WorldWideScience

Sample records for brick wall buildings

  1. Comparative thermal performance of static sunshade and brick cavity wall for energy efficient building envelope in composite climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charde Meghana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient building technologies can reduce energy consumption in buildings. In present paper effect of designed static sunshade, brick cavity wall with brick projections and their combined effect on indoor air temperature has been analyzed by constructing three test rooms each of habitable dimensions (3.0 m × 4.0 m × 3.0 m and studying hourly temperatures on typical days for one month in summer and winter each. The three rooms have also been simulated using a software and the results have been compared with the experimental results. Designed static sunshade increased indoor air temperature in winter while proposed brick cavity wall with brick projections lowered it in summer. Combined effect of building elements lowered indoor air temperature in summer and increased it in winter as compared to outdoor air temperature. It is thus useful for energy conservation in buildings in composite climate.

  2. Moisture movements in render on brick wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Munch, Thomas Astrup; Thorsen, Peter Schjørmann;

    2003-01-01

    A three-layer render on brick wall used for building facades is studied in the laboratory. The vertical render surface is held in contact with water for 24 hours simulating driving rain while it is measured with non-destructive X-ray equipment every hour in order to follow the moisture front thro...

  3. Brick Walls on the Brane

    CERN Document Server

    Medved, A J M

    2002-01-01

    The so-called ``brick-wall model'' is a semi-classical approach that has been used to explain black hole entropy in terms of thermal matter fields. Here, we apply the brick-wall formalism to thermal bulk fields in a Randall-Sundrum brane world scenario. In this case, the black hole entity is really a string-like object in the anti-de Sitter bulk, while appearing as a Schwarzchild black hole to observers living on the brane. In spite of these exotic circumstances, we establish that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy law is preserved. Although a similar calculation was recently considered in the literature, this prior work invoked a simplifying assumption (which we avoid) that can not be adequately justified.

  4. Brick walls on the brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medved, A J M [Department of Physics and Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

    2002-01-21

    The so-called 'brick-wall model' is a semiclassical approach that has been used to explain black hole entropy in terms of thermal matter fields. Here, we apply the brick-wall formalism to thermal bulk fields in a Randall-Sundrum brane world scenario. In this case, the black hole entity is really a string-like object in the anti-de Sitter bulk, while appearing as a Schwarzchild black hole to observers living on the brane. In spite of these exotic circumstances, we establish that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy law is preserved. Although a similar calculation was recently considered in the literature, this prior study invoked a simplifying assumption (which we avoid) that cannot be adequately justified.

  5. Pressure equalisation of brick masonry cavity walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bouma, P.W.; Aghaei, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes two full-scale experiments in which the pressure distribution over the layers of brick masonry cavity walls is studied. The first experiment focuses on the specification of the wind loads on both outer and inner leafs of these walls. The second experiment is set-up to find a mod

  6. Brick Walls for Nonstationary Black Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎忠恒; 米丽琴; 赵峥

    2002-01-01

    The validity condition of the brick-wall model is analysed in nonstationary space time. It is shown that the model holds only in thin regions, only by using tortoise coordinates, near the event horizon of a slowly varying (quasi-stationary) black hole. The reason for the use of tortoise coordinates is that the stationary state solutions of quantum field equations in other coordinates do not exist for any region in nonstationary space-time. Meanwhile,the quantum corrections to the entropy of the Vaidya-Bonner black hole due to the spin fields are calculated in terms of the brick-wall model.

  7. Remarks on 't Hooft's brick wall model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A semi-classical reasoning leads to the non-commutativity of the space and time coordinates near the horizon of Schwarzschild black hole. This non-commutativity in turn provides a mechanism to interpret the brick wall thickness hypothesis in 't Hooft's brick wall model as well as the boundary condition imposed for the field considered. For concreteness, we consider a noncommutative scalar field model near the horizon and derive the effective metric via the equation of motion of noncommutative scalar field. This metric displays a new horizon in addition to the original one associated with the Schwarzschild black hole. The infinite red-shifting of the scalar field on the new horizon determines the range of the noncommutative space and explains the relevant boundary condition for the field. This range enables us to calculate the entropy of black hole as proportional to the area of its original horizon along the same line as in 't Hooft's model , and the thickness of the brick wall is found to be proportional to the thermal average of the noncommutative space-time range. The Hawking temperature has been derived in this formalism. The study here represents an attempt to reveal some physics beyond the brick wall model. (author)

  8. New Bricks in the Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG JIAOJIAO

    2007-01-01

    @@ Whenever a newcomer enters the classroom, he points at the wall. "Look at that!" says Li Shunye, indicating a picture of something that looks a bit like a pink furry fox, only with an oversized tail. "It's a squirrel," says the 9-year-old. "I made it."

  9. Brick walls and AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Bernard S.; Ortíz, L.

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the relationship between the bulk-boundary correspondence in Rehren's algebraic holography (and in other `fixed-background', QFT-based, approaches to holography) and in mainstream string-theoretic `Maldacena AdS/CFT'. Especially, we contrast the understanding of black-hole entropy from the point of view of QFT in curved spacetime—in the framework of 't Hooft's `brick wall' model—with the understanding based on Maldacena AdS/CFT. We show that the brick-wall modification of a Klein-Gordon field in the Hartle-Hawking-Israel state on dimensional Schwarzschild AdS has a well-defined boundary limit with the same temperature and entropy as the brick-wall-modified bulk theory. One of our main purposes is to point out a close connection, for general AdS/CFT situations, between the puzzle raised by Arnsdorf and Smolin regarding the relationship between Rehren's algebraic holography and mainstream AdS/CFT and the puzzle embodied in the `complementarity principle' proposed by Mukohyama and Israel in their work on the brick-wall approach to black hole entropy. Working on the assumption that similar results will hold for bulk QFT other than the Klein-Gordon field and for Schwarzschild AdS in other dimensions, and recalling the first author's proposed resolution to the Mukohyama-Israel puzzle based on his `matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis', we argue that, in Maldacena AdS/CFT, the algebra of the boundary CFT is isomorphic only to a proper subalgebra of the bulk algebra, albeit (at non-zero temperature) the (GNS) Hilbert spaces of bulk and boundary theories are still the `same'—the total bulk state being pure, while the boundary state is mixed (thermal). We also argue from the finiteness of its boundary (and hence, on our assumptions, also bulk) entropy at finite temperature, that the Rehren dual of the Maldacena boundary CFT cannot itself be a QFT and must, instead, presumably be something like a string theory.

  10. Impact of wind-driven rain on historic brick wall buildings in a moderately cold and humid climate: Numerical analyses of mould growth risk, indoor climate and energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masaru, Abuku; Janssen, Hans; Roels, Staf

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives an onset to whole building hygrothermal modelling in which the interaction between interior and exterior climates via building enclosures is simulated under a moderately cold and humid climate. The focus is particularly on the impact of wind-driven rain (WDR) oil the hygrothermal...... response, mould growth at interior wall surfaces, indoor climate and energy consumption. First the WDR load oil the facades of a 4 m x 4 m x 10 m tower is determined. Then the hygrothermal behaviour of the brick walls is analysed oil a horizontal slice through the tower. The simulations demonstrate...... that WDR loads can have a significant impact on mould growth especially at the edges of the walls. Finally, for the case analysed, the WDR load Causes a significant increase of indoor relative humidity and energy consumption for heating. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  11. Experimental Study on the Seismic Performance of Recycled Concrete Brick Walls Embedded with Vertical Reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Wanlin; Zhang, Yongbo; Dong, Hongying; Zhou, Zhongyi; Qiao, Qiyun

    2014-01-01

    Recycled concrete brick (RCB) is manufactured by recycled aggregate processed from discarded concrete blocks arising from the demolishing of existing buildings. This paper presents research on the seismic performance of RCB masonry walls to assess the applicability of RCB for use in rural low-rise constructions. The seismic performance of a masonry wall is closely related to the vertical load applied to the wall. Thus, the compressive performance of RCB masonry was investigated firstly by con...

  12. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete building impacted by debris flow

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D; Qian, H.

    2015-01-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of the damage elements in debris flow disaster in China. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate the vulnerability of debris flow quantitatively. This paper was devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete building impacted by debris flow which widely existed in affected area. Under two assumptions, several prototype walls of brick and concrete were constructed to simulate the damaged...

  13. IN MY OPINION: Bricks, buildings and brickbats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    1999-09-01

    You find that you want to erect a building. Presumably you know why - somewhere to live, somewhere to park a car, a kitchen extension, a shop, a gymnasium - a cathedral even. You explain your needs to an expert - an architect, someone who knows how to convert a (more or less) clearly defined aim into a workable plan. The architect consults with a builder, and together they estimate how many bricks, windows, pieces of wood, wires etc, etc they need to make the plan a reality. They should also give you a reasonably accurate estimate of the cost of the building. At least this is what happened when I had to get a new garage and wanted to extend a kitchen. It was all done professionally and both sides were satisfied. During the summer of 1999 interested parties are looking closely at the government's proposals for the next version of the National Curriculum. New National Curriculums appear much more often than I can afford to alter or extend my kitchen, and there seems to be a major difference in the way an educational system is constructed compared to the way a new building is built. If kitchen extensions were built using the educational method, the user (or customer, as I sometimes like to think of the teacher-pupil symbiosis) would find piles of bricks, window frames, wires and pieces of wood carefully dumped on the front garden. There would also be a rather brief set of instructions, plus some fairly rigid building regulations. We would then be asked to comment on this, and maybe a few extra bricks would be delivered or some taken away. As a nation of Do-it-Yourselfers we would of course cope. My experience of working with a team trying (with some success) to construct a coherent structure of learning based on the National Curriculum at Key Stage 4 was instructive and character-building. Some vital pieces seemed to be missing (but we couldn't put them in because that would have overloaded the content). Some bits couldn't be fitted in anywhere, so we relied on a

  14. Toward Applications for DNA Nanotechnology-More Bricks To Build With.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Hendrik

    2016-06-16

    Another brick in the wall: DNA nanotechnology has come a long way since its initial beginnings. This would not be possible without the continued development of methods for DNA assembly and new uses for DNA as a material. This Special Issue highlights some of the newest building blocks for nanodevices based on DNA. PMID:27238464

  15. Energy Efficiency Improvement Potential in Historical Brick Building

    OpenAIRE

    Žogla, Gatis; Blumberga, Andra; Zvaigznītis, Kristaps; Dzikēvičs, Miķelis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Burinskiene, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency in historical heritage buildings is viewed as a taboo because these buildings usually are law-protected and no energy efficiency measures that would change the appearance of building are allowed. In this paper we look at a potential of increasing energy efficiency level in historical buildings. Measurements to determine energy efficiency of a historical brick building have been done, which also give the possibility to determine the potential of energy efficiency measures in ...

  16. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete building impacted by debris flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D.; Qian, H.

    2015-08-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of the damage elements in debris flow disaster in China. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate the vulnerability of debris flow quantitatively. This paper was devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete building impacted by debris flow which widely existed in affected area. Under two assumptions, several prototype walls of brick and concrete were constructed to simulate the damaged structures in debris flow while the iron spheres were taken as the substitute of debris flow. The failure criterion of brick and concrete building was proposed with referring to the structure standards (brick and concrete) and the damage pattern in debris flow. The quantitatively estimation of vulnerability of brick and concrete building was finally established based on Fuzzy mathematics and the proposed failure criterion. The results show that the maximum impact bending moment is the best fit to be the disaster-causing factor in vulnerability curve and formula. The experiments in this paper is the preliminary research on the vulnerability of the element impacted by debris flow. The method and conclusion will be useful for the quantitative estimation of the vulnerability in debris flow and also can be referred in other types of the vulnerable elements research.

  17. A silicate brick in external walls constructions of apartment houses: condition analysis, durability forecast and methods of its increasing (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuykin A.Ye.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Practice shows, that constructive elements the most damaged by the environmental conditions are external walls of apartment houses and, accordingly, these constructive elements demand a complex estimation of their condition about decreasing of their operational characteristics which provide their bearing ability and heat-shielding properties, and development of ways of a prolongation of an operational resource.In the given work the structure of silicate brick is analyzed, questions of a technical condition, the forecast and ways of prolongation of a residual operational resource of external walls of buildings on the basis of a silicate brick of construction 40 - 70 уеаrs are considered. The analysis is made using physical and chemical methods on an example of an available housing of this category in cities of Republic Bashkortostan. The received results of a condition of buildings external walls laying allow to make a conclusion about decreasing of silicate brick external wall bearing ability for the long period of operation (?70 years within the limits of up to 10-15% due to reduction of effective section by 7-12%, decreasing in durability of a facing brick to 15-20%. Materials (a brick and a masonry mortar of external walls of buildings deeper layers are in much better or even in practically initial condition that is proved out by the big number of inhabited objects inspections. Prolongation of a residual operational resource of an external wall on the basis of a silicate brick is possible by its protection by waterproofing materials (plaster systems, waterproof getting compositions in a combination of the named systems of hydro-protection with effective facade heat-insulation.

  18. Horowitz-Strominger Black Hole Entropy Without Brick Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Chun; ZHAO Ren; LIN Hai

    2004-01-01

    @@ A Horowitz-Strominger black hole is discussed through a new equation of state density motivated by the generalized uncertainty relation in quantum gravity. There is no burst in the last stage of emission from a HorowitzStrominger black hole. When the new equation of state density is used to investigate the entropy of bosonic field and fermionic field outside the horizon of a static Horowitz-Strominger black hole, the divergence that appears in the brick-wall model is removed without any cutoff. The entropy proportional to the horizon area is derived from the contribution in the vicinity of the horizon.

  19. Brick walls for black holes in AdS/CFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Iizuka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the 't Hooft's brick wall model for black holes in a holographic context. The brick wall model suggests that without an appropriate near horizon IR cut-off, the free energy of the probe fields shows the divergence due to the large degenerate states near the horizons. After studying the universal nature of the divergence in various holographic settings in various dimensions, we interpret the nature of the divergence in a holographic context. The free energy divergence is due to the large degeneracy and continuity of the low energy spectrum in the boundary theory at the deconfinement phase. These divergence and continuity should be removed by finite N effects, which make the spectrum discrete even at the deconfinement phase. On the other hand, in the bulk, these degenerate states are localized near the horizon, and the universal divergence of these degenerate states implies that the naive counting of the degrees of freedom in bulk should be modified once we take into account the non-perturbative quantum gravity effects near the horizon. Depending on the microscopic degrees of freedom, the position, where the effective field theory description to count the states breaks down, has different Planck scale dependence. It also implies the difficulty to have an electron like gauge-singlet elementary field in the boundary theory Lagrangian. These singlet fields are at most composite fields, because they show divergent free energy, suggesting a positive power of N at the deconfinement phase.

  20. Brick walls for black holes in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, Norihiro, E-mail: iizuka@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Terashima, Seiji, E-mail: terasima@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2015-06-15

    We study the 't Hooft's brick wall model for black holes in a holographic context. The brick wall model suggests that without an appropriate near horizon IR cut-off, the free energy of the probe fields shows the divergence due to the large degenerate states near the horizons. After studying the universal nature of the divergence in various holographic settings in various dimensions, we interpret the nature of the divergence in a holographic context. The free energy divergence is due to the large degeneracy and continuity of the low energy spectrum in the boundary theory at the deconfinement phase. These divergence and continuity should be removed by finite N effects, which make the spectrum discrete even at the deconfinement phase. On the other hand, in the bulk, these degenerate states are localized near the horizon, and the universal divergence of these degenerate states implies that the naive counting of the degrees of freedom in bulk should be modified once we take into account the non-perturbative quantum gravity effects near the horizon. Depending on the microscopic degrees of freedom, the position, where the effective field theory description to count the states breaks down, has different Planck scale dependence. It also implies the difficulty to have an electron like gauge-singlet elementary field in the boundary theory Lagrangian. These singlet fields are at most composite fields, because they show divergent free energy, suggesting a positive power of N at the deconfinement phase.

  1. Brick walls for black holes in AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Norihiro; Terashima, Seiji

    2015-06-01

    We study the 't Hooft's brick wall model for black holes in a holographic context. The brick wall model suggests that without an appropriate near horizon IR cut-off, the free energy of the probe fields shows the divergence due to the large degenerate states near the horizons. After studying the universal nature of the divergence in various holographic settings in various dimensions, we interpret the nature of the divergence in a holographic context. The free energy divergence is due to the large degeneracy and continuity of the low energy spectrum in the boundary theory at the deconfinement phase. These divergence and continuity should be removed by finite N effects, which make the spectrum discrete even at the deconfinement phase. On the other hand, in the bulk, these degenerate states are localized near the horizon, and the universal divergence of these degenerate states implies that the naive counting of the degrees of freedom in bulk should be modified once we take into account the non-perturbative quantum gravity effects near the horizon. Depending on the microscopic degrees of freedom, the position, where the effective field theory description to count the states breaks down, has different Planck scale dependence. It also implies the difficulty to have an electron like gauge-singlet elementary field in the boundary theory Lagrangian. These singlet fields are at most composite fields, because they show divergent free energy, suggesting a positive power of N at the deconfinement phase.

  2. Reissner-Nordstrom Black Hole Entropy Inside and Outside the Brick Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文彪

    2003-01-01

    Applying the generalized uncertainty relation to the calculation of the free energy and entropy of a Reissner Nordstrom black hole inside the brick wall, the entropy proportional to the horizon area is derived from the contribution of the vicinity of the horizon. This is compared with the entropy calculated via the original brick wall model. The entropy given by the original brick wall model comes from the outside of the brick wall seemingly.The inside result using generalized uncertainty relation is similar to the outside result using original uncertainty relation, and the divergence inside the brick wall disappears. It is apparent that the cutoff is something related to the quantum theory of gravity.

  3. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WITH MASONRY WALL USING ETABS

    OpenAIRE

    G.Prasanna Lakshmi*, Dr M.Helen Santhi

    2016-01-01

    Past earthquakes showed poor performance of reinforced concrete framed buildings infilled with masonry wall. This study focuses on the evaluation of G+3 storeyed residential Reinforced Concrete (RC) building with brick masonry wall subjected to earthquake load. The influence of masonry on the seismic resistance of RC building is studied. The strut action with different percentage of opening for doors and windows are analysed. The building is assumed to be located in seismic zone III. The buil...

  4. Energetic Refurbishment of Historic Brick Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagorskas, Jurgis; Mykolas Paliulis, Grazvydas; Burinskiene, Marija;

    2013-01-01

    covers the theme of refurbishment measures in historical buildings – the specific measures like inside insulation which are allowed due to the valuable façade or other heritage preservation requirements. An overview of other innovative methods for energy saving in existing buildings and their potential......Building standards for energy effectiveness are increasing constantly and the market follows these changes by constructing new buildings in accordance with standards and refurbishment of the existing housing stock. Comprehensive trends in European construction market show tremendous increase...... is creating a demand for suitable materials, retrofitting techniques and research. The differences between refurbishment of new-build projects and historical or valuable buildings are insufficiently recognized – mostly the buildings without further cultural preservation requirements are studied. This article...

  5. The Heat Transfer Coefficient of Recycled Concrete Bricks Combination with EPS Insulation Board Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Four tectonic forms samples were conducted to test their heat transfer coefficients. By analyzing and comparing the test values and theoretical values of the heat transfer coefficient, a corrected-value calculation method for determining the heat transfer coefficient was proposed; the proposed method was proved to be reasonably correct. The results indicated that the recycled concrete brick wall heat transfer coefficient is higher than that of the clay brick wall, the heat transfer coefficient of recycled concrete brick wall could be effectively reduced when combined with the EPS insulation board, and the sandwich insulation type was better than that of external thermal insulation type.

  6. Internal insulation applied in heritage multi-storey buildings with wooden beams embedded in solid masonry brick facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    The use of internal insulation is investigated in a heritage building block with wooden beam construction and masonry brick walls as part of an energy renovation. Measurements were carried out and compared to results from a hygrothermal simulation model. The risk of mould growth in the wooden beams...

  7. Experimental Study on the Seismic Performance of Recycled Concrete Brick Walls Embedded with Vertical Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanlin Cao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete brick (RCB is manufactured by recycled aggregate processed from discarded concrete blocks arising from the demolishing of existing buildings. This paper presents research on the seismic performance of RCB masonry walls to assess the applicability of RCB for use in rural low-rise constructions. The seismic performance of a masonry wall is closely related to the vertical load applied to the wall. Thus, the compressive performance of RCB masonry was investigated firstly by constructing and testing eighteen RCB masonry compressive specimens with different mortar strengths. The load-bearing capacity, deformation and failure characteristic were analyzed, as well. Then, a quasi-static test was carried out to study the seismic behavior of RCB walls by eight RCB masonry walls subjected to an axial compressive load and a reversed cyclic lateral load. Based on the test results, equations for predicting the compressive strength of RCB masonry and the lateral ultimate strength of an RCB masonry wall were proposed. Experimental values were found to be in good agreement with the predicted values. Meanwhile, finite element analysis (FEA and parametric analysis of the RCB walls were carried out using ABAQUS software. The elastic-plastic deformation characteristics and the lateral load-displacement relations were studied.

  8. A Review: Durability of Fired Clay Brick Masonry Wall due to Salt Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.H. Abu Bakar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a review on durability of fired clay brick masonry wall due to salt attack. Durability of brick normally affected when an external masonry walls are exposed to aggressive environment. Masonry structures, when subjected to salt attack or exposed to aggressive environment during their service life may suffer degradation due to the formation of crystallization pressure as a result of the evaporation of soluble salt in clay masonry structures. The crystallization pressures produce normally higher than tensile stress of clay brick and sufficient to damage the masonry structures. The mechanism of salt attack must be prevented and addressed thoroughly in order to maintain the integrity and service life of masonry wall. Therefore, the summary of durability, factors, mechanism and main sources of salt attack on fired clay brick masonry walls are discussed.

  9. The Heat Transfer Coefficient of Recycled Concrete Bricks Combination with EPS Insulation Board Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Jianhua Li; Wanlin Cao

    2015-01-01

    Four tectonic forms samples were conducted to test their heat transfer coefficients. By analyzing and comparing the test values and theoretical values of the heat transfer coefficient, a corrected-value calculation method for determining the heat transfer coefficient was proposed; the proposed method was proved to be reasonably correct. The results indicated that the recycled concrete brick wall heat transfer coefficient is higher than that of the clay brick wall, the heat transfer coefficien...

  10. Building the Platform of Digital Earth with Sphere Split Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jinxin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Discrete global grids, a modeling framework for big geo-spatial data, is always used to build the Digital Earth platform. Based on the sphere split bricks (Earth system spatial grids, it can not only build the true three-dimensional digital Earth model, but also can achieve integration, fusion, expression and application of the spatial data which locates on, under or above the Earth subsurface. The theoretical system of spheroid geodesic QTM octree grid is discussed, including the partition principle, analysis of grid geometry features and coding/ decoding method etc, and a prototype system of true-3D digital Earth platform with the sphere split bricks is developed. The functions of the system mainly include the arbitrary sphere segmentation and the visualization of physical models of underground, surface and aerial entities. Results show that the sphere geodesic QTM octree grid has many application advantages, such as simple subdivision rules, the grid system neat, clear geometric features, strong applicability etc. In particular, it can be extended to the ellipsoid, so it can be used for organization, management, integration and application of the global spatial big data.

  11. Methods for elimination of dampness in Building walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campian, Cristina; Pop, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Dampness elimination in building walls is a very sensitive problem, with high costs. Many methods are used, as: chemical method, electro osmotic method or physical method. The RECON method is a representative and a sustainable method in Romania. Italy has the most radical method from all methods. The technology consists in cutting the brick walls, insertion of a special plastic sheeting and injection of a pre-mixed anti-shrinking mortar.

  12. An Improved Thin Film Brick-Wall Model of Black Hole Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-Biao; ZHAO Zheng

    2001-01-01

    We improve the brick-wall model to take only the contribution of a thin film near the event horizon into account. This improvement not only gives us a satisfactory result, but also avoids some drawbacks in the original brick wall method such as the little mass approximation, neglecting logarithm term, and taking the term L3 as the contribution of the vacuum surrounding a black hole. It is found that there is an intrinsic relation between the event horizon and the entropy. The event horizon is the characteristic of a black hole, so the entropy calculating of a black hole is also naturally related to its horizon.

  13. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall impacted by an experimental boulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D.; Qian, H.

    2016-02-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of damaged elements due to debris flow events in China. Therefore, it is difficult to quantitatively estimate the vulnerable elements suffered by debris flows. This paper is devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete walls impacted by debris flows. An experimental boulder (an iron sphere) was applied to be the substitute of debris flow since it can produce similar shape impulse load on elements as debris flow. Several walls made of brick and concrete were constructed in prototype dimensions to physically simulate the damaged structures in debris flows. The maximum impact force was measured, and the damage conditions of the elements (including cracks and displacements) were collected, described and compared. The failure criterion of brick and concrete wall was proposed with reference to the structure characteristics as well as the damage pattern caused by debris flows. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall was finally established based on fuzzy mathematics and the proposed failure criterion. Momentum, maximum impact force and maximum impact bending moment were compared to be the best candidate for disaster intensity index. The results show that the maximum impact bending moment seems to be most suitable for the disaster intensity index in establishing vulnerability curve and formula.

  14. Brick Wall Model and the Spectrum of a Schwarzschild Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; ZHAO Zheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ The quantum entropy of a scalar field near a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated by employing the brick-wall model in the grand canonical ensemble. A positive chemical potential is introduced if the cutoff is set to be of order of the Planck length. We also discuss the relation between the chemical potential and the mass quantum of the black hole.

  15. Remarks on 't Hooft's brick wall model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Hua [Interdisciplinary Center for Theoretical Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yan Mulin [CCAST (World Lab), P.O. Box 8730, Beijing, 100080 (China) and Interdisciplinary Center for Theoretical Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)]. E-mail: mlyan@ustc.edu.cn

    2003-07-01

    A semi-classical reasoning leads to the non-commutativity of the space and time coordinates near the horizon of Schwarzschild black hole. This non-commutativity in turn provides a mechanism to interpret the brick wall thickness hypothesis in 't Hooft's brick wall model as well as the boundary condition imposed for the field considered. For concreteness, we consider a noncommutative scalar field model near the horizon and derive the effective metric via the equation of motion of noncommutative scalar field. This metric displays a new horizon in addition to the original one associated with the Schwarzschild black hole. The infinite red-shifting of the scalar field on the new horizon determines the range of the noncommutative space and explains the relevant boundary condition for the field. This range enables us to calculate the entropy of black hole as proportional to the area of its original horizon along the same line as in 't Hooft's model , and the thickness of the brick wall is found to be proportional to the thermal average of the noncommutative space-time range. The Hawking temperature has been derived in this formalism. The study here represents an attempt to reveal some physics beyond the brick wall model. (author)

  16. Measure Guideline. Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, Hariharan [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Klocke, Steve [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders,remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

  17. Measure Guideline: Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, H.; Klocke, S.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-06-01

    This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders, remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

  18. Basic Deformation Parameters of Solid Clay Bricks and Small Masonry Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bouška

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic mechanical properties of clay brick masonry and its components were experimentally investigated in the laboratories of the Klokner Institute. The test specimens of masonry materials and the relevant mechanical properties have been identified in solid clay bricks and cement-lime mortar. The aim of the research activity was to study both the deformability of the prevailing type of clay masonry in the existing buildings, i.e. the masonry made from the solid clay units and the lime-cement mortar, and the most important mechanical properties of masonry components.

  19. Investigation of thermal effect on exterior wall surface of building material at urban city area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fadhil Md Din, Hazlini Dzinun, M. Ponraj, Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan, Zainura Zainun Noor, Dilshah Remaz, Kenzo Iwao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the investigation of heat impact on the vertical surfaces of buildings based on their thermal behavior. The study was performed based on four building materials that is commonly used in Malaysia; brick, concrete, granite and white concrete tiles. The thermal performances on the building materials were investigated using a surface temperature sensor, data logging system and infrared thermography. Results showed that the brick had the capability to absorb and store heat greater than other materials during the investigation period. The normalized heat (total heat/solar radiation of the brick was 0.093 and produces high heat (51% compared to granite, confirming a substantial amount of heat being released into the atmosphere through radiation and convection. The most sensitive material that absorbs and stores heat was in the following order: brick > concrete > granite > white concrete tiles. It was concluded that the type of exterior wall material used in buildings had significant impact to the environment.

  20. Investigation of thermal effect on exterior wall surface of building material at urban city area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dzinun, Hazlini; Ponraj, M.; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Noor, Zainura Zainun [Institute of Environmental Water Resources and Management (IPASA), Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Remaz, Dilshah [Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Iwao, Kenzo [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the investigation of heat impact on the vertical surfaces of buildings based on their thermal behavior. The study was performed based on four building materials that is commonly used in Malaysia; brick, concrete, granite and white concrete tiles. The thermal performances on the building materials were investigated using a surface temperature sensor, data logging system and infrared thermography. Results showed that the brick had the capability to absorb and store heat greater than other materials during the investigation period. The normalized heat (total heat/solar radiation) of the brick was 0.093 and produces high heat (51% compared to granite), confirming a substantial amount of heat being released into the atmosphere through radiation and convection. The most sensitive material that absorbs and stores heat was in the following order: brick > concrete > granite > white concrete tiles. It was concluded that the type of exterior wall material used in buildings had significant impact to the environment.

  1. Another brick in the cell wall: biosynthesis dependent growth model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Barbacci

    Full Text Available Expansive growth of plant cell is conditioned by the cell wall ability to extend irreversibly. This process is possible if (i a tensile stress is developed in the cell wall due to the coupling effect between turgor pressure and the modulation of its mechanical properties through enzymatic and physicochemical reactions and if (ii new cell wall elements can be synthesized and assembled to the existing wall. In other words, expansive growth is the result of coupling effects between mechanical, thermal and chemical energy. To have a better understanding of this process, models must describe the interplay between physical or mechanical variable with biological events. In this paper we propose a general unified and theoretical framework to model growth in function of energy forms and their coupling. This framework is based on irreversible thermodynamics. It is then applied to model growth of the internodal cell of Chara corallina modulated by changes in pressure and temperature. The results describe accurately cell growth in term of length increment but also in term of cell pectate biosynthesis and incorporation to the expanding wall. Moreover, the classical growth model based on Lockhart's equation such as the one proposed by Ortega, appears as a particular and restrictive case of the more general growth equation developed in this paper.

  2. 窗间墙锚固配筋砖混结构教学楼抗震性能试验研究%Experimental study on seismic performance of brick-concrete masonry school buildings with wall piers reinforced with anchored reinforcements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昊; 赵世春; 许浒; 张蓬勃; 吴刚

    2013-01-01

    Quasi-static tests on two half-scale two-story brick-concrete sub-structure models were carried out in order to improve the seismic performance of brick-concrete masonry school buildings. The wall piers between openings were partially reinforced with horizontal reinforcements that were reliably anchored using vertical reinforcements. The failure modes, load bearing capacity, deformability, rigidity degradation, ductility and hysteretic behavior of the two models, as well as failure modes of piers and failure mechanism of longitudinal walls were investigated. The results indicate that a story mechanism occurs in ordinary masonry model with the piers failing in shear failure. And the longitudinal walls exhibit strong spandrel-weak pier failure mechanism. However, partially reinforced wall piers are characterized by flexural failure with horizontal cracking in the mortar bed joints. Spandrels are severely damaged due to the formation of global failure mechanism. Strong pier-weak spandrel failure mechanism is guaranteed with uniform drift distribution. The level of damage, energy dissipation capacity and ductility of model are significantly improved.%为改善砖混结构教学楼的抗震性能,通过对其纵向窗间墙局部配筋并在墙体两端采用竖向钢筋进行锚固配筋,按照1/2的缩尺比例设计了2个砖混子结构模型.采用拟静力试验分别对普通窗间墙和配筋窗间墙的子结构模型的破坏模式、承载能力、变形能力、刚度退化、延性、耗能性能以及窗间墙的破坏模式和纵墙的破坏机制等进行了分析.结果表明:普通窗间墙模型表现为层间破坏机制,窗间墙发生剪切破坏,纵墙发生“强梁弱柱”式破坏;窗间墙局部配筋并进行锚固的模型发生整体型破坏,窗间墙弯曲破坏,纵墙的破坏机制具有“强柱弱梁”特征,层间变形均匀,模型的破坏形态、耗能能力和延性等均得到改善.

  3. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall impacted by an experimental boulder

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D; Qian, H.

    2016-01-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of damaged elements due to debris flow events in China. Therefore, it is difficult to quantitatively estimate the vulnerable elements suffered by debris flows. This paper is devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete walls impacted by debris flows. An experimental boulder (an iron sphere) was applied to be the substitute of debris flow since it can produce similar shape impulse load on elements as ...

  4. Twin lintel belt in steel for seismic strengthening of brick masonry buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.V.R.Murty; Jayanta Dutta; S.K.Agrawal

    2004-01-01

    A single-room, single-storey full-scale brick masonry building with precast RC roofing system was tested thrice under displacement controlled lateral cyclic loading, to assess the effectiveness of the basic repair and seismic strengthening techniques. Initially, the virgin building specimen was loaded laterally to failure. In the second stage, the damaged building was repaired by stitching across the cracks, and tested under the same lateral loading. In the third stage, the twice-damaged structure was repaired once more by stitching and strengthened by twin lintel belt in steel and vertical comer reinforcement,and re-tested. The building strengthened by twin lintel belt in steel showed about 28% higher strength under lateral loading than the virgin building.

  5. A fly ash and shale fired brick production line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYali

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the fly ash and shale fired brick production line with annual output of 1250 million bricks, designed by Xi'an Research and Design Institute of Wall and Roof Material, commissioned by QinDian Building Material Subcompany, and set an example for using fly ash and shale in China.

  6. Behavioural Study of RC Flat Plate Multi-Storey Building Persuaded By Stiffness of Masonry Infill Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Muralidhara.G.B; Mrs. Swathi Rani.K.S

    2016-01-01

    With a very swift development in urban areas the framed structures which are infilled by brick masonry or concrete blocks are widely used as partition walls and also exterior walls. Masonry infill walls are common element in structural system which modifies the conduction of building under the lateral load. These structures resist the moderate earthquakes and accomplish well in such a prime manner that even if they have no load bearing function. Evidently, during the time of resol...

  7. Prefabricated EPS Elements used as Strip Foundation of a Single-family House with a Double Brick Wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2008-01-01

    A new prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was demonstrated on site as the base of a single-family house with a double brick wall. The element was placed on a stable surface underneath the top soil layer, just 0.25 m underneath the finished ground surface. Th...... the concrete floor slab and indoor and outdoor temperatures and relative humidity were measured....

  8. Near-horizon expansion (conformal) approach to the calculation of Black Hole entropy in `t Hooft's brick-wall model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Carlos

    2010-10-01

    A review and the latest results on the near-horizon expansion (conformal) approach to `t Hooft's brick-wall model calculation of Black Hole entropy developed recently by the speaker and his collaborators will be given in this talk. With mainly a graduate student audience in mind, the seminar will be pedagogical in nature, with emphasis on the ideas and logic of the methods and the insights gained with this approach more than on details. If time permits, possible future directions will also be mentioned.

  9. Utilization of bagasse from the beer industry in clay brick production for building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, M. L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes bricks manufactured from bagasse, a by-product of the brewing industry. Raw materials (clay and bagasse were characterized to determine their chemical composition, mineralogical composition and thermal behaviour. Mixtures were prepared with amounts of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 wt% of bagasse incorporated into the clay body. Rectangular test pieces were obtained by application of 54.5 MPa pressure, they were dried at 110 °C and fired at 950 ºC in a laboratory furnace for 1 hour. Ceramic properties related to weight loss on ignition, linear shrinkage, bulk and absolute density, water absorption, water suction and compressive strength were analyzed in order to evaluate the suitability of using this wastes in ceramic matrix to the production of building bricks. The results indicate that the incorporation of the bagasse decreases the absolute and bulk density, increases the water absorption and reduces the compressive strength of the brick.

    Este estudio analiza ladrillos fabricados a partir de bagazo, un subproducto del sector cervecero. Las materias primas (arcilla y bagazo fueron caracterizadas para determinar la composición química, la composición mineralógica y el comportamiento térmico. Las mezclas fueron preparadas adicionando cantidades del 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5 y 10 % en peso de bagazo a la arcilla. Se obtuvieron piezas rectangulares por aplicación de una presión de 54,5 MPa, secadas a 110 ºC y sinterizadas a 950 ºC en un horno mufla durante 1 hora. Las propiedades cerámicas relativas a la pérdida de peso por calcinación, contracción lineal, densidad aparente, densidad absoluta, absorción de agua, succión del agua y resistencia a la compresión, fueron analizadas para evaluar la conveniencia de utilizar estos residuos en matrices cerámicas para la producción de ladrillos para construcción. Los resultados indican que, la incorporación de bagazo disminuye las densidades aparente y absoluta, incrementa la

  10. Archaeometric study of bricks from the ancient defence walls around the town of Pavia in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniale, F.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on bricks sampled from the defense walls around the historic town of Pavia (northern Italy erected during Roman (uncertain and “Spanish”(sixteenth-seventeenth centuries times. An analysis of colour, macro- and micro-chemical composition,mineralogical clusters and structural-textural features showed that similar raw materials were used in the manufacture of these bricks, although certain variations were identified: particle size is finer in Roman bricks, while the “Spanish” version contains ground carbonate and “chamotte” additives. The “Spanish” bricks,fired at lower temperatures, are more porous. The wide range of firing temperatures used to make “Spanish” bricks was very likely related to the intended use. The sporadic presence of maghemite is discussed in the context of the atmosphere prevailing in the kilns. The “Spanish” bricks are lighter in colour as a result of their carbonate content and lower firing temperature. These characteristics, which affect the weather resistance of the different types of brick, should be taken into account in restoration work.Se investigan ladrillos recogidos en las murallas defensivas de la histórica ciudad de Pavía (norte de Italia, que fueron construidas en tiempos romanos (no establecidosy “españoles” (siglos XVI y XVII.En base al color, composición química tanto total como puntual, asociaciones mineralógicas y características texturales,se concluye que se utilizó una materia prima similar en ambas épocas, con algunas particularidades: granulometría más fina en los romanos, adición de carbonato molido y chamota en los “españoles”. Por su parte, la porosidad es mayor en los ladrillos “españoles”. El amplio rango de temperaturas de cocción observado para estos últimos debe estar relacionado con los distintos usos para los cuales fueron destinados. La presencia esporádica de

  11. Control methods for strength of ceramic bricks in the inspection of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulybin A.V.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings up the problem of finding the most accurate, reliable and, at the same time, less time-consuming and relatively inexpensive method of determining strength of ceramic bricks. This task is particularly important in the context of the lack of standards governing the use of nondestructive testing methods for ceramic bricks, and the difficulties associated with sampling of ceramic brick masonry for standard tests.In the paper the possibility of determining the compressive strength of corpulent ceramic bricks by testing cylindrical samples taken from the body of masonry, is explored. The relation between standard samples tests results according to GOST standards № 8265-84 and testing of cylindrical samples is given.The experimental results for influence of the direction of kern selection (horizontally and vertically in reference to flat of brick on the strength is presented. The possibility of application of nondestructive testing methods for measuring strength of ceramic bricks is considered. Also the paper includes the examples of field and laboratory experiments.

  12. ECOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR LOW ENERGY BUILDING WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents constructive solutions for thermal insulation of the building walls, using recycled and biodegradable materials. The thermal insulatingcomposite materials are made of textile fibers obtained from waste of the textile industrial sector, wood fibers and wood chips from the wood industrial sector and mineral materials as binders: gypsum, cement, ceramic dust or industrial clay. For each type of compositematerial, the thermal conductivity coefficient has been determined and compared. The final results of thermal insulation of the walls were obtained after using the software of analyzing the thermal insulation property of various proposed composites. The main advantage of the proposed materials is their ecological characteristic compared with classical structures used today in buildings thermal insulation.

  13. Differential pressures on building walls during tornados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States, containment structures and some auxiliary structures (control building, auxiliary building, spent fuel building, etc.) in nuclear power plants are required to be designed to withstand the effects of the design basis tornado. In addition to velocity pressures and missile impact a tornado also gives rise to a rapid change in atmospheric pressure, which can, in cases of closed or partially vented structures, produce direct differential pressure loading. In this paper a digital computer program is described which applies a tornado-induced, time-dependent atmospheric pressure change to a building and calculates the differential pressure histories across the interior and exterior walls of the building. Laws for quasi-steady, one-dimensional motion of an ideal compressible gas are used to calculate the pressures due to the flow of air through ports, doors and windows in the building. Numerical examples show that for each assumed atmospheric pressure change history a vent area to compartment volume ratio may be specified as the criterion for a building to be considered fully vented. (orig.)

  14. Differential pressures on building walls during tornadoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States, containment structures and some auxiliary structures (control buildings, auxiliary buildings, spent fuel buildings, etc.) in nuclear power plants are required to be designed to withstand the effects of the design basis tornado. In addition to velocity pressures and missile impact a tornado also causes a rapid change in atmospheric pressure, which can, in cases of closed or partially vented structures, produce direct differential pressure loading. In this paper a digital computer program is described which applies a tornado-induced, time-dependent atmospheric pressure change to a building and calculates the differential pressure histories across the interior and exterior walls of the building. Laws for quasi-steady, one-dimensional motion of an ideal compressible gas are used to calculate the pressures due to the flow of air through ports, doors and windows in the building. Numerical examples show that for each assumed atmospheric pressure change history a vent area to compartment volume ratio may be specified as the criterion for a building to be considered fully vented. (Auth.)

  15. Analysis and research on heat preservation system preventing fromcondensation inside the wall of sintered gangue cork brick%烧结煤矸石多孔砖墙内保温系统防结露分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋岩丽

    2012-01-01

    This thesis researches the heat preservation system inside the outer-wall built of sintered gangue cork brick and glassy tiny bead wanning mortar. It tests its outer wall heat transfer coefficient and mainly analyzes the thermal bridge area from condensation. At last, the writer thinks that the heat preservation system inside the outer-wall built of sintered gangue cork brick can be used in the multiple-storey buildings below six and can fully meet the needs of 65% energy-saving in cold areas.%以烧结煤矸石多孔砖与玻化微珠保温砂浆构成的外墙内保温系统为研究对象,对其外墙传热系数进行测试,并重点对热桥部位防结露进行计算分析.分析认为,烧结煤矸石多孔砖外墙内保温体系用于6层以下的多层建筑,在寒冷地区完全可以满足节能65%目标要求.

  16. Studying boundary elements’ behaviour using masonry walls built with high-resistance bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Restrepo Mejía

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at studying the behaviour of masonry walls built with and without boundary elements at both ends when sublected to monotonic and cyclic lateral loads. The walls were designed to have the greatest resistance, following NSR-98 recommendations (normas Colombianas de diseno y construcción sismo resistente, except for shear reinforcement. XTRACT software was used for finding axial load cf bending moment and curvature cf bending moment curves. One monotonic test and two cyclic tests were performed for each type of wall. Experimental results from the walls’ lateral load cf displacement curves were used for determining their ability to dissipate energy on an inelastic range (“R” force-reduction factor for seismic loads and displacement and curvature malleability. It was found that walls built without boundary elements suffered shear failure with cracks in a stepped configuration along the bricks’ edge. The type of failure for walls built with boundary elements was shear failure in the central panel with cracks in a stepped configuration, in addition to compression failure at the edge of the boundary elements with vertical cracks on the lower part of the wall and at the contact between the wall and the boundary element. Comparison with two other studies carried out at the Universidad Nacional showed similar cyclic behaviour, regardless of the clay brick’s strength. The “R” values obtained for both types of walls were lower than the recommended values given by NSR-98. It was determined that walls having boundary element have greater displacement malleability than walls without boundary elements.

  17. Technology Solutions Case Study: Retrofit Measures for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ueno

    2015-10-01

    In this project, the Building Science Corporation team studied a historic brick building in Lawrence, Massachusetts, which is being renovated into 10 condominium units and adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings.

  18. Influence of Brick Walls on the Temperature Distribution in Steel Columns in Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. P. Moura Correia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of steel columns embedded in walls in fire. Several fire resistance tests were carried out at the Laboratory of Testing Materials and Structures of the University of Coimbra, in Portugal. The temperatures registered in several points of the experimental models are compared with those obtained in numerical simulations carried out with the SUPERTEMPCALC finite element program. 

  19. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Hagan

    Full Text Available This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m(3 in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m(3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  20. Residential Mercury Contamination in Adobe Brick Homes in Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB.; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m3) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production. PMID:24040399

  1. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives

  2. "Method, system and storage medium for generating virtual brick models"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An exemplary embodiment is a method for generating a virtual brick model. The virtual brick models are generated by users and uploaded to a centralized host system. Users can build virtual models themselves or download and edit another user's virtual brick models while retaining the identity...... of the original virtual brick model. Routines are provided for both storing user created building steps in and generating automated building instructions for virtual brick models, generating a bill of materials for a virtual brick model and ordering physical bricks corresponding to a virtual brick model....

  3. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives.

  4. Steel-framed buildings: Impacts of wall detail configurations on the whole wall thermal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosny, J.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Christian, J.E.

    1998-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is the influence of architectural wall details on the whole wall thermal performance. Whole wall thermal performance analysis was performed for six light gage steel-framed wall systems (some with wood components). For each wall system, all wall details were simulated using calibrated 3-D finite difference computer modeling. The thermal performance of the six steel-framed wall systems included various system details and the whole wall system thermal performance for a typical single-story ranch house. Currently, predicted heat losses through building walls are typically based on measurements of the wall system clear wall area using test methods such as ASTM C 236 or are calculated by one of the procedures recommended in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals that often is carried out for the clear wall area exclusively. In this paper, clear wall area is defined as the part of the wall system that is free of thermal anomalies due to building envelope details or thermally unaffected by intersections with other surfaces of the building envelope. Clear wall experiments or calculations normally do not include the effects of building envelope details such as corners, window and door openings, and structural intersections with roofs, floors, ceilings, and other walls. In steel-framed wall systems, these details typically consist of much more structural components than the clear wall. For this situation, the thermal properties measured or calculated for the clear wall area do not adequately represent the total wall system thermal performance. Factors that would impact the ability of today`s standard practice to accurately predict the total wall system thermal performance are the accuracy of the calculation methods, the area of the total wall that is clear wall, and the quantity and thermal performance of the various wall system details.

  5. Thermal Performance of Hollow Clay Brick with Low Emissivity Treatment in Surface Enclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Fioretti; Paolo Principi

    2014-01-01

    External walls made with hollow clay brick or block are widely used for their thermal, acoustic and structural properties. However, the performance of the bricks frequently does not conform with the minimum legal requirements or the values required for high efficiency buildings, and for this reason, they need to be integrated with layers of thermal insulation. In this paper, the thermal behavior of hollow clay block with low emissivity treatment on the internal cavity surfaces has been invest...

  6. Effect of Peat on Physicomechanical Properties of Cemented Brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mofachirul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicomechanical properties of bricks and investigates the influence of peat, sand, and cement solid bricks to the role of various types of constructional applications. The achieved compressive strength, spitting strength, flexural strength, unit weight, and ultrasonic pulse velocity are significantly reduced and the water absorption is increased with percentage wise replacement of peat as aggregate in the samples. The maximum 20% of (% mass peat content meets the requirements of relevant well-known international standards. The experimental values illustrate that, the 44% volumetric replacement with peat did not exhibit any sudden brittle fracture even beyond the ultimate loads and a comparatively smooth surface is found. The application of peat as efficient brick substance shows a potential to be used for wall and a viable solution in the economic buildings design.

  7. Effect of peat on physicomechanical properties of cemented brick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Syed Mofachirul; Hashim, Roslan; Islam, A B M Saiful; Kurnia, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicomechanical properties of bricks and investigates the influence of peat, sand, and cement solid bricks to the role of various types of constructional applications. The achieved compressive strength, spitting strength, flexural strength, unit weight, and ultrasonic pulse velocity are significantly reduced and the water absorption is increased with percentage wise replacement of peat as aggregate in the samples. The maximum 20% of (% mass) peat content meets the requirements of relevant well-known international standards. The experimental values illustrate that, the 44% volumetric replacement with peat did not exhibit any sudden brittle fracture even beyond the ultimate loads and a comparatively smooth surface is found. The application of peat as efficient brick substance shows a potential to be used for wall and a viable solution in the economic buildings design. PMID:24982941

  8. Visual documentation process of historic building refurbishment "Improving energy efficiency by insulating wall cavity"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennadji, A.

    2013-07-01

    The North East of Scotland's construction method is similar to most popular building typologies in the UK. This typology can vary in term of external material (Granite, brick or stone) but with a secondary, usually timber sub frame with a lining on its interior. Insulation was seldom a consideration when such buildings were completed. Statistics shows that 80% of existing buildings in the UK will need to be upgraded. The lack of knowledge in dealing with old building fabric's manipulation has a negative impact on buildings' integrity. The documentation of such process seems to be an important step that buildings' actors should undertake to communicate a practical knowledge that is still at incubation stage. We wanted for this documentation to be visual, as descriptions might mislead none specialised and specialised in the field due to the innovative approach our method was conducted with. For the Scottish context this research/experiment will concentrate on existing granite wall buildings with plastered lath internal wall. It is unfortunate to see the commonly beautiful interiors of Scottish buildings disappearing, when the internal linings are removed. Skips are filled with old Plaster and Lath and new linings have to be supplied and fitted. Excessive waste is created in this change. This paper is based on a historic building energy improvement case study financed by the European commission and the Scottish Government. The pilot study consists of insulating an 18th century house using an innovative product and method. The project was a response to a call by the CIC start (Construction Innovation Club), aiming to establish a link between SMEs and the Universities. The project saw the day in collaboration with Icynene Canada, KDL Kishorn (see full list in the acknowledgment). This paper describes the process through which the team went through to improve the building envelope without damaging the buildings original features (Loveday et all). The energy efficiency

  9. Nozzle Bricks and Well Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,brand,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,marking,packing,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of nozzle bricks and well bricks.This standard is applicable to unfired and fired products.

  10. Designing and building walls with Rammed Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galiouna, E.A.; Hammer, L.; Piscitelli, G.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. Today, a lot of people in the world live in earth dwellings. There are many different techniques for constructing solid walls of raw earth (adobe, bale, cob, mud wall, light clay, wattle and daub, earth bags

  11. Behavioural Study of RC Flat Plate Multi-Storey Building Persuaded By Stiffness of Masonry Infill Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Muralidhara.G.B

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With a very swift development in urban areas the framed structures which are infilled by brick masonry or concrete blocks are widely used as partition walls and also exterior walls. Masonry infill walls are common element in structural system which modifies the conduction of building under the lateral load. These structures resist the moderate earthquakes and accomplish well in such a prime manner that even if they have no load bearing function. Evidently, during the time of resolution of such a multi-storey structure, the infilled frame is considered as bare frame, because IS codes do not provide any guide lines for the analysis and design of RC frames with infill wall. This paper addresses the numerical study of G+10 RC flat plate framed building with different cases i.e, soft story at ground level (Basement, with soft story at 5th floor level, without soft storey and bare frame building by using ETABS as soft computing tool. All these cases are analyzed for equivalent static method and Response spectrum method. By this, dynamic properties are evaluated and according to the results obtained conclusions are drawn.

  12. Damage to urban buildings in zones of intensities VIII and VII during the Wenchuan earthquake and discussion on some typical damages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjiang Sun; Yuhong Tang; Chao Zheng; Hongbin Shi; Lin Lin; Zhongxian Sun

    2009-01-01

    The outline and typical characteristics of damages to building in Jiangyou city and Anxian county (intensity VIII), Mianyang city and Deyang city (intensity VII) are introduced in the paper. The damage ratios, based on the sample statistics of multi-story brick buildings together with multi-story brick buildings with RC frame at first story (BBF), are presented. Then some typical damages, such as horizontal cricks of brick masonry buildings, X-shaped cricks on the walls under windows, the damages to columns, beams and infill walls of frame buildings and the damage to half circle-shaped masonry walls, are discussed.

  13. 松江砖刻照壁文物保护工程勘察%On observation of protection for carved brick screen walls at Songjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许利军; 陈洋; 李占鸿

    2012-01-01

    针对松江砖刻照壁风化日益严重并存在倾斜的现状进行分析,采用三维激光扫描仪对照壁进行精细化测绘并根据扫描数据进行分析、绘制立面图,由测绘及勘察结果对照壁损坏原因进行分析并提出相应的加固修缮建议。%The paper analyzes the current status for the carved brick screen walls at Songjiang, which suffer from the serious weathering and inclination, adopts the three-dimension laser scanner to undertake the refined mapping of the screen walls, analyzes these scanned data, and draws the stereogram, analyzes the damages of the screen walls according to the surveyed and observed results, and points out respective repair suggestions.

  14. AAC 砌块自由加载墙施工工法%Construction Technology of the Free Loading Wall of AAC Building Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆建辉; 戴伟军; 朱晓波

    2016-01-01

    AAC (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete) building block is light in self-weigh, good fireproof, warm-proof and more easily cutting. But the strength of AAC building block is low. The AAC can’t be easily loaded, punched or holed. Its strength and warm-proof will get lower, when it meets water especially. The technology of the free loading wall of AAC building block (AAC wall) adopts the mixed wall structure, which consists of AAC building blocks, shale bricks and concrete bricks. The AAC wall can be easily loaded, punched, holed and free to fit all kinds of deformation, when you put concrete bricks or shale bricks into AAC wall through BIM design. Using the technology of mortar cover with wire mesh and boundary plugging, the AAC wall can be better in waterproof yet. Using the different thickness among building block wall, shale bricks wall and concrete beam or column, adopting the technology of heat bridge of gearing each other, the heat bridge can be overcome. This technology has solved the common quality failing of AAC wall, enlarging its integrity and use range, increasing the function of punching, holing or waterproofing systemically. It can be widely utilized in inside wall or outside wall because of producing and manufacturing in industry.%AAC 砌块自重轻、易切割、防火与保温性好,但其强度低、不能任意加载,开槽开洞局限较多,遇水湿胀且强度和保温性能变低。 AAC 砌块自由加载墙体施工工艺采用 AAC 砌块、页岩砖、素混凝土块混墙结构,通过 BIM 排块设计,在 AAC 砌块墙体中嵌入素混凝土块,在箱体集中处砌筑页岩砖墙体,以自由地适应加载、开槽开洞和墙体变形;利用表面网膜和界面封堵工艺,较好地解决了防渗防漏;利用砌块墙与页岩砖墙、混凝土梁柱间的厚度差,采用热桥咬合工艺,较好地解决了热桥。该工法系统地解决 AAC 砌块墙体的质量通病、使用局限,增强 AAC砌块墙体的

  15. Thermal evaluation of vertical greenery systems for building walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Nyuk Hien; Kwang Tan, Alex Yong; Chen, Yu. [Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore, 4 Architecture Drive, Singapore 117566 (Singapore); Sekar, Kannagi [Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore, 4 Architecture Drive, Singapore 117566 (Singapore); National Parks Board, Singapore Botanic Garden, 1 Cluny Road, Singapore 259569 (Singapore); Tan, Puay Yok; Chan, Derek; Chiang, Kelly [National Parks Board, Singapore Botanic Garden, 1 Cluny Road, Singapore 259569 (Singapore); Wong, Ngian Chung [Building and Construction Authority, 5 Maxwell Road, Singapore 069110 (Singapore)

    2010-03-15

    This research involves the study of 8 different vertical greenery systems (VGSs) installed in HortPark to evaluate the thermal impacts on the performance of buildings and their immediate environment based on the surface and ambient temperatures. VGSs 3 and 4 have the best cooling efficiency according to the maximum temperature reduction of the wall and substrate surfaces. These results point to the potential thermal benefits of vertical greenery systems in reducing the surface temperature of buildings facades in the tropical climate, leading to a reduction in the cooling load and energy cost. In terms of the lowest diurnal range of average wall surface temperature fluctuation, VGSs 4 and 1 show the highest capacities. No vertical greenery system performs well in term of the diurnal range of average substrate temperature fluctuation. By limiting the diurnal fluctuation of wall surface temperatures, the lifespan of building facades is prolonged, slowing down wear and tear as well as savings in maintenance cost and the replacement of facade parts. The effects of vertical greenery systems on ambient temperature are found to depend on specific vertical greenery systems. VGS 2 has hardly any effect on the ambient temperature while the effects of VGS 4 are felt as far as 0.60 m away. Given the preponderance of wall facades in the built environment, the use of vertical greenery systems to cool the ambient temperature in building canyons is promising. Furthermore, air intakes of air-conditioning at a cooler ambient temperature translate into saving in energy cooling load. (author)

  16. The detection and identification to a brick structure residential building%某砖混结构住宅楼检测鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭贺君

    2015-01-01

    Taking a brick structure residential building as an example,this paper made detection and identification to the residential building foundation,upper structure component,material strength and structure bearing capacity etc. ,and put forward corresponding reinforcement sug-gestion for its detection results,in order to assure the safety,applicability and durability of building structure.%以某砖混结构住宅楼为例,对该住宅楼地基基础、上部结构构件、材料强度及结构承载力等进行了检测鉴定,并针对其检测结果提出了相应的加固建议,以保证建筑结构的安全性、适用性及耐久性。

  17. The production process for water penetrated brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunGuofeng

    2005-01-01

    Waste penetrated brick, which is a green building material with good water penetration, high strength, lower firing temperature, lower production cost, good appearance and good structure, can holding ground water lever. This article analysis the production process and related factor for water penetrated brick:proper particle size distribution, proper shaping method, proper press and proper firing can ensure to produce good quality water penetrated brick.

  18. The first fly ash fired hollow brick production line with an annual capacity of 120 million bricks in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYali

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the first fly ash fired hollow brick production line with an annual output of 120 million bricks in China, which is designed and contracted by Xi'an Research and Design Institute of Wall and Roof Material, commissioned by Xi Baipo Generate Electricity Ltd. Company. It is a good sample for utilizing industrial wastes to produce hollow brick.

  19. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  20. Tests and Analysis of the Compressive Performance of an Integrated Masonry Structure of a Brick-Stem-Insulating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suizi Jia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes, for low buildings, an integrated wall structure of a brick-stem-insulating layer, which plays a major part in both heat preservation and force bearing. The research team has tested the thermal performance of the structure, the results of which are satisfying. To further study the force-bearing performance, the paper carries out compressive tests of specimens of different structural design, with two types of bricks, i.e., clay and recycled concrete bricks; three types of stems, i.e., square-shaped wood, square-shaped steel pipe and circular steel pipe; and one type of insulating layer, i.e., fly ash masonry blocks. Afterward, the force bearing performance, damage that occurred, compressive deformation and ductility of all of the specimens are compared. On the sideline, the structure is applied in the construction of a pilot residence project, yielding favorable outcomes. The results indicate that in comparison with a brick wall with an insulating layer sandwiched in between, the integrated wall structure of bricks and fly ash blocks is a more preferable choice in terms of compressive performance and ductility. The integrated wall structure of brick-stem-fly ash blocks delivers much better performance to this end. Note that regarding the stem’s contribution to compressive strength, circular steel pipe is highest, followed by square-shaped steel pipe and then square-shaped wood. The compressive performance of the sandwiched blocks surpasses that of the two brick wall pieces combined by a large margin.

  1. 明清北京城墙砖珍稀图形款识初析%The Analysis Of Precious Moulage Of Brick Beijing City Wall In Ming Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡青

    2016-01-01

    明清铭文城墙砖是建筑物料与文字结合的产物,是承载历史信息的珍贵实物史料。其中一些稀有的图形款识体现出特殊的历史文化意义,这些质朴、粗放的古代建筑物料借助其特有的艺术情趣传达着人们对吉祥、兴旺的美好向往。通过对铭文砖图形款识艺术文化内涵的分析和研究,能更清晰地展现出这些几乎被世间遗忘的文化元素特有的艺术魅力。%Ancient inscriptions of brick city wal is the combination of words and building of special building materials,politics,economy, culture, art is a record during the Ming and qing dynasties and the precious heritage of life information.In the brick city wal of the artistic appeal of rare graphical inscriptionshas the more rich significance These plain extensive ancient building materials. Convey the beautiful yearning for the auspicious and prosperous people.On the analysis of the inscription inscription art brick graphics cultural value and renew, Make these almost forgotten by the world of art element Show unique artistic charm.

  2. 变电站蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体围墙裂缝分析与防治%Analysis and Prevention of Substation of Autoclaved Fly Ash Brick Masonry Wall Cracks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵国华

    2014-01-01

    本文结合变电站工程实际,分析了变电站工程蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体清水围墙裂缝产生的原因,从蒸压粉煤灰砖的生产、构造设计及砌筑施工等几个方面提出了防治措施。%Combining with the actual substation engineering, Analyzed the causes of transformer substation project of autoclaved fly ash brick masonry wall cracks in water, Puts forward the prevention measures from the aspects of production, structure design and masonry construction of autoclaved fly ash brick.

  3. 3D Printing for Bricks

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2015-01-01

    Building Bytes, by Brian Peters, is a project that uses desktop 3D printers to print bricks for architecture. Instead of using an expensive custom-made printer, it uses a normal standard 3D printer which is available for everyone and makes it more accessible and also easier for fabrication.

  4. Design of Molding Machine of the Straw Facing Wall Brick and its Application Analysis%秸秆饰面墙体砌砖成型机的设计及其应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋成宠; 杨仁杰; 魏金娜; 赵颖; 陈树人

    2015-01-01

    阐述了秸秆饰面墙体砌砖成型机的设计方案,具体包括基本结构及工作原理。为满足秸秆墙体砌砖在建筑用材上较高强度和密实度的要求,关键对于成型装置和进料装置进行了设计和装配,使一次挤压中得以实现二次进料以及隔层中玻纤维添加的连续过程。并将秸秆饰面墙体砌砖在主要性能指标上与水泥砖进行对比分析,剖析秸秆墙体砌砖的优势和竞争力,而且通过经济指标上具体产值和节能效益的计算,分析得出该设备及其产品较大的市场价值和发展前景。%The design scheme of molding machines of straw facing wall brick is expounded, including basic composition and working principle. To meet the requirements of straw wall brick’s strength and high density, forming device and feeding device are carried out for the special design and assembly, making secondary feed possible and adding glass fiber in the interlayer in one continuous extrusion. And comparing the wall brick of straw with cement block on the main performance indexes, it analyzes the advantage and competitiveness of the straw wall brick; and by calculating the output and energy saving benefit, it turns out that the equipment and the market value of its product have development prospect.

  5. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls, Lawrence, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-10-01

    ?There are many existing buildings with load-bearing mass masonry walls, whose energy performance could be improved with the retrofit of insulation. However, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw have known solutions. But wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content and relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100 percent RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated vs. non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15 percent) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  6. Device for storage of radioactive material in a building with heat pipes set in the building wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When storing radio-active material in a building, safe and sufficient heat removal must always be guaranteed. On the other hand, the building should be safely closed to the environment. The invention makes it possible to ensure, for such a building with heat pipes set in the building wall, that it is possible to use at least part of the heat generated in the building without limiting the removal of heat. Cooling sleeves are fitted to the heat pipes near the building wall for this purpose, where a cooling circuit with a circulating coolant is connected to the cooling sleeves. (orig.)

  7. Gamma-ray shielding effectiveness of novel light-weight clay-flyash bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Harjinder Singh; Brar, G. S.; Mudahar, G. S.

    2016-10-01

    The radiation shielding parameters of lightweight clay-flyash bricks produced with different flyash aggregate compositions have been investigated by using 241Am (59.4 keV), 137Cs (661.6 keV), and 60Co (1173.2 keV and 1332.5 keV) radioactive sources. It was observed that the different percentages of flyash in clay lead to significant variations in these parameters. The elemental compositions of the clay-flyash bricks were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). The obtained results were compared to those pertaining to concrete in order to see the effect of flyash content on the radiation shielding properties. The radiation protection efficiency of the tested clay-flyash bricks demonstrated that multilayer exterior walls built from these bricks could effectively attenuate moderate-energy gamma rays. Bricks using residual flyash could be preferentially used for buildings to address the issues of radiation shielding, cost-effective radioactive waste management and disposal of flyash in a useful manner.

  8. Clone-based comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes retrieved from biodeteriorating brick buildings of the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlewska, Anna; Adamiak, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the bacterial communities in four samples of historical materials (plaster, brick, and wood) derived from buildings located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Brzezinka, Poland. For this purpose a molecular strategy based on the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries was used. In total, 138 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences (∼600bp) were obtained and compared. The clones belonged to phyla Proteobacteria (classes: Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The plaster samples predominantly contained clones closely related to Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, brick samples contained Gammaproteobacteria, while wood samples had Actinobacteria clones. Interestingly, the historic plaster and brick samples contained the following bacteria with known and described biodeterioration potential: chemoorganotrophic Streptomyces sp. and Pseudonocardia sp., halotolerant or halophilic Rubrobacter sp., Salinisphaera sp. and Halomonas sp. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that amongst the bacterial species detected and identified none occurred on all the tested historical materials. The 16S rRNA clone library construction method was successfully used for the detection and diversity determination of bacterial communities inhabiting brick barracks located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Brzezinka.

  9. Social Bricks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Can social sustainability be built? In this paper the potentialities and challenges of the concept of social sustainability are explored based on a collaboration project between the Danish Building Research Institute, a Danish social housing association and the Green Building Council Denmark......, aiming to better integrate standards of social sustainability in the application of certification systems like DGNB. The paper relates theory on social sustainability to the ways it is used in practice, and discusses whether and how social sustainability can be measured and certified in renewal...... and construction of housing and neighbourhoods. It is put forward that a certification has to take into account the housing complex’ or neighbourhood’s relation to the surrounding city, its development over time, its flexibility towards future needs and its social organisation and operation. Further, the interplay...

  10. Experimental Study on Tsunami Risk Reduction on Coastal Building Fronted by Sea Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study was conducted to idealize the efficacy of sea wall in controlling the tsunami forces on onshore structures. Different types of sea walls were placed in front of the building model. The tsunami forces and the wave heights were measured with and without the sea wall conditions. Types of sea wall, wall height, and wall positions were varied simultaneously to quantify the force reductions. Maximum of 41% forces was reduced by higher sea wall, positioned closer proximity to the model whereas this reduction was about 27% when the wall height was half of the high wall. Experimental investigations revealed that wall with adequate height and placed closer to the structures enables a satisfactory predictor of the force reduction on onshore structures. Another set of tests were performed with perforated wall placing near the building model. Less construction cost makes the provision of perforated sea wall interesting. The overall results showed that the efficacy of perforated wall is almost similar to solid wall. Hence, it can be efficiently used instead of solid wall. Moreover, overtopped water that is stuck behind the wall is readily gone back to the sea through perforations releasing additional forces on the nearby structures.

  11. Thermal Performance of Hollow Clay Brick with Low Emissivity Treatment in Surface Enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fioretti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available External walls made with hollow clay brick or block are widely used for their thermal, acoustic and structural properties. However, the performance of the bricks frequently does not conform with the minimum legal requirements or the values required for high efficiency buildings, and for this reason, they need to be integrated with layers of thermal insulation. In this paper, the thermal behavior of hollow clay block with low emissivity treatment on the internal cavity surfaces has been investigated. The purpose of this application is to obtain a reduction in the thermal conductivity of the block by lowering the radiative heat exchange in the enclosures. The aims of this paper are to indicate a methodology for evaluating the thermal performance of the brick and to provide information about the benefits that should be obtained. Theoretical evaluations are carried out on several bricks (12 geometries simulated with two different thermal conductivities of the clay, using a finite elements model. The heat exchange procedure is implemented in accordance with the standard, so as to obtain standardized values of the thermal characteristics of the block. Several values of emissivity are hypothesized, related to different kinds of coating. Finally, the values of the thermal transmittance of walls built with the evaluated blocks have been calculated and compared. The results show how coating the internal surface of the cavity provides a reduction in the thermal conductivity of the block, of between 26% and 45%, for a surface emissivity of 0.1.

  12. Energy efficiency of the Rural Wall multi-layer structure in low-rise building design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Golova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study on energy efficiency of various wall design solutions and a new multi-layer wall design for low-rise construction as well as the results of television studies on multi-layer and single-layer envelopes. Indoor climate parameters for various wall design solutions are determined. The study reveals the optimal wall design solutions and specifies the theoretical assessment of their energy efficiency in compliance with Russia's national building code 23-02-2003. The paper presents calculations of building heat loss through the exterior building envelope, reduced resistance to heat transfer of walls and total heat loss of the building with the selected outer wall design during the heating season. Recommendations on the application of the new multi-layer wall design using local wall materials in the construction of energy-efficient low-rise buildings are developed. The recommendations include requirements for wall materials, thermal calculations, production guidelines, properties of layers in a multi-layer walls and physical and mechanical properties of wall layers.

  13. Effective of Earthquake load on Behavior of Rectangular Shear Wall in RC Frame Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hosseini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural walls, or shear walls, are elements used to resist lateral loads, such as those generated by wind and earthquakes. Structural walls are considerably deeper than typical beams or columns. This attribute gives structural walls considerable in-plane stiffness which makes structural walls a natural choice for resisting lateral loads. In addition to considerable strength, structural walls can dissipate a great deal of energy if detailed properly. Walls are an invaluable structural element when protecting buildings from seismic events. Buildings often rely on structural walls as the main lateral force resisting system. Shear walls are required to perform in multiple ways. Shear walls can then be designed to limit building damage to the specified degree. The load-deformation response of the structural walls must be accurately predicted and related to structural damage in order to achieve these performance goals under loading events of various magnitudes. The applied load is generally transferred to the wall by a diaphragm or collector or drag member. The performance of the framed buildings depends on the structural system adopted for the structure The term structural system or structural frame in structural engineering refers to load-resisting sub-system of a structure. The structural system transfers loads through interconnected structural components or members. These structural systems need to be chosen based on its height and loads and need to be carried out, etc. The selection of appropriate structural systems for building must satisfy both strength and stiffness requirements. The structural system must be adequate to resist lateral and gravity loads that cause horizontal shear deformation and overturning deformation. The efficiency of a structural system is measured in terms of their ability to resist lateral load, which increases with the height of the frame. A building can be considered as tall when the effect of lateral loads is

  14. Modelling of a coke oven heating wall

    OpenAIRE

    Landreau, M.; Isler, D.; Gasser, A.; Blond, E.; Daniel, J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    International audience This work deals with thermomechanical modelling of a coke oven heating wall. The objective is to define the safe limits of coke oven battery operating conditions compatible with a long service life in terms of thermal and mechanical stresses. For this purpose a 3D thermomechanical model of a heating wall taking into account the assembly of bricks and joints was developed with PRISME Laboratory. To build an efficient and complete model, different parameters must be ta...

  15. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  16. Study of Strength of RC Shear Wall at Different Location on Multi-Storied Residential Building

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Ehtesham Ali; Mohd Minhaj Uddin Aquil

    2014-01-01

    Shear wall systems are one of the most commonly used lateral load resisting systems in high-rise buildings. Shear walls have very high in plane stiffness and strength, which can be used to simultaneously resist large horizontal loads and support gravity loads, making them quite advantageous in many structural engineering applications. There are lots of literatures available to design and analyze the shear wall. However, the decision about the location of shear wall in multi-st...

  17. Experimental and numerical investigation of a hollow brick filled with perlite insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukowski, M. [Department of Heat Engineering, Bialystok Technical University, Wiejska Street 45A, 15-351 Bialystok (Poland); Haese, G. [Wohnungsgenossenschaft Gartenheim eG, Hildesheimer Strasse 142 D-30173 Hannover (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The present study is focused on the investigation of the effective thermal properties of a modern vertically perforated masonry unit filled with perlite insulation. Based on measurements and numerical calculations, the thermal performance of the new hollow brick was determined. The authors suggest to use the following parameters for this building material: equivalent heat capacity equal to 855.1 J/kg K, equivalent heat conductivity equal to 0.09 W/mK and equivalent density equal to 653.15 kg/m{sup 3}. The dependence of the equivalent thermal resistance of the whole wall made of this brick and mortar, is shown for different mortar joint thicknesses. All results, presented in this paper, can be used in energy balance calculations for buildings made of masonry unit. (author)

  18. Analysis of the Applications of Wall Materials in the Building Technology%浅析建筑技术中墙体材料的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红云

    2013-01-01

    At present, the problem of energy saving has beco-me the focus of building engineering construction. Compared with the traditional wall materials, the advantage of new wall materials are very prominent in the energy saving. In this ar-ticle, the author discusses the application direction of the re-form of new wall materials in our country at present stage by studying the application status of new wall materials with the type of bricks, blocks and panels.%目前,节能减排问题已成为了建筑工程施工的重点。与传统的墙体材料相比,新型墙体材料在节能减排方面的优势十分突出。本文通过研究砖、块、板类新型墙体材料的应用现状,探讨了现阶段我国新型墙体材料应用改革的方向。

  19. Study of Strength of RC Shear Wall at Different Location on Multi-Storied Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ehtesham Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shear wall systems are one of the most commonly used lateral load resisting systems in high-rise buildings. Shear walls have very high in plane stiffness and strength, which can be used to simultaneously resist large horizontal loads and support gravity loads, making them quite advantageous in many structural engineering applications. There are lots of literatures available to design and analyze the shear wall. However, the decision about the location of shear wall in multi-storey building is not much discussed in any literatures. In this paper, therefore, main focus is to determine the solution for shear wall location in multi-storey building. A RCC building of six storey placed in HYDERABAD subjected to earthquake loading in zone-II is considered. An earthquake load is calculated by seismic coefficient method using IS 1893 (PART–I:2002. These analyses were performed using ETABS.

  20. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from brick kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarathnam, Uma; Athalye, Vasudev; Ragavan, Santhosh; Maithel, Sameer; Lalchandani, Dheeraj; Kumar, Sonal; Baum, Ellen; Weyant, Cheryl; Bond, Tami

    2014-12-01

    India has more than 100,000 brick kilns producing around 250 billion bricks annually. Indian brick industry is often a small scale industry and third largest consumer of coal in the country. With the growing demand for building materials and characterised by lack of pollution control measures the brick industry has a potential to cause adverse effects on the environment. This paper presents assessment of five brick making technologies based on the measurements carried out at seventeen individual brick kilns. Emissions of PM, SO2, CO and CO2 were measured and these emissions were used to estimate the emission factors for comparing the emissions across different fuel or operating conditions. Estimated emission from brick kilns in South Asia are about 0.94 million tonnes of PM; 3.9 million tonnes of CO and 127 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Among various technologies that are widely used in India, Zig zag and vertical shaft brick kilns showed better performance in terms of emissions over the traditional fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns. This suggests that the replacement of traditional technologies with Zig zag, vertical shaft brick kilns or other cleaner kiln technologies will contribute towards improvements in the environmental performance of brick kiln industry in the country. Zig zag kilns appear to be the logical replacement because of low capital investment, easy integration with the existing production process, and the possibility of retrofitting fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns into Zig zag firing.

  1. Shaking table tests and dynamic analyses of masonry wall buildings with flame-shear walls at lower stories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Lihong; David Xiong; Wu Ruifeng; Xia Jingqian

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes shaking table tests of three eight-story building models: all are masonry structures in the upper stories, with or without frame-shear walls of one- or two- stories at the bottom. The test results of damage characteristics and seismic responses are provided and compared. Then, nonlinear response analyses are conducted to examine the reliability of the dynamic analysis. Finally, many nonlinear response analyses are performed and it is concluded that for relatively hard sites under a certain lateral stiffness ratio (I.e., the ratio of the stiffness of the lowest upper masonry story to that of the frame-shear wall story), the masonry structure with one-story frame-shear wall at the bottom performs better than a structure built entirely of masonry, and a masonry structure with frame-shear wall of two stories performs better than with one-story frame-shear wall. In relatively soft soil conditions, all three structures have similar performane. In addition, some suggestions that could be helpful for design ofmasomy structures with ground story of frame-shear wall structure in seismic intensity region VII, such as the appropriate lateral stiffness ratio, shear force increase factor of the frame-shear wall story, and permissible maximum height of the building, are proposed.

  2. Silica Refractory Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the classification,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of silica refractory bricks.This standard is applicable to silica refractory bricks with single weight≤40 kg.

  3. Effect of Peat on Physicomechanical Properties of Cemented Brick

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Mofachirul Islam; Roslan Hashim; A. B. M. Saiful Islam; Ryan Kurnia

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicom...

  4. Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Thomas F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have been contributed to, and are available from, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. Results Here we extended the same advantages of BioBrick standard biological parts to the plasmid-based vectors that are used to provide and propagate BioBrick parts. We developed a process for engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts. We designed a new set of BioBrick parts that encode many useful vector functions. We combined the new parts to make a BioBrick base vector that facilitates BioBrick vector construction. We demonstrated the utility of the process by constructing seven new BioBrick vectors. We also successfully used the resulting vectors to assemble and propagate other BioBrick standard biological parts. Conclusion We extended the principles of part reuse and standardization to BioBrick vectors. As a result, myriad new BioBrick vectors can be readily produced from all existing and newly designed BioBrick parts. We invite the synthetic biology community to (1 use the process to make and share new BioBrick vectors; (2 expand the current collection of BioBrick vector parts; and (3 characterize and improve the available collection of BioBrick vector parts.

  5. Influence of the type of lightweight clay brick on the equivalent thermal transmittance of different types of façades on buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, M. P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the equivalent thermal transmittances of different façades built using commercial clay bricks with three different thicknesses and façades made using the same method but with ceramic bricks with optimized rhomboidal interior geometry. Equivalent thermal transmittances of 0.300 W/m2·K were recorded for the rhomboidal brick with a thickness of 0.290 m and a façade with thermo-acoustic insulation and a large format brick on the interior, but the final thickness of the façade was 0.445 m. For ventilated façades made of the proposed rhomboidal brick with thicknesses of 0.290 and 0.240 m an 8–9% improvement was found, with values of 0.312 W/m2·K and 0.339 W/m2·K, respectively. It can be concluded that in view of the small difference in thermal terms, the best option is to use a brick 0.240 m thick, as the overall thickness of the façade will not then exceed 0.300 m.En el presente trabajo se comparan las transmitancias térmicas equivalentes de diferentes fachadas ejecutadas con bloques comerciales de tres espesores 0,290 m, 0,240 m y 0,190 m, con el mismo montaje pero con un bloque cerámico optimizado con geometría interior romboidal. Se ha obtenido una transmitancia térmica equivalente de 0,300 W/m2·K para el ladrillo con geometría romboidal de 0,290 m de espesor y pared con aislamiento termoacústico y gran formato en el interior, con un espesor total de fachada de 0,445 m. Para fachadas ventiladas con el ladrillo romboidal propuesto con espesores de 0,290 y 0,240 m, se obtiene una mejora de un 8%–9%, con valores de 0,312 W/m2·K y 0,339 W/m2·K, respectivamente. Podemos concluir que, dada la pequeña diferencia en términos térmicos, la mejor opción es el uso de ladrillos de 0,240 m de espesor, siempre y cuando el espesor total de fachada no exceda los 0,300 m.

  6. wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining indoor climatic conditions of buildings compatible with the occupant comfort by consuming minimum energy, especially in a tropical climate becomes a challenging problem for researchers. This paper aims to investigate this problem by evaluating the effect of different kind of Photovoltaic Trombe wall system (PV-TW on thermal comfort, energy consumption and CO2 emission. A detailed simulation model of a single room building integrated with PV-TW was modelled using TRNSYS software. Results show that 14-35% PMV index and 26-38% PPD index reduces as system shifted from SPV-TW to DGPV-TW as compared to normal buildings. Thermal comfort indexes (PMV and PPD lie in the recommended range of ASHARE for both DPV-TW and DGPV-TW except for the few months when RH%, solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature were high. Moreover PVTW system significantly reduces energy consumption and CO2 emission of the building and also 2-4.8 °C of temperature differences between indoor and outdoor climate of building was examined.

  7. Bricks as indicators for an urban soil genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Thomas; Rokia, Sarah; Schwartz, Christophe; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    Bricks can be considered as anthropogenic markers since they are regularly found in urban soils worldwide. They are among the most resistent residues of building materials, therefore are called technogenic substrates. They have been dumped to urban soils since more than 4000 years and can be dated back to their burning using thermoluminescence. In Berlin, bricks have been piled up to more than 37 rubble mountains in the city after WW II. The devils mountain, the most prominent of them is higher than 60m. However, bricks are known not to be isolated in the soil but to fulfill soil functions due to their porosity. Therefore, they are nice research objects for soil scientists. The purpose of this study is to investigate abundance and functions of bricks in urban soils, focusing on plant nutrition and contamination aspects. Three different Berlin urban soils have been studied for their brick contents in the coarse and fine earth fractions by endless hand sorting. Light and scanning electron microscopy was then employed to investigate the bricks for proofs of plant roots. Third, CEC, pH, EC, Corg, nutrient storage (XRF) and availability (2:1 extract, ion chromatography, AAS) of bricks and fine earth fractions of the corresponding soil horizons have been investigated. The fine earth fractions of the investigated soils contain 3 to 5% of bricks, while the coarse fractions contain up to 50%. We found roots entering brick pores or at least attached to brick surfaces. Therefore, plants can use the water and nutrients stored in bricks. The CEC of bricks is grain size dependent and reaches a maximum of 6 cmolc kg-1 for particles smaller than 0.063 mm. This dependency is not explained by a low pore connectivity. Rather, it is the result of the restricted diffusion into the brick pore system due to the short shaking time in the CEC analysis protocol. From the nutrient storage and availabilities we conclude that bricks can better supply plants with K, Mg, Ca and S than the bulk

  8. Failure mechanism of shear-wall dominant multi-story buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, S.B.; Kalkan, E.

    2008-01-01

    The recent trend in the building industry of Turkey as well as in many European countries is towards utilizing the tunnel form (shear-wall dominant) construction system for development of multi-story residential units. The tunnel form buildings diverge from other conventional reinforced concrete (RC) buildings due to the lack of beams and columns in their structural integrity. The vertical load-carrying members of these buildings are the structural-walls only, and the floor system is a flat plate. Besides the constructive advantages, tunnel form buildings provide superior seismic performance compared to conventional RC frame and dual systems as observed during the recent devastating earthquakes in Turkey (1999 Mw 7.4 Kocaeli, Mw 7.2 Duzce, and 2004 Mw 6.5 Bingol). With its proven earthquake performance, the tunnel form system is becoming the primary construction technique in many seismically active regions. In this study, a series of nonlinear analyses were conducted using finite element (FE) models to augment our understanding on their failure mechanism under lateral forces. In order to represent the nonlinear behavior adequately, The FE models were verified with the results of experimental studies performed on three dimensional (3D) scaled tunnel form building specimens. The results of this study indicate that the structural walls of tunnel form buildings may exhibit brittle flexural failure under lateral loading, if they are not properly reinforced. The global tension/compression couple triggers this failure mechanism by creating pure axial tension in the outermost shear-walls.

  9. Evaluation of the behavior of brick tile masonry and mortar due to capillary rise of moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camino, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For a better understanding of the behaviour of old brick masonry in facing the rising damp problem, multiple tests were made in the laboratory: water absorption, moisture content, apparent porosity, temperature and thermal camera imaging on brick masonry and its components: brick and mortar. This has allowed us to determine which of the previous tests is the best in predicting the behaviour of a real wall. In addition, the tests have also helped in defining a process to evaluate the moisture content of walls in a buildings, which is important for heritage restoration projects.Para un mejor conocimiento del comportamiento de las fábricas antiguas de ladrillo frente a la ascensión capilar de agua, se han realizado en laboratorio ensayos de absorción de agua, de contenido de humedad, de porosidad aparente, de temperatura e imágenes con cámara termográfica sobre muros de fábrica y sus materiales componentes: ladrillo y argamasa. Ello ha permitido inferir cuál es el ensayo realizado a los ladrillos que mejor predice el comportamiento del muro real. También ha permitido definir un procedimiento para evaluar el contenido de humedad de fábricas existentes, importante para los proyectos de restauración del patrimonio construido.

  10. Properties of bricks produced from Greenlandic marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Ida Maria Gieysztor; Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Chen, Wan;

    2015-01-01

    miniature bricks (54×54×60 mm3) of MS from Sisimiut. Brick pellets were prepared in order to determine anoptimal composition and production method, based on investigations of the firing temperature and time,forming pressure, initial forming water content, and content of granite waste (CR). Miniature bricks...... werethen prepared according to the optimal conditions and formed at a pressure of 20 MPa, fired at 1020 Cfor 3:5 days at the brickwork Wienerberger Tegl in Helsinge, Denmark. The durability properties suchas porosity, water absorption, bulk density, linear shrinkage, and compressive strength (only...... miniaturebricks) of both pellets and miniature bricks were investigated and the results were compared with ASTMrequirements for building bricks to classify their resistance to damage by freezing. The study of miniaturebricks showed that the water absorption was too high after 24 h of submersion in cold water...

  11. An improved approach for the application of Trombe wall system to building construction with selective thermo-insulation facades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Jie; LUO ChengLong; SUN Wei; YU HanCheng; HE Wei; PEI Gang

    2009-01-01

    An improved Trombe wall is proposed to adapt to building construction with selective thermo-insula-tion facades (internal and cavity wall insulation, but not external wall insulation system). The case study is conducted in Xining, Capital city of Qinghai province in China, where the general building fa-cades are mostly selective thermo-insulation fagades to fight against the severe cold. A numerical analysis is undertaken to show the effects on the improvement of the building's thermal environment by comparing the improved Trombe wall system with the classical Trombe wall system. The operating efficiency of the improved Trombe wall can be up to 33.85%, an increase of 56%. The results show that the improved Trombe wall works more effectively than the classical Trombe wall system in utilizing solar energy for the sample building.

  12. Integrated Strip Foundation Systems for Small Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2010-01-01

    A prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was used on site as the bases of two small residential buildings, in this case single-family houses; one was built with a double-brick exterior wall separated by mineral fiber insulation and the other was built with a wood...

  13. Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Tichy; Chuck Murray

    2006-05-31

    This document serves as the Topical Report documenting work completed by Washington State University (WSU) under U.S. Department of Energy Grant, Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings. This project was conducted in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and includes the participation of several industry partners including Weyerhaeuser, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, CertainTeed Corporation and Fortifiber. This document summarizes work completed by Washington State University August 2002 through June 2006. WSU's primary experimental role is the design and implementation of a field testing protocol that monitored long term changes in the hygrothermal response of wall systems. During the project period WSU constructed a test facility, developed a matrix of test wall designs, constructed and installed test walls in the test facility, installed instrumentation in the test walls and recorded data from the test wall specimens. Each year reports were published documenting the hygrothermal response of the test wall systems. Public presentation of the results was, and will continue to be, made available to the building industry at large by industry partners and the University.

  14. Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Tichy; Chuck Murray

    2003-10-01

    This document serves as the Topical Report documenting the first year of work completed by Washington State University (WSU) under US Department of Energy Grant, Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings. This project is being conducted in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and includes the participation of several industry partners including Weyerhaeuser Company, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, CertainTeed Corporation and Fortifiber. This document summarizes work completed by Washington State University August, 2002 through October, 2003. WSU's primary experimental role is the design and implementation of a field testing protocol that will monitor long term changes in the hygrothermal response of wall systems. In the first year WSU constructed a test facility, developed a matrix of test wall designs, constructed and installed test walls in the test facility, and installed instrumentation in the test walls. By the end of the contract period described in this document, WSU was recording data from the test wall specimens. The experiment described in this report will continue through December, 2005. Each year a number of reports will be published documenting the hygrothermal response of the test wall systems. Public presentation of the results will be made available to the building industry by industry partners and the University cooperators.

  15. Non-Linear Static Analysis of G+6 Storeyed RC Buildings with Openings in Infill Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Rathod

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Masonry infill walls are commonly used in the RC frame structure buildings. Openings are inevitable part of the infill walls. Openings in infill walls significantly decrease the lateral strength and stiffness of RC frames. In the present study two-dimensional seven storeyed reinforced concrete (RC building models are considered with of (5%, 25%, and 35% openings Bare frame and soft storey buildings are modeled considering special moment resisting frame (SMRF for medium soil profile and zone III. Concrete block infill walls are modeled as pin-jointed single equivalent diagonal strut. Pushover analysis is carried out for both default and user defined hinge properties as per FEMA 440 guidelines using SAP2000 software. Results of default and user defined hinge properties are studied by pushover analysis. The results of ductility ratio, safety ratio, global stiffness, and hinge status at performance point are compared with the models. Authors conclude that as the percentage of openings increases, vulnerability increases in the infill walls. The user-defined hinge model is better than the default-hinge model in reflecting nonlinear behavior. The misuse of default-hinge properties may lead to unreasonable displacement capacities for existing structures. However, if the default-hinge model is preferred due to simplicity, the user should be aware of what is provided in the program and should avoid the misuse of default-hinge properties.

  16. Building a multi-walled carbon nanotube-based mass sensor with the atomic force microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Kuhle, A.; Marie, Rodolphe Charly Willy;

    2005-01-01

    We report an approach for building a mass sensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). We propose a method with a great potential for the positioning of MWCNTs based on self-assembly onto patterned hydrophilic areas. For the experiments ultra flat mica substrates covered with gold...

  17. RESIDENTIAL BUILDING DESIGN CONSIDERING THE BRAZILIAN PERFORMANCE STANDARD: ANALYSES TO WALL PARTITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Alves Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, the design begins by the performance definition of the building parts. The data are then used as a reference to select the viable construction technologies. In Brazil, this practice is still uncommon, mostly in residential projects, because, first, it is defined the architectural characteristics, technological solutions and cost for after consider the technical performance requirements. However, this scenario tends to change due to the publication of the Brazilian performance standard ABNT NBR 15575 (2008 that establishes requirements and quantitative parameters to the five main residential building subsystems (structure, floors, wall partition, envelope and covering, and hydraulic installations, besides to the general requirements for all building. The current version contains requirements for structural performance, fire safety, watertightness, thermal and acoustic performances, functionality, accessibility, environmental impact, durability and maintenance. This standard also considers the concepts of Service Life, Design Life and guaranties periods. The aim of this paper is to present some considerations which must be included to the design process of wall partition for the accomplishment of the performance requirements of ABNT NBR 15575-4 (2008. The considerations are designed to wall partitions, but they can be used as an example to the others building subsystems. This paper was developed based on the bibliographical research and on four case studies, which illustrate how the design process of the wall partition needs to change and what needs to be worked on in order to attend the performance concept and requirements of NBR 15575 (2008.

  18. Mud Brick Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2012-01-01

    In the seemingly endless circle of demolition and illegal rebuilding hand-made mud bricks produced from the soil of contested territory become an act of resistance. In June 2011, the Palestinian village Fasayel encountered the Israeli military’s demolition of 21 of the village’s built structures....

  19. X-ray and back-wall echo ultrasonic examination of wrought iron building structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidovszky István

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The wrought iron building structures constituting part of the architectural heritage, e. g. handrails, gate hinges, columns, arch ties and wall ties represent incorporeal value, but operate as load bearing structures as well. There are few information on their mechanical properties and quality. Due to the inhomogeneity of the material of wrought iron building structures generated during the production, the known metal testing methods, as the tensile and hardness tests or metallographic examination, are not enough to survey the properties of such structures in depth. For the further and more accurate examinations, the application of X-ray and back-wall echo ultrasonic tests are essential. The goal of our paper is the presentation of the application of the examinations used extensively in the machine industry for the testing of wrought iron building structures.

  20. Contributing to Net Zero Building: High Energy Efficient EIFS Wall Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbary, Lawrence D. [Dow Corning Corporation; Perkins, Laura L. [Dow Corning Corporation; Serino, Roland [Dryvit Systems, Inc; Preston, Bill [Dryvit Systems, Inc; Kosny, Jan [Fraunhofer USA, Inc. CSE

    2014-01-29

    The team led by Dow Corning collaborated to increase the thermal performance of exterior insulation and finishing systems (EIFS) to reach R-40 performance meeting the needs for high efficiency insulated walls. Additionally, the project helped remove barriers to using EIFS on retrofit commercial buildings desiring high insulated walls. The three wall systems developed within the scope of this project provide the thermal performance of R-24 to R-40 by incorporating vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) into an expanded polystyrene (EPS) encapsulated vacuum insulated sandwich element (VISE). The VISE was incorporated into an EIFS as pre-engineered insulation boards. The VISE is installed using typical EIFS details and network of trained installers. These three wall systems were tested and engineered to be fully code compliant as an EIFS and meet all of the International Building Code structural, durability and fire test requirements for a code compliant exterior wall cladding system. This system is being commercialized under the trade name Dryvit® Outsulation® HE system. Full details, specifications, and application guidelines have been developed for the system. The system has been modeled both thermally and hygrothermally to predict condensation potential. Based on weather models for Baltimore, MD; Boston, MA; Miami, FL; Minneapolis, MN; Phoenix, AZ; and Seattle, WA; condensation and water build up in the wall system is not a concern. Finally, the team conducted a field trial of the system on a building at the former Brunswick Naval Air Station which is being redeveloped by the Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority (Brunswick, Maine). The field trial provided a retrofit R-30 wall onto a wood frame construction, slab on grade, 1800 ft2 building, that was monitored over the course of a year. Simultaneous with the façade retrofit, the building’s windows were upgraded at no charge to this program. The retrofit building used 49% less natural gas during the winter of

  1. Shear behaviour of crushed concrete and bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Chidiroglou, Iordanis; O'Flaherty, Fin; Goodwin, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Demolition waste materials mainly consist of concrete and bricks and arise from the demolition of existing structures and buildings. Environmental and economical reasons make their recycling necessary, but to date, their use is curtailed due to the lack of research in determining their properties. This paper reports on the efforts to understand the behavioural characteristics of three types of recycled material to determine their potential for engineering fill applicat...

  2. Natural radioactivity in bricks used in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to determine the specific radioactivity concentrations of Ra sup 226, Th sup 232 and K sup 40 in brick samples collected from different areas and compare with the corresponding results for bricks of different countries.Sixteen clay and four cement brick samples were collected from kilns in different areas in Sri Lanka. The gamma ray spectra of the prepared samples were measured using a typical high resolution gamma spectrometer based on a shielded HpGe detector.The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and efficiency over the experimental energy range 186-2700 keV using IAEA reference material RGU-1, RGTH-1 and RGK-1.GANAAS software was used to analyse the photopeaks. The measured average specific radioactivity concentrations of Ra sup 226, Th sup 232, K sup 40 in the clay bricks were 35, 69 and 604 Bq per kg respectively. For cement bricks these values were 17, 42, 525 Bq per kg. The corresponding world average values are 50,50 and 500 Bq per kg for the said radionuclides.All three radionuclides were greater than the world average in clay bricks measured from Mahiyangana. Clay bricks from Ampitiya, Anuradhapura and Nikaweratiya measured values are less than the world average for all three radionuclides. Data on concentrations of natural radionuclides can be used to determine dose rates in relation to building materials

  3. Laboratory evaluation of cement treated aggregate containing crushed clay brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The waste clay bricks from debris of buildings were evaluated through lab tests as environmental friendly materials for pavement sub-base in the research. Five sets of coarse aggregates which contained 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% crushed bricks, respectively, were blended with sand and treated by 5% cement. The test results indicated that cement treated aggregate which contains crushed clay brick aggregate had a lower maximum dry density (MDD and a higher optimum moisture content (OMC. Moreover, the unconfined compressive strength (UCS, resilience modulus, splitting strength, and frost resistance performance of the specimens decreased with increase of the amount of crushed clay brick aggregate. On the other hand, it can be observed that the use of crushed clay brick in the mixture decreased the dry shrinkage strain of the specimens. Compared with the asphalt pavement design specifications of China, the results imply that the substitution rate of natural aggregate with crushed clay brick aggregate in the cement treated aggregate sub-base material should be less than 50% (5% cement content in the mixture. Furthermore, it needs to be noted that the cement treated aggregate which contains crushed clay bricks should be cautiously used in the cold region due to its insufficient frost resistance performance.

  4. Four 3D "brick-wall"-like metal-organic frameworks with a flexible ligand of (S,S,R,R)-1,2,3,4-cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid: crystal structures, luminescent and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lin; Luan, Xin-Jun; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Kang, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Wen-Tao; Wang, Yao-Yu; Shi, Qi-Zhen

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the conformation of cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid, four new "brick-wall"-like metal-organic frameworks have been synthesized from hydrothermal reactions with different metal salts, (S,S,R,R)-1,2,3,4-cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid (H(4)cptc) and auxiliary N-donor ligands, namely, Cu(2)(S,S,R,R-cptc)(bpe)(H(2)O)(2)·2H(2)O (1), Co(2)(S,S,R,R-cptc)(bpe)(0.5)(H(2)O)(2)·2H(2)O (2), Cd(4)(S,S,R,R-cptc)(2)(bpa)(2)(H(2)O)(5)·2H(2)O (3) and Co(2)(S,S,R,R-cptc)(bpy)(0.5)(H(2)O)(2)·2(H(2)O) (4) (bpe = 4-(2-(pyridine-4-yl)vinyl)pyridine, bpa = 4-(2-(pyridine-4-yl)ethyl)pyridine, bpy = 4-(pyridine-4-yl)pyridine). The complexes were further characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, power X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectra, fluorescent measurements and variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements. The results of the structural investigations show that 1 is a charming (3,3,4)-trinodal architecture, 3 is an interesting trinodal (3,4,5)-connected architecture, and 2 and 4 are isostructural, which are both (4,5)-connected networks. In addition, the magnetic measurements indicate that 2 and 4 show weak antiferromagnetic interactions, and the fluorescent measurement shows the strong solid-state fluorescent emission at room temperature for 3.

  5. Simulation of Natural Gas Saving Through Foam Light Weight Concrete Utilization in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kamalan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat loss through walls in houses is remarkable and it shares about 25% of total loss. Utilizing Foam Lightweight Concrete (FLC block in walls may lead to reduction in both gas consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to heat insulation property of the block and consequently less energy consumption. The main objective of this research was to investigate how FLC block can save natural gas usage within building envelop. A typical residential building was simulated for pressed brick, terra-cotta block, 3D panel, and FLC block by utilizing Behsazan software. Afterwards, building gas consumption and relevant carbon dioxide emissions were compared for abovementioned wall materials, while the building area was constant and its height was variable. Results showed that annual gas reduction attributed to utilizing FLC block walls with different heights varies from 25.7% to 30.6% and from 18.5% to 23.3% in comparison with pressed brick and terra-cotta block walls, respectively. This reduction for 3D panel walls was about 4.6%. Moreover, CO2 emission reduction depending on the number of floors for FLC block walls with pressed brick, terra-cotta block, and 3D panel walls were equal to 20.8 to 24, 15 to 18.3, and 3.4 to 3.8 kg CO2/m2, respectively.

  6. Displacement-based seismic design of flat slab-shear wall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Subhajit; Singh, Yogendra

    2016-06-01

    Flat slab system is becoming widely popular for multistory buildings due to its several advantages. However, the performance of flat slab buildings under earthquake loading is unsatisfactory due to their vulnerability to punching shear failure. Several national design codes provide guidelines for designing flat slab system under gravity load only. Nevertheless, flat slab buildings are also being constructed in high seismicity regions. In this paper, performance of flat slab buildings of various heights, designed for gravity load alone according to code, is evaluated under earthquake loading as per ASCE/SEI 41 methodology. Continuity of slab bottom reinforcement through column cage improves the performance of flat slab buildings to some extent, but it is observed that these flat slab systems are not adequate in high seismicity areas and need additional primary lateral load resisting systems such as shear walls. A displacement-based method is proposed to proportion shear walls as primary lateral load resisting elements to ensure satisfactory performance. The methodology is validated using design examples of flat slab buildings with various heights.

  7. Lightweight concrete blocks with EVA recycled aggregate: a contribution to the thermal efficiency of building external walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Melo, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regions with lots of shoe production suffer environmental impacts from waste generation during manufacturing of insoles and outsoles. Research conducted in Brazil has demonstrated the technical feasibility to recycle these wastes, especially Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA, as lightweight aggregate, in the production of non-structural cement blocks. This article presents an evaluation of thermal performance with measurements of temperature variation in mini walls (1 m2 built with different materials, including various kinds of EVA block and ceramic bricks. Tests have shown efficient thermal performance for masonry blocks with EVA. These results and supplementary estimates contribute to add value to the EVA block, considering that there are good expectations that the component, with the new geometry proposed, can contribute to the energy efficiency of buildings, highlighting its suitability to most Brazilian bioclimatic regions.Las regiones con una gran producción de calzado sufren impactos ambientales derivados de la generación de residuos durante la producción de plantillas y suelas. Investigaciones realizadas en Brasil han demostrado la viabilidad técnica para el reciclaje de estos residuos, especialmente el Etileno Vinil Acetato (EVA, como agregado ligero en la fabricación de bloques de hormigón no estructurales. Este trabajo presenta una evaluación del rendimiento térmico, con mediciones de la variación de la temperatura en pequeñas paredes (1 m2 construidas con diversos materiales, incluyendo algunos tipos de bloques EVA y ladrillos de cerámica. Las pruebas demostraron actuaciones térmicas eficientes para las muestras con bloques EVA. Estos resultados y cálculos adicionales contribuyen con un aporte de valor añadido al bloque EVA, considerando que existen buenas expectativas del componente, con una nueva propuesta de geometría, pudiendo contribuir a la eficiencia energética de edificios, especialmente por su adecuación a la

  8. Bayesian inferences of the thermal properties of a wall using temperature and heat flux measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias, Marco; Sawlan, Zaid; Scavino, Marco; Tempone, Raul; Wood, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We develop a hierarchical Bayesian inference method to estimate the thermal resistance and the volumetric heat capacity of a wall. These thermal properties are essential for accurate building energy simulations that are needed to make effective energy-saving policies. We apply our methodology to an experimental case study conducted in an environmental chamber, where measurements are recorded every minute from temperature probes and heat flux sensors placed on both sides of a solid brick wall ...

  9. An approximate method for lateral stability analysis of wall-frame buildings including shear deformations of walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kanat Burak Bozdogan; Duygu Ozturk

    2010-06-01

    This study presents an approximate method based on the continuum approach and transfer matrix method for lateral stability analysis of buildings. In this method, the whole structure is idealized as an equivalent sandwich beam which includes all deformations. The effect of shear deformations of walls has been taken into consideration and incorporated in the formulation of the governing equations. Initially the stability differential equation of this equivalent sandwich beam is presented, and then shape functions for each storey is obtained by the solution of the differential equations. By using boundary conditions and stability storey transfer matrices obtained by shape functions, system buckling load can be calculated. To verify the presented method, four numerical examples have been solved. The results of the samples demonstrate the agreement between the presented method and the other methods given in the literature.

  10. Industrial wastes for firing Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhanXuanye; LuGuansheng; Gaojun

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the feasibility on utilizing high-calcium industrial wastes in firing brick. In China, industrial wastes with over 10% calcium oxide is not regarded as raw materials for producing brick, so it is limited to use industrial wastes. The paper gives out the ideas that high-calcium industrial wastes can be used to produce fired brick by good raw material preparation process and proper methods.

  11. Aerophytic Cyanobacteria as a Factor in the Biodegradation of Technical Materials on External Building Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piontek Marlena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study conducted at the Institute of Environmental Engineering, University of Zielona Góra showed the presence of 4 species of aerophytic cyanobacteria in the biological material sampled from the external building wall with visible biocorrosion: Gloeocapsa montana Kützing, Phormidium calcareum Kützing, Aphanothece saxicola Nägeli, Gloeothece caldariorum (P. Richter Hollerbach. High levels of moisture were detected in the places of biofilm occurrence.

  12. Aerophytic Cyanobacteria as a Factor in the Biodegradation of Technical Materials on External Building Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, Marlena; Lechów, Hanna

    2014-12-01

    A study conducted at the Institute of Environmental Engineering, University of Zielona Góra showed the presence of 4 species of aerophytic cyanobacteria in the biological material sampled from the external building wall with visible biocorrosion: Gloeocapsa montana Kützing, Phormidium calcareum Kützing, Aphanothece saxicola Nägeli, Gloeothece caldariorum (P. Richter) Hollerbach. High levels of moisture were detected in the places of biofilm occurrence.

  13. Brick handling: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R D; Handyside, J

    1982-09-01

    A small change in brick dimensions resulted in an increase in the perceived work-load of men loading and unloading pallets of bricks by hand. A laboratory study indicated that the change in brick dimensions required changes in grip pattern in order to unload bricks at the same rate, moving the same number at a time. These changed grip patterns resulted in increased upper body movement, increased chest-muscle activity and higher heart rates. These differences were reflected in higher subjective ratings of fatigue. PMID:15676442

  14. Estimation of Solar Energy on Vertical 3D Building Walls on City Quarter Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaugsch, F.; Löwner, M.-O.

    2016-10-01

    In urban areas, solar energy is one promising source of renewable energy to achieve the EU parliament's goal of reducing CO2 emissions by 20 % compared to 1990. Although annual radiation on vertical walls is lower than that on roof surfaces, they are larger in area and, therefore may contribute to energy production. On the other hand, the modelling of shadowing effects is cost intensive in an complex urban environment. Here we present a method for the calculation of solar potential on vertical walls for simple 2D maps with additional building height information. We introduced observer point columns that enable a fast decision whether a whole vertical set of observer points is illuminated or not. By the introduction of a maximum shade length, we reduce processing time in ArcGIS. 206,291 points of 130 buildings have been analysed in time steps of 15 minutes resulting in 15 769 pairs of solar angles. Results disprove the potential of vertical walls serving to fill the winter gap of roof mounted solar energy plants. Best wall orientation for the deployment of solar panels are west and east in summer, whereas it is southeast in winter.

  15. ESTIMATION OF SOLAR ENERGY ON VERTICAL 3D BUILDING WALLS ON CITY QUARTER SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jaugsch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In urban areas, solar energy is one promising source of renewable energy to achieve the EU parliament’s goal of reducing CO2 emissions by 20 % compared to 1990. Although annual radiation on vertical walls is lower than that on roof surfaces, they are larger in area and, therefore may contribute to energy production. On the other hand, the modelling of shadowing effects is cost intensive in an complex urban environment. Here we present a method for the calculation of solar potential on vertical walls for simple 2D maps with additional building height information. We introduced observer point columns that enable a fast decision whether a whole vertical set of observer points is illuminated or not. By the introduction of a maximum shade length, we reduce processing time in ArcGIS. 206,291 points of 130 buildings have been analysed in time steps of 15 minutes resulting in 15 769 pairs of solar angles. Results disprove the potential of vertical walls serving to fill the winter gap of roof mounted solar energy plants. Best wall orientation for the deployment of solar panels are west and east in summer, whereas it is southeast in winter.

  16. Some examples of external colouration on English brick buildings, c. 1500-1650 Étude de façades peintes de palais anglais, entre 1500 et 1650

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Foyle

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available De études récentes réalisées sur les palais de Hampton Court et Kew Palace ont révélé l’histoire de la couleur des façades. Deux approches successives ont pu être définies. Au xvie siècle, on choisit de simuler une façade de brique par l’emploi de peintures rouge, blanche et noire. Cet usage met en avant la brique dans toute sa dimension décorative. Au xviie siècle, on s’intéresse plutôt à l’usage d’un enduit ocre rouge uniforme appelé « ruddle ». Cette pratique efface la présence de la brique et accentue l’impression d’homogénéité et de « monolithisme » des bâtiments. Cette intervention examine les origines possibles de ces traditions et expose les conséquences du rétablissement de la technique du « ruddling » à Kew Palace.The application of coloured limewashes as external surface finishes on many historic English buildings largely determined the original appearance and intended effect of their architecture. As the final stage in the process of construction, limewashes were more than the thin cosmetics which created the skin‑deep beauty of the building; they could articulate and emphasize chosen architectural elements, or conversely suppress the busy individual units of mural masonry in favour of revealing the entire building in a monolithic homogeneity of colour and texture. This paper examines some English brick buildings of c. 1500‑1650 with which the author is familiar, and asks of the surviving evidence to what extent, how and why colour was applied.

  17. Single-Side Two-Location Spotlight Imaging for Building Based on MIMO Through-Wall-Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yong; Zhong, Xiaoling; Liu, Jiangang; Guo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Through-wall-radar imaging is of interest for mapping the wall layout of buildings and for the detection of stationary targets within buildings. In this paper, we present an easy single-side two-location spotlight imaging method for both wall layout mapping and stationary target detection by utilizing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) through-wall-radar. Rather than imaging for building walls directly, the images of all building corners are generated to speculate wall layout indirectly by successively deploying the MIMO through-wall-radar at two appropriate locations on only one side of the building and then carrying out spotlight imaging with two different squint-views. In addition to the ease of implementation, the single-side two-location squint-view detection also has two other advantages for stationary target imaging. The first one is the fewer multi-path ghosts, and the second one is the smaller region of side-lobe interferences from the corner images in comparison to the wall images. Based on Computer Simulation Technology (CST) electromagnetic simulation software, we provide multiple sets of validation results where multiple binary panorama images with clear images of all corners and stationary targets are obtained by combining two single-location images with the use of incoherent additive fusion and two-dimensional cell-averaging constant-false-alarm-rate (2D CA-CFAR) detection. PMID:27618039

  18. Building America Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House, Mount Joy, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of a innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders. The EP&B design combines optimized framing with integrated rigid foam sheathing to increase the wall system's R-value and reduce thermal bridging. The foam sheathing is installed between the wall studs and structural wood sheathing. The exterior wood sheathing is attached directly to a framing extension formed by extended top and bottom plates. The exterior wood sheathing can dry to the exterior and provides bracing, a clear drainage plane and flashing surface for window and door openings, and a nailing surface for siding attachment. With support of the DOE Building America program, Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with Lancaster County Career and Technology Center (LCCTC) to build a NCTH in Lancaster, PA to demonstrate the EP&B wall design in a cold climate (IECC climate zone 5A). The results of the study confirmed the benefits of the systems and the viability of its integration into the house construction process.

  19. Structural behavior of load bearing brick walls of soil-cement with the addition of ground ceramic waste Comportamento estrutural de paredes estruturais de tijolos de solo-cimento com adição de resíduo cerâmico moído

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto C. Lima Júnior

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of three load bearing walls is presented and discussed in this paper. The walls were of soil-cement bricks made with three different material proportions, in which two of them had part of the cement amount replaced by crushed ceramic waste. The walls were 95.20 cm high, 75.32 cm wide and 12.56 cm thick and had their bricks layered with cement paste. The walls were tested under compression and their displacements were measured with 5 dial gages. The walls had satisfactory behaviour and their strengths were suitable as required by Brazilian popular houses. The differences between the brick strength and the wall strength were less than 20%. A finite element analysis (FEA was performed and the uniformity of the compressive stress distributions in the walls was evaluated. Finally, it was observed that the partial replacement of the cement by crushed ceramic waste is possible.Neste trabalho, apresenta-se resultados do estudo experimental de três paredes estruturais, construídas com tijolos de solo-cimento. Os tijolos foram fabricados com três diferentes proporções de materiais, nas quais duas delas tiveram parte do cimento substituído por resíduo cerâmico moído. As paredes apresentavam altura de 95,20 cm, largura de 75,32 cm e espessura de 12,56 cm e tiveram seus tijolos rejuntados com pasta de cimento, que foram ensaiadas sob compressão centrada e tiveram seus deslocamentos avaliados por cinco relógios medidores de deslocamento. Observou-se comportamento estrutural satisfatório e resistências compatíveis com as requeridas pelas paredes das casas populares brasileiras. Em todos os casos, as diferenças entre as tensões máximas nas paredes e as resistências dos tijolos, foram inferiores a 20%. Para concluir o estudo, realizou-se análise por meio do método dos elementos finitos (MEF com o intuito de avaliar a uniformidade na distribuição das tensões ao longo das paredes. Finalmente, observou-se que a substitui

  20. Potential Use of Radiant Walls to Transfer Energy Between two Building Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    considered as a disturbance, this asymmetry can be used as a heat source for another zone of the building. By means of computer simulations, the possibility of shifting the energy demand between two office rooms with different thermal loads has been studied. Due to the small temperature difference between......Due to a reduced energy demand in low energy buildings, low temperature heating and high temperature cooling can be used to control thermal comfort. Nevertheless, highly varying heat loads due to solar radiation can create sometimes an imbalanced energy demand inside the building. Instead of being...... the two zones, capillary tubes embedded in the surface of walls are used to exchange heat from a south-facing room to a north-facing room. In addition to having a better indoor climate, the total heating and cooling consumption decreases when running the system. A comparison has also been performed...

  1. The Properties of the Carbonated Brick Made of Steel Slag-slaked Lime Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Weida; YANG Quanbing

    2015-01-01

    The properties of the carbonated brick made of steel slag-slaked lime mixture such as strength, drying shrinkage, water absorption and soundness were mainly investigated. The experimental results indicate that, after carbonation, the strength of the brick increases, its drying shrinkage reduces, and its soundness becomes eligible. The optimal slaked lime/steel slag (SL/SS) ratio for the carbonated brick is 0.2 and the as-prepared brick meets the requirements of the Chinese standard for MU20-grade building bricks, additionally, it also demonstrates prominent environmental benefits. The XRD and pore structure analyses indicate that the excellent properties of this carbonated brick are attributed to the formation of carbonate crystals and the dense structure due to the carbonation.

  2. Evaluation of the effects of vegetation and green walls on building thermal performance and energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susorova, Irina

    This research explored the use of vegetation in building facades as a potential solution to the problems of urban ecology and the excessive energy consumption in buildings. Vegetated facades substantially reduce building energy use, reduce the urban heat island effect, improve air quality, and increase the biodiversity of plants and animals in cities. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effects of plants on building thermal performance and energy consumption by developing a thermal model of a building facade covered with a layer of plants. The developed mathematical model accounts for thermal physical processes in a vegetated exterior wall including solar radiation, infrared radiative exchange between the facade and sky, the facade and ground, the facade and vegetation layer, convection to and from the facade, evapotranspiration from the plant layer, heat storage in the facade material, and heat conduction through the facade. The model calculates vegetated facade surface temperature and heat flux through the facade for multiple weather conditions, plant physiological characteristics, and facade parameters inputs. The model was validated with the results of a one-week long experiment measuring the thermal properties of bare and vegetated facades on the Illinois Institute of Technology campus. The experiment and subsequent sensitivity analysis demonstrated that a plant layer can effectively reduce the facade exterior surface temperature, daily temperature fluctuations, exterior wall temperature gradient, and, as a result, provide as much additional thermal insulation to the facade as a 2.5 cm layer of expanded polystyrene insulation. The vegetated facade model was also used to analyze the reduction in energy consumption in generic office and residential thermal zones for multiple parameters. The simulations showed that energy reduction could be as high as 6.2% of annual total energy use and 34.6% of cooling energy use in residential thermal zones. Overall

  3. Wind environment for a high-rise building adjacent to a vertical wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.K.CHOW

    2003-01-01

    Adequate provision of natural ventilation in tropical areas is regarded as one of the design cntena for assessing ‘green'' or ’‘sustainable'' building. Driving forces for natural ventilation in those areas are basically wind-induced action, not stack effect nor buoyancy of warm air columns. Wind-induced air movement is a transient phenomenon depends not only on the wind speeds measured in some designated sites, but strongly affected by the surrounding environment. This is particularly obvious in a dense urban area where buildings are closely built together. For a building located adjacent to a taller building, turbulent effects due to incident wind fields would be important. Note that windows or even refuge floors might be opened at some levels, giving flow paths to change the entire patterns of air flow and pressure distnbution. In this paper, the wind-induced indoor airflow in a building adjacent to a vertical wall is studied by Computational Fluid Dynamics. A CFD software based on large-eddy simulations is selected. Different scenanos on building height, openings and distances away from the vertical wall will be simulated. Incident airflows of a parabolic boundary layer and a top-hat flow pattern are considered. The separate flow at the sharp comer would be different for these two incident airflow profiles. Results are useful not only for providing better ventilation design, but also for working out fire safety management in case of accidents. Note that smoke, or even flame, will spread by following the wind-induced air motion.

  4. Effect of Thermal Bridges in Insulated Walls on Air-Conditioning Loads Using Whole Building Energy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed F. Zedan; Sami Al-Sanea; Abdulaziz Al-Mujahid; Zeyad Al-Suhaibani

    2016-01-01

    Thermal bridges in building walls are usually caused by mortar joints between insulated building blocks and by the presence of concrete columns and beams within the building envelope. These bridges create an easy path for heat transmission and therefore increase air-conditioning loads. In this study, the effects of mortar joints only on cooling and heating loads in a typical two-story villa in Riyadh are investigated using whole building energy analysis. All loads found in the villa, which br...

  5. More than Bricks and Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Gaythorne Row, a terrace of Victorian back-to-back houses in Great Horton, was earmarked for demolition when, in 1986, Bradford Industrial Museum took possession of the three cottages and transported them, brick by brick, to the museum site four miles away. The houses were built in 1876, a year later than the old worsted spinning mill in which the…

  6. The Adjustment of Building Warmth by using the TROMBE WALL as a Good Pattern in Dry and Hot Regions (Case Study: Yazd City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mirzaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the survey of tools and resources that needed to assist building by passive solar heating approach and manage the energy and get massive production for this system. The consistency of the building with structure is one of the fame architectures. The creation of perfect condition in the space of building is the reason of using different stuff with different attribute in the building. Thanks to development of knowledge and producing the new stuff making the new condition is regular way. But in many cases using the new stuff beside the source of influxes have some defects, that can symbol to naught a accordance with different continent sophisticated that, make a problems in the nature system and producing the building rubbish. Also we know the fossil’s energy running out of in the entire world, this problem lonely necessity to using renewable energies in all of industries among building industries and derivation constant architecture or green architecture from that. With sustainable development subject, there are a wide studies had been searching about energy in the building and using the natural ingredient. One way to manage the energy in the building is to know about attribute of stuff which comes from the natural. In the Iran’s traditional architecture, using the brick show the high level of thinking and seeing the Iranian’s architecture in using the harmonic stuff. The brick sorption the heat as a capacitor during the day and back this heat to the environment in the cold nights of the desert to prepare the comfort for people who living there. Thanks to the improving of knowledge and coming new stuff and the speed of building construction using the bricks beside the modern architecture is impossible. But we can use the other ingredient which existent in the environment to manage the energy in the buildings sustainably.

  7. 《苏州城墙》:复活每一块城砖的历史记忆--以城墙为中心的吴文化巡礼%The City Walls of Suzhou:To Resurrect the Historical Memory of Each Block Bricks:A Survey of Wu Culrure Centering on City Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宗广

    2013-01-01

    The City Walls of Suzhou is not a ifrst book on city walls, but compared with similar studies home and abroad, this book, in addition to full and accurate data, pictures, has several prominent features:general size and tolerance, the pursuit of archaeology and measurement precision, highlight of the Wu culture. As for the protection of Suzhou city wall and rehabilitation, this book follows the principles of authenticity and integrity, rather than large-scale restoration and construction. The full collection and collation of literature on ancient city wall, the completion of archaeological and measuring work of the Suzhou ancient city wall ruins and the recovery of historical memory of every piece of brick, are supposed to go before the rehabilitation work. The publication of The City Walls of Suzhou is a remarkable step in all the above-mentioned solid work.%《苏州城墙》一书无意开城墙研究的风气之先,但与国内外的同类研究专著相比,该著除了资料翔实、图文并茂之外,具有几个突出特点:通史的规模与气度、追求考古与测量的精确、凸显吴文化的深厚底蕴。关于苏州城墙的保护与复建,该著认为应认真调研、循序渐进,遵循真实性和整体性原则,不必急于大规模复原与兴建。充分搜集整理古城墙的文献资料、完成苏州古城墙遗址的考古与测量、恢复每一块城砖的历史记忆,理应是走在复建前面的更为扎实有益的工作。《苏州城墙》的编著出版,便是这扎实工作中具有标志性的一步。

  8. Black Hole Entropy without Brick Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Demers, J. -G.; Lafrance, R.; Myers, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    We present evidence which confirms a suggestion by Susskind and Uglum regarding black hole entropy. Using a Pauli-Villars regulator, we find that 't Hooft's approach to evaluating black hole entropy through a statistical-mechanical counting of states for a scalar field propagating outside the event horizon yields precisely the one-loop renormalization of the standard Bekenstein-Hawking formula, $S=\\A/(4G)$. Our calculation also yields a constant contribution to the black hole entropy, a contr...

  9. Black hole entropy without brick walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Jean-Guy; Lafrance, René; Myers, Robert C.

    1995-08-01

    We present evidence which confirms a suggestion by Susskind and Uglum regarding black hole entropy. Using a Pauli-Villars regulator, we find that 't Hooft's approach to evaluating black hole entropy through a statistical-mechanical counting of states for a scalar field propagating outside the event horizon yields precisely the one-loop renormalization of the standard Bekenstein-Hawking formula S=scrA/(4G). Our calculation also yields a constant contribution to the black hole entropy, a contribution associated with the one-loop renormalization of higher curvature terms in the gravitational action.

  10. Problem-Solving: Scaling the "Brick Wall"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…

  11. Another four bricks in the wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Shawn C.; Ball, Philip; Day, Kat; Scerri, Eric R.; Thornton, Brett F.

    2016-04-01

    Of all the things humans can bestow names upon, new chemical elements are about the rarest. Our group of periodic table experts attempts to read the tea leaves and predict the names for elements 113, 115, 117 and 118.

  12. Numerical research of stress strain state for the brick residential building in case of unexpected load beyond design value (explosion of domestic gas inside the premises).

    OpenAIRE

    Romashkina, М. А.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. In recent years, there is a potential need for further research in constructional safety of buildings and structures. The researcher should describe indestructability of the bearing system in maintaining buildings and structures, solve the problem of survivability of structures during unexpected load beyond design value. One of such loads is the explosion of domestic gas inside the premises. Damages in separate elements of structures during domestic gas explosion could provoke progre...

  13. Use of Cement-Sand Admixture in Laterite Brick Production for Low Cost Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Olufemi AGBEDE

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Laterite was modified with 45% sand content by dry weight and stabilized with up to 9% cement content respectively and used in the production of 330 mm × 150 mm × 150 mm bricks through the application of a pressure of 3 N/mm2 with a brick moulding machine. Results showed that laterite used in this study cannot be stabilized for brick production within the economic cement content of 5% specified for use in Nigeria. However, bricks made with laterite admixed with 45% sand and 5% cement attained a compressive strength of 1.80 N/mm2 which is greater than the specified minimum strength value of 1.65 N/mm2. Cost comparison of available walling materials in Makurdi metropolis showed that the use of bricks made from 45% sand and 5% cement resulted in a saving of 30 - 47% when compared with the use of sandcrete blocks while the use of fired clay bricks resulted in a savings of 19% per square meter of wall. The study therefore recommends the use of laterite bricks in Makurdi and other locations because it is more economical and environmental friendly than fired clay bricks.

  14. THERMAL EFFECTS OF BUILDING'S EXTERNAL SURFACES IN CITY--Characteristics of Heat Flux into and out of External Wall Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-ping; HE Yun-ling; LIU Yu-hong; MA You-xin; LI You-rong; DOU Jun-xia

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the thermal effects of building's external wall surfaces, using observational data of spatial-temporal distribution of surface temperature, air temperature, and heat flux into and out of external surface. Results indicate that external wall surface temperature and nearby air temperature vary with the change of orien tation, height and season. In general, the external wall surface temperature is lower near t6e ground, and is higher near the roof, than nearby air temperature. But north wall surface temperature is mostly lower than nearby air temperature at the same height; south wall surface temperature during the daytime in December, and west wall surface temperature all day in August, is respectively higher than nearby air temperature. The heat fluxes into and out of external wall surfaces show the differences that exist in the various orientations, heights and seasons. In December,south wall surface at the lower sites emits heat and north wall surface at the higher sites absorbs heat. In April, all extemal wall surfaces, emit heat near the ground and absorb heat near the roof. In August, west wall surface all day emits heat, and other wall surfaces just show the commensurate behavior with that in April.

  15. Properties of Magnesia-Hercynite Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huilin

    2008-01-01

    Properties of magnesia-hercynite brick were studied. The coatability, thermal shock resistance, corrosion resistance to cement clinker and thermal conductivity were compared with those of magnesia-chrome brick and magnesia-spinel brick used widely in sintering zone of cement rotary kiln. The result shows that magnesia-hercynite brick is better than magnesia-chrome brick in thermal chock resistance and Corrosi on resistance to cement clinker, is similar to magnesia-chrome brick and is better than magnesia-spinel brick in coatability and thermal conductivity.

  16. Calculation of the thicknesses of the walls of the radiographic inspection building of the NKS enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the month of February, 1983, the Structural Civil Department of the Latin American of Engineering, S.A. de C.V. company (LATISA), outline to the Engineering and Industry Applications Management of the ININ that the industrial group NKS had taken charge them the design of a building where it would lodge a linear electron accelerator of 4 MeV, one source of Co-60 of 30 Ci and an X-ray equipment, tube type, of range of 60 to 300 KV and that to make the design they required to know the necessary thickness of the walls, doors and roof to protect to the workers, outside of the building, of the X and gamma radiations generated by the sources mentioned during the radiographic inspections of metal-mechanical pieces. (Author)

  17. Cellular Concrete Bricks with Recycled Expanded Polystyrene Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bosco Hernández-Zaragoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular concrete bricks were obtained by using a lightweight mortar with recycled expanded polystyrene aggregate instead of sandy materials. After determining the block properties (absorption, compressive strength, and tensile stresses, it was found that this brick meets the requirements of the masonry standards used in Mexico. The obtained material is lighter than the commercial ones, which facilitates their rapid elaboration, quality control, and transportation. It is less permeable, which helps prevent moisture formation retaining its strength due to the greater adherence shown with dry polystyrene. It was more flexible, which makes it less vulnerable to cracking walls due to soil displacements. Furthermore, it is economical, because it uses recyclable material and has properties that prevent deterioration increasing its useful life. We recommend the use of the fully dry EP under a dry environment to obtain the best properties of brick.

  18. Mechanical Properties of Sustainable Adobe Bricks Stabilized With Recycled Sugarcane Fiber Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bock-Hyeng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the pursuit of cheaper and more sustainable building materialsto meethousing demands in developing countries like Cameroun, the mechanicalproperties ofadobe bricks which have been stabilized with recycled sugarcane fiber waste were investigated. Laboratory experiments were conducted using sugarcanefiber waste stabilized adobe brick specimens with fiber proportions of 0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 1.2%, 2% and 3% by weight.Fiber stabilization increased compressive strength by 58.61% for 3% bricks, reaching 4.79 MPa.Further, 3% fiber stabilized bricks shrunk by 7.49%, while the non-stabilized bricksshrunk by 12.13%. Also, 3% bricks lasted for one week before deterioration when immersed in water, while the non-stabilized bricks lasted for only a few hours. The findings confirmed that sugarcane fiber waste stabilized adobe bricks have improved strength, durability and stability. The use of abandoned sugarcane fiber waste in adobe bricks will contribute to the development of more durable, sustainable and stronger adobe brick structures, as well as reduce the environmental and economic challenges associated with the disposal of sugarcane waste

  19. Optimum Insulation Thickness for Walls and Roofs for Reducing Peak Cooling Loads in Residential Buildings in Lahore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBGHA SIDDIQUE SIDDIQUE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal insulation is the most effective energy saving measure for cooling in buildings. Therefore, the main subject of many engineering investigations is the selection and determination of the optimum insulation thickness. In the present study, the optimum insulation thickness on external walls and roofs is determined based on the peak cooling loads for an existing residential building in Lahore, Pakistan. Autodesk® Revit 2013 is used for the analysis of the building and determination of the peak cooling loads. The analysis shows that the optimum insulation thickness to reduce peak cooling loads up to 40.1% is 1 inch for external walls and roof respectively.

  20. Improving the thermal performance of the building envelopes with the use of foam glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Portnyagin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on eliminating the defects of thermal insulation on the basis of the previously carried out thermal imaging surveys were given. Constructive solutions of building envelopes were proposed with regard to modeling thermal fields in ELCUT. A typical solution of thermal insulation of the basement joint is the unit exterior insulation of the basement wall to the level of the facing course bottom. This constructive solution is characterized by a significant thermal bridge, in the direction through the cross-section of the floor slab under the insulation of the wall. The article presents the results of eliminating the thermal bridge by substituting of ceramic or silica bricks for thermal insulation bricks of foamglass. We discussed the roof and parapet joint. The paper also presents the results of heat loss calculation when replacing of the top line of backfills above the level of the coating by the brick thermal insulation made of foamglass.

  1. Analysis of thermal field within an urban canyon with variable thermophysical characteristics of the building's walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lieto Vollaro, A.; Galli, G.; Vallati, A.; Romagnoli, R.

    2015-11-01

    In a typical urban configuration, a microclimatic analysis has been carried out. Using a CFD method, a N-S oriented urban street canyon, with a given H/W ratio, has been examined. The standard k-ε turbulence model has been used to simulate a three-dimensional flow field and to calculate the thermo-fluid dynamics parameters that characterize the street canyon. In this study has been analyzed the thermal flow field when the walls of the building change the properties of solar radiation absorption, in particular for α=0.2 and α=0.8. Solar radiation considered is that of 21/07 in Milan in two different hours: at 11:00 a.m. and at 02:00 p.m. The study shows the importance of the thermophysical properties of a wall, in the development of the thermal field and flow field. This is a very important topic, in terms of improvement of wellbeing and the quality of the air within the cities, through the choice of materials and colors of the facades of buildings.

  2. Experimental study and advanced CFD simulation of fire safety performance of building external wall insulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhenghua

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Large scale fire tests of building external wall insulation system were conducted. In the experiment, thermal-couples were mounted to measure the insulation system surface temperature and the gas temperature inside rooms at the second and third floors. Photos were also taken during the fire tests. The measurement provides information of the ignition and fire spread of the external insulation system which consists of surface protection layer, glass fibre net, bonding thin layer, anchor and the load bearing wall. Comprehensive simulations of the fire tests were carried out using an advanced CFD fire simulation software Simtec (Simulation of Thermal Engineering Complex [1, 2], which is now released by Simtec Soft Sweden, with the turbulent flow, turbulent combustion, thermal radiation, soot formation, convective heat transfer, the fully coupled three dimensional heat transfer inside solid materials, the ‘burn-out' of the surface protection layer and the pyrolysis of the insulation layer, etc, all computed. The simulation is compared with experimental measurement for validation. The simulation well captured the burning and fire spread of the external insulation wall.

  3. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  4. Thermal environmental status testing and analysis of a typical brick-wall solar greenhouse in Tianjin%天津一种典型砖墙日光温室热环境现状的测试与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凡; 马承伟; 刘洋; 宋道林

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we tested the thermal and humidity environmental status in a typical brick-wall solar greenhouse in Tianjin for two winters.The results showed that,daily mean temperature is around 10 ℃,the lowest value is 5.0 ℃ ; daily minimum temperature is 3.4-5.5 ℃ in January and the lowest value is 0.8 ℃,which may cause the crop chilling injury;night temperature indoor is lower and the lowest average night temperature is 2.5 ℃ from December to next February;the night temperature difference between indoor and outdoor is 10-15 ℃.The indoor daily average relative humidity is 66% in the daytime in January,however,the relative humidity is only 50% when soilless culture is used.The average relative humidity at night is high to 99% in all the testing time.Results from this study showed that solar greenhouse can supply proper environment to crops most of the time,but there is still exiting some abnormal conditions (always low temperature and high humidity).We advise to improve the environment performance of solar greenhouse by the following measures:enhance the sunlight transmission from the roof; ensure the solar radiation received by the north wall; advance the thermal insulation and heat storage performance of enclosure structures; improve ventilation and modify cultivation methods.%对天津一种典型的砖墙日光温室进行连续2个冬季的热湿环境现状测试.结果表明:日光温室内日平均气温大部分时间可维持在10℃左右,最冷时仅为5.0℃;日最低气温1月份平均为3.4~5.5℃,极端日最低气温为0.8℃,此温度持续过长则会造成植物的冷害;温室内夜间温度较低,12-02月份室内夜间平均气温最低仅2.5℃;夜间室内外温差为10~15℃.1月份室内白昼平均相对湿度为66%,当采用无土栽培时,湿度仅50%左右;夜间室内相对湿度在整个测试期间都高达99%.可见,日光温室温湿环境大多适宜植物的生长,但仍存在

  5. Silica Brick for Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,specification,test method,quality appraisal procedure,labeling,packing,transportation,storage and quality certification of silica brick for coke oven.

  6. Perceptions on Barriers to the Use of Burnt Clay Bricks for Housing Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard K. Baiden

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burnt clay bricks can be readily manufactured in Ghana as all ten regions have significant clay deposits with the Ashanti region having the highest estimated deposit of 37.1 million metric tonnes. In recent times, burnt clay bricks have been regarded as old fashioned and replaced by other perceived modern walling units within Kumasi, the metropolitan capital of Ashanti Region, despite its availability, unique advantages (aesthetics, low maintenance cost, etc., and structural and nonstructural properties. This study involved a questionnaire survey of 85 respondents made up of architects, brick manufacturing firms, and brick house owners or occupants in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana and sought to examine their perceptions on barriers to the use of burnt clay bricks for housing construction. The findings revealed that the key factors inhibiting the use of burnt clay bricks for housing construction are low material demand, excessive cost implications, inappropriate use in construction, noncompatibility of burnt clay bricks with other materials, unreliable production, and transportation problems. The findings however provide a platform for stakeholders to address the barriers to enable the extensive use of clay bricks in housing constructions.

  7. Identification of thermal properties distribution in building wall using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Jordan; Dumoulin, Jean

    2016-04-01

    [1] L. Ibos, J-P. Monchau, V. Feuillet, Y. Candau, A comparative study of in-situ measurement methods of a building wall thermal resistance using infrared thermography, in Proc. SPIE 9534, Twelfth International Conference on Quality Control by Artificial Vision 2015, 95341I (April 30, 2015); doi:10.1117/12.2185126 [2] Nassiopoulos, A., Bourquin, F., On-site building walls characterization, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A : Applications, 63(3) :179 :200, 2013 [3] J. Brouns, Développement d'outils numériques pour l'audit énergétique des bâtiments, PhD thesis, Université Paris-Est, SIE, 2014 [4] J.-L. Lions, Contrôle optimal de systèmes gouvernés par des équations aux dérivées partielles. Book, Dunod editor, 1968.

  8. Effective Pneumatic Scheme and Control Strategy of a Climbing Robot for Class Wall Cleaning on High-rise Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Guanghua Zong; Jianwei Zhang; Houxiang Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A new kind of pneumatic climbing robot is presented to meet the requirements of glass-wall cleaning for high-rise buildings, which is totally actuated by pneumatic cylinders and attached to the glass wall with vacuum suckers. Using the pneumatic actuators the climbing robot can be made lightweight and dexterous. At the same time the movement driven by pneumatic actuators has the characteristic of passive compliance. In order to solve the problems of high speed movement for the Y cylinder and ...

  9. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS - a "light-shining-through-walls" experiment -

    CERN Document Server

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Hildebrandt, Matthias; Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Kracht, Dietmar; Lindner, Axel; List, Jenny; Meier, Tobias; Meyer, Niels; Notz, D; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Wiedemann, Günter; Willke, Benno

    2009-01-01

    The ALPS collaboration runs a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into "weakly interacting sub-eV particles" (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run.

  10. A nondestructive method for diagnostic of insulated building walls using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi Youcef, Mohamed H. A.; Mazioud, Atef; Bremond, Pierre; Ibos, Laurent; Candau, Yves; Piro, Michel; Filloux, Alain

    2007-04-01

    This work deals with the development of an experimental protocol for the diagnostic of multi-layered insulated building walls. First, a test bench is set up in order to measure front and back sides temperatures of standard panels. The panels considered have insulation thicknesses of 2, 6 and 10cm. The front side is heated by two halogen lamps of 500W. A CEDIP Jade Long wave infrared camera and thermocouples are used to carry out temperature measurements. In a second time, a one dimensional model based on thermal quadruples and Laplace transforms was developped under Matlab environment. Also, we developped a three dimensional model based on finite volumes using Fluent computational code. Finally, a method of identification of physical parameters is implemented by performing least square minimization based on Levenberg-Marquardt method. The experimental measurements are compared to theoretical results and by minimization we obtain thermal conductivity and diffusivity as well as thickness of the two layers.

  11. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS. A 'light-shining-through-walls' experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALPS collaboration runs a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run. (orig.)

  12. Development and validation of a new TRNSYS type for the simulation of external building walls containing PCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznik, Frederic; Virgone, Joseph; Johannes, Kevyn [Universite de Lyon, CNRS, INSA de Lyon, CETHIL, UMR 5008, F-69621 Villeurbanne, France Universite Lyon 1, F-69622 (France)

    2010-07-15

    In building construction, the use of phase change materials (PCMs) allows the storage/release of energy from the solar radiation and/or internal loads. The application of such materials for lightweight construction (e.g., a wood house) makes it possible to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption. However, in order to assess and optimize phase change materials included in building wall, numerical simulation is mandatory. For that purpose, a new TRNSYS Type, named Type 260, is developed to model the thermal behavior of an external wall with PCM. This model is presented in this paper and validated using experimental data from the literature. (author)

  13. The gamma-ray and neutron shielding factors of fly-ash brick materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive study of gamma-ray exposure build-up factors (EBFs) of fly-ash brick materials has been carried out for photon energies of 0.015–15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path) by a geometrical progression (GP) fitting method. The EBF values of the fly-ash brick materials were found to be dependent upon the photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition, and were found to be higher than the values for mud bricks and common bricks. Above a photon energy of 3 MeV for large penetration depths (>10 mfp), the EBF becomes directly proportional to Zeq. EBFs of fly-ashes were found to be less than or equal to those of concrete for low penetration depths (<10 mfp) for intermediate photon energies up to 1.5 MeV. The EBF values of fly-ash materials were found to be almost independent of Si concentration. The fast neutron removal cross sections of the fly-ash brick materials, mud bricks and common bricks were also calculated to understand their shielding effectiveness. The shielding effectiveness of the fly-ash materials against gamma-ray radiation was lower than that of common and mud bricks. (paper)

  14. Construction sustainability with adobe bricks type elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Hegyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a criterion defined in the 80, which is essential in all fields of current activity. At the moment, it can not talk about development without being taken into account sustainability criteria. It presents the ensuring for an harmonious development, in line with current needs, without to endanger the possibility to develop and satisfy the needs of future generations. The buildings of adobe bricks-type elements ensure successfully the conditions imposed by this criterion. This type of construction ensures the responsible use of renewable natural resources, the possibility of reuse and recycling of materials, contributes to environmental protection and to pollution reduction, to energy saving and it provides a cleaner and healthier living environment. Not least, the buildings of this type are accessible in terms of cost and can contribute to the development of other fields such as eco-tourism.

  15. Earthquake Resilient Tall Reinforced Concrete Buildings at Near-Fault Sites Using Base Isolation and Rocking Core Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calugaru, Vladimir

    This dissertation pursues three main objectives: (1) to investigate the seismic response of tall reinforced concrete core wall buildings, designed following current building codes, subjected to pulse type near-fault ground motion, with special focus on the relation between the characteristics of the ground motion and the higher-modes of response; (2) to determine the characteristics of a base isolation system that results in nominally elastic response of the superstructure of a tall reinforced concrete core wall building at the maximum considered earthquake level of shaking; and (3) to demonstrate that the seismic performance, cost, and constructability of a base-isolated tall reinforced concrete core wall building can be significantly improved by incorporating a rocking core-wall in the design. First, this dissertation investigates the seismic response of tall cantilever wall buildings subjected to pulse type ground motion, with special focus on the relation between the characteristics of ground motion and the higher-modes of response. Buildings 10, 20, and 40 stories high were designed such that inelastic deformation was concentrated at a single flexural plastic hinge at their base. Using nonlinear response history analysis, the buildings were subjected to near-fault seismic ground motions as well as simple close-form pulses, which represented distinct pulses within the ground motions. Euler-Bernoulli beam models with lumped mass and lumped plasticity were used to model the buildings. Next, this dissertation investigates numerically the seismic response of six seismically base-isolated (BI) 20-story reinforced concrete buildings and compares their response to that of a fixed-base (FB) building with a similar structural system above ground. Located in Berkeley, California, 2 km from the Hayward fault, the buildings are designed with a core wall that provides most of the lateral force resistance above ground. For the BI buildings, the following are investigated

  16. Enhancing the Mechanical Properties of Lateritic Brick for Better Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Olowu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research considered the production of improved stabilized lateritic Bricks (ISLB with enhanced mechanical properties. The research data were derived from laboratory experiments which include capillary test, erosion test, abrasion test, density test and compressive strength test. Three batches of 290mm x 140mm x 100mm brick samples were produced which are: the Adobe Unstabilized Lateritic Bricks (AULB, Improved Stabilized Lateritic Brick (ISLB and the Control Stabilized Lateritic Bricks (CSLB. Brick stabilization was maintained at 5% by weight of cement. Compaction of the bricks were carried out manually; the moulded bricks were carefully extruded in good shape and placed on clean, hard flat surface to allowed to dry under normal atmospheric temperature and pressure . The ISLB was divided into four groups of 12 bricks samples immersed in solution of zycosil and water in the following proportion by volume: (1:100,(1:200,(1:300 and (1:400 for 30 minutes and dried under normal atmospheric temperature and pressure before curing commenced. The result of the capillary test on bricks samples after 24 hours showed that AULB and CSLB has (0.35 and 0.15kg weight difference equivalent of (0.00599 and 0.00256 kg/m2 /min suction rate while the ISLB have 0.05kg weight difference equivalent to 0.000855kg/m2 /min suction rate. The result of erosion test for brick durability ranked between very firm for ISLB of 1:100, 1:200 and 1:300 Zycosil Water Solution (ZWS, firm for ISLB of 1:400 ZWS; firm for CSLB and loose for AULB. The abrasion test result showed that the ISLB have abrasion value of (1,2,2 and 2% while the CSLB and AULB have (3 and 12% abrasion value. The density of ISLB are (1933.50, 1921.18, 1916.26 and 1908.87 kgm-3 at 28 days while the density of CSLB and AULB were (1926.11 and 1800.49 kgm-3 . Density results conform to minimum specification requirement for lateritic bricks of bulk density of 1810kgm-3 as recommended by the Nigeria Building and

  17. Development and validation of a new TRNSYS type for the simulation of external building walls containing PCM

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznik, F.; VIRGONE, J.; Johannes, K.

    2010-01-01

    International audience In building construction, the use of phase change materials (PCMs) allows the storage/release of energy from the solar radiation and/or internal loads. The application of such materials for lightweight construction (e.g., a wood house) makes it possible to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption. However, in order to assess and optimize phase change materials included in building wall, numerical simulation is mandatory. For that purpose, a new TRNSYS Ty...

  18. Kaolinite Refractory Bricks for Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ This standard is suitable to the fireclay bricks for blast furnace. 1 Classification, Shape and Dimension 1 According to physical and chemical indexes, the brick can be divided into two trademarks: ZGN-42 and GN-42.

  19. Mechanical properties of adobe bricks in ancient constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Dora; VARUM Humberto; Costa, Aníbal; Martins, Tiago; Pereira, Henrique; Almeida, Joao

    2012-01-01

    A study of the mechanical properties of adobe bricks collected from houses and land dividing walls in Aveiro district, Portugal, representative of existing traditional constructions, was conducted. Cylindrical adobe specimens were subjected to simple compression and splitting tests. From these tests it was possible to evaluate the strength capacity, stiffness and deformation evolution for increasing loading. Correlations between the evaluated properties were determined, and the results obtain...

  20. Drying of brick as a function of heat flows and analysis of moisture and temperature distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy;

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the driving mechanisms for frost damages in brickwork, laboratory tests has been performed on a test brick wall. These test include monitoring of temperature and moisture distribution in the wall as function of the influence of driving rain, wind speed and solar radiation...

  1. Natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Kazuo [Building Materials Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    As part of our study program on environmental radiation levels is buildings, we have undertaken to measure the natural radioactivity, such as radium-226, thorium-232, and potassium-40 in various inorganic building materials. The specimens of their materials include cements, aggregates, concretes, asbestos cement slates, tiles, gypsum boards, rock wool boards, bricks, wall clays, soils, phosphorous ore, zirconia, zircon flower and zircon sand that used in Japan. The ranges and mean values of natural radioactivity concentrations existing in their materials are tabulated and evaluated. (author)

  2. Natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of our study program on environmental radiation levels is buildings, we have undertaken to measure the natural radioactivity, such as radium-226, thorium-232, and potassium-40 in various inorganic building materials. The specimens of their materials include cements, aggregates, concretes, asbestos cement slates, tiles, gypsum boards, rock wool boards, bricks, wall clays, soils, phosphorous ore, zirconia, zircon flower and zircon sand that used in Japan. The ranges and mean values of natural radioactivity concentrations existing in their materials are tabulated and evaluated. (author)

  3. Can an Electron Rotate a Brick?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2009-01-01

    In "The Theory of Almost Everything", Robert Oerter asserts the following: "Take a beam of electrons that are all spinning in the same direction and fire it at, say, a brick. If you could keep this up for long enough, and if there were no other forces acting on the brick, the electrons would transfer their rotation to the brick, and it would begin…

  4. Chinese Standards on Refractories Fireclay Brick and Semi-silica Brick for Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedure,packing,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven. This standard is applicable to the fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven,and the bricks for inner linings of carbon furnace,gas generator and shaft furnace.

  5. Bricking a Regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    When Goldman Sachs created the acronym BRIC in 2001,neither the economists nor the rest of the world imagined that Brazil,Russia,India and China would finally sit together to build up a substantial platform one day.

  6. Mechanical Properties of Unreinforced Brick Masonry, Section1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosalam, K; Glascoe, L; Bernier, J

    2009-10-02

    Before the advent of concrete and steel, masonry helped build civilizations. From Egypt in Africa, Rome in Europe, Maya in the America to China in Asia, masonry was exploited to construct the most significant, magnificent and long lasting structures on the Earth. Looking at the Egyptian pyramids, Mayan temples, Roman coliseum and Chinese Great Wall, one cannot stop wondering about the significance and popularity that masonry has had through out history. Lourenco et al (1989) summed up the reasons for the popularity of masonry in the following, 'The most important characteristic of masonry construction is its simplicity. Laying pieces of stone or bricks on top of each other, either with or without cohesion via mortar, is a simple, though adequate, technique that has been successful ever since remote ages. Other important characteristics are the aesthetics, solidity, durability, low maintenance, versatility, sound absorption and fire protection' Despite these advantages, masonry is no longer preferred structural material in many parts of the developed world, especially in seismically active parts of the world. Partly, masonry and especially unreinforced masonry (URM) has mechanical properties such as strength and ductility inferior to those of reinforced concrete and steel. Moreover, masonry structures were traditionally built based on rules of thumb acquired over many years of practice and/or empirical data from testing. Accordingly, we do not have a rigorous and uniform method of analysis and design for masonry. Nevertheless, the world still possesses numerous historic and ordinary masonry structures, which require maintenance and strengthening to combat the assault of time and nature. Hence, it is important to study fundamental properties of masonry so that new masonry structures can be effectively designed and built, and the cost for servicing old structures and for building new ones will be less expensive.

  7. 温度波作用下建筑内墙定型相变材料板的热特性%THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF SHAPE-STABILIZED PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL AT INTERNAL BUILDING WALLS WITH TEMPERATURE WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国兵

    2011-01-01

    Thermal behavior of shape-stabilized phase change material (SSPCM) at internal building walls with sinusoidal temperature waves were investigated numerically and compared with traditional building materials-brick and foam concrete. One-dimension transient enthalpy equation was solved iteratively using fully implicit finite-difference scheme. The simulation results show that the SSPCM wallboard presents large decrement of temperature wave amplitude and delay of time by comparison with brick and concrete, phase transition temperature is one of the important factors which influence the decrement factor; for a certain temperature wave, there exist critical values of latent heat of fusion, thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer coefficient beyond which the wallboard surface temperature is scarcely influenced by the indoor temperature wave; the thickness of SSPCM almost has no effect on the surface temperature fluctuation; and large phase transition zone leads to slightly larger fluctuations of the surface temperature line. The results will to be useful for the selection of SSPCMs and their applications in passive solar buildings and related areas.%通过数值模拟研究了正弦温度波作用下建筑内墙定型相变材料板的热特性并与传统的墙体材料——砖和泡沫混凝土板相比较.利用焓法建立的一维瞬态模型采用全隐差分格式迭代求解.计算结果表明,与砖和泡沫混凝土板相比,定型相变材料板表面温度变化不仅波幅有较大的衰减,时间延迟也较明显;相变温度是影响波幅衰减程度的重要因素;对于一定的温度波,相变材料潜热、导热系数和表面换热系数均存在极限值,超过此值,相变材料板表面温度受室内温度波动的影响很弱;相变材料板厚度对表面温度波动几乎无影响;相变温度区间的扩大使表面温度有轻微的波动.所得结果为太阳能建筑及相关领域中相变材料的选择与应用提供参考.

  8. Building global health through a center-without-walls: the Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermund, Sten H; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Khedkar, Sheetal; Jia, Yujiang; Etherington, Carol; Vergara, Alfredo

    2008-02-01

    The Institute for Global Health at Vanderbilt enables the expansion and coordination of global health research, service, and training, reflecting the university's commitment to improve health services and outcomes in resource-limited settings. Global health encompasses both prevention via public health and treatment via medical care, all nested within a broader community-development context. This has fostered university-wide collaborations to address education, business/economics, engineering, nursing, and language training, among others. The institute is a natural facilitator for team building and has been especially helpful in organizing institutional responses to global health solicitations from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and other funding agencies. This center-without-walls philosophy nurtures noncompetitive partnerships among and within departments and schools. With extramural support from the NIH and from endowment and developmental investments from the school of medicine, the institute funds new pilot projects to nurture global educational and research exchanges related to health and development. Vanderbilt's newest programs are a CDC-supported HIV/AIDS service initiative in Africa and an overseas research training program for health science graduate students and clinical fellows. New opportunities are available for Vanderbilt students, staff, and faculty to work abroad in partnership with international health projects through a number of Tennessee institutions now networked with the institute. A center-without-walls may be a model for institutions contemplating strategic investments to better organize service and teaching opportunities abroad, and to achieve greater successes in leveraging extramural support for overseas and domestic work focused on tropical medicine and global health.

  9. Building global health through a center-without-walls: the Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermund, Sten H; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Khedkar, Sheetal; Jia, Yujiang; Etherington, Carol; Vergara, Alfredo

    2008-02-01

    The Institute for Global Health at Vanderbilt enables the expansion and coordination of global health research, service, and training, reflecting the university's commitment to improve health services and outcomes in resource-limited settings. Global health encompasses both prevention via public health and treatment via medical care, all nested within a broader community-development context. This has fostered university-wide collaborations to address education, business/economics, engineering, nursing, and language training, among others. The institute is a natural facilitator for team building and has been especially helpful in organizing institutional responses to global health solicitations from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and other funding agencies. This center-without-walls philosophy nurtures noncompetitive partnerships among and within departments and schools. With extramural support from the NIH and from endowment and developmental investments from the school of medicine, the institute funds new pilot projects to nurture global educational and research exchanges related to health and development. Vanderbilt's newest programs are a CDC-supported HIV/AIDS service initiative in Africa and an overseas research training program for health science graduate students and clinical fellows. New opportunities are available for Vanderbilt students, staff, and faculty to work abroad in partnership with international health projects through a number of Tennessee institutions now networked with the institute. A center-without-walls may be a model for institutions contemplating strategic investments to better organize service and teaching opportunities abroad, and to achieve greater successes in leveraging extramural support for overseas and domestic work focused on tropical medicine and global health. PMID:18303361

  10. Biosusceptibility of historical bricks from the Bač fortress: part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidaković Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of the conservation of cultural heritage objects has led to a greater interest in the appearance of biocorrosion. The aim of this paper is to point out the correlation between the growth of fungi isolated from the fortress of Bač and the contact angle value of the bricks from the fortress in order to determine the brick susceptibility to biodegradation. Three types of bricks (red, yellow and roan and three isolates of Penicillium spp., as well as one isolate of Cladosporium sp., were used during the experiments. A suspension of fungi in soil extract solution was inflicted on the surface of the bricks and then the samples were incubated. The study showed that the red bricks with cut surface and the roan bricks with broken surface are the most susceptible to the biocorrosion process. Based on the obtained results, Cladosporium sp. can be considered as the most important biodeteriogenic factor on the bricks built in the walls of the Bač fortress. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45008

  11. The Contrivance of New Mud Bricks for Restoring and Preserving the Edfa Ancient Granary - Sohag, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed EL-GOHARY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A mud brick functions as an element of masonry structures. Being an integral part of a wall mass, it must be understood structurally and chemically. The susceptibility of a mud brick to be affected by decay agents depends on the type of raw materials used, the methods of construction, location, the microclimatic conditions, the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the mud brick itself. In this research, mineralogical composition and granulometric distribution of ancient mud bricks were studied by using some scientific techniques such as XRD, SEM and electrical mechanical sieves, to determine the main components and characteristics, which will serve as reference for the contrivance of new mud bricks. In addition, special knowledge of the physical properties of historic mud bricks were defined by some scientific techniques to get some information about their properties, such as density, porosity, water absorption and shrinkage. Furthermore, all of those characteristics were studied in two groups of new mud bricks, to determine their properties. Finally, ourresults proved that the 6th category in the 1st group and the 10th category in the 2nd group are the most appropriate types for restoring and preserving the studied monument, due to their good physical properties, morphological appearances and their suitable characteristics.

  12. Heat insulating closing system for pressure relief openings in partition walls, especially in nuclear reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention refers to a heat insulating closing system for pressure relief openings in partition walls, especially those of nuclear reactor buildings in the region where the reactor coolant pipe nozzle of the reactor pressure vessel penetrates the biological shield, by means of closing elements fabricated from leightweight material, which are pressed out of their anchorage in case of an overpressure at the reactor side. The invention consists in the closing elements being designed as heat insulating modular inserts contacting at their front side by means of a circumferential shear edge an exterior sealing burst membrane, whose strength in the direction of the differential pressured is such that, if the admissible differential pressure is reached or exceeded the burst membrane is sheared off by the modular insert, which itself is pressed out of its seat. The modular insert may contain mineral fibers as insulating material or may totally consists of metal containing inside stratified insulating foils that are arranged at some distance with respect to each other in the insulating direction and which form insulting cells. (orig./RW)

  13. Integration of liquid-cooled solar collectors into building walls; Gebaeudeintegration von Sonnenkollektoren mit Fluessigkeitskuehlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, S.; Rockendorf, G.; Bartelsen, B. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH Hameln/Emmerthal (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    Three different methods are presented how to integrate active solar thermal components into building facades. The solar thermal absorber acts as overheating protection and the heat produced can be utilized further. The lower annual yield in comparison to roof-mounted installations is counterbalanced by a more uniform solar gain and an improved wall insulation. The new concept of elastomer-metal-absorbers can be realized in different configurations and material combinations and offers attractive options for collector installation. The methods discussed hold the promise of significant cost reductions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es werden drei Methoden vorgestellt, aktive solarthermische Komponenten mit Fluessigkeit als Waermetraeger in die Gebaeudehuelle zu integrieren. Dabei dient der solarthermische Absorber als Ueberhitzungsschutz und die abgefuehrte Waerme kann einer Nutzung zugefuehrt werden. Der geringere jaehrliche Waermeertrag im Vergleich zur Dachmontage wird durch ein gleichmaesssiges Ertragsprofil und eine verbesserte Waermedaemmung weitgehend ausgeglichen. Das neu entwickelte Elastomer-Metall-Absorber-Konzept (EMA-Konzept) ist in unterschiedliche Konfigurationen und Materialkombinationen umsetzbar und eroeffnet attraktive Moeglichkeiten der Kollektorinstallation. Die diskutierten Methoden lassen eine deutliche Kostenersparnis erwarten. (orig.)

  14. Study on prevention of spread of vertical fire along finishing materials for external wall of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Yong Ho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although there are laws in the Korea Building Act relating to exterior finishing materials, fireproof structures and fire-stop of curtain wall structures, the standards relating to and test methods on securing detailed fire safety functions for exterior materials of all buildings including high-rise buildings have not been prepared. This is due to the fact that test methods and standards to quantitatively evaluate the vertical fire spread of the exterior material of buildings do not exist. In addition, while semi non-combustible materials or non-combustible materials are required to be used to prevent fire spread in buildings which exceed 30-stories, it is necessary to review the standards and regulations in cases where fire blocking systems, capable of preventing the vertical fire spread within the curtain wall, are installed to consider permitting the utilization of fire retardant material following an assessment of the construction characteristics of high-rise buildings. The functional evaluation standards and test methods on the vertical fire spread introduced in this study will be a more effective method for performing evaluations to prevent fire spread compared to the currently utilized method of performing small scale tests.

  15. Elucidating the effects of solar panel waste glass substitution on the physical and mechanical characteristics of clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Huang, Long-Sheng; Shie, Je-Lueng; Cheng, Ching-Jung; Lee, Ching-Hwa; Chang, Tien-Chin

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the effect of solar panel waste glass on fired clay bricks. Brick samples were heated to temperatures which varied from 700-1000 degrees C for 6 h, with a heating rate of 10 degrees C min(-1). The material properties of the resultant material were then determined, including speciation variation, loss on ignition, shrinkage, bulk density, 24-h absorption rate, compressive strength and salt crystallization. The results indicate that increasing the amount of solar panel waste glass resulted in a decrease in the water absorption rate and an increase in the compressive strength of the solar panel waste glass bricks. The 24-h absorption rate and compressive strength of the solar panel waste glass brick made from samples containing 30% solar panel waste glass sintered at 1000 degrees C all met the Chinese National Standard (CNS) building requirements for first-class brick (compressive strengths and water absorption of the bricks were 300 kg cm(-2) and 10% of the brick, respectively). The addition of solar panel waste glass to the mixture reduced the degree of firing shrinkage. The salt crystallization test and wet-dry tests showed that the addition of solar panel waste glass had highly beneficial effects in that it increased the durability of the bricks. This indicates that solar panel waste glass is indeed suitable for the partial replacement of clay in bricks.

  16. Effect of Thermal Bridges in Insulated Walls on Air-Conditioning Loads Using Whole Building Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Zedan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal bridges in building walls are usually caused by mortar joints between insulated building blocks and by the presence of concrete columns and beams within the building envelope. These bridges create an easy path for heat transmission and therefore increase air-conditioning loads. In this study, the effects of mortar joints only on cooling and heating loads in a typical two-story villa in Riyadh are investigated using whole building energy analysis. All loads found in the villa, which broadly include ventilation, transmission, solar and internal loads, are considered with schedules based on local lifestyles. The thermal bridging effect of mortar joints is simulated by reducing wall thermal resistance by a percentage that depends on the bridges to wall area ratio (TB area ratio or Amj/Atot and the nominal thermal insulation thickness (Lins. These percentage reductions are obtained from a correlation developed by using a rigorous 2D dynamic model of heat transmission through walls with mortar joints. The reduction in thermal resistance is achieved through minor reductions in insulation thickness, thereby keeping the thermal mass of the wall essentially unchanged. Results indicate that yearly and monthly cooling loads increase almost linearly with the thermal bridge to wall area ratio. The increase in the villa’s yearly loads varies from about 3% for Amj/Atot = 0.02 to about 11% for Amj/Atot = 0.08. The monthly increase is not uniform over the year and reaches a maximum in August, where it ranges from 5% for Amj/Atot = 0.02 to 15% for Amj/Atot = 0.08. In winter, results show that yearly heating loads are generally very small compared to cooling loads and that heating is only needed in December, January and February, starting from late night to late morning. Monthly heating loads increase with the thermal bridge area ratio; however, the variation is not as linear as observed in cooling loads. The present results highlight the importance of

  17. Evaluating the role of ivy (Hedera helix) in moderating wall surface microclimates and contributing to the bioprotection of historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternberg, Troy; Viles, Heather [Oxford University, School of Geography, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Cathersides, Alan [English Heritage, Conservation Department, Kemble Drive, Swindon SN2 2GZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of ivy (Hedera helix L.) on building walls is much debated, with arguments being put forward for it playing a biodeteriorative role (for example through ivy rootlets exploiting cracks and holes) as well as suggestions that it might provide some bioprotection (for example by the ivy canopy protecting the walls from other agents of deterioration such as frost). We have carried out a year-long study of the influence that ivy canopies play on wall surface microclimates at five sites across a range of climatic settings within England, using iButtons to monitor temperature and relative humidity fluctuations at the wall surface on ivy-covered and exposed walls. Hourly data illustrates a general mediating effect of ivy canopies on both temperature and relative humidity regimes. The ivy reduces extremes of temperature and relative humidity, with the most clearcut differences for temperature. Across all five sites the average daily maximum temperature was 36% higher and the average daily minimum temperature 15% lower on exposed vs ivy-covered surfaces. Differences in the exposure level of studied walls (i.e. whether they are shaded or not by trees or other walls) influenced the degree of microclimatic alteration provided by the ivy canopy. Other important factors influencing the strength of the ivy impact on microclimate were found to be thickness of the canopy and aspect of the wall. A detailed analysis of one site, Byland in North Yorkshire, illustrates the seasonal differences in impact of ivy on microclimates, with insulation against freezing being the dominant effect in January, and the removal of high temperature 'spikes' the dominant effect in July. The observed moderating role of ivy canopies on wall surface microclimates will reduce the likelihood of frost and salt deterioration to the building materials, thus contributing to their conservation. Further research needs to be done on other potentially deteriorative roles of ivy before an overall

  18. Building renovation with interior insulation on solid masonry walls in Denmark - A study of the building segment and possible solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Tommy; Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Rode, Carsten;

    2015-01-01

    The segment size of the Danish multi-story building stock from the period 1851-1930 is established through a unique major database managed by the Danish authorities. The outcome illustrates a large segment with 219,202 apartment units distributed over 14,832 unique buildings, all sharing characte...

  19. Investigation of the possibilities of phosphogypsum application for building partitioning Walls - elements of a prefabricated house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum is a waste product in the manufacture of phosphoric acid from phosphorite and sulphuric acid by so-called "wet process" and represents a refuse that is as such simply thrown away. Phosphogypsum which is produced by "dihydrating procedure" contains not only various impurties but also radionuclides, which limits its construction use. Performed testings point to the complexity of phosphogypsum structure and composition while the electron microscope's pictures showed its different crystal composition compared to the natural gypsum. The calcined and refined phosphogypsum can be used for partition walls manufacture. To avoid the danger of the possible presence of radionuclides it is better to use the mixture of natural gypsum and phosphogypsum for this purpose. Substantial saving of materials and economic effect can be achieved in this way. The analyse performed in this work have shown significant presence of radionuclides in phosphogypsum. Gammaspectrometric measurements of radioactivity have determined substantial radioactivity of phosphogypsum. Using the maximum tolerated level values that are legally accepted, as well as equations to calculate indexes of tolerated radionuclide presence, an index of 2.23 has been determined for interiors and 1.13 for exteriors, i.e. 0.64 in case of roads. On the basis of the maximum tolerated level of radioactive building materials contamination (< 1, forbiden is the use of phosphogypsum in interiors, allowed (≈ 1 in exteriors and roads. The tests of heavy metal components in phosphogypsum have proved their presence in the amounts potentially producing consequences if present in closed spaces. That is conditioned by the phosphogypsum quantity, as well as by the area of space partitioned.

  20. Detection of Indigenous Halobacillus Populations in Damaged Ancient Wall Paintings and Building Materials: Molecular Monitoring and Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Ramos, Cayo; Rölleke, Sabine; Schabereiter-Gurtner, Claudia; Vybiral, Dietmar; Lubitz, Werner; Denner, Ewald B M

    2001-01-01

    Several moderately halophilic gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria have been isolated by conventional enrichment cultures from damaged medieval wall paintings and building materials. Enrichment and isolation were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and fluorescent in situ hybridization. 16S ribosomal DNA analysis showed that the bacteria are most closely related to Halobacillus litoralis. DNA-DNA reassociation experiments identified the isolates as a population of hitherto u...

  1. Non-autoclave silicate brick

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Yaglov; Ya. N. Kovalev; V. N. Romaniuk; G. A. Burak

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding) is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediate...

  2. Design of load-bearing structure of an office building in Kranj

    OpenAIRE

    Possnig, Luka

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents static analysis of load-bearing structure of a three storey office building in Kranj according to current Eurocode standards. The load-bearing structure is made of reinforced concrete and consists of monolith roof and storey plates, brick walls, beams and columns. In the analysis of the structure all impacts, that may influence the structure in its lifecycle are considered. The analysis of the plates was performed with a commercial program SAP2000 (Computers and Structure...

  3. Insulated Masonry Cavity Walls. Proceedings of the Research Correlation Conference by the Building Research Institute, Division of Engineering and Industrial Research. (April 1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Publication of conference paper texts include --(1) history and development of masonry cavity walls, (2) recent research related to determination of thermal and moisture resistance, (3) wall design and detailing, (4) design for crack prevention, (5) mortar specification characteristics, (6) performance experience with low-rise buildings, (7)…

  4. INFLUENCE OF PIT WALL ANCHORAGE ONTO ADDITIONAL DEFORMATIONS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubetskiy Valeriy Leonidovich

    2012-07-01

    Assessment of additional projected deformations of buildings located in close proximity to pits is exemplified by the specific structure of the pit support system that has active PIT [1] anchors. The authors also consider the influence produced by the structure of anchors onto the two buildings located within the area of influence of the excavation works and protected by the anchors installed underneath the foundations of the two adjacent buildings.

  5. Physico-mechanical properties of solid cement bricks containing recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina M. Sadek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recycling and reuse of solid wastes as alternative building materials present interesting possibilities for economy on waste disposal sites and conservation of natural resources. This paper investigates the physical and mechanical properties of solid cement bricks manufactured with crushed clay bricks as recycled aggregates. Four series of mixtures with cement content 100, 150, 200 and 300 kg/m3 were prepared. In each series, either natural fine aggregate, coarse aggregate or both were replaced with crushed brick aggregates (CBA at 0%, 50% and 100% by volume. Compressive strength, unit weight and water absorption were determined and compared with the relevant national and international standards for load bearing and non-load bearing units, respectively. The experimental results showed that as the replacement level of natural aggregates increased, the unit weight and compressive strength of solid cement bricks decreased and the water absorption increased regardless of cement content. Furthermore, it is possible to manufacture different grades of solid cement bricks with CBA to be used as load bearing and non-load bearing units depending on the size of the crushed bricks and the replacement percentage of natural aggregates.

  6. Drying brick masonry by electro-osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    When a fine grained, porous medium is applied an electric DC field, transport of matter occurs, and the transport mechanism in focus of the present study is electro-osmosis, which is transport of water. In laboratory it was shown possible to transport water inside a brick and brick/mortar system...

  7. Bauxite Based Bricks for Steel Ladle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the classification,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of bauxite based bricks for steel ladle linings.This standard is applicable to bauxite based bricks for working layer of steel ladle.

  8. Design, Construction and Testing Of a Multipurpose Brick/Block Moulding Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Yakubu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The provision of shelter is one the most basic demand of a Man all over the World. It is one the most important challenges a man faces in his life. The problem of good shelter varies from place to place. A good shelter provides, first and foremost Security and Privacy. In the developed world the problem is less pronounced, but in the developing nation like Nigeria, the problem of shelter is more pronounced. There is about eighteen (18 million housing units’ deficit in Nigeria. One of the most important materials used for building of a shelter is block/brick, but majority of the people cannot afford these materials (blocks or bricks due high cost. Therefore, the production of high quality and affordable blocks/bricks is paramount to solving housing problems in developing countries especially in Nigeria. Thus, this research focused on design construction and testing of a multipurpose machine that produces high quality blocks/bricks for low cost housing. That is, for low income communities/earners. The constructed motorized compressive earth brick (CEB/block making machine can produce on average a total of 2,215 bricks per day and 950 blocks per day. The cost of production of the machine was two hundred and eighty six thousand, eight hundred ninety (N286, 890.00 naira only. Whereas, the most common high-tech motorized CEB machine in Nigeria (Hydraform® with an average capacity of about 3,000 bricks per day costs about six million naira (N6,000,000.00K only. Thus, the machine is very affordable for small scale enterprise (SME. In other words, bricks or blocks produced by using this machine are relatively cheap and affordable for those in the rural areas and for low income earners.

  9. Seeing red: Characterizing historic bricks at Sylvester Manor, Shelter Island, New York 1652-1735

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidheiny, Martin John

    The goal of this project is to develop a basic material characterization of the bricks excavated at the site of Sylvester Manor on Shelter Island, New York. In the early Manor period of 1650-1690, this early Northern provisioning plantation supplied Barbadian sugar operations and pursued mercantile interests independent of state control. Accounting for the range of production defects and material characteristics of the bricks suggests on-site or local manufacture as a regional ceramic industry developed. Qualitative visual analysis and petrographic thin-sections were used to characterize the internal composition, variation and production evidence in the bricks. Interpreting the results of this analysis offers alternatives to the assumptions about building materials on the site, using material properties to assess the role of building materials as the landscape changed.

  10. ZettaBricks: A Language Compiler and Runtime System for Anyscale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarasinghe, Saman [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-03-27

    This grant supported the ZettaBricks and OpenTuner projects. ZettaBricks is a new implicitly parallel language and compiler where defining multiple implementations of multiple algorithms to solve a problem is the natural way of programming. ZettaBricks makes algorithmic choice a first class construct of the language. Choices are provided in a way that also allows our compiler to tune at a finer granularity. The ZettaBricks compiler autotunes programs by making both fine-grained as well as algorithmic choices. Choices also include different automatic parallelization techniques, data distributions, algorithmic parameters, transformations, and blocking. Additionally, ZettaBricks introduces novel techniques to autotune algorithms for different convergence criteria. When choosing between various direct and iterative methods, the ZettaBricks compiler is able to tune a program in such a way that delivers near-optimal efficiency for any desired level of accuracy. The compiler has the flexibility of utilizing different convergence criteria for the various components within a single algorithm, providing the user with accuracy choice alongside algorithmic choice. OpenTuner is a generalization of the experience gained in building an autotuner for ZettaBricks. OpenTuner is a new open source framework for building domain-specific multi-objective program autotuners. OpenTuner supports fully-customizable configuration representations, an extensible technique representation to allow for domain-specific techniques, and an easy to use interface for communicating with the program to be autotuned. A key capability inside OpenTuner is the use of ensembles of disparate search techniques simultaneously; techniques that perform well will dynamically be allocated a larger proportion of tests.

  11. Investigation of original bricks from Ventspils castle for the purpose of restorations of medieval brick masonry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper mainly tries to characterize Middle Age brick taken from Ventspils Castle (13-17th century). To this aim, the following techniques were applied: visual inspection, X-ray diffraction, mercury porosimetry, physical laboratory tests (water absorption, density, open porosity, saturation coefficient, Mage's index) and chemical analysis. The medieval bricks are still in good condition, any visible damages were not recognized in the course of visual inspection. According to the results of chemical analysis, three types of bricks made from different clays in different centuries were used. According to X-ray diffraction analysis data no one type of medieval bricks contains illite. So sintering temperature of the medieval bricks studied was higher than 900 deg C. The secondary calcite was formed in the structure of bricks from lime mortars under influence of water migration during several centuries. All medieval bricks studied are porous - open porosity of them amounts to 26-30 %. 14-15th century bricks have inclusions of chamotte additive, which makes the bricks less durable to soluble salts and frost, and of organic additive, that imparts the higher porosity. Mage's index for all medieval is less than 0.55, but saturation coefficient is close to 0,78 and it means that these bricks are not enough durable to soluble salts and frost

  12. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  13. Assessment of the mechanical properties of brick masonry by a flat-jack method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Zubkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern Russian methods for defining the mechanical characteristics of brick masonry are based on finding the strength of masonry components (brick and mortar. After getting the results of laboratory tests of components, mechanical characteristics of masonry are calculated using empirical formulae. Those formulae, however, cannot take into consideration the presence of damages and other factors. Obtaining the characteristics (strength and deformation by a direct flat-jack test of masonry fragments on-site looks promising. A widespread use of FEM requires setting accurate deformation features for modeling domes, arches and thin brick outside layer in multilayer walls. Also accurate deformation characteristics are used for calculating temperature loads. The paper gives the results of practical use for the masonry deformation research by the flat-jack test method. The correlation factors are defined and rigidness coefficients of flat-jacks are obtained in the study.

  14. Keratin film ablation for the fabrication of brick and mortar skin structure using femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Bibi Safia; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Dou, Yuehua; Alam, Khan; Attaullah, Shehnaz; Zari, Islam

    2015-09-01

    The patterning of thin keratin films has been explored to manufacture model skin surfaces based on the "bricks and mortar" view of the relationship between keratin and lipids. It has been demonstrated that laser light is capable of preparing keratin-based "bricks and mortar" wall structure as in epidermis, the outermost layer of the human skin. "Bricks and mortar" pattern in keratin films has been fabricated using an ArF excimer laser (193 nm wavelength) and femtosecond laser (800 and 400 nm wavelength). Due to the very low ablation threshold of keratin, femtosecond laser systems are practical for laser processing of proteins. These model skin structures are fabricated for the first time that will help to produce potentially effective moisturizing products for the protection of skin from dryness, diseases and wrinkles.

  15. A framework for building scalable web applications for high-resolution cluster-based display walls

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jason

    2015-01-01

    As technology advances, researchers in the natural sciences collect ever-increasing amounts of data. While computer science research often focuses on effective ways to perform computations on large data sets, the visualization of large data sets can be just as important for achieving new insights. Just as cluster computing enables scalable computation on large data sets, so can cluster-based display walls enable scalable visualization of large data sets. At the same time, visualization ...

  16. NON-AUTOCLAVE SILICATE BRICK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yaglov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediately after forming operation. Theoretical basis for the developed technology is capability of silicate dispersive substances (hydrated calcium silicate to transit in non-stable state, to form a rock-like water-resistant solid in the moment of mechanical load application during forming process. Specific feature of the proposed method is an exclusion of additional operations for autoclaving of products from the process of obtaining a silicate brick.Synthetic hydrated calcium silicate in contrast to natural ones are more uniform in composition and structure, they contain less impurities and they are characterized by dispersive composition and due to the mentioned advantages they find wider practical application. Contact-condensation binders permit to manipulate product properties on their basis and ensure maximum correspondence to the requirements of the concrete application. Raw material sources for obtaining synthetic hydrated calcium silicates are practically un-limited because calcium-silicon containing substances are found as in various technogenic wastes so in natural compounds as well. So the problem for obtaining hydrated calcium silicates having contact-condensation ability for structure formation becomes more and more actual one. This transition is considered as dependent principally on arrangement rate of substance particles which determined the level of its instability.

  17. Effect of olive mill waste addition on the properties of porous fired clay bricks using Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcu, Mucahit; Ozturk, Savas; Yalamac, Emre; Gencel, Osman

    2016-10-01

    Production of porous clay bricks lightened by adding olive mill waste as a pore making additive was investigated. Factors influencing the brick manufacturing process were analyzed by an experimental design, Taguchi method, to find out the most favorable conditions for the production of bricks. The optimum process conditions for brick preparation were investigated by studying the effects of mixture ratios (0, 5 and 10 wt%) and firing temperatures (850, 950 and 1050 °C) on the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the bricks. Apparent density, bulk density, apparent porosity, water absorption, compressive strength, thermal conductivity, microstructure and crystalline phase formations of the fired brick samples were measured. It was found that the use of 10% waste addition reduced the bulk density of the samples up to 1.45 g/cm(3). As the porosities increased from 30.8 to 47.0%, the compressive strengths decreased from 36.9 to 10.26 MPa at firing temperature of 950 °C. The thermal conductivities of samples fired at the same temperature showed a decrease of 31% from 0.638 to 0.436 W/mK, which is hopeful for heat insulation in the buildings. Increasing of the firing temperature also affected their mechanical and physical properties. This study showed that the olive mill waste could be used as a pore maker in brick production. PMID:27343435

  18. Electrokinetic removal of Ca(NO3)2 from bricks to avoid salt induced decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Salt-induced decay of masonry is a serious threat to our cultural heritage. In buildings near agricultural land or stables the masonry may suffer seriously from salt-induced decay from nitrates. It was investigated in laboratory scale with a single brick if Ca(NO$-3$/) $-2$/ could be removed by e...

  19. INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR ABSORPTANCE OF BUILDING EXTERNAL SURFACES FROM HEAT FLUX POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral ÖZEL

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solar absorptance of external surfaces of buildings has been numerically investigated from the heat gain and losses point of view. For this purpose, external surface solar absorptance was icreased from 0 to 1with an ratio of 0.1 and, for the summer and winter conditions, heat fluxs was calculated by considering orientations of the wall and its roof for brick and concrete structure materials. Besides, external surface absorptance was assumed as 0.2, 0.5 and 0.9, respectively. Than, heat gain and losses were calculated to insulation thickness increasing on the outdoor surface of wall. Results obtained were presented as graphics

  20. Burned Microporous Alumina-Graphite Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the definition,classifica-tion,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,marking,packing,transportation and quality certificate of burned microporous alumina-graphite brick.

  1. Silica Brick for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the glossary and definition, marking, shape and dimension, technical requirements, test method, quality appraisal procedure, packing, label, transportation, storage and quality certification of silica brick for hot blast stove.

  2. Improvement of open and semi-open core wall system in tall buildings by closing of the core section in the last story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheyroddin, A.; Abdollahzadeh, D.; Mastali, M.

    2014-09-01

    Increasing number of tall buildings in urban population caused development of tall building structures. One of the main lateral load resistant systems is core wall system in high-rise buildings. Core wall system has two important behavioral aspects where the first aspect is related to reduce the lateral displacement by the core bending resistance and the second is governed by increasing of the torsional resistance and core warping of buildings. In this study, the effects of closed section core in the last story have been considered on the behavior of models. Regarding this, all analyses were performed by ETABS 9.2.v software (Wilson and Habibullah). Considering (a) drift and rotation of the core over height of buildings, (b) total and warping stress in the core body, (c) shear in beams due to warping stress, (d) effect of closing last story on period of models in various modes, (e) relative displacement between walls in the core system and (f) site effects in far and near field of fault by UBC97 spectra on base shear coefficient showed that the bimoment in open core is negative in the last quarter of building and it is similar to wall-frame structures. Furthermore, analytical results revealed that closed section core in the last story improves behavior of the last quarter of structure height, since closing of core section in the last story does not have significant effect on reducing base shear value in near and far field of active faults.

  3. Desalination of a brick by application of an electric DC field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Salts in masonry can cause various problems as decay of the masonry itself, lost adhesion of plaster and hygroscopic moisture. Chlorides are among the most common building salts and the present paper is focused on removal of chlorides from a brick in an applied electric field as a step towards...... to the brick during submersion and slower removed in the applied electric field than KCl. This indicates that the removal rate of chloride depends on the associated cation and this must be taken into account when desiding the duration of full scale actions. The electrochemical desalination was very efficient...

  4. Evaluation of alternative methodologies to minimize movements of a diaphragm wall close to buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, C.; Ledesma Villalba, Alberto; Lloret Morancho, Antonio; Alonso Pérez de Agreda, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the construction of the high-speed railway passing through Barcelona, a large excavation (21m depth) has made to about 2 m of a building. The excavation was done in the quaternary material typical of the Barcelona plain which consists mainly of low plasticity and slightly cemented compact clays. This material due to its high stiffness can be considered as a "hard soil". In order to minimize movements, several methodologies were considered: change in the thickness of the...

  5. Calculation of the wall pressure field generated on a group of buildings by an external explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim is to work out a three-dimensional code calculating the over-pressure distribution on any structure when an air shock wave arrives, especially in the case of a geometry providing multiple waves reflection. The computer code ZEPHIR was written under the assumption that the phenomena agree with the acoustic laws. An integral formulation leads infinite three-dimensional problems to a bidimensional one on a surface S limiting the real D. The surface S is discretized with triangular elements and replaced by the polyedron constituted by the mesh. The pressure is calculated at the barycenter of the triangular elements, with interpolation between several time-steps. The ZEPHIR code has been validated at first againt analytical solutions obtained for simple obstacle geometries. Test were performed with models of PWR buildings at a scale of 1/40, a cylinder for the reactor building and a parallelepiped for the fuel building, used adjacent or separated by a gap. Plastic explosive permits to obtain the pressure-time history of a hydrocarbon explosion at that scale. The results are in good agreement with the computation. The code ZEPHIR is characterized by a relatively cheap utilization

  6. Office building wall and space HVAC systems: Retrofitting with advanced systems. Applicazione di criteri avanzati nel progetto di ristrutturazione degli impianti di un edificio del terziario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattaneo, P. (Intertecno, Milan (Italy)); Gasparini, R.; Paoletti Gualandi, M. (Ente Nazionale per l' Energia Elettrica, Rome (Italy)); Del Bufalo, L. (LDB, Rome (Italy))

    1992-08-01

    The office building housing the headquarters of the Italian National Electricity Board (ENEL) in Rome is being restructured with a new energy efficient exterior wall system. Built during the early 1960's, this office building's space heating ventilation and air conditioning system is also being replaced by an energy efficient system of innovative design. This paper outlines the national utility's planned energy conservation program, which includes the computerization of all building systems so as to allow integrated building services/energy management, and indicates the logic behind design choices that were made.

  7. 纤维加固震损钢筋混凝土-砖组合开洞墙体的抗震性能%Seismic Performance of FRP-Strengthened Seismically-Damaged RC-Brick Masonry Walls with Opening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷真; 屈俊童; 王勇

    2015-01-01

    An experiment on three 1∶2 scaled reinforced concrete-brick composite walls with opening was conducted to evaluate the seismic performance of severely-damaged low-strength composite walls strengthened by fiber-rein-forced polymer ( FRP) .By a pre-damage experiment simulating earthquake and the low-cycle reversed loading ex-periments with no strengthening , strengthening by using fibers and rehabilitating the specimen after pre-damage , the specimens were compared in terms of experimental phenomena , cracking load , ultimate bearing load and dis-placement , hysteretic curves , energy dissipation capacity , bearing capacity , stiffness degradation , deformation re-covery capacity and FRP strain .The results show that (1) FRP-strengthened walls exhibit the shear-flexural failure mode, which is superior to the shear-dominant failure mode of the specimen without strengthening; ( 2 ) FRP strengthening can improve the seismic performance of the composite walls significantly , but not for the initial crack-ing load;and (3) the seismic performance of the damaged composite masonry walls strengthened with BFRP can recover or even exceed that of the specimen without strengthening .%通过3片1/2缩尺比例的钢筋混凝土-砖组合开洞墙体试验,研究了严重震损低强度组合墙体采用玄武岩纤维加固后的抗震性能;通过模拟地震的预损伤试验,以及不加固、纤维直接加固和预损伤后修复加固试件的低周往复荷载试验,对比分析了不同试件的试验现象、开裂荷载、极限承载力和位移、滞回曲线及耗能能力、承载力及刚度退化、变形恢复能力和玄武岩纤维应变等。结果表明:加固后组合墙体表现出剪-弯破坏的失效模式,优于以剪切破坏为主的未加固试件;纤维加固对组合墙体初始开裂荷载无提高作用,但对其抗震性能的提高程度明显,震损试件加固后的抗震性能得到恢复并且超过未加固试件。

  8. Investigation of wall and ceiling coatings with respect to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the WAK processing building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing plant WAK shut down in 1991. The operative deconstruction started in 1995. The wall and ceiling coatings of the buildings were investigated with respect to polychlorinated biphenyls. PCB was used in technical facilities due to their thermal and chemical resistance and low conductivity. During the construction of WAK PCB containing coatings were used. Waste materials with PCB contents above a limit of 50 mg/kg are hazardous materials. For the waste disposal the wastes have to be tested with respect to the PCB content. Scrape tests have shown that 67% of the samples have PCB contents above the limit. Core hole drilling samples showed that the PCB content decreases with depth. Further depth profile analyses are necessary to determine the coating thickness to be removed.

  9. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS. A 'light-shining-through-walls' experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (DE)] (and others)

    2009-05-15

    The ALPS collaboration runs a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run. (orig.)

  10. Long-term performance of ETICS on external walls of large-panel buildings; Dauerbestaendigkeit von WDVS auf Plattenbau - Fassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuschel, M. [Materialforschungs- und Pruefungsanstalt fuer Bauwesen Leipzig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Urgently required renovation work on external walls of large panel buildings makes novel demands on thermal insulation composites. In the quest for a practice-oriented test method, a pilot project was carried out. Separate parts of a completely renovated housefront were covered with different thermal insulation composites in a way permitting to carry out investigations for a period of several years. The test methods used and the installed thermal insulation composites are described. The results are pointed out. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die dringend erforderlichen Fassadeninstandsetzungen von Plattenbauten stellen an Waermedaemmverbundsysteme neue Anforderungen. Auf der Suche nach einer praxisgerechten Pruefmethode wurde ein Demopruefstand errichtet, der es ermoeglicht im Rahmen einer Komplettsanierung einen separaten Fassadenbereich mit unterschiedlichen Waermedaemmverbundsystemen so zu bekleiden, dass Untersuchungen ueber mehrere Jahre durchgefuehrt werden koennen. Im Folgenden werden die angewendeten Pruefmethoden und die installierten WDV-Systeme erlaeutert. Die einzelnen Ergebnisse werden aufgezeigt.

  11. Mineralogical, physical and chemical characteristics of historic brick-made structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Midany, A. A.; Mahmoud, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Brick-structured historic buildings represent one of the common monument types. Although they stand till now due to their fused structure, they are subjected to weathering and are affected by environmental deterioration. To perform any conservation/restortation process, a detailed characterization of the current conditions of the bricks is needed for identification of major threats and choosing a suitable material for conservation. In this study, historic brick-made structures was subjected to detailed characterization to identify the composition and quality of raw materials as well as environmental impacts on their original structure. Different characterization techniques such as mineralogical and petrographic examination, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and determination of physical and mechanical properties were used. The results of the characterization indicate that the bricks were manufactured from low-quality clay and treated at a temperature lower than 900 °C. In addition, environment pollution enhanced the presence of some ions, which affected the mechanical properties of bricks and lead to their deterioration and damage.

  12. Hydraulics of natural convection flows in building walling with air gap (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrochenko M.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural convection flow in vertical flat ducts with heated face is used to intensify the transfer in technical systems, such as ventilated gaps of facade designs. Understanding of physical processes that accompany the air flow in vertical flat parallel-plate ducts gives ameliorating the structures designing process and increasing its operating characteristics.The aim of this work is evaluation the average speed of natural convection air flow in vertical parallel-plate duct with different temperature of walls. It is enough for barotropic natural convection flow in the vertical parallel-plate ducts that the polytropic index in the barotropic state do not exceed the polytropic index in the equilibrium state. Polytropic index in the uniform and barotropic natural convection flow is almost proportional to the length of the channel. It is established that the shorter the channel, the greater must be the heat flux that creates vertical traction, and vice versa.

  13. Effective Pneumatic Scheme and Control Strategy of a Climbing Robot for Class Wall Cleaning on High-rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Zong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of pneumatic climbing robot is presented to meet the requirements of glass-wall cleaning for high-rise buildings, which is totally actuated by pneumatic cylinders and attached to the glass wall with vacuum suckers. Using the pneumatic actuators the climbing robot can be made lightweight and dexterous. At the same time the movement driven by pneumatic actuators has the characteristic of passive compliance. In order to solve the problems of high speed movement for the Y cylinder and precise position control of the X cylinder, the applied pneumatic schemes of X and Y cylinders are employed to drive the high-speed on-off solenoid valves and an ordinary valve to adjust the air-flow and pressure to the cylinders. Furthermore a method of segment and variable bang-bang controller is proposed to implement the accurate control of the position servo system for the X cylinder during the sideways movement. Testing results show that the novel approach can effectively improve the control quality. This cleaning robot can meet the requirements of realization.

  14. Behavior of plasters on the modern heat-effective exterior walls of buildings (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babkov V.V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical and mechanical characteristics, the most significant for the plasters with regard to the features of their behavior as the coating of building faces were evaluated. Results of quantitative estimation of stresses in the plaster layers on surfaces of different stiffness due to the plaster shrinkage are given. It is shown that with a decrease of the surface modulus of elasticity, stresses in the plaster coating are decreased either due to reduction of the effect of its deformations’ constraint. By analysis and with experiments it is proved, that the main factor evaluating the ultimate extensibility of the mortar is its viscoelasticity modulus, while mortar strength increase involves its stresses increase.

  15. Optically encoded nanoprobes using single walled carbon nanotube as the building scaffold for magnetic field guided cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Zhuyuan; Ye, Minglang; Zong, Shenfei; Li, Mingyue; Chen, Peng; Ma, Xueqin; Cui, Yiping

    2014-02-01

    We construct a novel fluorescent, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) encoded and magnetic nanoprobe for live cell imaging. To fabricate this nanoprobe, single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is used as the building scaffold while gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and quantum dots (QDs) are employed as the building blocks. Here, Au NPs serve as the SERS substrate and QDs act as the fluorescent agent. Au NPs and SPIONs are first adsorbed on the SWNT via electrostatic interactions. Then a silica layer is coated on the SWNT. Finally, QDs are attached on the silica shell. With such a structure, various optical signals can be readily encoded to the nanoprobe simply by using different Raman molecules and QDs with different emission wavelengths. Experimental results show that the as-prepared nanoprobe exhibits well fluorescence and SERS performance. Furthermore, in vitro experiments demonstrate that the nanoprobe can fulfill magnetic field guided fluorescence and SERS dual mode imaging of live cells. As a fascinating optical encoding material and a multifunctional nanoplatform, the presented nanoprobe holds genuine potential in future biosensing applications.

  16. Gamma dose rate in natural radioactivity of bricks of different local regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the radiation hazard due to natural radioactivity in bricks and to calculate the gamma radiation dose rate from the bricks used in Sri Lankan buildings. Specific activities of the natural radionuclides in sixteen clay and four cement brick samples collected from kilns in different areas in Sri Lanka were analysed by gamma ray spectrometry. The gamma radiation hazard associated with these bricks was assessed according to the values of two different indices, Radium equivalent activity and representative level index. In terms of the radium equivalent a criterion has been used to limit the annual radiation dose from building materials to 1.5 mGy. Ra sub eq is convenient for comparing the specific activities of materials containing different concentrations of the radionuclides measured and the values ranged from 50-365 Bq per kg in the samples measured in this study. Based on these values an annual external radiation dose ranging from 0.21 - 1.48 mGy per year is calculated inside buildings constructed using bricks.Absorbed dose rates in air was calculated using dose coefficient values 0.0414, 0.623 and 0.461 nGy per hour per Bq per Kg for K sup 40, Th sup 232 and Ra sup 226 respectively. If the entire day is spent inside a typical masonry building the activity utilization index is unity by definition and is deemed to imply a dose rate of 80 nGy per hour. (0.70 mGy per year) In the present study the dose rate from cement bricks is less than this value ranging from 0.35-0.57 mGy per year. However, 10 of the clay bricks gave a dose rate greater than this value. The highest dose rate measured was 1.475 mGy per year from Mahiyangana which double the typical value 0.70 mGy per year

  17. The problems of operational reliability exterior walls of a building based on the autoclaved aerated concrete blocks and possibility of their protection from moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Samofeev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic mechanisms and factors that have destructive effect on the state of autoclaved aerocrete in the exterior walls of operated buildings are shown. These mechanisms are wetting the wall, the effect of moisture during freezing, carbonation hydrosilicate structure-phase of material. The possibilities of protection exterior walls with using hydrophobic multilayered vapor permeable stucco are estimated, which were accepted for protecting facades apartment buildings on the basis autoclaved aerocrete blocks in Bashkiriya.In the Republic of Bashkortostan in October 2010 was put into operation factory for production blocks with capaciry 225,000 m3 per year at OAO "GlavBashStroy" on equipment Masa-Henke, whose products are currently being investigated

  18. Rational preparation of waste coal mixture for production of bricks by the method of compression molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. I.; Temlyantsev, M. V.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    Rational preparation of the mixture containing technogenic raw material - waste coal for the production of wall ceramics is developed. It was established that the technology of high-quality ceramic bricks requires: grinding of raw materials to class 0.3 + 0 mm, its aggregation in the intensive mixers into granules 1-3 mm, compression molding of adobe to plastic deformation of granules, drying and firing.

  19. Water vapor sorption hysteresis of ceramic bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koronthalyova, Olga

    2016-07-01

    A quantification of the hysteretic effects and their thorough analysis was carried out for three types of ceramic bricks. Water vapor adsorption/desorption isotherms were measured by the standard desiccator method. The desorption measurements were carried out from capillary moisture content as well as from equilibrium moisture content corresponding to the relative humidity of 98 %. For all three tested types of bricks the hysteretic effects were present but their significance differed depending on the particular type of brick. Significant differences were noticed also in desorption curves determined from capillary moisture content and from equilibrium moisture content corresponding to the relative humidity of 98 %. Based on the measured data a possible correlation between pore structure parameters and noticed hysteretic effects as well as relevance of the open pore model are discussed. The obtained adsorption/desorption curves were approximated by an analytical relation.

  20. Frost resistance of concrete with crushed brick as aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Janković Ksenija; Bojović Dragan; Nikolić Dragan; Lončar Ljiljana; Romakov Zoran

    2010-01-01

    The investigation included concrete made by using recycled brick as aggregate. Experimental work included several types of concrete made with the same cement content (385 kg/m3), and same consistency (slump about 1 cm). Recycled brick and combination of natural river aggregate and recycled brick were used as aggregates. The influence of percentage and grain size of crushed brick aggregate on concrete compressive strength, water absorption and frost resistance were observed. On the basis of th...

  1. Experimental study on mechanical properties of non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash Perforated brick masonry%免蒸压免烧结粉煤灰多孔砖砌体力学性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠献; 周晓洁; 夏多田; 许小波; 刘泽锋

    2012-01-01

    Non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash perforated brick is a kind of new material for load-bearing walls. In order to promote the application of this new material in village and town buildings of seismic area, compression and shear strength of non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash perforated brick masonry was tested and crack and failure progress was analyzed. The test results show that the failure processes and characteristics of the non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash perforated brick masonry in compression and in shear are similar to that of the common brick masonry, however the non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash perforated brick masonry tends to fail in brittle manner. The compression and shear strength are all less than that of the common brick masonry. A mathematic model of 6-degree polynomial was used to express the compressive constitutive relationship and the whole process of non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash perforated brick masonry in compression was described. The curve was close to the measured data.%免蒸压免烧结粉煤灰多孔砖是一种新型承重墙体材料,为使其在地震区村镇建筑中得到推广应用,进行了多孔砖砌体抗压强度和抗剪强度试验,分析了砌体裂缝开展及破坏过程.试验结果表明:免蒸压免烧结粉煤灰多孔砖砌体的受压、受剪破坏过程及特征与普通黏土砖砌体类似,但具有更大的脆性;抗压、抗剪强度均小于普通黏土砖砌体;采用6次多项式的受压本构关系数学模型,反映了免蒸压免烧结粉煤灰多孔砖砌体受压应力-应变全过程,计算值与实测数据比较接近.

  2. Evaluation of external exposures of the population of Ozyorsk, Russia, with luminescence measurements of bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Clemens; Jacob, P; Ulanovsky, A; Fiedler, I; Mokrov, Y; Rovny, S

    2009-11-01

    Recently discovered historical documents indicate that large releases of noble gases (mainly (41)Ar and radioactive isotopes of Kr and Xe) from the Mayak Production Association (MPA) over the period from 1948 to 1956 may have caused considerable external exposures of both, inhabitants of Ozyorsk and former inhabitants of villages at the upper Techa River. To quantify this exposure, seven brick samples from three buildings in Ozyorsk, located 8-10 km north-northwest from the radioactive gas release points, were taken. The absorbed dose in brick was measured in a depth interval of 3-13 mm below the exposed surface of the bricks by means of the thermoluminescence (TL) and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) method. Generally, luminescence properties using TL were more favorable for precise dose determination than using OSL, but within their uncertainties the results from both methods agree well with each other. The absorbed dose due to natural radiation was assessed and subtracted under the assumption of the bricks to be completely dry. The weighted average of the anthropogenic dose for all samples measured by TL and OSL is 10 +/- 9 and 1 +/- 9 mGy, respectively. An upper limit for a possible anthropogenic dose in brick that would not be detected due to the measurement uncertainties is estimated at 24 mGy. This corresponds to an effective dose of about 21 mSv. A similar range of values is obtained in recently published dispersion calculations that were based on reconstructed MPA releases. It is concluded that the release of radioactive noble gases from the radiochemical and reactor plants at Mayak PA did not lead to a significant external exposure of the population of Ozyorsk. In addition, the study demonstrates the detection limit for anthropogenic doses in ca. 60-year-old bricks to be about 24 mGy, if luminescence methods are used. PMID:19680674

  3. Development of Reproducing Alumina-Magnesia-Carbon Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The reproducing alumina-magnesia-carbon bricks were prepared with the dumped bricks as starting materials. The bulk density, apparent porosity, crushing strength, modolus of rupture and slag resistance of the specimen were analyzed. The results show that the used refractories can be reused and recycled by the right method. The reproducing alumina-magnesia-carbon bricks with better abilities were prepared.

  4. Beyond the Brick Walls: Homeschooling Students with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kathleen B.; Bennett, Katie E.; Lane, Justin D.; Mataras, Theologia K.

    2013-01-01

    The percentage of children with special needs receiving academic instruction at home has substantially increased since a resurgence of homeschooling during the 1990s. In light of this information, the purpose of this article was to provide an overview of the history and laws related to homeschooling, the characteristics of homeschool families, and…

  5. Some recommendations for the construction of walls using adobe bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se estudian las condiciones en las que deben ser levantados los muros de adobe en construcciones de tierra. Para ello, se construye una edificación piloto en Villa Clara, Cuba, que ha servido de base para probar distintas soluciones constructivas. Como resultado de esta investigación se dan recomendaciones para evitar el ascenso de la humedad por capilaridad, sobre la velocidad de levantamiento, la longitud de muro adecuada, el mortero de unión tanto de adobes entre sí como de adobe con otro material, el cerramento, los dinteles, la protección de vanos así como para el revestimiento adecuado para la protección del muro de adobe del intemperismo.

  6. The Brick Wall: Why So Few Women Become Senior Academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Carol

    1993-01-01

    It is proposed that, to address the lack of women in senior academic ranks, higher education should reexamine appointment procedures, scrutinize the standards by which men have been assessed traditionally, ask men to justify their own merit, and examine the way in which male academics interact with their female counterparts. (MSE)

  7. Chemically-bonded brick production based on burned clay by means of semidry pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voroshilov, Ivan; Endzhievskaya, Irina; Vasilovskaya, Nina

    2016-01-01

    We presented a study on the possibility of using the burnt rocks of the Krasnoyarsk Territory for production of chemically-bonded materials in the form of bricks which are so widely used in multistory housing and private house construction. The radiographic analysis of the composition of burnt rock was conducted and a modifier to adjust the composition uniformity was identified. The mixing moisture content was identified and optimal amount at 13-15% was determined. The method of semidry pressing has been chosen. The process of obtaining moldings has been theoretically proved; the advantages of chemically-bonded wall materials compared to ceramic brick were shown. The production of efficient artificial stone based on material burnt rocks, which is comparable with conventionally effective ceramic materials or effective with cell tile was proved, the density of the burned clay-based cell tile makes up to 1630-1785 kg m3, with compressive strength of 13.6-20.0 MPa depending on the compression ratio and cement consumption, frost resistance index is F50, and the thermal conductivity in the masonry is λ = 0,459-0,546 W m * °C. The clear geometric dimensions of pressed products allow the use of the chemically-bonded brick based on burnt clay as a facing brick.

  8. Chemically-bonded brick production based on burned clay by means of semidry pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voroshilov, Ivan, E-mail: Nixon.06@mail.ru; Endzhievskaya, Irina, E-mail: icaend@mail.ru; Vasilovskaya, Nina, E-mail: icaend@mail.ru [FSAEI HVE Siberian Federal University, 82 Svobodny Prospekt, Krasnoyarsk, 660130 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    We presented a study on the possibility of using the burnt rocks of the Krasnoyarsk Territory for production of chemically-bonded materials in the form of bricks which are so widely used in multistory housing and private house construction. The radiographic analysis of the composition of burnt rock was conducted and a modifier to adjust the composition uniformity was identified. The mixing moisture content was identified and optimal amount at 13-15% was determined. The method of semidry pressing has been chosen. The process of obtaining moldings has been theoretically proved; the advantages of chemically-bonded wall materials compared to ceramic brick were shown. The production of efficient artificial stone based on material burnt rocks, which is comparable with conventionally effective ceramic materials or effective with cell tile was proved, the density of the burned clay-based cell tile makes up to 1630-1785 kg \\ m{sup 3}, with compressive strength of 13.6-20.0 MPa depending on the compression ratio and cement consumption, frost resistance index is F50, and the thermal conductivity in the masonry is λ = 0,459-0,546 W \\ m {sup *} °C. The clear geometric dimensions of pressed products allow the use of the chemically-bonded brick based on burnt clay as a facing brick.

  9. Building and degradation of secondary cell walls: are there common patterns of lamellar assembly of cellulose microfibrils and cell wall delamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; Ruel, Katia; Joseleau, Jean-Paul; Aronne, Giovanna

    2010-08-01

    During cell wall formation and degradation, it is possible to detect cellulose microfibrils assembled into thicker and thinner lamellar structures, respectively, following inverse parallel patterns. The aim of this study was to analyse such patterns of microfibril aggregation and cell wall delamination. The thickness of microfibrils and lamellae was measured on digital images of both growing and degrading cell walls viewed by means of transmission electron microscopy. To objectively detect, measure and classify microfibrils and lamellae into thickness classes, a method based on the application of computerized image analysis combined with graphical and statistical methods was developed. The method allowed common classes of microfibrils and lamellae in cell walls to be identified from different origins. During both the formation and degradation of cell walls, a preferential formation of structures with specific thickness was evidenced. The results obtained with the developed method allowed objective analysis of patterns of microfibril aggregation and evidenced a trend of doubling/halving lamellar structures, during cell wall formation/degradation in materials from different origin and which have undergone different treatments. PMID:20532796

  10. High-rise Buildings Shear Wall Structure External Wall Large Model Construction Technology%高层建筑剪力墙结构外墙大模施工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全兵

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of China's urbanization process, the relationship among population, resources, land is increasing tense, high-rise buildings can effectively alleviate these three tensions. From the high-rise buildings shear wall structure external wall large model construction, this paper discusses the construction technology.%随着我国城市化建设进程的深入,人口、资源、土地三者的关系日益紧张,高层建筑可有效缓解这三者的紧张局面。本文从某高层建筑剪力墙结构外墙大模的施工出发,探讨了高层建筑剪力墙结构外墙大模的施工工艺。

  11. The reaction of the building structure with window unit to the explosiveimpact on the basis of dynamic equation solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doronin Fedor Leonidovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When designing residential buildings, additional measures for increasing the strength at dynamic effects indoors are not foreseen. The walls of the structure fixed in the framework are not designed for shock wave caused by explosion of utility gas. When designing a building, the task of the special dynamic load is often reduced to the calculation of the safe shock pressure, exceeding of which leads to the destruction of the structures. The wall with the window area under dynamic effects is a blast relief panel, which reduces the excess pressure inside the room. The proposed method of calculating a design with a window unit allows determining the dynamic reaction of the wall on explosive pulse. The proposed calculation technique of the constructions at shock loads allows tracing the changes of the inertial forces and displacements at any stage of dynamic response. The reaction to dynamic loads can be also set for non-monolithic structures, consisting of different materials with different conditions of fastening. Elastoplastic reaction of a brick wall with glass units was determined using step-by-step method of linear acceleration. The calculation of stress-strain state of brick walls with window panes determined the strength properties of the structures close to the monolithic version. The proposed technique of numerical solution of dynamic equations is applied only in the analysis of elastic systems, in which the dynamic characteristics remain unchanged throughout the reaction process.

  12. Physico-mechanical characterization of adobe bricks from Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, I.; Illampas, R.; Charmpis, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe bricks have been used in the construction of buildings for thousands of years. In our days, adobe masonry is no longer a prevailing form of construction. However, a great number of earthen buildings still survives in most regions of the world and constitutes an essential part of the international architectural and cultural heritage. Furthermore, efforts are currently being made to reintroduce adobes as an environmentally-friendly building material to contemporary architecture within the context of sustainable development. Despite the long-term use of adobes and their importance for the society, our knowledge of many aspects of this material is still rather limited. As a result, there are many ongoing research initiatives worldwide aiming to investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of adobe bricks and related durability problems. In this paper, we present our work (which is funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation Project EΠIXEIPHΣEIΣ/ΠPOION/0609/41, the Republic of Cyprus and the European Regional Development Fund) on the physico-mechanical characterization of adobes from Cyprus. In the absence of standardized procedures for most of the tests carried out, testing methodologies that either refer to other types of masonry materials and/or are encountered in the literature are adopted. The results show that adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in the X-ray diffraction analyses patterns. The average capillary water absorption coefficient of the test specimens rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1/2 (when measured against a saturated sponge surface), while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. Extensive experimental data on the material's mechanical behaviour show that adobes' response to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average value of compressive strength depends greatly on the form of specimen examined (cube, cylinder, prism) and the failure criterion

  13. Investigation on Production and Markets of Silica Bricks in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhongqi; CHU Guosheng; WANG Tiezheng; PAN Shangxin

    2003-01-01

    The annual output of China' s silica brick amounts up to over 300 thousand tons, which accounts for more than 70% of the total output of silica bricks in the world.Besides satisfying domestic markets, China's silica bricks have been exported to many countries and regions such as Japan, USA etc. In this paper, the situation of silica bricks production, technology, sales and exporting have been described. Also suggestions on improvement of silica bricks quality and exporting, corporation with foreign partners have been put forward in order to win larger market share both at home and abroad.

  14. Urban waste as a potential source for brick plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, K. E.; Eberendu, A.; Griffin, J.; Gegbe, H.; Ike, C.; Aboo, A.

    1982-02-01

    A joint government/industry/university project was formulated to address the technical feasibility of utilizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a commercial fuel for the brick industry. Specifically, refuse derived fuel (RDF) from MSW was investigated for three potential applications in the brick industry: (1) rotary brick kilns; (2) tunnel brick kilns; and (3) moisture dryers. The successful development of such a procedure would be a dramatic achievement with widespread applicability, transferability, and commercial merit for energy displacement. The sampling, collection, and analysis of MSW, the analysis of RDF, and the potential utilization of RDF as an alternate source of fuel for the brick industry are described.

  15. Development of Andalusite Bricks for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Huarong; LI Xianming; DONG Shengying; XUE Wendong; LI Yong; SONG Wen

    2008-01-01

    Low-creep andalusite bricks are characterized by high refractoriness under load, good anti-creep property, high mechanical strength, low porosity, good thermal shock resistance, etc. In this study, low-creep andalusite brick specimens were investigated in the lab using mullite, bauxite and andalusite. Andalusite with the different panicle sizes were used in the experiment and the specimen with the best property was selected as the production standard. In addition, the industrial produced low-creep andalusite bricks were compared with other low-creep bricks. The results show that the developed low-creep andalusite bricks is an excellent material for hot blast stove.

  16. Adherence Characteristics of Cement Clinker on Basic Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zongqi; Michel Rigaud

    2002-01-01

    Based on the sandwich test, adherence mechanisms of cement clinker on various basic bricks were tackled by microstructural observations with help of cathodoluminescence technique. Doloma based bricks offer sufficient lime to react with clinker, forming C3 S rich layer and initializing superior adherence. However, clinker with low silica ratio leads to MgO agglomeration at the interface of doloma bricks, which reduces adherence strength. On magnesia spinel bricks, fine, crystalline spinel easily reacts with lime containing phases from clinker to form lowmelting phases and belite zone, which shows high adherence performance. Lack of fine spinel in magnesia spinel bricks results in poor adherence.

  17. Investigation on Production and Markets of Silica Bricks in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZhongqi; CHUGuosheng; WANGTiezheng; PANShangxin

    2003-01-01

    The annual output of China's silica brick amounts up to over 300 thousand tons, which accounts for more than 70% of the total oupout of silica bricks in the world. Besides satisfying domestic markets, China's silica bricks have been exported to many countries and retions such as Japan, USA etc. In this paper, the situation of silica bricks production, technology, sales and exporting have been described. Also suggestions on improvement of silica bricks quality and exporting, corporation with foreign partners have been put forward in order to win larger market share both aat home and abroad.

  18. Architectural Thermal Forms II: Brick Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an architectural concept and design method that investigates the use of dynamic factors in evolutionary form finding processes. The architectural construct, phenotype, is based on a brick assembly and how this can be organized based upon material properties and environmental as...

  19. Incorporation feasibility of leather residues in bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, J.B. [Minho Univ. (Portugal). Civil Engineering Dept.; Valente, A.; Pires, M.J. [Inst. of Development and Innovation Technology of Minho, Braga (Portugal); Tavares, T. [Biological Engineering Dept., Univ. of Minho, Braga (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The footwear industry has strips of leather as one of its by-products. These leather residues, due to their high chromium content, can be regarded as a threat to the environment, particularly if no care is taken with their disposal. With the incorporation of the residues in ceramic products, after trituration, is possible to neutralise the eventual toxicity of chromium. In a laboratory study we produced prismatic bricks using clay from the region and incorporating 1, 3 and 5% (by mass) of leather residues. This corresponds at about 20, 60 and 100% (by apparent volume). The moulds were filled up with paste and, in order to have some compactness, the ceramic paste was compressed with a spatula. After that, it began the process of drying and burning the bricks. They were tested to flexure, compression and leaching. The results showed that the toxicity of chromium disappeared in the bricks. The mechanical tests showed a decrease in strength for the specimens with leather residue. The compressive strength decreases about 22% for 1% of incorporation of leather residue. However, as bricks were lighter and more porous, we can expect that they are better for thermal isolation. (orig.)

  20. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  1. Construction solutions for the exterior walls in the process of increasing the width of residential buildings of brownfield construction in seismic hazardousand dry hot conditions of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main object of this study is the reconstruction, renovation and modernization of the housing built in the period 1975—1985. These buildings have low energy efficiency due to the poor thermal insulation properties of the walls. These apartments do not meet the necessary requirements for year round warmth and comfort.Reconstruction is more preferable, than new-build, because of the cost saving for the land acquisition. Reconstruction is generally 1.5 times cheaper than new-build with 25—40 % reduced cost on building materials and engineering infrastructure.Increasing the width of the apartment blocks from 12 to 15 m can save 9—10 % on the consumption of thermal energy for heating and reduce the m2 construction cost by 5.5—7.0 %. In—5-9 storey high-rise buildings the savings are 3—5 %.Therefore, the width of the apartment block should preferably be between 9—12 m but could be extended to 18 m. The depth of the apartments themselves will be 5.4 — 6.0 —7.2 or 9.0 m. During the reconstruction of 5-storey residential buildings (Building Type105 in a seismic zone, an increase in the width of the block and the lateral stiffness of the building is achieved by building a new reinforced concrete (RC frame on both sides of the building with a depth of between 2 and 6 m. This technique is especially effective in increasing the seismic resistance of the building. Self-supporting walls of cellular concrete blocks (density 600 kg/m3 and a thickness of 300 mm are constructed on the outside of the frame, taking care to avoid cold bridges.Model studies have shown that in the conditions of hot-arid climate the thickness of the air gap in a ventilated facade does not significantly change the cooling-energy consumption of the building, and heating consumption is significantly increased. The building's energy consumption is most influenced by the volume of the air in the air gap. By increasing the ventilation rate in the air gap, the energy

  2. Life cycle assessment of regional brick manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Aguilar, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This document presents a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA study to quantify the environmental cradle-to-gate impact of the manufacture of brick for the construction industry, produced with material of igneous source. Its mineral composition and thermal isolation properties were characterized for use in real estate construction. The LCA results for brick manufacture using this material identified the greatest environmental impact to be associated with material extraction and its proportional cement content. Additionally, this document presents an evaluation of the environmental impact of the manufacturing process by comparing traditional fired clay brick and brick of the material under study. In conclusion, the studied material shows thermal insulation qualities and suitability for the manufacture of bricks with low incorporated energy.Este trabajo presenta un estudio de Análisis de Ciclo de Vida (ACV para cuantificar los impactos ambientales de la cuna a la puerta de la manufactura de ladrillos para la industria de la construcción, fabricados de un material de origen ígneo. Se caracterizó su composición mineralógica y propiedades de aislamiento térmico para ser usado en la construcción de inmuebles. Los resultados ACV de la fabricación de ladrillos de este material, identificaron la mayor contribución a los impactos ambientales asociados a la extracción del material y la cantidad proporcional de cemento. Adicionalmente, se presenta una evaluación comparativa del impacto ambiental entre la manufactura de un ladrillo tradicional de arcilla cocido y de un ladrillo del material en estudio. En conclusión el material estudiado muestra cualidades de aislamiento térmico y es adecuado para la fabricación de ladrillos con baja energía incorporada.

  3. A Brick and Mortar Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretter, Thomas; Ardasheva, Yuliya; Bookstrom, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Literacy skills are critical for building science knowledge. For English Language Learners (ELLs)--the fastest growing population in U.S. schools (Goldenberg 2008)--learning English compounds the challenge of learning complex science concepts. This challenge is particularly acute for learning academic, science-specific English words and language…

  4. Execution of high rise frame-wall reinforced concrete building using the precast structural form; PCa kozo katawaku wo mochiita koso hekishiki ramen kozo jutaku no seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, T.; Matsuura, T.; Ito, T.; Kageyama, S. [Hazama Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This paper introduces construction of a high-rise residential house using thin PCa members, which work also as concrete forms, in wall pillars. This building uses PCa members in wall pillars, beams and floors, and is of a wall-type rigid-frame structure using conventional construction methods for antiseismic walls. The wall pillars are common to all the stories, and use PCa-structured forms. The PCa-structured form is a rectangle with hollow cross section having a pillar width of 600 mm, pillar height of 1800 mm, and a wall thickness of 80 mm. The formwork to fabricate a PCa-structured form is made of steel, and consists of an inner form and an outer form. The inner form is constructed with checker plates to enhance integrity of the form with post-cast concrete. According to the result of a construction experiment using full-size members, no crack generation, swelling in the concrete forms, and filling voids were found. As a result of performing a bending shear experiment, the test specimen showed fracture characteristics preceded by bending yield as seen in a test specimen made by continuous concrete placement. Equivalent withstanding force and transformation performance were also discovered. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  5. Assessment of natural radioactivity and mass attenuation coefficients of brick and roofing tile used in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the distribution of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K) in brick and roofing tile samples commonly used as building materials in Turkey was measured by using gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations, radium equivalent activities (Raeq), representative level index, indoor absorbed dose rate in air values and annual effective dose due to the intake of the above-mentioned radionuclides in the brick and roofing tile samples were estimated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The measured average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were 34 ± 14, 34 ± 13 and 462 ± 175 Bq.kg-1, respectively, for brick samples. For roofing tile, the average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured to be 34 ± 14, 33 ± 12 and 429 ± 161 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries. The Raeq values of all samples were lower than the limit of 370 Bq.kg-1, equivalent to a gamma dose of 1.5 mSv.a-1 recommended by OECD. This study shows that the measured brick and roofing tile samples do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard and are safe to be used as building materials. Moreover, the experimental mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of brick and roofing tile samples were determined in the energy range 80-1332 keV using the gamma ray transmission method. The experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values obtained using XCOM. It was found that the computed values and the experimental results of this work are in good agreement with those reported in the literature. The chemical compositions and structural analysis (XRD) of the brick and roofing tile samples are also presented. - Highlights: → In this study, the distribution of natural radionuclides in brick and roofing tile samples used in Turkey were studied. → Associated potential

  6. Application of Optimum Compaction Energy in the Development of Bricks Made with Construction Trash Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lopez-Lara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, bricks frequently show different densities and therefore different resistances because the compaction energy is not considered in their production. Expansive soils represent a problem for light buildings over them because of volumetric instability. A generalized solution has been to extract them and substitute them by inert soil; thus they become construction trash. So, in this work the compaction energy aspect and the use of construction trash soils in the elaboration of resistant masonry bricks of homogeneous and controlled density are a new contribution in the production of bricks of better quality. First, the soil was stabilized with CaOH which leads to a decrease in its volumetric changes. Then, they were compacted with a specific energy for obtaining an optimal and maximum controlled density to ensure an increase in strength. Our results show that two optimal compaction energies can be considered with respect to the variation of optimum moisture in masonry bricks of expansive soil stabilized with lime. The first is when the optimal humidity reaches its smallest value (integrated soil lumps and the second is when humidity increases (disintegrated soil lumps, after reaching its lowest value. We also conclude that high compaction energy does not improve density values.

  7. Technological behaviour and recycling potential of spent foundry sands in clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Santurde, R; Andrés, A; Viguri, J R; Raimondo, M; Guarini, G; Zanelli, C; Dondi, M

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of recycling spent foundry sand in clay bricks was assessed in laboratory, pilot line and industrial trials, using naturally occurring sand as a reference. Raw materials were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, and leaching and combined to produce bodies containing up to 35% wt. sand. The extrusion, drying and firing behaviour (plasticity, drying sensitivity, mechanical strength, bulk density, water absorption, and shrinkage) were determined. The microstructure, phase composition, durability and leaching (EN 12457, granular materials, end-life step, European Waste Landfill Directive; NEN 7345, monolithic materials, use-life step, Dutch Building Material Decree) were evaluated for bricks manufactured at optimal firing temperature. These results demonstrate that spent foundry sand can be recycled in clay bricks. There are no relevant technological drawbacks, but the feasibility strongly depends on the properties of the raw materials. Spent foundry sand may be introduced into bricks up to 30% wt. Most of the hazardous elements from the spent foundry sand are inertized during firing and the concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates are below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill excepting for chromium and lead; however, their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible. PMID:21129840

  8. Making fired bricks with spent equilibrium catalyst-a technical feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, M.-L.; Chen, L.-M.; Lai, Y.-C.; Chou, S.-F.

    2009-01-01

    Fluid catalytic cracking in an oil refinery uses a catalyst, such as an alumino-silicate zeolite, in the conversion of heavy hydrocarbons to light hydrocarbons. A small fraction of the catalyst is continually replaced with fresh catalyst to maintain activity. In North America, more than 400 tons of spent alumino-silicate equilibrium catalyst (spent e-cat), and worldwide, more than 1,100 tons, are generated daily, most of which is disposed of in landfills (municipal and on-site facilities). In this study, three spent e-cat samples were tested in a value-added application that would utilize this waste in the manufacturing of fired bricks. The results of this study indicate that spent e-cat is a technically feasible raw material substitute for the clay and shale commonly used in fired brick production. Fired bricks produced with up to 30 wt% of spent e-cat showed good physical appearance and their water absorption properties met the ASTM C 62 specifications for building bricks of either the moderate-or severe-weathering grade.

  9. Bond Behavior of Historical Clay Bricks Strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymers (SRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Sacco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the strengthening interventions of past and historical masonry constructions, the non-standardized manufacture processes, the ageing and the damage of masonry units, could significantly affect the properties of the surfaces where strengthening materials are applied. This aspect requires particular care in evaluating the performance of externally bonded strengthening layers, especially with reference to the detachment mechanism. The bond response of old masonries could be very different from that occurring in new masonry units which are the ones generally considered in most of the bond tests available in technical literature. The aim of the present paper is the study of the bond behavior of historical clay bricks strengthened with steel reinforced polymers (SRP materials. In particular, the results of an experimental study concerning new manufactured clay bricks and old bricks extracted from different historical masonry buildings are presented. The obtained results, particularly in terms of bond resistance, detachment mechanism and strain distributions, are discussed for the purpose of analyzing the peculiarities of the historical bricks in comparison with new manufactured ones. Some considerations on the efficacy of the theoretical formulations of the recent Italian code are also carried out.

  10. 粉煤灰砖生产实践%Production practices of fly ash bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卫国

    2015-01-01

    普通砖的大规模化生产当属利用蒸压釜通过饱和蒸汽的工艺来得快一些,其生产产品一般有蒸压灰砂砖及蒸压粉煤灰砖,而这两种工艺的投资也是非常大的。小型投入中不需要蒸压工艺的只有水泥砖,而这种砖密度很大,不适合建筑节能的要求。这里介绍的是一种不需采用蒸压工艺又生产较轻产品的粉煤灰压制工艺。%Large-scale production of ordinary bricks is undoubtedly take advantage of saturated steam autoclave process, its\\products generally have autoclaved sand-lime bricks and autoclaved fly ash bricks, and the investment of these two processes is very large. Small investment which does not require autoclaving process only have the cement bricks, and this kind of brick’s density is large, and not suitable for building energy requirements.

  11. Determination of shielding factors for typical buildings in Brazil; Determinacao dos fatores de blindagem para construcoes tipicamente brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas, Isabel Cristina Poquet

    2006-10-15

    This study presents a methodology for the determination of the air kerma inside buildings due to contamination on the external surfaces and the shielding factors for the construction material to be used on emergency assessment systems for urban areas. The commonly used construction materials were simulated with the MCNP computer code. A special methodology to simulate the bricks with holes were developed, mixing all different regions into a single one, making the simulation easier and faster. The effective density and the attenuation coefficients for the 50-3000 keV energy range were determined. The effective protection for the bricks with no cement cover decreases by 40-50% for energies greater then 300 keV when compared to bricks covered on both sides. With the data made available it was possible to evaluate the influence of the construction materials densities and thickness on the exposure due to external surfaces contamination and to estimate the error on the dose when the shielding factor applied on the calculation differs from the more realistic ones. The shielding factors for three types of walls were determined for a five rooms house. Special protection procedures should be applied for houses built with bricks with no cement cover, because they are due to the double of the dose when compared to houses built with bricks two-sided cement covered. The influence of windows and doors were evaluated too. This work was developed at the IRD in order to provide information on the construction material commonly uses on building in Brazil. (author)

  12. 来自于建筑应该回归到建筑--对墙改可持续发展机制的思考%Wall Materials Gaining from Old Building and Returning to New Building:Thinking to Mechanism of Sustainable Development for Wall Materials Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韬; 蒋春迪

    2014-01-01

    The wall materials innovation has been spread over many provinces and cities. Currently, a considerable number of new wall materials still include natural sand and stone. With the rapid urban con-struction, demolition of old houses are very common, resulting in a large number of broken concrete, bricks and other construction debris. Developed countries have achieved many successful processing technology and experience about construction waste. Firstly, we can consider to manufacture new non-load-bearing block by recycling construction waste residue in accordance with national standards, and establish a mech-anism under conditions of market economy need, seeking to reduce project cost and achieve sustainable de-velopment for wall materials innovation.%墙体材料改革已经遍布全国许多省市,当前相当多的新型墙体材料所用的原料仍然是天然砂、石。城乡建设突飞猛进,在建设现代化大城市的进程中,旧房屋的拆除非常普遍,产生了大量的混凝土碎块、砖碎块等建筑渣土。发达国家对建筑渣土的利用已取得许多成功的处理技术和经验,值得我们借鉴。对建筑渣土的回收利用可首先考虑按照国家标准的要求制作非承重新型砌块,在市场经济条件下需要建立一种机制,寻求降低工程造价和墙改的可持续发展。

  13. An Analysis of the Shear Resistence of Multple-Bulkhead Tier-Brick Masonry Buildings under Seismil Effect%地震作用多层砌体房屋横墙抗剪分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜宪华; 于长海

    2000-01-01

    分析了在地震作用下,多层砌体刚性楼面的房屋中,490 mim、370 mm和240 mm的抗剪横墙在地震荷载作用下哪一道横墙先破坏取决于墙体负荷宽度.由此,提出了一种横墙抗震验算的直接判别方法,供设计人员参考使用.%Calculations of destruction sequence of 490 mm, 370 mm and 240 mm shear crosswalls in a multi-storey masonry rigid floor house under the impact on earthquake is conductedto give the conclusion that the critical factor is load width. A simple calcution method forearthquake proof strength of cross walls is also given.

  14. Application of Optimum Compaction Energy in the Development of Bricks Made with Construction Trash Soils

    OpenAIRE

    T. Lopez-Lara; Gonzalez-Vega, C. L.; J. B. Hernandez-Zaragoza; E. Rojas-Gonzalez; Carreón-Freyre, D.; Salgado-Delgado, R.; E. Garcia-Hernandez; Cerca, M.

    2014-01-01

    In general, bricks frequently show different densities and therefore different resistances because the compaction energy is not considered in their production. Expansive soils represent a problem for light buildings over them because of volumetric instability. A generalized solution has been to extract them and substitute them by inert soil; thus they become construction trash. So, in this work the compaction energy aspect and the use of construction trash soils in the elaboration of resistan...

  15. Preparation of Baking-Free Brick from Manganese Residue and Its Mechanical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Wang; Dong-yan Liu

    2013-01-01

    The increasing amount of waste residue produced during the electrolytic preparation process of manganese has nowadays brought about serious environmental problems. The research on utilization of manganese slag has been a hot spot around the world. The utilization of manganese slag is not only environment friendly, but also economically feasible. In the current work, a summarization of the main methods to produced building materials from manganese slag materials was given. Baking-free brick, a...

  16. Building America Case Study: Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast, Devens, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage, when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing. Moisture conditions in double stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double stud assemblies were compared.

  17. Biofouling Prevention of Ancient Brick Surfaces by TiO2-Based Nano-Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Graziani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Brick constitutes a significant part of the construction materials used in historic buildings around the world. This material was used in Architectural Heritage for structural scope, and even for building envelopes. Thus, components made of clay brick were subjected to weathering for a long time, and this causes their deterioration. One of the most important causes for deterioration is biodeterioration caused by algae and cyanobacteria. It compromises the aesthetical properties, and, at a later stage, the integrity of the elements. In fact, traditional products used for the remediation/prevention of biofouling do not ensure long-term protection, and they need re-application over time. The use of nanotechnology, especially the use of photocatalytic products for the prevention of organic contamination of building façades is increasing. In this study, TiO2-based photocatalytic nano-coatings were applied to ancient brick, and its efficiency towards biofouling was studied. A composed suspension of algae and cyanobacteria was sprinkled on the bricks’ surface for a duration of twelve weeks. Digital Image Analysis and colorimetric measurements were carried out to evaluate algal growth on specimens’ surfaces. Results show that photocatalytic nano-coating was able to inhibit biofouling on bricks’ surfaces. In addition, substrata (their porosity and roughness clearly influences the adhesion of algal cells.

  18. A study of natural radioactivity in different types of bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports radioactivity in bricks measured using gamma spectroscopy. Sixteen samples of clay bricks and four samples of cement bricks were analysed. The mean activity concentrations of Th sup 232, Ra sup 226 and K sup 40 in clay bricks were 63,33 and 530 Bq per kg respectively. In cement brick samples these mean activity concentrations were 17, 42 and 524 Bq per kg respectively. Radium equivalent values obtained for clay bricks and cement bricks ranged from 16-348 and 89-142 Bq per kg respectively. Ra sub eq is a measure to ascertain whether these masonry materials have a radiation hazard. The mean value for Ra sub eq for typical masonry in the world is 370 Bq per kg and as such the values obtained in this study indicate that these masonry materials are not radioactively hazardous. The criterion limit which is also a measure to consider whether it is radioactively hazardous to use these materials in dwellings show that the values obtained are 0.22 and 0.16 for clay and cement bricks respectively. Thus the value obtained from this criterion limit further strengthens the fact that the bricks do not pose a radiation hazard. The mean annual dose from clay and cement bricks were also calculated.(AU)

  19. Mineral thermal insulation systems for low-energy buildings: Optimum insulation of external walls; Mineralische Aussenwaermedaemmsysteme fuer Niedrigenergiehaeuser: Der richtige Rahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferkorn, J. [Fixit AG, Weiach (Switzerland)

    1997-05-01

    Low-energy buildings are complex systems. Many different criteria must be observed in their construction, and object-specific details must be viewed in the context of the overall system. Good thermal insulation alone does not make a low-energy building, but also the energy turnover of the external wall construction and its environmental acceptability must be taken into account. HAUSTECH presents the example of a new low-energy building with an efficient solar system in order to indicate the criteria that must be observed in particular for wall constructions of low-energy buildings in the Swiss low mountain regions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Niedrigenergiehaeuser sind komplexe Systeme. Bei der Planung und Realisierung muessen die verschiedensten Anforderungskriterien beruecksichtigt und einzelne objektspezifische Details im Hinblick auf das ganze System hinterfragt werden. Eine gute Waermedaemmung allein macht noch kein Niedrigenergiehaus aus. Die ganzheitliche Betrachtung schliesst auch den Energiehaushalt der Aussenwandkonstruktion und deren Umweltvertraeglichkeit mit ein. `HAUS TECH` zeigt anhand eines kuerzlich fertiggestellten Niedringenergiehauses, in dem auch die Solartechnik wirkungsvoll eingesetzt wird, auf, welche Kriterien bei Wandkonstruktionen fuer solche Bauten im schweizerischen Mittelland besonders zu beachten sind. (orig.)

  20. Impact of Building Walls of Historic Objects from Half-Timbered Wall in their State of Thermal Protection / Wpływ Budowy Ścian Historycznych Budynków z Muru Pruskiego Na Ich Stan Ochrony Cieplnej

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanowska-Gwiżdż, Agnieszka; Steidl, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the problems connected with preserved examples of buildings in Upper Silesia that contain the elements of half-timbered walls. This type of construction currently characterizes houses of various utility functions. Often, their formation was related to the construction of patron settlements, accompanied by the development of industrial plants. Today, there is a problem of insufficient thermal insulation of barriers in half-timbered houses and numerous attempts to improve their thermal parameters are observed. In this type of projects, the correct determination of the existing state in terms of construction of the barrier and thermal protection seems to be important, as the starting points for further analysis. The study determines the insulation of frame walls with ceramic fill, with a variety of material and construction solutions. Literature examples and in situ measurements results were used for the research.

  1. Brane Brick Models in the Mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Sebastian; Seong, Rak-Kyeong; Vafa, Cumrun

    2016-01-01

    Brane brick models are Type IIA brane configurations that encode the $2d$ $\\mathcal{N}=(0,2)$ gauge theories on the worldvolume of D1-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds. We use mirror symmetry to improve our understanding of this correspondence and to provide a systematic approach for constructing brane brick models starting from geometry. The mirror configuration consists of D5-branes wrapping 4-spheres and the gauge theory is determined by how they intersect. We also explain how $2d$ $(0,2)$ triality is realized in terms of geometric transitions in the mirror geometry. Mirror symmetry leads to a geometric unification of dualities in different dimensions, where the order of duality is $n-1$ for a Calabi-Yau $n$-fold. This makes us conjecture the existence of a quadrality symmetry in $0d$. Finally, we comment on how the M-theory lift of brane brick models connects to the classification of $2d$ $(0,2)$ theories in terms of 4-manifolds.

  2. Careful modernisation of historical buildings. Wall-mounted multiple high-efficiency boiler systems; Sanierung mit Fingerspitzengefuehl. Brennwertwandgeraete als Mehrkesselanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, M. [Broetje (A.) Werke fuer Heizungstechnik GmbH und Co. KG, Rastede (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    The Offenburg townhall building is a historical monument of the baroque era which is still used as an office building. The technical facilities were checked and modernisation measures were planned and executed in 2005 so as to ensure high thermal comfort without interfering with the character of the building. (orig.)

  3. Use Of Crushed Bricks As Coarse Aggregate In Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia S. Kalak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation reported in this paper is carried out to study the feasibility of using crushed bricks to substitute the coarse aggregate (gravel in concrete. Two types of concrete mixing are prepared. The first one is a mixture of  1:2:4 without crushed bricks and is used as a reference mixture .The second one is made of different weight of crushed bricks (as a percentage from the weight of the coarse aggregate. A total of 30 numbers of concrete specimens are casted with and without crushed bricks and  tested under compression and split tension as per relevant to British standard specifications.Test results indicated that using crushed bricks reduces the strength of concrete. Also, the percentage of water to cement ratio increases for constant slump when the percentage of crushed bricks increased.

  4. Urban-environmental study from the Juarez municipality brick factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Romo Aguilar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to evaluate the current situation of the traditional and ecological brick kilns in Juarez. The evaluation is addressed in both the environmental and socio-economic context. The brick production belongs to the informal economic sector without any regulatory scheme and without taxation. Its very low technology has serious impacts on the binational environment of the Paso del Norte region, through the highly polluted emissions to the atmosphere. However, the social and economic context of people working in this industry does not allow important changes, thus, making difficult any initiative for the brick kilns improvements and relocation. The main information source was a very concise survey applied to whole universe of brick makers. Data survey was registered in a Geographic Information System (GIS environment allowing us the analysis of the brick kilns in a spatial context. Finally, this document presents a descriptive profile of the brick kilns production and for the brickmakers.

  5. Characterization, reproduction and optimization of traditional adobe bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Eftychiou, Marina; Costi de Castrillo, Maria; Illampas, Rogiros

    2013-04-01

    Adobe bricks were first introduced 10-12,000 years ago. Extensive use of the material throughout the centuries has led to strong local traditions of building with earth and has established adobe masonry as an important feature of the international architectural heritage. Today, despite no longer being a prevalent building material, adobes are still in use, since a number of earthen structures survive worldwide. Furthermore, the simplicity, low cost and almost negligible embodied energy associated with the production of adobes, as well as their good thermal and acoustic properties, render them an attractive option for use in contemporary sustainable construction. Therefore, several ongoing research projects internationally investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of traditional adobe bricks and the design/production of optimized adobes, with improved characteristics, for use in contemporary architecture. Here, we present ongoing research on adobe bricks carried out in the framework of the project E& IXEIPH EI / POION/0609/41, which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus, through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. Our work focuses on the characterization of traditional adobes, their reproduction and optimization in the laboratory to produce materials with improved physicomechanical properties. Results up-to-date show that traditional adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in relevant X-ray diffraction analyses. The average capillary water absorption coefficient (measured against a saturated sponge surface) of samples collected from market suppliers rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1 -2, while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. The response of traditional adobes to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average compressive strength recorded depends on the form of test specimen (cube, cylinder, prism). Samples with aspect

  6. Effect of Waterproofing Agent B and Curing Temperature on Properties of the Burning-free, Autoclave Curing-free and Non-cement Building Bricks Made from Iron Tailings%防水剂B和养护温度对铁尾矿三免砖性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐民主; 雷国元; 宋均平; 罗文斌; 谭青; 李瑞杰

    2015-01-01

    Burning-free,autoclave curing-free and non-cement building bricks( three-free for short) were prepared with the fine low-silica iron ore tailing and the self-made non-cement curing agent as the raw material. The effect of the content of waterproofing agent B and curing temperature on the properties of the products such as the compressive strength,water resist-ance,frost resistance and anti-carbonization,and also its mechanisms were studied. The results showed that with the dosage of waterproofing agent B increase,compressive strength and 24 h water absorption of products decreased while saturated compres-sive strength and softening coefficient are increased first and then decreased. With the increase of initial curing temperature, water resistance,frost resistance and compressive strength in every curing time are improved significantly. According to the mechanism analysis by XRD and FI-TR,the results show that hydrated calcium silicate gel and ettringite are strength binder phase of three-free bricks. Meanwhile,the addition of waterproofing agent B does not affect the composition of binding phase. The increase of initial curing temperature and the addition of waterproofing agent B can inhibit the carbonation reaction within products and improve water resistance. The results of theoretical analysis can explain the effect of curing temperature and water-proofing agent B on performance of the products. It provides theory basis for the high-effect waterproofing agent and the optimi-zation of the curing conditions.%以某细粒低硅铁尾矿和无水泥固化剂为原料,制备免烧免蒸免水泥建材砖(简称“三免砖”)。研究了防水剂B和养护温度对制品抗压强度、耐水性和抗冻性的影响及其机制。试验结果表明:随着防水剂B掺量的增加,制品的干抗压强度和24 h吸水率均下降,饱和抗压强度和软化系数均先升后降;随着初期养护温度的升高,制品的耐水性、抗冻性和各龄期

  7. Experimental bond behavior of FRP sheets glued on brick masonry

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Daniel V.; Basílio, Ismael; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental characterization of the mechanical tensile and shear bond behavior of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets externally glued on masonry prisms, in terms of load capacity and stress distribution along the bonded length. The brick masonry adopted tries to replicate ancient brick masonry, by using handmade low strength solids bricks and low strength lime based mortar. Key parameters relative to the FRP-masonry interface response, particularly bo...

  8. Production and Development of LRCO‘s Silica Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAXianghong; LIZhenmin; 等

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of development and production of silica bricks at Luoyang Refrac-tories(Group) Co.,Ltd,(Former Luoyang Refrac-tories Factory). Through the improvement and in-troducing technology from abroad the company's management and quality standard on silica bricks production has reached a higher level.The physical and chemical specifications,as well as the appear-ance of silica bricks for coke ovens,hot blast stoves and glass kilns have reached the advanced interna-tional level.Now the company has become producing base and main exporting base various kinds of silica bricks in China.

  9. Frost resistance of concrete with crushed brick as aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ksenija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation included concrete made by using recycled brick as aggregate. Experimental work included several types of concrete made with the same cement content (385 kg/m3, and same consistency (slump about 1 cm. Recycled brick and combination of natural river aggregate and recycled brick were used as aggregates. The influence of percentage and grain size of crushed brick aggregate on concrete compressive strength, water absorption and frost resistance were observed. On the basis of the results obtained during experimental research, a general conclusion can be drawn that the application of recycled concrete as aggregate can lead to new composites with satisfactory physical-mechanical properties.

  10. Durability of compressed soil-cement bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Valle, A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This papers shows the evaluation process of the durability of compressed soil-cement bricks. A great number of tests were made to determine the behavior of bricks when they are compression loaded and under the influence of moisture. Two different types of soils were used to produce the bricks, a lime-clay soil and a sand one. The sand soil is very resistant. The other one has a limited use. An experimental design was used to test the bricks. It is a rotational and quadratic method with a hexagonal figure which contains replicas at the central point. This method ensures the reliability of test results. Otherwise, it would reduce the amount of specimens necessary for the tests. The optimun moisture content is obtained by using a press machine. It is more rational than the standard Proctor compactation test, because it applies the same type and amount of energy used to produce the bricks. The obtained results show the behavior differences between the two compressed soil-cement bricks subjected to the compression test, water absorption and wetting and drying tests. The durability tests results are very important in the possible use of the bricks produced.

    En el trabajo se evalúa la durabilidad de elementos aglomerados de suelo estabilizado. Se realiza un amplio número de ensayos encaminados a determinar el comportamiento frente a la acción de las cargas y la humedad de dos suelos con características diferentes: uno limo-arcilloso y el otro arenoso. Este último presenta resultados muy favorables en ambas direcciones. El otro, con un posible uso más limitado. Se emplea un método de diseño experimental del tipo rotacional cuadrático en hexágono, con réplicas en el punto central, el que garantiza la confiabilidad de los resultados de los ensayos, a la vez que disminuye la cantidad de especímenes a ensayar. Se determina la humedad óptima a utilizar en las diferentes dosificaciones empleando la máquina compactadora, que resulta m

  11. Life-cycle assessment of lightweight textile membrane partition walls

    OpenAIRE

    Neiva, Sara Daniela Oliveira; Mateus, Ricardo; Macieira, Mónica; Mendonça, Paulo, ed. lit.; Bragança, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyze the environmental, functional and economical performances of some conceptual lightweights textiles membranes partitions walls and to compare one of them with two technologies present in Portuguese market: i) the heavyweight conventional hollow brick partition wall; and ii) the lightweight reference plasterboard partition wall. Advantages of use textile/ fibrous/ membrane based materials in partition walls are focused and they may contribute for the development of new partit...

  12. Thermo active piles and diaphragm walls building process and thermal response test; Pilotes y pantallas termoactivas. Proceso constructivo y caracterizacion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazariegos, A.; Anton, L. C.; Valle, R.; Urchueguia, J.; Quilis, S.; Martinez, S.; Magraner, T.

    2009-07-01

    Thermo active foundation technology uses building foundation piles diaphragm wall slabs as ground heat exchangers to provide building with heating and cooling. This type of foundation is based on the use of the ground temperature to enhance the heat pump coefficient of performance (COP). In this kind of structures, the heat exchange can be done through a closed circuit installed on the reinforced of the foundation. This closed circuit is made up of HDPE pipes geothermal probes, through which water or brine circulates producing a heat exchange between this fluid and the ground. this fluid is led to a geothermal heat pump GHP, generating the energy required for air-conditioning a building. ENERGESIS, leading company in the air-conditioning field using geothermal energy and RADIO KRONSA, leading company in the engineering field of soil and subsoil, with the collaboration of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV) and the Escuela Universitaria de Ingenieria Tecnica de Obras Publicas (UPM), have developed an action line to design and implement saving energy facilities by using geothermal energy associated with the foundations. A series of tests at work have been done in order to have a procedure to implement the thermal response of thermo active piles and diaphragm walls. (Author) 7 refs.

  13. Analysis of Heat Transfer Performance about the Office Building Wall%办公建筑围护结构墙体传热性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国文; 李国强

    2016-01-01

    The form of office building external envelope affects energy consumption.To analyze the thermal performance of office building construction of dry-fasten stone on external wall, we established mathematical model of the heat transfer based on external envelope and wall, carried out the mathematical simulation used the finite difference method, calculated the index of heat change and energy efficiency by determining the temperature change. The conclusion shows by using the cubic spline interpolation function and mathematical model of the heat transfer that the office building interior wall have better energy-saving effect under different climate environment.%办公建筑的外围护结构型式影响能源消耗.针对外墙为干挂石材的办公建筑墙体进行热工性能分析,建立围护结构与墙体的传热数学模型,采用有限差分法进行仿真.通过监测墙体温度变化分析外围护结构传入到室内热量情况,判定办公建筑墙体围护结构的节能状况.通过采取三次样条插值环境温度函数作为有限差分法的数据,输入传热数学模型,模拟墙体的传热性能,得出如下结论:干挂石材外墙的办公建筑内墙表面温度在不同气候环境下波动不大,节能效果较好.

  14. 建筑结构设计中剪力墙结构设计%The Shear Wall Structure Design in the Building Structure Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛

    2014-01-01

    This article through the analysis of the problems and solutions of the shear wall structure design in the building structure design improves the development quality of construc-tion industry in China and guarantee the rapid progress of Chi-nese social economy.%本文通过对建筑结构设计中剪力墙结构设计的问题和解决措施的分析,提升了我国建筑行业的发展质量,保证了我国社会经济的快速进步。

  15. Incorporation feasibility of leather residues in bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de; Valente, A; Pires, M.J.; Tavares, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The footwear industry has strips of leather as one of its by-products. These leather residues, due to their high chromium content, can be regarded as a threat to the environment, particularly if no care is taken with their disposal. With the incorporation of the residues in ceramic products, after trituration, is possible to neutralise the eventual toxicity of chromium. In a laboratory study we produced prismatic bricks using clay from the region and incorporating 1, 3 and 5% (by mass) of lea...

  16. Utilization of Household Sewage Sludge in Brick making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunGuofeng

    2005-01-01

    Household sewage sludge is a kind of solid waste produced in sewage purifying at sewage farm. in procedure of water purifying, which can be used as raw material for producing fired brick. This article compares the chemical composition between household sewage sludge and clay, and explores two kinds of production process for making brick with Household sewage sludge.

  17. 78 FR 3449 - Silica Bricks and Shapes From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... 23, 2012 (77 FR 70185). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on December 6, 2012, and all... COMMISSION Silica Bricks and Shapes From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... China of silica bricks and shapes, provided for in subheading 6902.20.10 of the Harmonized...

  18. Spalling Resistant Bauxite Based Bricks for Cement Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,classification,labeling,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of spalling resistant bauxite based bricks for cement kiln.This standard is applicable to the spalling resistant bauxite based bricks for cement kiln.

  19. Possible weathering of the brick matrix when exposed to water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for deterioration of bricks are frost, crystallization pressure and chemical exposure. Despite of this the effect of chemical exposure is limited clarified. Depending on the brick type the original pH of bricks are 9-10. Though bricks can to subjected to water in shape of acid rain...... with a pH as low as 3. The exposure of acid rain and rain water to bricks is expected to have an influence on the brick matrix dependent on the specific exposure but to which extend? The present work is a systematic test of the influence of the pH on the brick matrix where the effect of water...... with different well-defined pH values are examined to investigate the long term effect of acid rain or other reasons causing pH changes to bricks (as e.g. electrokinetic treatment). Through capillary suction, macro pictures from the exposed surfaces, measurement of the pH and electrical conductivity it seemed...

  20. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Compressed Earth Brick (CEB Containing Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Noorwirdawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of brick in construction is commonly used, especially in the construction of buildings and infrastructure. Various studies have been conducted to produce methods that can increase the strength of brick at the same time can reduce the cost of manufacturing bricks. In order to reduce cost of manufacturing, one of the solution applied was by using waste as part of bricks production materials. In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SuCaB ash was used as a part of compressed earth brick (CEB by replacing the quantity of cement for SuCaB ash. The study focused on the physical and mechanical properties of CEB containing SuCaB and the optimum percentage of SuCaB ash as partial cement replacement in CEB. There are 4 types of percentages used; 0%, 20%, 25% and 30% from cement content. All mixed use the same water content of 30% of cement content by weight and the ratio for cement: laterite soil used was 1: 6. A total of 72 specimen with size of 100mm × 50mm × 40mm was produced. The test conducted were Initial Rate Absorption Test (IRA, Density Test, Dimensions Test, Compression Test and Water Absorption Test. From the experimental results, the optimum SuCaB ash percentage as cement replacement in CEB was 20%. It recorded the highest compressive strength of 16.23 MPa at 28 days while for the Initial Rate Absorption test, it lies within the range specified. The density of CEB containing 20% of SuCaB shows slightly lower value where it decreased for about 0.4% from the control specimen. From this study, it can be concluded that waste materials such as sugarcane bagasse can be used as part of construction materials. However, further study needs to be conducted such as on the energy consumption, chemical properties and others to enhance the knowledge on this area before it can be applied into the brick production.

  1. Daylighting and Cooling of Atrium Buildings in Warm Climates: Impact of the Top-Fenestration and Wall Mass Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Morad Rachid

    1992-01-01

    Sun-lighting and daylighting contribute greatly to the aesthetic value of an atrium. However, today's atria are often found either over-lit with extensive cooling loads, or under-lit requiring increased artificial lighting loads. The increase of the top-glazing area increases the cooling loads and decreases the lighting loads. The increase of the mass in the atrium walls decreases the maximum atrium temperature and the cooling loads. Furthermore, the mass distribution and its reflectance affect the lighting levels at the atrium floor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the simultaneous impact of the top-fenestration and the mass and reflectance of atrium walls on the cooling and daylighting performance of atria in warm climates. It attempts to determine the optimum top-fenestration for efficient daylighting and low cooling loads. The daylighting performance was evaluated through illumination measurements in physical models in a sky simulator. The cooling performance was evaluated using the software TRNSYS 13.1. Two types of top-fenestration were tested: horizontal and vertical south-facing, each with three alternate areas. The variations of the atrium walls included materials (standard frame and heavyweight concrete) and percentage and reflectance of the solid area. Two and four-story atria were considered, each with square and linear configuration. The performance was evaluated for three warm climates. The optimum top-fenestration for efficient daylighting was determined. The daylighting prediction algorithm was extended to include the effective reflectance of the atrium walls. The increase of mass in the atrium walls significantly decreased the atrium temperature range, the maximum atrium temperature, and the cooling loads. This impact decreased from horizontal to vertical south-facing top-glazing. The vertical south-facing top-glazing and, to a lesser degree, the reduction of the glazed atrium cover by 50% had more cooling benefits than increasing the

  2. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)

  3. The investigation of the impacts of walls and green facades on the optimization of energy consumption in buildings and its role in a sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Heidarian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades,artificial environments, compared to the natural spaces in urban areas, areexpanding day by day. Following the same trend in Iran, apartment living framewithout any natural space has changed. And it is while the need to nature isstill alive in human beings. Moreover, all over the world due to major problemssuch as global warming, air and water pollution, excessive energy consumptionand its high economic costs, utilizing technologies of sustainable architectureand specially creating green buildings has got great importance. In thisregard, the use of green areas can be used as appropriate strategy in order tosolve existing problems and creating sustainable architecture. In this paperwith research method based on library studies and descriptive analyticapproach, green walls, to improve the energy consumption efficiency inbuildings, have been investigated. And also the role of these systems in visualaesthetics of urban area in line with the objectives of sustainable developmentis examined. It seems that using green walls as a way to reduce the energyconsumption in buildings can be an effective option to advance the goals ofsustainablearchitecture.

  4. Ventilated external walls, constructed based on the building physics principles developed by Karl Gertis.; Hinterlueftete Aussenwaende, konstruiert aufgrund der von Karl Gertis erarbeiteten bauphysikalischen Grundlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cziesielski, Erich [CRP Bauingenieure GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    In his postdoctoral thesis Karl Gertis described the basic principles of the function and the geometric boundary conditions for the construction of ventilated external walls. The proposed revision of DIN 18516-1:2008-09 will again based on the fundamental results of his work. Meanwhile, further work has been carried out on various aspects, including the work by Janser and Marquardt on wind load assumptions and the corrosion-inhibiting effect of ventilated external walls. Ventilated external facings can be retrofitted to damaged walls in large-panel buildings to improve thermal insulation, as a remedial measure for joint defects, and in order to improve corrosion protection. This paper discusses the physical mechanisms relating to wind load reduction and corrosion protection. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die grundlegende Arbeit ueber die Wirkungsweise und die geometrischen Randbedingungen bei der Konstruktion hinterluefteter Aussenwandkonstruktionen hat Karl Gertis mit seiner Habilitationsschrift verfasst. Auch in der geplanten Neufassung von DIN 18516-1:2008-09 wird auf die grundlegenden Ergebnisse seiner Arbeit unveraendert zugegriffen werden. Weiterfuehrende Arbeiten wurden unter anderem ueber die anzusetzenden Windlastannahmen und die korrosionshemmende Wirkung hinterluefteter Aussenwaende von Janser und Marquardt durchgefuehrt. Durch die nachtraegliche Montage von hinterluefteten Aussenwandkonstruktionen auf die geschaedigten Waende des Grosstafelbaus kann sowohl die Waermedaemmung verbessert werden als auch eine Sanierung der Fugen erfolgen; insbesondere wird aber durch das Aufbringen hinterluefteter Aussenwandkonstruktionen der Korrosionsschutz wesentlich verbessert. Im Folgenden werden die Wirkmechanismen hinsichtlich der Reduzierung der Windlast und des Korrosionsschutzes beschrieben. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-04-01

    Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg)-contaminated urban areas in the world. Exposure is amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. The objectives of this study were to compare two Hg-leaching procedures, and their application as risk-assessment screening tools in Hg-contaminated adobe brick homes in Huancavelica. The purpose was to evaluate potential health implications, particularly for children, after ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. Hg was measured in adobe brick and dirt floor samples from 60 households by total Hg extraction, simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction, and sequential selective extraction (SSE), which provides more detailed data but is resource-intensive. Most of the Hg present in samples was relatively insoluble, although in some households soluble Hg species were present at concentrations that may be of concern after ingestion. A strong correlation was identified between results from simulated GF extraction of adobe bricks and dirt floors and the more soluble fractions of Hg from SSE. Simulated GF extraction data were combined with ingestion and body mass characteristics for small children to compare potential risk of ingestion of Hg-contaminated soil with current health standards. Simulated GF extraction can be used as a risk assessment screening tool for effective allocation of time and resources to households that have measurable concentrations of bioaccessible Hg. Combining simulated GF extraction data with health standards enables intervention strategies targeted at households with the greatest potential health threat from ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles.

  6. Basis and classification of efflorescences in construction bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, J. Ma.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The efflorescence problem in clay products and more specifically in construction bricks is a pathology which produce a decrease in the aesthetic quality of buildings. Their types and causes are very different and only a review of all the variables and classification can allow to start the understanding of this phenomenon. Basically, the migration of soluble salts from different sources is the responsible of this pathology. Here is shown directly and briefly the main principles of efflorescece formation with some of the most frequent examples.

    El problema de las eflorescencias en productos de tierra cocida y en concreto en los ladrillos de construcción, constituye una patología que disminuye la calidad estética de los edificios. Sus tipos y causas son muy diversas y sólo una revisión, de todas las clases y variables que influyen en la aparición de eflorescencias, puede permitir empezar a comprender este fenómeno. Fundamentalmente es la migración de sales solubles de distinta procedencia la responsable de esta patología. Se muestran, de una manera directa y resumida, los principios básicos de formación de eflorescencias, con ejemplos de las más frecuentes.

  7. Moisture properties of the lightweight brick body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čáchová, Monika; Koňáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Keppert, Martin; Černý, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Brick have been used for thousands years and during that time they went throw the long development. One of the possibilities how to changed properties of ceramic products is to change material compositions. This article is focused on utilization of lightening additives. Commonly used sawdust is compared with straw. The matter of measurement was to determine its influence on moisture properties. Basic physical properties were measured as well, since mainly open porosity has influence on water transport. Achieved results proved that utilization of straw leads to open porosity decrease. Particularly the amount of small pores (diameter under 1µm) went down. Regarding the moisture properties water vapor transport ability was decreased by adding straw in to the ceramic, while ability of water liquid transport remained unaffected.

  8. Green walls in Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    With the renewed interest in design for microclimate control and energy conservation, many cities are implementing clean air initiatives and sustainable planning policies to mitigate the effects of urban climate and the urban heat island effect. Green roofs, sky courts and green walls must be thoughtfully designed to withstand severe conditions such as moisture stress, extremes in temperature, tropical storms and strong desiccating winds. This paper focused on the installation of green wall systems. There are 2 general types of green walls systems, namely facade greening and living walls. Green facades are trellis systems where climbing plants can grow vertically without attaching to the surface of the building. Living walls are part of a building envelope system where plants are actually planted and grown in a wall system. A modular G-SKY Green Wall Panel was installed at the Aquaquest Learning Centre at the Vancouver Aquarium in Stanley Park in September 2006. This green wall panel, which was originally developed in Japan, incorporates many innovative features in the building envelope. It provides an exterior wall covered with 8 species of plants native to the Coastal Temperate Rain Forest. The living wall is irrigated by rainwater collected from the roof, stored in an underground cistern and fed through a drip irrigation system. From a habitat perspective, the building imitates an escarpment. Installation, support systems, irrigation, replacement of modules and maintenance are included in the complete wall system. Living walls reduce the surface temperature of buildings by as much as 10 degrees C when covered with vegetation and a growing medium. The project team is anticipating LEED gold certification under the United States-Canada Green Building Council. It was concluded that this technology of vegetated building envelopes is applicable for acoustical control at airports, biofiltration of indoor air, greywater treatment, and urban agriculture and vertical

  9. Influence of Wall Surface and Air Modelling in Finite-Element Analysis of Sound Transmission Between Rooms in Lightweight Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens;

    2012-01-01

    energy analysis—especially at high frequencies. However, for lightweight buildings a numerical approach, e.g. the finite-element method, must be applied. A problem in this regard is the computational complexity. Even at low frequencies, many degrees of freedom are required in a model accounting for all...... possible paths for transmission of sound in a building—in particular when finite elements are employed for the air. This paper examines whether a rigorous model of the acoustic field in each room is necessary in order to obtain accurate estimates of the sound pressure, or if a simpler approach may......Noise is a nuisance in the built environment, and to avoid undesirable transmission of sound and vibration within a building, its vibro-acoustic performance must be addressed in the design phase. For heavy structures, a reliable assessment of the sound pressure levels can be made by statistical...

  10. Building elements and systems using vacuum insulated panels in external walling; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Steinke, G.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a research project concerning vacuum-insulated building elements and systems. The advantages of the thin vacuum insulation panels (VIP) are listed and compared with the increasingly thick layers of conventional insulation required for low energy consumption buildings that meet so-called 'passive house' standard. The aims of the research project are discussed which addressed the particular requirements placed on the materials and their protection against external damage. The monitoring of vacuum state using RFID chips is discussed. Various protective elements are examined. Also, facade constructions and the avoidance of thermal short circuits are discussed. Illustrated examples of applications are presented and developments in this fast-moving area are commented on.

  11. The Key Points of Building an Online Store

    OpenAIRE

    Etuaro, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Online shopping is becoming more popular in Finland and online shopping sales levels have increased. There has been concern that brick and mortar stores are losing their customers to online stores and that Finnish stores are losing their customers to international online stores. One solution to this concern is that Finnish brick and mortar stores also start selling online. But how to build online stores? The aim of this thesis was to study about building an online store based on theory and...

  12. A neuro-fuzzy model for prediction of the indoor temperature in typical Australian residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alasha' ary, Haitham; Moghtaderi, Behdad; Page, Adrian; Sugo, Heber [Priority Research Centre for Energy, Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    The Masonry Research Group at The University of Newcastle, Australia has embarked on an extensive research program to study the thermal performance of common walling systems in Australian residential buildings by studying the thermal behaviour of four representative purpose-built thermal test buildings (referred to as 'test modules' or simply 'modules' hereafter). The modules are situated on the university campus and are constructed from brick veneer (BV), cavity brick (CB) and lightweight (LW) constructions. The program of study has both experimental and analytical strands, including the use of a neuro-fuzzy approach to predict the thermal behaviour. The latter approach employs an experimental adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) which is used in this study to predict the room (indoor) temperatures of the modules under a range of climatic conditions pertinent to Newcastle (NSW, Australia). The study shows that this neuro-fuzzy model is capable of accurately predicting the room temperature of such buildings; thus providing a potential computationally efficient and inexpensive predictive tool for the more effective thermal design of housing. (author)

  13. 探究某高层建筑工程钢板剪力墙设计与施工%Design and Construction of Steel Plate Shear Wall of a High-rise Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清晓

    2014-01-01

    Based on a super-high building project cases, this paper introduces the design and construction conditions of steel plate shear wall and steel plate shear wall construction points.%本文根据某超高层建筑工程案例,介绍了钢板剪力墙的设计与施工细则以及钢板剪力墙施工要点。

  14. High Alumina Refractory Bricks for Electric Arc Furnace Roofs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the sort, technical requirement, test method, inspection rules, marking, packing, transportation, storage and quality certification of high alumina refractory bricks for electric arc furnace roofs.

  15. Hydrophilic Modification of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube for Building Photonic Crystals with Enhanced Color Visibility and Mechanical Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihu Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Low color visibility and poor mechanical strength of polystyrene (PS photonic crystal films have been the main shortcomings for the potential applications in paints or displays. This paper presents a simple method to fabricate PS/MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite photonic crystal films with enhanced color visibility and mechanical strength. First, MWCNTs was modified through radical addition reaction by aniline 2,5-double sulfonic acid diazonium salt to generate hydrophilic surface and good water dispersity. Then the MWCNTs dispersion was blended with PS emulsion to form homogeneous PS/MWCNTs emulsion mixtures and fabricate composite films through thermal-assisted method. The obtained films exhibit high color visibility under natural light and improved mechanical strength owing to the light-adsorption property and crosslinking effect of MWCNTs. The utilization of MWCNTs in improving the properties of photonic crystals is significant for various applications, such as in paints and displays.

  16. Thermophysical characteristics of low density autoclaved aerated concrete and their influence on durability of exterior walls of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Krutilin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental studies of thermophysical characteristics of autoclaved aerated concrete with density of 400 and 500 kg/m3. The dependence of thermal conductivity on temperature and humidity was determined. The boundary humidities were set for which ice is either not formed or its amount is negligible in the pores of the materials at the temperature below zero. The new method of non-isothermal liquid transport coefficient determination was suggested. It was found that one of the basic mechanisms of moving water for cellular concrete samples with a moisture content over 30 % by weight is non-isothermal liquid transport. The effect of humidity on durability of exterior walls is estimated according to cellular concrete frost-resistance tests.

  17. Building materials and systems with vacuum insulation panels for external walls; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Steinke, G.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at materials and systems using vacuum insulation panels (VIP) for the construction of external walls. The aim of this research project was the development, practical use and market introduction of VIP systems that take account of the special properties of VIP. Along with partners in industry, applications involving external and internal insulation were examined. The need for protecting the vacuum panels against mechanical damage is stressed. The specific needs for the protection of external and internal applications are discussed. The dynamic developments in this relatively new area are commented on. Various mounting systems are examined and commented on. The thermal properties of such insulation systems and applications are noted and commented on.

  18. Natural radioactivity levels in building materials used in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fawzia

    All building materials contain various amounts of radioactive nuclides. The levels of natural radioactivity in 43 selected typical building materials used in the construction of walls, windows and doors were determined. For the first time, the radioactivity of iron was measured, revealing the existence of 60Co. A shielded high-purity germanium detector was used to measure the abundance of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The materials examined in this work showed radioactivity levels below the limit estimated from radium equivalent activity for acceptable radiation doses attributable to building materials, except for the fact that one gypsum sample showed higher levels of activity than average world levels. The studied building materials were classified according to the radium equivalent activities, which varied from highest to lowest levels as follows: clay, cement, brick, gypsum except from Abu-Zaabal, sand, wood, iron, glass and hydrated lime The existence of the 137Cs isotope in some building materials was confirmed and its concentration levels were determined (ranging from 0.04 to 21.156 Bq kg-1). The alpha-activity of radon was measured in a number of building materials using CR-39 detectors.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL SHOCK BEHAVIOUR IN ALUMINA BASED REFRACTORY BRICKS

    OpenAIRE

    N. Sinan KÖKSAL; B. Sadık ÜNLÜ; Cevdet MERİÇ

    2003-01-01

    cUnderstanding of mechanical and thermal properties of refractory bricks used in industry is an important aspect to determine appropriate operating conditions. In this study, commercial refractory materials used in the sector of iron steel 45 % and 80 % alumina (Al2O3) of content refractory bricks were investigated. To determinate thermal shock behavior and mechanical properties of samples, thermal shock tests were applied by quenching in the water at the temperature differences of 500, 70...

  20. High Temperature Property Development of Bauxite Based Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Molin; K. Ghanbari Ahari; B. Josiek; J. Molin

    2003-01-01

    Physical properties and microstructural evolution on firing of 3 types of bauxite based refractory bricks were carried out using techniques such as porosimetry, XRD and SEM. The groups differed from each other by progressive refining of the matrix or bond phase. It is revealed that such a refinement of the matrix can improve the high temperature properties of the bricks made from poor grade materials.

  1. The production technology of shale fly ash fired brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaoYuhua

    2005-01-01

    When we construct the shale fly-ash fired brick production line, the first of all is that we must explored mineral raw material in detailed, and prove up the exploitable storage,so that the storage of raw material can supply the production line adequately when the factory has been set up.The second is that we must analyze the raw material completely. According to the raw material basic properties,we can decide process of the brick making.

  2. Reutilization of leather residue by incorporation in bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de; Valente, A. R.; Pires, M.J.; Tavares, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    Leather strips is one by-product of the footwear industry. Due to high chromium content, this leather residue can be regarded as a threat to the environment, particularly if no care is taken with its disposal. With the incorporation of this residue into ceramic products, it is possible to neutralise the chromium toxicity. In a laboratory study, the authors produced prismatic bricks using clay from the region, incorporating 1, 3 and 5 mass-% of leather residues. The bricks were tested regardin...

  3. Comparison of the thermal properties of clay samples as potential walling material for naturally cooled building design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The thermal properties of different clay samples obtainedfrom locations in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria were investigated andcomppared, and in order to establish their suitability as buildingmaterial from energy conservation point of view. The results showedthat sstoneware clay has the highest solar radiation absorptivityof 22.32 m-1 while kaolin clay has the lowest radiation absoptivityof 14.46 m-1. A model for the prediction of temperature variationwith thickness of the samples was developed. Results showed thatkaolin would make the best choice for the design of a naturallycooled building.

  4. Recycling of radioactive oil sludge waste into pavement brick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia produces about 1450 tons of radioactive oil sludge waste per year and there is an urgent need to find a permanent solution to the storage and disposal of this radioactive waste problem. Several treatment methods such bacteria farming, ultracentrifuge, steam reforming and incineration are currently being used but the core issue of the radioactive material in the oil sludge had not been solved. The paper relates a study on utilizing the radioactive component of the oil sludge and turning them into pavement brick. Characteristic study of this radioactive component by XRD and XRF show that it mainly comprised of quartz and anorthite minerals. While the radioactivity analysis by gamma technique shows that more than 90 % of this radioactivity comes from this soil component with Ra-226 and Ra-228 as the main radionuclides. A vitrified brick was then produced from this sediment by mixing it with low radioactive local red clay. The result also shows that the formation of the vitrified layer may be due high content of K in the red clay. Tensile test on the brick shows that it has more than four times the strength of commercial clay brick. Long duration leaching test on the brick also shows that there is no dissolution of radionuclide from the brick. (author)

  5. A study of fly ash-lime granule unfired brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Chindaprasirt; K. Pimraksa [Khon Kaen University (Thailand). Department of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, the properties of fly ash-lime granule unfired bricks are studied. Granules were prepared from mixtures of fly ash and lime at fly ash to hydrated lime ratios of 100:0 (Ca/Si = 0.2), 95:5 (Ca/Si = 0.35) and 90:10 (Ca/Si = 0.5). After a period of moist curing, the microstructure and mineralogy of the granules were studied. Microstructure examination reveals that new phases in the form of needle-like particles are formed at the surface of granule. The granules were used to make unfired bricks using hydrothermal treatment at temperature of 130 {+-} 5{sup o}C and pressure of 0.14 MPa. The microstructures, mineralogical compositions, mechanical properties and environmental impact of bricks were determined. The results reveal that the strengths of unfired bricks are dependent on the fineness of fly ash. The strength is higher with an increase in fly ash fineness. The strengths of the fly ash-lime granule unfired brick are excellent at 47.0-62.5 MPa. The high strength is due to the formation of new products consisting mainly of hibschite and Al-substituted 11 {angstrom} tobermorite. The main advantage of utilization of granule is the ability to increase the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash through moisture retained in the granule. In addition, the heavy elements, in particular Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn are efficiently retained in the fly ash-lime granule unfired brick.

  6. Steel Construction of Modern Building of Former Sports Hall at Chopin Street in Zielona Góra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Bartosz

    2016-06-01

    Modernism in architecture of the lubuskie voivodeship is not dominating style. Objects created in the period of its greatest popularity are still fighting for recognition of their value as historical monuments. One of such facilities in Zielona Góra is building at Chopin street, where today is The Teacher Training Centre. However, originally object was intended to be a sports hall. The topic worth of further analysis is the construction of the building. The skeleton is a unique steel frame, made in 1930 by the famous pre-war company Fabrik und für Brückenbau Eisenkonstruktionen BEUCHELT & Co. Grünberg in Schlesien. In order to build walls the brick technology was used. It is a rarely seen combination that indicates the attempt to experiment with new solutions by engineers of the era of modernism.

  7. Steel Construction of Modern Building of Former Sports Hall at Chopin Street in Zielona Góra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalak Bartosz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modernism in architecture of the lubuskie voivodeship is not dominating style. Objects created in the period of its greatest popularity are still fighting for recognition of their value as historical monuments. One of such facilities in Zielona Góra is building at Chopin street, where today is The Teacher Training Centre. However, originally object was intended to be a sports hall. The topic worth of further analysis is the construction of the building. The skeleton is a unique steel frame, made in 1930 by the famous pre-war company Fabrik und für Brückenbau Eisenkonstruktionen BEUCHELT & Co. Grünberg in Schlesien. In order to build walls the brick technology was used. It is a rarely seen combination that indicates the attempt to experiment with new solutions by engineers of the era of modernism.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Modern Building Thermal Envelope Designs in the Semi-Arid Continental Climate of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Mohammad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the thermal performance of a range of modern wall constructions used in the residential buildings of Tehran in order to find the most appropriate alternative to the traditional un-fired clay and brick materials, which are increasingly being replaced in favor of more slender wall constructions employing hollow clay, autoclaved aerated concrete or light expanded clay aggregate blocks. The importance of improving the building envelope through estimating the potential for energy saving due to the application of the most energy-efficient wall type is presented and the wall constructions currently erected in Tehran are introduced along with their dynamic and steady-state thermal properties. The application of a dynamic simulation tool is explained and the output of the thermal simulation model is compared with the dynamic thermal properties of the wall constructions to assess their performance in summer and in winter. Finally, the best and worst wall type in terms of their cyclic thermal performance and their ability to moderate outdoor conditions is identified through comparison of the predicted indoor temperature and a target comfort temperature.

  9. Catastrophic vs gradual collapse of thin-walled nanocrystalline Ni hollow cylinders as building blocks of microlattice structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jie; Jang, Dongchan; Valdevit, Lorenzo; Schaedler, Tobias A; Jacobsen, Alan J; B Carter, William; Greer, Julia R

    2011-10-12

    Lightweight yet stiff and strong lattice structures are attractive for various engineering applications, such as cores of sandwich shells and components designed for impact mitigation. Recent breakthroughs in manufacturing enable efficient fabrication of hierarchically architected microlattices, with dimensional control spanning seven orders of magnitude in length scale. These materials have the potential to exploit desirable nanoscale-size effects in a macroscopic structure, as long as their mechanical behavior at each appropriate scale - nano, micro, and macro levels - is properly understood. In this letter, we report the nanomechanical response of individual microlattice members. We show that hollow nanocrystalline Ni cylinders differing only in wall thicknesses, 500 and 150 nm, exhibit strikingly different collapse modes: the 500 nm sample collapses in a brittle manner, via a single strain burst, while the 150 nm sample shows a gradual collapse, via a series of small and discrete strain bursts. Further, compressive strength in 150 nm sample is 99.2% lower than predicted by shell buckling theory, likely due to localized buckling and fracture events observed during in situ compression experiments. We attribute this difference to the size-induced transition in deformation behavior, unique to nanoscale, and discuss it in the framework of "size effects" in crystalline strength. PMID:21851060

  10. INFLUENCE OF SULFATE AND CHLORIDE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FIRED CLAY MASONRY WALL

    OpenAIRE

    mohd haziman bin wan ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of aggressive environment on the mechanical properties of masonry systems. The investigation involved the measurement of strength and modulus of elasticity of single leaf brick masonry wall which were built from fired clay bricks in conjunction with designation (iii) mortar with proportions of 1: 1: 6 (OPC: lime: sand). After being constructed, the specimens were cured under polythene sheet for 14 days in a controlled environment room with 80 ± 5% relative hu...

  11. Increase in fire resistance of building expansion joints via intumescent sealant composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Osipov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the possibility of increasing the fireproof efficiency of the intumescent sealant composition for the heat-insulating unit when sealing expansion joints between concrete elements. Fire protection of building structures is a part of the general system of measures to ensure fire safety and fire resistance of buildings and structures. It aims to reduce the structures’ fire hazard and provide them with the required fire resistance. The main objectives of fire protection are: fire prevention, initial flame breakdown, reduction of fire hazards and fire localization. The material we developed may be used to seal closed and drained exterior wall joints or fire control elements; connections between reinforced concrete and bricks; local sealing of various types of cavities with prescribed fire resistance and so on.

  12. Properties of Nanocrystals-formulated Aluminosilicate Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Conciauro

    2015-10-01

    insulating and/or mechanical properties. The nanocrystals- modified refractories showed variations in properties, with respect to the untreated aluminosilicate reference in heat- insulating performances (thermal diffusivities were measured by the “hot disk” technique. In general, they also showed improvements in mechanical compression resist‐ ance for all of the samples at 2 wt. %. The best heat insula‐ tion was obtained with the addition of nano-aluminium hydroxide at 2 wt. %, while the highest mechanical compres‐ sion breaking resistance was found with nano-CaCO3 at 2 wt. %. These outcomes were investigated with complemen‐ tary techniques, like mercury porosimetry for porosity, and Archimedes methods to measure physical properties like the bulk and apparent densities, apparent porosities and water absorption. The results show that the nano-alumini‐ um hydroxide modified bricks were the most porous, which could explain the best heat-insulating performances. There is a less straightforward explanation for the mechanical resistance results, as they may have relations with the characteristics of the pores. Furthermore, the nanoparti‐ cles may have possible reactions with the matrix during the heat treatments.

  13. Ceramic bricks made from municipal solid waste incineration-derived clay and ashes: a quality study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto García Ubaque

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analytical data from tests on bricks made from different clay/ash mixtures. The ashes used were obtained from a Hoffmann-type brick-making furnace equipped for coal and municipal solid waste co-firing. The bricks were physically and chemically characterised and their quality was determined by porosimetry, water absorption, breaking load and tensile strength tests. Brick loading capacity increased by up to 10% with ash mixtures and decreased at higher percentages, whereas water absorption increased brick loading capacity for all mixtures. This study showed that clay/ash bricks complied with all the quality standards required in Colombia.

  14. On results of measurement and method of behavior analysis for land slide protection wall in excavation works for main building foundation of No.2 plant in Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokyo Electric Power Co. has been constructing the nuclear power station having 8 million kW capacity of seven BWR plants in the site of about 4.2 million m2 in Niigata Prefecture. No.1 BWR plant of 1100 MWe output started the operation in September, 1985. As a rule, the important structures in nuclear power stations such as a reactor building and a turbine building are to be directly supported on bedrocks, and in this case, on the mudstone of Nishiyama strata. As this Nishiyama strata exists in large depth, the excavation works for the foundations of buildings are to be carried out by installing large scale land slide protection walls. In this report, among the excavation works for the main building foundation of No.2 plant, the results of examining the behavior of the land slide protection wall installed in soft rock ground based on the results of measurement of vertical excavation by land slide protection method and the techniques of its analysis are described. The geological features, the design of land slide protection walls, the measurement of the land slide protection walls and surrounding ground and the results, and the examination of the analysis methods by a beam model and FEM are reported. (Kako, I.)

  15. Developing innovative systems for reinforced masonry walls

    OpenAIRE

    Mosele, F.; Porto, F. da; Modena, C.; Fusco, A. di; Cesare, G. di; Vasconcelos, Graça; Haach, V.; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Beer, I; Schmidt, U.; Brameshuber, W.; Scheufler, W.; Schermer, D. C.; Zilch, K.

    2006-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities has recently funded a CRAFT research project aimed at developing innovative systems for load and non-load-bearing reinforced masonry walls. The project involves twelve partners coming from four different European countries, among which there are universities and research centres, small and medium enterprises for the production of clay and concrete units and mortars, a company for advanced metal products and industrial associations of brick and block ...

  16. System study transparent wall insulation. Practical applications, criteria and effects of application of transparent insulation systems in buildings. Systemstudie Lichtdurchlaessige Waermedaemmung. Praktische Umsetzungsmoeglichkeiten, Kriterien und Auswirkungen der Anwendung von transparenten Daemmsystemen in Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, B.; Kerschberger, A. (Weidlich Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Berlin (Germany)); Lohr, A.; Alexa, B.C. (Buero fuer Energiegerechtes Bauen, Koeln (Germany))

    1991-01-01

    Within the study on TRANSPARENT WALL INSULATION three main topics have been investigated: Presentation of interrelations between transparent insulation materials (TIM), solar heat gain systems and the overall system of the building as far as functional, constructional and asthetic matters are concerned; Estimation of the potential for energysavings and marketpenetration of TIM within new and existing buildings; Fixation of requirements for further application oriented research, development and demonstration in order to find satisfying TIM-products as early as possible. Those products should fulfill architectural and constructional claims and should live up to proper building physics, energy efficiency and economic standards. (orig.).

  17. Solar walls in tsbi3 user's guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, K.B.

    tsbi3 is a user-friendly and flexible computer program, which provides support to the design team in the analysis of the indoor climate and the energy performance of buildings. The solar wall module gives tsbi3 the capability of simulating solar walls and their interaction with the building....... This version, C, of tsbi3 is capable of simulating five types of solar walls say: mass-walls, Trombe-walls, double Trombe-walls, internally ventilated walls and solar walls for preheating ventilation air. The user's guide gives a description of the capabilities and how to simulate solar walls in tsbi3....

  18. Study on the Energy-saving Wall Insulation Technology of Building%建筑节能墙体保温技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the economy, the problem of energy shortage in our country is becoming increasingly serious, energy conservation has become an important problem faced by modern society. Science and technology innovation of chemical enterprise makes the building energy-saving wal in China may be the thermal insulation material, the use of this material not only meet the requirements of environmental protection, but also reduces the construction cost. Based on the implementation of energy-saving wall insulation materials, this paper discusses the types of building energy-saving wal insul-ation technology, provides basis for the application of new ma-terials.%  随着经济的快速增长,我国的能源短缺问题日益严重,节能工作成为现代社会面临的重要问题。化工企业的科技革新使得我国的建筑节能墙体保温材料成为了可能,这种材料的使用不仅符合绿色环保的要求,也降低了施工工艺的成本。本文以节能墙体保温材料出发,探讨了建筑节能墙体保温技术的实施类型,为新材料的运用提出了基础。

  19. esearch and Application of Burned Microporous High Alumian—Graphite(Al/C) Brick in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANXiaoming; SONGMusen

    1999-01-01

    This paper inroduces the research background,technology,product property and application of burned microporous high alumina-graphite brick (Al2O3-C brick) used in blast furnace,The difference of property between Al2O3-C brick and other blast furnace refractories is discussed .The results of simulative tests show that ,Al2O3-C brick has good alkali resistance,slag resistance,thermal shock resistance,oxidation resistance,high thermal conductivity,low permeability and low solubility in molten iron,The brick with micropores of average radius less than 1μm has been successively applied to fourteen blast furnaces, the lining life of the brick is almost as long as that of Si3N4 bonded SiC brick Al2O3-C brick will be widely used in lower stack ,belly,bosh and hearth in the future.

  20. Production of Silica-refractory Bricks from White Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazze Almarahle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, no refractories are produced in Jordan, but large quantities are imported for use in the lining of furnaces and kilns in the metallurgical industries.The aim of this study is to initiate a program of research for production of silica-refractory bricks from local materials.The raw material, which has been used in this study was white sand. This sand contains less than 0.5% Fe2O3 and is therefore suitable for production of glass. The sand used for production of glass is also suitable for production of silica refractory bricks. The method for production of this bricks consists of mixing the white sand with 2.5 CaO (milklime which acts as a binder and mineraliser in order to convert the free quartz to tridymite and crystobalite.

  1. Compressive strength of brick masonry made with weak mortars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Steen; Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    2013-01-01

    The use of weak mortar has a number of advantages (e.g. prevention of expansion joints, environmental issues). However, according to EC6, the strength of masonry vanishes when the compressive strength of the mortar approaches zero. In reality the presence of even unhardened mortar kept in place...... in the joint will ensure a certain level of load-carrying capacity. This is due to the interaction between compression in the weak mortar and tension in the adjacent bricks. This paper proposes an expression for the compressive strength of masonry made with weak lime mortars (fm... of masonry depends only on the strength of the bricks. A compression failure in masonry made with weak mortars occurs as a tension failure in the bricks, as they seek to prevent the mortar from being pressed out of the joints. The expression is derived by assuming hydrostatic pressure in the mortar joints...

  2. Comparative study on fast classification of brick samples by combination of principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis using stand-off and table-top laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focusing on historical aspect, during archeological excavation or restoration works of buildings or different structures built from bricks it is important to determine, preferably in-situ and in real-time, the locality of bricks origin. Fast classification of bricks on the base of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) spectra is possible using multivariate statistical methods. Combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was applied in this case. LIBS was used to classify altogether the 29 brick samples from 7 different localities. Realizing comparative study using two different LIBS setups — stand-off and table-top it is shown that stand-off LIBS has a big potential for archeological in-field measurements. - Highlights: • Comparison of two potentially field-deployable LIBS setups is introduced. • The aim is classification of LIBS spectra of brick samples into several localities. • LDA filled with PCA scores is proposed as an effective classification method. • An influence of brick firing temperature on LIBS spectra is discovered and examined

  3. INTOLERANT ATTITUDES BUILD WALLS AND BLOCK THE CONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES: a cognitive-discoursive analysis of systematic metaphor emersion in opinion article genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Pelosi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents partial results of a research which is aimed at verifying how figurative language, specifically metaphoric and metonymic language, present in different textual genres such as the literary and the journalistic genres, contributes to the emergence and negotiation of meaning. The theoretic and methodological basis of the research comes from Conceptual Metaphor Theory, originally proposed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980 and expanded in the 90’s by theoreticians such as Grady (1997, and from Metaphor-Led Discourse Analysis (CAMERON ET AL, 2009; CAMERON; MASLEN, 2010. Research implementation involves two stages. An analysis of four exemplars of the genres under investigation according to Metaphor-Led Discourse Analysis and a second analysis, still to be carried out, of the talk of three focus groups composed by students of a state school in Santa Maria, RS, after the reading of the different genres. The preliminary analysis presented of the opinion article selected for this study reveals the presence of image-kinesthetic schemas and metaphoric/metonymic vehicles which structure the language present in the analyzed genre and contribute to the emergence of the systematic metaphor INTOLERANT ATTITUDES BUILD WALLS AND BLOCK THE CONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES.

  4. Analysis of Some Building Damage Phenomena in the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Min; Li Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    The Ms 8. 0 Wenchuan earthquake caused a great deal of damage and collapse to engineering structures. Survey of disaster and engineering damage was made in detail by the authors and other researchers in the extreme earthquake disaster area. The paper makes an overview of the earthquake disaster status and damage phenomena which include brick-concrete buildings, frame structures, brick-wood structures, and timber frame residential buildings. Furthermore, the causes of the disaster and building damage phenomena are briefly discussed. In addition, some typical damage phenomena are specialized. According to the phenomena mentioned above, some feasible seismic measures are suggested for the development of buildings in future.

  5. Preservation of murals with electrokinetic - with focus on desalination of single bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Salt induced deterioration of murals is in several cases ongoing in Danish churches. The murals are one of the main objects of our Danish Cultural Heritage. Existing applied methods for desalination of salt contaminated church vaults are based on indirect affection of the dissolved salts (ions...... with the study was to obtain an accelerated and more efficient ion transport of the polluting dissolved salts out of church vault constructions to reduce future deteriation of murals. A major part of the work was related to optimization of the electrochemical ion transport effect. A special poultice...... followed. Besides the experiments on optimized laboratory setups the very first desalination of a wall section with murals was documented. In addition it was shown that the specific brick type and its pore system influences the electrochemical iontransport and coherence between the ion content in the pore...

  6. Water extraction out of mortar during brick laying: A NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Spiekman, M.E.; Pel, L.; Kopinga, K.; Larbi, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The water extraction out of mortar during brick laying was studied using nuclear magnetic resonance. The experiments show that using a fired-clay brick, the water is extracted out of the mortar within 3 minutes, whereas in the case of a sand-lime brick this takes about 10 minutes. Prewetting a fired

  7. Creative Building Design for Innovative Earth Science Teaching and Outreach (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Earth Science departments can blend the physical “bricks and mortar” facility with programs and educational displays to create a facility that is a permanent outreach tool and a welcoming home for teaching and research. The new Frederick Albert Sutton building at the University of Utah is one of the first LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified Earth Science buildings in the country. Throughout the structure, creative architectural designs are combined with sustainability, artful geologic displays, and community partnerships. Distinctive features of the building include: 1) Unique, inviting geologic designs such as cross bedding pattern in the concrete foundation; “a river runs through it” (a pebble tile “stream” inside the entrance); “confluence” lobby with spectacular Eocene Green River fossil fish and plant walls; polished rock slabs; and many natural stone elements. All displays are also designed as teaching tools. 2) Student-generated, energy efficient, sustainable projects such as: solar tube lights, xeriscape & rock monoliths, rainwater collection, roof garden, pervious cement, and energy monitoring. 3) Reinforced concrete foundation for vibration-free analytical measurements, and exposed lab ceilings for duct work and infrastructure adaptability. The spectacular displays for this special project were made possible by new partnerships within the community. Companies participated with generous, in-kind donations (e.g., services, stone flooring and slabs, and landscape rocks). They received recognition in the building and in literature acknowledging donors. A beautiful built environment creates space that students, faculty, and staff are proud of. People feel good about coming to work, and they are happy about their surroundings. This makes a strong recruiting tool, with more productive and satisfied employees. Buildings with architectural interest and displays can showcase geology as art and science, while highlighting

  8. Wind Load Test of Earthbag Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Scott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Earthbag construction is a sustainable, low-cost, housing option for developing countries. Earthbag structures are built of individual soil-filled fabric bags (i.e., sand bags stacked in a running bond pattern. Once stacked, earthbags are compacted and the soil inside the bags is dried in-place to form earthen bricks. Barbed wires are placed between each course to affect shear transfer within the wall. Results of an out-of-plane load test on a full-scale earthbag wall are presented in this paper. The wall was subjected to out-of-plane pressure up to 3.16 kPa, which resulted in plastic deformations up to 50 mm. The wall did not collapse during loading. Wall behavior and force transfer mechanisms are discussed.

  9. A novel method for a multi-level hierarchical composite with brick-and-mortar structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Kristina; Wolff, Michael F H; Salikov, Vitalij; Heinrich, Stefan; Schneider, Gerold A

    2013-01-01

    The fascination for hierarchically structured hard tissues such as enamel or nacre arises from their unique structure-properties-relationship. During the last decades this numerously motivated the synthesis of composites, mimicking the brick-and-mortar structure of nacre. However, there is still a lack in synthetic engineering materials displaying a true hierarchical structure. Here, we present a novel multi-step processing route for anisotropic 2-level hierarchical composites by combining different coating techniques on different length scales. It comprises polymer-encapsulated ceramic particles as building blocks for the first level, followed by spouted bed spray granulation for a second level, and finally directional hot pressing to anisotropically consolidate the composite. The microstructure achieved reveals a brick-and-mortar hierarchical structure with distinct, however not yet optimized mechanical properties on each level. It opens up a completely new processing route for the synthesis of multi-level hierarchically structured composites, giving prospects to multi-functional structure-properties relationships.

  10. Radon exhalation rate from the soil, sand and brick samples collected from NWFP and FATA (Pakistan))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to characterise the building materials as an indoor radon source, knowledge of the radon exhalation rate from these materials is very important. In this regard, soil, sand and brick samples were collected from different places of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) (Pakistan)). The samples were processed and placed in plastic containers. NRPB radon dosemeters were installed in it at heights of 25 cm above the surface of the samples and containers were then hermetically sealed. After 40-80 d of exposure to radon, CR-39 detectors were removed from the dosemeter holders and etched in 25% NaOH at 80 deg. C for 16 h. From the measured radon concentration values, 222Rn exhalation rates were determined. Exhalation rate form soil, sand and brick samples was found to vary from 114 ± 11 to 416 ± 9 mBq m-2 h-1, 205 ± 16 to 291 ± 13 mBq m-2 h-1 and 245 ± 12 to 365 ± 11 mBq m-2 h-1, respectively. (authors)

  11. A novel method for a multi-level hierarchical composite with brick-and-mortar structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Kristina; Wolff, Michael F. H.; Salikov, Vitalij; Heinrich, Stefan; Schneider, Gerold A.

    2013-07-01

    The fascination for hierarchically structured hard tissues such as enamel or nacre arises from their unique structure-properties-relationship. During the last decades this numerously motivated the synthesis of composites, mimicking the brick-and-mortar structure of nacre. However, there is still a lack in synthetic engineering materials displaying a true hierarchical structure. Here, we present a novel multi-step processing route for anisotropic 2-level hierarchical composites by combining different coating techniques on different length scales. It comprises polymer-encapsulated ceramic particles as building blocks for the first level, followed by spouted bed spray granulation for a second level, and finally directional hot pressing to anisotropically consolidate the composite. The microstructure achieved reveals a brick-and-mortar hierarchical structure with distinct, however not yet optimized mechanical properties on each level. It opens up a completely new processing route for the synthesis of multi-level hierarchically structured composites, giving prospects to multi-functional structure-properties relationships.

  12. Radon exhalation rate from the soil, sand and brick samples collected from NWFP and FATA, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Said; Mati, N; Matiullah; Ghauri, Badar

    2007-01-01

    In order to characterise the building materials as an indoor radon source, knowledge of the radon exhalation rate from these materials is very important. In this regard, soil, sand and brick samples were collected from different places of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan. The samples were processed and placed in plastic containers. NRPB radon dosemeters were installed in it at heights of 25 cm above the surface of the samples and containers were then hermetically sealed. After 40-80 d of exposure to radon, CR-39 detectors were removed from the dosemeter holders and etched in 25% NaOH at 80 degrees C for 16 h. From the measured radon concentration values, (222)Rn exhalation rates were determined. Exhalation rate form soil, sand and brick samples was found to vary from 114 +/- 11 to 416 +/- 9 mBq m(-2) h(-1), 205 +/- 16 to 291 +/- 13 mBq m(-2) h(-1) and 245 +/- 12 to 365 +/- 11 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively.

  13. Evaluation of Crawlspace Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    In 2011 and early 2012, Building Science Corporation (BSC) collaborated with Innova Services Corporation on a multifamily community unvented crawlspace retrofit project at Oakwood Gardens in Lansdale, Pennsylvania. BSC provided design consulting services and pre- and post-retrofit evaluation, testing, and data monitoring. The existing condition was a vented crawlspace with an uninsulated floor between the crawlspace and the dwelling units above. The crawlspace was therefore a critically weak link in the building enclosure and was ripe for improvement. Saving energy was the primary interest and goal, but the greatest challenge in this unvented crawlspace retrofit project was working through a crawlspace bulk water intrusion problem caused by inadequate site drainage, window well drainage, foundation wall drainage, and a rising water table during rainy periods. While the unvented crawlspace retrofit was effective in reducing heat loss, and the majority of the bulk water drainage problems had been resolved, the important finding was that some of the wood joists embedded in masonry pockets behind the brick veneer were showing signs of moisture damage.

  14. Crack-controlling and Leak-prevention Technology of Small Hollow Cinder Concrete Building Block Filler Wall%炉渣混凝土空心小型砌块填充墙控裂防渗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾华远; 孙建军; 孙春霞

    2001-01-01

    Some technical problems such as hollowness, crack, leak of small building block filler wall containing light aggregates such as cinder will be solved with some technical improvements in such aspects as wall structure, masonry method, plastering method and so on.%炉渣等轻集料空心小型砌块填充墙须通过墙体构造、砌筑工艺、抹灰工艺诸方面的技术进步,方可解决墙体空、裂、渗的技术难题。

  15. Energy and Moisture Impact of EIFS Walls in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Johnston, David [EIFS Industry Members Association (EIMA)

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper summarizes a family of computer simulations that have been performed to assess the hygrothermal performance of exterior insulation finish systems and discusses the validation of the model prior to its use. This research deals with evaluation of the performance of a number of selected wall systems in all 8 IECC USA climate zones. The research produced a range of performances that are representative of generic EIFS wall systems, and not for a specific manufactured product. A comparison was performed between three different EIFS walls and a brick wall system.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN CONCRETE BLOCK, EXTRUDED CLAY BRICK, AND MUD BRICK TAKEN FROM OGBOMOSO, SOUTHWESTERN, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bolaji Omogbemiga AYINMODE; FAMAKINWA, Rebecca Oluwadamilola; Jonathan Olanipekun AJAYI

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the natural radioactivity in concrete block, extruded clay brick, and mud brick taken from Ogbomoso city. The six samples were collected from different part of the city, and were analyzed using highly sensitive HPGe gamma spectrometer. The mean activity concentration in Bq Kg -1 of 40K , 238 U (226Ra) and 232Th were 135.10 ± 3.23, 9.58 ± 3.16 and 14.30 ± 3.32 respectively in concrete block ; 66.34 ± 6.66, 6.81 ± 2.26 and 6.78 ± 2....

  17. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community.

  18. Building a Great Green Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Under red flags fluttering in the early pring breeze, 260 volunteers planted more than 500 trees in suburban Beijing on March 23. On March 27, a warm Saturday in Beijing, 168 minister-level government officials volunteered leisure time to plant trees in Beijing's Fangshan District.The volunteers planted trees to mark China's 32nd Tree Planting Day, or Arbor Day, which falls on March 12 each year.Because of cold weather this March, largescale tree-planting activities in Beijing have been postponed to late March and early April, said the General Office of Capital Forestation Commission.

  19. Preparation and characterization of green bricks using pharmaceutical industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuna Rani, M; Bhagawan, D; Himabindu, V; Venkateswara Reddy, V; Saritha, P

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports on recycling of industrial wastes (three pharmaceutical industrial sludges) into environmental friendly value-added materials. Stabilization/Solidification (S/S or bricks) process was applied to make a safer way for the utilization of pharmaceutical waste. The additives in this study include binders (cement, lime and bentonite) and strengthening material (pulverized fuel ash (PFA), silica fume and quarry dust) was used at different compositions. Bricks were cured for 28 days, and the following analysis-like compressive strength, leachability of heavy metals, mineralogical phase identity by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal behaviour by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) had done. All the bricks were observed to achieve the standard compressive strength as required for construction according to BIS standards. Metal concentration in the leachate has reached the dischargeable limits according to Brazilian standards. Results of this study demonstrate that production of bricks is a promising and achievable productive use of pharmaceutical sludge. PMID:26286801

  20. Do Schools Still Need Brick-and-Mortar Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug; Mastrion, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Do all schools need brick-and-mortar libraries? In this article, Johnson and Mastrion share their contradictory thoughts to the question. Johnson says some schools don't need library facilities or programs or librarians. These schools' teachers and administrators: (1) feel no need for a collaborative learning space; (2) feel the ability to process…

  1. Using Selected Transient Methods for Measurements of Thermophysical Parameters of Building Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Cviklovič Vladimír; Paulovič Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with thermophysical properties of red and white bricks. If we want to protect the high standard of quality building materials, we need to know the physical parameters which can evaluate the quality. The most important for building materials are mainly thermophysical, mechanical parameters and parameters which can determine the structure of materials. The article presents results of thermophysical parameters measurements of red and white bricks during the temperature stabili...

  2. A user's guide to COMULIP (a program for determining brick movements in an AGR core)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COMULIP (COre Movements Using LInear Programming) is a set of computer programs which allows the user to find the maximum movements of bricks in a layer of 16 sided polygonal bricks and 4 sided interstitial bricks, as in the core of the Hinkley 'B' Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor. The user supplies the dimensions of the bricks and keys, the boundary constraints and specifies the brick and direction for which the maximum movement is to be found. To facilitate data input, a standard set of dimensions is entered together with individual brick dimensions which differ. The linear programming method is used to maximise an objective function, which in this case is the movement of a specified brick in a given direction, subject to a set of linear constraints, which define the geometrical condition that no brick should overlap. The elasticity of the bricks is not taken into account, the effect of this being small compared with that of the clearances. The model analysed is a two dimensional horizontal cross-section through the core. This report forms the user's guide to the computer programs and gives details of the input data required and the output produced, as well as a brief description of the solution technique. The program may be used to study the effect of dimensional changes and brick or key damage, which occur during the lifetime of the reactor, on the movement of bricks. (author)

  3. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132

  4. 聚碳酸酯(PC)多层板窗在建筑中的节能效果%Energy Efficiency of a Building with Multi-Wall Polycarbonate Sheet Windows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峥嵘; 汪海生; 顾书英; 许乾慰; 张懿

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics and structures of the multi-wall polycarbonate (PC) sheets were analyzed. Whole-year energy consumption simulation on a building with multi-wall polycarbonate sheets as windows was carried out using EnergyPlus software. The heat gain (loss) of four kinds of multi-wall PC windows were compared with that of the normal double-layers windows. And the energy consumption and fee were calculated.%  浅析了PC多层板的材料及结构特性,利用EnergyPlus模拟了某建筑的全年能耗,对比分析了4种PC多层板窗与普通双层玻璃窗的得(失)热量,并计算其耗能量及费用。

  5. 配筋砌块砌体剪力墙结构在工程设计中的应用%Application Of Shear Wall Structure With Reinforcement Building Blocks In Engineering Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the conception of shear wall structure with reinforcement building blocks,states the difference compared with reinforced concrete shear wall,points out its advantages that it is useful in architecture earthquake proof with lower cost compared with cast-in-place reinforced concrete shear wall.%介绍了配筋砌块砌体剪力墙结构的概念,阐明其与钢筋混凝土剪力墙结构的不同之处,继而通过设计实例论述了配筋砌块砌体剪力墙结构有利于建筑物抗震,且造价低于现浇钢筋混凝土剪力墙的优点。

  6. Inventorying Toronto's single detached housing stocks to examine the availability of clay brick for urban mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Deniz; Gorgolewski, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the stocks of clay brick in Toronto's single detached housing, to provide parameters for city scale material reuse and recycling. Based on consensus from the literature and statistics on Toronto's single detached housing stocks, city scale reusable and recyclable stocks were estimated to provide an understanding of what volume could be saved from landfill and reintroduced into the urban fabric. On average 2523-4542 m(3) of brick was determined to be available annually for reuse, which would account for 20-36% of the volume of virgin brick consumed in new house construction in 2012. A higher volume, 6187 m(3) of brick, was determined to be available annually for recycling because more of the prevalence of cement-based mortar, which creates challenges for brick reuse in Toronto. The results demonstrated that older housing containing reusable brick were being mostly landfilled and replaced with housing that contained only recyclable brick.

  7. Study on Microstructure and Slag Corrosion Mechanism of High Chrome Bricks for Gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Research was focused on slag corrosion mechanism of high chrome bricks used for different types of gasifier by comparing the structure of high chrome bricks for petroleum coke gasifier and water-coal slurry gasifier with slag corroded testing brick and water coal slurry gasifier through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) examination and X-ray diffraction. Results show that for high chrome brick used for petroleum coke gasifier, corrosion is mainly caused by Cr2O3 in the brick and V2O5 in molten slag and liquid phase generation at low temperature; for high chrome brick used for water-coal slurry gasifier, corrosion is caused by dissolution of Cr2O3 in molten slag and corrosion of ZrO2. For LIRR-HK95 brick, it performs better petroleum coke corrosion resistance than the others due to the optimal composition and structure.

  8. Inventorying Toronto's single detached housing stocks to examine the availability of clay brick for urban mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Deniz; Gorgolewski, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the stocks of clay brick in Toronto's single detached housing, to provide parameters for city scale material reuse and recycling. Based on consensus from the literature and statistics on Toronto's single detached housing stocks, city scale reusable and recyclable stocks were estimated to provide an understanding of what volume could be saved from landfill and reintroduced into the urban fabric. On average 2523-4542 m(3) of brick was determined to be available annually for reuse, which would account for 20-36% of the volume of virgin brick consumed in new house construction in 2012. A higher volume, 6187 m(3) of brick, was determined to be available annually for recycling because more of the prevalence of cement-based mortar, which creates challenges for brick reuse in Toronto. The results demonstrated that older housing containing reusable brick were being mostly landfilled and replaced with housing that contained only recyclable brick. PMID:25912626

  9. Electrochemical desalination of bricks - Experimental and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Gry; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland;

    2015-01-01

    Chlorides, nitrates and sulfates play an important role in the salt-decay of porous materials in buildings and monuments. Electrochemical desalination is a technology able to remove salts from such porous materials in order to stop or prevent the decay. In this paper, experimental and numerical r...

  10. Tsunami vulnerability of buildings and people in South Java – field observations after the July 2006 Java tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nugrahadi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A team of scientists from New Zealand and Indonesia undertook a reconnaissance mission to the South Java area affected by the tsunami of 17 July 2006. The team used GPS-based surveying equipment to measure ground profiles and inundation depths along 17 transects across affected areas near the port city of Cilacap and the resort town of Pangandaran. The purpose of the work was to acquire data for calibration of models used to estimate tsunami inundations, casualty rates and damage levels. Additional information was gathered from interviews with eyewitnesses. The degree of damage observed was diverse, being primarily dependant on water depth and the building construction type. Water depths were typically 2 to 4 m where housing was seriously damaged. Damage levels ranged from total for older brick houses, to about 50% for newer buildings with rudimentary reinforced-concrete beams and columns, to 5–20% for engineered residential houses and multi-storey hotels with heavier RC columns. "Punchout" of weak brick walls was widespread. Despite various natural warning signs very few people were alerted to the impending tsunami. Hence, the death toll was significant, with average death and injury rates both being about 10% of the people exposed, for water depths of about 3 m.

  11. 温室效应在建筑外墙绿化上的应用与研究%On application of green-house effect in reforestation of external walls of buildings and its research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜鹏

    2011-01-01

    The paper illustrates the concept of the green-house effect,explores the application of the green-house effect in the reforestation of the external walls of buildings,introduces the planted types of the plants in the reforestation of the external walls in buildings,and points out the relative problems in the adoption of the green-house effect in the reforestation of the external walls of buildings,so as to direct the practice and to improve the urban environment.%对温室效应的概念进行了阐述,探讨了温室效应在建筑外墙绿化中的应用,介绍了建筑外墙绿化的植物栽种类型,并指出了建筑外墙绿化中采用温室效应时应注意的相关问题,以期指导实践,改善城市环境。

  12. Field and laboratory determination of a poly(vinyl/vinylidene chloride) additive in brick mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, S L; Newman, J H; Ptak, F L

    1990-02-01

    A polymerized vinyl/vinylidene chloride additive, used in brick mortar during the 60s and 70s, is detected at the building site by the field method, which employs a commercially available chloride test strip. The field test results can then be verified by the laboratory methods. In one method, total chlorine in the mortar is determined by an oxygen-bomb method and the additive chloride is determined by difference after water-soluble chlorides have been determined on a separate sample. In the second method, the polymerized additive is extracted directly from the mortar with tetrahydrofuran (THF). The difference in weight before and after extraction of the additive gives the weight of additive in the mortar. Evaporation of the THF from the extract leaves a thin film of the polymer, which gives an infrared "fingerprint" spectrum characteristic of the additive polymer.

  13. Change Mechanism in Property and Microstruture of Magnesite—chrome Brick for Use in Super H—T Tunnel Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAOYang; SUNJu; 等

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of determination of property and microstructure of two kinds of primary MgO-Cr2O3 bricks and residual magnesite-chrome bricks for super H-T tunnel kiln,combining with the both residul bricks's application result,the paper expounds the change mechanism of the two kinds of magnesite-chrome bricks during the operation period,especially stresses the advantages of low Cr2O3 MgO-Cr2O3 bricks.

  14. The Adjustment of Building Warmth by using the TROMBE WALL as a Good Pattern in Dry and Hot Regions (Case Study: Yazd City, Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Mirzaei; Narjes Noshadi; Ebrahim Mirzaei

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the survey of tools and resources that needed to assist building by passive solar heating approach and manage the energy and get massive production for this system. The consistency of the building with structure is one of the fame architectures. The creation of perfect condition in the space of building is the reason of using different stuff with different attribute in the building. Thanks to development of knowledge and producing the new stuff making the new cond...

  15. Energy renovation of multi-storey buildings with heritage value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria

    on the market today for heritage-valued buildings have still not been documented to the extent needed for the building sector to take responsibility for applying them on a large scale. While old heritage buildings have similar constructional trends, each is unique in its specific design, so solutions...... rain exposure on the façade, it is difficult to draw conclusions from the results. However, if the façade is exposed to low amounts of driven rain and the façade is orientated towards west, the solution with a gap above and below the floor/ceiling could be moisture safe. But further research is needed...... to draw final conclusions. It is recommended not to apply 80mm insulation, but only a maximum of 40mm (with λ=0.019 W/mK). Moreover, based on the results from this investigation, it not recommended to apply internal insulation on a north-orientated wall with a thickness of 1.5 and 2 bricks, and caution...

  16. Evaluation of Two CEDA Weatherization Pilot Implementations of an Exterior Insulation and Over-Clad Retrofit Strategy for Residential Masonry Buildings in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2013-08-01

    This project examines the implementation of an exterior insulation and over-clad strategy for brick masonry buildings in Chicago. The strategy was implemented at a free-standing two story two-family dwelling and a larger free-standing multifamily building. The test homes selected for this research represent predominant housing types for the Chicago area. High heating energy use typical in these buildings threaten housing affordability. Uninsulated mass masonry wall assemblies also have a strongly detrimental impact on comfort. Significant changes to the performance of masonry wall assemblies is generally beyond the reach of typical weatherization (Wx) program resources. The Community and Economic Development Association of Cook County, Inc. (CEDA) has secured a Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) innovation grant sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). This grant provides CEDA the opportunity to pursue a pilot implementation of innovative approaches to retrofit in masonry wall enclosures. The exterior insulation and over-clad strategy implemented through this project was designed to allow implementation by contractors active in CEDA weatherization programs and using materials and methods familiar to these contractors. The retrofit measures are evaluated in terms of feasibility, cost and performance. Through observations of the strategies implemented, the research described in this report identifies measures critical to performance as well as conditions for wider adoption. The research also identifies common factors that must be considered in determining whether the exterior insulation and over-clad strategy is appropriate for the building.

  17. Analysis on steel ratio in Liu' an resettlement housing building cost%六安安置房建筑造价中钢筋比例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪刚; 章晓晖; 陈大伟

    2011-01-01

    通过六安市不同年份、不同结构类型共30个安置房建筑工程实例的造价分析,得出砖混结构中钢筋工程占土建造价的比例约为19%,框架结构约为29%,框架一剪力墙结构约为26%,为合理控制建筑造价提供指导。%Through analyzing 30 resettlement housing building engineering cost in different years and with different structure types in Liu' an city, it finds that steel engineering accounts for 19% of civil work in brick-concrete structure, frame structure accounts for 29%, frame-shear wall structure accounts for 26%, which has provided guidance for rationally controlling building cost.

  18. Experimental study of masonry wall exposed to blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad, S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of protecting the nation against the attack of terrorism has raised the importance to explore the understanding of building materials against the explosion. Unlike most of the building materials, brick masonry materials offer relatively small resistance against blast loading. In this research, a brick masonry wall was exposed to varying blast load at different scaled distances. Six tests with different amounts of explosives at various distances were carried out. Pressure time history, acceleration time history and strain at specific location were measured. The parameters measured from experimental pressure time history and acceleration time history is compared with those determined by ConWep to establish the correlations between experimental determined records and ConWep values. The experimental results were also compared with some researchers. These correlations may assist in understanding the behaviour of masonry structures subjected to explosive loading.Con el reto que supone proteger a la nación contra atentados terroristas se ha visto acrecentada la importancia de conocer el comportamiento de materiales de construcción cuando se someten a una carga explosiva. Al contrario de la mayoría de los materiales, las fábricas de ladrillo ofrecen poca resistencia a dichas cargas. En el presente trabajo, se estudió el comportamiento de una fábrica de ladrillo ante cargas explosivas colocadas a diferentes distancias del muro. Se realizaron seis pruebas con explosivos de potencias distintas y a diferentes distancias. Se trazaron las curvas presión-tiempo y aceleración-tiempo, midiéndose asimismo la deformación en un punto concreto. Los valores experimentales de las curvas presión-tiempo y aceleración-tiempo se compararon con los que se calcularon con la ayuda de la aplicación informática ConWep a fin de establecer las correlaciones entre ambos conjuntos de resultados. También se compararon los resultados experimentales

  19. Fingermark recovery from riot debris: Bricks and stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lisa; Fisher, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    During the UK riots in August 2011, large volumes of bricks and stones were used as weapons or projectiles in acts of violence or to gain illegal entry to properties. As a result, it has been emphasised that it is necessary to determine suitable chemical treatment(s) that will enable the development of fingermarks on such items in order to identify those involved. This study has undertaken the task of attempting to develop latent fingermarks on common house bricks, limestone and sandstone using current techniques including ninhydrin and fluorescence. Results produced have shown that, with fluorescent fingerprint powder, silver nitrate and superglue providing the best results, it is now possible to enhance fingermarks that were previously left undeveloped. In addition, Isomark T-1 Rapid Grey High Resolution Forensic Impression Material has proved extremely effective as an alternative method of recovering fingermarks developed with fluorescent fingerprint powder.

  20. Low Temperature Regolith Bricks for In-Situ Structural Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Kevin; Sakthivel, Tamil S.; Mantovani, James; Seal, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    Current technology for producing in-situ structural materials on future missions to Mars or the moon relies heavily on energy-intensive sintering processes to produce solid bricks from regolith. This process requires heating the material up to temperatures in excess of 1000 C and results in solid regolith pieces with compressive strengths in the range of 14000 to 28000 psi, but are heavily dependent on the porosity of the final material and are brittle. This method is currently preferred over a low temperature cementation process to prevent consumption of precious water and other non-renewable materials. A high strength structural material with low energy requirements is still needed for future colonization of other planets. To fulfill these requirements, a nano-functionalization process has been developed to produce structural bricks from regolith simulant and shows promising mechanical strength results. Functionalization of granular silicate particles into alkoxides using a simple low temperature chemical process produces a high surface area zeolite particles that are held together via inter-particle oxygen bonding. Addition of water in the resulting zeolite particles produces a sol-gel reaction called "inorganic polymerization" which gives a strong solid material after a curing process at 60 C. The aqueous solution by-product of the reaction is currently being investigated for its reusability; an essential component of any ISRU technology. For this study, two batches of regolith bricks are synthesized from JSC-1A; the first batch from fresh solvents and chemicals, the second batch made from the water solution by-product of the first batch. This is done to determine the feasibility of recycling necessary components of the synthesis process, mainly water. Characterization including BET surface area, SEM, and EDS has been done on the regolith bricks as well as the constituent particles,. The specific surface area of 17.53 sq m/g (average) of the granular regolith

  1. A practical proposal for solving the world's cigarette butt problem: Recycling in fired clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerani, Abbas; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Larobina, Luke

    2016-06-01

    The disposal and littering of cigarette butts (CBs) is a serious environmental problem. Trillions of cigarettes are produced every year worldwide, resulting in millions of tonnes of toxic waste being dumped into the environment in the form of cigarette butts. As CBs have poor biodegradability, it can take many years for them to break down. This paper reviews and presents some of the results of a study on the recycling of CBs into fired clay bricks. Bricks with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% CB content by weight were manufactured and tested, and then compared against control clay bricks with 0% CB content. The results showed that the dry density decreased by up to 30% and the compressive strength decreased by 88% in bricks with 10% CBs. The calculated compressive strength of bricks with 1% CBs was determined to be 19.53Mpa. To investigate the effect of mixing time, bricks with 7.5% CB content were manufactured with different mixing times of 5, 10, and 15min. To test the effect of heating time on the properties of CB bricks, the heating rate used during manufacturing was changed to 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). Bricks with 0% and 5% CB content were fired with these heating rates. Leachate tests were carried out for bricks with 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% CB content. The emissions released during firing were tested for bricks with 0% and 5% CB content using heating rates of 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). The gases tested were carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), chlorine (Cl2), nitrogen oxide (NO), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Finally, estimations were made for the energy that could be saved by firing bricks incorporating CBs. Calculations showed that up to 58% of the firing energy could potentially be saved. Bricks were shown to be a viable solution for the disposal of CBs. They can reduce contamination caused by cigarette butts and provide a masonry construction material that can be either loadbearing or non-loadbearing, depending on the quantity of CBs incorporated. This

  2. A practical proposal for solving the world's cigarette butt problem: Recycling in fired clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerani, Abbas; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Larobina, Luke

    2016-06-01

    The disposal and littering of cigarette butts (CBs) is a serious environmental problem. Trillions of cigarettes are produced every year worldwide, resulting in millions of tonnes of toxic waste being dumped into the environment in the form of cigarette butts. As CBs have poor biodegradability, it can take many years for them to break down. This paper reviews and presents some of the results of a study on the recycling of CBs into fired clay bricks. Bricks with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% CB content by weight were manufactured and tested, and then compared against control clay bricks with 0% CB content. The results showed that the dry density decreased by up to 30% and the compressive strength decreased by 88% in bricks with 10% CBs. The calculated compressive strength of bricks with 1% CBs was determined to be 19.53Mpa. To investigate the effect of mixing time, bricks with 7.5% CB content were manufactured with different mixing times of 5, 10, and 15min. To test the effect of heating time on the properties of CB bricks, the heating rate used during manufacturing was changed to 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). Bricks with 0% and 5% CB content were fired with these heating rates. Leachate tests were carried out for bricks with 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% CB content. The emissions released during firing were tested for bricks with 0% and 5% CB content using heating rates of 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). The gases tested were carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), chlorine (Cl2), nitrogen oxide (NO), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Finally, estimations were made for the energy that could be saved by firing bricks incorporating CBs. Calculations showed that up to 58% of the firing energy could potentially be saved. Bricks were shown to be a viable solution for the disposal of CBs. They can reduce contamination caused by cigarette butts and provide a masonry construction material that can be either loadbearing or non-loadbearing, depending on the quantity of CBs incorporated. This

  3. Modeling Influenza Antigenic Shift and Drift with LEGO Bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Boriana Marintcheva

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of antigenic shift and drift could be found in almost every microbiology and virology syllabus, usually taught in the context of Influenza virus biology. They are central to understanding viral diversity and evolution and have direct application to anti-flu vaccine design and effectiveness. To aid student understanding of the concepts, I have developed an exercise to visualize the mechanistic aspects of antigenic shift and drift using LEGO bricks. This hands-on/minds-on exercise ...

  4. TorBricks: Blocking-Resistant Tor Bridge Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, Mahdi; Saia, Jared; Crandall, Jedidiah

    2016-01-01

    Tor is currently the most popular network for anonymous Internet access. It critically relies on volunteer nodes called bridges for relaying Internet traffic when a user's ISP blocks connections to Tor. Unfortunately, current methods for distributing bridges are vulnerable to malicious users who obtain and block bridge addresses. In this paper, we propose TorBricks, a protocol for distributing Tor bridges to n users, even when an unknown number t < n of these users are controlled by a malicio...

  5. Experimental study on shear property of autoclaved fly ash brick masonry in Xinjiang region%新疆地区蒸压粉煤灰实心砖砌体抗剪性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁康; 陈燕华; 常新军; 何志军

    2011-01-01

    Autoclaved fly ash brick is classified as one new wall material to replace fired brick, promoting the shear property of autoclaved fly ash brick masonry is very important for improving the earthquake resistance and crack resistance of masonry structure.Because of fluting the surface of brick,the shear property of ribbed autoclaved fly ash brick masonry would be improved. In the paper,the shear property of ribbed autoclaved fly ash brick masonry, common autoclaved fly ash brick masonry and fired brick have been comparative studied,and the earthquake resistance and crack resistance measures have been discussed under the premise of relative standard citations,in order to provide the theoretical basis for autoclaved fly ash brick's further promotion and application in Xinjiang which is located in seismic high-incidence area, while have climate characteristics of dry climate, high annual temperature difference,high diurnal temperature difference.%蒸压粉煤灰砖属于可以替代烧结普通砖的新型墙体材料,提高蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体的抗剪性能是改善此类砌体结构抗震、抗裂能力的关键.带肋蒸压粉煤灰砖通过改善砖的外形,在砖的表面开槽形成肋状,可提高砖砌体的抗剪能力.本文对带肋蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体、普通蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体和烧结普通砖砌体的抗剪性能进行了比较研究,并结合相关规范条文探讨了带肋蒸压粉煤灰砖的有关抗震、抗裂措施,为蒸压粉煤灰砖在地处地震高发区同时具备气候干燥,年温差、日温差大的新疆地区推广应用提供理论依据.

  6. Volumetric radioassay of lead bricks being considered for unrestricted release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Losinski, S.J.; Seal, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The hardware, software, and a protocol have been developed for the screening of lead bricks for free release or recycle from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The procedure for measuring the background from a sampling of ``clean`` lead bricks and for deducing the decision limits (in pCi/g) have been developed. At the decision limit, a radioactive lead brick would be detected with 95% confidence if it were present. The total and peak efficiencies of a 2.54-cm diameter {times} 2.54-cm high NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for the counting geometry of the present study were measured with a mixed radionuclide standard and calculated with a Monte Carlo program, CYLTRAN. The deduced decision limit for the counting conditions of the present study were 0.0588 pCi/g by analyzing the entire spectrum and 0.256 pCi/g by analyzing the 661-keV peak region for a 900-second count.

  7. Bricks and urbanism in the Indus Valley rise and decline

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Aurangzeb

    2013-01-01

    The Indus Valley Culture (IVC), often denoted by its major city Harappa, spanned almost two millennia from 3200 to 1300 BC. Its tradition reaches back to 7000 BC: a 4000 year long expansion of villages and towns, of trading activity, and of technological advancements culminates between 2600 and 1900 BC in the built-up of large brick-built cities, writing, and political authority; the IVC emerges as one of the first great civilizations in history. During the ensuing 600 years, however, key technologies fall out of use, urban centers are depopulated, and people leave the former core areas of the IVC; although many different hypotheses have been put forward, a conclusive causal chain for this decline has not yet been established. We here combine literature estimates on brick typology, and on urban area for individual cities; in the context of the existing extensive data on Harappan artifact find sites and put in their chronological order, the combined narratives told by bricks, cities, and extent, can provide a ...

  8. Properties, Performance and Quality Control of Recycled MgO-C Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shouxin; YAO Jinfu; WANG Jing; YU Xingguo; YU Lingyan

    2008-01-01

    Properties, section structure and service results of recycled MgO-C bricks and new MgO-C bricks for la-dle slag line of Baosteel were analyzed and compared, and the measures of improving stability and quality of recycled MgO-C bricks were summarized. The results show that: ( 1 ) High quality recycled MgO - C materi-als can be produced by scientific, meticulous and strict management for every process such as dismantling fur-nace, selection, removing impurity and slag, stacking and homogenization; (2) Using high quality recycled materials and reasonable production technique, recycled MgO-C bricks with better properties and service efficien-cy than those of new MgO - C brick can be produced; (3) Service efficiency of recycled MgO-C bricks is good because of its high density, good oxidation resist-ance and reasonable structure.

  9. Sustainable New Brick and Thermo-Acoustic Insulation Panel from Mineralization of Stranded Driftwood Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Pisello

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest recently in by-products for application in green buildings. These materials are widely used as building envelope insulators or blocks. In this study, an experimental study was conducted to test stranded driftwood residues as raw material for possible thermo-acoustic insulation panel and environmentally sustainable brick. The thermal and acoustic characteristics of such a natural by-product were examined. Part of samples were mineralized by means of cement-based additive to reinforce the material and enhance its durability as well as fire resistance. Several mixtures with different sizes of ground wood chips and different quantities of cement were investigated. The thermo-acoustic in-lab characterization was aimed at investigating the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, volumetric specific heat, and acoustic transmission loss. All samples were tested before and after mineralization. Results from this study indicate that it is possible to use stranded driftwood residues as building materials with competitive thermo-acoustic properties. In fact, the thermal conductivity was shown to be always around 0.07 W/mK in the unbound samples, and around double that value for the mineralized samples, which present a much higher volumetric specific heat (1.6 MJ/m3K and transmission loss capability. The lignin powder showed a sort of intermediate behavior between the unbound and the mineralized samples.

  10. Cell Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Canut, Hervé; Boudart, Georges; Albenne, Cécile; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F

    2008-01-01

    This chapter covers our present knowledge of cell wall proteomics highlighting the distinctive features of cell walls and cell wall proteins in relation to problems encountered for protein extraction, separation and identification. It provides clues to design strategies for efficient cell wall proteomic studies. It gives an overview of the kinds of proteins that have yet been identified: the expected proteins vs the identified proteins. Finally, the new vision of the cell wall proteome, and t...

  11. Determination of element composition in CoffeeBricks before and after incineration

    OpenAIRE

    Fröling, Annika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose for this study was to determine the element composition in CoffeeBricks before and after incineration. The difference between element composition in CoffeeBricks (barbecue briquettes made out of spent coffee grounds) and regular barbecue briquettes was also evaluated in this study. Aqua regia digests from the ash residues of CoffeeBricks and the ash residues of regular barbecue briquettes were analyzed with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). H2SO4/H...

  12. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Fan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea, and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results: The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05, and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05 were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions: Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  13. Prevention and curing of efflorescences in the restoration of bricks construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, J. Ma.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available After description of basic principles of efflorescent effect in bricks in a former published paper, where the classification and examples of efflorescences were given, here are shown the methods for prevention and techniques for curing of this pathology. Some comments about Standards are included as well as very briefly the effect of gases in dryers and furnaces of efflorescences in clay products. The knowledgement of methods for prevention and curing of this pathology are very useful not only in the cleaning of modern fabrics made of bricks, but also in the Restoration of ancient buildings.

    Después de exponer en un artículo anterior los principios básicos de la formación del efecto eflorescente en ladrillos de construcción y definir su clasificación apoyada en algunos ejemplos, se señalan ahora los métodos para su prevención y las técnicas para su eliminación una vez aparecida esta patología. Se incluyen además algunos comentarios sobre las Normas para determinación de eflorescencias y también, de una manera muy concisa, el efecto que los gases de secaderos y hornos pueden tener en la formación de este defecto. Los métodos y técnicas de prevención y curado de eflorescencias tienen gran interés no sólo en el caso de fábricas de ladrillo modernas, sino en la restauración de fachadas de antiguos edificios.

  14. Identifying the dynamic characteristics of a dual core-wall and frame building in Chile using aftershocks of the 27 February 2010 (Mw=8.8) Maule, Chile, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Sereci, Mark; Boroschek, Ruben; Carreño, Rodrigo; Bonelli, Patricio

    2013-01-01

    Following the 27 February 2010 (Mw = 8.8) Offshore Maule, Chile earthquake, a temporary, 16-channel, real-time data streaming array was installed in a recently constructed building in Viña del Mar to capture its responses to aftershocks. The cast-in-place, reinforced concrete building is 16 stories high, with 3 additional basement levels, and has dual system comprising multiple structural walls and perimeter frames. This building was not damaged during the main-shock, but other buildings of similar design in Viña del Mar and other parts of Chile were damaged, although none collapsed. Dynamic characteristics of the building identified from the low-amplitude (PGA of about 2 Gal) response recordings of aftershocks are found to compare well with those determined from modal analyses using a design level FEM model. Distinct “major-axes” translational and torsional fundamental frequencies, as well as frequencies of secondary modes, are identified. Evidence of beating is consistently observed in the response data for each earthquake. Results do not match well with U.S. code formulas.

  15. PVC 新型木塑微发泡模板在剪力墙结构中的应用%The application of PVC new wood plastic micro foaming building template in shear wall structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺俊芳

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzed the excellent of new template,discussed the characteristics and uses of PVC new wood plastic micro foaming building template,put forward the shear wall template construction method,and researched the template processing and fabrication process, solved the problem of less of wall template turnover numbers.%对新型模板的优良性能进行了分析,从PVC新型木塑微发泡建筑模板的特点及用途进行了论证,提出了剪力墙体模板施工的方法,并对模板的加工制作工艺作了研究,解决了墙体模板周转次数少的问题。

  16. Effect of Age and Environment on Strength of Old Baked Clay Bricks of Indus Valley Civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAWAB ALI LAKHO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of experimental investigations conducted on old baked clay bricks of Indus Valley civilization of tenth century. The object of this study is to evaluate the effect of age and environmental conditions on the strength of the baked clay bricks which are about 1000 years old. The brick samples were collected from six different archeological sites at the banks of old route of River Indus in district Sanghar, Sindh, Pakistan. These specimens were tested for apparent density, compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of rupture and the weathering effects on them during the course of time. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials standard for baked clay bricks, based on compressive strength, suggests that the bricks of four sites can withstand severe weathering while the bricks of two sites are resistant to moderate weathering. These results were compared to the values of the corresponding data of bricks, of same period, obtained from the historical monuments of the world as reported in the literature. The comparison showed that the values of physical properties of old baked clay bricks of Indus valley civilization of tenth century are in agreement with that of old baked clay bricks of contemporary era. The results of this study could also be helpful for preservation of old archeological sites of Indus valley civilization.

  17. Dredged sediments as a resource for brick production: Possibilities and barriers from a consumers’ perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Consumers are suspicious towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Technical quality, safety and environmental impacts are considered key characteristics. • Public has insufficient knowledge on bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Sensitization and provision of information to customers are of primary importance. - Abstract: A possible solution for the oversupply of dredged sediments is their use as a raw material in brick production. Despite the fact that several examples (e.g., Agostini et al., 2007; Hamer and Karius, 2002; Xu et al., 2014) show that this application is feasible, some economic, technical and social limitations interfere with the development of a market of dredged materials in brick production in Flanders. While we describe the main characteristics of the supply side, we focus on the limitations and barriers from the demand side in the present study. Based on a consumers survey we analyze consumers’ risk perceptions and attitudes towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. Consumers in Flanders are rather suspicious with respect to bricks produced from dredged sediments and their risk perception is mainly determined by the possibility of a bad bargain (brick of inferior quality) and the connotation with chemical contamination. The willingness to pay for bricks made from dredged sediments is mainly influenced by the age of the respondents, as well environmental awareness, and the respondents’ belief in their ability to influence environmental problems. Sensitization and information of customers seems to be of primary importance to make dredged-sediment-derived bricks a successful product

  18. The technical research on the huge glazed brick from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    ‘Qin brick and Han tile’ has a great worldwide reputation in the architectural history of China. According to the former archaeological materials, the big hollow brick is usually one meter long and thirty to forty centimeters wide, while the solid brick is generally much smaller. But in 1995, large scale vestiges and structures were un- earthed at the center of Guangzhou’s old district, from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace, which was built some 2000 years ago during the Western-Han Dynasty. A great number of earthen structural members were discovered, especially the solid glazed bricks in various beautiful patterns with an astonishing thickness and size. Some of them are one meter square, more than 20 centimeters thick, and weight half a ton, which are named ‘Brick No.1 in the world’ by excavators. People have shown great interest in how to make these huge glazed bricks at the ancient tech- nical conditions, because it is very difficult to manufacture such huge bricks even with the modern technology. At the request of Guangdong Nanyue Kingdom Palace Museum, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics carried out systematical measurements and analysis on these bricks and studied the physical and chemical forming mechanisms from their chemical compositions, structure, and physical character- istics. Here the technical characteristics of the bricks are also discussed.

  19. Bauxite Based Refractory Bricks for Hot Blast Stove YB/T 5016-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Chai Junlan

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1Scope This standard specifies the technical requirements, test method, inspection rules, packing, marking, transportation, storage and quality certificate of bauxite based refractory bricks for hot blast stove.

  20. The technical research on the huge glazed brick from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    'Qin brick and Han tile' has a great worldwide reputation in the architectural history of China. According to the former archaeological materials, the big hollow brick is usually one meter long and thirty to forty centimeters wide, while the solid brick is generally much smaller. But in 1995, large scale vestiges and structures were unearthed at the center of Guangzhou's old district, from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace, which was built some 2000 years ago during the Western-Han Dynasty, A great number of earthen structural members were discovered, especially the solid glazed bricks in various beautiful patterns with an astonishing thickness and size. Some of them are one meter square, more than 20 centimeters thick, and weight half a ton, which are named ‘Brick No.1 in the world' by excavators. People have shown great interest in how to make these huge glazed bricks at the ancient technical conditions, because it is very difficult to manufacture such huge bricks even with the modern technology. At the request of Guangdong Nanyue Kingdom Palace Museum, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics carried out systematical measurements and analysis on these bricks and studied the physical and chemical forming mechanisms from their chemical compositions, structure, and physical characteristics. Here the technical characteristics of the bricks are also discussed.

  1. USE OF FLY ASH TO SAVE FERTILE SOIL: IN CONVENTIONAL BRICK INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    SIDDHESH P. NARVEKAR; Pravin R Pasare; Satish I. Gurav; Vijay P. Davar; Chetan K. Gaikwad; Mohin M. Shaikh; Kiran S. Dindore

    2015-01-01

    The brick sector in India is the second largest producer in the world after China. It is estimated to produce 140 billion bricks annually but consuming 24 million of coal as well as biomass. The estimated C02 emissions from the brick sector are 41.6 million tons and consume about 350 million tons of top soil every year for the brick production. Although there are various drawbacks of this trade since this is the one of the main part of Indian economy this cannot be blocked. Hence there are va...

  2. Dredged sediments as a resource for brick production: Possibilities and barriers from a consumers’ perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappuyns, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.cappuyns@kuleuven.be; Deweirt, Valentine; Rousseau, Sandra

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Consumers are suspicious towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Technical quality, safety and environmental impacts are considered key characteristics. • Public has insufficient knowledge on bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Sensitization and provision of information to customers are of primary importance. - Abstract: A possible solution for the oversupply of dredged sediments is their use as a raw material in brick production. Despite the fact that several examples (e.g., Agostini et al., 2007; Hamer and Karius, 2002; Xu et al., 2014) show that this application is feasible, some economic, technical and social limitations interfere with the development of a market of dredged materials in brick production in Flanders. While we describe the main characteristics of the supply side, we focus on the limitations and barriers from the demand side in the present study. Based on a consumers survey we analyze consumers’ risk perceptions and attitudes towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. Consumers in Flanders are rather suspicious with respect to bricks produced from dredged sediments and their risk perception is mainly determined by the possibility of a bad bargain (brick of inferior quality) and the connotation with chemical contamination. The willingness to pay for bricks made from dredged sediments is mainly influenced by the age of the respondents, as well environmental awareness, and the respondents’ belief in their ability to influence environmental problems. Sensitization and information of customers seems to be of primary importance to make dredged-sediment-derived bricks a successful product.

  3. Corrosion Mechanism of MgO-CaO Brick for AOD Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiandong; GE Changchun; SHEN Weiping

    2006-01-01

    Residual MgO-CaO brick after being used in AOD furnace was determined by OM, SEM and EDAX. Corrosion mechanism of MgO-CaO brick as furnace lining was studied. Results show that: The corrosion of MgOCaO brick is mainly attributed to the solution and infiltration of silicate liquid phase. Transverse cracks between reacted zone and original zone are parallel to the working face, which is an important factor for deteriorating the corrosion of MgO-CaO bricks.

  4. Drying kinetics of some building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Moropoulou, A.; M Karoglou; Giakoumaki, A.; Krokida, M. K.; Maroulis, Z. B.; G.D. Saravacos

    2005-01-01

    Moisture is one of the most deteriorating factors of buildings. The deteriorating effect of moisture occurs mainly during the drying phase, and not in the wetting phase. Appropriate parameters of the drying kinetics are required for the building materials. Environmental factors, such as air temperature, air humidity, and air velocity affect drying. An experimental air dryer of controlled drying air conditions was used to investigate the drying performance of 4 stone materials, 2 bricks and 7 ...

  5. 某砖混结构建筑受采动影响分析与加固维修方案∗%Analysis and reinforcing and maintenance scheme of a brick-concrete structure building with the influence of mining moves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田迎斌

    2014-01-01

    以河北省某矿工业广场内运销办公楼为例,介绍了建筑概况和工业广场压覆煤层的情况,分析了4#煤层开采对建筑的影响,预测了建筑损坏程度的发展趋势,提出了建筑的加固维修方案,确保了运销办公楼的安全正常使用。%The author took a distribution office building in a mine industrial square of Hebei Province as an example,introduced the general situation of the buildings and the coal seams un-der the industrial square,analyzed the influence on the buildings of the 4th coal seam mining, predicted the development tendency of the building damage,provided the reinforcement and ma-intenance scheme of the buildings,and also ensured the safety and normal use of this distribution office building.

  6. Nature and origin of white efflorescence on bricks, artificial stones, and joint mortars of modern houses evaluated by portable Raman spectroscopy and laboratory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Héctor; Maguregui, Maite; Trebolazabala, Josu; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2015-02-01

    Bricks and mortar currently constitute one of the most important building materials used in the construction of most modern facades. The deterioration of these materials is caused primarily by the impact of numerous external stressors, while poor manufacturing quality, particularly of mortars, can also contribute to this process. In this work, the non-invasive Raman spectroscopy technique was used to identify the recently formed deterioration compounds (primarily sulfates and nitrates) in bricks, artificial stones, and joint mortars from detached houses in the Bilbao metropolitan area (Basque Country, North of Spain), as well as to investigate the deterioration processes taking place in these materials. Additionally, to confirm and in some cases complement the results obtained with Raman spectroscopy, SEM-EDS and XRD measurements were also carried out.

  7. A full-scale experimental set-up for assessing the energy performance of radiant wall and active chilled beam for cooling buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2015-01-01

    the test room than the active chilled beam. The energy saving, which can be estimated to around 10%, is due to increased ventilation losses. The asymmetry between air and radiant temperature, the air temperature gradient and the possible short-circuit between inlet and outlet play an equally important role......Full-scale experiments under both steady-state and dynamic conditions have been performed to compare the energy performance of a radiant wall and an active chilled beam. From these experiments, it has been observed that the radiant wall is a more secure and efficient way of removing heat from...... in decreasing the cooling need of the radiant wall compared to the active chilled beam. It has also been observed that the type and repartition of heat load have an influence on the cooling demand. Regarding the comfort level, both terminals met the general requirements, except at high solar heat gains...

  8. Calculation of the thicknesses of the walls of the radiographic inspection building of the NKS enterprise; Calculo de los espesores de los muros del edificio de inspeccion radiografica de la empresa NKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez A, G.; Gutierrez R, C

    1983-07-15

    During the month of February, 1983, the Structural Civil Department of the Latin American of Engineering, S.A. de C.V. company (LATISA), outline to the Engineering and Industry Applications Management of the ININ that the industrial group NKS had taken charge them the design of a building where it would lodge a linear electron accelerator of 4 MeV, one source of Co-60 of 30 Ci and an X-ray equipment, tube type, of range of 60 to 300 KV and that to make the design they required to know the necessary thickness of the walls, doors and roof to protect to the workers, outside of the building, of the X and gamma radiations generated by the sources mentioned during the radiographic inspections of metal-mechanical pieces. (Author)

  9. Strength Measure of Assembled Lightweight Brick and Discussion%装配式轻型砖的强度测定及其思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕巧巍; 张福贵

    2001-01-01

    本文总结了目前具有最大孔洞率的装配式轻型砖的抗压、抗剪强度测定结果,发现其抗压、抗剪强度甚为理想这一重要事实,进一步提出了此装配式轻型砖作为半承重、半围护的新型围护结构材料的设想,从而为充分发挥其装配式轻型砖的承载潜力,设计出更加经济合理的工业与民用建筑打下基础。%The measure result of compressive strength and shearing strengthof assembled lightweight brick with biggest hole rate in China is summarized in the paper. On the basis of the better compressive strength and shearing strength, the paper raises the idea of utilizing the assembled lightweight brick as a new type of semi-load-bearing wall materials, and fully develop the load-bearing of the assembled lightweight brick.

  10. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  11. Torroja Institute, the historic building: conservation and characteristics of the materials of its façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luxán, M. P.

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The "Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción" building is one of the most singular engineering design done by Eduardo Torroja: it was started in 1951. This study focused on the Institute façade-building materials has been carried out in the 100th anniversary of his birth. The analysis has revealed that the design of the original project has been of a great importance for the good conservation of the external walls. The pointing mortar characterization of its brick walls by instrumental techniques (infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with EDS reveals that calcite is its main component, with gypsum presence in polluted external zones and silica compounds from the sand. The obtained results indicate a good compatibility between mortars and façade bricks.

    El edificio del "Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción", construido en 1951, constituye una de las obras singulares del ingeniero Eduardo Torroja. En el centenario de su nacimiento se ha elaborado este estudio, que se centra en los materiales de construcción de las fachadas del Instituto. De su análisis se desprende la importancia del diseño del proyecto original en la buena conservación de los paramentos exteriores. La caracterización de los morteros de junta de las fábricas de ladrillo de los paramentos, mediante técnicas instrumentales (espectroscopia infrarroja, difracción de rayos X, microscopía electrónica de barrido con energías dispersivas de rayos X revela que la calcita es el compuesto principal, con presencia de yeso -especialmente en zonas externas contaminadas- y compuestos silíceos procedentes de la arena. Los resultados sobre las fachadas reflejan una buena compatibilidad entre los morteros de cal y los ladrillos.

  12. Research on Design of Curtain Wall in Building Movement Joint%论建筑物变形缝位置的幕墙设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛

    2014-01-01

    The design of building curtain wal in movement joint is an important part of the modern architecture, which has a profound impact on the shape and the safety of buildings. In this paper, the movement joint of deformation in building cu-rtain wal is briefly introduced, and the importance and pri-nciples of design of building curtain wal in movement joint is analyzed.%建筑物变形缝位置的幕墙设计是现代建筑中的重要组成部分,对于建筑物的外形和安全性有着深远的影响。本文主要对建筑物的变形缝进行简单概述,并对变形缝位置幕墙设计的重要性及原则进行分析。

  13. 78 FR 22235 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Fiber Composite Materials Corp. Changxing Magnesium Furnace Charge Co., Ltd. Changxing Wangfa... International Trade Administration Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Final... of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on certain magnesia carbon bricks from the People's...

  14. Plane Geometry: From the Floor Plan of a House to the Quantity of Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Scott Puhl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the application of a potentially meaningful teaching strategy for plane geometry which was applied in high school as an activity of identifying and reconstructing students’ previous knowledge on spatial geometry. The proposal aims to promote the meaningful learning, encourage students as active and more autonomous subjects and show the importance of studying this content. The study began with reading a story about the fire of Kiss Nightclub, where overcrowding was cited as one of the causes. To understand the mathematical sense of overcrowding, the students built the 1 m² and simulated the situation of the club on the night of the tragedy. Further, taking advantage of the interest and involvement of students, they were challenged to build the floor plan of a house. For this, chosen and measured bricks and ceramic would use in building the house. Finally, in joint work, all critically analyzed the work of the groups, plans and models, making a comparison between the various projects. The evaluation of this experience was very positive, because the students were motivated, learning together, and realizing the significance and meaning of the study of areas of plane figures.

  15. Building envelope for New Buildings and Energy Renovation of Existing Buildings. Project results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Rose, Jørgen; Esbensen, Peter Kjær;

    1999-01-01

    , a group of scientists at the Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, have started a research project to develop better solutions for new building and energy renovation.The publication report the status after the first 3 year of the Building Envelope Project with emphasis......At the energy conference in 1995, Denmark agreed on reducing the total CO2-emission by 20%. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to increase thermal insulation thickness both in new and retrofitted buildings.This will, for both cases, impose a series of building physics problems, as the knowledge...... on the following subjects:Scientific basis for calculation programs, Development of calculationsmethods for heat transfer, Development of new building envelope components, Roofing system based on wooden roof elements, Roofing system with drying properties, Moisture uptake and drying from brick constructions...

  16. Use of Greenlandic resources for the production of bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine

    an increasing environmental and logistical problem worldwide, and their recycling has therefore received much attention. The protection of the vulnerable Arctic nature is a great concern and waste management by ceramic incorporation should therefore be investigated. • Historically, masonry constructions...... knowledge gap was identified and covered: • to identify and conduct initial testing on waste types, which could be of interest in Greenlandic brick production. The waste types investigated in this study were municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes and tailings from the mining industry. The major...

  17. Preparation of Eco-environmental Protection Bricks from Lake Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jianfeng; LI Fangwen; XU Xiaohong; SU Xianli

    2008-01-01

    Eco-environmental protection hollow bricks manufactured from lake sludge collected from North Lake in Wuhan of China were investigated.At first,the recipes of round sampies(diameter in 5 cm and thickness in 1 cm) prepared by pressing molding under a pressure of 8 MPa and firing system were optimized,and properties such as bending strength,compressive strength,total shrinkage rate,water adsorption rate,apparent porosity and bulk density of the fired samples were tested.The experimental results showed that water adsorption rate and apparent porosity decreased,while bulk density increased with firing temperature increasing.Addition of additive can result in the improvement of strength of fired samples.At the same time,fly ash and additive may also broaden the firing temperature range and reduce firing temperature.Toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TLCP)tests of samples also show that the metal leaching level is low.The conditions for manufacturing good quality sample include 80% sludge with 10% additive and 10% flyash fired at 1000 ℃ for 60 min.Bending strength and compressive strength of samples prepared under the conditions are 24.64 MPa,131.95 MPa,respectively,which are far beyond the requirements of clay solid bricks of CNS.Finally,according to the optimized recipe,the eco-environmental protection hollow bricks with the sizes of 40 mm×38 mm×25 mm were made and tested by extrusion molding.Compared with the Chinese National Standards (CNS:GB 13545-2003),compressive strength,water adsorption and bulk denstiy of the hollow bricks are 11.55 MPa ,14.5% and 986 kg/m3 when they were fired at 1040 ℃,which are far beyond the require of of CNS.Especially,its water adsorption arrives to standard of high-class products(16.0%) and compressive strength is above the hightest class(MU 10.0).

  18. 玉树7.1级地震学校建筑震害分析%Seismic damage analysis of school buildings in Yushu Ms 7.1 earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巨文; 薄景山; 卢滔; 蔡晓光; 张建毅; 张宇东

    2013-01-01

    Yushu Ms7. 1 earthquake occurred on April 14, 2010 in Qinghai Province. A large number of school buildings were severely damaged or collapsed. Damage index and the failure mechanism analysis of different category of building structures were carried out through field investigation. The results show that the structure damage index from low to high in order is concrete frame structure, solid brick masonry structure , brick-wood structure, hollow brick-masonry structure and earth-wood structure. The design of concrete frame structure should be in accordance with the seismic concept of strong column and weak beam strictly, and the connection between infill walls and frame columns should be strengthened. For the solid brick and hollow brick masonry structure, we should set constructional column, ring beam, tie bar between prefabricated floors and tie bar between walls to enhance the anti-collapse ability of the structure. In addition, sufficient reinforcement is necessary in the block cavity of hollow brick to improve the strength of mortar. The brick-wood structure and earth-wood structure must be improved on the material and construction measure. The new structure systems suitable for the locality need to be studied to improve the seismic performance of the structure.%2010年4月14日青海省玉树县发生了Ms7.1级地震,造成了大量学校建筑的严重破坏甚至倒塌.通过对玉树地震学校建筑震害的调研,进行了不同类别建筑结构震害指数与破坏机理的研究.研究结果表明,震害指数由低到高的结构依次为混凝土框架结构、实心砖混结构、砖木结构、空心砖混结构和土木结构.混凝土框架结构要严格按照强柱弱梁的抗震概念进行设计,加强填充墙与框架柱的连接;实心砖混结构、空心砖混结构应设置构造柱、圈梁、预制楼板拉结筋,增强房屋抗倒塌能力;空心砖混结构还要在砌块内腔配置足量的钢筋,提高砂浆强度;土木

  19. Development and Application of Zero Expansion Silica Brick for Hot Repairing of Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiuqin; ZHI Xiaoming; WANG Hongmei

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of hot repairing technology of coke oven, the zero expansion silica brick with super properties has been developed, and the problem of poor thermal stability of common silica brick has been overcomned. This product can be directly used after being rapidly heated after construction. At present, it has been applied in coke ovens in Italy and Baosteel.

  20. Investigation of gamma-ray activity and radiological hazards of the bricks fabricated around Lahore (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employing state of art measurement techniques and software, gamma ray activity due to /sup 224/Ra, /sup 232/Th and /sup 40/K have been measured from bricks fabricated around Lahore, Pakistan. External and internal hazards due to dose rate from radioactivity of bricks have calculated from several samples. (author)

  1. Thermodynamic designing of a solar block of flats with a tromb's wall with ventuce holes

    OpenAIRE

    Radosavljević Jasmina; Lambić Miroslav; Pavlović Tomislav M.

    2004-01-01

    The paper examines the effects of passive solar heating of an individual residential object, located in Niš, that occur by the use of a combined passive system consisting of a Tromb's wall with ventuce holes and windows for direct insulation. The diagrams are included that show the inner air temperatures of a thermally insulated residential object with A Tromb's wall made of brick and concrete, 20cm and 45cm thick, with ventuce openings.

  2. Thermodynamic designing of a solar block of flats with a tromb's wall with ventuce holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Jasmina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the effects of passive solar heating of an individual residential object, located in Niš, that occur by the use of a combined passive system consisting of a Tromb's wall with ventuce holes and windows for direct insulation. The diagrams are included that show the inner air temperatures of a thermally insulated residential object with A Tromb's wall made of brick and concrete, 20cm and 45cm thick, with ventuce openings.

  3. Study of radon concentrations in relation with the radioactivity content of building materials in Aizawl District, Mizoram, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, substantial attention has been paid to the problems of exposure due to radon and its progeny in dwellings. Measurement of indoor radon concentrations has been carried out in Aizawl District, Mizoram, India. Solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) have been used to obtain the time integrated concentration levels of indoor radon. Spot measurement of background gamma radiation level was done indoor and outdoor at a height of 1 metre from the ground and at the ground level using Survey Meter. Most building materials contain some amounts of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM). The radioisotopic content of building materials viz., brick, asbestos, wood and rock, collected has been analyzed using gamma spectrometer. From the measured gamma ray spectra, activity concentrations are determined for 232Th, 238U and 40K. Results obtained from the selected 63 houses reflected that concrete building has the average maximum concentration of radon, 50.36 Bq/m3 while contribution due to buildings with asbestos walls was found to be lowest, 45.13 Bq/m3. The analysis of radioisotopic content found in collected building materials indicate that asbestos has the maximum uranium concentration, 319.79 Bq/kg while wood has the maximum thorium concentration. Measured background gamma radiation level ranges from 10-24 R/hr. (author)

  4. Characteristics of T-type fired porous brick%烧结T型多孔功能砖的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪有坤; 苏恩龙

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduces ten functions of T-type fired brick, such as, loading, insulation, heat insulation, sound insulation, anti-shake, shear capacity, leak-free mortar, outer wall anti-leakage, blocking joints cold bridges and decoration. The new multifunction machine has a functional advantage than vacuum extruder.%介绍砖坯十项功能:承重、保温、隔热、隔音、防颤、抗剪切能力,免漏砂浆、外墙防渗漏、阻断灰口冷桥、可装饰性.新型多功能成型机对比真空挤出机的功能优势性.

  5. A Study on Electrically Conducting Magnesia—carbon Bricks for DC EAF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONGXiaojun; YANLiyi; 等

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to a kind of special refractories for DC EAF-electrically conducting magnesia-carbon bricks.The application of the conductive magnesia-carbon brick as a hearth electrode is a trend of development in DC arc furnace hearth bootom because of its features of anti corrosion and easy repatching,This is a proven process already available abroad.After a study of teh effect of different amount of graphite added and pretreating temperatures on the eletric-conductivity of magnesia-carbon bricks it has been found that for a balance between electric and thermal conductivities,the proper amount of graphite to be added should be 8%-14% and the pretreatment at temperature of 1300-1500℃ will result in the formation inside the magnesia-carbon bricks of a continuous three-dimensional network of graphite and semi-coke,thus making the brick conductive.

  6. Lightweight Brick by Carbon Ash from The Mixed Plastic Waste Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the mixed plastic waste from the production of light carbon ash bricks performance. The mixed waste plastic pyrolysis process generated waste - Carbon ash. After extrusion, a Lightweight brick was made by carbon ash, additive and Cement mortar. In general, the set compressive strength and insulation effect of lightweight bricks with carbon ash proportion for significant impact. The set water absorption and thermal conductivity of lightweight bricks with carbon ash proportion for significant impact. The set density of lightweight brick ameliorates with M3824 additive and CM3 cement mortar for significant impact. Under conditions of technology and economic, the results of this study as reference for market-oriented marketing and commercialization of production.

  7. 75 FR 11517 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from Mexico: Notice of Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Commerce (the Department) preliminarily determines that certain magnesia carbon bricks (bricks) from Mexico... Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 74 FR 42852 (August 25, 2009) (Initiation Notice... Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks form China and Mexico, 74 FR 49889 (September 29, 2009); see...

  8. Evaluation of Two CEDA Weatherization Pilot Implementations of an Exterior Insulation and Over-Clad Retrofit Strategy for Residential Masonry Buildings in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, Ken [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This project examines the implementation of an exterior insulation and over-clad strategy for brick masonry buildings in Chicago—a free-standing two story two-family dwelling and a larger free-standing multifamily building. The test homes selected for this research represent predominant housing types for the Chicago area, in which high heating energy use typical in these buildings threaten housing affordability, and uninsulated mass masonry wall assemblies are uncomfortable for residents. In this project, the Community and Economic Development Association of Cook County, Inc. (CEDA) has secured a Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) innovation grant sponsored by DOE to pursue a pilot implementation of innovative approaches to retrofit in masonry wall enclosures. The retrofit measures are evaluated in terms of feasibility, cost and performance. Through observations of the strategies implemented, the research described in this report identifies measures critical to performance as well as conditions for wider adoption. The research also identifies common factors that must be considered in determining whether the exterior insulation and over-clad strategy is appropriate for the building.

  9. Migration of itx (Isopropyl Thioxantone from Tetra Pak Bricks into Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jamnicki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of September 2005, itx, a photoinitiator used in uv cured ink, has been identified to have migrated from packaging to food products. Tetra Pak has identified the source of migration to be uv cured offset printing ink.The presence of itx in food packed in Tetra Pak bricks is the result of the contamination of the inner polyethylene layer of the box walls. itx can either migrate through the packaging material or it can reach the food by contact, for example, as a result of the print set-off phenomenon. Most likely, the transfer of itx was due to the physical contact between the printed outer layer with the inner layer of the packaging, whereby the ink or ink substance transfers from the print to the reverse of the adjacent sheet.Tetra Pak has committed itself to move away from this technology immediately and to use alternative printing technologies to ensure that there is no or minimal migration of itx or other substances from its packages.itx is still not on the eu’s negative list of banned substances in food nor does the World Health Organization (who categorize it as being detrimental to human health. After an investigation in the health risks of itx following the incident, the European Food Safety Authority (efsa concluded that the levels found in foods, “while undesirable, do not give cause for health concern.”

  10. Migration of ITX (Isopropyl Thioxantone from Tetra Pak Bricks into Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Jamnicki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of September 2005, ITX, a photoinitiator used in uv cured ink, has been identified to have migrated from packaging to food products. Tetra Pak has identified the source of migration to be uv cured offset printing ink.The presence of ITX in food packed in Tetra Pak bricks is the result of the contamination of the inner polyethylene layer of the box walls. ITX can either migrate through the packaging material or it can reach the food by contact, for example, as a result of the print set-off phenomenon. Most likely, the transfer of ITX was due to the physical contact between the printed outer layer with the inner layer of the packaging, whereby the ink or ink substance transfers from the print to the reverse of the adjacent sheet.Tetra Pak has committed itself to move away from this technology immediately and to use alternative printing technologies to ensure that there is no or minimal migration of ITX or other substances from its packages.ITX is still not on the eu’s negative list of banned substances in food nor does the World Health Organization (WHO categorize it as being detrimental to human health. After an investigation in the health risks of ITX following the incident, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA concluded that the levels found in foods, “while undesirable, do not give cause for health concern.”

  11. Study and constructive analysis of an office building

    OpenAIRE

    CORT AZCÁRRAGA, PAULA

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The development is based on the study and analysis of an office building located in Drongsesteenweg, Gent 9000. The building has 4 levels and basement. The structure is with prefabricated concrete, a very typical way to build in Belgium, only the basement was built in situ. Typology floor is hollow core slab, it is a prefabricated unidirectional floor. Stairs are prefabricated too, executed by a company specialized in this type works. To the facade they use two types of bricks, ceramic a...

  12. Assessment of Some Clay Deposits from Fatha Formation (M. Miocene for Brick Manufacturing in Koya Area, NE Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawzat R. Ismail

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of claystone sediments of Miocene age (Fatha Formation and their suitability to use them as raw materials in manufacturing of building clay brick in Kurdistan (Koya city. The study based on the field reconnaissance for three sites of claystones which were selected from three different locations within Fatha Formation in Koya city, includes Haibat-Sultan area, Koya-Sulaimania road and central of Koya city. The clay samples were subjected to particle size distribution, chemical composition, mineralogical analysis, plasticity index and XRD tests. Clay tiles were produced by using Semi-dry method under load 78 kN/mm² and fired at 950 C°. The produced clay tiles were subjected to water absorption, efflorescence, shrinkage and compressive strength tests. The research has shown that the plasticity index depends on the mineral composition of the raw materials. The grain size analysis of raw materials, physical properties and mechanical properties of the produced tiles has shown the suitability of the used raw materials in producing class bricks of class A (first class according to the requirements of specification of the Iraqi Standard (1993.

  13. Molecular mechanics of DNA bricks: in situ structure, mechanical properties and ionic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Scott Michael; Li, Chen-Yu; Yoo, Jejoong; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2016-05-01

    The DNA bricks method exploits self-assembly of short DNA fragments to produce custom three-dimensional objects with subnanometer precision. In contrast to DNA origami, the DNA brick method permits a variety of different structures to be realized using the same library of DNA strands. As a consequence of their design, however, assembled DNA brick structures have fewer interhelical connections in comparison to equivalent DNA origami structures. Although the overall shape of the DNA brick objects has been characterized and found to conform to the features of the target designs, the microscopic properties of DNA brick objects remain yet to be determined. Here, we use the all-atom molecular dynamics method to directly compare the structure, mechanical properties and ionic conductivity of DNA brick and DNA origami structures different only by internal connectivity of their consistituent DNA strands. In comparison to equivalent DNA origami structures, the DNA brick structures are found to be less rigid and less dense and have a larger cross-section area normal to the DNA helix direction. At the microscopic level, the junction in the DNA brick structures are found to be right-handed, similar to the structure of individual Holliday junctions (HJ) in solution, which contrasts with the left-handed structure of HJ in DNA origami. Subject to external electric field, a DNA brick plate is more leaky to ions than an equivalent DNA origami plate because of its lower density and larger cross-section area. Overall, our results indicate that the structures produced by the DNA brick method are fairly similar in their overall appearance to those created by the DNA origami method but are more compliant when subject to external forces, which likely is a consequence of their single crossover design.

  14. Fire protection design of deluge system installing on exterior walls of high-rise building%高层建筑外墙增设雨淋系统防火设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付邦举; 赵刚; 院琛

    2011-01-01

    通过对建筑外墙保温材料的火灾危险、防火措施进行分析,提出在建筑外墙增设雨淋系统以达到灭火控火作用的建议.对雨淋管道的布置位能、系统设置形式、设计参数、控制方式进行探讨.以某33层办公楼为例介绍外墙保护雨淋系统.管道布置方式为与室内消火栓系统合用,不用增加消防水池容积.不建议与自动喷水灭火系统合用.外墙雨淋系统若自动控制未能及时动作应可手动启动.%The suggestion that install deluge system on exteriorbuilding walls in order to control or extinguish fire was put forward through analyzing fire hazard and fire prevention measures of exterior wall materials. The pipeline position,system settings form, design parameters and control modes of deluge system were discussed. Deluge system on exterior walls with an example of a 33 layer office building was introduced. Piping layout mode was suggested to be combined with the indoor hydrant system, not automatic sprinkler system, without increasing the fire water volume. Deluge system on exterior walls should be started manually if the automatic control action delays.

  15. Three new bricks in the wall: Berkeley 23, Berkeley 31, and King 8

    CERN Document Server

    Cignoni, Michele; Bragaglia, Angela; Tosi, Monica

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive census of Galactic open cluster properties places unique constraints on the Galactic disc structure and evolution. In this framework we investigate the evolutionary status of three poorly-studied open clusters, Berkeley 31, Berkeley 23 and King 8, all located in the Galactic anti-centre direction. To this aim, we make use of deep LBT observations, reaching more than 6 mag below the main sequence Turn- Off. To determine the cluster parameters, namely age, metallicity, distance, reddening and binary fraction, we compare the observational colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with a library of synthetic CMDs generated with different evolutionary sets (Padova, FRANEC and FST) and metallicities. We find that Berkeley 31 is relatively old, with an age between 2.3 and 2.9 Gyr, and rather high above the Galactic plane, at about 700 pc. Berkeley 23 and King 8 are younger, with best fitting ages in the range 1.1-1.3 Gyr and 0.8-1.3 Gyr, respectively. The position above the Galactic plane is about 500- 600 pc...

  16. Another brick in the wall? Technology leaders, patents, and the threat of market entry

    OpenAIRE

    Heger, Diana; Zaby, Alexandra K.

    2014-01-01

    Technology leaders protecting a technological headstart with a patent are provided with a powerful legal measure to restrict market entry. We analyze the impact of knowledge spillover on the decision to patent and the effect of varying patent breadth on the threat of market entry. An empirical test of our theoretical results suggests that (i) a large technological lead is protected by a patent only in industries with high knowledge spillover, and that (ii) patent breadth can mitigate the mark...

  17. Entropy of quantum field in toroidal black hole without brick wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bo-Bo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the entropy of a toroidal black hole due to a scalar field is investigated by using the DLM scheme.The entropy is renormalized to the standard Bekenstein-Hawking formula with a one-loop correction arising from the higher curvature terms of the gravitational action. For the scalar field,the renormalized Newton constant and two renormalized coupling constants in the toroidal black hole are the same as those in the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole except for other one.

  18. Instructional Support for the Teaching of Critical Thinking: Looking Beyond the Red Brick Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Bowers

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many instructors appreciate the importance of developing the critical thinking skills of their students yet are unfamiliar with pedagogical approaches for teaching critical thinking. These instructors rely on instructional support from teaching and learning centers or online resources. It can be time consuming, however, for instructors to translate generic teaching strategies into actual lessons related to their course content. The purpose of this paper is to review an under-utilized source of discipline-specific instructional resources for teaching critical thinking: professional organizations. Many national organizations support education within their discipline by providing a variety of instructional materials, pedagogical approaches and a venue for sharing teaching tips and lessons by their members. Hundreds of professional organizations across dozens of disciplines were examined to determine the types of instructional support provided. Representative teaching resources from these organizations are documented from a variety of disciplinary areas.

  19. BREAKING THROUGH THE "BRICK WALL" — USING AN INTERDISCIPLINARY STRATEGY TO MARKET HIGH-TECH PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    ADAM PERRY TOW; Amit M. Joshi

    2011-01-01

    Marketing high-tech products poses challenges to classically trained marketers who may be unfamiliar with a product's underlying science or technology. Often such marketing teams, lacking scientific backgrounds, find it particularly difficult to interface with R&D and truly understand a product's inner workings — something we show to be critical to fully assessing a product for effective differentiation and marketing. By utilizing a novel marketing strategy, the Interdisciplinary Strategic Ma...

  20. INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL SHOCK BEHAVIOUR IN ALUMINA BASED REFRACTORY BRICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sinan KÖKSAL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available cUnderstanding of mechanical and thermal properties of refractory bricks used in industry is an important aspect to determine appropriate operating conditions. In this study, commercial refractory materials used in the sector of iron steel 45 % and 80 % alumina (Al2O3 of content refractory bricks were investigated. To determinate thermal shock behavior and mechanical properties of samples, thermal shock tests were applied by quenching in the water at the temperature differences of 500, 700, 900 and 1000 0 C. Three point bending test was examined for changes occured in the microstructure of materials. The critical temperature difference, modulus of rupture (MOR, changes of elastic modulus (E, thermal shock parameters such as resistance to crack initiation (R and resistance to crack propagation (R''' were calculated. Not with thermal treatment samples was examined same properties in the room temperature and to compare results of tests. The critical temperature difference of materials was found to be about 600 0 C. Crack start from samples of edges, space of spilling grains and microcracks occured around grains and they cause a damage by connecting to each other.

  1. Manufacture of sintered bricks of high density from beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium oxide bricks of nuclear purity 100 x 100 x 50 and 100 x 100 x 100 mm of very high density (between 2.85 and 3.00) are manufactured by sintering under pressure in graphite moulds at temperatures between 1,750 and 1,850 deg. C, and under a pressure of 150 kg/cm2. The physico-chemical state of the saw material is of considerable importance with regard to the success of the sintering operation. In addition, a study of the sintering of a BeO mixture with 3 to 5 per cent of boron introduced in the form of boric acid, boron carbide or elementary boron shows that high densities can only be obtained by sintering under pressure. For technical reasons of manufacture, only the mixture based on boron carbide is used. The sintering is carried out in graphite moulds at 1500 deg. C under 150 kg/cm2 pressure, and bricks can be obtained with density between 2,85 and 2,90. Laboratory studies and the industrial manufacture of various sinters are described in detail. (author)

  2. Utilizing wood wastes as reinforcement in wood cement composite bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusirat Aderinsola Sadiku

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research work undertaken to study the properties of Wood Cement Composite Bricks (WCCB from different wood wastes and cement / wood content. The WCBBs with nominal density of 1200 kg m-3 were produced from three tropical wood species and at varying cement and wood content of 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1 on a weight to weight basis. The properties evaluated were compressive strength, Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV, water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS. The Compressive strength values ranged from 0.25 to 1.13 N mm-2 and UPV values ranged from 18753 to 49992 m s-1. The mean values of WA after 672 hours (28 days of water soaking of the WCCBs ranged from 9.50% to 47.13% where there were no noticeable change in the TS of the bricks. The observed density (OD ranged from 627 to 1159 kg m-3. A. zygia from the three wood/cement content were more dimensionally stable and better in compressive strength than the other two species where T. scleroxylon had the best performance in terms of UPV. All the properties improved with increasing cement content. WCCBs at 3.0:1 cement/wood content are suitable for structural application such as panelling, ceiling and partitioning

  3. The Walls Come Tumbling Down: Decontamination and Demolition of 29 Manhattan Project and Cold War-Era Buildings and Structures at Los Alamos National Laboratory-12301

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the nation's top scientists and military leaders converged on Los Alamos, New Mexico in the 1943, to work on the Manhattan Project, the facilities they used to conduct their top-secret work were quickly constructed and located in the middle of what eventually became the Los Alamos town site. After one of these early facilities caught on fire, it seemed wise to build labs and production facilities farther away from the homes of the town's residents. They chose to build facilities on what was then known as Delta Prime (DP) Mesa and called it Technical Area 21, or TA-21. With wartime urgency, a number of buildings were built at TA-21, some in as little as a few months. Before long, DP Mesa was populated with several nondescript metal and cinder-block buildings, including what became, immediately following the war, the world's first plutonium production facility. TA-21 also housed labs that used hazardous chemicals and analyzed americium, tritium and plutonium. TA-21 was a bustling center of research and production for the next several decades. Additional buildings were built there in the 1960's, but by the 1990's many of them had reached the end of their service lives. Labs and offices were moved to newer, more modern buildings. When Los Alamos National Laboratory received $212 million in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in July 2009 for environmental cleanup projects, about $73 million of the funds were earmarked to decontaminate and demolish 21 of the old buildings at TA-21. Although some D and D of TA-21 buildings was performed in the 1990's, many of the facilities at DP Site remained relatively untouched for nearly three decades following their final operational use. In 2006, there were over three dozen buildings or structures on the mesa to be removed so that soil cleanup could be completed (and the land made available for transfer and reuse). The total footprint of buildings across the mesa was approximately 18,580 m2 (200,000 ft2

  4. Experimental scale model study of cracking in brick masonry under tensile and shear stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gálvez Ruiz, J. C.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of research conducted on the failure behaviour of brick masonry under tensile and shear stress. The study was designed to develop test models and generate experimental results able to provide greater insight into tensile and shear stresses cracking in brick masonry. The results of a campaign conducted with two types of specimens are discussed: 1 double-edge notched specimens under non-symmetrical compression stress, and 2 three point bending specimens under nonsymmetrical loading. Tests were run on specimens of similar size (similarity rate 2 and different bed joint orientation to determine how bed joint orientation affects crack propagation. The tests were conducted on scale models (1/4 of a single wythe, stretcher bond brickwork masonry wall one half foot thick.Este artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación realizada sobre el comportamiento en rotura de la fábrica de ladrillo bajo solicitaciones de tracción y cortante. La investigación está encaminada a proporcionar modelos de ensayo y resultados experimentales que permitan conocer mejor los procesos de agrietamiento de la fábrica de ladrillo bajo tensiones normales de tracción y tangenciales. Se presentan los resultados de una campaña experimental desarrollada con dos tipos de probeta: 1 la probeta compacta con doble entalla solicitada a compresión asimétrica, y 2 la probeta de flexión con entalla solicitada bajo carga asimétrica aplicada en tres puntos. Se han ensayado probetas de dos tamaños semejantes (razón de semejanza 2 y varias orientaciones de los tendeles, con el fin de ver cómo afecta la orientación de los tendeles en la propagación de las grietas. Los ensayos se han realizado con probetas a escala 1/4 de un muro de fábrica de ladrillo de una hoja a soga de medio pie de espesor.

  5. Influence of heat transfer on walls due to aerosol decomposition rate in the containment building of nuclear power plants during heavy incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, German nuclear power plants are leading in safety standards worldwide. Increasing potentials arise continuously along with improvements in technology. One of these potentials is the best-estimate simulation of fission product transport in case of a severe accident. A main part of the fission products is allocated on aerosols. Therefore, the aerosol behavior before containment leakage is important for the radioactive source term to the environment. Having a good knowledge about the main aerosol phenomena, it is possible to simulate them numerically. This enables to develop and test safety measures to limit damages before accidents occur. Within this study, the main aerosol phenomena have been ascertained and accordingly classified into formation, transport and reduction. On this basis, simulations of one- and multi-component aerosol experiments of the KAEVER series have been performed with the COCOSYS code. Due to an overprediction of the computed volume condensation rate, the results showed an overestimation of the reduction rate of insoluble aerosols. The reason was found to be the underestimation of the wall condensation rate. Based on an additional plain thermal hydraulic multi compartment experiment, these uncertainties in the wall heat transfer correlations were investigated in detail. The results show a strong dependency between the wall condensation rate and the convective heat transfer, resp. the characteristic length. In case of mainly forced convection, correct values for the characteristic length led to an underestimation of the calculated heat transfer coefficients. The analysis of the heat transfer models show an inconsistency in the coupling of free and forced convection. Therefore, an improved and consistent convection model has been developed and implemented. Both models have been tested on different experiments. Although the new model shows only minor improvements, it could be proven that the influence for forced convection is significant

  6. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulence Modeling for wind Flow past Wall Mounted Cubical Building Using Smagorinsky Scheme and validation using Artificial Neural Network for Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibhab Kumar Lodh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper will present the large eddy simulation of turbulence modeling for wind flow over a wall mounted 3D cubical model. The LES Smagorinsky scheme is employed for the numerical simulation. The domain for this study is of the size of 60 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm. The 3D cube model is taken of the size of 6 cm x 6 cm x 4 cm. The Reynolds number for the flow in respect of the height of the cube i.e, 4 cm is 5.3x104 . The hexahedral grids are used for the meshing of the flow domain. The results are discussed in terms of various parameters such as velocity profile around the cube and the computational domain, the pressure distribution over the cube, near wall velocity profile and the shear stress distribution and also the result of drag coefficient is verified by neural network time series analysis using MATLAB. In this present study we have used the OpenFoam platform for the computational and numerical analysis. The numerical scheme employed is the combination of the steady state incompressible Newtonian flow model using SIMPLE algorithm followed by the transient model of incompressible Newtonian flow using PISO algorithm. We have observed that there is a constant positive drag coefficient in case of steady state simulation where as there is a negative lift coefficient in the initial run and a very low lift coefficient at the end of the steady state simulation.

  7. STUDY ON THE CONNECTING BEAMS DESIGN OF SHEAR WALL IN HIGH-BUILDINGS%高层建筑剪力墙连梁设计的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范小平

    2012-01-01

    针对高层建筑剪力墙连梁具有跨高比(跨度与截面高度的相对比值)较小,而与之相连接的钢筋混凝土墙体刚度很大的特点.介绍了连梁的工作和破坏机理,并指出整体分析时剪力墙连梁模型建立的原则.通过结构设计中常遇到连梁超筋问题的讨论,提出了在实际设计中解决连梁超筋问题的方法及应注意的问题.%Connect beam has characteristics of small span and large size, also the stiffness of the wall between the beam is very large. The paper introduced working and failure mechanism of connecting beams, pointed out the establishment principle of the connecting beams of shear walls during the unitary analysis of structure. Over-reinforced connecting beam is often met in structure design , which is discussed in this article. The method to deal with the over-reinforced connecting beam and some notes to be paid attention to are put forward.

  8. Field Instrumentation With Bricks: Wireless Networks Built From Tough, Cheap, Reliable Field Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatland, D. R.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Heavner, M.

    2004-12-01

    We describe tough, cheap, reliable field computers configured as wireless networks for distributed high-volume data acquisition and low-cost data recovery. Running under the GNU/Linux open source model these network nodes ('Bricks') are intended for either autonomous or managed deployment for many months in harsh Arctic conditions. We present here results from Generation-1 Bricks used in 2004 for glacier seismology research in Alaska and Antarctica and describe future generation Bricks in terms of core capabilities and a growing list of field applications. Subsequent generations of Bricks will feature low-power embedded architecture, large data storage capacity (GB), long range telemetry (15 km+ up from 3 km currently), and robust operational software. The list of Brick applications is growing to include Geodetic GPS, Bioacoustics (bats to whales), volcano seismicity, tracking marine fauna, ice sounding via distributed microwave receivers and more. This NASA-supported STTR project capitalizes on advancing computer/wireless technology to get scientists more data per research budget dollar, solving system integration problems and thereby getting researchers out of the hardware lab and into the field. One exemplary scenario: An investigator can install a Brick network in a remote polar environment to collect data for several months and then fly over the site to recover the data via wireless telemetry. In the past year Brick networks have moved beyond proof-of-concept to the full-bore development and testing stage; they will be a mature and powerful tool available for IPY 2007-8.

  9. USE OF FLY ASH TO SAVE FERTILE SOIL: IN CONVENTIONAL BRICK INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhesh P. Narvekar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The brick sector in India is the second largest producer in the world after China. It is estimated to produce 140 billion bricks annually but consuming 24 million of coal as well as biomass. The estimated C02 emissions from the brick sector are 41.6 million tons and consume about 350 million tons of top soil every year for the brick production. Although there are various drawbacks of this trade since this is the one of the main part of Indian economy this cannot be blocked. Hence there are various researches are ongoing to reduce its horrific effect on the environment. We have tried to use Fly Ash as a replacement material to the Fertile Soil. In this we have done various laboratory tests at K.I.T.’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur’s laboratory and manufactured bricks and baked in small scale kiln installed at college campus. The results are compared with the plain bricks the comparison shows the advantages of the replacement which will be definitely helpful to reduce the drawbacks in brick industry.

  10. Durability of fired clay bricks containing granite powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier, G. C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, hundreds of papers have been published on the benefits of including rock powder as a raw material in fired clay brick manufacture. Very little has been written, however, about the durability and long-term behaviour of the final product. As a rule, the ceramic bricks used in construction in developing countries are fired at low temperatures, which detracts from their mechanical performance. This is particularly visible in harsh environmental conditions, where weathering causes severe deterioration. The present paper describes the impact of weathering on clay bricks containing from 0 to 10% granite powder, an industrial by-product. The specimens were fired at 500, 700 or 900 ºC and subsequently exposed to natural environmental conditions or accelerated laboratory weathering. Their physical and mechanical properties were evaluated to determine the effect of the composition of raw materials on fired clay product durability.

    En las últimas décadas se han publicado cientos de artículos sobre las ventajas de incluir polvo de roca como materia prima en la fabricación de los ladrillos cerámicos. Sin embargo, la durabilidad y el comportamiento a largo plazo del producto final han sido objeto de pocas investigaciones. Por lo general, los ladrillos cerámicos empleados en la construcción en los países en vías de desarrollo se cuecen a temperaturas bajas, lo que impide el desarrollo de sus propiedades mecánicas. Esto queda especialmente patente cuando las condiciones ambientales son severas, en cuyo caso la meteorización puede provocar un deterioro importante. En este artículo se describe el efecto de la meteorización en ladrillos cerámicos que incorporaban entre un 0 y un 10% de polvo de granito, que es un derivado industrial. Las probetas se cocieron a 500, 700 o 900 °C y luego se sometieron a condiciones ambientales naturales o a un proceso de laboratorio de meteorización acelerada. Se evaluaron sus

  11. 新型墙材建筑节能材料技术研究%Research on New Wall Materials and Energy-saving Building Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹明妍

    2015-01-01

    随着资源危机越来越严重,节能减排成为社会发展要解决的重点问题,节能建筑也逐渐受到社会认可,并在逐步推广;同时,相关的科研机构加大了研发力度,开发出了各种新型建筑节能材料,本文对这些新型的建筑节能材料进行了研究。%With the growing of more and more serious crisis of resources ,energy conservation has become the key issues to be addressed and social development ,energy-efficient buildings are gradually being recognized by society,and gradually extended ,at the same time,the relevant research institutions increase research and development efforts,and developed a variety of new energy-saving building materials,these new building energy-saving materials were studied in the paper.

  12. Wonderful Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

  13. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...

  14. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Estimates from South Asian Clay Brick Production Based on Direct Emission Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyant, C.; Athalye, V.; Ragavan, S.; Rajarathnam, U.; Kr, B.; Lalchandani, D.; Maithel, S.; Malhotra, G.; Bhanware, P.; Thoa, V.; Phuong, N.; Baum, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    About 150-200 billion clay bricks are produced in India every year. Most of these bricks are fired in small-scale traditional kilns that burn coal or biomass without pollution controls. Reddy and Venkataraman (2001) estimated that 8% of fossil fuel related PM2.5 emissions and 23% of black carbon emissions in India are released from brick production. Few direct emissions measurements have been done in this industry and black carbon emissions, in particular, have not been previously measured. In this study, 9 kilns representing five common brick kiln technologies were tested for aerosol properties and gaseous pollutant emissions, including optical scattering and absorption and thermal-optical OC/EC. Simple relationships are then used to estimate the radiative-forcing impact. Kiln design and fuel quality greatly affect the overall emission profiles and relative climate warming. Batch production kilns, such as the Downdraft kiln, produce the most PM2.5 (0.97 gPM2.5/fired brick) with an OC/EC fraction of 0.3. Vertical Shaft Brick kilns using internally mixed fuels produce the least PM (0.09 gPM2.5/kg fired brick) with the least EC (OC/EC = 16.5), but these kilns are expensive to implement and their use throughout Southern Asia is minimal. The most popular kiln in India, the Bull's Trench kiln, had fewer emissions per brick than the Downdraft kiln, but an even higher EC fraction (OC/EC = 0.05). The Zig-zag kiln is similar in structure to the Bull's Trench kiln, but the emission factors are significantly lower: 50% reduction for CO, 17% for PM2.5 and 60% for black carbon. This difference in emissions suggests that converting traditional Bull's Trench kilns into less polluting Zig-zag kilns would result in reduced atmospheric warming from brick production.

  15. Dynamic analysis of moisture transport through walls and associated cooling loads in the hot/humid climate of Florianopolis, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, N.; Winkelmann, F.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Lamberts, R.; Philippi, P.C.; Da Cunha Neto, J.A.B. [Federal Univ. of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1996-04-01

    The authors describe the use of a dynamic model of combined heat and mass transfer to analyze the effects on cooling loads of transient moisture storage and transport through walls with porous building materials, under varying boundary conditions. The materials studied were brick, lime mortar and autoclaved cellular concrete. The physical properties of these materials, such as mass transport coefficients, thermal conductivity and specific heat, were taken to be functions of moisture content. The simulation results were compared to those obtained by pure conduction heat transfer without moisture effects. Also analyzed were the influence on cooling loads of high moisture content due to rain soaking of materials, and the influence of solar radiation on sunny and cloudy days. The weather used was a hot/humid summer period in Florianopolis (South Brazil). It is shown that neglecting moisture migration or assuming that the physical properties of wall materials do not depend on moisture content can result in large errors in sensible and latent heat transfer.

  16. Radon-222 exhalation from Danish building materials: H + H Industri A/S results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.E

    1999-08-01

    This report describes a closed-chamber method for laboratory measurements of the rate at which radon-222 degasses (exhales) from small building material samples. The chamber is 55 L in volume and the main sample geometry is a slab of dimensions 5x30x30 cm{sup 3} . Numerical modelling is used to assess (and partly remove) the bias of the method relative to an ideal measurement of the free exhalation rate. Experimental results obtained with the method are found to be in agreement with the results of an open-chamber method (which is subject to different sources of error). Results of radon-222 exhalation rate measurements for 10 samples of Danish building materials are reported. Samples include ordinary concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete, autoclaved aerated concrete, bricks, and gypsum board. The maximum mass-specific exhalation rate is about 20 mBq h{sup -1} kg{sup -1}. Under consideration of the specific applications of the investigated building materials, the contribution to the indoor radon-222 concentration in a single-family reference house is calculated. Numerical modelling is used to help extrapolate the laboratory measurements on small samples to full scale walls. Application of typical materials will increase the indoor concentration by less than 10 Bq m{sup -3}. (au) 6 tabs., 15 ills., 29 refs.

  17. Gamma-ray energy buildup factor calculations and shielding effects of some Jordanian building structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, J. M.; Saleh, H.

    2015-05-01

    The shielding properties of three different construction styles, and building materials, commonly used in Jordan, were evaluated using parameters such as attenuation coefficients, equivalent atomic number, penetration depth and energy buildup factor. Geometric progression (GP) method was used to calculate gamma-ray energy buildup factors of limestone, concrete, bricks, cement plaster and air for the energy range 0.05-3 MeV, and penetration depths up to 40 mfp. It has been observed that among the examined building materials, limestone offers highest value for equivalent atomic number and linear attenuation coefficient and the lowest values for penetration depth and energy buildup factor. The obtained buildup factors were used as basic data to establish the total equivalent energy buildup factors for three different multilayer construction styles using an iterative method. The three styles were then compared in terms of fractional transmission of photons at different incident photon energies. It is concluded that, in case of any nuclear accident, large multistory buildings with five layers exterior walls, style A, could effectively attenuate radiation more than small dwellings of any construction style.

  18. In Plan Shear Retrofit of Masonry Walls with Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites Experimental Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Nagy-György

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results from tests on clay brick masonry walls strengthened using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composites. Five 1.50x1.50 m wall specimens have been subjected to pure in plan shear loads up to failure and then retrofitted on one side, with different types, percentages and lay-ups of the fiber sheets. Based on the experi¬mental results, it was proven the effectiveness of using externally bonded composites for retrofitting brick masonry walls, with less disruption during strengthening, and in this way with reduced costs compared with other conventional repairing and strengthening tech¬niques. Performances of the different strengthening configurations were compared in terms of ultimate load, strain in composite and failure mechanism.

  19. Fiber Reinfoced Polymer Used for Flooding Protection of Engineering Structures Made of RC and Brick Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Oprişan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban and rural floods are becoming nowadays a frequent problem to be dealt with, by both the population and the authorities. Floods and flood related natural disasters act against the civil, industrial and agricultural structures by the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressures of water. A set of protective solutions based on Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP composite materials, for structural elements of buildings subjected to flood loadings, is proposed and analysed. These solutions are achieved by using the hand lay-up forming technique utilizing glass, carbon or aramid fibers fabrics pre-impregnated with thermosetting epoxy, polyester or vynilester resins. The application of these FRP composites is carried out on reinforced concrete columns and beams as well as on brick masonry works aiming to increase in the overall load bearing capacity, especially against horizontal loads. An improved protection against excessive humidity is also envisaged. The Finite Elements Method based LUSAS software was used to simulate a partially flooded structure. The numerical modeling was carried out in both the un-strengthened and strengthened conditions of the structure in order to assess the increasing in load and deformation capacities of the structural elements. Volumetric finite elements were used for modeling the concrete and masonry members.

  20. The Effects of Non—Metal Additives on Hydration Reisitance of MgO—C Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYAGNG; WANGRuikun; 等

    2000-01-01

    The general method of solving the problem of hydration of MgO-C brick is by adding with metal Si,Mg or compround metal additives,but metal additives have bad effect on the MgO-C brick,The test tried adding non-metal additives to matrix material.The results showed that a suitable amount of this kind of additives not only inhibits hydration of MgO-C brick and does not affect corrosion resistance and avoids thermal expansion,but also can improve oxidation resistance.

  1. Utilization of mixed pond ash in integrated steel plant for manufacturing superior quality bricks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Piyush Kant Pandey; Raj Kumar Agrawal

    2002-10-01

    Fly ash (FA) poses serious problems to the industries. Integrated steel plants generate huge quantity of FA from their captive power plants and other furnaces. This ash is generally disposed off in the ash ponds along with other sludges and residues of steel making operations. This changes the constitution of FA and makes the brick manufacturing difficult. This paper has attempted to devise the ways for the use of this mixed ash for manufacturing mixed ash clay bricks successfully. The bricks thus made are superior in structural and aesthetic qualities and portents huge saving in the manufacturing costs with better consumer response.

  2. A New Norisoprenoid and Other Compounds from Fuzhuan Brick Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chun Wan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fuzhuan brick tea, a kind of dark tea consumed mainly in the border regions of Southwestern and Northwestern China since the 1860s, is produced from the leaves of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis by microbial fermentation. From this special fermented tea, a new norisoprenoid, 3R,9R-oxido-5-megastigmene, was isolated, together with α-linolenic acid, strictin, isovitexin, astragalin, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin, (−-epicatechin gallate, (+-gallocatechin, (−-epigallocatechin, (−-epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid. The structures of the compounds were identified by spectroscopic means. The new compound didn’t show any inhibition activity against the tested enteric pathogenic microorganisms at a concentration of 800 μg/mL by the hole plate diffusion method.

  3. 北京地区农村砖木结构振动台试验研究%Shaking table test on a typical brick-timber structure model in rural areas of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王满生; 杨威; 陈俞; 纪晓东; 赵作周; 钱稼茹

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the seismic resistant capacity of typical brick-timber structures in rural areas of Beijing, a 2/3 scaled typical brick-timber structure model with timber columns, wood roof and brick peripheral walls was designed and tested on a shaking table, which is a single-story brick-timber structure with three bays. According to the national seismic design code GB50011 ,the seismic precautionary intensity is 8 for most rural areas in Beijing. Different dynamic base excitation levels, such as design small earthquake with PGA =0. 072g, design middle earthquake with PGA = 0.2g and great earthquake with PGA =0.4g respectively, were input to the model. Dynamic responses and cracking characteristics on the brick walls were recorded. Based on the test results, the seismic resistant capacity of the model was obtained and analyzed. It was found that due to different lateral resisting stiffness of the front wall and the back wall for different door or window openings, the response of the front wall was far greater than that of the back wall in the longitudinal direction. This leads to out plan flexure of the end brick wall, some key technologies for how to strengthen and retrofit the existing rural brick-timber structure in Beijing are pointed out.%为了了解北京地区典型砖木结构(木柱支撑,木屋盖,外砖墙)农村住宅结构的抗震能力,根据北京地区这类农村住宅结构的调研结果,本文介绍了一座典型砖木结构单层三开间农村住宅2/3缩尺振动台试验结构模型的设计与动力试验结果.按照北京地区8度抗震设防的要求,分别完成了模型在设计小震(0.072g)、中震(0.2g)和大震(0.4g)条件下的振动台动力试验,量测了模型的动力响应,记录了不同激励水平下模型的开裂情况.基于试验结果,分析了这种结构的抗震能力以及该类型房屋的抗震薄弱点,为制定这类结构的抗震加固方案提供依据.

  4. An assessment of cumulative external doses from Chernobyl fallout for a forested area in Russia using the optically stimulated luminescence from quartz inclusions in bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramzaev, V.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov;

    2008-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has been used for estimation of the accumulated doses in quartz inclusions obtained from two fired bricks, extracted in July 2004 from a building located in the forested surroundings of the recreational area Novie Bobovichi, the Bryansk Region, Russia...... starting on 27 April 1986 and ending on 31 July 2004. This result is in good agreement with the result of deterministic modelling of the cumulative gamma-ray dose in free air above undisturbed ground from the Chernobyl source in the Bryansk Region. Over the same time period, the external Chernobyl...

  5. Radiological risk of building materials using homemade airtight radon chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab.; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Soil based building materials known to contain various amounts of natural radionuclide mainly {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K. In general most individuals spend 80% of their time indoors and the natural radioactivity in building materials is a main source of indoor radiation exposure. The internal exposure due to building materials in dwellings and workplaces is mainly caused by the activity concentrations of short lived {sup 222}Radon and its progenies which arise from the decay of {sup 226}Ra. In this study, the indoor radon concentration emanating from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were measured in a homemade airtight radon chamber using continuous radon monitor 1029 model of Sun Nuclear. Radon monitor were left in the chamber for 96 hours with an hour counting time interval. From the result, the indoor radon concentrations for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples determined were 396 Bq m{sup −3}, 192 Bq m{sup −3}, 176 Bq m{sup −3} and 28 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. The result indicates that the radon concentration in the studied building materials have more than 100 Bq m{sup −3} i.e. higher than the WHO action level except for Portland cement sample. The calculated annual effective dose for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were determined to be 10 mSv y{sup −1}, 4.85 mSv y{sup −1}, 4.44 mSv y{sup −1} and 0.72 mSv y{sup −1}, respectively. This study showed that all the calculated effective doses generated from indoor radon to dwellers or workers were in the range of limit recommended ICRP action levels i.e. 3 - 10 mSv y{sup −1}. As consequences, the radiological risk for the dwellers in terms of fatal lifetime cancer risk per million for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement were calculated to be 550, 267, 244 and 40 persons respectively.

  6. Design of Control System for High rise Buildings Glass wall Cleaning Robot%玻璃幕墙清洗机器人爬壁运动控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永平; 张世一; 蔺卡宾

    2015-01-01

    针对高层建筑玻璃幕墙清洗问题,开发了一种双层结构玻璃幕墙清洗机器人,对机械人本体结构及爬壁运动控制系统进行设计,以 FPGA 芯片为核心,对控制系统各部分硬件进行设计选型,并编写上位机控制软件。采用模糊 PID 算法对步进电机实现闭环控制,利用 Matlab 软件对步进电机进行了仿真分析。仿真结果表明,机器人运行状态稳定,具有较高的实用性。%To solve the problem of glass wall cleaning for high rise buildings,this research de-veloped a kind of glass curtain wall cleaning robot with a double layer structure,and designed the ro-bot structure and wall climbing motion control sys-tem.The various hardware components of the con-trol system are designed with FPGA chip at the core,and the host control software is written at the same time.Fuzzy PID algorithm is used to a-chieve closed loop control of the stepper motor, and the motor is analyzed with Matlab.Simulation results indicates that the robot’s running status is stable and has high practicability.

  7. 工业厂房外墙保温材料性价比评价与决策研究%Qualitative Analysis and Evaluation for Decision-making of Industrial Building Exterior Wall Thermal Insulation Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷海成

    2013-01-01

    The selection and decision-making of industrial building exterior wall thermal insulation material was made only by qualitative analysis and evaluation to the technical indexes and economic indexes, its credibility is not high, and easy to make errors to decision-making. Based on efficacy coefficient method, considering multiple indicators of technical and economic aspects, several common exterior wall thermal insulation materials were investigated in the article, so as to evaluate the best one on cost-performance ratio, which not only ensure the quality, but also save engineering cost, and provide the reliable basis for the selection decision.%对于工业厂房外墙保温材料的选用与决策,通常仅仅凭借对技术指标和经济指标的定性分析与评价,可信度不高,也容易决策失误。本文运用功效系数法,考虑技术经济方面的多项指标,对几种常用的外墙保温材料加以考察,从而评价出性价比最佳的一种,既能保证质量,又可节约工程成本,并为选用决策提供可靠依据。

  8. Exploration of a Buried Building Foundation and a Septic Tank Plume Dispersion Using a Laboratory-fabricated Resistivity Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachhab, A.; Stepanik, N.; Booterbaugh, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the following study, an electrical resistivity device was built and used in both a laboratory setup and in the field to accurately identify the location of a septic tank and the foundation of Gustavus Adolphus (GA); a building that was burned at Susquehanna University in 1964. The entire apparatus, which costs a fraction of the price of a typical electrical resistivity device, was tested for accuracy in the laboratory prior to its use in the field. The electrical resistivity apparatus consists of a deep-cycle twelve volt battery, an AC to DC inverter and two multimeters to measure the potential and the current intensity from four linear electrodes via a wireless data transmission system. This apparatus was constructed by using basic inexpensive electrical and electronic equipments. The recorded potential and current values were used to calculate the apparent resistivity of different materials adopting the Wenner array for both investigations. Several tests were performed on the tabletop bench, producing consistent results when applied to find small bricks structures with different geometrical arrangement buried under a mixed sand-soil formation. The apparatus was also used to investigate a subsurface salty water plume in the same formation. The horizontal resistivity profile obtained over the vertical small brick wall matched the theoretical apparent resistivity of resistivity versus displacement on a vertical dike in a homogeneous material. In addition, the two-dimensional resistivity profile replicate the salty plume size conformably. Following the success on the small-scale laboratory tabletop bench, the electrical resistivity apparatus was implemented in the field to explore the foundation of GA in one location and the septic tank in another. An array of transects were performed, analyzed and plotted using MATLAB. The three dimensional contours of apparent resistivity depicted exactly the locations of the buried foundation walls, the septic tank and the

  9. Summary of Running and Operation of Aqueduct Building Machine for U-shaped Aqueduct with Large Span and Thin Wall%大跨度薄壁 U形渡槽造槽机运行操作综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继红

    2014-01-01

    南水北调中线湍河渡槽大跨度薄壁 U型渡槽通过现场实践验证和不断优化,工程运用DZ40/1600型渡槽造槽机操作工艺合理、简便,满足工程设计要求;浇筑完成的槽身,经检测其结构尺寸和施工质量均满足设计要求,为大型渡槽造槽机施工积累了宝贵的经验。%the operational technology on the aqueduct building machine (model:DZ40/1600) for construction of the u-shaped aqueduct with large span and thin wall on the aqueduct over the Tuan River on the middle route of the south-to-north water diversion project is proved reasonable and simple through the site practice and continuous optimization of the machine, satisfying the engineering design re-quirements.The aqueduct body after being constructed and measured meets the design requirements in terms of structural sizes and con-struction quality.Therefore, application of this aqueduct building machine accumulates experience for the construction of the large aque-ducts.

  10. 什邡市某已建住宅楼工程墙体裂缝控制%Crack Control for Walls in an Existing Residential Building in Shifang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡兴福

    2014-01-01

    什邡市某6层砖混结构住宅楼,主体完工4个月后底层局部墙体出现裂缝。经分析,该建筑局部地基为软土,其含水量大、渗透性差,原设计采用的振冲法处理效果差,从而导致局部地基承载力不足、地基沉降量大且不均匀。针对墙体裂缝原因,采用灰土桩加固软土地基,同时采用钢筋混凝土梁加固基础,加固效果良好。%Cracks were emerged from partial ground-floor walls of a six-floor residential building with a masonry-concrete structure in Shifang, 4 months after the main body had completed. According to analysis, it was soft soil in the local foundation of this building, with large water content and poor permeability, the vibroflotation reinforcement effect was poor from the original design, resulted in insufficient carrying capacity of local foundation, and large and uneven of the foundation settlement amount . Based on these reasons, favourable effects of foundation stabilization are arisen from consolidated soft soil with lime-soil piles and reinforced foundation by applying reinforced concrete beams.

  11. 浅谈绿色建筑材料在墙体保温工程中的应用%Application of Green Building Materials in Wall Insulation Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾涛; 苗方利

    2014-01-01

    The production and business model of housing industry save time and labor, reduce costs, save contraction period. Building materials and products are the basic material elements of housing construction. Housing industry puts forward new demands for new materials and new products from the specification, quality and performance. This paper will research the application of green building materials in wall insulation project.%住宅产业化的生产和经营模式省工省时、降低成本、节约工期。建材和制品是住宅建设基本的物质要素。住宅产业化对新建材和新制品从规格、质量、性能上都将提出新的要求。本文将研究绿色建筑材料在墙体保温工程中的应用。

  12. Screening of waste for use in clay-based bricks in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;

    2014-01-01

    of hazardous waste, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes and minetailings from Greenland, were investigated in order to determine their potential suitability for incorporationin the production of clay-based bricks. Furthermore, the MSWI fly ash was subjected to two remediation techniques......Clay-based ceramics, such as bricks, are heterogeneous materials, which can incorporate raw materials ofwide ranging compositions, without impairing their technical properties (Dondi et al., 1997a,b). Due to thisability, bricks have become a popular material in waste management research worldwide...... and several studies have demonstrated that clay-based bricks and tiles can successfully accommodate waste types,such as incineration ashes, mine tailings and dredged harbour sediments (Zhang et al., 2011; Roy et al.,2007; Mezencevova et al., 2012). In the vulnerable Arctic environment, the impact...

  13. A view of microstructure with technological behavior of waste incorporated ceramic bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, G.; Viruthagiri, G.

    2015-01-01

    Production of ceramic bricks from mixtures of ceramic industry wastes (up to 50 wt%) from the area of Vriddhachalam, Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India and kaolinitic clay from Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala were investigated. The firing behavior of the ceramic mixtures was studied by determining their changes in mineralogy and basic ceramic properties such as water absorption, porosity, compressive strength and firing shrinkage at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200 °C in short firing cycles. The effect of the rejects addition gradually up to 50 wt% was analyzed with the variation of temperature on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the bricks. The highest compressive strength and lowest water absorption is observed for the sample with 40% rejects at 1100 °C which is supported by the results of SEM analysis. The resulting ceramic bricks exhibit features that suggest possibilities of using the ceramic rejects in the conventional brick making methods.

  14. Engineering Properties of Locally Manufactured Burnt Brick Pavers for Agrarian and Rural Earth Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A. OkunadeBurnt brick pavers

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the possibility of employing burnt bricks produced locally by completely traditional methods as pavers on unpaved agrarian and rural earth roads in indigent communities. The pavers would eliminate the problems on such roads of being waterlogged and impassible during the rainy season months and those of environmental and health hazards from raised dust during the dry season months. Three clay soils were investigated in the Ado region of Western Nigeria. Burnt brick pavers were produced using entirely traditional methods readily available in the indigent and rural environments. The engineering properties of the brick pavers were determined and it was found that they satisfied the requirements stipulated by ASTM C 902 Specification for Pedestrian and Light Traffic Paving Brick, thus making them suitable for usage on the earth roads.

  15. Development of Long Life Magnesia—carbon Brick for UHP Electric Arc Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNYufei; WANGXuemei

    2000-01-01

    The corrosion mechanism of high ferric oxide slag to the magnesia-carbon brick for UHP furnace was analyzed,and the magnesia-carbon brick with high ferric oxide slag resistance was develped by selecting specially processed fused magnesite and changing size distrbution and the additives.The magnesia-carbon brick has good affinity to the slag and could adhere the slag efficiently in usage,It has better slag corrosion resistance and high temperature strength than the ordinary magnesia-carbon brick It showed better adaptable to the high ferric oxide slag when it was first used in 1999 in 150t UHP furnace of Tianjing Steel Pipe Company ,and achieved 400 heats service life.

  16. Straight Joint Shear Performance Test of Urban Sludge Sintered Shale Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the actual engineering design, it is too conservative for the calculation results for the urban sludge sintered shale brick to use the shear strength formula in the Design Specifications of Masonry Structure. To more effectively calculate this formula, this paper researches the straight joint shear performance test of urban sludge sintered solid shale bricks and porous brick masonry, and analyzes the failure mode of two kinds of brick masonry, and reaches the proposed formula of the straight joint shear strength. Then, this paper compares the proposed formula with the corresponding formulas in the specification, and reaches a high safety stock of the formula in the specification, and needs to correct the coefficient of material properties in the formula in the specification.

  17. Anisotropy of Expansion Coefficient and Slag Resistance of Spinel Carbon Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ding'ao; YUAN Shouqian; JIANG Mingxue; DONG Sunzhen; ZHAO Zijian

    2006-01-01

    Effects of the pressure direction on the thermal expansion and slag corrosion resistance were investigated and anisotropic microstructures of flaky graphite in spinel carbon bricks were examined. The experimental results show that slag corrosion velocities in the direction parallel to the pressure direction display a decrease of 34% compared to those in the vertical direction. Meantime, the linear expansion coefficient in the direction parallel to the pressure direction is 2.45 times as large as that in the vertical pressure direction. Slag corrosion velocities of spinel carbon bricks soaked in the AOD melting slag display a 46%-47% decrease compared to those of magnesia carbon bricks. The microstructure observation shows that spinel carbon bricks have a high degree of preferred orientation.

  18. Development and Application of High Quality Silica Brick for Coke Ovens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHongmei; XIAOChangyu

    1998-01-01

    As coke oven becoming larger,silica brick for coke oven is required to be of high uqality,Luoyang Refractories(Grop)Co.Ltd.(LRCO) has re-searched the mineralizer which contains Ca2+,R+,Al3+,F-,emphatically and proposed the principle of composite mineralizer basd on the properties of raw materials used .High performance silia brick which is characterized by low thermal expansion rate,good high temperature properties,residual quartz<0.5%,true density 2.31,and high bulk density silica brick for carbonization room with apparent porosity 13% ,bulk density l.96 g/cm3 have been developed and produced successfully by LR-CO.The quality of the bricks has reached the inter-national advenced level.

  19. INFLUENCE OF SULFATE AND CHLORIDE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FIRED CLAY MASONRY WALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohd haziman bin wan ibrahim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of aggressive environment on the mechanical properties of masonry systems. The investigation involved the measurement of strength and modulus of elasticity of single leaf brick masonry wall which were built from fired clay bricks in conjunction with designation (iii mortar with proportions of 1: 1: 6 (OPC: lime: sand. After being constructed, the specimens were cured under polythene sheet for 14 days in a controlled environment room with 80 ± 5% relative humidity and temperature of 25 ± 2ºC. The specimens were then exposed to the solution containing sodium sulfate and sodium chloride. The strength and modulus of elasticity of the brickworks were determined at the ages of 28, 56 and 180 days. The strength and modulus of elasticity of the brickworks, unbonded bricks, and mortar prisms were determined at the ages of 28, 56 and 180 days to quantify the contribution of bricks and mortar on the deformation of the masonry walls. As a result, fired clay brickwork is not durable and deteriorate in the environment containing sodium sulfate but durable in sodium chloride. The deterioration of the brickwork clearly influenced by the deterioration of mortar joint. The present of sodium chloride also retarding the attack of sodium sulphate.

  20. Natural radioactivity in building materials used in Changzhi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Lu, Xinwei; Zhao, Caifeng; Li, Nan

    2013-08-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used building materials collected from Changzhi, China was analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the investigated building materials range from 14.6 to 131.2, from 9.9 to 138.8 and from 96.1 to 819.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The results were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide mean activity of soil. The external and internal hazard indices and gamma index were calculated to assess the radiation hazard to residents. The external hazard index of all building materials are less than unity, while the internal hazard and gamma indexes of hollow brick and gravel aggregate exceed unity. The study shows that the investigated hollow brick and gravel aggregate are not suitable for use as building materials in dwellings.

  1. Transport-related CO2 effects of online and brick-and-mortar shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Anne; Toporowski, Waldemar; Zielke, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    , returns, the use of public transport modes and information behavior via different channels influence the outcome of this comparison. The results show that online retailing causes lower CO2 emissions under many conditions. Nevertheless, the brick-and-mortar channel is more environmentally friendly when...... travel distances are small. The radius for which brick-and-mortar shopping has an advantage increases when returns, shifts in the use of public transport and information behavior are also considered....

  2. Chinese Standards on Refractories Shaped Insulating Refractory Product-High Alumina Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,shape and dimension,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedure,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of high alumina insulating bricks. High alumina insulating bricks are used as working layer which contacts with fire directly,insulating layer,or inner lining of the kilns which does not react with the high temperature molten materials and corrosion gases.

  3. Development and Application of High Quality Magnesite—Chrome Bricks for VOD Refining Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENKaixian; XUYanqing; 等

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the process of producing high quality magnesite-chrome bricks for VOD re-fining furnace,The service life reaches 14 heats,average life 12 heats.The studies show that the wear of the magnesity-chrome bricks is mainly due to chemical corrosion,thermal spalling induced by thermal shock and the corrosion aroused from accumulation of molten materials in transition zone.

  4. Development and Application of High Quality Magnesite—Chrome Bricks fro VOD Refining Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENKai-xian; XUYan-qing; 等

    1995-01-01

    The paper describe the process of producing high quality magnesite-chrome bricks for VOD refining furnace,The Service life reaches 14 heasts,average life 12 heats.The studies show that the wear of the magnesite-chrome bricks is mainly due to chemical corrosion,thermal spalling induced by thermal shock and the corro-sion aroused from accumulation of molten mate-rials in transitional zone.

  5. Engineering Properties of Locally Manufactured Burnt Brick Pavers for Agrarian and Rural Earth Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel A. OkunadeBurnt brick pavers

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the possibility of employing burnt bricks produced locally by completely traditional methods as pavers on unpaved agrarian and rural earth roads in indigent communities. The pavers would eliminate the problems on such roads of being waterlogged and impassible during the rainy season months and those of environmental and health hazards from raised dust during the dry season months. Three clay soils were investigated in the Ado region of Western Nigeria. Burnt brick pavers w...

  6. Determine the Compressive Strength of Calcium Silicate Bricks by Combined Nondestructive Method

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of combined nondestructive method for assessment of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks. In this case, it is a combination of the rebound hammer method and ultrasonic pulse method. Calibration relationships for determining compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks obtained from nondestructive parameter testing for the combined method as well as for the L-type Schmidt rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse method are quoted here. Calibration ...

  7. The Mechanical Strength Property of Brick Material and its Impact on the Processing Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cui-ming; WANG Qi-chao; YANG Ping

    2011-01-01

    A large number of experiments have been done for analyzing the two important indicators -compressive strength and flexural strength, which affect computer numerical control (CNC) engraving material physical properties. Using Matlab for simulation experiment, the processing quality of different intensity brick materials is analyzed by the theory of fracture toughness. The result show that porosity is an important factor for engraving, and the research also provide a reference for further study which can improve the quality of brick carving.

  8. Clay-Brick Firing in a High-Temperature Solar Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villeda-Muñoz G.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The firing process for clay-brick production in traditional kilns generates atmospheric pollution when industrial and domestic scrap is used as fuel. An alternative is presented here, using the solar energy for clay-brick firing. We are developing a system for clay-brick firing to reach temperatures between 900°C and 1050°C; these temperatures are sufficiently high to fire bricks or similar ceramic products. The present paper describes the design and characterization of the components of a solar furnace for clay-brick firing with inner chamber dimensions of 0.48 × 0.61 × 0.64 m. To convey the sunlight to the firing chamber, a heliostat with nine 1 × 1 m mirrors is used to send the rays of the sun to an off-axis parabolic concentrator that focuses the light on the entrance of the firing chamber. The heliostat has a solar-tracking system which makes primary and secondary adjustments to assure that the reflected solar radiation always arrives at the concentrator. The firing chamber contains a prismatic cavity that absorbs the solar radiation to generate the heat which is needed for baking the bricks inside the firing chamber.

  9. Preparation and characterization of regenerated MgO-CaO refractory bricks sintered under different atmospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-bo Qiu; Chang-sheng Yue; Xiang Li; Min Guo; Mei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Regenerated MgO–CaO brick samples containing 80wt%, 70wt%, and 60wt%MgO were prepared using spent MgO–CaO bricks and fused magnesia as raw materials and paraffin as a binder. The bricks were sintered at 1873 K for 2 h under an air atmosphere and under an isolating system. The microstructure, mechanical properties at room temperature, and hydration resistance of the regenerated samples were measured and compared. The results indicated that the isolating sintering generated a strongly reducing atmosphere as a result of the incomplete combustion of paraffin, and the partial oxygen pressure was approximately 6.68 × 10–7 Pa. The properties of the regenerated bricks sintered under air conditions were all higher than those of the bricks sintered under a reducing atmosphere. The deterioration of the bricks was a result of MgO reduction and a decrease in the amount of liquid phase formed during sintering under a reducing atmosphere.

  10. Biocalcification using B. pasteurii for strengthening brick masonry civil engineering structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Supriya H; Sarode, D D; Lele, S S

    2014-01-01

    Microbiologically induced calcite precipitation in bricks by bacterium Bacillus pasteurii (NCIM 2477) using a media especially optimized for urease production (OptU) was demonstrated in this study. Effect of biocalcification activity on compressive strength and water absorption capacity of bricks was investigated. Various other parameters such as pH, growth profile, urease activity, urea breakdown and calcite precipitated were monitored during the 28 days curing period. Efficiency of B. pasteurii to form microbial aided calcite precipitate in OptU media resulted into 83.9% increase in strength of the bricks as compared to only 24.9% with standard media, nutrient broth (NB). In addition to significant increase in the compressive strength, bricks treated with B. pasteurii grown in OptU media resulted in 48.9 % reduction in water absorption capacity as compared to control bricks immersed in tap water. Thus it was successfully demonstrated that microbial calcification in optimized media by Bacillus pasteurii has good potential for commercial application to improve the life span of structures constructed with bricks, particularly structures of heritage importance.

  11. Frost resistance of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    materials, has been developed.The importance of the pore structure on the development of stresses in the material during freezing is emphasized. To verify the model, experimental investigations are made on various concretes without air-entrainment and brick tiles with different porosities.Calculations......In this thesis it is shown that the critical degree of saturation is suitable as parameter for the frost resistance of porous building materials. A numerical model for prediction of critical degrees of saturation based on fracture mechanics and phase geometry of two-phase materials, e.g. porous...

  12. Studies on use of Copper Slag as Replacement Material for River Sand in Building Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madheswaran, C. K.; Ambily, P. S.; Dattatreya, J. K.; Rajamane, N. P.

    2014-09-01

    This work focuses on the use of copper slag, as a partial replacement of sand for use in cement concrete and building construction. Cement mortar mixtures prepared with fine aggregate made up of different proportions of copper slag and sand were tested for use as masonry mortars and plastering. Three masonry wall panels of dimensions 1 × 1 m were plastered. The studies showed that although copper slag based mortar is suitable for plastering, with the increase in copper slag content, the wastage due to material rebounding from the plastered surfaces increases. It is therefore suggested that the copper slag can be used for plastering of floorings and horizontal up to 50 % by mass of the fine aggregate, and for vertical surfaces, such as, brick/block walls it can be used up to 25 %. In this study on concrete mixtures were prepared with two water cement ratios and different proportions of copper slag ranging from 0 % (for the control mix) to 100 % of fine aggregate. The Concrete mixes were evaluated for workability, density, and compressive strength.

  13. Physico-chemical analysis of the bricks used in the construction of the pyramid of the archaeological zone of Comalcalco, Tabasco; Analisis fisico-quimico de los ladrillos usados en la construccion de la piramide de la zona arqueologica de Comalcalco, Tabasco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custodio G, E.; Acosta A, M. [Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, 86680 Tabasco (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [CIE-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Trevino P, C.G. [INAOE, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Mendoza A, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The presence of clay as human hand craft is first observed in Mexico on westernmost city of the Maya region, known as Comalcalco, therefore Comalcalco comes from the nahuatl: Comali- cali-co or 'Brick house'. This city that flourish on the classical period between the centuries I b.C. to IX a.C, was contemporary to Palenque and Yaxchilan among others. Due to the lack of rocks for construction and abundance of clay in the region, the Mayas used the clay as fired clay bricks to build their palaces and ceremonial temples. On this work, we present a study using Sem, EDS and XRD on the fired clay bricks used on these constructions to induce de type clay used and temperature of firing. (Author)

  14. Green towers and green walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture and Planning, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    North American cities face many major environmental and health issues such as urban heat island effect, the intensity of storms, microclimate around buildings, imperviousness of sites, poor air quality and increases in respiratory disease. Several new technologies are starting to address global impacts and community level issues as well as the personal health and comfort of building occupants. These include green towers, living walls, vegetated rooftops and ecological site developments. This paper examined these forms of eco-development and presented their benefits. It discussed green walls in Japan; green towers in Malaysia, Singapore and Great Britain; green facades of climbing plants; active living walls in Canada; and passive living walls in France and Canada. It also discussed thermal walls; thematic walls; vertical gardens and structured wildlife habitat. Last, it presented testing, monitoring, research and conclusions. The Centre for the Advancement of Green Roof Technology is setting up a program to test thermal performance, to assess plant survival and to monitor green walls at the British Columbia Institute of Technology in Vancouver, Canada as much of the research out of Japan is only available in Japanese script. It was concluded that green architecture can provide shade, food, rainwater, shelter for wildlife and mimic natural systems. 15 refs.

  15. The Reconstruction of the Historical Building of the Latin School in Malbork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Zenon; Kryzia, Katarzyna

    2013-03-01

    The paper summarizes the reconstruction of the historical building erected in the 14th century, during the times of the residence of Grand Master of the Teutonic Order Winrich von Kniprode, currently referred to as the Latin School. It characterizes the location of the Latin School in the urban conservation area of the town of Malbork. The building is situated in the stretch of the buttressed brick escarpment on the Nogat River in the line of the historic defensive walls of Malbork. The paper also outlines the history of this building, constructed and managed by the municipal authorities of Malbork, which for a long time was a seat of a Patronage of Saint George and the Merchant Guild, and next, from the 16th century until 1864, the building housed a school where basic Latin was taught. Next, the situation of this historical monument in the 20th century is discussed. In the next part of the paper, the geological conditions of the site where the building was erected are discussed. The conducted archeological and architectural exploratory research related to the historical building with a particular emphasis on historic preservation and restoration works focusing on the building and its surroundings is presented and analyzed. Currently carried out design, construction and adaptation works allowing new functions to be embedded into this building are also discussed. The paper shows the benefits due to the realization of the reconstruction program of the degraded building of the Latin school in the historic quarter of the town. These activities are aimed at the conversion of the currently derelict building by means of embedding new functions into it. There are being designed, among others, an interactive educational center modern library, astronomical observatory, craft museum and multifunctional hall, allowing proper conditions to be created for the development of educational, artistic and tourism related activities in the reconstructed building. The reconstruction of

  16. Electromagnetically shielded building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs

  17. Non-net casting exterior thermal insulation system on field concrete exterior wall in high storeyed resident building%高层住宅现浇混凝土外墙无网浇合外保温体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾同曾; 夏祖宏; 邸占英

    2001-01-01

    The non - net casting exterior thermal insulation system on field concrete exterior wall in high storeyed resident building is developed firstly at home. This system adopts polystyrene board without steel wire net as thermal insulation board. The cracking resistant layer consists of polymer cement mortar and alkali resistant glass fiber woven scrim, anchored with plastic expanded tube. The tests of bonding power between polystyrene board and concrete, plastic expanded tube pull- out, compressibility, freeze resistance show the system property is reliable and high safe. The thermal measurement test shows the system can meet the requirement of wall body energy - saving 50% stipulated in Beijing "Energy Saving Detailed Regulations", with low construction cost and high work efficiency. The comprehensive construction cost lowers 40%~50% in comparison with back suspending net system.%在国内首次开发了高层住宅现浇混凝土外墙无网浇合外保温体系。该体系采用无钢丝网架的聚苯板为保温板,抗裂层由聚合物水泥砂浆及耐碱玻纤网格布组成,再用塑料胀管锚固。经聚苯板与混凝土粘合力、塑料胀管抗拔力、压缩率及抗冻试验表明该体系性能可靠、安全度高;热工测试表明满足北京市《节能细则》对墙体节能50%的要求;造价低、工效高,综合造价比后挂有网体系降低40%~50%。

  18. Property Optimization of Kaolin-Rice Husk Insulating Fire Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.O.Onche; B.I.Ugheoke; G.A.Asikpo

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the suitability of using Kaolin-Rice husk-plastic clay to produce insulating firebrick was experimentally investigated and the optimal ratio of these constituents determined. Ten brick samples of different compositions were fired at 1200℃. Three of the samples(samples 6, 7, and 8) crumbled during firing. The surviving samples gave the following limits of results:shrinkage: 9.7% - 13.6%; effective moisture content:28. 34% -32.52%; modulus of rupture: 4.26kgf/cm2 - 19. 10kgf/cm2; apparent porosity: 56%-95. 93%;water absorption: 42.27% - 92. 12%; bulk density:1.04g/cm3 - 1.41g/cm3; apparent density: 2. 56g/cm3 -5. 77g/cm3 ; and thermal conductivity: 0. 005 W/mK 0. 134W/mK. The results showed that they all had good insulating characteristics. Samples 1 -5 and 10 showed good level of refractoriness, while mixing ratio of 4∶1∶2 ( representing weight in grams of Kaolin, plastic clay and rice husk respectively) for sample 4 gave the optimum performance values in terms of refractoriness,thermal conductivity, modulus of rupture, shrinkage and bulk density and the effective moisture content.

  19. Property Optimization of Kaolin - Rice Husk Insulating Fire - Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Iyenagbe UGHEOKE

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the suitability of using Kaolin - Rice husk - plastic clay to produce insulating firebrick was experimentally investigated and the optimal ratio of these constituents determined. Ten brick samples of different compositions were fired at a temperature of 1200ºC. Three of the samples (samples 6, 7, and 8 crumbled during firing. The surviving samples gave the following limits of results: - shrinkage: 9.7% - 13.6%; effective moisture content: 28.34% - 32.52%; modulus of rupture: 4.26kgf/cm2 - 19.10kgf/cm2; apparent porosity: 56% - 95.93%; water absorption: 42.27% - 92.12%; bulk density: 1.04g/cm3 - 1.41g/cm3; apparent density: 2.56g/cm3 - 5.77g/cm3; and thermal conductivity: 0.005W/mK - 0.134W/mK. The results showed that they all had good insulating characteristics. Samples 1 - 5 and 10 showed good level of refractoriness, while mixing ratio of 4:1:2 (representing weight in grams of Kaolin, plastic clay and rice husk respectively for sample 4 gave the optimum performance values in terms of refractoriness, thermal conductivity, modulus of rupture, shrinkage and bulk density and the effective moisture content.

  20. Characterization and Degradation of Masonry Mortar in Historic Brick Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis A. Brosnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized mortars from a masonry fortification in Charleston, South Carolina (USA, harbor where construction was during the period 1839–1860. This location for analysis was interesting because of the sea water impingement on the structure. The study was included as part of an overall structural assessment with restoration as an objective. The mortars were found to be cement, lime, and sand mixtures in proportions similar to ones expected from the historic literature, that is, one part binder to two parts of sand. The binder was found to be American natural cement, a substance analogous to the European Roman cement. The results suggest that the thermal history of the cement during manufacturing affected setting rate explaining why the cements were considered as variable during the mid-to-late 1800s. Fine pores were found in mortars exposed to sea water resulting from corrosion. Contemporary natural cement was shown to release calcium in aqueous solution. While this release of calcium is necessary for setting in natural and Portland cements, excessive calcium solution, as exacerbated by sea water contact and repointing with Portland cement mortars, was shown to result in brick scaling or decay through cryptoflorescence.