valid method for the inspection of erection quality of plate-type rubber pad bearing in the process of bridge construction and the inspection of bridge support in the process of bridge investigation.%分析了桥梁板式橡胶支座脱空现象产生的原因,介绍了桥梁支座检查镜和检查仪的设计与应用,为桥梁施工过程对板式橡胶支座安装质量检查和桥梁调查过程中对支座的检查提供了有效方法.

  20. Load-bearing capacity of screw-retained CAD/CAM-produced titanium implant frameworks (I-Bridge®2) before and after cyclic mechanical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    DITTMER, Marc Philipp; NENSA, Moritz; STIESCH, Meike; KOHORST, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Implant-supported screw-retained fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) produced by CAD/ CAM have been introduced in recent years for the rehabilitation of partial or total endentulous jaws. However, there is a lack of data about the long-term mechanical characteristics. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the failure mode and the influence of extended cyclic mechanical loading on the load-bearing capacity of these frameworks. Material and Methods Ten five-unit FDP frameworks simulating a free-end situation in the mandibular jaw were manufactured according to the I-Bridge®2-concept (I-Bridge®2, Biomain AB, Helsingborg, Sweden) and each was screw-retained on three differently angulated Astra Tech implants (30º buccal angulation/0º angulation/30º lingual angulation). One half of the specimens was tested for static load-bearing capacity without any further treatment (control), whereas the other half underwent five million cycles of mechanical loading with 100 N as the upper load limit (test). All specimens were loaded until failure in a universal testing machine with an occlusal force applied at the pontics. Load-displacement curves were recorded and the failure mode was macro- and microscopically analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed using a t-test (p=0.05). Results All the specimens survived cyclic mechanical loading and no obvious failure could be observed. Due to the cyclic mechanical loading, the load-bearing capacity decreased from 8,496 N±196 N (control) to 7,592 N±901 N (test). The cyclic mechanical loading did not significantly influence the load-bearing capacity (p=0.060). The failure mode was almost identical in all specimens: large deformations of the framework at the implant connection area were obvious. Conclusion The load-bearing capacity of the I-Bridge®2 frameworks is much higher than the clinically relevant occlusal forces, even with considerably angulated implants. However, the performance under functional loading in vivo

  1. Load-bearing capacity of screw-retained CAD/CAM-produced titanium implant frameworks (I-Bridge®2 before and after cyclic mechanical loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Philipp Dittmer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Implant-supported screw-retained fixed dental prostheses (FDPs produced by CAD/ CAM have been introduced in recent years for the rehabilitation of partial or total endentulous jaws. However, there is a lack of data about the long-term mechanical characteristics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the failure mode and the influence of extended cyclic mechanical loading on the load-bearing capacity of these frameworks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten five-unit FDP frameworks simulating a free-end situation in the mandibular jaw were manufactured according to the I-Bridge®2-concept (I-Bridge®2, Biomain AB, Helsingborg, Sweden and each was screw-retained on three differently angulated Astra Tech implants (30º buccal angulation/0º angulation/30º lingual angulation. One half of the specimens was tested for static load-bearing capacity without any further treatment (control, whereas the other half underwent five million cycles of mechanical loading with 100 N as the upper load limit (test. All specimens were loaded until failure in a universal testing machine with an occlusal force applied at the pontics. Load-displacement curves were recorded and the failure mode was macro- and microscopically analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed using a t-test (p=0.05. RESULTS: All the specimens survived cyclic mechanical loading and no obvious failure could be observed. Due to the cyclic mechanical loading, the load-bearing capacity decreased from 8,496 N±196 N (control to 7,592 N±901 N (test. The cyclic mechanical loading did not significantly influence the load-bearing capacity (p=0.060. The failure mode was almost identical in all specimens: large deformations of the framework at the implant connection area were obvious. CONCLUSION: The load-bearing capacity of the I-Bridge®2 frameworks is much higher than the clinically relevant occlusal forces, even with considerably angulated implants. However, the performance under functional

  2. Fault Tree analysis of Corrosion Failure for Bridge Pot-bearings in Marine Atmosphere%海洋大气中桥梁盆式支座腐蚀失效故障树分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑轩

    2013-01-01

    腐蚀是桥梁盆式支座的常见病害之一,针对引起盆式支座腐蚀失效的各个因素,结合大气腐蚀、防腐涂装失效等机理,建立以盆式支座腐蚀失效为顶事件的故障树,通过布尔代数运算得到故障树的最小割集,从而得出导致支座腐蚀发生的主要因素,分析表明大气环境腐蚀因素、支座后期维护不善、支座局部构造不合理是导致支座腐蚀的主要因素,并针对这些原因提出了相应的改进措施和建议,以降低支座腐蚀失效发生的可能性。%Corrosion is one of the common diseases of bridge pot-bearings.Considering the various of factors that cause corrosion failure,combining with atmospheric corrosion mechanism and anticorrosive coatings failure mechanism,established a fault tree,of which top event is the corrosion failure of pot-bearings.The minimal cut-sets of the fault tree was obtained by Boolean operation,and then the impor-tant bottom events which caused corrosion failure of pot bearings were found.Results show that the main factors which cause corrosion failure of pot-bearings are marine atmospheric corrosive factors,poor main-tenance and unreasonable structure of pot-bearings.Some improvements with respect to the main factors had been proposed,which can reduce the possibility of corrosion failure.

  3. Application of Lead Core Rubber Bearings to Seismic Mitigation and Isolation of Simply-Supported Girder Bridges%铅芯橡胶支座在简支梁桥减隔震中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋雷; 贺立新

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of seismic mitigation and isolation of the lead core rubber bearings applied to the simply-supported girder bridges in high intensity seismic region, the Shuijing Bridge was cited as an example and was analyzed. The ANSYS was used to respectively set up the finite element models for the whole bridge of the bridge in both the seismic isolation state and non-seismic isolation state and in consideration of the ground base pile~soil interaction of the bridge, the response spectrum analysis was made, using the calculated response spectra of 10% and 2% of the 50-year exceeding probability and the time-history analysis was made as well, u-sing the seismic waves of the exceeding probability that are identical to the response spectra. The results of the analysis indicate that in the non-seismic isolation state, the displacement and internal forces of the piers of the bridge under the action of Earthquake El and E2 are great. The common plate rubber bearings can not cater for the need of strength and deformation of the piers while with the applying of the lead core rubber bearings, the displacement and internal forces of the piers are effectively reduced and sound effect of the seismic isolation has been achieved. In the analysis of the seismically-mitigated and isolated bridge, using the response spectrum analysis method and by way of considering the equivalent rigidity of the seismic isolation components in the analysis, the nonlinear issue can be simplified as the linear-elastic issue for handling.%为研究在高地震烈度区将铅芯橡胶支座应用于简支梁桥的减隔震效果,以水晶大桥为例进行分析.采用ANSYS分别建立隔震状态和非隔震状态的全桥有限元模型,考虑地基桩一土作用效应,取用50年超越概率10%和2%的计算反应谱进行反应谱分析,并取用与反应谱相同超越概率的地震波进行时程分析.分析结果表明:非隔震状态时,该桥在E1和E2地震作用下桥墩的

  4. Bridge Culture of Langde Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Langde, a village in Leishan County ofsouthwestern Guizhou province, is known for itslarge number of unique bridges bearing the distinctdesign style of the Miao ethnic group. Animpressive variety of well-preserved ancient

  5. Seismic Isolation of Curved Continuous Bridge with Double Spherical Aseismic Bearing%双曲面球型减隔震支座曲线连续梁桥的减隔震

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾正伟; 钟铁毅; 张贞阁

    2011-01-01

    针对某3跨门式桥墩轨道交通曲线连续梁桥,采用其桥址提供的3条地震动时程曲线,应用SAP2000有限元软件,分析未隔震和双曲面球型减隔震支座隔震条件下的罕遇地震响应,进行双曲面球型减隔震支座曲线连续梁桥的减隔震研究.研究结果表明,曲线连续梁桥各桥墩的内力响应受响应内力方向与地震动输入方向火角的影响;仅固定墩切向隔震时,固定墩的切向内力大幅减少,弯矩和剪力分别减小约70%和50%,但各墩的径向内力均有增加,最大增幅约达10%,不能满足桥梁的抗震要求;固定墩切向和径向双向、滑动墩径向隔震时,固定墩的切向和径向内力均大幅减少,弯矩和剪力分别降低约73%和49%,同时各滑动墩的径向内力也大幅降低40%~60%,减震效果明显.%The FEA model of a 3-span rail transit curved continuous bridge with twin-legged portal pier is established by SAP2000. By using three earthquake time history waves provided by Seismic Safety Evaluation Report, the calculation of isolation and non-isolation seismic responses of curved continuous bridge with and without double spherical aseismic bearing under rarely-occurred earthquake is carried out. By comparison, the results show that the internal force responses of each pier of the curved continuous bridge are influenced by the angle between the response internal force direction and the earthquake input direction. When using double spherical aseismic bearing on braking pier in tangential direction, the seismic responses of the bending moment and the shearing force of braking pier in tangential direction decrease about 70% and 50% respectively while the seismic response of each pier in radial direction increases to a maximum of 10%, which can't meet the seismic requirements of the bridge. When putting double spherical aseismic bearing on braking pier both in tangential and radial direction and on sliding pier in radial direction, the

  6. 大跨度系杆拱桥减隔震支座参数分析%Parameter Analysis of Long-span Tied-arch Bridge Seismic Isolation Bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪; 李建中

    2013-01-01

    结合一座大跨系杆拱桥实例,分析了不同减隔震支座参数对系杆拱桥减震性能的影响.通过对比发现,支座的球心距越大,减震效果越好.支座的摩擦系数越大,减震效果表现为先减小后变大的趋势,摩擦系数取0.02~0.03时,支座位移和墩台剪力达到最好的减震效果.但是支座参数的不同对承台底剪力总体的影响很小.%This paper takes a large span tied-arch bridge as an example, analyzes the damping performance of the tied-arch bridge with different minus isolation bearing. Through the contrast we find that the bigger of the distance of the two sphericalsurface' s center, the better of the damping effect. While the friction coefficient of the sliding spherical surface gets bigger, the damping effect displays the trend to get first smaller and then bigger. With the friction coefficient at 0.02 ~0.03, there is an optimal effect on the bearing displacement and the sheer force of the bottom section of the pier and the pile caps. But the overall effect is very small for the sheer force of the pile caps.

  7. Wave-current force on bridge foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, J.N.; Wang, D.T.; Wang, X. G.; Nie, F

    2013-01-01

    Many cross-sea bridges have been constructed or in construction in the Chinese coastal areas, such as Hangzhou Bay Bridge, East China Sea Bridge and Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge, etc. Usually the foundations of cross-sea bridges will bear the load of wave and current simultaneously, the extreme value of which is an important factor for bridge design. It is quite difficult to estimate the extreme wave-current forces on bridge foundations due to their complex form, for example a polygonal plat...

  8. Bridge? What's a Bridge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsche, George

    1996-01-01

    Considers the metaphor of the "bridge" as it applies to Russian-language courses at the university level. The article examines broader curricular issues of technology, innovation, and outside pressures on language teaching. (22 references) (CK)

  9. Railroad Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Bridges-Rail in the United States According to The National Bridge Inspection Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR 650.3), a bridge isA...

  10. 热老化条件下公路桥梁板式氯丁橡胶支座受压试验%Compression Tests of Plain Chloroprene Rubber Bearings of l Highway Bridge Under Thermal Aging Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延年; 单春红; 郑怡; 沈小俊; 高飞; 熊卫士

    2012-01-01

    The impact of climate is more serious to highway bridge rubber bearings than to building rubber bearings. In order to investi- gate the changes of the mechanical properties of plain chloroprene rubber bearings of highway bridge in high temperature of summer, the plain chloroprene rubber bearings were processed in 20, 40, 60, 80 days by high-temperature chamber, and then the axial compression tests were carried by pressure testing machine. The impact of thermal aging in carrying capacity, ultimate compressive strength, vertical stiffness, and elastic modulus of compression was analyzed. The results showed that, under thermal aging, the plain chloroprene rubber bearings was easier to brittle failure, the elastic stage was shorten, and the phenomenon which plate exposure, cracks and layered damage was more serious. With deepening of degree in thermal aging, the carrying capacities, ultimate compressive strength, vertical stiffness, and elastic modulus of compression were decreased. The dates of compressive strength and elastic modulus of compression in 50 years were analyzed using the least square method, and the results showed that the decay function and decay curve were basically in line with variation of power function.%公路桥梁橡胶支座比建筑橡胶支座更容易受到气候的影响。为了研究公路桥梁板式氯丁橡胶支座在热老化条件下的各项力学性能指标变化,将氯丁橡胶支座在高温试验箱中进行热老化处理20、40、60、80d,并采用压力试验机对其进行轴心受压试验。研究热老化对氯丁橡胶支座的承载力、极限抗压强度、竖向刚度、抗压弹性模量的影响。试验结果表明,在热老化条件下,氯丁橡胶支座更易发生脆性破坏,弹性阶段缩短,发生钢板外露、裂缝、层状破坏等现象更严重;承载力、极限抗压强度、竖向刚度、抗压弹性模量随热老化程度的加深而逐渐降低;采用最小二乘法对50年抗

  11. Modified Geometry of Transition Slabs for Integral Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Dreier, Damien

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decades, an increasing number of integral bridges have been built. This type of bridge offers various advantages in comparison with standard bridges equipped with expansion joints and bearings. In particular, integral bridges require less maintenance since they require less mechanical elements. Transition slabs, which are used in integral bridges, are directly connected to the bridge deck and therefore they are subjected to large displacements caused by creep, shrinkage and temp...

  12. Transition Slabs of Integral Abutment Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Dreier, Damien; Muttoni, Aurelio; BURDET, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades, an increasing number of bridges with integral abutment have been built in Switzerland. This type of bridge offers various advantages over standard bridges with abutments, equipped with expansion joints and bearings that require regular inspection and maintenance. One main concern of integral abutment bridges is related to the soil-structure interaction, in particular between the transition slab and the embankment. To avoid any expansion joints, transition slabs are dire...

  13. Analysis of residual bearing capacity of cracked prestressed concrete continuous box bridges%预应力混凝土箱梁桥开裂后的残余承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌波; 赵煜

    2015-01-01

    为分析开裂预应力混凝土箱形桥梁结构开裂后的残余承载力,以裂缝统计特征参数为基础,用单元退化方式模拟正裂缝,用裂缝间的单向受压杆模拟裂缝间的承压效应,采用空间梁单元和三维杆单元分别模拟梁和预应力筋,以单元降温的方式模拟预加力的效应,形成空间刚架模型模拟斜裂缝。基于开裂后混凝土及预应力钢筋的基本假定,建立开裂后结构的计算方法。按照相似高度、开裂区域截面折减、折减自重补偿的原则将相似裂缝进行合并处理,得到裂缝区域的阶梯型折减刚度模型,提出承载能力折减系数计算方法以体现开裂后结构刚度的变化。经实桥算例验证,本文方法可正确判断静定及超静定预应力混凝土结构开裂后承载力的变化程度。%Based on the crack statistic characteristic parameters,the unit degradation mode was utilized to simu-late the fracture of prestressed concrete box bridges and analyze its residual bearing capacity.In the meantime, unidirectional compressive rod,space beam element and cooling unit form were adopted to simulate the effects of pressure among cracks,prestressed tendons and the pre -tension effect,in order to form a space rigid frame model.Based on some basic assumptions of cracked concrete and prestressed steel,the calculation method was established after cracking.Merging similar cracks by the principle of similar height,reduction of cracking area and reduction gravity compensation,the ladder -type stiffness degradation model of crack area was then estab-lished and a capacity reduction calculation method was proposed to reflect the change of the crack stiffness.The real bridge example proves that the method can correctly judge the change of bearing capacity for cracked static determinacy and indeterminacy concrete structures.

  14. Myocardial Bridging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2016-02-01

    Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results. PMID:27074276

  15. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  16. Journal bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-05-11

    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  17. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the...

  18. Plasticity Theory Analysis about the Bearing Section Limited Strength of Partial Filling Concrete Continuous Composite Girder Bridge%部分充填混凝土连续组合梁桥支座处截面极限强度的塑性理论分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬幸斌; 李文兴; 吴建明

    2012-01-01

      部分充填混凝土窄幅钢箱连续组合梁桥是钢箱-混凝土组合梁与矩形钢管混凝土结构结合的一种新型组合结构梁桥。基于一般钢箱-混凝土连续组合梁桥中支座负弯矩区因混凝土翼板开裂而导致抗弯强度、局部稳定性不足的特点,提出了一种部分充填混凝土窄幅钢箱连续组合梁桥,并对其中支座负弯矩区的正截面强度和支座截面抗剪性能进行了塑性理论分析。%  The narrow range of steel box continuous composite girder bridge that partially filled concrete is a new type of bridge which is composited by steel box-concrete composite girder and rectangular steel tube concrete. As the disadvantage that wing crack in negative moment region causing insufficient of bending strength and local stability of traditional steel box continuous composite girder bridge,a narrow range of steel box continuous composite girder bridge is presented. Then, the plasticity theory analysis is used on normal-section strength of bearing negative moment region and on cross-section support bearing shear performance.

  19. 77 FR 73967 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 5201). The rulemaking concerned would... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD... highway bridge at Wise Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD....

  20. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  1. Programmevaluierung Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Warta, Katharina; Good, Barbara; Geyer, Anton

    2009-01-01

    BRIDGE is an initiative funded by the Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT) that aims to close the “funding gap” between basic and applied research in stand-alone projects with the primary objective of jointly developing the potential of basic and applied research. BRIDGE acts as an  umbrella structure under which the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and the  Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) coordinate two thematically open funding programmes: The ...

  2. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

  3. Mechanical Tests of Tetrafluoride Skateboard Plain Chloroprene Rubber Bearings of Highway Bridge under Freeze-Thaw Cycle Condition%冻融条件下公路桥梁四氟滑板氯丁橡胶支座力学性能试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延年; 单春红; 郑怡; 熊卫士; 沈小俊; 高飞

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究公路桥梁四氟滑板氯丁橡胶支座经过冻融循环后的承载力变化情况,为各项公路桥梁的施工提供依据.方法 将四氟滑板氯丁橡胶支座放入标准冻融试验箱中进行100次的冻融循环处理,而后进行轴心受压及抗剪试验.与标准试件进行对比分析,研究承载力、极限抗压和抗剪强度、竖向刚度、水平等效刚度、弹性模量等各项性能指标的变化.结果 四氟滑板氯丁橡胶支座经过冻融循环处理,更易发生脆性破坏,且钢板外露、裂缝等破坏现象较标准试件更为严重.经处理的四氟滑板氯丁橡胶支座的承载力、极限抗压及抗剪强度、抗压及抗剪弹性模量小于标准试件.结论 经冻融循环处理,公路桥梁四氟滑板氯丁橡胶支座的各项力学性能指标均明显降低,建议提高四氟滑板氯丁橡胶支座的最低使用温度,严格控制其温度适用范围,在寒冷地区尽量采用天然橡胶支座.%In order to provide the basis for the construction of the highway bridge,we study the changes of capacity of the tetrafluoride skateboard plain chloroprene rubber bearings of highway bridge under freeze-thaw cycle condition. The tetrafluoride skateboard plain chloroprene rubber bearings were processed 100 times by freeze-thaw cycle in the standard freeze-thaw chamber,and then the axial compression and shear tests were carried. Compared with the standard test pieces, studied the changes of the performance indicators in the bearing capacity,the ultimate compressive strength and shear strength,vertical stiffness,horizontal e-quivalent stiffness, and elastic modulus. The results show that the tetrafluoride skateboard plain chloroprene rubber bearings which after the freeze-thaw cycle were more prone to brittle failure,the steel plate exposed, cracks and other damage phenomenon were more serious than the standard test pieces. The bearing capacity, ultimate compressive strength and shear

  4. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...

  5. External Prestressing Bridge Reinforcement Technology Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hanbing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Externally prestressed bridge can not only limit and reduce the cracks and deformation of the structure, improve the rigidity and bearing capacity of structure, improve the stress state of structure, but also have less interference for bridge operation when it is operating and have the good economic efficiency. This paper introduces the advantages and disadvantages of external prestressed strengthening technique, its calculation theory and construction technology described in detail, and finally the paper discusses the deficiency of existing research.

  6. 液体粘滞阻尼器配合双曲面球型支座在大跨连续梁桥中的减隔震研究%Research on Seismic Isolation Technology of Fluid Viscous Damper with Double Spherical Seismic Bearing in Large-span Continuous Girder Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健宁; 虞庐松

    2016-01-01

    大跨度连续梁桥由于上部结构惯性力较大,导致传统延性抗震设计方法很难满足桥梁抗震性能需求,减隔震技术是解决这一问题的有效途径之一。采用液体粘滞阻尼器配合双曲面球型减隔震支座对某高烈度大跨连续梁桥进行了减隔震设计,结果表明:液体粘滞阻尼器减震效果明显,但固定墩地震力较大仍难以满足要求;采用双曲面球型减隔震支座,除边墩受地震力明显增大外其余墩较均匀的分担了地震荷载,墩身抗震性能充分发挥,且其具备自复位功能震后修复难度较低;液体粘滞阻尼器配合双曲面球型减隔震支座时减震效果明显优于仅设置阻尼器,且前者具备一定的自复位功能,与设置双曲面球型支座相比前者解决了边墩的抗震问题。本桥减隔震设计中此方法最优,该方法可为高烈度区大跨连续梁桥的抗震设计和抗震加固提供参考。%Because the inertial force of the superstructure of the large-span continuous girder bridge is larger,the traditional ductility seismic design method cannot meet the needs of seismic performance of bridge seismic design.The seismic isolation technology is one of the effective ways to solve the problem,so a large-span continuous girder bridge in a high intensity seismic area is taken as an example for seismic isolation design by adopting the fluid viscous damper with double spherical seismic bearing.The results show that the damping effect is obvious after using the damper,but it is still difficult to meet the requirements.In addition,it is hard to repair after the earthquake without the self-resetting function.After using the double spherical seismic bearing, the rest piers are increased to uniformly bear the earthquake load besides the side pier and give full play to the seismic behavior,and they are easy to repair after the earthquake with the self-re-setting function.However,when using fluid

  7. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  8. Stone bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

    Prague : Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics AS CR, v.v.i, 2011 - (Drdácký, M.; Binda, L.; Hennen, I.; Kőpp, C.; Lanza, L.), s. 122-129 ISBN 978-80-86246-37-6 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) CHEF-SSPI-044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : flood * stone bridge * cultural heritage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  9. Bearing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydrostatic bearing for the lower end of the vertical shaft of a sodium pump comprises a support shell encircling the shaft and a bush located between the shell and shaft. Liquid sodium is fed from the pump outlet to the bush/shaft and bush/shell interfaces to provide hydrostatic support. The bush outer surface and the shell inner surface are of complementary part-spherical shape and the bush floats relative to the shaft so that the bush can align itself with the shaft axis. Monitoring of the relative rotational speed of the bush with respect to the shaft (such rotation being induced by the viscous drag forces present) is also performed for the purposes of detecting abnormal operation of the bearing or partial seizure, at least one magnet is rotatable with the bush, and a magnetic sensor provides an output having a frequency related to the speed of the bush. (author)

  10. 硝酸腐蚀条件下公路桥梁氯丁橡胶支座抗剪试验%Shearing Tests of Plain Chloroprene Rubber Bearings of Highway Bridge under Acid Corrosion Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司月华; 王桂玲; 刘铭

    2015-01-01

    本研究将氯丁橡胶支座完全浸泡在pH为4.5的硝酸溶液中,对5组试件分别浸泡20d、40d、60d、80d、100d,将浸泡试件与标准件进行抗剪试验,将腐蚀试件与标准件的抗剪承载力、极限抗剪强度、水平等效刚度、抗剪弹性模量的数据进行对比分析,结果表明,氯丁橡胶支座在硝酸溶液浸泡后,其抗剪弹性阶段明显缩短,破坏程度更严重;从数据分析得,浸泡天数越多,其抗剪承载力、极限抗剪强度、抗剪弹性模量越小.%The neoprene bearings are completely soaked in nitric acid solution with pH=4.5, the five groups of speci-mens are soaked respectively for 20 d, 40 d, 60 d, 80 d, 80 d, thesoaked specimen andstandard partsare arried out with shear test.The data of shear bearing capacity,ultimate shear strength, equivalent stiffness and shear modulus of elasticity for the corrosion specimens are compared and analyzed with thoseof standard parts.The results show that af-ter soaking in nitric acid solution,neoprene bearing has significantly reduced shear elastic stage, and more serious damage. From the data analysis, it can be obtained that the more days it is soaked, itsshear bearing capacity, ultimate shear strength, shear elastic modulus become smaller .

  11. An innovative steel-concrete joint for integral abutment bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Briseghella; Tobia Zordan

    2015-01-01

    Integral abutment bridges are becoming rather common, due to the durability problems of bearings and expansion joints. At the same time, among short- and medium-span bridges, multi-beam steel-concrete composite deck with hot-rolled girder is an economical and interesting alternative to traditional pre-stressed concrete solutions. The two concepts can be linked together to design integral steel-concrete composite bridges with the benefits of two typologies. The most critical aspect for these b...

  12. Seismic Response Analysis of Continuous Multispan Bridges with Partial Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Tubaldi, E; Dall’Asta, A.; Dezi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Partially isolated bridges are a particular class of bridges in which isolation bearings are placed only between the piers top and the deck whereas seismic stoppers restrain the transverse motion of the deck at the abutments. This paper proposes an analytical formulation for the seismic analysis of these bridges, modelled as beams with intermediate viscoelastic restraints whose properties describe the pier-isolator behaviour. Different techniques are developed for solving the seismic problem....

  13. Tooling Converts Stock Bearings To Custom Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleenor, E. N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for reworking stock bearings saves time and produces helicopter-rotor bearings ground more precisely. Split tapered ring at one end of threaded bolt expands to hold inside of inner race bearing assembly; nut, at other end of bolt, adjusts amount of spring tension. Piece of hardware grasps bearing firmly without interfering with grinding operation. Operation produces bearing of higher quality than commercially available bearings.

  14. Structural response of circular concrete filled tube piers in integral bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Kovac, Borisa

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays most of the bridges are designed with movable joints and bearings. They are used to allow for bridge deck displacements produced by: expansion and contraction of the bridge deck due to temperature changes, breaking or accelerating forces of vehicles and by long term changes of concrete such as creeping and shrinking. Joints and bearings are susceptible to durability problems and require maintenance and replacements. In order to reduce the maintenance costs and to lower the init...

  15. Mass concrete temperature crack control of Jing-Hang canal Bridge bearing cap%京杭运河大桥承台大体积混凝土温度裂缝控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张银川

    2012-01-01

    以京杭运河特大桥工程为例,针对大体积混凝土温度裂缝控制问题进行了系统分析,提出施工中应当以防为主,采用正确的温控措施,在结构设计,材料选择,配合比优化,浇筑及养护等环节严格把关,以减少裂缝的发生。%Taking Jing-Hang canal bridge engineering as an example,the paper systematically analyzes mass concrete temperature crack control,and puts forward some measures including prevention-oriented construction,correct temperature controlling measures,and strict control in aspects of structural design,material selection,mixing proportion optimization,grouting and maintenance and so on,with a view to reduce cracks.

  16. Field Tests and Simulation of Lion-Head River Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Min Fang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lion-Head River Bridge is a twin bridge in parallel position. The east-bounded was designed and constructed as a traditional prestress concrete box girder bridge with pot bearings; and the west-bounded was installed with seismic isolation devices of lead rubber bearings. The behavior of the isolated bridge is compared with that of the traditional bridge through several field tests including the ambient vibration test, the force vibration test induced by shakers, the free vibration test induced by a push and fast release system, and the truck test. The bridges suffered from various extents of damage due to the Chi-Chi and the Chi-I earthquakes of great strength during the construction and had been retrofitted. The damage was reflected by the change of the bridges' natural frequencies obtained from the ambient vibration tests. The models of the two bridges are simulated by the finite element method based on the original design drawings. Soil-structure interaction was also scrutinized in this study. The simulation was then modified based on the results from the field tests. Dynamic parameters of bridges are identified and compared with those from theoretical simulation. The efficiency is also verified to be better for an isolated bridge.

  17. Shear tests of plain chloroprene rubber bearings of highway bridge under thermal aging condition%热老化条件下公路桥梁板式氯丁橡胶支座抗剪试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延年; 单春红; 郑怡; 沈小俊; 高飞; 熊卫士

    2013-01-01

    The thermal aging process was simulated by the high temperature chamber.The plain chloroprene rubber bearings were processed by thermal aging treatment for 20,40,60 or 80 days,and then the shear tests were conducted.Compared with the standard piece,the impacts of thermal aging treatment on shear carrying capacity,ultimate shear strength,horizontal equivalent stiffness and shear elastic modulus were investigated.The test results show that the plain chloroprene rubber bearings are more prone to brittle failure under thermal aging treatment than the standard piece,and the shear failure of plate exposure,lamellar damage and cracks are more serious.The shear carrying capacity,ultimate shear strength,horizontal equivalent stiffness and shear elastic modulus of plain chloroprene rubber bearings are decreased with the increase of thermal aging degree.The shear strength and compressive elastic modulus for 50 years were investigated by the least squares method.According to the decay curve and the attenuation function,the trend is consistent with the law of exponential function.%利用高温试验箱模拟热老化过程,对氯丁橡胶支座进行20,40,60和80 d的热老化处理,进行抗剪试验.通过对比分析,研究热老化对氯丁橡胶支座的抗剪承载力、极限抗剪强度、水平等效刚度以及抗剪弹性模量的影响.结果表明:氯丁橡胶支座在热老化处理后,比标准试件更易发生脆性破坏,且钢板外露、层状破坏、裂缝等剪切破坏现象更为严重.随着热老化程度加深,氯丁橡胶支座抗剪承载力、极限抗剪强度、水平等效刚度和抗剪弹性模量逐渐降低.采用最小二乘法对50年的抗剪强度和抗压弹性模量进行了分析,由其衰减曲线和衰减函数可知,衰减变化趋势基本符合指数函数规律.

  18. 76 FR 65118 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows Point, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows... Avenue) highway toll drawbridge across Bear Creek, mile 1.5, Sparrows Point, MD was replaced with a fixed... Bear Creek, mile 1.5 was removed and replaced with a fixed bridge in 1998. Prior to 1998, a...

  19. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...

  20. Damage of the Unit 1 reactor building overhead bridge crane at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and its repair works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The driving shaft bearings of the Unit 1 overhead bridge crane were damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station. The situation, investigation and repair works of the bearing failure are introduced in this paper. (author)

  1. Restoration of bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Hanau, H.

    1977-01-01

    Process consisting of grinding raceways to oversize but original quality condition and installing new oversize balls or bearings restores wornout ball and roller bearings to original quality, thereby doubling their operating life. Evaluations reveal process results in restoration of 90% of replaced bearings at less than 50% of new-bearing costs.

  2. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  3. Maintenance Free Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Muzakkir & Harish Hirani

    2015-01-01

    In the present research work the need of a Maintenance Free Bearings (MFB) is established. The paper presents preliminary friction calculations to highlight the ways to achieve maintenance free bearings. The existing technologies of well established maintenance free bearings are described. The hybridization of bearing technologies to achieve low cost maintenance free bearings has been exemplified. Finally a combination of passive magnetic repulsion and hydrodynamics ha...

  4. Measurement and evaluation of EDM bearing currents by the normalized Joule integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparent current density is the most common criterion used in literature to estimate bearing endangerment due to bearing currents. In the paper, a new criterion called the normalized Joule integral is proposed as a more reliable and accurate one. This approach is more general and gives good correlation between current in the bypass bridge and bearing current. Furthermore, it considers the whole current that causes bearing damage, not just its peak value. The choice of the normalized Joule integral is theoretically explained and supported by measurements and simulations. The levels of bearing endangerment related to the normalized Joule integral of bearing currents are estimated. (paper)

  5. 铁路桥梁群钉组合结构极限承载力和静力行为分析%Analysis on the Ultimate Bearing Capacity and the Statical Behavior of the Composite Structures with Grouped Studs in Railway Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯文崎; 叶梅新

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the application of the composite structures in railway bridges, and according to the results of the push-out tests, the load-slip relationship expressions of Φ13 and Φ22 studs in C50 concrete were acquired by nonlinear least-square fit. Through the ultimate bearing capacity experiments of the composite structures with grouped studs, adopting the proposed FEA simulating method, the reduction of the average ultimate bearing capacity and the shear force distribution of the grouped studs were well studied, as well as the relative influencing factors. Research results reveal that the average ultimate bearing capacity of the grouped studs shows quite big reduction compared with a single stud, which is at most 18%. The shear force distribution of the grouped studs presents an evident non-uniformity with a shape of saddle from top to bottom, which is redistributed as the load increasing. When the load is near to the ultimate bearing capacity, the grouped studs tend to bear the even shear force. The stud stiffness and ways of the load transmission are both important influencing factors on the non-uniform shear force distribution of the grouped studs. The bigger the stud stiffness is, the more the average ultimate bearing capacity of grouped studs will be reduced. The ways of load transmission have little influence on the ultimate bearing capacity of the composite structures with the grouped studs, but have important influence on the non-uniform shear force distribution of grouped studs when the load is at a low level, and the influence will be diminished with load increasing. Analytical results of FEA show good agreement with the experimental results, which demonstrates the correctness and the feasibility of the proposed FEA method.%针对我国铁路桥梁中应用钢-混凝土组合结构,根据推出试验结果,采用最小二乘非线性拟合得到C 50混凝土中φ13和φ22栓钉的荷载-滑移关系式.通过群钉组合结构极限承载力试验,

  6. Teddy Bear Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Caldas-Coulthardt, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a semiotic analysis of a key cultural artefact, the teddy bear. After introducing the iconography of the teddy bear, it analyses different kinds of stories to show how teddy bears are endowed with meaning in everyday life: stories from children's books, reminiscenses by adults...

  7. On the Performance of Super-Long Integral Abutment Bridges: Parametric Analyses and Design Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The concept of "integral abutment bridge" has recently become a topic of remarka-ble interest among bridge engineers, not only for newly built bridges but also during refurbishment processes. The system constituted by the substructure and the superstructure can achieve a composite action responding as a single structural unit; the elimination of expansion joint and bearings on the abutments, greatly reduce the construction and maintenance costs. To maximize the benefits from integral abutment...

  8. Generalized Gaussian Bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Sottinen, Tommi

    2012-01-01

    A generalized bridge is the law of a stochastic process that is conditioned on linear functionals of its path. We consider two types of representations of such bridges: orthogonal and canonical. In the canonical representation the filtrations and the linear spaces generated by the bridge process and the original process coincide. In the orthogonal representation the bridge is constructed from the entire path of the underlying process. The orthogonal representation is given for any continuous Gaussian process but the canonical representation is given only for so-called prediction-invertible Gaussian processes. Finally, we apply the canonical bridge representation to insider trading by interpreting the bridge from an initial enlargement of filtration point of view.

  9. Concrete bridge prioritization system

    OpenAIRE

    Kesselring, Debbie Anne

    1995-01-01

    An alternative method of prioritization for concrete bridge maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation activities is required due to the inability of the current system to manage the increasing nmnber of aging concrete bridges. The Concrete Bridge Prioritization System was proposed because of its ability to address the critical technical parameters of safety and cost benefit in prioritization of funding and work allocation. The analysis includes four parts, service life assessment, s...

  10. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska;

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  11. Bridging the Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska; Murdock, Karen; Schmidt, Iben Julie

    2015-01-01

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures. Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ve...

  12. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  13. The floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled in two glass beakers which are in contact, a stable water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge. A detailed experimental analysis reveals static and dynamic structures as well as heat and mass transfer through this bridge

  14. Improvement on design analyses of composite steel-concrete bridges using elaborate finite element methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaturong Sanguanmanasak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, three-dimensional finite element analysis of composite steel-concrete bridges is performed to simulate theactual bridge behavior. The accuracy of the model is verified against the results acquired from a field test. Thai trucks are loaded at possible locations of the bridge in order to obtain the maximum stresses on the bridge. The influences of concrete barriers, the displacement of bridge piers, and the Young’s modulus of concrete are then discussed, to reveal the actual behavior of the steel-concrete composite bridge. The reactions at the bearings on the bridge piers are also evaluated and discussed in this conjunction. Good agreement is obtained between the models and loading tests to show that the finite element model can aid engineers in design practices.

  15. Bear Spray Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

  16. Optimal Synchronizability of Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, N. A. M.; Seybold, H.; Baram, R. M.; Herrmann, H. J.; Andrade, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Bearings are mechanical dissipative systems that, when perturbed, relax toward a synchronized (bearing) state. Here we find that bearings can be perceived as physical realizations of complex networks of oscillators with asymmetrically weighted couplings. Accordingly, these networks can exhibit optimal synchronization properties through fine tuning of the local interaction strength as a function of node degree [Motter, Zhou, and Kurths, Phys. Rev. E 71, 016116 (2005)]. We show that, in analogy...

  17. Bearing restoration by grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  18. EcoBears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nick; Pedersen, Sandra Bleuenn; Sørensen, Jens Ager;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the EcoBears concept that aims to augment household appliances with functional and aesthetic features to promote their "use'' and "longevity of use'' to prevent their disposal. The EcoBears also aim to support the communication of environmental issues in the home setting....... We present our initial design and implementation of the EcoBears that consist of two bear modules (a mother and her cub). We also present our preliminary concept validations and lessons learned to be considered for future directions....

  19. Segmental Bridges under Combined Torsion, Bending and Shear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄真; 刘西拉

    2003-01-01

    Segmental bridges with unbonded prestressed tendons have some advantages, such as the weather independence and the corrosion protection of prestressing tendons. This paper analyzed the behavior of a prestressed segmental bridge with unbonded tendons under combined loading of torsion, bending and shear. According to the experiment research, a modified skew bending model was developed to calculate the bearing capacity of segmental bridges subjected to combined bending, shear and torsion. The finite element method was used to investigate the deflection behaviors of such structure, also to check the theoretical model. The theoretical and FEM research resuits were compared favorably with the test results from Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany. Finally, suggestion for the design and construction of segmental bridges with external prestressing was made.

  20. Bridge technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. As LANs have proliferated, new technologies and system concepts have come to the fore. One of the key issues is how to interconnect networks. One means of interconnection is to use a 'bridge'. Other competing technologies are repeaters, routers, and gateways. Bridges permit traffic isolation, connect network segments together and operate at the MAC layer. Further, because they operate at the MAC layer, they can handle a variety of protocols such as TCP/IP, SNA, and X.25. This report focuses on the specific technology of bridging two netw

  1. Bearing fatigue investigation 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, A. H.; Bamberger, E. N.; Signer, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    The operating characteristics of large diameter rolling-element bearings in the ultra high speed regimes expected in advanced turbine engines for high performance aircraft were investigated. A high temperature lubricant, DuPont Krytox 143 AC, was evaluated at bearing speeds to 3 million DN. Compared to the results of earlier, similar tests using a MIL-L-23699 (Type II) lubricant, bearings lubricated with the high density Krytox fluid showed significantly higher power requirements. Additionally, short bearing lives were observed when this fluid was used with AISI M50 bearings in an air atmosphere. The primary mode of failure was corrosion initiated surface distress (fatigue) on the raceways. The potential of a case-carburized bearing to sustain a combination of high-tangential and hertzian stresses without experiencing race fracture was also investigated. Limited full scale bearing tests of a 120 mm bore ball bearing at a speed of 25,000 rpm (3 million DN) indicated that a carburized material could sustain spalling fatigue without subsequent propagation to fracture. Planned life tests of the carburized material had to be aborted, however, because of apparent processing-induced material defects.

  2. Bridge Management Systems:present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1997-01-01

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way.

  3. Arcturus and the Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonello, E.

    2009-08-01

    Arcturus is the brightest star in Bootes. The ancient Greek name Arktouros means Bear Guard. The star, however, is not close to Ursa Maior (Big She-Bear) and Ursa Minor (Little She-Bear), as the name would suggest. This curious discrepancy could be explained by the star proper motion, assuming the name Bear Guard is a remote cultural heritage. The proper motion analysis could allow us to get an insight also into an ancient myth regarding Ursa Maior. Though we cannot explain scientifically such a myth, some interesting suggestions can be obtained about its possible origin, in the context of the present knowledge of the importance of the cult of the bear both during the Palaeolithic times and for several primitive populations of modern times, as shown by the ethnological studies.

  4. Bridging a cultural gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-09-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes—aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics—is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a potential bridging programme, this paper aims at demonstrating that the gap can be bridged, by presenting an ongoing modular bridging programme especially designed for the diverse types of student populations in teachers training colleges. We also present here some innovative teaching and assessment methods that were judged essential for the success of these programmes—focusing mainly on the "Questionnaire Based Instruction Method". Finally we suggest directions of follow up and research.

  5. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  6. Integral Abutment and Jointless Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian-Claudiu Comisu

    2005-01-01

    Integral bridges, or integral abutment and jointless bridges, as they are more commonly known in the USA, are constructed without any movement joints between spans or between spans and abutments. Typically these bridges have stub-type abutments supported on piles and continuous bridge deck from one embankment to the other. Foundations are usually designed to be small and flexible to facilitate horizontal movement or rocking of the support. Integrally bridges are simple or multiple span ones t...

  7. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  8. Management recommendations: Bear River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional...

  9. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  10. Rolling bearing analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tedric A

    2001-01-01

    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  11. My Little Teddy Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱佳楠

    2005-01-01

    @@ As Valentine's Day came closer,every shop was full of colourful gifts such as cookies in the shape of heart, chocolates,Teddy Bears and so on.When I step into a shop on February 14th,I felt most lonely as I was alone.With mv eves fixed on a lovely Teddy Bear, I wished that someone could send me this stuffed toy.

  12. Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gülkan, Polat; Mahmoud, Khaled

    2016-01-01

      The book includes peer-reviewed contributions selected from presentations given at the Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014, held from August 11 – 13 in Istanbul, Turkey. It reports on the current challenges in bridge engineering faced by professionals around the globe, giving a special emphasis to recently developed techniques, innovations and opportunities. The book covers key topics in the field, including modeling and analysis methods; construction and erection techniques; design for extreme events and condition assessment and structural health monitoring. There is a balanced presentation of theory, research and practice. This book, which provides the readers with a comprehensive and timely reference guide on current practices in bridge engineering, is intended for professionals, academic researchers and students alike.

  13. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps are...

  14. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  15. Building Migratory Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Michael; Doss, Laurie K.

    2007-01-01

    The Building Migratory Bridges (BOMB) program--a collaboration between the Marvel wood School and Audubon Sharon in Connecticut and Conservation Research Education Action (CR EA), a U.S. not-for-profit in Panama--uses nontropical migratory bird research in the United States and Panama to demonstrate how negative environmental impacts in one…

  16. Quantum Bidding in Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sadiq; Tavakoli, Armin; Kurant, Maciej; Pawłowski, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Quantum methods allow us to reduce communication complexity of some computational tasks, with several separated partners, beyond classical constraints. Nevertheless, experimental demonstrations of this have thus far been limited to some abstract problems, far away from real-life tasks. We show here, and demonstrate experimentally, that the power of reduction of communication complexity can be harnessed to gain an advantage in a famous, immensely popular, card game—bridge. The essence of a winning strategy in bridge is efficient communication between the partners. The rules of the game allow only a specific form of communication, of very low complexity (effectively, one has strong limitations on the number of exchanged bits). Surprisingly, our quantum technique does not violate the existing rules of the game (as there is no increase in information flow). We show that our quantum bridge auction corresponds to a biased nonlocal Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game, which is equivalent to a 2→1 quantum random access code. Thus, our experiment is also a realization of such protocols. However, this correspondence is not complete, which enables the bridge players to have efficient strategies regardless of the quality of their detectors.

  17. Bridge of Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Lying gleaming white under a brooding sky,the Lhasa River Railway Bridge forms a gate to Lhasa City.Built as a part of Qinghai-Tibet Railway,on July 1,2011, the highest altitude railway in the world has been in service for five years. Lhasa,Tibet

  18. Bridge over troubled water?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Nannestad, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2008-01-01

    The problem of integrating non-Western immigrants into Western welfare states is the focus of this paper. To address this issue, we suggest a social capital approach in which we apply the conceptual pair of bridging social capital (BR), which connects an individual to the broader social structure...

  19. IN-SITU MEASUREMENTS OF VIBRATIONS OF ELASTICALLY SUPPORTED STEEL REINFORCED CONCRETE BRIDGE DURING CAR BRAKING

    OpenAIRE

    S. Yu. Gridnev; Volkov, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement. Dynamic effect of increasing transport flows is produced not only on bearing structures of bridges but also on supports, which leads to their uniform non-steady state deformation.Results and conclusions. An optical displacement controller is proposed to be used for remote record of vibrations of elastically supported steel reinforced concrete bridge and supporting part's deformation. Device structure, scheme of its calibration and of determination of maximum accuracy are de...

  20. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  1. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.; Blackmore, A.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  2. Blood Pump Bearing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term highspeed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the Ir shaft to support big speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

  3. Modular gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gearing system using modular gear bearing components. Each component is composed of a core, one or more modules attached to the core and two or more fastening modules rigidly attaching the modules to the core. The modules, which are attached to the core, may consist of gears, rollers or gear bearing components. The core orientation affects the orientation of the modules attached to the core. This is achieved via the keying arrangement of the core and the component modules that attach to the core. Such an arrangement will also facilitate the phase tuning of gear modules with respect to the core and other gear modules attached to the core.

  4. Study on the seismic performance of a double spherical seismic isolation bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Tianbo; Li Jianzhong; Xu Yan; Fan Lichu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the configuration and working mechanism of the recently developed double spherical seismic isolation (DSSI) bearing are introduced in detail.Then,vertical displacement of the DSSI bearing due to sliding on a spherical surface is analyzed.The results from seismic performance testing of the bearing are given,and a numerical analysis of a four span continuous girder bridge is performed.The numerical analysis compares the influence of three different bearing arrangement schemes on the structural seismic response,and the results show that the DSSI bearing is effective in increasing the vertical load bearing capacity,reducing the vertical displacement,and controlling the energy dissipation capacity within a certain range.

  5. Development of Flexible Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S.Mohanraj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Elastomeric base isolation systems are proven to be effective in reducing seismic forces transmitted to buildings. However, due to their cost, the use of these devices is currently limited to large and expensive buildings. A fiber reinforced elastomeric isolator utilizes fiber fabric, such as carbon fiber, glass fibre, and etc. as the reinforcement material instead of solid steel plates. The fibre fabric reinforcement is extensible in tension and has no flexural rigidity. Elastomers normally used in the isolator are natural rubber; neoprene, butyl rubber and nit rile rubber etc. These devices were fabricated by binding alternating layers of rubber and fibre mesh. The fibre mesh is used to increase the vertical stiffness of the bearings while maintaining low lateral stiffness. Characterizing the behaviour of a fibre reinforced bearing “shape factor” of the bearing, Poisson’s ratio of the elastomeric material and flexibility of the reinforcing sheets and investigate the effect of reinforcement flexibility on compressive behaviour of elastomeric bearings with different geometrical and material properties. Bonding with fibre reinforcements can increase the stiffness of elastic layers only when the elastic layer is compressed.

  6. Flexure Bearing Reduces Startup Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingman, W. Dean

    1991-01-01

    Design concept for ball bearing incorporates small pieces of shim stock, wire spokes like those in bicycle wheels, or other flexing elements to reduce both stiction and friction slope. In flexure bearing, flexing elements placed between outer race of ball bearing and outer ring. Elements flex when ball bearings encounter small frictional-torque "bumps" or even larger ones when bearing balls encounter buildups of grease on inner or outer race. Flexure of elements reduce high friction slopes of "bumps", helping to keep torque between outer ring and inner race low and more nearly constant. Concept intended for bearings in gimbals on laser and/or antenna mirrors.

  7. [Retention of adhesive bridges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, F; De Boever, J

    1994-04-01

    Since the development of adhesive bridges in the early seventies, the retention and therefore the durability of these bridges has been tremendously improved. Conditioning of the non-precious metal by silanisation, careful acid etching of the enamel and the use of the appropriate composite resin are of prime importance. Furthermore, the meticulous preparation with enough interproximal embrace, occlusal rests, interocclusal clearance and cingulum stops is equally important. Including more teeth in the design does not necessarily lead to an improved retention. Besides the material and technical aspects, the whole clinical procedure needs much attention. The retention does not depend on one single factor, but on the precision of all the necessary clinical steps and on a well-defined selection of the material. In this way a five-year survival rate of close to 80% can be obtained. PMID:11830965

  8. Nasal Bridge Intramuscular Hemangioma

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkifli Hamir Basah; Irfan Mohamad; Ramiza Ramza Ramli; Maha Khadum Gayadh; Samarendra Singh Mutum

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular haemangioma (IMH) is a benign mesenchymal tumour. It appears as a deep, nontender mass within the soft tissue, particularly in the extremities. This tumour may not be obvious on clinical examination. Head and neck IMHs represent only 13.5% of the total IMHs. The most common site for a head and neck IMH is the masseter muscle, followed by trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and very rarely temporalis muscle. We present a patient with left nasal bridge swelling which was excised and h...

  9. BRIDGING SERVICE QUALITY GAPS

    OpenAIRE

    BARKATH UNISSA

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the Service quality gaps is one of the foremost areas of concern for amarketer. Service marketing is inherently different from product or goods marketing.Services are distinctively characterized by their intangible, heterogeneous, inseparableand perishable nature. The importance of the service sector in today's world is a verywidely accepted and renowned idea. “We are already experiencing a service society“services do have some basic characteristics which make them fundamentally diff...

  10. Bridging as Coercive Accommodation

    CERN Document Server

    Bos, J W; Mineur, A M; Bos, Johan; Buitelaar, Paul; Mineur, Anne-Marie

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the notion of "bridging" in Discourse Representation Theory as a tool to account for discourse referents that have only been established implicitly, through the lexical semantics of other referents. In doing so, we use ideas from Generative Lexicon theory, to introduce antecedents for anaphoric expressions that cannot be "linked" to a proper antecedent, but that do not need to be "accommodated" because they have some connection to the network of discourse referents that is already established.

  11. Nematic liquid crystal bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Susannah; Ellis, Perry; Vallamkondu, Jayalakshmi; Danemiller, Edward; Vernon, Mark; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    We study the effects of confining a nematic liquid crystal between two parallel glass plates with homeotropic boundary conditions for the director at all bounding surfaces. We find that the free surface of the nematic bridge is a surface of constant mean curvature. In addition, by changing the distance between the plates and the contact angle with the glass plates, we transition between loops and hedgehogs that can be either radial or hyperbolic.

  12. Seismic Response Analysis of Continuous Multispan Bridges with Partial Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tubaldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partially isolated bridges are a particular class of bridges in which isolation bearings are placed only between the piers top and the deck whereas seismic stoppers restrain the transverse motion of the deck at the abutments. This paper proposes an analytical formulation for the seismic analysis of these bridges, modelled as beams with intermediate viscoelastic restraints whose properties describe the pier-isolator behaviour. Different techniques are developed for solving the seismic problem. The first technique employs the complex mode superposition method and provides an exact benchmark solution to the problem at hand. The two other simplified techniques are based on an approximation of the displacement field and are useful for preliminary assessment and design purposes. A realistic bridge is considered as case study and its seismic response under a set of ground motion records is analyzed. First, the complex mode superposition method is applied to study the characteristic features of the dynamic and seismic response of the system. A parametric analysis is carried out to evaluate the influence of support stiffness and damping on the seismic performance. Then, a comparison is made between the exact solution and the approximate solutions in order to evaluate the accuracy and suitability of the simplified analysis techniques for evaluating the seismic response of partially isolated bridges.

  13. Reliability for fluid bearings design

    OpenAIRE

    DIOP, Khadim; CHARKI, Abdérafi; CHAMPMARTIN, Stéphane; AMBARI, Abdelhak

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for evaluating the failure probability of fluid bearings which are sensitive components for the design of machine rotors, mechatronic systems and high precision metrology. The static and dynamic behavior of a fluid bearing depends on several parameters, such as external load, bearing dimensions, supply pressure, quality of the machined surfaces, fluid properties, etc. In this paper, the characteristics of a simple geometry thrust bearing are calculated an...

  14. Reliability of a hydrostatic bearing

    OpenAIRE

    CHARKI, Abderafi; DIOP, Khadim; CHAMPMARTIN, Stéphane; AMBARI, Abdelhak

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for evaluating the failure probability of fluid bearings, which are sensitive components for the design of machine rotors, mechatronic systems, and high precision metrology. The static and dynamic behavior of a fluid bearing depends on several parameters, such as external load, bearing dimensions, supply pressure, quality of the machined surfaces, fluid properties, etc. In this paper, the characteristics of a simple geometry hydrostatic bearing are calculated...

  15. Households' Interest-bearing Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis Connolly; Fiona Fleming; Jarkko Jääskelä

    2012-01-01

    Households invest around two-fifths of their financial assets in interest-bearing assets. These assets are predominantly held directly in deposits and also via superannuation and other investment funds. Deposits have grown strongly in recent years, although there has been no growth in interest-bearing securities. Compared with other advanced economies, interest-bearing assets represent a relatively small share of financial assets. For the household sector as a whole, interest-bearing assets a...

  16. Centrifugally decoupling touchdown bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F

    2014-06-24

    Centrifugally decoupling mechanical bearing systems provide thin tensioned metallic ribbons contained in a support structure. This assembly rotates around a stationary shaft being centered at low speeds by the action of the metal ribbons. Tension springs are connected on one end to the ribbons and on the other end to the support structure. The ribbons pass through slots in the inner ring of the support structure. The spring preloading thus insures contact (or near-contact) between the ribbons and the shaft at rotation speeds below the transition speed. Above this speed, however, the centrifugal force on the ribbons produces a tensile force on them that exceeds the spring tensile force so that the ribbons curve outward, effectively decoupling them from mechanical contact with the shaft. They still remain, however, in position to act as a touchdown bearing in case of abnormally high transverse accelerations.

  17. Government Risk-Bearing

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  18. Rotating plug bearing and seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Elman E.

    1977-01-01

    A bearing and seal structure for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor vessel. The structure permits lubrication of bearings and seals of the rotating plugs without risk of the lubricant draining into the reactor vessel below. The structure permits lubrication by utilizing a rotating outer race bearing.

  19. Rotating plug bearing and seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disclosed is a bearing and seal structure for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor vessel. The structure permits lubrication of bearings and seals of the rotating plugs without risk of the lubricant draining into the reactor vessel below. The structure permits lubrication by utilizing a rotating outer race bearing. 19 claims, 3 figures

  20. ANSWER: A bear paw.

    OpenAIRE

    Ian BICKLE

    2012-01-01

    (Refer to page 186)Answer: Bear Paw sign of Xanthogranulomatous PyelonephritisThe contrast enhanced (portal venous phase)CT of the abdomen showed a global enlargement of the right kidney. There are multiplelow attenuation areas in the renal parenchyma, in a ‘hydronephrotic type manner’, but with no true hydronephrosis. This is due to a renal calculus lying in a contracted pelvis with dilated calyces that contain inflammatory debris. A rim of normal renal tissue enhancesperipherally. The appea...

  1. BRIDGING THE GAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL; RICE

    2006-01-01

    Increased understanding through dialogue may be helping China and the United States establish a more collaborative relationship At first glance, China and the United States are about as far from each other politically, economically and culturally as they are geographically. The two nations have vastly different historical origins, and many of their values and traditions bear no likeness. Yet, the people of these two nations share a strong sense of interest and respect for each other.

  2. Vulnerability of bridges to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Crosti, C.; Gentili, F.

    2012-01-01

    Even if recent effort in developing methodology and measures for design structures against fire and explosions has been mostly focused on buildings, bridges can also be very sensitive to those actions, as witnesses by some recent bridge accidents, which caused major economic losses and also...... endangered people safety in few cases. Purpose of this paper is making a focus on the state of the art of the research and current regulations concerning the response of bridges to fire. Several cases of bridge fires are reported and a focus is made on the occurrence and consequence of bridge fires......, considering both the costs deriving by structural damages and by limited serviceability and other indirect societal aspects. Few cases of recent bridge fire are reviewed in detail and structural consequences are highlighted, distinguishing between damages directly induced by fire and damages induced by local...

  3. Monitoring of concrete bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirner, Miroš; Urushadze, Shota

    Orlando,Florida: Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc, 2007 - (Wicks, A.), s. 250-257 ISBN 0-912053-97-6. [IMAC, Conference & Exposition on Structural Dynamics/25./. Orlando (US), 17.02.2007-19.02.2007] R&D Projects: GA MDS(CZ) 1F45D/013/120; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/05/2066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : Long-term measurements * Dynamic response * Bridge * Strain gauges * Rain-flow Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  4. Theory of bridge aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Strømmen, Einar

    2006-01-01

    This text book is intended for studies in wind engineering, with focus on the stochastic theory of wind induced dynamic response calculations for slender bridges or other line ?like civil engineering type of structures. It contains the background assumptions and hypothesis as well as the development of the computational theory that is necessary for the prediction of wind induced fluctuating displacements and cross sectional forces. The simple cases of static and quasi-static structural response calculations are for the sake of completeness also included. The text is at an advanced level in the

  5. Anti-backlash gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gear bearing having a first gear and a second gear, each having a plurality of teeth. Each gear operates on two non-parallel surfaces of the opposing gear teeth to perform both gear and bearing functions simultaneously. The gears are moving at substantially the same speed at their contact points. The gears may be roller gear bearings or phase-shifted gear bearings, and may be arranged in a planet/sun system or used as a transmission. One preferred embodiment discloses and describes an anti-backlash feature to counter ''dead zones'' in the gear bearing movement.

  6. On-site bridge inspection with partial CT by 3.95Mev X-band linac source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since more and more bridges built several decades ago in Japan have become aged and dangerous, the non-destructive evaluation of those bridges is really an urgent problem. CT system with portable 3.95MeV linacs for bridge inspection is considered to work on-site, considering the law of Japanese radiation protection allows using linacs up to 4MeV outside radiation controlled area. The system would confirm the internal steel situation of bridges and analyze structural strain and stress with 3D model built from sectional imaging to evaluate load-bearing performance. The reconstruction process of bridge imaging is based on partial scanned data because bridge shape confines possible scanning angle to smaller than 180deg and a few translations. A small concrete sample with internal steel bars and attachment accessories is scanned in laboratory as preliminary work. (author)

  7. Nondestructive testing for bridge diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many motivations for bridge diagnosis using Nondestructive testing (NDT) to monitor its integrity. The measured frequency and damping on real bridge are compared in one figure as a function of span length and general aspects are explained. These date were measured in every construction of bridges and applied to design new bridges. Ultrasonic testing is also well used for concrete and steel members mainly to detect internal damages or delaminations. Detail analysis on reflected waves gives us more accurate information about the defect. Experimental results are shown as examples in this paper.

  8. Modelling railway bridge asset management

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Bryant Linh Hai

    2014-01-01

    The UK has a long history in the railway industry with a large number of railway assets. Railway bridges form one of the major asset groups with more than 35,000 bridges. The majority of the bridge population are old being constructed over 100 years ago. Many of the bridges were not designed to meet the current network demand. With an expected increasing rate of deterioration due to the increasing traffic loads and intensities, the management authorities are faced with the difficult task of k...

  9. Seismic assessment of bridge structures isolated by a shape memory alloy/rubber-based isolation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the effectiveness of shape memory alloy (SMA)/rubber-based isolation systems for seismic protection of bridges against near-field earthquakes by performing a sensitivity analysis. The isolation system considered in this study consists of a laminated rubber bearing, which provides lateral flexibility while supplying high vertical load-carrying capacity, and an auxiliary device made of multiple loops of SMA wires. The SMA device offers additional energy dissipating and re-centering capability. A three-span continuous bridge is modeled with the SMA/rubber-based (SRB) isolation system. Numerical simulations of the bridge are conducted for various near-field ground motions that are spectrally matched to a target design spectrum. The normalized forward transformation strength, forward transformation displacement and pre-strain level of the SMA device, ambient temperature and the lateral stiffness of the rubber bearings are selected as parameters of the sensitivity study. The variation of the seismic response of the bridge with the considered parameters is assessed. Also, the performance of the SRB isolation system with optimal design parameters is compared with an SMA-based sliding isolation system. The results indicate that the SRB isolation system can successfully reduce the seismic response of highway bridges; however, a smart isolation system that combines sliding bearings together with an SMA device is more efficient than the SRB isolation system

  10. Environmental life cycle assessment comparison between two bridge types: reinforced concrete bridge and steel composite bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2013-01-01

    The concept of sustainable construction has attracted an increased attention. Bridge infrastructures and their belonged construction activities consume considerable material and energy, which is responsible for large environmental burdens. However, the environmental assessment of bridges has not...... been integrated into the decision-making process. This paper presents a systematic LCA method for quantifying the environmental impacts for bridges. The comparison study is performed between a reinforced concrete bridge and a steel bridge as an alternative design, with several key maintenance and EOL...... scenarios outlined. LCA study is performed with the ReCiPe methodology with life cycle inventories data from public database. Five selected mid-point level impact categories and the energy consumption are presented. The result shows that the steel bridge has a better environmental performance due to the...

  11. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. PMID:25775930

  12. Bearings only naval tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, M.J.

    1984-11-01

    Two commonly used Extended Kalman Filter tracking algorithms utilize the Relative Cartesian and Modified Polar coordinate systems. This report compares the two algorithms by exercising a destroyer-Submarine (DD/SS) computer simulation. A simple engagement geometry is employed which encompasses the major DD/SS options available. Error statistics are developed by Monte Carlo methods. Results are presented which show that the circular error depends upon the diagonal values of the error covariance matrix. The results also support (but do not establish) that the optimum DD manuevuer is that which minimizes the range while maximizing the bearing rate. 4 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Self lubricating fluid bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns self lubricating fluid bearings, which are used in a shaft sealed system extending two regions. These regions contain fluids, which have to be isolated. A first seal is fluid tight for the first region between the carter shaft and the shaft. The second seal is fluid tight between the carter and the shaft, it communicates with the second region. The first fluid region is the environment surrounding the shaft carter. The second fluid region is a part of a nuclear reactor which contains the cooling fluid. The shaft is conceived to drive a reactor circulating and cooling fluid

  14. Finite element model updating of a prestressed concrete box girder bridge using subproblem approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G. W.; Omenzetter, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an updating procedure for the finite element model (FEM) of a prestressed concrete continuous box-girder highway off-ramp bridge. Ambient vibration testing was conducted to excite the bridge, assisted by linear chirp sweepings induced by two small electrodynamic shakes deployed to enhance the excitation levels, since the bridge was closed to traffic. The data-driven stochastic subspace identification method was executed to recover the modal properties from measurement data. An initial FEM was developed and correlation between the experimental modal results and their analytical counterparts was studied. Modelling of the pier and abutment bearings was carefully adjusted to reflect the real operational conditions of the bridge. The subproblem approximation method was subsequently utilized to automatically update the FEM. For this purpose, the influences of bearing stiffness, and mass density and Young's modulus of materials were examined as uncertain parameters using sensitivity analysis. The updating objective function was defined based on a summation of squared values of relative errors of natural frequencies between the FEM and experimentation. All the identified modes were used as the target responses with the purpose of putting more constrains for the optimization process and decreasing the number of potentially feasible combinations for parameter changes. The updated FEM of the bridge was able to produce sufficient improvements in natural frequencies in most modes of interest, and can serve for a more precise dynamic response prediction or future investigation of the bridge health.

  15. Load-Measuring Pot Bearing with Built-In Load Cell —Part II: Fatigue Performance and Experimental Temperature Correction

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong-Rae Cho; Young Jin Kim; Jong-Won Kwark; Sung Yong Park; Won Jong Chin; Byung-Suk Kim

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of fatigue performance tests performed up to 10 million cycles on a load-measuring pot bearing with built-in load cell to verify its field applicability and proposes an empirical temperature correction formula. In Part I of this work, various measurement performances of the load-measuring pot bearing were evaluated through static and dynamic loading tests. Bridge bearings are subjected to the effect of fatigue caused by the repeated appli...

  16. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker;

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even if the wi...

  17. Vulnerability of bridges to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Crosti, C.; Gentili, F.

    2012-01-01

    Even if recent effort in developing methodology and measures for design structures against fire and explosions has been mostly focused on buildings, bridges can also be very sensitive to those actions, as witnesses by some recent bridge accidents, which caused major economic losses and also endan...

  18. Superconducting bearings in flywheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T.A.; Campbell, A.M.; Ganney, I.; Lo, W. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity (IRC); Twardowski, T. [International Energy Systems, Chester High Road, Neston, South Wirral (United Kingdom); Dawson, B. [British Nuclear Fuels, Capenhurst, South Wirral (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-01

    Investigations are being carried out into the use of superconducting magnetic bearings to levitate energy storage flywheels. In a planned program of work, Cambridge University are aiming to produce a practical bearing system for Pirouette(TM). The Pirouette(TM) system is designed to provide 5 kWh of recoverable energy which is currently recoverable at a rate of 5 kW (future revisions will provide up to 50 kW). IES (a British Nuclear Fuels subsidiary) the owners of the Pirouette(TM) machine have supplied Cambridge with a flywheel. This flywheel weighs >40 kg and is being levitated using an Evershed-type arrangement in which the superconductor is being used to stabilize the interaction between two magnets. To date we have demonstrated stable levitation in static and low speed tests in a rig designed for low speeds of rotation in air. A second rig which is currently under construction at BNFL will run in vacuum at speeds of up to 50 (orig.) 5 refs.

  19. Superconducting bearings in flywheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations are being carried out into the use of superconducting magnetic bearings to levitate energy storage flywheels. In a planned program of work, Cambridge University are aiming to produce a practical bearing system for Pirouette(TM). The Pirouette(TM) system is designed to provide 5 kWh of recoverable energy which is currently recoverable at a rate of 5 kW (future revisions will provide up to 50 kW). IES (a British Nuclear Fuels subsidiary) the owners of the Pirouette(TM) machine have supplied Cambridge with a flywheel. This flywheel weighs >40 kg and is being levitated using an Evershed-type arrangement in which the superconductor is being used to stabilize the interaction between two magnets. To date we have demonstrated stable levitation in static and low speed tests in a rig designed for low speeds of rotation in air. A second rig which is currently under construction at BNFL will run in vacuum at speeds of up to 50 (orig.)

  20. Superconductivity in small metal bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson effects in weaklinks are discussed for low and high frequency regimes using simple perturbation techniques. It is proven that no measurement of the supercurrent dependence upon frequency above the Riedel peak frequency can be made using rf sources whose frequencies are below the Riedel peak. Thus the bulk of work done in the field on the high frequency structure of the Josephson current is shown to be invalid. Metal bridges shorter than a newly defined temperature independent length for superconductors, l/sub PHONON/, are proven to be identical in their Josephson current behavior to tunneling junctions. The BCS gap equation is generalized to include voltage gradient effects on pairs within the bridge. The oscillation frequency for long bridges (l/sub BRIDGE/ greater than l/sub PHONON/) is shown to be limited to less than 10'' Hz. An experimental test of the new voltage dependent gap is made as well as tests of the pair reforming time of bridges

  1. Bridge Coupler for APT

    CERN Document Server

    Greninger, P T; Spalek, G; Greninger, Paul T.; Rodarte, Henry J.

    2000-01-01

    The Coupled Cavity Drift Tube Linac (CCDTL) used in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT) is fully described elsewhere [1]. The modules are composed of several machined and brazed segments that must account for the accumulation of dimensional tolerances in the build up of the stack. In addition, space requirements dictate that power fed to the accelerator cannot be through the accelerating cavities. As well, we would like to remove a single segment of the accelerator without removing additional segments. These requirements combined with phasing relationships of the design and space limitations have resulted in a different bridge coupling method used in the module comprising 3-gap segments. The coupling method, phasing relationships and other features that enhance the flexibility of the design will be discussed.

  2. Half Bridge Inductive Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán GERMÁN-SALLÓ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Induction heating performs contactless, efficient and fast heating of conductive materials, therefore became one of the preferred heating procedure in industrial, domestic and medical applications. During induction heating the high-frequency alternating currents that heat the material are induced by means of electromagnetic induction. The material to be heated is placed inside the time-varying magnetic field generated by applying a highfrequency alternating current to an induction coil. The alternating electromagnetic field induces eddy currents in the workpiece, resulting resistive losses, which then heat the material. This paper describes the design of a power electronic converter circuit for induction heating equipment and presents the obtained results. The realized circuit is a low power half bridge resonant inverter which uses power MOS transistors and adequate driver circuits.

  3. Computational design of rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  4. Nanoparticle bridge DNA biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong-Wen

    A new DNA sensing method is demonstrated in which DNA hybridization events lead to the formation of nanoparticle satellites that bridge two electrodes and are detected electrically. The hybridization events are exclusively carried out only on specific locations, the surfaces of C-ssDNA modified 50 nm GNPs. The uniqueness of this work is that only a small number of T-ccDNA molecules (target DNA and three-base-pair-mismatched DNA in 20nM concentrations. Three single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) system is used in our experiment which includes Capture-ssDNA (C-ssDNA), Target-ssDNA (T-ssDNA) and Probe-ssDNA (P-ssDNA). Both C-ssDNA and P-ssDNA are modified by a thiol group and can hybridize with different portions of T-ssDNA. T-ssDNA requires no modification in three ssDNA system, which is beneficial in many applications. C-ssDNA modified 50nm gold nanoparticle (C-50au) and P-ssDNA modified 30nm gold nanoparticle (P-30au) are prepared through the reaction of thiol-gold chemical bonding between thiolated ssDNA and gold nanoparticle (GNP) (C-ssDNA with 50nm GNP, P-ssDNA with 30nm GNP). We controllably place the C-50au only on the SiO2 band surface (˜ 90nm width) between two gold electrodes (source and drain electrodes) by forming positively- and negatively-charged self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on SiO2 and gold surface, respectively. DNA modified GNP is negatively charged due to ionization of phosphate group on DNA back bone. C-50au therefore is negatively charged and can only be attracted toward SiO2 area (repelled by negatively charged gold electrode surface). The amine group of positively-charged SAMs on SiO2 surface is then passivated by converting to non-polar methyl functional group after C-50au placement. P-30au is first hybridized with T-ssDNA in the solution phase (T-P- 30au formed) and is introduced into DNA detection device in which C-50au are immobilized on ˜90nm width SiO2 band (between two gold electrodes). The passivation step ensures every TP-30au are attached

  5. 上承式悬索桥结构介绍及内力分析%On the Introduction and Analysis of Internal Force of Suspension Bridge Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何钰龙; 申杨凡; 李兴正

    2013-01-01

      本文对一种新式公路桥,人行桥即上承式悬带桥进行了结构介绍。同时,通过桥梁计算软件“桥梁博士”对所拟定的桥梁进行了内力分析,得到了上承式悬带桥的内力特性。%In this paper, a new type of highway bridge, the pedestrian bridge on the bearing type of suspension bridge str-ucture is introduced. Dr. At the same time, through bridge calc-ulation software “bridge doctor”on the bridge's internal force analysis, obtained the deck type hanging bridge's internal force characteristics.

  6. Dynamic analysis concerned with rotational displacement of skewed bridges caused by horizontal ground motion; Shakyo no suihei jishindo ni yoru kaiten kyodo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kanda, M. [Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Kawakami, M. [Nippon Engineering Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-21

    Several skewed bridges were slid and fell down from their supports by the 1995 Hyogo-Ken Nanbu Earthquake. The purpose of this paper is to study the in-plane rotational behaviour of the skewed bridges after failure of side blocks of the bearing by the horizontal ground motion. Firstly, geometric configuration of the skewed bridges in which the rotation is inevitable is investigated. Then, the rotational displacement of the skewed bridges are obtained by conducting non- linear time- history analyses in which a friction type hysteresis model is assumed to simulate the sliding of the bridge at the supports. It is found that the skewed bridges with small width-span ratios and small skew angles may have considerable sliding rotational displacements and fall down from their supports if adequate seat width is not provided. The requirement of the support length in skewed bridges is also presented. 6 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. An innovative steel-concrete joint for integral abutment bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Briseghella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integral abutment bridges are becoming rather common, due to the durability problems of bearings and expansion joints. At the same time, among short- and medium-span bridges, multi-beam steel-concrete composite deck with hot-rolled girder is an economical and interesting alternative to traditional pre-stressed concrete solutions. The two concepts can be linked together to design integral steel-concrete composite bridges with the benefits of two typologies. The most critical aspect for these bridges is usually the joints between deck and piers or abutments. In this paper, an innovative beam-to-pier joint is proposed and a theoretical and experimental study is introduced and discussed. The analyzed connection is aimed at combining general ease of construction with a highly simplified assembly procedure and a good transmission of hogging and sagging moment at the supports in continuous beams. For this purpose, the traditional shear studs, used at the interface between steel beam and upper concrete slab, are also used at the ends of steel profiles welded horizontally to the end plates. To better understand the behaviour of this kind of joints and the roles played by different components, three large-scale specimens were tested and an FE model was implemented. The theoretical and experimental results confirmed the potential of the proposed connection for practical applications and indicated the way to improve its structural behaviour.

  8. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  9. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W B

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  10. Fish of Bear Lake, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, Patsy; Luecke, Chris; Robinson, Justin

    2007-01-01

    There are 13 species of fish found in the waters of Bear Lake. Of those 13, 4 are endemic (found only in Bear Lake). The 4 endemics species are Bonneville cisco, Bonneville whitefish, Bear Lake whitefish, and Bear Lake sculpin. Five of the remaining 9 fish species are native to the region, and 4 are exotic introductions. These native fishes are the Bonneville cutthroat trout, Utah sucker, redside shiner, speckled dace and Utah chub. The exotic fishes are lake trout, common carp, yellow p...

  11. Dynamic Analysis of Engine Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hirani

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple methodology to evaluate the stiffness and damping coefficients of an engine bearing over a load cycle. A rapid technique is used to determine the shaft ‘limit cycle’ under engine dynamic loads. The proposed theoretical model is based on short and long bearing approximations. The results obtained by present approximation are compared with those obtained by numerical method. The influence of thermal effects on the stiffness and damping coefficients is predicted by using a simplified thermal analysis. In order to illustrate the application of the proposed scheme, one engine main bearing and a connecting rod bearing are analysed.

  12. Dynamic analysis of sliding behavior of curved bridge superstructure caused by horizontal ground motion; Suihei jishindo ni yoru kyokusenkyo jobu kozo no ido kyodo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kanda, M. [Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yoshizawa, T. [Nippon Engineering Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-21

    It is observed often in the past earthquakes that the curved bridge tends to move to the radial direction of its curved bridge line when large seismic movement occurs and the bearings are broken. The rigid body movement of the curved girder which affects the sliding behavior is estimated. Some cases of dynamic nonlinear analysis to simulate the movement of bearing damaged curved bridge, and the parametric study to examine the dynamic characteristics of curved bridges are carried out. Based on the relationship between the traveling of girder and the various parameters of girder shape, the equation to calculate the length of the girder on the pier for curved bridges is estimated. 7 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Liquid-Bridge Breaking Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macner, Ashley; Steen, Paul

    2011-11-01

    Wet adhesion by liquid bridges in large arrays shows promise for use in lightweight, controllable on-demand devices. Applications include grab/release of wafer substrates, transport of micron-sized tiles for use in 3D printing and micro-dosing of personalized pharmaceutical drugs. By wetting and spreading, a drop can form a bridge and thereby ``grab'' a nearby solid substrate. By volume decrease or extension, the bridge can break. The breaking limit corresponds to bridge instability which can be predicted, knowing the static mechanical response of the bridge. Mechanical behaviors include force-volume (FV), pressure-volume (pV) and force-length (FL) responses. Instability crucially depends on the mode of failure - failure under constant-force or constant length are typical cases. We study single bridge equilibria for their breaking limits. FV diagrams for the pin-pin equal and pin-pin unequal radii boundary conditions for different bridge heights are measured in the laboratory. The FL response in the case of pin-pin equal radii is also measured. Results are compared to predictions of static theory. Static results are then used to compare to dynamical sequences where volume is driven quasistatically by syringe or an electro-osmotic pump. As the breaking limit is approached, the shape deformation accelerates leading to non-equilibrium shapes not captured by the static analysis.

  14. Pragmatism: A bridge between Anglo-American and Contintental Philosophy?

    OpenAIRE

    Grube, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, I will restrict myself to interpreting certain features of Margolis’ rich argument. I will discuss only those features that have a direct bearing on his thesis that pragmatism wins the three-sided contest between Anglo-American Philosophy, continental philosophy and pragmatism and, as such, can serve as a bridge to span the divide between Anglo-American and continental philosophy. Two mottoes Margolis utilizes serve as the vantage point of my discussion, viz. ’natural but not n...

  15. Autosizing Control Panel for Needle Bearing

    OpenAIRE

    Prof.A.R.Wadhekar,; Ms Jyoti R. Rajput

    2016-01-01

    A needle roller bearing is a bearing which uses small cylindrical rollers. Bearings are used to reduce friction of any rotating surface. Needle bearings have a large surface in contact with the bearing outer surfaces as compared to ball bearings. There is less added clearance(Diameter of the shaft and the diameter of the bearing are different) so they are much compact. The structure consists of a needle cage which contains the needle rollersthemselves and an outer race (The housin...

  16. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration...

  17. National Bridge Inventory - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The NBI (NTAD 2015) is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 610,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate...

  18. Reliability Assessment of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Middleton, C. R.

    This paper is partly based on research performed for the Highways Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: concrete bridges". It contains the details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability...... profiles. These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for concrete bridges. This paper is to some extend based on Thoft-Christensen et. al. [1996], Thoft-Christensen [1996] et. al. and Thoft-Christensen [1996]....

  19. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings in flywheels.

  20. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...

  1. What about the Javan Bear?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1898-01-01

    The other day I read in a dutch popular periodical a paper dealing with the different species of Bears and their geographical distribution. To my great surprise the Malayan Bear was mentioned from Java: the locality Java being quite new to me I wrote to the author of that paper and asked him some in

  2. Bridging the urological divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Robin

    2011-09-23

    The advanced disease clinical presentations, higher morbidity and mortality rates and lack of available treatment options in prostate cancer care, attest to disparities in the delivery and outcomes of urological services in Black men of African lineage in both the Developed and Developing countries. This gap in health care and services in the global management of prostate cancer denotes the urological divide.Through the experience of a Developing country urologist with a comparative literature review, this presentation defines the determinants of the disparity through deficiencies in human, material and financial resources, as is most prevalent in Developing countries.Solutions to ending health care disparities must take into account the existing development phase of Third World countries and thus determine whether the Developed countries should export a total service delivery system or seek primarily to advance the competence and skills of the existing Developing country resources.Collaboration in prostate cancer research has the greatest promise and sustainability of bridging this urological divide and is of mutual benefit to both entities. PMID:21992183

  3. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  4. Fire safety of rubber bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study is to experimentally evaluate the fire resistance of the natural-rubber bearings to be incorporated into a Fast Reactor (FBR) under study. Four experiments were performed to look at the effect of bearing diameters and heating conditions on the performance. The full-scale specimen sustained the design-basis load for more than 3.5 hours under 'standard fire.' Medium-size bearings showed resistance for 2-4 hours, according to heating temperatures. The paper also summarizes the methods and the results of simulation analyses of rubber bearings subjected to load/temperature conditions under fire. The vertical deformation of the bearings can be calculated very well, using the temperature profiles obtained from testing. However, the heat transfer analyses did not give good results, especially in the cases/portions where heat was generated due to rubber combustion. (author)

  5. Effect of abutment modeling on the seismic response of bridge structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ady Aviram; Kevin R.Mackie; Bozidar Stojadinovic

    2008-01-01

    Abutment behavior significantly influences the seismic response of certain bridge structures.Specifically in the case of short bridges with relatively stiff superstructures typical of highway overpasses,embankment mobilization and inelastic behavior of the soil material under high shear deformation levels dominate the response of the bridge and its column bents.This paper investigates the sensitivity of bridge seismic response with respect to three different abutment modeling approaches.The abutment modeling approaches are based on three increasing levels of complexity that attempt to capture the critical components and modes of abutment response without the need to generate continuum models of the embankment,approach,and abutment foundations.Six existing reinforced concrete bridge structures,typical of Ordinary Bridges in California,are selected for the analysis.Nonlinear models of the bridges are developed in OpenSees.Three abutment model types of increasing complexity are developed for each bridge,denoted as roller,simplified,and spring abutments.The roller model contains only single-point constraints.The spring model contains discrete representations of backfill,bearing pad,shear key,and back wall behavior.The simplified model is a compromise between the efficient roller model and the comprehensive spring model.Modal,pushover,and nonlinear dynamic time history analyses are conducted for the six bridges using the three abutment models for each bridge.Comparisons of the analysis results show major differences in mode shapes and periods,ultimate base shear strength,as well as peak displacements of the column top obtained due to dynamic excitation.The adequacy of the three abutment models used in the study to realistically represent all major resistance mechanisms and components of the abutments,including an accurate estimation of their mass,stiffness,and nonlinear hysteretic behavior,is evaluated.Recommendations for abutment modeling are made.

  6. Mineral bridges in nacre revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Checa, Antonio G; Willinger, Marc-Georg

    2012-01-01

    We confirm with high-resolution techniques the existence of mineral bridges between superposed nacre tablets. In the towered nacre of both gastropods and the cephalopod Nautilus there are large bridges aligned along the tower axes, corresponding to gaps (150-200 nm) in the interlamellar membranes. Gaps are produced by the interaction of the nascent tablets with a surface membrane that covers the nacre compartment. In the terraced nacre of bivalves bridges associated with elongated gaps in the interlamellar membrane (> 100 nm) have mainly been found at or close to the edges of superposed parental tablets. To explain this placement, we hypothesize that the interlamellar membrane breaks due to differences in osmotic pressure across it when the interlamellar space below becomes reduced at an advanced stage of calcification. In no cases are the minor connections between superimposed tablets (< 60 nm), earlier reported to be mineral bridges, found to be such.

  7. Simulation of multivariate diffusion bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Finch, Samuel; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose simple methods for multivariate diffusion bridge simulation, which plays a fundamental role in simulation-based likelihood and Bayesian inference for stochastic differential equations. By a novel application of classical coupling methods, the new approach generalizes a previously...

  8. Applications of overburden conveyor bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachtschneider, H.

    1987-06-01

    In large scale surface mines of the capacities required today, a cross-pit operation with overburden conveyor bridges is the most economical method of overburden removal and disposal. In order to provide the production capacity required in surface mining equipment by the GDR brown coal industry, VEB Schwermaschinenbau Lauchhammerwerk undertook the design and manufacture of standard overburden conveyor bridges for cut heights of 34 m, 45 m and 60 m. All three base types may be equipped to match the site specific geological and geotechnical conditions, and to meet customer's demands. Specifications of the bridges are given as well as details of conveyor belt speeds, modifications to the standards, and number manufactured. Design problems faced with the 60 m bridge are discussed, together with details of the superstructure, method of operation, transportation rates, structural steel used, assembly and power supply. 5 refs.

  9. ANGIOGRAPHIC ASPECTS OF MYOCARDIAL BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha. M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The segment of epicardial coronary artery that traverses intramurally through the myocardium and bridged by a bunch of cardiac muscle fibers is called tunneled artery or intramural artery. The band of cardiac muscle fibers passing over the tunneled artery segment is named as myocardial bridge. During angiography milking effect is observed during systole due to the external pressure of muscle fibers on the tunneled artery that leads to narrowing of vessel lumen and further ischemia. Materials & Methods: It is a prospective study performed from 2012- 2015 in cardiac centers available around Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, South India. A total number of 2015 adult patients who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography were evaluated to detect myocardial bridges. With the informed consent the relevant data was collected from the patients and analyzed. Results: The prevalence of myocardial bridges was 3.17%. Among the 2015 patients 70.7% are males and 29.2% are females. Among 64 myocardial bridge positive cases 62.5% were male and 37.5% were female patients. Regarding coronary dominance 84% were right dominant and 14.4% were left dominant and 1.6% are balanced. The percentage incidence of myocardial bridging according to dominance was 3.01% for right dominant patients, 4.12% for left dominant patients and 3.1% for balanced dominant patients. In all the myocardial bridge positive cases they were located on the left anterior descending artery (LAD. According to diagnosis the patients with normal coronaries were 22.6%, patients with MILD CAD were 17.9%, patients with single vessel disease were 23.4%, patients with two vessel disease were 14.7% and the patients with triple vessel disease were 21.3%. The 64 myocardial bridging cases were grouped in to three groups according to their age. Incidence of double bridges was observed in 3 cases of which 66.7% males & 33.3% in females. Conclusion: These results show that Andhra Pradesh population are

  10. ANGIOGRAPHIC ASPECTS OF MYOCARDIAL BRIDGES

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha M; V Subhadra Devi; C. S. S. Raju; B. Yugandhar; Nagaraju

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The segment of epicardial coronary artery that traverses intramurally through the myocardium and bridged by a bunch of cardiac muscle fibers is called tunneled artery or intramural artery. The band of cardiac muscle fibers passing over the tunneled artery segment is named as myocardial bridge. During angiography milking effect is observed during systole due to the external pressure of muscle fibers on the tunneled artery that leads to narrowing of vessel lumen and further isc...

  11. SURGERY OF SYMPTOMATIC MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING

    OpenAIRE

    N. Maghamipour N. Safaei

    2007-01-01

    Myocardial bridging with systolic compression of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) may be associated with myocardial ischemia. In symptomatic myocardial bridging unresponsive to medical treatment, surgical unroofing of the left LAD can be performed. Little information is available about the long-term prognosis of patients with this coronary anomaly after the surgical unroofing, so we decided to evaluate the result of this operation. A total of 26 patients underwent surgical u...

  12. Stability of liquid crystalline bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Milind P.; Tsige, Mesfin; Taylor, P. L.; Rosenblatt, Charles

    1999-02-01

    The stability of cylindrical bridges of the liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl in an immiscible liquid bath was investigated in the nematic and smectic A phases. In the nematic phase the bridge was found to destabilize at a length-to-diameter (slenderness) ratio R similar to that of ordinary Newtonian fluids. On the other hand, the Bingham behavior of the smectic A phase, i.e., an apparent yield stress, enabled the formation of stable columns with R well in excess of π.

  13. SURGERY OF SYMPTOMATIC MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Maghamipour N. Safaei

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial bridging with systolic compression of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD may be associated with myocardial ischemia. In symptomatic myocardial bridging unresponsive to medical treatment, surgical unroofing of the left LAD can be performed. Little information is available about the long-term prognosis of patients with this coronary anomaly after the surgical unroofing, so we decided to evaluate the result of this operation. A total of 26 patients underwent surgical unroofing of myocardial bridging. Patients had a myocardial bridge of at least 3 cm in length in the middle of LAD and with more than 70% compression during systole. Unroofing was performed with cardiopulmonary bypass in 16 and with off pump technique in 10 patients. In 6 patients repeat angiographies for control of myotomy were done. In one of them a nonsignificant 20% narrowing was seen. Postoperative scintigraphic and angiographic studies demonstrated restoration of coronary flow and myocardial perfusion without residual myocardial bridges under beta-stimulation in 24 patients. Two patients had residual narrowing. With off pump technique, 1 patient had perforation of the right ventricle and 1 patient underwent reoperation because of incomplete unroofing during the first operation. None of the patients with cardiopulmonary bypass technique had residual chest pain or other complications. Surgical unroofing of myocardial bridging with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass is a safe and easy procedure with low operative risk and with excellent functional results.

  14. Effect of nonlinearity of restrainer and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Changfeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During an earthquake, the nonlinearity of the bridge structure mainly occurs at the supports, bridge piers and restrainers. When entering nonlinear stage, members of the bridge structure affect the elasto-plastic seismic response of the whole structure to a certain extent; for multi-span continuous bridges, longitudinal restrainers can be installed on the movable piers to optimise the distribution of seismic force and enable the movable piers to bear a certain amount of seismic effect. In order to evaluate the effect of nonlinearity of restrainer and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge, analytical models of continuous girder bridge structure considering the nonlinearity of movable supports, restrainers and bridge piers were built and the nonlinear time history analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of nonlinearity of restraining devices and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge. Relevant structural measures and recommendation were made to reduce the seismic response of the fixed piers of the continuous girder bridge.

  15. Optimum design of bridges with superelastic-friction base isolators against near-field earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbulut, Osman E.; Hurlebaus, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    The seismic response of a multi-span continuous bridge isolated with novel superelastic-friction base isolator (S-FBI) is investigated under near-field earthquakes. The isolation system consists of a flat steel-Teflon sliding bearing and a superelastic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) device. Sliding bearings limit the maximum seismic forces transmitted to the superstructure to a certain value that is a function of friction coefficient of sliding interface. Superelastic SMA device provides restoring capability to the isolation system together with additional damping characteristics. The key design parameters of an S-FBI system are the natural period of the isolated, yielding displacement of SMA device, and the friction coefficient of the sliding bearings. The goal of this study is to obtain optimal values for each design parameter by performing sensitivity analyses of the isolated bridge. First, a three-span continuous bridge is modeled as a two-degrees-of-freedom with S-FBI system. A neuro-fuzzy model is used to capture rate-dependent nonlinear behavior of SMA device. A time-dependent method which employs wavelets to adjust accelerograms to match a target response spectrum with minimum changes on the other characteristics of ground motions is used to generate ground motions used in the simulations. Then, a set of nonlinear time history analyses of the isolated bridge is performed. The variation of the peak response quantities of the isolated bridge is shown as a function of design parameters. Also, the influence of temperature variations on the effectiveness of S-FBI system is evaluated. The results show that the optimum design of the isolated bridge with S-FBI system can be achieved by a judicious specification of design parameters.

  16. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, J.; Stirling, I.; Kistler, L.; Salamzade, R.; Ersmark, E.; Fulton, T.; Stiller, M.; Green, R.; Shapiro, B.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear...

  17. Redundancy Evaluation of Fracture Critical Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Bapat, Amey Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Cases of brittle fractures in major bridges prompted AASHTO to publish its first fracture control plan in 1978. It focused on material and fabrication standards, and required periodic 24-month hands-on inspection of bridges with fracture critical members. The practical result of this plan was to significantly increase the life cycle cost of these bridges, rendering them uneconomical. Apart from the Point Pleasant Bridge that failed in 1967, no other bridge has collapsed in the USA following a...

  18. EFFECT OF BEARING MACROGEOMETRY ON BEARING PERFORMANCE IN ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin GÜLLÜ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available During manufacturing, ideal dimension and mutual positioning of machine elements proposed in project desing can be achieved only within certain range of tolerances. These tolerances, being classified in two groups, related to micro and macro geometry of machine elements, don't have to effect the functioning of these elements. So, as for all machine elements, investigation of the effects of macro and micro tolerances for journal bearings is important. In this study, we have investigated the effect of macro geometric irregularities of journal bearings on performance characteristics. In this regard, we have studied the change of bearing performance in respect to deviation from ideal circle for an elliptic shaft with small ovality rolling in circular journal bearing.

  19. Bears, Big and Little. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Pierre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume describes: (1) the eight species of bears, including black bear, brown bear, grizzly bear, spectacled bear, sun bear, sloth bear, polar bear, and giant panda; (2) geographical habitats of bears; (3)…

  20. eBear: An Expressive Bear-Like Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao; Mollahosseini, Ali; B., Amir H. Kargar; Boucher, Evan; Voyles, Richard M.; Nielsen, Rodney; Mahoor, Mohammd H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an anthropomorphic robotic bear for the exploration of human-robot interaction including verbal and non-verbal communications. This robot is implemented with a hybrid face composed of a mechanical faceplate with 10 DOFs and an LCD-display-equipped mouth. The facial emotions of the bear are designed based on the description of the Facial Action Coding System as well as some animal-like gestures described by Darwin. The mouth movements are realized by synthesizing emotions w...

  1. Seismic performance of a novel 3D isolation system on continuous bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, J. P.; Jia, J. F.

    2010-04-01

    Remarkable vertical seismic motion is one of the prominent characteristics of the near-fault earthquake motions, but the traditional and widely used base isolation system only can effectively mitigate horizontal seismic responses and structural damage. A promising three-dimensional (3D) seismic isolation bearing, consisting of laminated rubber bearing with lead core (LRB) and combined coned disc spring with vertical energy dissipation device (e.g., inner fluid viscous cylindric damper or steel damper), was proposed to mitigate horizontal and vertical structural seismic responses simultaneously and separately. Three-group seismic ground motion records were selected to validate the effectiveness of the proposed 3D seismic isolation bearing on a continuous slab bridge. The appropriate damping of the vertical damping device was presented by parametric study. The analyses results showed that the proposed 3D isolation bearing is essentially effective to mitigate vertical and horizontal structural seismic response simultaneously. Near-fault pulse-type seismic motions should be considered in seismic isolation design and evaluation. The proper damping ratio of the vertical damping device should be 20%-30% for favorable vertical isolation effectiveness. The proposed 3D seismic isolation bearing is promising to be applied to the mediate-to-short span bridge and even some building structures.

  2. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

  3. A strange bridge by Leonardo

    CERN Document Server

    Huylebrouck, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    On folio 855 recto of the Codex Atlanticus, Leonardo da Vinci drew three 'easily movable' bridges, but one of them is enigmatic: all 'replicas' in Leonardo museums and exhibitions come as a surprise, to say the least, to any engineer or architect whose attention is drawn to it. This is the case for models in Amboise (France), Chicago and Portland (USA), Florence (Italy) and for the one of the traveling exhibition by the Australian company 'Grande Exhibitions' that already visited 40 major cities in the world. All 'replicas' of the bridge model attributed to Leonardo have pillars standing on the deck of the bridge, while the deck is suspended by cables attached on these pillars. At first sight this problem does not catch the attention of the observer, as the bridge seems to be a mixed form of a beam and a suspension bridge, but it was not overlooked by my colleague architect-engineer Dr. Laurens Luyten (Gent, Belgium). Yet, after a TV-interview in Brussels so much pressure was exerted by some of the museum col...

  4. Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.

  5. Nonlinear Control of Magnetic Bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khac Duc Do; Dang Hoe Nguyen; Thanh Binh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, recent results controling nonlinear systems with output tracking error constraints are applied to the design of new tracking controllers for magnetic bearings. The proposed controllers can force the rotor to track a bounded and sufficiently smooth refer-ence trajectory asymptotically and guarantee non-contactedness be-tween the rotor and the stator of the magnetic bearings. Simulation results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed con-trollers.

  6. Failure analysis of superconducting bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Amit; Campbell, A M; Coombs, T A [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-01

    The dynamics of superconductor bearings in a cryogenic failure scenario have been analyzed. As the superconductor warms up, the rotor goes through multiple resonance frequencies, begins to slow down and finally touches down when the superconductor goes through its transition temperature. The bearing can be modelled as a system of springs with axial, radial and cross stiffness. These springs go through various resonant modes as the temperature of the superconductor begins to rise. We have presented possible explanations for such behavio0008.

  7. Failure analysis of superconducting bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of superconductor bearings in a cryogenic failure scenario have been analyzed. As the superconductor warms up, the rotor goes through multiple resonance frequencies, begins to slow down and finally touches down when the superconductor goes through its transition temperature. The bearing can be modelled as a system of springs with axial, radial and cross stiffness. These springs go through various resonant modes as the temperature of the superconductor begins to rise. We have presented possible explanations for such behaviour

  8. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Duanduan; Wang Longfei; Zhang Lipeng

    2015-01-01

    Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capac...

  9. Designing Rolling-Element Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James D., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Bearing Analysis Tool (BAT) is a computer program for designing rolling-element bearings for cryogenic turbomachines. BAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI) that guides the entry of data to develop mathematical models of bearings. The GUI breaks model data into logical subsets that are entered through logic-driven input screens. The software generates a threedimensional graphical model of a bearing as the data are entered. Most dataentry errors become immediately obvious in the graphical model. BAT provides for storage of all the data on a shaft/bearing system, enabling the creation of a library of proven designs. Data from the library can be transferred to subsequent projects by use of simple cut-and-paste routines. BAT includes a library of temperature- dependent cryogenic bearing-material properties for use in the mathematical models. BAT implements algorithms that (1) enable the user to select combinations of design and/or operating-condition parameters, and then (2) automatically optimize the design by performing trade studies over all of the parameter combinations. This feature enables optimization over a large trade space in a fraction of the time taken when using prior bearingmodel software.

  10. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of Application for Partial Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 25, 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor)...

  11. Bridge Decomposition of Restriction Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by Kesten's bridge decomposition for two-dimensional self-avoiding walks in the upper half plane, we show that the conjectured scaling limit of the half-plane SAW, the SLE(8/3) process, also has an appropriately defined bridge decomposition. This continuum decomposition turns out to entirely be a consequence of the restriction property of SLE(8/3), and as a result can be generalized to the wider class of restriction measures. Specifically we show that the restriction hulls with index less than one can be decomposed into a Poisson Point Process of irreducible bridges in a way that is similar to Ito's excursion decomposition of a Brownian motion according to its zeros.

  12. Bridge Number and Conway Products

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Ryan C.

    2007-01-01

    Schubert proved that, given a composite link $K$ with summands $K_{1}$ and $K_{2}$, the bridge number of $K$ satisfies the following equation: $$\\beta(K)=\\beta(K_{1})+\\beta(K_{2})-1.$$ In ``Conway Produts and Links with Multiple Bridge Surfaces", Scharlemann and Tomova proved that, given links $K_{1}$ and $K_{2}$, there is a Conway product $K_{1}\\times_{c}K_{2}$ such that $$\\beta(K_{1}\\times_{c} K_{2}) \\leq \\beta(K_{1}) + \\beta(K_{2}) - 1$$ In this paper, we define the generalized Conway prod...

  13. Application study on the first cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuihua Mei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to push forward the development of CFRP cable-stayed bridge and accumulate experiences, the study on the application of the first cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables in China was carried out. The design essentials of main components of the bridge were introduced and its integral performances, including static properties, dynamic properties and seismic response were analyzed using finite element method. A new bond-type anchorage was developed and the processes of fabricating and installing CFRP cables were elaborated. Based on the results of construction simulation, a tension scheme for bridge was propound. During constructing, the stresses and displacement of girder and pylon, as well as the forces and stresses of cables, were tested. The results indicate that all sections of the bridge could meet the requirements of the ultimate bearing capacity and normal service; the performance of the anchorage is good and the stresses in each cable system are similar; the tested values accord well with the calculated values. Further, creep deformation of the resin in anchorages under service load is not obvious. All these results demonstrate that the first application of CFRP cables in the cable-stayed bridge in China is successful.

  14. Optimum selection on bridge erection with floating crane in East China Sea Bridge and Hangzhou Bay Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunquan Qin; Pu Zhou; Youheng Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction With the rapid development of China′s economy, many bridges will be built over the Chinese coastal waters of Pacific Ocean. Among them, construction of East China Sea Bridge has been commenced in June 2001, and will be completed at the end of 2005, Hangzhou Bay Bridge was also started to construct in June 2003(Fig. 1). These two ultralong bridges are designed as twin expressway bridges standing side by side each carries a 3-lane one-way carriageway. The total width is 31.5m and 33.0m respectively. East China Sea Bridge starts from Nanhui District, Shanghai and extends to the Yangshan Deep Water Port Area, which is located at one of the Qiqu Islands. The total length of the bridge is about 31.0 km, in which 25 km are on the sea, and 22 km is in the unnavigable region. Hangzhou Bay Bridge across the mouth of Qiantang River.

  15. Effects of seismic devices on transverse responses of piers in the Sutong Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xing; Camara, Alfredo; Ye, Aijun

    2015-12-01

    The Sutong Bridge in China opened to traffic in 2008, and is an arterial connection between the cities of Nantong and Suzhou. It is a cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1,088 m. Due to a tight construction schedule and lack of suitable seismic devices at the time, fixed supports were installed between the piers and the girder in the transverse direction. As a result, significant transverse seismic forces could occur in the piers and foundations, especially during a return period of a 2500-year earthquake. Therefore, the piers, foundations and fixed bearings had to be designed extraordinarily strong. However, when larger earthquakes occur, the bearings, piers and foundations are still vulnerable. The recent rapid developments in seismic technology and the performance-based design approach offer a better opportunity to optimize the transverse seismic design for the Sutong Bridge piers. The optimized design can be applied to the Sutong Bridge (as a retrofit), as well as other bridges. Seismic design alternatives utilizing viscous fluid dampers (VFD), or friction pendulum sliding bearings (FPSB), or transverse yielding metallic dampers (TYMD) are thoroughly studied in this work, and the results are compared with those from the current condition with fixed transverse supports and a hypothetical condition in which only sliding bearings are provided on top of the piers (the girder can move "freely" in the transverse direction during the earthquake, except for frictional forces of the sliding bearings). Parametric analyses were performed to optimize the design of these proposed seismic devices. From the comparison of the peak bridge responses in these configurations, it was found that both VFD and TYMD are very effective in the reduction of transverse seismic forces in piers, while at the same time keeping the relative transverse displacements between piers and the box girder within acceptable limits. However, compared to VFD, TYMD do not interact with the

  16. Bear reintroduction: Lessons and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; Huber, Djuro; Servheen, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Reintroduction is defined as an attempt to establish a species in an area that was once part of its historical range, but from which it has been extirpated or become extinct. Historically, one of the most successful programs was the reintroduction of 254 American black bears (Ursus americanus) from Minnesota to the Interior Highlands of Arkansas in the 1960s; that population has grown to >2,500 today. More recent efforts have involved fewer but better monitored animals and have sometimes employed techniques to improve site fidelity and survival. In Pennsylvania, for example, pregnant female American black bears were successfully translocated from winter dens, the premise being that the adult females would be less likely to return because of the presence of young cubs. That winter-release technique was compared to summer trapping and release in Tennessee; winter releases resulted in greater survival and reduced post-release movements. Homing has not been a problem for small numbers of brown bears (Ursus arctos) reintroduced to the Cabinet-Yaak ecosystem in Montana and Idaho and to the mountains of Austria and France. Reintroduction success appears to be correlated with translocation distance and is greater for subadults and females. As with any small population, reintroduced bear populations are susceptible to environmental variation and stochastic demographic and genetic processes. Although managers have focused on these biological barriers, sociopolitical impediments to bear reintroduction are more difficult to overcome. Poor public acceptance and understanding of bears are the main reasons some reintroduction programs have been derailed. Consequently, the public should be involved in the reintroduction process from the outset; overcoming negative public perceptions about bear reintroduction will be our greatest challenge.

  17. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Side bearings. 229.69 Section 229.69....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation is prohibited....

  19. A bio-based fibre-reinforced plastic pedestrian bridge for Schiphol

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, J.E.P.; Gkaidatzis, R.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper investigates Bio-based fibre-reinforced plastics, used as a load-bearing element of a bridge. We aim to increase the renewable content and decreasing the embodied energy of FRP. To achieve that, the consisting raw materials of these plastics which are based on non-renewable resources, are substituted by alternative less energy intensive materials produced from biological renewable resources. The research focuses on the potentials of natural fibres for a successful substituti...

  20. Superconductor bearings, flywheels and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Floegel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Goebel, B.; Wippich, D.; Schirrmeister, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the present status of high temperature superconductors (HTS) and of bulk superconducting magnet devices, their use in bearings, in flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) and linear transport magnetic levitation (Maglev) systems. We report and review the concepts of multi-seeded REBCO bulk superconductor fabrication. The multi-grain bulks increase the averaged trapped magnetic flux density up to 40% compared to single-grain assembly in large-scale applications. HTS magnetic bearings with permanent magnet (PM) excitation were studied and scaled up to maximum forces of 10 kN axially and 4.5 kN radially. We examine the technology of the high-gradient magnetic bearing concept and verify it experimentally. A large HTS bearing is tested for stabilizing a 600 kg rotor of a 5 kWh/250 kW flywheel system. The flywheel rotor tests show the requirement for additional damping. Our compact flywheel system is compared with similar HTS-FESS projects. A small-scale compact YBCO bearing with in situ Stirling cryocooler is constructed and investigated for mobile applications. Next we show a successfully developed modular linear Maglev system for magnetic train operation. Each module levitates 0.25t at 10 mm distance during one-day operation without refilling LN2. More than 30 vacuum cryostats containing multi-seeded YBCO blocks are fabricated and are tested now in Germany, China and Brazil.

  1. Superconductor bearings, flywheels and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the present status of high temperature superconductors (HTS) and of bulk superconducting magnet devices, their use in bearings, in flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) and linear transport magnetic levitation (Maglev) systems. We report and review the concepts of multi-seeded REBCO bulk superconductor fabrication. The multi-grain bulks increase the averaged trapped magnetic flux density up to 40% compared to single-grain assembly in large-scale applications. HTS magnetic bearings with permanent magnet (PM) excitation were studied and scaled up to maximum forces of 10 kN axially and 4.5 kN radially. We examine the technology of the high-gradient magnetic bearing concept and verify it experimentally. A large HTS bearing is tested for stabilizing a 600 kg rotor of a 5 kWh/250 kW flywheel system. The flywheel rotor tests show the requirement for additional damping. Our compact flywheel system is compared with similar HTS–FESS projects. A small-scale compact YBCO bearing with in situ Stirling cryocooler is constructed and investigated for mobile applications. Next we show a successfully developed modular linear Maglev system for magnetic train operation. Each module levitates 0.25t at 10 mm distance during one-day operation without refilling LN2. More than 30 vacuum cryostats containing multi-seeded YBCO blocks are fabricated and are tested now in Germany, China and Brazil.

  2. An Expert System for Concrete Bridge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, J. de; Branco, F. A.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle;

    1997-01-01

    The importance of bridge repair versus new bridge construction has risen in recent decades due to high deterioration rates that have been observed in these structures. Budgets both for building new bridges and keeping the existing ones are always limited. To help rational decision-making, bridge ...... information complemented by a knowledge-based interactive system, BRIDGE-1. To optimize management strategies at the headquarters, the BRIDGE-2 module was implemented, including three submodules: inspection strategy, maintenance and repair....... management systems are presently being implemented by bridge authorities in several countries. The prototype of an expert system for concrete bridge management is presented in this paper, with its functionality relying on two modules. The inspection module relies on a periodic acquisition of field...

  3. Intercellular bridges in vertebrate gastrulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Caneparo

    Full Text Available The developing zebrafish embryo has been the subject of many studies of regional patterning, stereotypical cell movements and changes in cell shape. To better study the morphological features of cells during gastrulation, we generated mosaic embryos expressing membrane attached Dendra2 to highlight cellular boundaries. We find that intercellular bridges join a significant fraction of epiblast cells in the zebrafish embryo, reaching several cell diameters in length and spanning across different regions of the developing embryos. These intercellular bridges are distinct from the cellular protrusions previously reported as extending from hypoblast cells (1-2 cellular diameters in length or epiblast cells (which were shorter. Most of the intercellular bridges were formed at pre-gastrula stages by the daughters of a dividing cell maintaining a membrane tether as they move apart after mitosis. These intercellular bridges persist during gastrulation and can mediate the transfer of proteins between distant cells. These findings reveal a surprising feature of the cellular landscape in zebrafish embryos and open new possibilities for cell-cell communication during gastrulation, with implications for modeling, cellular mechanics, and morphogenetic signaling.

  4. Architectural engineering of FRP bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, J.E.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP's) in architectural and structural bridge design. The challenges and opportunities that come with this relatively new material are discussed. An inventory is made of recent engineers' solutions in FRP, followed by a discussion on architectural application of FRP's derived from the authors architectural practice.

  5. Artropathies that produce osseous bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, it is reviewed the most common artropathies that are presented with osseous bridging, with emphasis in the radiological finding of the spine. Also, it's showed other different radiological finding that can help in the differential diagnosis of this disease, such us the sacroilitis in the ankylosing spondylitis or the osteolysis in the psoriatic arthritis

  6. Bridge Aesthetics and Structural Honesty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In bridges the overall form must be chosen with due respect to the transmission of forces if efficient structures shall be created, The design must therefore be governed by experienced structural engineers - in some cases assisted by aesthetic advisers on specific issues. Some basic requirements ...

  7. Future Bearing Surfaces in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jun-Dong

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important issues in the modern total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the bearing surface. Extensive research on bearing surfaces is being conducted to seek an ideal bearing surface for THA. The ideal bearing surface for THA should have superior wear characteristics and should be durable, bio-inert, cost-effective, and easy to implant. However, bearing surfaces that are currently being implemented do not completely fulfill these requirements, especially for young individuals for whom...

  8. Damage investigation of girder bridges under the Wenchuan earthquake and corresponding seismic design recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianzhong; Peng Tianbo; Xu yan

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of girder bridges on National Highway 213 and the Doujiangyan-Wenchuan expressway after the Wenchuan earthquake showed that typical types of damage included:span collapses due to unseating at expansion joints;shear key failure;and damage of the expansion joint due to the slide-induced large relative displacement between the bottom of the girder and the top of the laminated-rubber bearing.This slide,however,can actually act as a form of isolation for the substructure,and as a result,the piers and foundation of most of the bridges on state route 213 suffered minor damage.The exception was the Baihua Bridge,which suffered severe damage.Corresponding seismic design recommendations are presented based on this investigation.

  9. IN-SITU MEASUREMENTS OF VIBRATIONS OF ELASTICALLY SUPPORTED STEEL REINFORCED CONCRETE BRIDGE DURING CAR BRAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Gridnev

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Dynamic effect of increasing transport flows is produced not only on bearing structures of bridges but also on supports, which leads to their uniform non-steady state deformation.Results and conclusions. An optical displacement controller is proposed to be used for remote record of vibrations of elastically supported steel reinforced concrete bridge and supporting part's deformation. Device structure, scheme of its calibration and of determination of maximum accuracy are described, as well as technique and results of dynamic tests of vibrations of elastically supported span of steel reinforced concrete bridge during single car braking with different accelerations in the beginning of braking in different cross-sections. The analysis of the results is performed.

  10. Construction and Design of Post-Tensioned Pearl-Chain Bridges using SL-Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov

    2016-01-01

    a filling layer of lower stiffness above the arches to level the road surface. The present Ph.D. thesis is part of a larger development project about Pearl‐Chain Bridges funded by Innovationsfonden. The project also included another Ph.D. study about the developed materials used in Pearl‐Chain Bridges......, and numerical modelling. Despite of high levels of normal force in PC‐Bridges, the result showed that a Mesnager inspired hinge type had a response similar to what was predicted in the literature. A specially designed saddle bearing also had elastic and plastic rotational resistance, but this hinge type......) A test to fracture to observe the ductility in the system, and fracture type. The collapse occurred after two plastic hinges were formed in the 3/8, and 5/8 points of the span. Several warnings signs were observed when approaching the maximum loading....

  11. Dynamic identification of paradela historic railway bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Luís F.; Valente, Isabel; Guimarães, Paulo; Vazquez, Kevin; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2013-01-01

    Paradela Bridge is a metallic bridge located along the bank of the Tua River in northern Portugal. While the bridge is not currently in service, its structure is representative of many metallic truss structures built across the country between the 19th and the 20th century. The construction of the Paradela Bridge was completed in 1886 and served for about 120 years connecting northern Portugal. Tua Line belongs to the Douro area that UNESCO recently declared as world heritage. This work acqui...

  12. Path transformations of first passage bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoin, Jean

    2003-01-01

    We define the first passage bridge from 0 to $\\lambda$ as the Brownian motion on the time interval $[0,1]$ conditioned to first hit $\\lambda$ at time 1. We show that this process may be related to the Brownian bridge, the Bessel bridge or the Brownian excursion via some path transformations, the main one being an extension of Vervaat's transformation. We also propose an extension of these results to certain bridges with cyclically exchangeable increments.

  13. Comparison of seismic capacity/demand ratios of two kinds of foundation schemes of Taizhou Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yi; Peng Tianbo; Han Lei

    2012-01-01

    Pile group foundation and caisson foundation are two common foundation schemes of long-span bridges, and the seismic performances of the two kinds of foundations are different. Taking Taizhou Bridge as an example, which is the first kilometer level three-pylon two-span suspension bridge in the world, two foundation schemes are designed for the middle pylon, and two whole bridge models with two different foundation schemes of the middle pylon are established respectively in this paper. The effects of foundation-soil interaction are simulated by equivalent linear soil springs whose stiffnesses are calculated according to m method. Seismic capacity/demand ratios of the two models are calculated. The following conclusions can be drawn: the weak positions of the two schemes are not the same; if caisson foundation is adopted for the middle pylon, the weak position is the bearing capacity of the middle pylon foundation, while if pile group foundation is adopted for the middle pylon, the weak position is the bearing capacity of the side pylon foundation.

  14. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. 47 CFR 80.331 - Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. 80..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.331 Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. (a) Vessels... position). I plan to (give proposed course of action). Over. (3) (Coast station), this is (vessel's...

  16. Bridge spectra of iterated torus knots

    OpenAIRE

    Zupan, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We determine the set of all genus g bridge numbers of many iterated torus knots, listing these numbers in a sequence called the bridge spectrum. In addition, we prove a structural lemma about the decomposition of a strongly irreducible bridge surface induced by cutting along a collection of essential surfaces.

  17. Two bridges with composite prestressed tension chord

    OpenAIRE

    Muttoni, Aurelio

    2002-01-01

    the bridges over the river Capriasca (1996) and over the river Ticino (1997) are characterised by the application of an innovative structural system. The central part of the main span of both bridges is constituted by the bridge concrete deck with two longitudinal stiffening girders, constituted by polygonal steel members that contain two prestressing tendons each.

  18. Stabilizer for seismically exposed bridge cranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns a stabilizer for seismically exposed bridge cranes in reactor buildings. The trolley and the crane bridge are fitted with the stabilizer consisting of a bipartite safety catch which is connected with a joint and able to take up the vertical loads during an earthquake. This stabilizer is suitable for all kinds of bridge cranes operated in seismically active regions

  19. Remediation: Higher Education's Bridge to Nowhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete College America, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The intentions were noble. It was hoped that remediation programs would be an academic bridge from poor high school preparation to college readiness. Sadly, remediation has become instead higher education's "Bridge to Nowhere." This broken remedial bridge is travelled by some 1.7 million beginning students each year, most of whom will…

  20. Comprehensive Real-Time Bridge Health Monitoring System of Tongtai Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Su-su; Gao Yong-tao; Pan Dan-guang

    2015-01-01

    Tongtai Bridge is the world’s largest suspension curve-girder-skew-arch bridge, which is located in Zhangjiakou, China. The understanding of mechanics characteristics is limited to such complex bridges, so it is necessary to establish reliable health monitoring system to investigate the static and dynamic responses and monitor the safety of the bridge. A comprehensive real-time bridge health monitoring system is establish, which includes four aspects: sensor system, data acquisition and trans...

  1. Trends in Controllable Oil Film Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar

    2011-01-01

    This work gives an overview about the theoretical and experimental achievements of mechatronics applied to oil film bearings, with the aim of: controlling the lateral vibration of flexible rotating shafts; modifying bearing dynamic characteristics, as stiffness and damping properties; increasing .......e., as tilting-pad bearings, multirecess journal bearings and plain bearings.......This work gives an overview about the theoretical and experimental achievements of mechatronics applied to oil film bearings, with the aim of: controlling the lateral vibration of flexible rotating shafts; modifying bearing dynamic characteristics, as stiffness and damping properties; increasing...... the rotational speed ranges by improving damping and eliminating instability problems, for example, by compensating cross-coupling destabilizing effects; reducing startup torque and energy dissipation in bearings; compensating thermal effects. It is shown that such controllable bearings can act as...

  2. Theory of water and charged liquid bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, K

    2012-08-01

    The phenomenon of liquid bridge formation due to an applied electric field is investigated. A solution of a charged catenary is presented, which allows one to determine the static and dynamical stability conditions where charged liquid bridges are possible. The creeping height, the bridge radius and length, as well as the shape of the bridge are calculated showing an asymmetric profile, in agreement with observations. The flow profile is calculated from the Navier-Stokes equation leading to a mean velocity, which combines charge transport with neutral mass flow and which describes recent experiments on water bridges. PMID:23005849

  3. New Concept for Durable Concrete Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Damek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This master’s thesis covers the design of a post-tensioned concrete bridge in Trondheim municipality in Norway, in collaboration with Statens vegvesen (SVV). The concept of the bridge is inspired by Egg-Graben-Brücke in Austria, which was designed and built without steel reinforcement in the bridge deck. The idea is to eliminate steel reinforcement which can corrode in the bridge deck. The total length of the bridge is 73 meters and it is divided into 3 spans. The crosssection ...

  4. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duanduan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.

  5. Noise Considerations in Resistance Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Joseph M.

    1963-01-01

    thermometry, where the noise in the unknown resistor will predominate strongly. An impedance step-up device (transformer or tuned circuit) is valuable in raising the bridge signal and noise level above the noise of the first amplifier tube. However, as the step-up ratio is increased, two counterfactors appear......, namely, noise in the loss resistance of the step-up device, and grid current noise. There is therefore an optimum step-up ratio, which has been found. The step-up device is permitted to have a different temperature from the unknown and standard resistors, to evaluate the advantage of cooling it....... With certain assumptions about the noise and grid current of the first tube it is found that the equivalent temperature of a unity ratio (Mueller) bridge used for liquid helium measurements may be 400°K....

  6. Full-bridge capacitive extensometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Randall D.

    1993-08-01

    Capacitive transducers have proven to be very effective sensors of small displacements, because of inherent stability and noninvasive high resolution. The most versatile ones have been those of a differential type, in which two elements are altered in opposite directions in response to change of the system parameter being monitored. Oftentimes, this differential pair has been incorporated into a bridge circuit, which is a useful means for employing synchronous detection to improve signal to noise ratios. Unlike previous differential capacitive dilatometers which used only two active capacitors, the present sensor is a full-bridge type, which is well suited to measuring low-level thermal expansions. This analog sensor is capable of 0.1 μm resolution anywhere within a range of several centimeters, with a linearity of 0.1%. Its user friendly output can be put on a strip chart recorder or directed to a computer for sophisticated data analysis.

  7. The radiography of Swaythling Bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The particular application of high energy radiography described in this paper was developed by the Harwell Nondestructive Testing Centre (NDTC) under the sponsorship of Radiation Dynamics Ltd, (RDL) who manufacture the 'Super-X' linear accelerator (Linac) used for the work. An initial evaluation determined the limits for thickness of concrete structures which could be radiographed with the linac under practical conditions. The technique was then applied to carry out a test on a bridge carrying a main trunk road over a small river in an urban environment. A situation which demanded the utmost care in deciding safety parameters and minimal disturbance to the surrounding environment. The safety parameters were defined by the Environmental and Medical Sciences Division of AERE Harwell (EMSc). The test was successfully carried out, within all the control parameters laid down beforehand, and very important engineering data were obtained for the Bridge Engineering Departments of Hampshire County Council and Southampton City Council. (author)

  8. Bridging history and social psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Yamamoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psycholog......This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social...... psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other...

  9. EFFECT OF CLEARANCE THE BALL BEARINGS ON INCORRECT WORK OF THREE-SUPORT BEARING SHAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław KACZOR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Durability deep groove ball bearings depends on factors (called attributes design, technological and operational. Among the design features one of the most important is play in the bearings. Polish Norm shows five groups of looseness in the bearings, in which the play range from 0 to 105 microns. Manufacturers of rolling bearings they only play group, which has a bearing data, without giving the exact value of the slack. Aim of this study is to determine how it affects the play in the bearings to work three-bearing shafts, including elasticity and resilience three-bearing shafts.

  10. 2015 Bridge Inspection ERC Training

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, Merril

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will discuss recent changes to the County Bridge Inspection Program from the perspective of both the FHWA and INDOT. We will also discuss the responsibilities of the local public agency’s (LPA’s) employee in responsible charge (ERC) with respect to managing this program. As this course is a yearly requirement, all county ERCs are encouraged to attend. Pre-registering is strongly encouraged by e-mailing your contact information to .

  11. Severe ASR damaged concrete bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonio Barbosa, Ricardo; Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and University of Southern Denmark (SDU) have conducted several full-scale experiments with severe ASR deteriorated bridges. This paper presents few and preliminary results from both the shear tests and the measuring of the material properties. The shear tests...... show that the shear capacity is almost unaffected of ASR despite significant reduction in compressive concrete strength. Furthermore, measurements show a significant tensile reinforcement strain developed due to ASR expansion....

  12. Stability of Axisymmetric Liquid Bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Boris

    2016-01-01

    We study stability of axisymmetric liquid bridges between two axisymmetric solid bodies in the absence of gravity under arbitrary asymmetric perturbations which are expanded into a set of angular Fourier modes. We determine the stability region boundary for every angular mode in case of both fixed and free contact lines. Application of this approach allows us to demonstrate existence of stable convex nodoid menisci between two spheres.

  13. The Bridge Program - Participant Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnqvist, Riitta; Hakonen, Anu; Vartiainen, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The Nokia Bridge Program was established in summer 2011 in order to "make the best of the restructuring: create meaningful opportunities for individuals and local economies impacted by workforce reductions" and to "assist individuals in re-employment". This document reports whether and how the program helped individuals avoid the known negative effects of job loss and find meaningful re-employment. The document also reports how affected employees formed perceptions about Nokia´s fairness and ...

  14. Inspection Strategies for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper an optimal inspection strategy for concrete bridges based on periodic routine and detailed inspections is presented. The failure mode considered is corrosion of the reinforcement due to chlorides. A simple modelling of the corrosion and of the inspection strategy is presented. The...... optimal inspection strategy is determined from an optimization problem, where the design variables are time intervals between detailed inspections and the concrete cover. The strategy is illustrated on a simple structure, namely a reinforced concrete beam....

  15. Adsorption of polymeric brushes: Bridging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, Albert; Joanny, Jean-François

    1992-04-01

    We study the adsorption of grafted polymer layers on a planar surface parallel to the grafting surface. The layer consists of two types of chains: nonadsorbed chains with a free end and adsorbed chains forming bridges between the two plates. In the limit of strong adsorption a dead zone exists in the vicinity of the adsorbing plate; its size increases with the adsorption strength. Two adsorption mechanisms are possible: adsorption of the last monomer only and adsorption of all the monomers. In both cases the adsorption regimes at equilibrium (when no external force acts on the plates) are discussed within the framework of the self-consistent mean-field theory. We also give scaling laws taking into account excluded volume correlations. Finally, we consider situations where a finite external force, either tangential or normal to the plates, is applied on the adsorbing plate. Pulling and tangential forces both reduce the fraction of bridges and eventually lead to rupture, whereas compressional forces favor bridging. For normal forces, force vs distance profiles between planes and crossed cylinders are given.

  16. Halliburton Composite Bridge Plug Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starbuck, J.M.; Luttrell, C.R.; Aramayo, G.

    2005-01-15

    The overall objectives of this CRADA were to assist Halliburton in analyzing a composite bridge plug and to determine why their original design was failing in the field. In Phase 1, finite element analyses were done on the original composite slip design and several alternative designs. The composite slip was the component in the bridge plug that was failing. The finite element code ABAQUS was used for these calculations and I-DEAS was used as the pre- and post-processor in the analyses. Several different designs and materials were analyzed and recommendations were made towards improving the design. In Phase 2, the objective was to develop finite element models that would accurately represent the deformations in the entire all-composite 4-1/2' diameter bridge plug assembly. The finite element code LS-DYNA was used and the results from this effort were intended to expand Halliburton's composite design and analysis capabilities with regard to developing future composite components for downhole tools. In addition to the finite element modeling, this effort involved the utilization of micromechanics to determine the necessary composite material properties that were needed as input for finite element codes.

  17. Journal and Wave Bearing Impedance Calculation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanford, Amanda; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The wave bearing software suite is a MALTA application that computes bearing properties for user-specified wave bearing conditions, as well as plain journal bearings. Wave bearings are fluid film journal bearings with multi-lobed wave patterns around the circumference of the bearing surface. In this software suite, the dynamic coefficients are outputted in a way for easy implementation in a finite element model used in rotor dynamics analysis. The software has a graphical user interface (GUI) for inputting bearing geometry parameters, and uses MATLAB s structure interface for ease of interpreting data. This innovation was developed to provide the stiffness and damping components of wave bearing impedances. The computational method for computing bearing coefficients was originally designed for plain journal bearings and tilting pad bearings. Modifications to include a wave bearing profile consisted of changing the film thickness profile given by an equation, and writing an algorithm to locate the integration limits for each fluid region. Careful consideration was needed to implement the correct integration limits while computing the dynamic coefficients, depending on the form of the input/output variables specified in the algorithm.

  18. A designed 5-fluorouracil-based bridged silsesquioxane as an autonomous acid-triggered drug-delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giret, Simon; Théron, Christophe; Gallud, Audrey; Maynadier, Marie; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Garcia, Marcel; Wong Chi Man, Michel; Carcel, Carole

    2013-09-16

    Two new prodrugs, bearing two and three 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) units, respectively, have been synthesized and were shown to efficiently treat human breast cancer cells. In addition to 5-FU, they were intended to form complexes through H-bonds to an organo-bridged silane prior to hydrolysis-condensation through sol-gel processes to construct acid-responsive bridged silsesquioxanes (BS). Whereas 5-FU itself and the prodrug bearing two 5-FU units completely leached out from the corresponding materials, the prodrug bearing three 5-FU units was successfully maintained in the resulting BS. Solid-state NMR ((29) Si and (13) C) spectroscopy show that the organic fragments of the organo-bridged silane are retained in the hybrid through covalent bonding and the (1) H NMR spectroscopic analysis provides evidence for the hydrogen-bonding interactions between the prodrug bearing three 5-FU units and the triazine-based hybrid matrix. The complex in the BS is not affected under neutral medium and operates under acidic conditions even under pH as high as 5 to deliver the drug as demonstrated by HPLC analysis and confirmed by FTIR and (13) C NMR spectroscopic studies. Such functional BS are promising materials as carriers to avoid the side effects of the anticancer drug 5-FU thanks to a controlled and targeted drug delivery. PMID:23929826

  19. Mobile bearing and fixed bearing total knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolfin, Marco; Saccia, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The mobile bearing (MB) concept in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was developed as an alternative to fixed bearing (FB) implants in order to reduce wear and improve range of motion (ROM), especially focused on younger patients. Unfortunately, its theoretical advantages are still controversial. In this paper we exhibit a review of the more recent literature available comparing FB and MB designs in biomechanical and clinical aspects, including observational studies, clinical trials, national and international registries analyses, randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses and Cochrane reviews. Except for some minor aspects, none of the studies published so far has reported a significant improvement related to MBs regarding patient satisfaction, clinical, functional and radiological outcome or medium and long-term survivorship. Thus the presumed superiority of MBs over FBs appears largely inconsistent. The routine use of MB is not currently supported by adequate evidences; implant choice should be therefore made on the basis of other factors, including cost and surgeon experience. PMID:27162777

  20. Vibration tests on dismounted bridge beams and effects of deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at describing the tests campaign carried out on five precast bonded post-tensioned concrete bridge beams, recently dismounted after a service life of 50 years. The girders were part of the deck of a recently dismounted viaduct of an Italian motorway. The beams showed different deterioration levels, mainly due to the different exposure to corrosive agents. The test campaign were designed for evaluating the residual load bearing capacity of the members. Dynamic measurements were acquired before and after the static tests by using different excitation sources. This experimental research highlights that the natural frequencies of the beams can be used as a predictor of the ultimate bending moment of an existing structure.

  1. Effects of bearing deadbands on bearing loads and rotor stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    A generic model of a turbopump, simplified to bring out these effects is examined. This model demonstrates that bearing deadbands which are of the same order of magnitude or larger than the center-of-mass offset of a rotor due to mass imbalances cause significantly different dynamic behavior than would be expected of a linear, dynamical system. This fundamentally nonlinear behavior yields altered stability characteristics and altered bearing loading tendencies. It is shown that side forces can enhance system stability in the small, i.e., as long as the mass imbalance does not exceed some thresholds value or as long as no large, impulsive disturbances cause the motion to depart significantly from the region of stability. Limit cycles are investigated in this report and techniques for determining these limit cycles are developed. These limit cycles are the major source of bearing loading and appear in both synchronous and nonsynchronous forms. The synchronous limit cycles are driven by rotor imbalances. The nonsynchronous limit cycles (also called subsynchronous whirls) are self-excited and are the sources of instability.

  2. Seismic vulnerability assessment of a steel-girder highway bridge equipped with different SMA wire-based smart elastomeric isolators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati Dezfuli, Farshad; Shahria Alam, M.

    2016-07-01

    Shape memory alloy wire-based rubber bearings (SMA-RBs) possess enhanced energy dissipation capacity and self-centering property compared to conventional RBs. The performance of different types of SMA-RBs with different wire configurations has been studied in detail. However, their reliability in isolating structures has not been thoroughly investigated. The objective of this study is to analytically explore the effect of SMA-RBs on the seismic fragility of a highway bridge. Steel-reinforced elastomeric isolators are equipped with SMA wires and used to isolate the bridge. Results revealed that SMA wires with a superelastic behavior and re-centering capability can increase the reliability of the bearing and the bridge structure. It was observed that at the collapse level of damage, the bridge isolated by SMA-HDRB has the lowest fragility. Findings also showed that equipping NRB with SMA wires decreases the possibility of damage in the bridge while, replacing HDRB with SMA-HDRB; or LRB with SMA-LRB increases the failure probability of the system at slight, moderate, and extensive limit states.

  3. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  4. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  5. Goose Eggs Could Save Polar Bears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑敏

    2009-01-01

    Polar bears could avoid extinction despitemany starving to death in coming years, ac-cording to scientists and other observers whohave discovered that some of the bears havefound a new food source--goose and duckeggs.

  6. Shaft Center Orbit in Dynamically Loaded Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coefficients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 and described further in 1972. Several authors have refined this method over...... the years. In 1966 Jorgen W. Lund published an approach to find the dynamic coefficients of a journal bearing by a first order perturbation of the Reynold's equation. These coefficients made it possible to perform a rotor-bearing stability analysis for a statically loaded bearing. In the mid seventies...... Jorgen W. Lund pointed out in lecture notes that the dynamic damping coefficients of the bearing could be used to find the shaft orbit for dynamically loaded bearings. For simplicity the "Short-Width-Journal-Bearing Theory" is used as a basis for finding the damping coefficients in this work, but the...

  7. Stable isotopes to detect food-conditioned bears and to evaluate human-bear management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John B., III; Koch, Paul L.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Ferguson, Jake M.; Greenleaf, Schuyler S.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2012-01-01

    We used genetic and stable isotope analysis of hair from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA to: 1) identify bears that consume human food, 2) estimate the diets of these bears, and 3) evaluate the Yosemite human–bear management program. Specifically, we analyzed the isotopic composition of hair from bears known a priori to be food-conditioned or non-food-conditioned and used these data to predict whether bears with an unknown management status were food-conditioned (FC) or non-food-conditioned (NFC). We used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate the proportional contribution of natural foods (plants and animals) versus human food in the diets of FC bears. We then used results from both analyses to evaluate proactive (population-level) and reactive (individual-level) human–bear management, and discussed new metrics to evaluate the overall human–bear management program in Yosemite. Our results indicated that 19 out of 145 (13%) unknown bears sampled from 2005 to 2007 were food-conditioned. The proportion of human food in the diets of known FC bears likely declined from 2001–2003 to 2005–2007, suggesting proactive management was successful in reducing the amount of human food available to bears. In contrast, reactive management was not successful in changing the management status of known FC bears to NFC bears, or in reducing the contribution of human food to the diets of FC bears. Nine known FC bears were recaptured on 14 occasions from 2001 to 2007; all bears were classified as FC during subsequent recaptures, and human–bear management did not reduce the amount of human food in the diets of FC bears. Based on our results, we suggest Yosemite continue implementing proactive human–bear management, reevaluate reactive management, and consider removing problem bears (those involved in repeated bear incidents) from the population.

  8. Oil film pressure in hydrodynamic journal bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Antti

    2009-01-01

    Hydrodynamic journal bearings are critical power transmission components that are carrying increasingly high loads because of the increasing power density in various machines. Therefore, knowing the true operating conditions of hydrodynamic journal bearings is essential to machine design. Oil film pressure is one of the key operating parameters describing the operating conditions in hydrodynamic journal bearings. Measuring the oil film pressure in bearings has been a demanding task and theref...

  9. Mercury in polar bears from Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentfer, J.W.; Galster, W.A.

    1987-04-01

    Alaskan polar bear (Ursus maritimus) muscle and liver samples collected in 1972 were analyzed for total mercury. Bears north of Alaska had more mercury than bears west of Alaska. The only difference between young and adult animals was in the northern area where adults had more mercury in liver tissue than young animals. Levels were probably not high enough to be a serious threat to bears.

  10. Technology development for indigenous water lubricated bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water Lubricated Bearings (WLB) are used in various mechanisms of fuel handling systems of PHWRs and AHWR. Availability and random failures of these bearings was a major factor in refuelling operations. Indigenous development of these bearings was taken up and 7 types of antifriction bearings in various sizes (totaling 37 variants) for PHWR, AHWR and Dhruva applications were successfully developed. This paper deals with various aspects of WLB development. (author)

  11. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  12. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to...

  13. Passive Thermal Management of Foil Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for passive thermal management of foil bearing systems are disclosed herein. The flow of the hydrodynamic film across the surface of bearing compliant foils may be disrupted to provide passive cooling and to improve the performance and reliability of the foil bearing system.

  14. Hazards within the Bear Lake basin, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, Patsy; Luecke, Chris; Robinson, Justin

    2007-01-01

    The Bear Lake basin developed from fault subsidence that continues today, slowly deepening the lake along the eastern side. The Bear Lake graben is about 5 miles long and 4.3-8.6 miles wide. It extends across the Utah-Idaho border and involves faults on both eastern and western sides of Bear Lake....

  15. Virginia Tech Bear Researchers Ensure Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    The Cooperative Alleghany Bear Study (CABS) was initiated in 1994 as a 10-year study to ensure survival of Virginia's hunted black bear population of western Virginia. During the first six years of the study, researchers have placed radio collars on 376 of the 746 bears captured.

  16. The vented pressure fed gas journal bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrodynamic-type gas journal bearings with stabilising venting slots are often operated hydrostatically during starting-up as a means of 'jacking'. A simplified mathematical treatment of the circumferential gas flows in a vented, pressure-fed journal bearing is used to predict the relationship between load capacity, bearing geometry and gas properties. (author)

  17. Cool Polar Bears: Dabbing on the Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jean

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her second-graders created their cool polar bears. The students used the elements of shape and texture to create the bears. They used Monet's technique of dabbing paint so as to give the bear some texture on his fur.

  18. Fractal analysis of polar bear hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qing-Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairs of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus are of superior properties such as the excellent thermal protection. Why do polar bears can resist such cold environment? The paper concludes that its fractal porosity plays an important role, and its fractal dimensions are very close to the golden mean, 1.618, revealing the possible optimal structure of polar bear hair.

  19. Gallium-67-Labeled Lactam Bridge-Cyclized Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Peptide for Primary and Metastatic Melanoma Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Haixun; Yang,Jianquan; Shenoy, Nalini; Miao, Yubin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the melanoma imaging properties of a novel 67Ga-labeled lactam bridge-cyclized alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide. A lactam bridge-cyclized α-MSH peptide, DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH {DOTA-Gly-Glu-c[Lys-Nle-Glu-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Arg-Pro-Val-Asp]}, was synthesized and radiolabeled with 67Ga. The melanoma targeting and pharmacokinetic properties of 67Ga-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH were determined in B16/F1 flank primary melanoma-bearing and B16/F10 pu...

  20. Microstructural degradation of bearing steels

    OpenAIRE

    Solano Alvarez, Wilberth

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to clarify one of the most fundamental aspects of fatigue damage in bearings steels through critical experiments, in particular whether damage in the form of cracks precedes hard ?white-etching matter" formation, which is carbon supersaturated nanoscaled ferrite. Heat treatments have been designed to create four different crack types and distributions: scarce martensite plate cracks, fine grain boundary cracks, abundant martensite plate cracks, ...

  1. Elid superfinishing of spherical bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Raffles, Mark H.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by a requirement to extend the lifespan of self-aligning lined spherical bearings, this research investigates the use of Elid (electrolytic in-process dressing) as a method of improving ball surface finish. Elid is a continuous and self-regulating electrochemical dressing process that modifies the surface of a grinding, lapping, or superfinishing wheel. It provides improved grit protrusion, impedes wheel loading / glazing and promotes effective cutting. The characteri...

  2. Risk-bearing and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    In the 'Knightian' theory of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurs provide insurance to workers by paying fixed wages and bear all the risk of production. This paper endogenizes entrepreneurial risk by allowing for optimal insurance contracts as well as the occupational self-selection. Moral hazard prevents full insurance; increases in an agent’s wealth then entail increases in risk borne. Thus, even under decreasing risk aversion, there are robust instances in which workers are wealthier than entr...

  3. EFFECT OF PRELOAD OF ANGULAR CONTACT BALL BEARINGS ON LIFE OF BEARINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej RACZYŃSKI; Jarosław KACZOR

    2014-01-01

    Angular contact ball bearings are commonly used in such situations when you need to reach high bearing stiffness. However, a significant stiffness increase can be achieved only through the introduction of preload to the angular contact bearings. The purpose of this paper is to present a method for assessing the effect of preload of the angular contact bearings for their durability.

  4. EFFECT OF PRELOAD OF ANGULAR CONTACT BALL BEARINGS ON LIFE OF BEARINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej RACZYŃSKI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Angular contact ball bearings are commonly used in such situations when you need to reach high bearing stiffness. However, a significant stiffness increase can be achieved only through the introduction of preload to the angular contact bearings. The purpose of this paper is to present a method for assessing the effect of preload of the angular contact bearings for their durability.

  5. Divinylphenylene-bridged diruthenium complexes bearing Ru(CO)Cl((PiPr3Pr)2 entities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maurer, J.; Sarkar, B.; Schwederski, B.; Kaim, W.; Winter, R. F.; Záliš, Stanislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 15 (2006), s. 3701-3712. ISSN 0276-7333 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400400413; GA MŠk OC 139 Grant ostatní: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) Wi 1262/7-1; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) 436 TSE 113/45/0-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : order regular approximation * mixed-valence complexe * Ray-crystal structure Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.632, year: 2006

  6. Calcium bridges are not load-bearing cell-wall bonds in Avena coleoptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayle, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    I examined the ability of frozen-thawed Avena sativa L. coleoptile sections under applied load to extend in response to the calcium chelators ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 2-[(2-bis-[carboxymethyl]amino-5-methylphenoxy)methyl]-6-methoxy-8-bis[car boxymethyl]aminoquinoline (Quin II). Addition of 5 mM EGTA to weakly buffered (0.1 mM, pH 6.2) solutions of 2(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (Mes) initiated rapid extension and wall acidification. When the buffer strength was increased (e.g. from 20 to 100 mM Mes, pH 6.2) EGTA did not initiate extension nor did it cause wall acidification. At 5 mM Quin II failed to stimulate cell extension or wall acidification at all buffer molarities tested (0.1 to 100 mM Mes). Both chelators rapidly and effectively removed Ca2+ from Avena sections. These data indicate that Ca2+ chelation per se does not result in loosening of Avena cells walls. Rather, EGTA promotes wall extension indirectly via wall acidification.

  7. Cannibalism and predation on black bears by grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem, 1975-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Knight, R.R.; Blanchard, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    We documented one instance of an adult male grizzly bear preying upon a black bear and four instances where circumstantial evidence suggested that grizzly bears (two cubs-of-the-year, one yearling female that was injured, and one adult male) had been preyed upon by conspecifics. We also examined feces of grizzly bears for bear remains. Remains of bears tended to be more common in spring feces and did not differ in frequency between early and late years of the study. Our observations generally support existing hypotheses concerning cannibalism among bears.

  8. Ball Bearing Stacking Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafeequerrahman S . Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This document is an effort to introduce the concept of automation in small scale industries and or small workshops that are involved in the manufacturing of small objects such as nuts, bolts and ball bearing in this case. This an electromechanical system which includes certain mechanical parts that involves one base stand on which one vertical metallic frame is mounted and hinged to this vertical stand is an in humanized effort seems inadequate in this era making necessary the use of Electronics, Computer in the manufacturing processes leading to the concept of Automated Manufacturing System (AMS.The ball bearing stack automation is an effort in this regard. In our project we go for stack automation for any object for example a ball bearing, be that is still a manual system there. It will be microcontroller based project control system equipped with microcontroller 89C51 from any manufacturer like Atmel or Philips. This could have been easily implemented if a PLC could be used for manufacturing the staking unit but I adopted the microcontroller based system so that some more modification in the system can be effected at will as to use the same hardware .Although a very small object i.e. ball bearig or small nut and fixture will be tried to be stacked, the system with more precision and more power handling capacity could be built for various requirements of the industry. For increasing more control capacity, we can use another module of this series. When the bearing is ready, it will be sent for packing. This is sensed by an inductive sensor. The output will be proceeds by PLC and microcontroller card which will be driving the assembly in order to put it into pads or flaps. This project will also count the total number of bearings to be packed and will display it on a LCD for real time reference and a provision is made using a higher level language using hyper terminal of the computer

  9. A bridge to advanced mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sentilles, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This helpful workbook-style ""bridge"" book introduces students to the foundations of advanced mathematics, spanning the gap between a practically oriented calculus sequence and subsequent courses in algebra and analysis with a more theoretical slant. Part 1 focuses on logic and number systems, providing the most basic tools, examples, and motivation for the manner, method, and concerns of higher mathematics. Part 2 covers sets, relations, functions, infinite sets, and mathematical proofs and reasoning. Author Dennis Sentilles also discusses the history and development of mathematics as well a

  10. Fatigue problems of steel bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urushadze, Shota; Frýba, Ladislav; Škaloud, Miroslav; Pirner, Miroš; Zörnerová, Marie

    Stirlingshire : Civil-Comp Press, 2012 - (Pombo, J.), s. 142-151 ISBN 978-1-905088-53-9. ISSN 1759-3433. [International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintenance /1./. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ES), 18.04.2012-20.04.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08098 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) RFSR-CT-2008-00033 (BRIFAG); GA ČR(CZ) GA103/08/1340 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : steel bridges * fatigue * S-N curve * orthotropic deck * web breathing Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  11. Nanoclusters a bridge across disciplines

    CERN Document Server

    Jena, Purusottam

    2010-01-01

    This comprehensive book on Nanoclusters comprises sixteen authoritative chapters written by leading researchers in the field. It provides insight into topics that are currently at the cutting edge of cluster science, with the main focus on metal and metal compound systems that are of particular interest in materials science, and also on aspects related to biology and medicine. While there are numerous books on clusters, the focus on clusters as a bridge across disciplines sets this book apart from others. Delivers cutting edge coverage of cluster science Covers a broad range of topics in

  12. Seismic Evaluation of Highway Bridges - Phase 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, J.A.; Pan, Austin D.; Mwakasisi, Frank Thompson

    1996-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to establish the guidelines for screening, assessing, and ranking Indiana bridges for seismic upgrade. The outcome of the study is a complete strategy for the detailed structural assessment of Indiana highway bridges subjected to seismic forces. The structural evaluation is conducted using a nonlinear time-history analysis of the bridge for simulated or actual records. The specific soil conditions at the site are accounted in terms of the ground motio...

  13. REPORT: BioMedBridges standards workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Conte, Nathalie; Hancocks, Tom; Suhr, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This workshop, co-organized by BioMedBridges WP3 and 12, was held on 24-25 June and hosted by BioMedBridges partners at VUMC in Amsterdam. Attendees included BioMedBridges personnel, members from the ESFRI BMS research infrastructures and invited external experts from existing standards organisations. The following aspects of data standardisation were explored: Defining entity identifiers and identifiers best practice Development of a Meta models and Mappings Registry for bio...

  14. Bridges and wildlife: issues and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Marion

    2003-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) owns over 3,000 steel and concrete bridges, many of which are occupied by wildlife. Species documented occupying bridges range from birds of prey, such as ospreys, peregrines and owls, to mammals such as raccoons, bats and bushy tailed wood rats. While the bridges are playing an important role in providing habitat for wildlife, their presence can also lead to costly project delays. Project Objective The project objective is to develop ...

  15. Markovian Bridges: Weak continuity and pathwise constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Chaumont, Loïc; Uribe Bravo, Gerónimo

    2009-01-01

    A Markovian bridge is a probability measure taken from a disintegration of the law of an initial part of the path of a Markov process given its terminal value. As such, Markovian bridges admit a natural parameterization in terms of the state space of the process. In the context of Feller processes with continuous transition densities, we construct by weak convergence considerations the only versions of Markovian bridges which are weakly continuous with respect to their parameter. We use this ...

  16. Bridge Engineering-Oriented Parametric Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凌远; 李乔

    2004-01-01

    A new model is proposed to improve the efficiency of structural modeling. In this model, the bridge structural components are expressed with component description, parametric description and geometric description in a software system. This model provides both convenience and flexibility for users in structural modeling process. The object-oriented method is applied in the model implementation. A bridge analysis preprocessor is developed on the basis of this model. It provides an effective way for bridge modeling.

  17. Maximal liquid bridges between horizontal cylinders

    OpenAIRE

    Cooray, Himantha; Huppert, Herbert E.; Neufeld, Jerome A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate two-dimensional liquid bridges trapped between pairs of identical horizontal cylinders. The cylinders support forces due to surface tension and hydrostatic pressure which balance the weight of the liquid. The shape of the liquid bridge is determined by analytically solving the nonlinear Laplace-Young equation. Parameters that maximize the trapping capacity (defined as the cross-sectional area of the liquid bridge) are then determined. The results show that these parameters can ...

  18. Bridge engineering handbook construction and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Fah

    2014-01-01

    Over 140 experts, 14 countries, and 89 chapters are represented in the second edition of the Bridge Engineering Handbook. This extensive collection highlights bridge engineering specimens from around the world, contains detailed information on bridge engineering, and thoroughly explains the concepts and practical applications surrounding the subject.Published in five books: Fundamentals, Superstructure Design, Substructure Design, Seismic Design, and Construction and Maintenance, this new edition provides numerous worked-out examples that give readers step-by-step design procedures, includes c

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of a Norwegian Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Dequidt, Thomas Charles Edouard

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology aims at evaluating the environmental impacts of a product or system from a holistic approach. In this methodology, all life cycle phases of the product are identified and assessed, from the raw material acquisition to the end-of-life phase. This master thesis is dealing with the LCA of a Norwegian bridge. First, a literature review is realized by going through 14 bridge LCA references. Then, a detailed description of bridge LCA methodology ...

  20. Measurement of Deflection Line on Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Rudolf; Štroner, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Prestressed concrete bridges are very sensitive to the increase in long-term deflections. Reliable forecasts of deflections of bridge structures during construction and durability are crucial for achieving good durability. The main results of measurements are the changes of the deflection line of the bridge structures, which places special demands on the measurement procedure. Results from measurements are very useful for the improvement of mathematical prediction methods of behaviour of long span prestressed concrete structures.

  1. Axisymmetric long liquid bridges stability and resonances

    OpenAIRE

    Meseguer Ruiz, José; Sanz Andres, Angel Pedro; Perales Perales, José Manuel

    1990-01-01

    In this paper mathematical expressions for minimum-volume stability limits and resonance frequencies of axisymmetric long liquid bridges are presented. These expressions are valid for a wide range of liquid bridge configurations, accounting for ef-fects like unequal disks and axial microgravity in the case of minimum-volume stability limits,and unequal disks, axial microgravity,non-zero viscosity and liquid bridge volume different from the cylindrical one in the case of resonance frequenc...

  2. Ball Bearing Analysis with the ORBIS Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Ball bearing design is critical to the success of aerospace mechanisms. Key bearing performance parameters, such as load capability, stiffness, torque, and life all depend on accurate determination of the internal load distribution. Hence, a good analytical bearing tool that provides both comprehensive capabilities and reliable results becomes a significant asset to the engineer. This paper introduces the ORBIS bearing tool. A discussion of key modeling assumptions and a technical overview is provided. Numerous validation studies and case studies using the ORBIS tool are presented. All results suggest the ORBIS code closely correlates to predictions on bearing internal load distributions, stiffness, deflection and stresses.

  3. Valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Evan R.; Tanner, David E.

    1980-01-01

    A valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings is disclosed wherein a valve disc is supported within a flow duct for rotation about a pair of axially aligned bearings, one of which is carried by a spindle received within a diametral bore in the valve disc, and the other of which is carried by a bearing support block releasably mounted on the duct circumferentially of an annular collar on the valve disc coaxial with its diametrical bore. The spindle and bearing support block are adapted for remote removal to facilitate servicing or replacement of the valve disc support bearings.

  4. Heuristic explanation of journal bearing instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    A fluid-filled journal bearing is viewed as a powerful pump circulating fluid around the annular space between the journal and the bearing. A small whirling motion of the journal generates a wave of thickness variation progressing around the channel. The hypothesis that the fluid flow drives the whirl whenever the mean of the pumped fluid velocity is greater than the peripheral speed of the thickness variation wave is discussed and compared with other simple explanations of journal bearing instability. It is shown that for non-cavitation long bearings the hypothesis predicts instability onset correctly for unloaded bearings but gradually overpredicts the onset speed as the load is increased.

  5. Myocardial bridges: morphological and functional aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    A.G. Ferreira; Trotter, S E; König, B; Décourt, L V; Fox, K; Olsen, E G

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the arrangement of myocardial bridges. DESIGN--A necropsy study of 90 consecutive hearts (56 male, 34 female). RESULTS--Myocardial bridges, either single or multiple, were seen in 50 (55.6%) of the 90 hearts. The left anterior descending artery was the most commonly affected artery. Thirty five of the 50 hearts which contained in total 41 muscle bridges were dissected further with a magnifying glass. Two different types of muscle bridges could be identified. Thirty one of...

  6. Review of Energy Harvesters Utilizing Bridge Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ullah Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For health monitoring of bridges, wireless acceleration sensor nodes (WASNs are normally used. In bridge environment, several forms of energy are available for operating WASNs that include wind, solar, acoustic, and vibration energy. However, only bridge vibration has the tendency to be utilized for embedded WASNs application in bridge structures. This paper reports on the recent advancements in the area of vibration energy harvesters (VEHs utilizing bridge oscillations. The bridge vibration is narrowband (1 to 40 Hz with low acceleration levels (0.01 to 3.8 g. For utilization of bridge vibration, electromagnetic based vibration energy harvesters (EM-VEHs and piezoelectric based vibration energy harvesters (PE-VEHs have been developed. The power generation of the reported EM-VEHs is in the range from 0.7 to 1450000 μW. However, the power production by the developed PE-VEHs ranges from 0.6 to 7700 μW. The overall size of most of the bridge VEHs is quite comparable and is in mesoscale. The resonant frequencies of EM-VEHs are on the lower side (0.13 to 27 Hz in comparison to PE-VEHs (1 to 120 Hz. The power densities reported for these bridge VEHs range from 0.01 to 9539.5 μW/cm3 and are quite enough to operate most of the commercial WASNs.

  7. Risk assessment of strait crossing bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Forsnes, Mari Krogness

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to try to provide an overall risk picture for the planned strait cross- ing (SC) bridges on coastal highway E39 between Trondheim and Kristiansand in Norway. The thesis starts off by explaining the concepts and solutions of SC bridges to understand what the National Public Road Administration (NPRA) is planning to accomplish with the coastal high- way E39. The SC bridges cannot be compared to any other bridge structures in the world, which will lead to some chall...

  8. Coupled Dynamics of a Rotor-Journal Bearing System Equipped with Thrust Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Lie; R.B. Bhat

    1995-01-01

    The rotordynamic coefficients of fixed-pad thrust bearing are introduced and calculated by using the out-domain method, and a general analysis method is developed to investigate the coupled dynamics of a rotor equipped with journal and thrust bearings simultaneously. Considerations include the effects of static tilt parameters of the rotor on rotordynamic coefficients of thrust bearing and the action of thrust bearing on system dynamics. It is shown that thrust bearing changes the load distri...

  9. Components of bull and bear markets: bull corrections and bear rallies

    OpenAIRE

    Maheu, John M; Thomas H. McCurdy; Yong Song

    2010-01-01

    Existing methods of partitioning the market index into bull and bear regimes do not identify market corrections or bear market rallies. In contrast, our probabilistic model of the return distribution allows for rich and heterogeneous intra-regime dynamics. We focus on the characteristics and dynamics of bear market rallies and bull market corrections, including, for example, the probability of transition from a bear market rally into a bull market versus back to the primary bear state. A Baye...

  10. Chromatographic (TLC) differentiation of grizzly bear and black bear scats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picton, Harold D.; Kendall, Katherine C.

    1994-01-01

    While past work concluded that thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was inadequate for the separation of grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (U. americanus) scats, our study found differences adequate for species separation. A key was constructed using 19 of 40 data points recorded on each(N)=356 profiles of 178) know-species scat. Accuracy was best for late summer scats (94%). Methods for specimen preparation, analysis, and reading the TLC profiles are discussed. Factors involved in scat variation were tested.

  11. A prototype construction of bearing heater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bearing heater system has been successfully constructed using transformer-like method of 1000 VA power, 220 V primary voltage, and 50 Hz electrical frequency. The bearing heater consists of primary coil 230 turns, U type and bar-type iron core with 36 cm2, 9 cm2 ,and 3 cm2 cross-section, and electrical isolation. The bearing heater is used to enlarge the diameter of the bearing so that it can be easily fixed on an electric motor shaft during replacement because the heating is conducted by treated the bearing as a secondary coil of a transformer. This bearing heater can be used for bearing with 3 and 6 cm of inner diameter and 12 cm of maximum outside diameter. (author)

  12. Wave Journal Bearings Under Dynamic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Dimofte, Florin

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of the wave journal bearing was determined by running a three-wave bearing with an eccentrically mounted shaft. A transient analysis was developed and used to predict numerical data for the experimental cases. The three-wave journal bearing ran stably under dynamic loads with orbits well inside the bearing clearance. The orbits were almost circular and nearly free of the influence of, but dynamically dependent on, bearing wave shape. Experimental observations for both the absolute bearing-housing-center orbits and the relative bearing-housing-center-to-shaft-center orbits agreed well with the predictions. Moreover, the subsynchronous whirl motion generated by the fluid film was found experimentally and predicted theoretically for certain speeds.

  13. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, James A; Stirling, Ian; Kistler, Logan; Salamzade, Rauf; Ersmark, Erik; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-03-01

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear genomes that includes brown bears from the ABC islands, the Alaskan mainland and Europe. Our results provide clear evidence that gene flow between the two species had a geographically wide impact, with polar bear DNA found within the genomes of brown bears living both on the ABC islands and in the Alaskan mainland. Intriguingly, while brown bear genomes contain up to 8.8% polar bear ancestry, polar bear genomes appear to be devoid of brown bear ancestry, suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow in that direction. PMID:25490862

  14. Development and Evaluation of Titanium Spacesuit Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Richard; Battisti, Brian; Ytuarte, Raymond, Jr.; Schultz, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The Z-2 Prototype Planetary Extravehicular Space Suit Assembly is a continuation of NASA's Z-series of spacesuits, designed with the intent of meeting a wide variety of exploration mission objectives, including human exploration of the Martian surface. Incorporating titanium bearings into the Z-series space suit architecture allows us to reduce mass by an estimated 23 lbs per suit system compared to the previously used stainless steel bearing race designs, without compromising suit functionality. There are two obstacles to overcome when using titanium for a bearing race- 1) titanium is flammable when exposed to the oxygen wetted environment inside the space suit and 2) titanium's poor wear properties are often challenging to overcome in tribology applications. In order to evaluate the ignitability of a titanium space suit bearing, a series of tests were conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) that introduced the bearings to an extreme test profile, with multiple failures imbedded into the test bearings. The testing showed no signs of ignition in the most extreme test cases; however, substantial wear of the bearing races was observed. In order to design a bearing that can last an entire exploration mission (approx. 3 years), design parameters for maximum contact stress need to be identified. To identify these design parameters, bearing test rigs were developed that allow for the quick evaluation of various bearing ball loads, ball diameters, lubricants, and surface treatments. This test data will allow designers to minimize the titanium bearing mass for a specific material and lubricant combination and design around a cycle life requirement for an exploration mission. This paper reviews the current research and testing that has been performed on titanium bearing races to evaluate the use of such materials in an enriched oxygen environment and to optimize the bearing assembly mass and tribological properties to accommodate for the high bearing cycle life for an

  15. 33 CFR 118.140 - Painting bridge piers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Painting bridge piers. 118.140 Section 118.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.140 Painting bridge piers. The District Commander may require painting the sides of bridge channel piers...

  16. 23 CFR 650.409 - Evaluation of bridge inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of bridge inventory. 650.409 Section 650.409... Evaluation of bridge inventory. (a) Sufficiency rating of bridges. Upon receipt and evaluation of the bridge inventory, a sufficiency rating will be assigned to each bridge by the Secretary in accordance with...

  17. 49 CFR 237.101 - Scheduling of bridge inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scheduling of bridge inspections. 237.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.101 Scheduling of bridge inspections. (a) Each bridge management program shall include a provision for scheduling...

  18. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  19. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincke, J.R.

    1980-05-02

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

  20. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  1. Comparison of Alignment Correction Angles Between Fixed-Bearing and Mobile-Bearing UKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Atsuo; Arai, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Yamazoe, Shoichi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Good outcomes have been reported with both fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). However, overcorrected alignment could induce the progression of arthritis on the non-arthroplasty side. Changes of limb alignment after UKA with both types of bearings (fixed bearing: 24 knees, mobile bearing: 28 knees) were investigated. The mean difference between the preoperative standing femoral-tibial angle (FTA) and postoperative standing FTA was significantly larger in mobile bearing UKA group. In fixed-bearing UKA, there must be some laxity in MCL tension so that a 2-mm tension gauge can be inserted. In mobile-bearing UKA, appropriate MCL tension is needed to prevent bearing dislocation. This difference in MCL tension may have caused the difference in the correction angle between the groups. PMID:26264178

  2. Seismic isolation rubber bearings for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes results of biaxial breaking tests by compression and shear and by tension and shear for seismic isolation rubber bearings with bolted-type connections. The bearings used in the tests were low-damping rubber bearings, high-damping rubber bearings, and lead-rubber bearings. Three modes of failure of the bolted-type bearings were observed in the tests. They are the breaking failure by tension and shear; the breaking failure by compression and shear; and the buckling failure by compression and shear. The first and the second modes of failures are almost independent of the types and the sizes of the bearings. The breaking conditions of those failure modes are described in the axial stress-shear strain plane. This expression is useful for the evaluation of safety margins of the bearings. The paper outlines the basic design of the nuclear-grade bearings which were used for large-scale rubber bearing tests in a research project for seismic isolation of fast breeder reactor (FBR) plants. The paper also discusses the protection method against aging and the quality control which are important for implementation

  3. Interference Fit Life Factors for Roller Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of hoop stresses in reducing cylindrical roller bearing fatigue life was determined for various classes of inner ring interference fit. Calculations were performed for up to seven interference fit classes for each of ten bearing sizes. Each fit was taken at tightest, average and loosest values within the fit class for RBEC-5 tolerance, thus requiring 486 separate analyses. The hoop stresses were superimposed on the Hertzian principal stresses created by the applied radial load to calculate roller bearing fatigue life. The method was developed through a series of equations to calculate the life reduction for cylindrical roller bearings based on interference fit. All calculated lives are for zero initial bearing internal clearance. Any reduction in bearing clearance due to interference fit was compensated by increasing the initial (unmounted) clearance. Results are presented as tables and charts of life factors for bearings with light, moderate and heavy loads and interference fits ranging from extremely light to extremely heavy and for bearing accuracy class RBEC 5 (ISO class 5). Interference fits on the inner bearing ring of a cylindrical roller bearing can significantly reduce bearing fatigue life. In general, life factors are smaller (lower life) for bearings running under light load where the unfactored life is highest. The various bearing series within a particular bore size had almost identical interference fit life factors for a particular fit. The tightest fit at the high end of the RBEC-5 tolerance band defined in ANSI/ABMA shaft fit tables produces a life factor of approximately 0.40 for an inner-race maximum Hertz stress of 1200 MPa (175 ksi) and a life factor of 0.60 for an inner-race maximum Hertz stress of 2200 MPa (320 ksi). Interference fits also impact the maximum Hertz stress-life relation.

  4. Bridge weigh-in-motion on steel orthotropic decks and application to bridge assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Bernard; Ieng, Sio Song; SCHMIDT, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    Bridge weigh-in-motion uses an instrumented bridge as a scale to weigh vehicles. Several types of bridges may be used, if being sensitive to wheel or axle loads. Here some strains of steel orthotropic deck bridges are measured by extensometers and analyzed by software, to calculate axle loads and gross vehicle weights. Between 2009 and 2011, several large scale tests were done on the Millau viaduct (France), the tallest cable stayed bridge in the world. These tests showed that the system meet...

  5. Bridge Lock-up Device System

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The Colebrand Lock-up Device (LUD) provides additional substructure strength to resist seismic forces as a structural shock transmission unit for highway bridges. This system can provide a temporary rigid link between bridge structural members under seismic, braking, or other fast-acting type loads, while permitting slow thermal movements.

  6. Analysis of Biaxially Stressed Bridge Deck Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, Tommi Højer

    The ultimate state analysis of bridge deck plates at the intersection zone between main girders and transverse beams is complicated by biaxial membrane stresses, which may be in compression or tension in either direction depending on the bridge configuration and the specific location. This paper ...

  7. Re-Assessment of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper two aspects of re-assessment of the reliability of concrete bridges are discussed namely modelling of the corrosion of reinforcement and updating of uncertain variables. The main reason for deterioration of concrete bridges is corrosion of the reinforcement. Therefore, modelling of...

  8. Paul Dirac:. Building Bridges of the Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laurie M.

    2003-12-01

    Paul Dirac was a brilliant and original thinker. He used his physical intuition and his ideal of mathematical beauty to construct bridges between major areas of physics. This article discusses several such important works, including the bridge between quantum mechanics and relativity that led to his prediction of the existence of antimatter.

  9. Fast response Full Bridge Power Factor Corrector

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, CH; Pong, MH

    1998-01-01

    A fast response Full Bridge Power Factor Corrector (FBPFC) is presented in this paper. The converter is combined by two interleaved boost cells and a conventional full bridge converter. As the interleaving technique is applied, the input ripple current of FBPFC are reduced. Experimental result shows that the maximum power factor is 0.98 even without input filter.

  10. A STUDY OF BARRIERS IN BRIDGING COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Niteen V. Dandekar

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to make a thought provoking discussion on the role barriers in bridging communication. It focuses on the concept of communication, process and the role of language related barriers in bridging communication. It studies the significance of communication in modern human life.

  11. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  12. General framework for bridge life cycle design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhai MA; Airong CHEN; Jun HE

    2009-01-01

    Based on a detailed illustration for bridge life cycle design which comprises the processes of service life design, aesthetics design, performance design, environ-mental and ecological design, inspection, maintenance and repair design as well as cost analysis, this paper presented a general framework for bridge life cycle design comprising three design phases and six design processes.

  13. History of cable-stayed bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The principle of supporting a bridge deck by inclined tension members leading to towers on either side of the span has been known for centuries. However, the real development of cable-stayed bridges did not begin before the 1950s. Since then the free span has been increased from 183 m in the Strö...

  14. COUPLING VIBRATION OF VEHICLE-BRIDGE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炎; 黄小清; 马友发

    2004-01-01

    By applying the sinusoidal wave mode to simulate the rugged surface of bridge deck,accounting for vehicle-bridge interaction and using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, a coupling vibration model of vehicle-bridge system was developed. The model was solved by mode analyzing method and Runge-Kutta method, and the dynamic response and the resonance curve of the bridge were obtained. It is found that there are two resonance regions, one represents the main resonance while the other the minor resonance, in the resonance curve. The influence due to the rugged surface, the vibration mode of bridge, and the interaction between vehicle and bridge on vibration of the system were discussed. Numerical results show that the influence due to these parameters is so significant that the effect of roughness of the bridge deck and the mode shape of the bridge can't be ignored and the vehicle velocity should be kept away from the critical speed of the vehicle.

  15. Structural behaviour and design criteria of under-deck cable-stayed bridges subjected to seismic action

    OpenAIRE

    Cámara Casado, Alfredo; Ruiz Teran, Ana M.; Stafford, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY: Under-deck cable-stayed bridges are very effective structural systems for which the strong contribution of the stay cables under live loading allows for the design of very slender decks for persistent and transient loading scenarios. Their behaviour when subjected to seismic excitation is investigated herein and a set of design criteria are presented that relate to the type and arrangement of bearings, the number and configuration of struts, and the transverse distribution of stay ca...

  16. Bridged cyclams as imaging agents for chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over-expression of chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is present in a majority of cancers, has been linked to an aggressive phenotype, and may indicate the metastatic potential of primary tumor. Several CXCR4 targeted therapeutics are in clinical trials and the development of the corresponding imaging agents is an area of active interest. Previously, 64Cu-labeled imaging agents for CXCR4 have provided clear images of CXCR4-bearing tissues in relevant experimental models but demonstrated fast washout from tissues harboring receptor. Addition of stabilizing bridges is known to provide more robust chelator-Cu(II) complexes. In addition, bridged cyclam-based CXCR4 binding agents demonstrated increased receptor residence times relative to existing agents. Based on that knowledge we synthesized several bridged cyclam analogs of AMD3465, a monocyclam-based CXCR4 imaging agent, to increase the retention time of the tracer bound to the receptor to allow for protracted imaging and improved target-to-non-target ratios. Specific accumulation of two radiolabeled, cross-bridged analogs ([64Cu] RAD1-24 and [64Cu]RAD1-52) was observed in U87-stb-CXCR4 tumors in both PET/CT imaging and biodistribution studies. At 90 min post-injection of radiotracer, tumor-to-muscle and tumor-to-blood ratios reached 106.05 ± 17.19 and 28.08 ± 4.78, respectively, for cross-bridged pyrimidine analog [64Cu]RAD1-52. Receptor blockade performed in vivo denoted target binding specificity. The biodistribution and PET/CT imaging studies with the radiolabeled bridged cyclams demonstrated longer tumor retention and comparable uptake to [64Cu]AMD3465, though [64Cu]AMD3465 demonstrated superior overall pharmacokinetics

  17. Optimum Maintenance Strategies for Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frangopol, Dan M.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Das, Parag C.;

    expected life-cycle costs or maximum life-cycle benefits. This is because many maintenance activities can be associated with significant costs, but their effects on bridge safety can be minor. In this paper, the program of an investigation on optimum maintenance strategies for different bridge types is......As bridges become older and maintenance costs become higher, transportation agencies are facing challenges related to implementation of optimal bridge management programs based on life cycle cost considerations. A reliability-based approach is necessary to find optimal solutions based on minimum...... described. The end result of this investigation will be a general reliability-based framework to be used by the UK Highways Agency in order to plan optimal strategies for the maintenance of its bridge network so as to optimize whole-life costs....

  18. Modeling walker synchronization on the Millennium Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward; Strogatz, Steven H.; Abrams, Daniel M.; McRobie, Allan

    2007-02-01

    On its opening day the London Millennium footbridge experienced unexpected large amplitude wobbling subsequent to the migration of pedestrians onto the bridge. Modeling the stepping of the pedestrians on the bridge as phase oscillators, we obtain a model for the combined dynamics of people and the bridge that is analytically tractable. It provides predictions for the phase dynamics of individual walkers and for the critical number of people for the onset of oscillations. Numerical simulations and analytical estimates reproduce the linear relation between pedestrian force and bridge velocity as observed in experiments. They allow prediction of the amplitude of bridge motion, the rate of relaxation to the synchronized state and the magnitude of the fluctuations due to a finite number of people.

  19. Coupled Dynamics of a Rotor-Journal Bearing System Equipped with Thrust Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lie

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotordynamic coefficients of fixed-pad thrust bearing are introduced and calculated by using the out-domain method, and a general analysis method is developed to investigate the coupled dynamics of a rotor equipped with journal and thrust bearings simultaneously. Considerations include the effects of static tilt parameters of the rotor on rotordynamic coefficients of thrust bearing and the action of thrust bearing on system dynamics. It is shown that thrust bearing changes the load distribution of journal bearings and the static deflection of the rotor and delays the instability of the system considerably in lateral shaft vibration.

  20. Building bridges … and accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Lyn Evans, the LHC project leader, was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) to celebrate his role not just in building accelerators, but also in building bridges between nations. He was one of four notables honoured at the event on Friday 5 June, coinciding with the University’s 450th Anniversary. Lyn Evans arriving at the ceremony with Archbishop Desmond Tutu. "It was a big surprise when I found out I’d been nominated," recounts Evans, "but it was an even bigger surprise to find out with whom I’d been nominated". At the ceremony Evans was awarded the honorary doctorate along with three others: Archbishop Desmond Tutu, who was acclaimed for his fight against apartheid in South Africa, Mary Robinson, first woman president of Ireland and former United Nations’ high commissioner of human rights, and Pascal Lamy, Director-General of the World Trade Organization. The award ceremony, known as the �...

  1. Bearing Health Assessment Based on Chaotic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration signals extracted from rotating parts of machinery carry a lot of useful information about the condition of operating machine. Due to the strong non-linear, complex and non-stationary characteristics of vibration signals from working bearings, an accurate and reliable health assessment method for bearing is necessary. This paper proposes to utilize the selected chaotic characteristics of vibration signal for health assessment of a bearing by using self-organizing map (SOM. Both Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm and Takens' theory are employed to calculate the characteristic vector which includes three chaotic characteristics, such as correlation dimension, largest Lyapunov exponent and Kolmogorov entropy. After that, SOM is used to map the three corresponding characteristics into a confidence value (CV which represents the health state of the bearing. Finally, a case study based on vibration datasets of a group of testing bearings was conducted to demonstrate that the proposed method can reliably assess the health state of bearing.

  2. Finite element of multilayer surfacing systems on orthotropic steel bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.; Liu, X.; Scarpas, A.; Tzimiris, G.

    2013-01-01

    Light weight orthotropic steel bridge decks have been widely utilized for bridges in seismic zones, movable bridges and long span bridges. In the last three decades, severe problems were reported in relation to asphaltic surfacing materials on orthotropic steel deck bridges. Earlier investigations have shown that the bonding strength of membrane layers to the surrounding materials has a strong influence on the structural response of orthotropic steel bridge decks. The most important requireme...

  3. Strengthening an in-service reinforcement concrete bridge with prestressed CFRP bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-long WANG; Wei-liang JIN; David J.CLELAND; Ai-hui ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer(CFRP)bars were prestressed for the structural strengthening of 8 T-shaped rein-forced concrete (RC)beams of a 21-year-old bridge in China.The ultimate bearing capacity of the existing bridge after retrofit was discussed on the basis of concrete structures theory.The flexural strengths of RC beams strengthened with CFRP bars were controlled by the failure of concrete in compression and a prestressing method was applied in the retrofit.The field construction processes of strengthening with CFRP bars-including grouting cracks,cutting groove,grouting epoxy and embedding CFRP bars,surface treating,banding with the U-type CFRP sheets,releasing external prestressed steel tendons-were introduced in detail.In order to evaluate the effectiveness of this strengthening method,field tests using vehicles as live load were applied before and after the retrofit.The test results of deflection and concrete strain of the T-shaped beams with and without strengthening show that the capacity of the repaired bridge,including the bending strength and stiffness,is enhanced.The measurements of crack width also indicate that this strengthening method can enhance the durability of bridges.Therefore,the proposed strengthening technology is feasible and effective.

  4. Bringing back the bridge solution to establish a fixed link over the Strait of Gibraltar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this essay is to address some of the aspects of the Bridge alternative and to examine the conclusions reached back in 1995 over the feasibility of such a solution. Although having been left aside for decades, the Bridge Solution of the Strait of Gibraltar Crossing Project has been brought back to life as an available alternative to close the gap between the two continents, being the reason to have recently detected some impediment down into the lower layers of the site laying grounds. All of which has revealed further geotechnical issues to tackle. Given the current level of development the Tunnel solution has reached, the 20-year-old Bridge solution needs to be fully updated in order to catch up with the former: As well as taking into consideration the new trends present in the state of the art on design of structures, the Bridge solution would also entail updating construction procedures if it is to incorporate all the potentialities offered by: (1) related tools (2) machinery, and (3), many new ideas which, coming from distinct industrial sectors others than the public works, have worked their way through the construction field. Furthermore, it would be necessary to bear in mind the ceaseless development materials science is going through, which involves constant increases in both levels of resilience and number of characteristics such materials present. (Author)

  5. Hydrodynamic bearing for light loaded turbo machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rotor of any turbo-machinery running in journal bearings is prone to two types of well-known vibrations. Synchronous Vibrations occur due to run out or forces resulting from unbalancing of the shaft. Sub synchronous vibrations are more serious, this phenomenon is commonly associated with oil film forces of the journal bearing. In order to avoid sub synchronous vibrations, different types of journal bearings having helical grooves were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. (author)

  6. Probabilistic Aspect of Rolling Bearings Durability

    OpenAIRE

    Styp-Rekowski, Michał

    2007-01-01

    Many factors generate situations that real dimensions of each machine elements are different from nominal ones. In the case of rolling bearings elements mentioned disagreements are small - their values are rank of micrometers. However, such small differences can generate significant changes of operational features of bearings. The analysis of influence of ball dimensional deviation on load distribution in ball bearings is presented in this paper. The probability of occurrence of ball diameter...

  7. A miniature tilting pad gas lubricated bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixsmith, H.; Swift, W. L.

    1983-12-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a miniature tilting pad gas bearing developed for use in very small turbomachines. The bearings have been developed for cryogenic turboexpanders with shaft diameters down to about 0.3 cm and rotational speeds up to one million rpm. Cryogenic expansion turbines incorporating this type of bearing should be suitable for refrigeration rates down to about 10 w.

  8. Bearing fault diagnosis based on vibration signals.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdusslam, S.A.; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The vibration signal obtained from operating machines contains information relating to machine condition as well as noise. Further processing of the signal is necessary to elicit information particularly relevant to bearing faults. Many techniques have been employed to process the vibration signals in bearing faults detection and diagnosis. Two common techniques, time domain techniques and frequency domain techniques are used in this paper to investigate bearings condition.

  9. Development of steel dampers for bridges to allow large displacement through a vertical free mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Peng; Yan, Hong; Wang, Tao; Xu, Peizhen; Xie, Qiang

    2014-09-01

    Isolation bearings and dampers are often installed between piers and superstructures to reduce the seismic responses of bridges under large earthquakes. This paper presents a novel steel damper for bridges. The damper employs steel plates as energy dissipation components, and adopts a vertical free mechanism to achieve a large deformation capacity. Quasi-static tests using displacement-controlled cyclic loading and numerical analyses using a finite element program called ABAQUS are conducted to investigate the behavior of the damper, and a design methodology is proposed based on the tests and numerical analyses. Major conclusions obtained from this study are as follows: (1) the new dampers have stable hysteresis behavior under large displacements; (2) finite element analyses are able to simulate the behavior of the damper with satisfactory accuracy; and (3) simplified design methodology of the damper is effective.

  10. Conformation and elasticity of a charged polymer chain bridging two nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowicki, W., E-mail: gwnow@amu.edu.pl; Nowicka, G. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2013-12-07

    A complex composed of a charged flexible polymer chain irreversibly attached with its ends to surfaces of two nanoparticles was investigated using the Metropolis Monte Carlo method on a simple cubic lattice. The simulations were performed in the presence of explicit ions. The bridging chain and the nanoparticles bearing the same and the opposite sign charges were considered. Changes in the free energy of the complex upon its stretching or compression, together with the magnitude of the elastic force, were examined. The relative roles of energetic and entropic effects in determining the properties of the complex were identified. Also, the adsorption of charged monomers on the opposite-sign charged nanoparticles and its influence on the examined quantities was studied. Moreover, a simple semi-analytical approach to the thermodynamics of the polymer bridge was derived.

  11. Smectic phases of liquid crystals based on dinuclear palladium(II) complexes with carboxylato bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Circu, V. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, University of Bucharest (Romania); Simonescu, C.M. [Department of Inorganic Technology and Environmental Protection, University Polytehnica Bucharest (Romania)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper we present the preparation and the investigation of the liquid crystal properties of a series of dinuclear carboxylato bridge Pd(II) complexes bearing six alkoxy peripheral chains in the molecule. Their structures were assigned based on elemental analysis, IR and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy whereas the thermal behaviour was investigated by polarizing optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The monotropic smectic A phase displayed by these materials was identified by miscibility studies with a previously reported mesogen. It was found that the transition temperatures and the SmA mesophase stability depend on the alkyl chain length of the carboxylato bridge. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Analysis of Influence Factors of Structure Stability for SingleColumn Pier Continuous Girder Bridge%独柱墩连续梁桥的稳定影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉华; 蔡若红; 杨育人

    2011-01-01

    Taking the case of Jinhua-Taizhou section of zhuyong highway, 23 simulation models of single-column pier continuous girder bridge were established by MIDAS finite element program. The major factors which would affect the stability of curved girder bridge, such as the radius of curvature, the length of bridge, the space between two bearings and the offset distance of bearing placed on the single-column pier etc. The results show that the radius of curvature has great effect on the negative counter-force of bearing. The bearing separation is likely to occur when the radius of curvature is less than 200 m and the length of bridge is greater than 100 m. That the appropriate layout offset distance of bearing and enlargement of the space between bearings can assure lower possibility of bearing separation and enhance the ability of bridge performance against overturning.%以诸永高速金华台州段工程为例,采用MIDAS有限元分析程序,构建了23座独柱墩连续箱梁桥的仿真模型,系统分析和总结了影响弯梁桥稳定性的主要影响因素,如曲率半径、桥梁长度、联端支座间距、独柱墩支座预设偏心等.结果表明:桥梁曲率半径对支座负反力影响很大,当曲率半径小于200 m,桥梁长度大于100 m时较易发生支座脱空现象;增大联端支座间距,合理设置支座偏心距,可减小支座出现脱空的可能性,提高桥梁的抗倾覆能力.

  13. The Influence of the Recommended LRFD Guidelines for the Seismic Design of Highway Bridges on Virginia Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Widjaja, Matius Andy

    2003-01-01

    THE INFLUENCE OF THE RECOMMENDED LRFD GUIDELINES FOR THE SEISMIC DESIGN OF HIGHWAY BRIDGES ON VIRGINIA BRIDGES by Matius A. Widjaja Committee Chairwoman: Prof. Carin Roberts-Wollmann Civil Engineering (ABSTRACT) The influence of the recommended LRFD Guidelines for the seismic design of highway bridges in Virginia was investigated by analyzing two existing bridges. The first bridge has prestressed concrete girders and is located in the Richmond area. The second bridge has...

  14. R+D works for the further development of high temperature reactors. (1) Captive bearing experiments for active magnetic bearings. (2) Captive bearing test for HTR blowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When using active magnetic bearings as blower shaft bearings, blower motors and bearings must be protected against mechanical damage in case of faults (example: total electrical supply failure due to the supply cables breaking). So-called captive bearings are provided, in order to be able to shut the blowers down safely in such faults. These captive bearings are roller bearings which are additionally fitted in the area of the blower shaft bearings, to prevent mechanical contact between the blower rotor and stator. As there was little experience available for the given boundary conditions, such as - speed, - acceleration, - bearing load, - bearing dimensions, - ambient conditions, appropriate development and tests had to be carried out. It was important to determine suitable captive bearings and the necessary ambient conditions, which will make it possible to support the failures of the magnetic bearings to be expected in 40 years' operation of the reactor without damage and to meet the requirements of the captive bearings. (orig./GL)

  15. Bear Capture. Research, and Request for Consideraton of Releases of Bears at Dahomey NWR in 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A series of memos and correspondences concerning the capture of a bear in Cleveland, MS and release on Dahomey NWR along with graduate research on bears from...

  16. Dynamic modelling and response characteristics of a magnetic bearing rotor system with auxiliary bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, April M.; Flowers, George T.; Trent, Victor S.

    1995-01-01

    Auxiliary bearings are a critical feature of any magnetic bearing system. They protect the soft iron core of the magnetic bearing during an overload or failure. An auxiliary bearing typically consists of a rolling element bearing or bushing with a clearance gap between the rotor and the inner race of the support. The dynamics of such systems can be quite complex. It is desired to develop a rotordynamic model which describes the dynamic behavior of a flexible rotor system with magnetic bearings including auxiliary bearings. The model is based upon an experimental test facility. Some simulation studies are presented to illustrate the behavior of the model. In particular, the effects of introducing sideloading from the magnetic bearing when one coil fails is studied.

  17. Dynamic modelling and response characteristics of a magnetic bearing rotor system including auxiliary bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, April M.; Flowers, George T.; Trent, Victor S.

    1993-01-01

    Auxiliary bearings are a critical feature of any magnetic bearing system. They protect the soft iron core of the magnetic bearing during an overload or failure. An auxiliary bearing typically consists of a rolling element bearing or bushing with a clearance gap between the rotor and the inner race of the support. The dynamics of such systems can be quite complex. It is desired to develop a rotor-dynamic model and assess the dynamic behavior of a magnetic bearing rotor system which includes the effects of auxiliary bearings. Of particular interest is the effects of introducing sideloading into such a system during failure of the magnetic bearing. A model is developed from an experimental test facility and a number of simulation studies are performed. These results are presented and discussed.

  18. Track-Bridge Longitudinal Interaction of Continuous Welded Rails on Arch Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking arch bridges, including deck, half-through, and through arch bridges (short for DAB, HTAB, and TAB as examples, mechanics analysis models of longitudinal interaction between continuously welded rails (short for CWRs and arch bridges are established. Based on the finite element method (FEM, the longitudinal interaction calculation software of CWR on arch bridges has been developed. Focusing on an HTAB, the tension, compression, and deflection conditions are calculated and analyzed. The results show that the mechanics analysis models of three types of arch bridges can truly reflect the real state of the structure; the calculation software can be used for systematic research of the CWR on arch bridge; as for HTAB, temperature difference of arch rib has a small effect on rail tension/compression, and arch bridge can be simplified as a continuous beam for rail tension/compression additional force calculation; in calculation of deflection conditions of HTAB, it is suggested that train loads are arranged on half span and full span and take the direction of load entering bridge into account. Additionally, the deflection additional force variation of CFST basket handle arch bridge is different from that of ordinary bridge.

  19. Long-term bearing wear tests of conventional journal bearings and development of hydrostatic bearings for the LOFT drag-disc turbine transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The details of a two-year development program concerning materials for use as turbine bearings in a pressurized water reactor environment are reported. Two types of bearings have been examined, both conventional journal bearings and hydrostatic bearings. The results of long-term bearing wear tests conducted at 590 K and 15.1 MPa in water are presented. The feasibility of using hydrostatic bearings for the same transducer is demonstrated

  20. Living in Bear Country: increasing municipal compliance with the Bear Smart Program in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Anthony David

    2011-01-01

    Many communities in British Columbia are grappling with the presence of bears in their communities. The Ministry of Environment (MOE) created the Bear Smart Program in 2002 to assist these communities to prevent human-bear conflict. However, at the end of 2010 only two communities have completed the program. This study draws upon informant interviews and local documentation to develop a better understanding of why communities are participating but not completing the Bear Smart Program. Th...

  1. Signal and noise in bridging PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler David S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a variant of the standard PCR reaction termed bridging, or jumping, PCR the primer-bound sequences are originally on separate template molecules. Bridging can occur if, and only if, the templates contain a region of sequence similarity. A 3' end of synthesis in one round of synthesis that terminates in this region of similarity can prime on the other. In principle, Bridging PCR (BPCR can detect a subpopulation of one template that terminates synthesis in the region of sequence shared by the other template. This study considers the sensitivity and noise of BPCR as a quantitative assay for backbone interruptions. Bridging synthesis is also important to some methods for computing with DNA. Results In this study, BPCR was tested over a 328 base pair segment of the E. coli lac operon and a signal to noise ratio (S/N of approximately 10 was obtained under normal PCR conditions with Taq polymerase. With special precautions in the case of Taq or by using the Stoffel fragment the S/N was improved to 100, i.e. 1 part of cut input DNA yielded the same output as 100 parts of intact input DNA. Conclusions In the E. coli lac operator region studied here, depending on details of protocol, between 3 and 30% per kilobase of final PCR product resulted from bridging. Other systems are expected to differ in the proportion of product that is bridged consequent to PCR protocol and the sequence analyzed. In many cases physical bridging during PCR will have no informational consequence because the bridged templates are of identical sequence, but in a number of special cases bridging creates, or, destroys, information.

  2. Journal bearing performance and metrology issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper, a radial clearance of a journal bearings and the metrology of the radial clearance measurement is described.Design/methodology/approach: In this experimental study out-of-roundness and radial clearance of journal bearings were measured with high precision and the impact of their metrology was examined on the specific oil film thickness of the bearing. Some metrological issues were emerged and these should be taken into account when bearings are designed.Findings: An investigation showed that the radial clearance measurements can vary from one measuring device to another and the specified clearance may not necessarily meet the design criteria of specific oil film thickness. The study indicates that the radial clearance measurement can differ from one measuring device to another depending upon the precision that can be achieved by the device. The radius of the bearing or the shaft also varies along the circumference, mainly due to out-of-roundness. The out-of-roundness contributes to the error in radial clearance measurement and hence similar to the cut off length specified with the surface roughness, the out-of-roundness needs to be specified with the radial clearance.Practical implications: The radial clearance of a journal bearing is a key design parameter and bearing performance mainly depends upon this parameter. In this paper was showed that the metrology of the radial clearance measurement plays a significant role and not only that the bearing manufacturer or the user of the bearing is aware of this fact but the bearing designer must also take this fact into account while designing bearingsOriginality/value: This paper showed that The radial clearance is a sensitive micro-geometry parameter and hence metrology plays a vital role in making decisions

  3. Bridge and brick motifs in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Yuan; Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Cheng, Chia-Ying; Hsieh, Ji-Lung

    2007-04-01

    Acknowledging the expanding role of complex networks in numerous scientific contexts, we examine significant functional and topological differences between bridge and brick motifs for predicting network behaviors and functions. After observing similarities between social networks and their genetic, ecological, and engineering counterparts, we identify a larger number of brick motifs in social networks and bridge motifs in the other three types. We conclude that bridge and brick motif content analysis can assist researchers in understanding the small-world and clustering properties of network structures when investigating network functions and behaviors.

  4. Partially entangled states bridge in quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Fei; Yu, Xu-Tao; Shi, Li-Hui; Zhang, Zai-Chen

    2014-10-01

    The traditional method for information transfer in a quantum communication system using partially entangled state resource is quantum distillation or direct teleportation. In order to reduce the waiting time cost in hop-by-hop transmission and execute independently in each node, we propose a quantum bridging method with partially entangled states to teleport quantum states from source node to destination node. We also prove that the designed specific quantum bridging circuit is feasible for partially entangled states teleportation across multiple intermediate nodes. Compared to two traditional ways, our partially entanglement quantum bridging method uses simpler logic gates, has better security, and can be used in less quantum resource situation.

  5. Active Control of Long Bridges Using Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H. I.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    The main problem in designing ultra-long span suspension bridges is flutter. A solution to this problem might be to introduce an active flap control system to increase the flutter wind velocity. The investigated flap control system consists of flaps integrated in the bridge girder so each flap is...... different flap configurations for a bridge section model by using aerodynamic derivatives for a flat plate. The example shows that different flap configurations can either increase or decrease the flutter wind velocity. for optimal flap configurations flutter will not occur....

  6. Human Errors and Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, A. S.

    Human errors are divided in two groups. The first group contains human errors, which effect the reliability directly. The second group contains human errors, which will not directly effect the reliability of the structure. The methodology used to estimate so-called reliability distributions on...... basis of reliability profiles for bridges without human errors are extended to include bridges with human errors. The first rehabilitation distributions for bridges without and with human errors are combined into a joint first rehabilitation distribution. The methodology presented is illustrated for...

  7. Maxwell Tension Supports the Water Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Widom, A.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Swain, J.; Sivasubramanian, S.

    2008-01-01

    A cylindrical flexible cable made up of pure fluid water can be experimentally spanned across a spatial gap with cable endpoints fixed to the top edges of two glass beakers. The cable has been called a water bridge in close analogy to iron cables employed to build ordinary span bridges. A necessary condition for the construction of a water bridge is that a large electric field exists parallel to and located within the water cable. Presently, there is no accepted detailed theory which quantita...

  8. Building the clinical bridge: an Australian success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin's model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided. PMID:22577536

  9. Pilot testing of a hydraulic bridge exciter

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson Andreas; Ülker-Kaustell Mahir; Borg Richard; Dymén Olivier; Carolin Anders; Karoumi Raid

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a hydraulic bridge exciter and its first pilot testing on a full scale railway bridge in service. The exciter is based on a hydraulic load cylinder with a capacity of 50 kN and is intended for controlled dynamic loading up to at least 50 Hz. The load is applied from underneath the bridge, enabling testing while the railway line is in service. The system is shown to produce constant load amplitude even at resonance. The exciter is used to experimentally ...

  10. Active magnetic bearing-supported rotor with misaligned cageless backup bearings: A dropdown event simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halminen, Oskari; Kärkkäinen, Antti; Sopanen, Jussi; Mikkola, Aki

    2015-01-01

    Active magnetic bearings (AMB) offer considerable benefits compared to regular mechanical bearings. On the other hand, they require backup bearings to avoid damage resulting from a failure in the component itself, or in the power or control system. During a rotor-bearing contact event - when the magnetic field has disappeared and the rotor drops on the backup bearings - the structure of the backup bearings has an impact on the dynamic actions of the rotor. In this paper, the dynamics of an active magnetic bearing-supported rotor during contact with backup bearings is studied with a simulation model. Modeling of the backup bearings is done using a comprehensive cageless ball bearing model. The elasticity of the rotor is described using the finite element method (FEM) and the degrees of freedom (DOF) of the system are reduced using component mode synthesis. Verification of the misaligned cageless backup bearings model is done by comparing the simulation results against the measurement results. The verified model with misaligned cageless backup bearings is found to correspond to the features of a real system.

  11. Improvement of journal bearing operation at heavy misalignment using bearing flexibility and compliant liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim; Klit, Peder

    2012-01-01

    bearing when misaligned. The hydrodynamic performance is evaluated on lubricant film thickness, pressure and temperature. Furthermore, the influence of a compliant bearing liner is investigated and it is found that it increases the hydrodynamic performance when applied to a stiff bearing, whereas the...

  12. Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA variation in brown bears and polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Gerald F.; Adams, Deborah; Garner, Gerald; Labelle, Martine; Pietsch, Jacy; Ramsay, Malcolm; Schwartz, Charles; Titus, Kimberly; Williamson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed 286 nucleotides of the middle portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 61 brown bears from three locations in Alaska and 55 polar bears from Arctic Canada and Arctic Siberia to test our earlier observations of paraphyly between polar bears and brown bears as well as to test the extreme uniqueness of mitochondrial DNA types of brown bears on Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof (ABC) islands of southeastern Alaska. We also investigated the phylogeography of brown bears of Alaska's Kenai Peninsula in relation to other Alaskan brown bears because the former are being threatened by increased human development. We predicted that: (1) mtDNA paraphyly between brown bears and polar bears would be upheld, (2) the mtDNA uniqueness of brown bears of the ABC islands would be upheld, and (3) brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula would belong to either clade II or clade III of brown bears of our earlier studies of mtDNA. All of our predictions were upheld through the analysis of these additional samples.

  13. Methods and systems for micro bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalford, Harold L.

    2012-10-09

    A micro drive assembly may comprise a substrate, a micro shall oriented in-plane with the substrate and at least one micro bearing to support rotation of the micro shaft. The micro shaft and micro bearing may be in or less than the micrometer domain.

  14. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polar bear (Ursus maritimus has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  15. Friction coefficients of PTFE bearing liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, C. M.

    1979-01-01

    Data discusses frictional characteristics of PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) under temperature extremes and in vacuum environment. Tests were also run on reduced scale hardware to determine effects of vacuum. Data is used as reference by designers of aircraft-control system rod-end bearings and for bearings used in polar regions.

  16. Movie Director Bags a Silver Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Chinese director and film writer Wang Xiaoshuai has walked away with the Silver Bear award at the 58th Berlin International Film Festival for best script of Zuo You, or In Love We Trust. Back in 2001, Wang won his first Silver Bear award for directing Beijing

  17. Shaft Center Orbit in Dynamically Loaded Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coe±cients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 [1]and described further in 1972 [2]. Several authors have re¯ned this method...... over the years. In 1966 Jorgen W. Lund [5]published an approach to ¯nd the dynamic coe±cients of a journal bearing by a ¯rst order perturbation of the Reynold's equation. These coe±cients made it possible to perform a rotor-bearing stability analysis for a statically loaded bearing. In the mid...... seventies Jorgen W. Lund pointed out in lecture notes that the dynamic damping coe±cients of the bearing could be used to ¯nd the shaft orbit for dynamically loaded bearings. For simplicity the "Short-Width-Journal-Bearing Theory" is used as a basis for ¯nding the damping coe±cients in this work, but the...

  18. Experimental investigations of active air bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Morosi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    greatest challenges in a high-speed gas bearing design. A great deal of research is devoted to attack such issues, where most propose passive designs such as compliant foil bearings, tilting pad and flexure pivot gas bearings. These solutions proved to be effective in improving static and dynamic......Along with traditional oil lubrication, increasing demand for high-speed applications has renewed attention to gas bearings technology. Traditional aerostatic and aerodynamic gas lubrication has been widely used in a variety of applications, ranging from high-speed spindles to micro and meso......-scale turbomachinery. The present paper deals with experimental rotordynamic testing of a flexible rotor supported by hybrid aerostaticaerodynamic gas journal bearing equipped with an electronic radial air injection system. From a rotordynamic point of view there are two phenomena that limit the widespread of...

  19. A Comparison of Half Bridge & Full Bridge Isolated DC-DC Converters for Electrolysis Application

    OpenAIRE

    R.Samuel Rajesh Babu; Joseph Henry

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of half bridgeand full bridge isolated, soft-switched, DC-DC converters forElectrolysis application. An electrolyser is a part of renewableenergy system which generates hydrogen from water electrolysisthat used in fuel cells. A DC-DC converter is required to coupleelectrolyser to system DC bus. The proposed DC-DC converter isrealized in both full-bridge and half-bridge topology in order toachieve zero voltage switching for the power switches and toregulate the...

  20. Practical Approach to Fragility Analysis of Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasamin Rafie Nazari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Damages during past earthquakes reveal seismic vulnerability of bridge structures and the necessity of probabilistic approach toward seismic performance evaluation of bridges and its interpretation in terms of decision variables such as repair cost, downtime and life loss. This Procedure involves hazard analysis, structural analysis, damage analysis and loss analysis. The purpose of present study is reviewing different methods developed to derive fragility curves for damage analysis of bridges and demonstrating a simple procedure for fragility analysis using Microsoft Office Excel worksheet to reach probability of occurring predefined level of damage due to different levels of seismic demand parameters. The input of this procedure is the intensity of ground motion and the output is an appropriate estimate of the expected damage. Different observed damages of the bridges are discussed and compared the practical definition of damage states. Different methods of fragility analyses are discussed and a practical step by step example is illustrated.

  1. Active aerodynamic stabilisation of long suspension bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Henrik Ditlev; Sørensen, Paul Haase; Jannerup, Ole Erik

    2004-01-01

    use of control analysis and design techniques, a linear model of the structural and aerodynamic motion around equilibriun is developed. The model is validated through comparison with finite element calculations and wind tunnel experimental data on the Great Belt East Bridge in Denmark. The developed......The paper describes the addition of actively controlled appendages (flaps) attached along the length of the bridge deck to dampen wind-induced oscillations in long suppension bridges. A novel approach using control systems methods for the analysis of dynamic stability is presented. In order to make...... active control scheme is local in that the flap control signal at a given longitudinal position along the bridge only depends on local motion measurements. The analysis makes use of the Nyquist stability criteria and an anlysis of the sensitivity function for stability analysis. The analysis shows that...

  2. Bridging the Chasm between Policymakers and Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to lessen the tension which often exists between educators and policymakers, this article discusses each sector's world and then offers suggestions on how to construct bridges between these worlds so that mutual goals may be attained. (JL)

  3. Allegheny County-Owned Bridges Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the location of bridges owned by Allegheny County as centroids. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s...

  4. Allegheny County-Owned Bridges Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the bridges owned by Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  5. Pilot testing of a hydraulic bridge exciter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a hydraulic bridge exciter and its first pilot testing on a full scale railway bridge in service. The exciter is based on a hydraulic load cylinder with a capacity of 50 kN and is intended for controlled dynamic loading up to at least 50 Hz. The load is applied from underneath the bridge, enabling testing while the railway line is in service. The system is shown to produce constant load amplitude even at resonance. The exciter is used to experimentally determine frequency response functions at all sensor locations, which serve as valuable input for model updating and verification. An FE-model of the case study bridge has been developed that is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  6. EFFECT OF CLEARANCE THE BALL BEARINGS ON INCORRECT WORK OF THREE-SUPORT BEARING SHAFT

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosław KACZOR

    2014-01-01

    Durability deep groove ball bearings depends on factors (called attributes) design, technological and operational. Among the design features one of the most important is play in the bearings. Polish Norm shows five groups of looseness in the bearings, in which the play range from 0 to 105 microns. Manufacturers of rolling bearings they only play group, which has a bearing data, without giving the exact value of the slack. Aim of this study is to determine how it affects the play in the bea...

  7. Identifying hidden sexual bridging communities in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Yoosik; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Williams, Chyvette T; Ouellet, Lawrence J

    2009-07-01

    Bridge populations can play a central role in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by providing transmission links between higher and lower prevalence populations. While social network methods are well suited to the study of bridge populations, analyses tend to focus on dyads (i.e., risk between drug and/or sex partners) and ignore bridges between distinct subpopulations. This study takes initial steps toward moving the analysis of sexual network linkages beyond individual and risk group levels to a community level in which Chicago's 77 community areas are examined as subpopulations for the purpose of identifying potential bridging communities. Of particular interest are "hidden" bridging communities; that is, areas with above-average levels of sexual ties with other areas but whose below-average AIDS prevalence may hide their potential importance for HIV prevention. Data for this analysis came from the first wave of recruiting at the Chicago Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Program site. Between August 2005 through October 2006, respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit users of heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine, men who have sex with men regardless of drug use, the sex partners of these two groups, and sex partners of the sex partners. In this cross-sectional study of the sexual transmission of HIV, participants completed a network-focused computer-assisted self-administered interview, which included questions about the geographic locations of sexual contacts with up to six recent partners. Bridging scores for each area were determined using a matrix representing Chicago's 77 community areas and were assessed using two measures: non-redundant ties and flow betweenness. Bridging measures and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case prevalence rates were plotted for each community area on charts representing four conditions: below-average bridging and AIDS prevalence, below-average bridging and above

  8. Experimental study of single span railway bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Rigueiro, Constança; Rebelo, C.; Silva, L. Simões da

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present some results concerning the investigation that has been done by the authors regarding the dynamic response of small to médium span railway bridges using response acceleration data colleted during the measurements carried out on single span bridges on the railway track Linz-Wels, in Austria. Using output-only methods in this experimental program, it was possible to have an estimation of the igenfrequencies, mode shapes and the corresponding viscous ...

  9. Active control of vibrations in pedestrian bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Cunha; Carlos Moutinho

    1999-01-01

    This paper, apart from making a brief general reference to vibration problems in pedestrian bridges, as well as to the form of modelling of dynamic pedestrian loads, presents the use of a predictive control strategy for the numerical simulation of the dynamic response of actively controlled structures of this type. The consideration of this control strategy permitted the development of a computational model, which was applied to the study of a pedestrian cable-stayed bridge, in order to show ...

  10. Acoustic Emission Health Monitoring of Steel Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Pahlavan, Pooria Lotfollah; Paulissen, Joep; Pijpers, Richard; Hakkesteegt, Henk; Jansen, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive developments in the field of Acoustic Emission (AE) for monitoring fatigue cracks in steel structures, the implementation of AE systems for large-scale bridges is hindered by limitations associated with instrumentation costs and signal processing complexities. This paper sheds light on some of the most important challenges in the utilization of AE systems for steel bridge decks. These challenges are mainly related to the multi-modal character of guided waves, and the expensi...

  11. Building Organic Bridges: Volume 1, Argentina - France

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmann, Gerold; Aksoy, Uygun

    2014-01-01

    [Foreword ...] The 18th IFOAM Organic World Congress held on 13-15 October, 2014 in Istanbul-Turkey targets to 'build organic bridges'. The Scientific track will contribute to bridging not only scientists but also institutions and disciplines, and to linking more developed and less developed, rural and urban, research to extension, plant to animal, farm practices to world-wide problems and producer and consumers. Organic is a management system that requires a diversity of inputs from differen...

  12. Building Organic Bridges: Volume 2, Germany - India

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmann, Gerold; Aksoy, Uygun

    2014-01-01

    [Foreword ...] The 18th IFOAM Organic World Congress held on 13-15 October, 2014 in Istanbul-Turkey targets to 'build organic bridges'. The Scientific track will contribute to bridging not only scientists but also institutions and disciplines, and to linking more developed and less developed, rural and urban, research to extension, plant to animal, farm practices to world-wide problems and producer and consumers. Organic is a management system that requires a diversity of inputs from differen...

  13. Differential Local Spasticity in Myocardial Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, Paolo; Uribe, Carlo; Lozano, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    To illustrate the effect of myocardial bridges on coronary vascular tone, we describe the cases of 2 patients with different clinical presentations in the context of reproducible increased spasticity at the site of myocardial bridging. One had an episode of takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and one developed typical Prinzmetal angina while receiving desmopressin treatment for pituitary insufficiency. In both patients, acetylcholine challenge clearly revealed both the presence and the severity of myoc...

  14. Noise measurements in superconducting proximity bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments and analsis have been done to show that the low-frequency noise voltage developed across a current-biased proximity-coupled superconducting bridge is well described by existing theories of electron tunneling. There is also some evidence that, on a two-fluid model, normal and supercurrent noise may be correlated. The temperature sensitivity of these bridges is calculated from the measured noise spectrum and is found to compare favorably with existing bolometric techniques

  15. Thermal Bridge Effects in Walls Separating Rowhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report the thermal bridge effects at internal wall/roof junctions in rowhouses are evaluated. The analysis is performed using a numerical calculation programme, and different solutions are evaluated with respect to extra heat loss and internal surface temperatures.......In this report the thermal bridge effects at internal wall/roof junctions in rowhouses are evaluated. The analysis is performed using a numerical calculation programme, and different solutions are evaluated with respect to extra heat loss and internal surface temperatures....

  16. The evaluation of bicycle paths on bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hwa-chyi; De Backer, Hans; Lauwers, Dirk; Chang, SK Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bicycle accidents have increasingly caused casualties and property damage. Many countries have therefore started to pay more attention to designing the space of bicycle paths. However, few studies have focused on the design of bicycle continuity between each bicycle path. In this study, the concept of using both spatial crash probability (P) and crash severity index (CSI) is introduced to address the bicycle safety issue on bridges in Central Business Districts (CBDs). Bicycle paths on bridge...

  17. Subscapularis Tendon Repair Using Suture Bridge Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yong Bok; Park, Young Eun; Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Lim, Tae Kang; Shon, Min Soo; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2015-01-01

    The subscapularis tendon plays an essential role in shoulder function. Although subscapularis tendon tears are less common than other rotator cuff tears, tears of the subscapularis tendon have increasingly been recognized with the advent of magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy. A suture bridge technique for the treatment of posterosuperior rotator cuff tears has provided the opportunity to improve the pressurized contact area and mean footprint pressure. However, suture bridge fixation ...

  18. Assessment of a Bridge WIM System on Integral Concrete Bridges and on Steel Orthotropic Decks

    OpenAIRE

    Ieng, Sio Song; SCHMIDT, Franziska; ROMBONI, Frédéric; Jacob, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Bridge-Weigh-In-Motion uses bridges as a scale to weigh vehicles. Practically, this is done by measuring the strains in that bridge, and relating them to the weight and dimensions of a truck called “calibration trucks” whose shape and axle weights are well known. This article summarizes different B-WIM experiments the institute IFSTTAR (formerly called LCPC) realized and the lessons drawn from this experience. First, the system has been tested on frame-type bridges with integral s...

  19. Inspection Based Evaluation of a Danish Road Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper it is shown how an inspection-based evaluation of a Danish road bridge may be performed using the BRIDGE1 and BRIDGE2 bridge management systems produced within the EC-supported research programme "Assessment of Performance and Optimal Strategies for Inspection and Maintenance of Con...... Concrete Structures using Reliability Based Expert Systems"....

  20. TMACS test procedure TP012: Panalarm software bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Test Procedure addresses the testing of the functionality of the Tank Monitor and Control System (TMACS) Panalarm bridge software. The features to be tested are: Bridge Initialization Options; Bridge Communication; Bridge Performance; Testing Checksum Errors; and Testing Command Reject Errors. Only the first three could be tested; the last two have been deferred to a later date

  1. Detection of salt bridges to lysines in solution in barnase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Williamson, Michael P.; Hounslow, Andrea M.; Ford, Joe; Fowler, Kyle; Hebditch, Max

    2013-01-01

    We show that salt bridges involving lysines can be detected by deuterium isotope effects on NMR chemical shifts of the sidechain amine. Lys27 in the ribonuclease barnase is salt bridged, and mutation of Arg69 to Lys retains a partially buried salt bridge. The salt bridges are functionally important....

  2. Precast Pearl-Chain concrete arch bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    the technology was used. We also study other important components and details in the Pearl-Chain Bridge concept and review the effects of different types of loads. A theoretical case study of a circular 30 m span Pearl-Chain Bridge is presented showing the influence of a number of parameters: The......A Pearl-Chain Bridge is a closed-spandrel arch bridge consisting of a number of straight pre-fabricated so called Super-Light Deck elements put together in an arch shape by post-tensioning cables. Several Pearl-Chain arches can be positioned adjacent to each other by a crane to achieve a bridge of...... number of post-tensioning cables, the rise to span ratio, the height of the filling, and the height of the Super-Light Decks. We find that Pearl-Chain Bridges can be adjusted to resist specific moment loads by changing the normal force in the arch cross section by altering the above parameters. It is...

  3. Framework for Bridges Maintenance in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Abd Elkhalek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approaches for bridges maintenance is proven to be inefficient as they lead to random way of spending maintenance budget and deteriorating bridge conditions. In many cases, maintenance activities are performed due to user complaints. The objective of this paper is to develop a practical and reliable framework to manage the maintenance and repair activities of Bridges network in Egypt considering performance and budget limits. The model solves an optimization problem that maximizes the average condition of the network given the limited budget using Genetic Algorithm (GA. The main tasks of the system are bridge inventory, condition assessment, deterioration using markov model, and maintenance optimization. The developed model takes into account multiple parameters including serviceability requirements, budget allocation, element importance on structural safety and serviceability, bridge impact on network, and traffic. A questionnaire is conducted to complete the research scope. The proposed model is implemented in software, which provides a friendly user interface. The results of the framework are multi – year maintenance plan for the entire network for up to five years. A case study is presented for validating and testing the model with Data collected from “General Authority for Roads, Bridges and Land Transport” in Egypt.

  4. Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, James P.; Hofreiter, Michael; Smith, Doug; Priest, JamesR.; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Krause, Johannes; Detter, J. Chris; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, Edward M.

    2005-04-01

    Despite the information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies to date have largely been limited to amplification of mitochondrial DNA due to technical hurdles such as contamination and degradation of ancient DNAs. In this study, we describe two metagenomic libraries constructed using unamplified DNA extracted from the bones of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of {approx}1 Mb of sequence from each library showed that, despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 percent and 1.1 percent of clones in the libraries contain cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 bp of cave bear genome sequence. Alignment of this sequence to the dog genome, the closest sequenced genome to cave bear in terms of evolutionary distance, revealed roughly the expected ratio of cave bear exons, repeats and conserved noncoding sequences. Only 0.04 percent of all clones sequenced were derived from contamination with modern human DNA. Comparison of cave bear with orthologous sequences from several modern bear species revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. Using the metagenomic approach described here, we have recovered substantial quantities of mammalian genomic sequence more than twice as old as any previously reported, establishing the feasibility of ancient DNA genomic sequencing programs.

  5. Passive Magnetic Bearing With Ferrofluid Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph; DiRusso, Eliseo

    1996-01-01

    A new class of magnetic bearings is shown to exist analytically and is demonstrated experimentally. The class of magnetic bearings utilize a ferrofluid/solid magnet interaction to stabilize the axial degree of freedom of a permanent magnet radial bearing. Twenty six permanent magnet bearing designs and twenty two ferrofluid stabilizer designs are evaluated. Two types of radial bearing designs are tested to determine their force and stiffness utilizing two methods. The first method is based on the use of frequency measurements to determine stiffness by utilizing an analytical model. The second method consisted of loading the system and measuring displacement in order to measure stiffness. Two ferrofluid stabilizers are tested and force displacement curves are measured. Two experimental test fixtures are designed and constructed in order to conduct the stiffness testing. Polynomial models of the data are generated and used to design the bearing prototype. The prototype was constructed and tested and shown to be stable. Further testing shows the possibility of using this technology for vibration isolation. The project successfully demonstrated the viability of the passive magnetic bearing with ferrofluid stabilization both experimentally and analytically.

  6. Intelligent monitoring of ball bearing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. I.; Mengel, J. M.

    1992-09-01

    Ball bearings are widely used in various kinds of robots, manufacturing machines, and equipment. In order to enhance productivity and improve product quality, an on-line monitoring system is essential to check the status of ball bearings. In this work, peak amplitude in the frequency domain, peak RMS, and the power spectrum were used as indirect indices to develop a system for monitoring and classifying ball bearing defects. These indices were then processed by artificial neural networks. Six different cases of ball bearing states were observed. The data from these observations were then input into neural networks with different architectures to train these neural networks in a learning process. All the trained neural networks are capable of distinguishing the normal bearings from defective bearings with a 100 percent success rate. They can also classify the bearing conditions into six different states with a success rate of up to 97 per cent. The effects of training set sizes and neural network structures on the monitoring performance have also been investigated.

  7. Response Modification Factors for Concrete Bridges in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kappos, A. J.; Paraskeva, T. S.; Moschonas, I. F.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for evaluating the actual response modification factors (q or R) of bridges and applies it to seven concrete bridges typical of the stock found in southern Europe. The usual procedure for analytically estimating the q-factor is through pushover curves derived for the bridge in (at least) its longitudinal and transverse directions. The shape of such curves depends on the seismic energy dissipation mechanism of the bridge; hence, bridges are assigned to two cate...

  8. Structural damage diagnosis of steel truss bridges by outlier detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, C. W.; Kitauchi, S.; Chang, K. C.; McGetrick, P. J.; Sugiura, K.; Kawatani, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses structural damage diagnosis of real steel truss bridges by measuring trafficinduced vibration of bridges and utilizing a damage indicator derived from linear system parameters of a time series model. On-site damage experiments were carried out on real steel truss bridges. Artificial damage was applied to the bridge by severing a truss member with a cutting machine.Vehicle-induced vibrations of the bridges before and after applying damagewere measured and used in structura...

  9. Coronary atherosclerosis within a myocardial bridge, not a benign condition

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, de, A.J.; Kok, W.E.M.; Piek, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    In patients with myocardial bridging, the area within the bridge usually remains free from atherosclerotic disease. The case of a 47 year old man is described who had the rare combination of myocardial bridging with an atherosclerotic plaque within the area of bridging, which was detected with intravascular ultrasound but not with coronary angiography. The clinical history of the patient demonstrates that this is not a benign condition. In symptomatic patients the bridged segment should be sc...

  10. Characterization of the High-Speed-Stage Bearing Skidding of Wind Turbine Gearboxes Induced by Dynamic Electricity Grid Events: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helsen, Jan; Guillaume, Patrick; Guo, Yi; Keller, Jonathan

    2016-05-18

    Bearing behavior is an important factor for wind turbine drivetrain reliability. Extreme loads and dynamic excitations pose challenges to the bearing design and therefore its performance. Excessive skidding of the bearing rollers should be avoided because it can cause scuffing failures. Excitations coming from wind and the electricity grid can subject the drivetrain to fluctuating torque and nontorque loads. Wind-induced excitations have been investigated predominantly in literature. However, modern wind turbines are subjected more and more to grid-induced loads because of stricter electricity grid regulations. For example, during fault-ride-through events, turbines are required to stay connected for a longer period of time during the grid failure. This work investigates the influence of electrically induced excitations on the skidding behaviour of the tapered roller bearings on the high-speed stage of a wind turbine gearbox. This skidding behaviour during dynamic events is described as a potential bearing failure initiator by many researchers; however, only limited full-scale dynamic testing is documented. Therefore, a dedicated gridloss-type event is defined in the paper and conducted in a dynamometer test on a full-scale wind turbine nacelle. During the event, a complete electricity grid failure is simulated while the turbine is at rated speed and predefined torque levels. Particular focus is on the characterization of the high-speed shaft tapered roller bearing slip behavior. Strain-gauge bridges in grooves along the circumference of the outer ring are used to characterize the bearing load zone in detail. It is shown that during the torque reversals of the transient event, roller slip can be induced. This indicates the potential of the applied load case to go beyond the preload of the tapered roller bearing. Furthermore, the relation between the applied torque and skidding level is studied.

  11. Design of gas bearing systems for precision applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junming

    Research to provide the up to date knowledge and efficient tools to design better Externally Pressurized Gas (EPG) bearing systems, including the design of individual bearings, and to arrange all the bearings used in an optimal way is reported. Both circular and rectangular EPG pads with rigid bearing surfaces and rigid inlet restrictors were used. The following topics closely related to the applications in precision engineering are discussed: influences of gap shape on the bearing performance; effects of bearing body tilt on the bearing performance; influences of bearing surface imperfections on bearing performance; temperature drops in EPG bearings in quasistationary conditions; the optimal use of multiple bearings in a mechanical system; the use of EPG bearing damping characteristics in the design; and the effects of motion velocity.

  12. Future bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jun-Dong

    2014-03-01

    One of the most important issues in the modern total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the bearing surface. Extensive research on bearing surfaces is being conducted to seek an ideal bearing surface for THA. The ideal bearing surface for THA should have superior wear characteristics and should be durable, bio-inert, cost-effective, and easy to implant. However, bearing surfaces that are currently being implemented do not completely fulfill these requirements, especially for young individuals for whom implant longevity is paramount. Even though various new bearing surfaces have been investigated, research is still ongoing, and only short-term results have been reported from clinical trials. Future bearing surfaces can be developed in the following ways: (1) change in design, (2) further improvement of polyethylene, (3) surface modification of the metal, (4) improvement in the ceramic, and (5) use of alternative, new materials. One way to reduce wear and impingement in THA is to make changes in its design by using a large femoral head, a monobloc metal shell with preassembled ceramic liner, dual mobility cups, a combination of different bearing surfaces, etc. Polyethylene has improved over time with the development of highly crosslinked polyethylene. Further improvements can be made by reinforcing it with vitamin E or multiwalled carbon nanotubes and by performing a surface modification with a biomembrane. Surface modifications with titanium nitride or titanium niobium nitride are implemented to try to improve the metal bearings. The advance to the fourth generation ceramics has shown relatively promising results, even in young patients. Nevertheless, further improvement is required to reduce fragility and squeaking. Alternative materials like diamond coatings on surfaces, carbon based composite materials, oxidized zirconium, silicon nitride, and sapphire are being sought. However, long-term studies are necessary to confirm the efficacy of these surfaces after enhancements

  13. Overall Design and Study of South and North Bridges of Xiazhang Sea-Crossing Bridge%厦漳跨海大桥南、北汊桥总体设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福敏; 罗强; 李军

    2013-01-01

    of the approach bridges,the earthquake isolation bearings were arranged.For the north main bridge,a kind of the wing type balustrade was utilized while for the south main bridge,the wind resistant measure of the guide vanes was taken.

  14. Design, Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Novel link-bridge and B-Ring Modified Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) Analogues as Potent Antitubulin Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Tao Duan; Ruo-Jun Man; Dan-Jie Tang; Yong-Fang Yao; Xiang-Xiang Tao; Chen Yu; Xin-Yi Liang; Jigar A. Makawana; Mei-Juan Zou; Zhong-Chang Wang; Hai-Liang Zhu

    2016-01-01

    A series of 12 novel acylhydrazone, chalcone and amide–bridged analogues of combretastatin A-4 were designed and synthesized toward tubulin. All these compounds were determined by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, and MS. Among them, compound 7 with acylhydrazone-bridge, bearing a benzyl at the indole-N position, was identified as a potent antiproliferative agent against a panel of cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.08 to 35.6 μM. In contrast, its cytotoxic effects on three normal hu...

  15. Compressor ported shroud for foil bearing cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpern, David G.; McCabe, Niall; Gee, Mark

    2011-08-02

    A compressor ported shroud takes compressed air from the shroud of the compressor before it is completely compressed and delivers it to foil bearings. The compressed air has a lower pressure and temperature than compressed outlet air. The lower temperature of the air means that less air needs to be bled off from the compressor to cool the foil bearings. This increases the overall system efficiency due to the reduced mass flow requirements of the lower temperature air. By taking the air at a lower pressure, less work is lost compressing the bearing cooling air.

  16. Corporate risks, risk bearing ability and equity

    OpenAIRE

    Handschin, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    There is a relation between corporate risks, risk bearing ability and equity. In order to assess the risk bearing ability of a corporation, one reference figure is equity, understood as the sum of legal capital and reserves, free reserves and accrued profits. Equity shows the risk bearing ability related to the risk of asset reduction as well as the ability of the corporation to attract new liquidity by increasing debts, in case of a negative free cash flow. Equity is the risk reserve of the ...

  17. Hydrostatic, aerostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W Brian

    2012-01-01

    Solve your bearing design problems with step-by-step procedures and hard-won performance data from a leading expert and consultant Compiled for ease of use in practical design scenarios, Hydrostatic, Aerostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design provides the basic principles, design procedures and data you need to create the right bearing solution for your requirements. In this valuable reference and design companion, author and expert W. Brian Rowe shares the hard-won lessons and figures from a lifetime's research and consultancy experience. Coverage includes: Clear e

  18. Microeconomic analysis of military aircraft bearing restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding program was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed. The annual cost savings to U.S. Army aviation is approximately $950,000.00 for three engines and three transmissions. The capital value over an indefinite life is approximately ten million dollars. The annual cost savings for U.S. Air Force engines is approximately $313,000.00 with a capital value of approximately 3.1 million dollars. The program will result in the government obtaining bearings at lower costs at equivalent reliability. The bearing industry can recover lost profits during a period of reduced demand and higher costs.

  19. Rotor Vibration Reduction via Active Hybrid Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2002-01-01

    The use of fluid power to reduce and control rotor vibration in rotating machines is investigated. An active hybrid bearing is studied, whose main objective is to reduce wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. By injecting pressurised oil into the oil film, through...... orifices machined in the bearing pads, one can alter the machine dynamic characteristics, thus enhancing its operational range. A mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system, as well as of the hydraulic system, is presented. Numerical results of the system frequency response show good agreement with...

  20. Bear bile: dilemma of traditional medicinal use and animal protection

    OpenAIRE

    Nagamatsu Tadashi; Tsao Sai-Wah; Ng Kwan-Ming; Wang Ning; Siu Kayu; Feng Yibin; Tong Yao

    2009-01-01

    Bear bile has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for thousands of years. Modern investigations showed that it has a wide range of pharmacological actions with little toxicological side effect and the pure compounds have been used for curing hepatic and biliary disorders for decades. However, extensive consumption of bear bile made bears endangered species. In the 1980's, bear farming was established in China to extract bear bile from living bears with "Free-dripping Fistula Techn...

  1. Compact piezoelectric tripod manipulator based on a reverse bridge-type amplification mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Tae-Won; Choi, Jun-Ho; Jung, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyeong-Geon; Han, Jae-Hung; Park, Kwang-Chun; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-09-01

    We report a hierarchical piezoelectric tripod manipulator based on a reverse bridge-type displacement amplifier. The reverse bridge-type amplification mechanism is pre-strained by each piezo-stack actuator up to 60 μm and is cross-stacked in a series arrangement to make a compact and high-stroke manipulator having load-bearing characteristics. The designed manipulator with three degrees of freedom is compact with a height of 56.0 mm, a diameter of 48.6 mm and total weight of 115 g. It achieves a translational stroke of up to 880 μm in heaving motion and a tilting angle of up to 2.0° in rotational motion within the operating voltage and power range of the piezoelectric stack actuator. A key feature of the present design is built-in and pre-strained displacement amplification mechanisms integrated with piezoelectric stacked actuators, resulting in a compact tripod manipulator having exceptionally high stroke and load-bearing capacity.

  2. Transient unbalance response of four multilobe journal bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, P. E.; Li, D. F.; Choy, K. C.

    1979-01-01

    This work carries out an analysis of the transient response of four multilobe journal bearings (elliptical, offset, three-lobe, and four-lobe) subject to unbalance both below and above the linearized stability thresholds for the bearings. It extends the work of a previous paper on a balanced rotor in the same four bearing types. Transient orbits, bearing forces, and a numerical fast Fourier transform analysis of the orbits are presented. A comparison of bearing forces above the stability threshold for each bearing indicates that the elliptical bearing has the most violent whirl vibration amplitudes, while the offset bearing exhibits the least amount of subsynchronous vibration.

  3. Comprehensive Real-Time Bridge Health Monitoring System of Tongtai Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Su-su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongtai Bridge is the world’s largest suspension curve-girder-skew-arch bridge, which is located in Zhangjiakou, China. The understanding of mechanics characteristics is limited to such complex bridges, so it is necessary to establish reliable health monitoring system to investigate the static and dynamic responses and monitor the safety of the bridge. A comprehensive real-time bridge health monitoring system is establish, which includes four aspects: sensor system, data acquisition and transmission system, data processing and control system, structure early warning and security assessment system. The paper systematically describes the system design principles, sensor layout, and monitoring content, then expounds system integration and function of each subsystem.

  4. Molecular phylogeny and SNP variation of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) derived from genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A; Rincon, Gonzalo; Meredith, Robert W; MacNeil, Michael D; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Cánovas, Angela; Medrano, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the relationships of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) with high throughput genomic sequencing data with an average coverage of 25× for each species. A total of 1.4 billion 100-bp paired-end reads were assembled using the polar bear and annotated giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) genome sequences as references. We identified 13.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the 3 species aligned to the polar bear genome. These data indicate that polar bears and brown bears share more SNP with each other than either does with black bears. Concatenation and coalescence-based analysis of consensus sequences of approximately 1 million base pairs of ultraconserved elements in the nuclear genome resulted in a phylogeny with black bears as the sister group to brown and polar bears, and all brown bears are in a separate clade from polar bears. Genotypes for 162 SNP loci of 336 bears from Alaska and Montana showed that the species are genetically differentiated and there is geographic population structure of brown and black bears but not polar bears. PMID:24477675

  5. All Polar Bear Critical Habitat Combined

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This layer shows all categories of polar bear critical habitat combined into one overall polygon. This polygon includes the following critical habitat types: 1)...

  6. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  7. Bear Lake-Minidoka - Phragmites Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bear Lake: Phragmites patches were sprayed on the refuge & north of the lake proper. Minidoka: patches along the Snake River & Lake Walcott were treated...

  8. Failure tests of laminated rubber bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different types of rubber bearing - natural rubber bearing (NRB), lead-rubber bearing (LRB), and high-damping rubber bearing (HRB) - were tested up to failure under various combinations of axial and shear forces. The test results are summarized as follows: 1) Offset shear strain greatly affects tensile behavior and failure. 2) Axial stress or strain does not so greatly affect shear behavior and failure. 3) The characteristics of NBR and LRB are almost independent of strain rate, but those of HRB depend greatly on it. 4) Cyclic loading affects large-deformation behavior and failure to some extent. 5) failure limits which include the interaction between axial stress and shear strain were quantitatively evaluated. 6) A lead plug of LRB has no bad influence on failure. These will be very useful for developing an ultimate response prediction technique, which is necessary to establish rational design philosophy of base isolation systems for FBR plants. (author)

  9. Mercury biomagnification in polar bears ( Ursus maritimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, T. W.; Blum, J. D.; Xie, Z.; Hren, M.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2007-12-01

    Mercury biomagnification occurs in a variety of ecosystems resulting in greater potential for toxicological effects in higher-level trophic feeders. However, Hg transport pathways through different foodweb channels are not well known, particularly in high-latitude systems affected by atmospheric Hg deposition associated with snow and ice. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios and Hg concentrations determined for 26 late 19th and early 20th century polar bear hair specimens collected from cataloged museum collections elucidate relationships between high latitude marine foodweb structure and Hg transport pathways. Nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions suggest that polar bears derive nutrition from both open water (pelagic) and ice associated (sympagic) foodweb channels. Correlation between Hg concentrations and nitrogen isotope compositions indicate mercury biomagnification occurred in most of the polar bears investigated. Interpretation of stable isotope based foodweb structure in concert with Hg concentrations further suggests that Hg biomagnification occurred to a greater degree in polar bears participating in pelagic foodweb channels.

  10. LIGHT-WEIGHT LOAD-BEARING STRUCTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    the core (3) of strong concrete. The invention also relates to a method of casting of light-weight load-bearing structures (1) with optimized compression zone (2) where one or more channels, grooves, ducts, pipes and/or hoses (5) formed in the load-bearing structure (1) serves as moulds for moulding......The invention relates to a light-weight load-bearing structure (1) with optimized compression zone (2), where along one or more compression zones (2) in the structure (1) to be cast a core (3) of strong concrete is provided, which core (3) is surrounded by concrete of less strength (4) compared to...... one or more cores (3) of strong concrete in the light-weight load-bearing structure (1)....

  11. Ceramic Rail-Race Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Mark A.; Mungas, Greg S.; Peters, Gregory H.

    2010-01-01

    Non-lubricated ball bearings featuring rail races have been proposed for use in mechanisms that are required to function in the presence of mineral dust particles in very low-pressure, dry environments with extended life. Like a conventional ball bearing, the proposed bearing would include an inner and an outer ring separated by balls in rolling contact with the races. However, unlike a conventional ball bearing, the balls would not roll in semi-circular or gothic arch race grooves in the rings: instead, the races would be shaped to form two or more rails (see figure). During operation, the motion of the balls would push dust particles into the spaces between the rails where the particles could not generate rolling resistance for the balls

  12. Novel nano bearings constructed by physical adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongbin

    2015-09-01

    The paper proposes a novel nano bearing formed by the physical adsorption of the confined fluid to the solid wall. The bearing is formed between two parallel smooth solid plane walls sliding against one another, where conventional hydrodynamic lubrication theory predicted no lubricating effect. In this bearing, the stationary solid wall is divided into two subzones which respectively have different interaction strengths with the lubricating fluid. It leads to different physical adsorption and slip properties of the lubricating fluid at the stationary solid wall respectively in these two subzones. It was found that a significant load-carrying capacity of the bearing can be generated for low lubricating film thicknesses, because of the strong physical adsorption and non-continuum effects of the lubricating film.

  13. Cavitation Peening of Aerospace Bearings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-value bearings are a critical part of the safety, reliability, cost and performance of modern aircraft. A typical passenger jet will have 100 to 175 high-valve...

  14. Polar bear research in Alaska, spring 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An investigation of the ecology and population dynamics of Alaskan polar bears has continued since 1967. As part of that program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  15. Polar bear research in Alaska, spring 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An investigation of the ecology and population dynamics of Alaskan polar bears has continued since 1967. As part of that program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  16. The polar bear and its protection

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — No census has been made of the polar bear population and indeed the general movements of the animals within their range are poorly known. At present it is not...

  17. Bearings for the HFIR control plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent accelerated wear of HFIR bearings seems to be a more advanced stage of the situation encountered in 1967. The latest observations are in agreement with the hypothesis that high-frequency impact loads at a 300 angle on these bearings are the apparent basic cause of their short life. In view of the limited possibilities for change at this stage of HFIR operation, the region of best payoff seems to be an increase in the load-carrying area at some acceptable sacrifice of low rolling friction. On this basis three types of bearings are proposed for test--two of these are journal types and one is a slider type. The next planned shutdown for major parts replacement provides an opportunity to test these modified bearing types in the HFIR under full mechanical operating conditions but without nuclear operation. The program is recommended for consideration and adoption. (U.S.)

  18. Gauge Measures Large Spherical Bearing Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George L.

    1992-01-01

    Radius of spherical portion of surface computed from reading of depth gauge. Measuring tool calibrated by applying it to reference spherical surface of known radius. Used onsite, so unnecessary to ship bearings to laboratory for examination by computerized test equipment.

  19. Bridges in the random-cluster model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elçi, Eren Metin; Weigel, Martin; Fytas, Nikolaos G.

    2016-02-01

    The random-cluster model, a correlated bond percolation model, unifies a range of important models of statistical mechanics in one description, including independent bond percolation, the Potts model and uniform spanning trees. By introducing a classification of edges based on their relevance to the connectivity we study the stability of clusters in this model. We prove several exact relations for general graphs that allow us to derive unambiguously the finite-size scaling behavior of the density of bridges and non-bridges. For percolation, we are also able to characterize the point for which clusters become maximally fragile and show that it is connected to the concept of the bridge load. Combining our exact treatment with further results from conformal field theory, we uncover a surprising behavior of the (normalized) variance of the number of (non-)bridges, showing that it diverges in two dimensions below the value 4cos2 ⁡ (π /√{ 3}) = 0.2315891 ⋯ of the cluster coupling q. Finally, we show that a partial or complete pruning of bridges from clusters enables estimates of the backbone fractal dimension that are much less encumbered by finite-size corrections than more conventional approaches.

  20. A probabilistic bridge safety evaluation against floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kuo-Wei; Muto, Yasunori; Chen, Wei-Lun; Wu, Bang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    To further capture the influences of uncertain factors on river bridge safety evaluation, a probabilistic approach is adopted. Because this is a systematic and nonlinear problem, MPP-based reliability analyses are not suitable. A sampling approach such as a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) or importance sampling is often adopted. To enhance the efficiency of the sampling approach, this study utilizes Bayesian least squares support vector machines to construct a response surface followed by an MCS, providing a more precise safety index. Although there are several factors impacting the flood-resistant reliability of a bridge, previous experiences and studies show that the reliability of the bridge itself plays a key role. Thus, the goal of this study is to analyze the system reliability of a selected bridge that includes five limit states. The random variables considered here include the water surface elevation, water velocity, local scour depth, soil property and wind load. Because the first three variables are deeply affected by river hydraulics, a probabilistic HEC-RAS-based simulation is performed to capture the uncertainties in those random variables. The accuracy and variation of our solutions are confirmed by a direct MCS to ensure the applicability of the proposed approach. The results of a numerical example indicate that the proposed approach can efficiently provide an accurate bridge safety evaluation and maintain satisfactory variation. PMID:27386269

  1. Natural vibration dynamics of Rainbow Bridge, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. R.; Thorne, M. S.; Wood, J. R.; Doyle, S.; Stanfield, E.; White, B.

    2015-12-01

    We measured resonant frequencies of Rainbow Bridge, Utah, one of the world's longest rock spans, during a field experiment recording ambient vibration data. Measurements were generated over 20 hours on March 23-24, 2015 using two broadband three-component seismometers placed on the bridge, and compared to concurrent data from nearby reference stations 20 and 220 m distant. We identified seven distinct modes of vibration for Rainbow Bridge between 1 and 6 Hz. Data for each resonant frequency was then analyzed to determine the frequency-dependent polarization vector in an attempt to clarify mode shapes; e.g. the fundamental mode represents out-of-plane horizontal flexure. We compared experimental data to results of 3D numerical modal analysis, using a new photogrammetric model of Rainbow Bridge generated in this study imported into COMSOL Multiphysics. Results compare well with measured data for seven of the first eight modeled modes, matching vibrational frequencies and polarization orientations generally within 10%. Only predicted mode 6 was not explicitly apparent in our experimental data. Large site-to-reference spectral ratios resolved from experimental data indicate high amplification on the bridge as compared to nearby bedrock.

  2. Active magnetic bearings used as exciters for rolling element bearing outer race defect diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanping; Di, Long; Zhou, Jin; Jin, Chaowu; Guo, Qintao

    2016-03-01

    The active health monitoring of rotordynamic systems in the presence of bearing outer race defect is considered in this paper. The shaft is assumed to be supported by conventional mechanical bearings and an active magnetic bearing (AMB) is used in the mid of the shaft location as an exciter to apply electromagnetic force to the system. We investigate a nonlinear bearing-pedestal system model with the outer race defect under the electromagnetic force. The nonlinear differential equations are integrated using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm. The simulation and experimental results show that the characteristic signal of outer race incipient defect is significantly amplified under the electromagnetic force through the AMBs, which is helpful to improve the diagnosis accuracy of rolling element bearing׳s incipient outer race defect. PMID:26803551

  3. Genetic relationships of extant brown bears (Ursus arctos) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A; MacNeil, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and brown bears (Ursus arctos) are closely related species for which extensive mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic comparisons have been made. We used previously published genotype data for 8 microsatellite DNA loci from 930 brown bears in 19 populations and 473 polar bears in 16 populations to compare the population genetic relationships of extant populations of the species. Genetic distances (Nei standard distance = 1.157), the proportion of private alleles (52% of alleles are not shared by the species), and Bayesian cluster analysis are consistent with morphological and life-history characteristics that distinguish polar bears and brown bears as different species with little or no gene flow among extant populations. PMID:23125409

  4. Spectral properties and identification of aerostatic bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Kozánek; Ladislav P(u)st

    2011-01-01

    Modified rotor kit BentlyNevada was used for dynamic characteristics measurements of new developed aerostatic bearings. Mathematical model of these bearings is considered as linear. Model was identified with the help of harmonic force excitation independently from the speed of journal rotation. The stiffness and damping matrices were identified for different air inlet pressures. The calculated spectral properties allow to determine the stability boundary for suitable variation of model parameters.

  5. Flywheel energy storage with superconductor magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.; Lynds, Jr., Lahmer; Hull, John R.

    1993-01-01

    A flywheel having superconductor bearings has a lower drag to lift ratio that translates to an improvement of a factor of ten in the rotational decay rate. The lower drag results from the lower dissipation of melt-processed YBCO, improved uniformity of the permanent magnet portion of the bearings, operation in a different range of vacuum pressure from that taught by the art, and greater separation distance from the rotating members of conductive materials.

  6. Partial Lubrification of Full Cylindrical Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Capriz, Gianfranco; Cimatti, Giovanni

    1981-01-01

    the phenomenon of cavitation in bearings is often studied under the assumption that the pressure and the pressure gradient both vanish along the unknown boundary of the cavitation bubble. However, such conditions (often namend after Swift and Stieber) may be inconsistent with mass conservation. The discrepancy is particularly striking when the case of long bearings is studied within the so called Sommerfeld approximation. Therefore a complete analysis of the Sommerfeld case is carried out her...

  7. Surface layer characterisation of bearing rings

    OpenAIRE

    S.J. Skrzypek; M. Goły

    2007-01-01

    austenite. Theoretical calculation of residual macro-stresses due to volume fraction of transformed austenite in bearing rings and following measurements of residual stresses were carried out as well. The bearing elements were made of 100Cr6 steel and they were smoothed and grinded.Design/methodology/approach: Particular features of diffraction patterns like angle position; shape and intensity are used to characterize phase composition, residual micro and macro-stresses, crystallographic tex...

  8. Design of bearing structures of dwelling - house

    OpenAIRE

    Sodja, Urška

    2007-01-01

    Graduation thesis represents design of bearing structures of dwelling-house including materials and materials´ properties of bearing structures. Self weight, imposed load, snow, and wind are determinated regarding EC1. Static calculation of building is divided to design of timber, reinforced concrete elements and control of resistance of walls. Summary contains earthquake rules for simple masonry buildings. Enclosure contains plans for positions of slaps and reinforces.

  9. Useful features in the damage detection of bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study develops a method for detecting damages in a bridge. A truck is driven at constant speed through a target bridge. The elongations of the bridge are recorded by the sensors mounted on the bridge. It is found that the signals can reflect the health condition of the bridge faithfully. Furthermore, by examining the maximum and minimum of the signals, one can determine the damage levels and locations of the bridge easily. Hence, the extreme values of the elongations are useful features in the damage detection of bridges. Based on the proposed features, a health monitoring system of the bridge is developed using artificial neural networks. The numerical example shows that the monitoring system is effective in the damage detection of the bridge.

  10. Rotordynamics and bearing design of turbochargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen Jeng

    2012-05-01

    Turbochargers have gained significant attention in recent years. They are already widely used in automotive, locomotive, and marine applications with diesel engines. They are also applied in the aerospace application to increase the engine performance now. The turbochargers used in automotive and aerospace industry are very light-weight with operating speeds above 100,000 rpm. The turbochargers used in locomotive and marine applications are relatively heavy in size and power compared to the automotive and aerospace applications, and the maximum continuous operating speeds are around 30,000 rpm depending on the diesel engine power rating. Floating ring bushings, semi-floating dampers, ball bearings, and ball bearings with dampers are commonly used in automotive applications for small turbochargers. However, these bearings may not be appropriate for large turbochargers in locomotive and marine applications. Instead, multi-lobed bearings with and without squeeze film dampers are commonly used in these heavy-duty turbochargers. This paper deals with the rotordynamic characteristics of larger turbochargers in locomotive and marine applications. Various bearing designs are discussed. Bearing design parameters are studied and optimal values are suggested. Test results are also presented to support the analytical simulation.

  11. D0 Silicon Upgrade: End Calorimeter Transfer Bridge Design and Installation Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North Endcap Calorimeter (NEC) is to be moved from the clean room to the north sidewalk in preparation for the final installation on the DO detector center beam. In order to make this move, the cable bridge must be 'flattened' and the NEC lifted to move over it. The detector is moved west, approximately 24 feet, while the moveable counting house remains stationary. This movement allows the cable bridge to 'flatten' i.e. become horizontal. The cable bridge lowering is steadied and stabilized by 7.5 ton hoist mounted on the moveable counting house. By moving the detector to lower the bridge, a vacancy has been created in the pit that must be filled to the level of the clean room rail elevation. This filler will consist of concrete shield blocks, stacked in two rows. These rows are spaced appropriately to match the wheel base of the EC transporter. A steel plate is placed on top of each row of shield blocks and leveled to the elevation of the clean room rails. Steel plates will be installed and leveled on the north sidewalk similar to those used on the south sidewalk for the CC installation. These plates are used as rails for the Hilman rollers, bearing surfaces for shim blocks used during lifting and anchors for holding the transporter extension units and the transfer bridge. After the plates are installed, the transfer bridge is put in place, spanning the cable bridge, shimmed and leveled. The transporter extension units are positioned next to the transfer bridge on the north sidewalk. With the completion of this prep work, the actual transfer of the NEC from the clean room can begin. The NEC is pulled from the clean room with the same mechanism (cyl. and chain) that was used for the CC and the pull anchor point will be located at the end of the concrete blocks. The NEC will come out of the north west door in the clean room and move along the temporary rail plates in the pit until it is in line with the transfer bridge. At this point the NEC is ready to be

  12. MINERAL BRIDGES OF NACRE AND ITS EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凡; 白以龙

    2001-01-01

    Nacre, or mother-of-pearl, is a kind of composites of aragonite platelets sandwiched between organic materials. Its excellent mechanical properties are thought to stem from the microarchitecture that is traditionally described as a "brick and mortar" arrangement. In this paper, a new microstructure, referred to as mineral bridge in the biomineralization, is directly observed in the organic matrix layers (mortar) of nacre. This is an indication that the organic matrix layer of nacre should be treated as a three-dimensional interface and the microarchitecture of nacre ought to be considered as a "brick-bridge-mortar" structure rather than the traditional one. Experiments and analyses show that the mineral bridges not only improve the mechanical properties of the organic matrix layers but also play an important role in the pattern of the crack extension in nacre.

  13. Bridging radiation policy and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientists, regulators, and policy makers from five continents and 20 countries reached consensus on a number of conclusions and recommendations regarding low-level ionizing radiation exposures at an international conference, 'Bridging Radiation Policy and Science,' at the Airlie Center in Warrenton, Virginia, 1-5 December 1999. The goal of the conference was to develop strategies for formulating national and international policy based on current scientific information in the context of economic, political, and social concerns. Specifically, attendees explored how to establish public policies with respect to radiation protection in view of the scientific uncertainties of the effects of low-level radiation [<100 millisievert (mSv)]. Conference participants agreed that science will not likely answer in the near future fundamental questions about the shape of the dose-response curve and mechanisms of effects of radiation at low doses. The conference endorsed the quest for a prudent and coherent radiation policy based on the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) 'evolving global framework'. The Conference participants agreed upon the following recommendations: Policy discussions on the regulation of radiation sources delivering low-level radiation should include references to natural background radiation. The conference supports the evolving global framework of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the safe use of radiation. The conference supports further development and evaluation of the ideas associated with the proposal on controllable dose. No radiation dose is below regulatory concern but certain levels should be below regulatory action, and appropriate dose levels should be established. Fundamental questions about the shape of the dose-response curve and mechanisms of effects of radiation at low doses are unlikely to be answered in the near future. Scientific research, including molecular and cellular radiobiology studies are critical in order

  14. Cracking behavior of structural slab bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah, Prince

    Bridge deck cracking is a common problem throughout the United States, and it affects the durability and service life of concrete bridges. Several departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United States prefer using continuous three-span solid structural slab bridges without stringers over typical four-lane highways. Recent inspections of such bridges in Ohio revealed cracks as wide as 0.125 in. These measured crack widths are more than ten times the maximum limit recommended in ACI 224R-01 for bridge decks exposed to de-icing salts. Measurements using digital image correlation revealed that the cracks widened under truck loading, and in some cases, the cracks did not fully close after unloading. This dissertation includes details of an experimental investigation of the cracking behavior of structural concrete. Prism tests revealed that the concrete with epoxy-coated bars (ECB) develops the first crack at smaller loads, and develops larger crack widths compared to the corresponding specimens with uncoated (black) bars. Slab tests revealed that the slabs with longitudinal ECB developed first crack at smaller loads, exhibited wider cracks and a larger number of cracks, and failed at smaller ultimate loads compared to the corresponding test slabs with black bars. To develop a preventive measure, slabs with basalt and polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete were also included in the test program. These test slabs exhibited higher cracking loads, smaller crack widths, and higher ultimate loads at failure compared to the corresponding slab specimens without fibers. Merely satisfying the reinforcement spacing requirements given in AASHTO or ACI 318-11 is not adequate to limit cracking below the ACI 224R-01 recommended maximum limit, even though all the relevant design requirements are otherwise met. Addition of fiber to concrete without changing any steel reinforcing details is expected to reduce the severity and extent of cracking in reinforced concrete bridge decks.

  15. MULTIPHASE BLASTING OF THE BRIDGE ACROSS THE DRENICA RIVER

    OpenAIRE

    Branko Božić

    1989-01-01

    The construction of new bridges on the sites of the existing ones require demolition of the old bridge. Due to closeness of newly erected bridge elements the fundations of old bridges are demolished by multiphase blasting process. The blasting of the piers and anchorages of the bridge across 'the Drenica river carrying the Balačevac—Goleš industrial railway was done in four phases. The piers and anchorages of a new bridge and its construction elements have been erected before (the paper is pu...

  16. The mechanics of ship impacts against bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    information is introduced in a mathematical model for estimation of the return period for collisions with bridge piers and girders. A new mathematical model is thereafter presented for calculation of the energies released for crushing of structures given a specific collision scenario which may include a...... glancing blow between the ship and the bridge structure. This model is based on rigid body mechanics and well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic analysis procedure. Finally, some empirical expressions are presented which relate the energy absorbed by crushing of ship structures to the maximum impact...

  17. Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, A.D.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Skieller, D.H.;

    2010-01-01

    Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can...... be significantly enhanced by a geometric factor. For the samples in the present study, we demonstrate an enhancement of the sensor output by a factor of about 100 compared to cross-shaped sensors. The presented construction opens a new design and application area of the planar Hall effect, which we term planar...... Hall effect bridge sensors....

  18. Germanium-overcoated niobium Dayem bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdeman, L. B.; Peters, P. N.

    1976-01-01

    Overcoating constriction microbridges with semiconducting germanium provides additional thermal conductivity at liquid-helium temperatures to reduce the effects of self-heating in these Josephson junctions. Microwave-induced steps were observed in the I-V characteristics of an overcoated Dayem bridge fabricated in a 15-nm-thick niobium film; at least 20 steps could be counted at 4.2 K. No steps were observed in the I-V characteristics of the bridge prior to overcoating. In addition, the germanium overcoat can protect against electrical disturbances at room temperature.

  19. The seismic response of concrete arch bridges (with focus on the Bixby Creek bridge Carmel, California)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehler, M; McCallen, D; Noble, C

    1999-06-01

    The analysis, and subsequent retrofit, of concrete arch bridges during recent years has relied heavily on the use of computational simulation. For seismic analysis in particular, computer simulation, typically utilizing linear approximations of structural behavior, has become standard practice. This report presents the results of a comprehensive study of the significance of model sophistication (i.e. linear vs. nonlinear) and pertinent modeling assumptions on the dynamic response of concrete arch bridges. The study uses the Bixby Creek Bridge, located in California, as a case study. In addition to presenting general recommendations for analysis of this class of structures, this report provides an independent evaluation of the proposed seismic retrofit for the Bixby Creek Bridge. Results from the study clearly illustrate a reduction of displacement drifts and redistribution of member forces brought on by the inclusion of material nonlinearity. The analyses demonstrate that accurate modeling of expansion joints, for the Bixby Creek Bridge in particular, is critical to achieve representative modal and transient behavior. The inclusion of near-field displacement pulses in ground motion records was shown to significantly increase demand on the relatively softer, longer period Bixby Creek Bridge arch. Stiffer, shorter period arches, however, are more likely susceptible to variable support motions arising from the canyon topography typical for this class of bridges.

  20. Rolling Bearing Life Prediction, Theory, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2013-01-01

    A tutorial is presented outlining the evolution, theory, and application of rolling-element bearing life prediction from that of A. Palmgren, 1924; W. Weibull, 1939; G. Lundberg and A. Palmgren, 1947 and 1952; E. Ioannides and T. Harris, 1985; and E. Zaretsky, 1987. Comparisons are made between these life models. The Ioannides-Harris model without a fatigue limit is identical to the Lundberg-Palmgren model. The Weibull model is similar to that of Zaretsky if the exponents are chosen to be identical. Both the load-life and Hertz stress-life relations of Weibull, Lundberg and Palmgren, and Ioannides and Harris reflect a strong dependence on the Weibull slope. The Zaretsky model decouples the dependence of the critical shear stress-life relation from the Weibull slope. This results in a nominal variation of the Hertz stress-life exponent. For 9th- and 8th-power Hertz stress-life exponents for ball and roller bearings, respectively, the Lundberg- Palmgren model best predicts life. However, for 12th- and 10th-power relations reflected by modern bearing steels, the Zaretsky model based on the Weibull equation is superior. Under the range of stresses examined, the use of a fatigue limit would suggest that (for most operating conditions under which a rolling-element bearing will operate) the bearing will not fail from classical rolling-element fatigue. Realistically, this is not the case. The use of a fatigue limit will significantly overpredict life over a range of normal operating Hertz stresses. Since the predicted lives of rolling-element bearings are high, the problem can become one of undersizing a bearing for a particular application.

  1. A circumpolar monitoring framework for polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongraven, Dag; Aars, Jon; Amstrup, S.; Atkinson, Stephen N.; Belikov, Stanislav; Born, Erik W.; DeBruyn, T.D.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Durner, George M.; Gill, Mike; Lunn, Nicholas J.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Omelak, Jack; Ovsyanikov, Nikita; Peacock, Elizabeth; Richardson, E.E.; Sahanatien, Vicki; Stirling, Ian; Wiig, Øystein

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) occupy remote regions that are characterized by harsh weather and limited access. Polar bear populations can only persist where temporal and spatial availability of sea ice provides adequate access to their marine mammal prey. Observed declines in sea ice availability will continue as long as greenhouse gas concentrations rise. At the same time, human intrusion and pollution levels in the Arctic are expected to increase. A circumpolar understanding of the cumulative impacts of current and future stressors is lacking, long-term trends are known from only a few subpopulations, and there is no globally coordinated effort to monitor effects of stressors. Here, we describe a framework for an integrated circumpolar monitoring plan to detect ongoing patterns, predict future trends, and identify the most vulnerable polar bear subpopulations. We recommend strategies for monitoring subpopulation abundance and trends, reproduction, survival, ecosystem change, human-caused mortality, human–bear conflict, prey availability, health, stature, distribution, behavioral change, and the effects that monitoring itself may have on polar bears. We assign monitoring intensity for each subpopulation through adaptive assessment of the quality of existing baseline data and research accessibility. A global perspective is achieved by recommending high intensity monitoring for at least one subpopulation in each of four major polar bear ecoregions. Collection of data on harvest, where it occurs, and remote sensing of habitat, should occur with the same intensity for all subpopulations. We outline how local traditional knowledge may most effectively be combined with the best scientific methods to provide comparable and complementary lines of evidence. We also outline how previously collected intensive monitoring data may be sub-sampled to guide future sampling frequencies and develop indirect estimates or indices of subpopulation status. Adoption of this framework

  2. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  3. Noise reduction of rotating machinery by viscoelastic bearing supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, Hetzer Gido

    2003-01-01

    The demand for silent rolling bearing applications, such as electric motors and gearboxes, has resulted in an investigation of viscoelastic bearing supports. By placing a thin viscoelastic layer between the bearing outer ring and the surrounding structure, vibrations of the shaft-bearing arrangement

  4. Severity estimation of cracked shaft vibrations within fluid film bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, B. S.; Sekhar, A. S.

    1995-07-01

    The equations of motion, with four degrees of freedom, taking into consideration the flexibility, damping and cross coupling of the fluid film bearings are derived for a cracked Jeffcott rotor supported on fluid film bearings. Dimensionless equations are developed for dynamic radial load, dynamic pressure developed in the fluid film bearings and coefficient of dissipation considering the journal vibrations in two harmonics; bearing fluid film stiffness and damping coefficients. These are applied to a cracked Jeffcott rotor supported on different types of bearings, i.e., cylindrical journal bearings, offset cylindrical bearings, tilting pad journal bearings and three-lobe bearings. Based on the allowable dynamic pressure developed in the fluid bearings, the severity of cracked shaft and allowable crack depths are estimated in this study. Measurement of dynamic pressure and dissipation for monitoring the crack growth is suggested. However, 2x vibration is the best indicator of cracks in the shafts.

  5. Bearing assemblies, apparatuses, and motor assemblies using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, Timothy N.; Cooley, Craig H.; Knuteson, Cody W.

    2015-12-29

    Various embodiments of the invention relate to bearing assemblies, apparatuses and motor assemblies that include geometric features configured to impart a selected amount of heat transfer and/or hydrodynamic film formation. In an embodiment, a bearing assembly may include a plurality of superhard bearing pads distributed circumferentially about an axis. At least some of the plurality of superhard bearing pads may include a plurality of sub-superhard bearing elements defining a bearing surface. At least some of the plurality of sub-superhard bearing elements may be spaced from one another by one or more voids to impart a selected amount of heat transfer and hydrodynamic film formation thereon during operation. The bearing assembly may also include a support ring that carries the plurality of superhard bearing pads. In addition, at least a portion of the sub-superhard bearing elements may extend beyond the support ring.

  6. Rotor-Bearing System Stability Performance Comparing Hybrid versus Conventional Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez-Mancilla Julio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available New closed-form expressions for calculating the linear stability thresholds for rigid and flexible Jeffcott systems and the imbalance response for a rotor supported on a hybrid bearing are presented. For typical bearings characteristics, expressions yield stability thresholds practically equal to those reported by Lund (1966. The hybrid bearing design has a single injection port whose location is so chosen to stabilize the bearing performance and to reduce the steady equilibrium attitude angle. Rotordynamics coefficients graphs for conventional and pressurized bearings, as functions of bearing equilibrium eccentricity and/or Sommerfeld number, are presented. Using the rotordynamics coefficients into the expressions for the corresponding velocity thresholds and the imbalance response, the system stability and vibration performances are estimated and analyzed. When comparing the Jeffcott flexible shaft supported on two journal bearings of the conventional type with the hybrid type, the results show a clear superiority of the pressurized design as far as stability behavior is concerned. Specifically for cases of flexible shafts with similar characteristics to those used in industry, the analysis shows that this design yields velocity thresholds 25%–40% higher compared to the conventional circular ones. Also this bearing displays nonlinear feeding pressure behavior, and it is capable of reducing the synchronous vibration amplitude in most speed ranges, except around the critical speed; moreover, for certain Jeffcott configurations the amplitude reduction can be substantial.

  7. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a... polymethylmethacrylate, intended to make a temporary prosthesis, such as a crown or bridge, for use until a...

  8. CDC WONDER: Population - Bridged-Race July 1st Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Population - Bridged-Race July 1st Estimates online databases report bridged-race population estimates of the July 1st resident population of the United States,...

  9. Diode-quad bridge for reactive transducers and FM discriminators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D. R.; Dimeff, J.

    1972-01-01

    Diode-quad bridge circuit was developed for use with pressure-sensitive capacitive transducers, liquid-level measuring devices, proximity deflection sensors, and inductive displacement sensors. It may also be used as FM discriminator and as universal impedance bridge.

  10. 49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.766 Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric...

  11. Violin Bridge Mobility Analysis under In-Plane Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Zhong Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The vibration of a violin bridge is a dynamic contact vibration with two interfaces: strings-bridge, and bridge feet-top plate. In this paper, the mobility of an isolated bridge under in-plane excitation is explored using finite element modeling based on the contact vibration model. Numerical results show that the dynamic contact stiffness in the two contact interfaces has a great impact on the bridge mobility. A main resonance peak is observed in the frequency range of 2–3 kHz in the frequency response of the isolated bridge when the contact stiffness is smaller than a critical threshold. The main resonance peak frequency is affected by the contact stiffness as well. In order to verify the numerical findings, a novel experimental system is then designed on the basis of a piezoelectric dynamometer for bridge mobility analysis. Experimental results confirm the impact of the dynamic contact stiffness on the bridge mobility.

  12. LPN/ADN Bridge Course. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jan; And Others

    This curriculum guide has been constructed in order to bridge the skills gap between licensed practical nursing (LPN) programs and associate degree nursing (ADN) programs in Missouri. The curriculum was developed through a cooperative effort by persons from both sectors. The curriculum contains four major units, each consisting of several lessons,…

  13. Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy H.M. Sembel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Some concerns in the field of Business Management regarding the gap between theory and practice have been raised by practitioners and academicians. This keynote speech describes some lessons learned from the academic literature regarding this gap (whether the gap really exists, and if it exists, whether it needs to be bridged or closed, and how to bridge or close this gap, and shares the author's personal and professional experiences of living as both an academician and a practitioner. The main findings of this article are: (1 Yes the gap exists, however, it has to be viewed in a wider perspective to really understand the situation; (2 The gap in a specific area is bad and should become our concern, but in other areas it should not; (3 There are some ways to bridge or close the negative gap; (4 There exists hybrid career opportunities to become professionals that work both as an academician and a practitioner; (5 This new breed of hybrid professionals has a huge potential to bridge the bad theory-practice gap.

  14. “On a bridge in Berlin”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2013-01-01

    This is a self-reflective case study based on the development of the Graphic Novel: “On a bridge in Berlin.” The GN will be used as an introduction to the history of architecture as a part of the curriculum in Architecture and Design at Aalborg University, and as a more broadly introduction to an...

  15. Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Ann C., Ed.; Knebel, Elisa, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine study Crossing the Quality Chasm (2001) recommended that an interdisciplinary summit be held to further reform of health professions education in order to enhance quality and patient safety. Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality is the follow up to that summit, held in June 2002, where 150 participants across…

  16. 75 FR 41281 - Bridge Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Federal Register at 60 FR 20654, the interim statement included a request for comments to be submitted to... of Agency Policy on the Safety of Railroad Bridges (``policy statement''). See 65 FR 52667. With the... amendment. See 74 FR 157. All aspects of the policy statement that are not incorporated into the...

  17. Bridges in Mathematics. WWC Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Bridges in Mathematics," published by the Math Learning Center (MLC), is an elementary school math curriculum covering kindergarten through fifth grade that focuses on problem solving and skill building, and applies a combination of whole-group, small-group, and independent activities. Lessons incorporate visual models, including manipulatives,…

  18. Bridging gaps : ten crosscurrents in media studies

    OpenAIRE

    Fornäs, Johan

    2008-01-01

    The final, definitive version of this paper has been published in: Media, Culture and Society, (30), 6, 895-905, 2008.Johan Fornäs, Bridging Gaps: Ten Crosscurrents in Media Studies.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0163443708096811. by SAGE Publications Ltd, All rights reserved. http://www.sagepub.com/

  19. Thermal Bridge Effects in Window Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report thermal bridge effects in window grooves are analyzed. The analysis is performed using different thicknesses of the window groove insulation, to evaluate what the optimal solution is.All analysis in the report is performed using both 2- and 3-dimensional numerical analysis....

  20. Characterization and electrical modeling of semiconductors bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, K.D. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Wackerbarth, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Semiconductor bridges (SCBs) are finding increased use as initiators for explosive and pyrotechnic devices. They offer advantages in reduced voltage and energy requirements, coupled with excellent safety features. The design of explosive systems which implement either SCBs or metal bridgewires can be facilitated through the use of electrical simulation software such as the PSpice{reg_sign} computer code. A key component in the electrical simulation of such systems is an electrical model of the bridge. This report has two objectives: (1) to present and characterize electrical data taken in tests of detonators which employ SCBs with BNCP as the explosive powder; and (2) to derive appropriate electrical models for such detonators. The basis of such models is a description of the resistance as a function of energy deposited in the SCB. However, two important features which must be added to this are (1) the inclusion of energy loss through such mechanisms as ohmic heating of the aluminum lands and heat transfer from the bridge to the surrounding media; and (2) accounting for energy deposited in the SCB through heat transfer to the bridge from the explosive powder after the powder ignites. The modeling procedure is entirely empirical; i.e., models for the SCB resistance and the energy gain and loss have been estimated from experimental data taken over a range of firing conditions. We present results obtained by applying the model to the simulation of SCB operation in representative tests.

  1. Bridging the Gap: Pracademics in Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ann Marie; Fulda, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In his seminal work "Bridging the Gap: Theory and Practice in Foreign Policy", Alexander George (1993) lamented the great divide between academia and the foreign policymaking community, arguing that greater interaction between scholars and policymakers would produce better policy. We share George's belief that scholars and practitioners each have…

  2. Construction Technology of Long Span Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    A large variety of construction methods are used during construction of major bridges, and in many cases the final structural system must be chosen with due respect to the construction process. Today the preferred construction methods are: the free-cantilever method, the launching method and the ...... full-span erection method....

  3. Bridging the digital divide with mobile services

    CERN Document Server

    Yelton, Andromeda

    2013-01-01

    In this issue of Library Technology Reports, Andromeda Yelton shows how libraries can build on the breadth of this population to help bridge the digital divide and provide even greater access to information. Yelton breaks down the demographics of mobile internet users, provides examples of how different libraries are reaching out to these populations, and suggests what the future may hold for this trend.

  4. Circuit bridging of components by smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoke can adversely affect digital electronics; in the short term, it can lead to circuit bridging and in the long term to corrosion of metal parts. This report is a summary of the work to date and component-level tests by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control equipment. The component tests focused on short-term effects such as circuit bridging in typical components and the factors that can influence how much the smoke will affect them. These factors include the component technology and packaging, physical board protection, and environmental conditions such as the amount of smoke, temperature of burn, and humidity level. The likelihood of circuit bridging was tested by measuring leakage currents and converting those currents to resistance in ohms. Hermetically sealed ceramic packages were more resistant to smoke than plastic packages. Coating the boards with an acrylic spray provided some protection against circuit bridging. The smoke generation factors that affect the resistance the most are humidity, fuel level, and burn temperature. The use of CO2 as a fire suppressant, the presence of galvanic metal, and the presence of PVC did not significantly affect the outcome of these results

  5. The Memory Bridge Initiative on Service Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wescott, Amy; Healy, Tara C.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the Memory Bridge Initiative (MBI), an educational, experiential program pairing high school students with older adults who have dementia. A qualitative, single group design with baseline and follow-up measures examined whether or not students would have a positive learning experience while gaining newfound appreciation and…

  6. Indirect bridge frequency measurement: an experimental verification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urushadze, Shota; Yau, J.-D.; Frýba, Ladislav

    Changsha: DEStech Publications., 2015. s. 48-48 ISBN N. [International conference on mechanical science and mechanical design (MSMD2015). 12.12.2015-13.12.2015, Changsha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC13-34405J Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : bridge health monitoring * indirect method * moving load * VBI Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  7. Building Bridges, Robots, and High Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Fiona; Corbett, Charlotte; Palo, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an after-school program at the Horace Mann School for the Deaf (HMS), the oldest public day school for deaf students in the United States, where almost half of the student body imagined and created bridge and robotic machines. The Deaf Robotics Engineering and Math Team, or the DREAM Team club, included HMS students in…

  8. Fiber reinforced polymer composites for bridge structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra CANTORIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid advances in construction materials technology have led to the emergence of new materials with special properties, aiming at safety, economy and functionality of bridges structures. A class of structural materials which was originally developed many years ago, but recently caught the attention of engineers involved in the construction of bridges is fiber reinforced polymer composites. This paper provides an overview of fiber reinforced polymer composites used in bridge structures including types, properties, applications and future trends. The results of this study have revealed that this class of materials presents outstanding properties such as high specific strength, high fatigue and environmental resistance, lightweight, stiffness, magnetic transparency, highly cost-effective, and quick assembly, but in the same time high initial costs, lack of data on long-term field performance, low fire resistance. Fiber reinforced polymer composites were widely used in construction of different bridge structures such as: deck and tower, I-beams, tendons, cable stands and proved to be materials for future in this field.

  9. Circuit bridging of components by smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.J.; Nowlen, S.P.; Anderson, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Smoke can adversely affect digital electronics; in the short term, it can lead to circuit bridging and in the long term to corrosion of metal parts. This report is a summary of the work to date and component-level tests by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control equipment. The component tests focused on short-term effects such as circuit bridging in typical components and the factors that can influence how much the smoke will affect them. These factors include the component technology and packaging, physical board protection, and environmental conditions such as the amount of smoke, temperature of burn, and humidity level. The likelihood of circuit bridging was tested by measuring leakage currents and converting those currents to resistance in ohms. Hermetically sealed ceramic packages were more resistant to smoke than plastic packages. Coating the boards with an acrylic spray provided some protection against circuit bridging. The smoke generation factors that affect the resistance the most are humidity, fuel level, and burn temperature. The use of CO{sub 2} as a fire suppressant, the presence of galvanic metal, and the presence of PVC did not significantly affect the outcome of these results.

  10. Characteristics of mortars from ancient bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frankeová, Dita; Slížková, Zuzana; Drdácký, Miloš

    Vol. 7. Dordrecht : Springer, 2012 - (Válek, J.; Hughes, J.; Groot, J.), s. 165-174 ISBN 978-94-007-4634-3 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2067; GA MŠk(CZ) LA09008 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : mortars * ancient bridges * analytical methods Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  11. 赵家沟大桥临时支架设计%Design of Temporary Support System for Zhaojiagou Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙九春

    2015-01-01

    新建浦东大道赵家沟大桥主桥为下承式系杆拱桥,采用先梁后拱的施工工艺,其中拱肋采用在桥面结构上搭设塔架施工的竖转提升工艺,纵、横梁及桥面板支撑采用混合支架。临时支架采用φ609钢管桩+贝雷梁+φ48小钢管组成的复合支架形式,承受桥道系结构施工时的荷载、预应力张拉引起的次效应以及竖转提升工艺所传递的荷载,受力较为复杂。采用精细化数值模拟技术对支架与结构在整个施工过程中的受力状态进行模拟,数值模拟结果及实践监测数据表明结构安全,支架的各部分构件受力满足要求,所设计的支撑柱改善了桥道系结构、贝雷梁以及钢管支架的受力状态。%T he main bridge of Zhaojiagou Bridge on the new ly built Pudong Avenue is a bow string tied arch bridge constructed by the process of girder first and arch later ,among w hich the arch ribs adopt the vertical rotating and lifting technique with the assistance of lifting frames erec‐ted on the bridge deck ,the stringers and cross beams and bridge deck are supported on composite scaffolds .The temporary support system is a combined system formed of theφ609 steel piles ,bai‐ley trusses and theφ48 small diameter steel pipes ,w hich bears the loads of the bridge deck system during the construction process , secondary effect caused by prestress tensioning and the loads transmitted by the vertical rotating and lifting technique ,therefore ,the load bearing condition is complex .The refined numerical simulation technique was used to simulate the load bearing condi‐tion of the support system and structure during the w hole construction process .T he results of the numerical simulation and the practical monitoring data demonstrate that the structure is safe ,and the load bearing capacity of each component of the support system meets the requirements and the designed supporting posts improve the load bearing

  12. 77 FR 59639 - Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Bear Lake County, ID and Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... notice in the Federal Register (75 FR 35829; June 23, 2010). Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge Bear Lake... Fish and Wildlife Service Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Bear Lake County, ID and Oxford Slough... our draft comprehensive conservation plan and environmental assessment (Draft CCP/EA) for the...

  13. Fatigue Life Analysis of Rolling Bearings Based on Quasistatic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Guo; Hongrui Cao; Zhengjia He; Laihao Yang

    2015-01-01

    Rolling bearings are widely used in aeroengine, machine tool spindles, locomotive wheelset, and so forth. Rolling bearings are usually the weakest components that influence the remaining life of the whole machine. In this paper, a fatigue life prediction method is proposed based on quasistatic modeling of rolling bearings. With consideration of radial centrifugal expansion and thermal deformations on the geometric displacement in the bearings, the Jones’ bearing model is updated, which can pr...

  14. An Advanced Microturbine System with Water-Lubricated Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Susumu Nakano; Tadaharu Kishibe; Tomoaki Inoue; Hiroyuki Shiraiwa

    2009-01-01

    A prototype of the next-generation, high-performance microturbine system was developed for laboratory evaluation. Its unique feature is its utilization of water. Water is the lubricant for the bearings in this first reported application of water-lubricated bearings in gas turbines. Bearing losses and limitations under usage conditions were found from component tests done on the bearings and load tests done on the prototype microturbine. The rotor system using the water-lubricated bearings ach...

  15. Noise reduction of rotating machinery by viscoelastic bearing supports

    OpenAIRE

    Tillema, Hetzer Gido

    2003-01-01

    The demand for silent rolling bearing applications, such as electric motors and gearboxes, has resulted in an investigation of viscoelastic bearing supports. By placing a thin viscoelastic layer between the bearing outer ring and the surrounding structure, vibrations of the shaft-bearing arrangement can be isolated and damped in such a way that the radiated sound power is reduced. The ultimate goal of this research was to develop a design strategy for viscoelastic bearing supports resulting i...

  16. Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran (Niskayuna, NY); Jansen, Patrick Lee (Scotia, NY), Gadre; Aniruddha Dattatraya (Rexford, NY)

    2008-04-22

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  17. Assessing bear-human conflicts in the Yukon Territory

    OpenAIRE

    Lukie, Raechel Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Managing conflicts between bears and humans is vital for human safety and for the conservation of bears. This study investigated black bear (Ursus americanus) and grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) interactions with humans in 18 major communities of the Yukon Territory. I used an information theoretic approach to generate predictive models of the relative potential of bear-human interaction for the 9 conservation officer management regions in the Yukon Territory. I independently modeled interactions...

  18. Vascular injuries after bear attacks: Incidence, surgical challenges and outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Wani Mohd; Ahangar Abdul; Lone Gh; Lone Reyaz; Ashraf Hakeem; Dar Abdul; Bhat M; Singh Shyam; Bijli Akram; Irshad Ifat

    2011-01-01

    Background : Bear mauling is rarely reported in medical literature due to its rare occurrence. Present study was undertaken to describe the pattern and management of bear maul vascular injuries in Kashmir. Methods : Study of patients with bear maul vascular injury from 1st Jan 2004 to 31st Dec. 2008. Fifteen patients with bear maul vascular injury were studied. All patients of bear maul without vascular injury were excluded from the study. Results : Most of the patients were treated by revers...

  19. Aerial strip surveys of polar bears in the Barents Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Wiig, Øystein; Bakken, Vidar

    1990-01-01

    Aerial strip surveys of polar bears in the Barents Sea were performed by helicopter in winter 1987. The number of bears within 100 m on each side of the helicopter was counted. A total of 263.6 km2 was surveyed and 21 bears were counted. Most of the bears were found in the southern part of the area, which indicates that the southwestern ice edge area in the Barents Sea is a very important winter habitat for polar bears.

  20. ES and H-compatible lubrication for duplex bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhoff, R.G.

    1997-10-01

    Two ES and H-compatible lubricants (environment, safety, and health) for duplex bearing applications and one hybrid material duplex bearing were evaluated and compared against duplex bearings with trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon) deposition of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bearing lubricant extracted from Vydax{trademark}. Vydax is a product manufactured by DuPont consisting of various molecular weights of PTFE suspended in trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon), which is an ozone-depleting solvent. Vydax has been used as a bearing lubricant in strong link mechanisms since 1974. Hybrid duplex bearings with silicon nitride balls and molded glass-nylon-Teflon retainers, duplex bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on races and retainers, and duplex bearings lubricated with electrophoretic deposited MoS{sub 2} were evaluated. Bearings with electrophoretic deposited MoS{sub 2} performed as well as bearings with Freon deposition of PTFE from Freon-based Vydax. Hybrid bearings with silicon nitride balls performed worse than bearings lubricated with Vydax, but their performance would still be acceptable for most applications. Bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers had varying amounts of film on the bearings. This affected the performance of the bearings. Bearings with a uniform coating performed to acceptable levels, but bearings with no visible MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers did not perform as well as bearings with the other coatings. Unless process controls are incorporated in the sputtering process or the bearings are screened, they do not appear to be acceptable for duplex bearing applications.

  1. Railroad Bridges in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997) [railroad_bridges_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 32 Louisiana railroad bridges. The attributes include city (nearest?), county (sic), routefrom...

  2. Seismic Passive Control of Cable-Stayed Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hosam-Eddin M.; Abdel-Ghaffar, Ahmed M.

    1995-01-01

    A three-dimensional modeling procedure is proposed for cable-stayed bridges with rubber, steel, and lead energy dissipation devices. The passive control technique is investigated by considering the response of bridge models with and without energy dissipation devices. The impact of various design parameters on the seismic response of current and future bridge designs is studied. Appropriate locations and properties of the passive devices can achieve better performance for cable-stayed bridges...

  3. New Philosophy in Steel Bridge Design and Frabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Henkle, David

    2014-01-01

    The foremost parameters in the design of any structure are safety and cost. The SEBD (simplified economical bridge design) concept meets and exceeds all conditions of safety but with an added benefit of cost savings over more conventional design procedures for steel bridges. Comparative analysis indicates that cost saving as much as 10 percent of the bridge cost can be realized. Learn about SEBD and how you can apply it to steel bridge design and fabrication. Contact InformationTele: 574-2...

  4. Performance of damage detection methods in bridges through vibration monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Paulo J. S.; Salgado, R.

    2009-01-01

    The important advances achieved in the modal identification, sensors and structural monitoring of bridges have motivated the bridge engineering community to develop damage detection methods based on vibration monitoring. Some of these methods have already been demonstrated under certain conditions in bridges with deliberate damage (Farrar et al., 1998). However, the performance of these methods for damage detection in bridges has not been fully proven so far and more research n...

  5. 305 Building 2 ton bridge crane and monorail assembly analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analyses in the appendix of this document evaluate the integrity of the existing bridge crane structure, as depicted on drawing H-3-34292, for a bridge crane and monorail assembly with a load rating of 2 tons. This bridge crane and monorail assembly is a modification of a 1 1/2 ton rated manipulator bridge crane which originally existed in the 305 building

  6. Noise Reduction of Fractional Source in Cryogenic Current Comparator Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    C. Jassadajin; Kurupakorn, C.; N. Khumthukthit; A. Pruksanubal

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a resistance measurement is done at both high accuracy and precision using Cryogenic Current Comparator (CCC) bridge system [1]. A CCC bridge circuit consists of three parts: coil, current source and detector parts. There are electronic components in the current source of the system. They generate thermal noise in the measurement system. This paper shows the noise reduction in a fractional source of CCC Bridge which is a ramp generator. The bridge receives the voltage signal, wh...

  7. Non-minimal bridge positions of torus knots are stabilized

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    We show that any non-minimal bridge decomposition of a torus knot is stabilized and that $n$-bridge decompositions of a torus knot are unique for any integer $n$. This implies that a knot in a bridge position is a torus knot if and only if there exists a torus containing the knot such that it intersects the bridge sphere in two essential loops.

  8. Improving the Dynamics of Suspension Bridges using Active Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Improving the dynamics of suspension bridge using active control is discussed in this paper. The main dynamic problem with long suspension bridges is the aeroelastic phenomenon called flutter. Flutter oscillations of a bridge girder is a stability problem and the oscillations are perpendicular to...... the direction of the wind and occur when the bridge is exposed to wind velocity above critical value called the flutter wind velocity Ucr....

  9. Rupture of an Evaporating Liquid Bridge between Two Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Mielniczuk, Boleslaw; El Youssoufi, Moulay Saïd; Sabatier, Laurent; Hueckel, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The study examines rupture of evaporating liquid bridges between two glass spheres. Evolution of the bridge profile has been recorded with the use of high-speed camera. Geometrical characteristics of the bridge were then used to calculate evolution of the variables during the process: Laplace pressure, capillary force, and surface tension force. For the purpose of reference, the bridge evolution is followed also during kinematic extension. During both processes the diameter of the neck decrea...

  10. The detection of an older population in the Magellanic Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri, Gemma; Cioni, Maria-Rosa; Napiwotzki, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The Magellanic system comprises the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), and the less frequently observed Magellanic Bridge and Magellanic Stream. The Bridge is traced by neutral gas and has an observed stellar component, while the Stream consists of gas only, with no observed stellar counterpart to date. This study uses catalogues created in the direction of the Bridge from 2MASS and WISE to investigate the stellar content of the Magellanic Bridge. Catalogues were ...

  11. TorBricks: Blocking-Resistant Tor Bridge Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, Mahdi; Saia, Jared; Crandall, Jedidiah

    2016-01-01

    Tor is currently the most popular network for anonymous Internet access. It critically relies on volunteer nodes called bridges for relaying Internet traffic when a user's ISP blocks connections to Tor. Unfortunately, current methods for distributing bridges are vulnerable to malicious users who obtain and block bridge addresses. In this paper, we propose TorBricks, a protocol for distributing Tor bridges to n users, even when an unknown number t < n of these users are controlled by a malicio...

  12. Conceptual Design and Feasibility of Foil Bearings for Rotorcraft Engines: Hot Core Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in gas foil bearing technology have led to numerous advanced high-speed rotating system concepts, many of which have become either commercial products or experimental test articles. Examples include oil-free microturbines, motors, generators and turbochargers. The driving forces for integrating gas foil bearings into these high-speed systems are the benefits promised by removing the oil lubrication system. Elimination of the oil system leads to reduced emissions, increased reliability, and decreased maintenance costs. Another benefit is reduced power plant weight. For rotorcraft applications, this would be a major advantage, as every pound removed from the propulsion system results in a payload benefit.. Implementing foil gas bearings throughout a rotorcraft gas turbine engine is an important long-term goal that requires overcoming numerous technological hurdles. Adequate thrust bearing load capacity and potentially large gearbox applied radial loads are among them. However, by replacing the turbine end, or hot section, rolling element bearing with a gas foil bearing many of the above benefits can be realized. To this end, engine manufacturers are beginning to explore the possibilities of hot section gas foil bearings in propulsion engines. This overview presents a logical follow-on activity by analyzing a conceptual rotorcraft engine to determine the feasibility of a foil bearing supported core. Using a combination of rotordynamic analyses and a load capacity model, it is shown to be reasonable to consider a gas foil bearing core section. In addition, system level foil bearing testing capabilities at NASA Glenn Research Center are presented along with analysis work being conducted under NRA Cooperative Agreements.

  13. Powder metallurgy bearings for advanced rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, J. N.; Killman, B. J.; Munson, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional ingot metallurgy was pushed to the limit for many demanding applications including antifriction bearings. New systems require corrosion resistance, better fatigue resistance, and higher toughness. With conventional processing, increasing the alloying level to achieve corrosion resistance results in a decrease in other properties such as toughness. Advanced powder metallurgy affords a viable solution to this problem. During powder manufacture, the individual particle solidifies very rapidly; as a consequence, the primary carbides are very small and uniformly distributed. When properly consolidated, this uniform structure is preserved while generating a fully dense product. Element tests including rolling contact fatigue, hot hardness, wear, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance are underway on eleven candidate P/M bearing alloys and results are compared with those for wrought 440C steel, the current SSME bearing material. Several materials which offer the promise of a significant improvement in performance were identified.

  14. On Controllable Elastohydrodynamic Fluid Film Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Martin Asger

    This thesis gives a theoretical description of the active tilting-pad journal bearing (ATPJB). It provides the qualified reader with the tools to model an ATPJB, while staying clear of pitfalls. The model is based on well known techniques and allows for local stability analyses, harmonic stationary...... are performed for a tilting-pad journal bearing (TPJB) and an ATPJB under static conditions, followed by a generalisation to dynamic conditions (transient as well as stationary harmonic). These analyses will be of interest to experimentalists, since they permit experiments performed on scaled down...... great care, since the addition of a control system may just as well harm rotor-bearing performance as improve it....

  15. Robust bearing estimation for 3-component stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CLAASSEN,JOHN P.

    2000-02-01

    A robust bearing estimation process for 3-component stations has been developed and explored. The method, called SEEC for Search, Estimate, Evaluate and Correct, intelligently exploits the inherent information in the arrival at every step of the process to achieve near-optimal results. In particular the approach uses a consistent framework to define the optimal time-frequency windows on which to make estimates, to make the bearing estimates themselves, to construct metrics helpful in choosing the better estimates or admitting that the bearing is immeasurable, and finally to apply bias corrections when calibration information is available to yield a single final estimate. The algorithm was applied to a small but challenging set of events in a seismically active region. It demonstrated remarkable utility by providing better estimates and insights than previously available. Various monitoring implications are noted from these findings.

  16. Building water bridges in air: Electrohydrodynamics of the Floating Water Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Alvaro G.; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of electrical fields and liquids can lead to a phenomenon that defies intuition. Some famous examples can be found in electrohydrodynamics as Taylor cones, whipping jets, or noncoalescing drops. A less famous example is the floating water bridge: a slender thread of water held between two glass beakers in which a high voltage difference is applied. Surprisingly, the water bridge defies gravity even when the beakers are separated at distances up to 2 cm. In this paper, experime...

  17. Spectroscopic Studies of Bridge Contributions to Electronic Coupling in a Donor-Bridge-Acceptor Biradical System

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Martin L.; Shultz, David A.; Depperman, Ezra C.; Habel-Rodriguez, Diana; Schmidt, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Variable temperature electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopies are used to probe the excited state electronic structure of TpCum,MeZn(SQ-Ph-NN) (1) – a donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) biradical complex and a ground state analog of the charge-separated excited state formed in photoinduced electron transfer reactions. Strong ferromagnetic exchange coupling that is mediated by the para-phenylene bridge stabilizes the triplet ground state of this molecule. Detailed spectroscopic and ...

  18. 49 CFR 237.31 - Adoption of bridge management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of bridge management programs. 237.31 Section 237.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Adoption of bridge management programs. Each track owner shall adopt a bridge safety management program...

  19. Evaluating the life cycle environmental impact of short span bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-01-01

    impact of the construction sector. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic method for assessing the environmental impact of products and systems, but its application in bridges is scarce. In Swede, most of the bridges are short spans and the type of concrete slab-frame bridge (CFB) accounts...

  20. Bridged Quaterphenyls as Flashlamp-Pumpable Laser Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Kauffman, Joel M; Kelley, Charles J.; Ghiorghis, Alem; Neister, Edward; Armstrong, Lorne; Prause, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    Partial bridging of the o,o′ positions of the aromatic rings in quaterphenyl gave superior flashlamp-pumpable laser dyes. Alkyl-substituted carbon bridges gave superior dyes to those containing oxygen or alkyl-substituted nitrogen or silicon bridges. Dyes lasing in the 365–390 nm region with improved energy output, lifetime and solubility were discovered.