WorldWideScience

Sample records for brick wall buildings

  1. Comparative thermal performance of static sunshade and brick cavity wall for energy efficient building envelope in composite climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charde Meghana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient building technologies can reduce energy consumption in buildings. In present paper effect of designed static sunshade, brick cavity wall with brick projections and their combined effect on indoor air temperature has been analyzed by constructing three test rooms each of habitable dimensions (3.0 m × 4.0 m × 3.0 m and studying hourly temperatures on typical days for one month in summer and winter each. The three rooms have also been simulated using a software and the results have been compared with the experimental results. Designed static sunshade increased indoor air temperature in winter while proposed brick cavity wall with brick projections lowered it in summer. Combined effect of building elements lowered indoor air temperature in summer and increased it in winter as compared to outdoor air temperature. It is thus useful for energy conservation in buildings in composite climate.

  2. Shielding walls against ionizing radiation. Lead bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard contains specifications for the shape and requirements set for lead bricks such that they can be used to construct radiation-shielding walls according to the building kit system. The dimensions of the bricks are selected in such a way as to permit any modification of the length, height and thickness of said shielding walls in units of 50 mm. The narrow side of the lead bricks juxtaposed to one another in a wall construction to shield against radiation have to form prismatic grooves and tongues: in this way, direct penetration by radiation is prevented. Only cuboid bricks (serial nos. 55-60 according to Table 10) do not have prismatic tongues and grooves. (orig.)

  3. Moisture movements in render on brick wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Munch, Thomas Astrup; Thorsen, Peter Schjørmann; Villumsen, Casper Rosengaard; Bentzon, Lars Chr.

    2003-01-01

    A three-layer render on brick wall used for building facades is studied in the laboratory. The vertical render surface is held in contact with water for 24 hours simulating driving rain while it is measured with non-destructive X-ray equipment every hour in order to follow the moisture front...... through the render and into the brick. The test specimen is placed between the source and the detector. The test specimens are all scanned before they are exposed to water. In that way the loss of counts from the dry scan to the wet scan qualitatively shows the presence of water. The results show nearly...... no penetration of water through the render and into the brick, and the results are independent of the start condition of the test specimens. Also drying experiments are performed. The results show a small difference in the rate of drying, in favour of the bricks without render....

  4. Brick walls on the brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The so-called 'brick-wall model' is a semiclassical approach that has been used to explain black hole entropy in terms of thermal matter fields. Here, we apply the brick-wall formalism to thermal bulk fields in a Randall-Sundrum brane world scenario. In this case, the black hole entity is really a string-like object in the anti-de Sitter bulk, while appearing as a Schwarzchild black hole to observers living on the brane. In spite of these exotic circumstances, we establish that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy law is preserved. Although a similar calculation was recently considered in the literature, this prior study invoked a simplifying assumption (which we avoid) that cannot be adequately justified

  5. Radiological significance of building bricks in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baked clay bricks samples were collected from both urban and rural areas of the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan and natural radioactivity due to 40K, 226Ra and 232Th has been measured in these samples. The specific absorbed dose rates due to natural radioactivity emanating from the walls, floors and ceilings of the typical model rooms made of these building bricks have been calculated applying the mesh size adaptive volume integral methodology. The occupancy factor, representing the weighted average of all the population in the country, was taken to be 0.3 and 0.35 mSv.y-1 for the two types of model rooms. These values are smaller than those predicted by UNSCEAR for normal background areas. Thus the building bricks analysed in this study do not pose any significant health problem to the population. (author)

  6. Pressure equalisation of brick masonry cavity walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bouma, P.W.; Aghaei, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes two full-scale experiments in which the pressure distribution over the layers of brick masonry cavity walls is studied. The first experiment focuses on the specification of the wind loads on both outer and inner leafs of these walls. The second experiment is set-up to find a mod

  7. Brick Walls for Nonstationary Black Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎忠恒; 米丽琴; 赵峥

    2002-01-01

    The validity condition of the brick-wall model is analysed in nonstationary space time. It is shown that the model holds only in thin regions, only by using tortoise coordinates, near the event horizon of a slowly varying (quasi-stationary) black hole. The reason for the use of tortoise coordinates is that the stationary state solutions of quantum field equations in other coordinates do not exist for any region in nonstationary space-time. Meanwhile,the quantum corrections to the entropy of the Vaidya-Bonner black hole due to the spin fields are calculated in terms of the brick-wall model.

  8. Remarks on 't Hooft's brick wall model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A semi-classical reasoning leads to the non-commutativity of the space and time coordinates near the horizon of Schwarzschild black hole. This non-commutativity in turn provides a mechanism to interpret the brick wall thickness hypothesis in 't Hooft's brick wall model as well as the boundary condition imposed for the field considered. For concreteness, we consider a noncommutative scalar field model near the horizon and derive the effective metric via the equation of motion of noncommutative scalar field. This metric displays a new horizon in addition to the original one associated with the Schwarzschild black hole. The infinite red-shifting of the scalar field on the new horizon determines the range of the noncommutative space and explains the relevant boundary condition for the field. This range enables us to calculate the entropy of black hole as proportional to the area of its original horizon along the same line as in 't Hooft's model , and the thickness of the brick wall is found to be proportional to the thermal average of the noncommutative space-time range. The Hawking temperature has been derived in this formalism. The study here represents an attempt to reveal some physics beyond the brick wall model. (author)

  9. New Bricks in the Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG JIAOJIAO

    2007-01-01

    @@ Whenever a newcomer enters the classroom, he points at the wall. "Look at that!" says Li Shunye, indicating a picture of something that looks a bit like a pink furry fox, only with an oversized tail. "It's a squirrel," says the 9-year-old. "I made it."

  10. Brick walls and AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Bernard S.; Ortíz, L.

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the relationship between the bulk-boundary correspondence in Rehren's algebraic holography (and in other `fixed-background', QFT-based, approaches to holography) and in mainstream string-theoretic `Maldacena AdS/CFT'. Especially, we contrast the understanding of black-hole entropy from the point of view of QFT in curved spacetime—in the framework of 't Hooft's `brick wall' model—with the understanding based on Maldacena AdS/CFT. We show that the brick-wall modification of a Klein-Gordon field in the Hartle-Hawking-Israel state on dimensional Schwarzschild AdS has a well-defined boundary limit with the same temperature and entropy as the brick-wall-modified bulk theory. One of our main purposes is to point out a close connection, for general AdS/CFT situations, between the puzzle raised by Arnsdorf and Smolin regarding the relationship between Rehren's algebraic holography and mainstream AdS/CFT and the puzzle embodied in the `complementarity principle' proposed by Mukohyama and Israel in their work on the brick-wall approach to black hole entropy. Working on the assumption that similar results will hold for bulk QFT other than the Klein-Gordon field and for Schwarzschild AdS in other dimensions, and recalling the first author's proposed resolution to the Mukohyama-Israel puzzle based on his `matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis', we argue that, in Maldacena AdS/CFT, the algebra of the boundary CFT is isomorphic only to a proper subalgebra of the bulk algebra, albeit (at non-zero temperature) the (GNS) Hilbert spaces of bulk and boundary theories are still the `same'—the total bulk state being pure, while the boundary state is mixed (thermal). We also argue from the finiteness of its boundary (and hence, on our assumptions, also bulk) entropy at finite temperature, that the Rehren dual of the Maldacena boundary CFT cannot itself be a QFT and must, instead, presumably be something like a string theory.

  11. Polymetric brick wall patterns and two-dimensional substitutions

    CERN Document Server

    Dekking, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Polymetric walls are walls built from bricks in more than one size. Architects and builders want to built polymetric walls that satisfy certain structural and aesthetical constraints. In a recent paper by de Jong, Vinduska, Hans and Post these problems are solved by integer programming techniques, which can be very time consuming for patterns consisting of more than 40 bricks. Here we give an extremely fast method, generating patterns of arbitrary size.

  12. Brick masonry walls with PCM macrocapsules: An experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade, developed countries have been working on new and more complex legal requirements to minimize the energy consumption and increase energy efficiency of new and existing buildings. The building sector presently represents 27% of the total energy consumption in the European Union and is one of the major energy consumers. Accordingly, it is expected that in 2035 this sector will be the fourth largest contributor to CO2 emissions. To minimize the energy consumption it is essential to improve the research on passive cooling and heating strategies, as well as in the development of new materials and building components with lower environmental impact. The development of new techniques for energy storage resourcing to renewable energy sources presently dominates the essential research trend for sustainable and low energy buildings. New and intelligent materials, as the case of Phase Change Materials (PCM) may store latent heat energy in addition to the typical sensible energy capacity of common building materials, allowing to store significantly more energy during the phase change process. Macroencapsulated PCM applications into building envelope components, opaque and translucent, can take advantage of solar energy, potentially reducing the overall energy consumption of active heating and cooling systems. This paper exposes the main results of an experimental testing campaign of a wall element with PCM macroencapsulation. A thorough discussion of the experimental campaign in respect to the effect of PCM macrocapsules incorporation into brick masonry walls thermal and inertial behaviour is presented. It is essentially evaluated the influence of the phase change process of the PCM over the attenuation of temperature fluctuations and time constant. - Highlights: •Incorporation of phase change materials into masonry envelope enclosure walls. •Resourcing to PCMs as a thermal regulator of indoor temperature. •Analysis of the thermal energy storage system

  13. Experimental Study on the Seismic Performance of Recycled Concrete Brick Walls Embedded with Vertical Reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Wanlin; Zhang, Yongbo; Dong, Hongying; Zhou, Zhongyi; Qiao, Qiyun

    2014-01-01

    Recycled concrete brick (RCB) is manufactured by recycled aggregate processed from discarded concrete blocks arising from the demolishing of existing buildings. This paper presents research on the seismic performance of RCB masonry walls to assess the applicability of RCB for use in rural low-rise constructions. The seismic performance of a masonry wall is closely related to the vertical load applied to the wall. Thus, the compressive performance of RCB masonry was investigated firstly by con...

  14. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete building impacted by debris flow

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D; Qian, H.

    2015-01-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of the damage elements in debris flow disaster in China. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate the vulnerability of debris flow quantitatively. This paper was devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete building impacted by debris flow which widely existed in affected area. Under two assumptions, several prototype walls of brick and concrete were constructed to simulate the damaged...

  15. Shear Tests and Calculation of Shear Resistance with the PC Program RFEM from Thin Partition Walls of Brick in Old Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjenic, Sinan; Nowak, Bernhard; Löffler, Philipp; Vašková, Anna

    2015-11-01

    This paper is about the shear capacity of partition walls in old buildings based on shear tests which were carried out under real conditions in an existing building. There were experiments conducted on different floors and in each case, the maximum recordable horizontal force and the horizontal displacement of the respective mortar were measured. At the same time material studies and material investigations were carried out in the laboratory. The material parameters were used for the calculation of the precise shear capacity of each joint. In the shear tests, the maximum displacement of a mortar joint was determined at a maximum of two to four millimetres. Furthermore, no direct linear relationship between the theoretical load (wall above it) and the shear stress occurred could be detected in the analysis of the experiment, as it was previously assumed.

  16. Toward Applications for DNA Nanotechnology-More Bricks To Build With.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Hendrik

    2016-06-16

    Another brick in the wall: DNA nanotechnology has come a long way since its initial beginnings. This would not be possible without the continued development of methods for DNA assembly and new uses for DNA as a material. This Special Issue highlights some of the newest building blocks for nanodevices based on DNA. PMID:27238464

  17. Cyclic behaviour of the Adobe brick walls before and after the reinforcement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wünsche, Martin; Urushadze, Shota; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Hračov, Stanislav

    Wrocław : Dolnośląskie Wydawnictwo Edukacyjne, 2012 - (Jasieńko, J.), s. 1958-1965 ISBN 978-83-7125-216-7. [I8nternational conference on Structural analysis of historical constructions /8./. Wroclaw (PL), 15.10.2012-17.10.2012] Grant ostatní: Evropská komise (EC)(XE) FP7-NIKER-g.a. 244123 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : seismic retrofitting * adobe * brick walls Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  18. Energy Efficiency Improvement Potential in Historical Brick Building

    OpenAIRE

    Žogla, Gatis; Blumberga, Andra; Zvaigznītis, Kristaps; Dzikēvičs, Miķelis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Burinskiene, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency in historical heritage buildings is viewed as a taboo because these buildings usually are law-protected and no energy efficiency measures that would change the appearance of building are allowed. In this paper we look at a potential of increasing energy efficiency level in historical buildings. Measurements to determine energy efficiency of a historical brick building have been done, which also give the possibility to determine the potential of energy efficiency measures in ...

  19. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete building impacted by debris flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D.; Qian, H.

    2015-08-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of the damage elements in debris flow disaster in China. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate the vulnerability of debris flow quantitatively. This paper was devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete building impacted by debris flow which widely existed in affected area. Under two assumptions, several prototype walls of brick and concrete were constructed to simulate the damaged structures in debris flow while the iron spheres were taken as the substitute of debris flow. The failure criterion of brick and concrete building was proposed with referring to the structure standards (brick and concrete) and the damage pattern in debris flow. The quantitatively estimation of vulnerability of brick and concrete building was finally established based on Fuzzy mathematics and the proposed failure criterion. The results show that the maximum impact bending moment is the best fit to be the disaster-causing factor in vulnerability curve and formula. The experiments in this paper is the preliminary research on the vulnerability of the element impacted by debris flow. The method and conclusion will be useful for the quantitative estimation of the vulnerability in debris flow and also can be referred in other types of the vulnerable elements research.

  20. A silicate brick in external walls constructions of apartment houses: condition analysis, durability forecast and methods of its increasing (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuykin A.Ye.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Practice shows, that constructive elements the most damaged by the environmental conditions are external walls of apartment houses and, accordingly, these constructive elements demand a complex estimation of their condition about decreasing of their operational characteristics which provide their bearing ability and heat-shielding properties, and development of ways of a prolongation of an operational resource.In the given work the structure of silicate brick is analyzed, questions of a technical condition, the forecast and ways of prolongation of a residual operational resource of external walls of buildings on the basis of a silicate brick of construction 40 - 70 уеаrs are considered. The analysis is made using physical and chemical methods on an example of an available housing of this category in cities of Republic Bashkortostan. The received results of a condition of buildings external walls laying allow to make a conclusion about decreasing of silicate brick external wall bearing ability for the long period of operation (?70 years within the limits of up to 10-15% due to reduction of effective section by 7-12%, decreasing in durability of a facing brick to 15-20%. Materials (a brick and a masonry mortar of external walls of buildings deeper layers are in much better or even in practically initial condition that is proved out by the big number of inhabited objects inspections. Prolongation of a residual operational resource of an external wall on the basis of a silicate brick is possible by its protection by waterproofing materials (plaster systems, waterproof getting compositions in a combination of the named systems of hydro-protection with effective facade heat-insulation.

  1. Horowitz-Strominger Black Hole Entropy Without Brick Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Chun; ZHAO Ren; LIN Hai

    2004-01-01

    @@ A Horowitz-Strominger black hole is discussed through a new equation of state density motivated by the generalized uncertainty relation in quantum gravity. There is no burst in the last stage of emission from a HorowitzStrominger black hole. When the new equation of state density is used to investigate the entropy of bosonic field and fermionic field outside the horizon of a static Horowitz-Strominger black hole, the divergence that appears in the brick-wall model is removed without any cutoff. The entropy proportional to the horizon area is derived from the contribution in the vicinity of the horizon.

  2. Brick Walls for Black Holes in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    We study the 't Hooft's brick wall model for black holes in a holographic context. The brick wall model suggests that without an appropriate near horizon IR cut-off, the free energy of the probe fields show the divergence due to the large degenerate states near the horizons. After studying the universal nature of the divergence in various holographic setting in various dimensions, we interpret the nature of the divergence in a holographic context. The free energy divergence is due to the large degeneracy and continuity of the low energy spectrum in the boundary theory at the deconfinement phase. These divergence and continuity should be removed by finite N effects, which make the spectrum discrete even at the deconfinement phase. On the other hand, in the bulk, these degenerate states are localized near the horizon, and the universal divergence of these degenerate states implies that the naive counting of the degrees of freedom in bulk should be modified once we take into account the non-perturbative quantum ...

  3. Brick walls for black holes in AdS/CFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Iizuka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the 't Hooft's brick wall model for black holes in a holographic context. The brick wall model suggests that without an appropriate near horizon IR cut-off, the free energy of the probe fields shows the divergence due to the large degenerate states near the horizons. After studying the universal nature of the divergence in various holographic settings in various dimensions, we interpret the nature of the divergence in a holographic context. The free energy divergence is due to the large degeneracy and continuity of the low energy spectrum in the boundary theory at the deconfinement phase. These divergence and continuity should be removed by finite N effects, which make the spectrum discrete even at the deconfinement phase. On the other hand, in the bulk, these degenerate states are localized near the horizon, and the universal divergence of these degenerate states implies that the naive counting of the degrees of freedom in bulk should be modified once we take into account the non-perturbative quantum gravity effects near the horizon. Depending on the microscopic degrees of freedom, the position, where the effective field theory description to count the states breaks down, has different Planck scale dependence. It also implies the difficulty to have an electron like gauge-singlet elementary field in the boundary theory Lagrangian. These singlet fields are at most composite fields, because they show divergent free energy, suggesting a positive power of N at the deconfinement phase.

  4. Brick walls for black holes in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, Norihiro, E-mail: iizuka@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Terashima, Seiji, E-mail: terasima@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2015-06-15

    We study the 't Hooft's brick wall model for black holes in a holographic context. The brick wall model suggests that without an appropriate near horizon IR cut-off, the free energy of the probe fields shows the divergence due to the large degenerate states near the horizons. After studying the universal nature of the divergence in various holographic settings in various dimensions, we interpret the nature of the divergence in a holographic context. The free energy divergence is due to the large degeneracy and continuity of the low energy spectrum in the boundary theory at the deconfinement phase. These divergence and continuity should be removed by finite N effects, which make the spectrum discrete even at the deconfinement phase. On the other hand, in the bulk, these degenerate states are localized near the horizon, and the universal divergence of these degenerate states implies that the naive counting of the degrees of freedom in bulk should be modified once we take into account the non-perturbative quantum gravity effects near the horizon. Depending on the microscopic degrees of freedom, the position, where the effective field theory description to count the states breaks down, has different Planck scale dependence. It also implies the difficulty to have an electron like gauge-singlet elementary field in the boundary theory Lagrangian. These singlet fields are at most composite fields, because they show divergent free energy, suggesting a positive power of N at the deconfinement phase.

  5. Brick walls for black holes in AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Norihiro; Terashima, Seiji

    2015-06-01

    We study the 't Hooft's brick wall model for black holes in a holographic context. The brick wall model suggests that without an appropriate near horizon IR cut-off, the free energy of the probe fields shows the divergence due to the large degenerate states near the horizons. After studying the universal nature of the divergence in various holographic settings in various dimensions, we interpret the nature of the divergence in a holographic context. The free energy divergence is due to the large degeneracy and continuity of the low energy spectrum in the boundary theory at the deconfinement phase. These divergence and continuity should be removed by finite N effects, which make the spectrum discrete even at the deconfinement phase. On the other hand, in the bulk, these degenerate states are localized near the horizon, and the universal divergence of these degenerate states implies that the naive counting of the degrees of freedom in bulk should be modified once we take into account the non-perturbative quantum gravity effects near the horizon. Depending on the microscopic degrees of freedom, the position, where the effective field theory description to count the states breaks down, has different Planck scale dependence. It also implies the difficulty to have an electron like gauge-singlet elementary field in the boundary theory Lagrangian. These singlet fields are at most composite fields, because they show divergent free energy, suggesting a positive power of N at the deconfinement phase.

  6. Brick walls for black holes in AdS/CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the 't Hooft's brick wall model for black holes in a holographic context. The brick wall model suggests that without an appropriate near horizon IR cut-off, the free energy of the probe fields shows the divergence due to the large degenerate states near the horizons. After studying the universal nature of the divergence in various holographic settings in various dimensions, we interpret the nature of the divergence in a holographic context. The free energy divergence is due to the large degeneracy and continuity of the low energy spectrum in the boundary theory at the deconfinement phase. These divergence and continuity should be removed by finite N effects, which make the spectrum discrete even at the deconfinement phase. On the other hand, in the bulk, these degenerate states are localized near the horizon, and the universal divergence of these degenerate states implies that the naive counting of the degrees of freedom in bulk should be modified once we take into account the non-perturbative quantum gravity effects near the horizon. Depending on the microscopic degrees of freedom, the position, where the effective field theory description to count the states breaks down, has different Planck scale dependence. It also implies the difficulty to have an electron like gauge-singlet elementary field in the boundary theory Lagrangian. These singlet fields are at most composite fields, because they show divergent free energy, suggesting a positive power of N at the deconfinement phase

  7. Reissner-Nordstrom Black Hole Entropy Inside and Outside the Brick Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文彪

    2003-01-01

    Applying the generalized uncertainty relation to the calculation of the free energy and entropy of a Reissner Nordstrom black hole inside the brick wall, the entropy proportional to the horizon area is derived from the contribution of the vicinity of the horizon. This is compared with the entropy calculated via the original brick wall model. The entropy given by the original brick wall model comes from the outside of the brick wall seemingly.The inside result using generalized uncertainty relation is similar to the outside result using original uncertainty relation, and the divergence inside the brick wall disappears. It is apparent that the cutoff is something related to the quantum theory of gravity.

  8. Energetic Refurbishment of Historic Brick Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagorskas, Jurgis; Mykolas Paliulis, Grazvydas; Burinskiene, Marija;

    2013-01-01

    Building standards for energy effectiveness are increasing constantly and the market follows these changes by constructing new buildings in accordance with standards and refurbishment of the existing housing stock. Comprehensive trends in European construction market show tremendous increase in...

  9. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WITH MASONRY WALL USING ETABS

    OpenAIRE

    G.Prasanna Lakshmi*, Dr M.Helen Santhi

    2016-01-01

    Past earthquakes showed poor performance of reinforced concrete framed buildings infilled with masonry wall. This study focuses on the evaluation of G+3 storeyed residential Reinforced Concrete (RC) building with brick masonry wall subjected to earthquake load. The influence of masonry on the seismic resistance of RC building is studied. The strut action with different percentage of opening for doors and windows are analysed. The building is assumed to be located in seismic zone III. The buil...

  10. Internal insulation applied in heritage multi-storey buildings with wooden beams embedded in solid masonry brick facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    The use of internal insulation is investigated in a heritage building block with wooden beam construction and masonry brick walls as part of an energy renovation. Measurements were carried out and compared to results from a hygrothermal simulation model. The risk of mould growth in the wooden beams...

  11. The Heat Transfer Coefficient of Recycled Concrete Bricks Combination with EPS Insulation Board Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Four tectonic forms samples were conducted to test their heat transfer coefficients. By analyzing and comparing the test values and theoretical values of the heat transfer coefficient, a corrected-value calculation method for determining the heat transfer coefficient was proposed; the proposed method was proved to be reasonably correct. The results indicated that the recycled concrete brick wall heat transfer coefficient is higher than that of the clay brick wall, the heat transfer coefficient of recycled concrete brick wall could be effectively reduced when combined with the EPS insulation board, and the sandwich insulation type was better than that of external thermal insulation type.

  12. EVALUATION OF SHEAR CAPACITY FOR BRICK MASONRY WALLS

    OpenAIRE

    Partene Eva; Fekete-Nagy Luminita; Stoian V.

    2015-01-01

    The papers presents the results of an experimental program and provides valuable information regarding the behaviour of structural masonry walls built up using ceramic blocks with hollows, which represents a very common system for low-rise residential buildings, up to 4 stories, depending on the seismic acceleration on site. A number of six masonry walls where tested in bear state being subjected to constant vertical loading and to cyclic in-plane horizontal loads. The main objective...

  13. Experimental Study on the Seismic Performance of Recycled Concrete Brick Walls Embedded with Vertical Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanlin Cao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete brick (RCB is manufactured by recycled aggregate processed from discarded concrete blocks arising from the demolishing of existing buildings. This paper presents research on the seismic performance of RCB masonry walls to assess the applicability of RCB for use in rural low-rise constructions. The seismic performance of a masonry wall is closely related to the vertical load applied to the wall. Thus, the compressive performance of RCB masonry was investigated firstly by constructing and testing eighteen RCB masonry compressive specimens with different mortar strengths. The load-bearing capacity, deformation and failure characteristic were analyzed, as well. Then, a quasi-static test was carried out to study the seismic behavior of RCB walls by eight RCB masonry walls subjected to an axial compressive load and a reversed cyclic lateral load. Based on the test results, equations for predicting the compressive strength of RCB masonry and the lateral ultimate strength of an RCB masonry wall were proposed. Experimental values were found to be in good agreement with the predicted values. Meanwhile, finite element analysis (FEA and parametric analysis of the RCB walls were carried out using ABAQUS software. The elastic-plastic deformation characteristics and the lateral load-displacement relations were studied.

  14. A Review: Durability of Fired Clay Brick Masonry Wall due to Salt Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.H. Abu Bakar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a review on durability of fired clay brick masonry wall due to salt attack. Durability of brick normally affected when an external masonry walls are exposed to aggressive environment. Masonry structures, when subjected to salt attack or exposed to aggressive environment during their service life may suffer degradation due to the formation of crystallization pressure as a result of the evaporation of soluble salt in clay masonry structures. The crystallization pressures produce normally higher than tensile stress of clay brick and sufficient to damage the masonry structures. The mechanism of salt attack must be prevented and addressed thoroughly in order to maintain the integrity and service life of masonry wall. Therefore, the summary of durability, factors, mechanism and main sources of salt attack on fired clay brick masonry walls are discussed.

  15. Analysis and optimization of the heat-insulating light concrete hollow brick walls design by the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Public Works, owners and building proprietors are demanding high-capacity heat-insulating exterior masonry components specifically for further energy savings. For housing and industrial structures there is also a great interest in light building materials with good physical material behaviour, with respect to an energy conscious and ecological design, which fulfils all strength and serviceability requirements. The major variables influencing the thermal conductivity of masonry materials are illustrated in this work by taking blocks made from no-fine lightweight concrete and different mortar properties. The finite element method (FEM) is used for finding accurate solutions of the heat transfer equation for five different light concrete hollow brick walls. Mathematically, the non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner recesses of the bricks. The conduction and convection phenomena are taking into account in this study for three different values of the mortar conductivity and three different values for the bricks. Optimization of the walls is carried out from the finite element analysis of five hollow brick geometries by means of the mass overall thermal efficiency and the equivalent thermal conductivity. Finally, conclusions of this work are exposed

  16. In-plane cyclic behaviour of unfired clay and earth brick walls in both unstrengthened and strengthened conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hračov, Stanislav; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Garofano, A.; Urushadze, Shota

    -, - (2015). ISSN 1359-5997 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP13-41574P EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244123 - NIKER Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : seismic strengthening * retrofitting * earth brick walls * experimental tests * energy dissipation * earth quake engineering Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 1.714, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1617/s11527-015-0720-5

  17. The Heat Transfer Coefficient of Recycled Concrete Bricks Combination with EPS Insulation Board Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Jianhua Li; Wanlin Cao

    2015-01-01

    Four tectonic forms samples were conducted to test their heat transfer coefficients. By analyzing and comparing the test values and theoretical values of the heat transfer coefficient, a corrected-value calculation method for determining the heat transfer coefficient was proposed; the proposed method was proved to be reasonably correct. The results indicated that the recycled concrete brick wall heat transfer coefficient is higher than that of the clay brick wall, the heat transfer coefficien...

  18. Non-linear thermal optimization and design improvement of a new internal light concrete multi-holed brick walls by FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was carried out the optimization and numerical study by the finite element method of internal hollow bricks walls in order to determine the best candidate brick from the thermal point of view. With respect to the energy saving for housing and industrial structures, there is also a great interest in light building materials with good physical and thermal behaviors, which fulfills all thermal requirements of the new CTE Spanish rule. The conduction, convection and radiation phenomena are taking into account in this study for six different types of bricks varying the material conductivity obtained from five experimental tests. Mathematically, the non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner recesses of the bricks. Optimization of the walls is carried out from the finite element analysis of the new hollow brick geometries by means of the average mass overall thermal efficiency and the equivalent thermal conductivity. Based on the previous thermal analysis and the optimization procedure described in this paper, the best candidate was chosen and then a full 1.22 x 0.23 x 1.05 m wall made of these bricks was simulated for fifteen different compositions. The main variables influencing the thermal conductivity of these walls are illustrated for different concrete and mortar properties and the temperature distribution is shown for some typical configurations. Finally, in order to select the appropriate wall satisfying the CTE requirements, detailed instructions are given and conclusions of this work are exposed

  19. Building the Platform of Digital Earth with Sphere Split Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jinxin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Discrete global grids, a modeling framework for big geo-spatial data, is always used to build the Digital Earth platform. Based on the sphere split bricks (Earth system spatial grids, it can not only build the true three-dimensional digital Earth model, but also can achieve integration, fusion, expression and application of the spatial data which locates on, under or above the Earth subsurface. The theoretical system of spheroid geodesic QTM octree grid is discussed, including the partition principle, analysis of grid geometry features and coding/ decoding method etc, and a prototype system of true-3D digital Earth platform with the sphere split bricks is developed. The functions of the system mainly include the arbitrary sphere segmentation and the visualization of physical models of underground, surface and aerial entities. Results show that the sphere geodesic QTM octree grid has many application advantages, such as simple subdivision rules, the grid system neat, clear geometric features, strong applicability etc. In particular, it can be extended to the ellipsoid, so it can be used for organization, management, integration and application of the global spatial big data.

  20. Investigation on levels of radon in buildings made of cinder bricks or in mineral regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of radon and its daughters in typical houses made of different kinds of bricks and in uranium or coal mining regions in Hunan province were investigated with CSR track detector. The measured annual average concentration CRn in normal houses was 15.6 Bqm-3, in A, B and C category cinder brick made buildings 28.5, 31.6 and 71.1 Bqm-3 respectively, in dwellings around Chenxi coal mine (including power plant) and two uranium mines 36.1, 43.4 and 85.6 Bqm-3, respectively. Outdoor radon concentration decreased with increasing height, h, from the ground. The Rn concentration at h = 1.5m was 1.6 times of that at h = 3 m. The Rn concentration at the centre of a room was also decreasing with increasing height from the ground. The Rn concentration at the position of heads of sleeping people (near the wall) was 1.6-2.9 times of that just below the ceiling. The annual effective dose to residents of normal houses was 1.6 mSv, of which 1.1 mSv was from inhalation of Rn daughters, 2.2 times of that from γ external exposure (0.5 mSv). The additional average annual effective dose equivalent to residents in cinder brick made buildings from inhalation of Rn daughters was 1.6 mSv, 1.6 times of that from γ external exposure (1.0 mSv). The annual products of 38 coal cinder brick mills in Hunan caused an additional effective dose equivalent of 45 man · Sv, and their total products from commissioning 360 man · Sv

  1. Basic Deformation Parameters of Solid Clay Bricks and Small Masonry Walls

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bouška; D. Pume

    2000-01-01

    The basic mechanical properties of clay brick masonry and its components were experimentally investigated in the laboratories of the Klokner Institute. The test specimens of masonry materials and the relevant mechanical properties have been identified in solid clay bricks and cement-lime mortar. The aim of the research activity was to study both the deformability of the prevailing type of clay masonry in the existing buildings, i.e. the masonry made from the solid clay units and the lim...

  2. Several problems in survey of buildings finished with face brick in Saint-Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Ogorodnik

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors emphasize two types of brick walls defects: defects of mortar and defects of masonry stones. Causes of these defects are analysed, such as moisturing of masonry; material quality; quality of contractor work; project errors.

  3. An Improved Thin Film Brick-Wall Model of Black Hole Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-Biao; ZHAO Zheng

    2001-01-01

    We improve the brick-wall model to take only the contribution of a thin film near the event horizon into account. This improvement not only gives us a satisfactory result, but also avoids some drawbacks in the original brick wall method such as the little mass approximation, neglecting logarithm term, and taking the term L3 as the contribution of the vacuum surrounding a black hole. It is found that there is an intrinsic relation between the event horizon and the entropy. The event horizon is the characteristic of a black hole, so the entropy calculating of a black hole is also naturally related to its horizon.

  4. Minimal Length Effects on Entanglement Entropy of Spherically Symmetric Black Holes in Brick Wall Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng; Ying, Shuxuan

    2015-01-01

    We compute the black hole horizon entanglement entropy for a massless scalar field in the brick wall model by incorporating the minimal length. Taking the minimal length effects on the occupation number $n(\\omega,l)$ and the Hawking temperature into consideration, we obtain the leading UV divergent term and the subleading logarithmic term in the entropy. The leading divergent term scales with the horizon area. The subleading logarithmic term is the same as that in the usual brick wall model without the minimal length.

  5. Minimal length effects on entanglement entropy of spherically symmetric black holes in the brick wall model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang; Ying, Shuxuan

    2016-01-01

    We compute the black hole horizon entanglement entropy for a massless scalar field in the brick wall model by incorporating the minimal length. Taking the minimal length effects on the occupation number n(ω, l) and the Hawking temperature into consideration, we obtain the leading ultraviolet (UV) divergent term and the subleading logarithmic term in the entropy. The leading divergent term scales with the horizon area. The subleading logarithmic term is the same as that in the usual brick wall model without the minimal length.

  6. Impact of wind-driven rain on historic brick wall buildings in a moderately cold and humid climate: Numerical analyses of mould growth risk, indoor climate and energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masaru, Abuku; Janssen, Hans; Roels, Staf

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives an onset to whole building hygrothermal modelling in which the interaction between interior and exterior climates via building enclosures is simulated under a moderately cold and humid climate. The focus is particularly on the impact of wind-driven rain (WDR) oil the hygrothermal...... that WDR loads can have a significant impact on mould growth especially at the edges of the walls. Finally, for the case analysed, the WDR load Causes a significant increase of indoor relative humidity and energy consumption for heating. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall impacted by an experimental boulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D.; Qian, H.

    2016-02-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of damaged elements due to debris flow events in China. Therefore, it is difficult to quantitatively estimate the vulnerable elements suffered by debris flows. This paper is devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete walls impacted by debris flows. An experimental boulder (an iron sphere) was applied to be the substitute of debris flow since it can produce similar shape impulse load on elements as debris flow. Several walls made of brick and concrete were constructed in prototype dimensions to physically simulate the damaged structures in debris flows. The maximum impact force was measured, and the damage conditions of the elements (including cracks and displacements) were collected, described and compared. The failure criterion of brick and concrete wall was proposed with reference to the structure characteristics as well as the damage pattern caused by debris flows. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall was finally established based on fuzzy mathematics and the proposed failure criterion. Momentum, maximum impact force and maximum impact bending moment were compared to be the best candidate for disaster intensity index. The results show that the maximum impact bending moment seems to be most suitable for the disaster intensity index in establishing vulnerability curve and formula.

  8. Remarks on 't Hooft's brick wall model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Hua [Interdisciplinary Center for Theoretical Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yan Mulin [CCAST (World Lab), P.O. Box 8730, Beijing, 100080 (China) and Interdisciplinary Center for Theoretical Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)]. E-mail: mlyan@ustc.edu.cn

    2003-07-01

    A semi-classical reasoning leads to the non-commutativity of the space and time coordinates near the horizon of Schwarzschild black hole. This non-commutativity in turn provides a mechanism to interpret the brick wall thickness hypothesis in 't Hooft's brick wall model as well as the boundary condition imposed for the field considered. For concreteness, we consider a noncommutative scalar field model near the horizon and derive the effective metric via the equation of motion of noncommutative scalar field. This metric displays a new horizon in addition to the original one associated with the Schwarzschild black hole. The infinite red-shifting of the scalar field on the new horizon determines the range of the noncommutative space and explains the relevant boundary condition for the field. This range enables us to calculate the entropy of black hole as proportional to the area of its original horizon along the same line as in 't Hooft's model , and the thickness of the brick wall is found to be proportional to the thermal average of the noncommutative space-time range. The Hawking temperature has been derived in this formalism. The study here represents an attempt to reveal some physics beyond the brick wall model. (author)

  9. Brick Wall Model and the Spectrum of a Schwarzschild Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; ZHAO Zheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ The quantum entropy of a scalar field near a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated by employing the brick-wall model in the grand canonical ensemble. A positive chemical potential is introduced if the cutoff is set to be of order of the Planck length. We also discuss the relation between the chemical potential and the mass quantum of the black hole.

  10. Measure Guideline. Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, Hariharan [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Klocke, Steve [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders,remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

  11. Measure Guideline: Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, H.; Klocke, S.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-06-01

    This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders, remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

  12. Non-linear thermal analysis of light concrete hollow brick walls by the finite element method and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The finite element method (FEM) is applied to the non-linear complex heat transfer analysis of light concrete hollow brick walls. The non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner holes of the bricks. The conduction and convection phenomena are taking into account in this study for three different values of the conductivity mortar and two values for the brick. Finally, the numerical and experimental results are compared and a good agreement is shown

  13. Basic Deformation Parameters of Solid Clay Bricks and Small Masonry Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bouška

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic mechanical properties of clay brick masonry and its components were experimentally investigated in the laboratories of the Klokner Institute. The test specimens of masonry materials and the relevant mechanical properties have been identified in solid clay bricks and cement-lime mortar. The aim of the research activity was to study both the deformability of the prevailing type of clay masonry in the existing buildings, i.e. the masonry made from the solid clay units and the lime-cement mortar, and the most important mechanical properties of masonry components.

  14. Investigation of thermal effect on exterior wall surface of building material at urban city area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fadhil Md Din, Hazlini Dzinun, M. Ponraj, Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan, Zainura Zainun Noor, Dilshah Remaz, Kenzo Iwao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the investigation of heat impact on the vertical surfaces of buildings based on their thermal behavior. The study was performed based on four building materials that is commonly used in Malaysia; brick, concrete, granite and white concrete tiles. The thermal performances on the building materials were investigated using a surface temperature sensor, data logging system and infrared thermography. Results showed that the brick had the capability to absorb and store heat greater than other materials during the investigation period. The normalized heat (total heat/solar radiation of the brick was 0.093 and produces high heat (51% compared to granite, confirming a substantial amount of heat being released into the atmosphere through radiation and convection. The most sensitive material that absorbs and stores heat was in the following order: brick > concrete > granite > white concrete tiles. It was concluded that the type of exterior wall material used in buildings had significant impact to the environment.

  15. Investigation of thermal effect on exterior wall surface of building material at urban city area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dzinun, Hazlini; Ponraj, M.; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Noor, Zainura Zainun [Institute of Environmental Water Resources and Management (IPASA), Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Remaz, Dilshah [Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Iwao, Kenzo [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the investigation of heat impact on the vertical surfaces of buildings based on their thermal behavior. The study was performed based on four building materials that is commonly used in Malaysia; brick, concrete, granite and white concrete tiles. The thermal performances on the building materials were investigated using a surface temperature sensor, data logging system and infrared thermography. Results showed that the brick had the capability to absorb and store heat greater than other materials during the investigation period. The normalized heat (total heat/solar radiation) of the brick was 0.093 and produces high heat (51% compared to granite), confirming a substantial amount of heat being released into the atmosphere through radiation and convection. The most sensitive material that absorbs and stores heat was in the following order: brick > concrete > granite > white concrete tiles. It was concluded that the type of exterior wall material used in buildings had significant impact to the environment.

  16. Another brick in the cell wall: biosynthesis dependent growth model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Barbacci

    Full Text Available Expansive growth of plant cell is conditioned by the cell wall ability to extend irreversibly. This process is possible if (i a tensile stress is developed in the cell wall due to the coupling effect between turgor pressure and the modulation of its mechanical properties through enzymatic and physicochemical reactions and if (ii new cell wall elements can be synthesized and assembled to the existing wall. In other words, expansive growth is the result of coupling effects between mechanical, thermal and chemical energy. To have a better understanding of this process, models must describe the interplay between physical or mechanical variable with biological events. In this paper we propose a general unified and theoretical framework to model growth in function of energy forms and their coupling. This framework is based on irreversible thermodynamics. It is then applied to model growth of the internodal cell of Chara corallina modulated by changes in pressure and temperature. The results describe accurately cell growth in term of length increment but also in term of cell pectate biosynthesis and incorporation to the expanding wall. Moreover, the classical growth model based on Lockhart's equation such as the one proposed by Ortega, appears as a particular and restrictive case of the more general growth equation developed in this paper.

  17. An improved thin film brick-wall model of black hole entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Wen Biao

    2001-01-01

    The authors improve the brick-wall model to take only the contribution of a thin film near the event horizon into account. This improvement not only gives them a satisfactory result, but also avoids some drawbacks in the original brick-wall method such as the little mass approximation, neglecting logarithm term, and taking the term L/sup 3/ as the contribution of the vacuum surrounding a black hole. It is found that there is an intrinsic relation between the event horizon and the entropy. The event horizon is the characteristic of a black hole, so the entropy calculating of a black hole is also naturally related to its horizon. (12 refs).

  18. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall impacted by an experimental boulder

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D; Qian, H.

    2016-01-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of damaged elements due to debris flow events in China. Therefore, it is difficult to quantitatively estimate the vulnerable elements suffered by debris flows. This paper is devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete walls impacted by debris flows. An experimental boulder (an iron sphere) was applied to be the substitute of debris flow since it can produce similar shape impulse load on elements as ...

  19. Subleading contributions to the black hole entropy in the brick wall approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brick wall model is a semiclassical approach to understand the microscopic origin of black hole entropy. In this approach, the black hole geometry is assumed to be a fixed classical background on which matter fields propagate, and the entropy of black holes supposedly arises due to the canonical entropy of matter fields outside the black hole event horizon, evaluated at the Hawking temperature. Apart from certain lower dimensional cases, the density of states of the matter fields around black holes cannot be evaluated exactly. As a result, often, in the brick wall model, the density of states and the resulting canonical entropy of the matter fields are evaluated at the leading order (in terms of (ℎ/2π)) in the WKB approximation. The success of the approach is reflected by the fact that the Bekenstein-Hawking area law - viz. that the entropy of black holes is equal to one-quarter the area of their event horizon, say, AH - has been recovered using this model in a variety of black hole spacetimes. In this work, we compute the canonical entropy of a quantum scalar field around static and spherically symmetric black holes through the brick wall approach at the higher orders (in fact, up to the sixth order in (ℎ/2π)) in the WKB approximation. We explicitly show that the brick wall model generally predicts corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in all spacetime dimensions. In four dimensions, we find that the corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy are of the form [AHnlogAH], while, in six dimensions, the corrections behave as [AHm+AHnlogAH], where (m,n)<1. We compare our results with the corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy that have been obtained through the other approaches in the literature, and discuss the implications.

  20. Low field Brick Wall model behavior in ceramic Gd1Ba2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the Brick Wall Model, developed to explain the high field critical current (Jc) of superconducting tapes, explains the observed minimum of Jc close to Hc1 of the grains in polycrystalline materials. The quantitative agreement when fitting Jc of a well-characterized Gd1Ba2Cu3O7 ceramic shows that the minimum at Hc1 is determined by the field dependence of the magnetization of the grains. (orig.)

  1. Prefabricated EPS Elements used as Strip Foundation of a Single-family House with a Double Brick Wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2008-01-01

    A new prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was demonstrated on site as the base of a single-family house with a double brick wall. The element was placed on a stable surface underneath the top soil layer, just 0.25 m underneath the finished ground surface. The...... prefabricated element was designed to fulfil the requirements of low energy consumption required by the new Danish Building Regulations. The base of the house was cast in one working operation and completed within two working days. The element, made of expanded polystyrene, was designed to be handled on site by...... one man. A non-freezing ground was established by using outer insulation located at the outer plinth. Temperatures were measured at measurement points located at the outer plinth and onwards from these points underneath the building. In addition the soil temperature, the temperature within the...

  2. Effect of moisture on radon exhalation rate of the building material bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper, The moisture of building material bricks was controlled by the saturation solution of inorganic salt which were deposited in a obturator. The activated charcoal method was used to compare the influence of radon exhalation rate of building material bricks on different moistures condition. From the result, it can be found that with the increasing of mositure, the radon exhalation rate is increasing at first and then discreasing, when the mositure is about 4%, and the highest radon exhalation rate is 32.31 ± 2.84mBq. m-2.s-1. (authors)

  3. Specification for lead bricks for radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specification with metric dimensions for two systems of interlocking lead bricks for building permanent or temporary shielding walls including numbering system with illustrations, and schedule for ordering purposes. (author)

  4. Recycling waste brick from construction and demolition of buildings as pozzolanic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Wu, Hsiu-Hsien; Shie, Je-Lueng; Hwang, Chao-Lung; An Cheng

    2010-07-01

    This investigation elucidates the pozzolic characteristics of pastes that contain waste brick from building construction and demolition wastes. The TCLP leaching concentrations of waste brick for the target cations or heavy metals were all lower than the current regulatory thresholds of the Taiwan EPA. Waste brick had a pozzolanic strength activity index of 107% after 28 days. It can be regarded as a strong pozzolanic material. The compressive strengths of waste brick blended cement (WBBC) that contain 10% waste brick increased from 71.2 MPa at 28 days to 75.1 MPa at 60 days, an increase of approximately 5% over that period. At 28 days, the pozzolanic reaction began, reducing the amount of Ca(OH)(2) and increasing the densification. The intensity of the peak at 3640 cm(- 1) associated with Ca(OH)(2) is approximately the same for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes. The hydration products of all the samples yield characteristics peaks at 978 cm(-1) associated with C-S-H, and at ~3011 cm(-1) and 1640 cm(-1) associated with water. The samples yield peaks at 1112 cm(-1), revealing the formation of ettringite. In WBBC pastes, the ratio Q(2)/Q(1) increases with curing time. These results demonstrate that increasing the curing time increases the number of linear polysilicate anions in C-S-H. Experimental results reveal that waste brick has potential as a pozzolanic material in the partial replacement of cement. PMID:20154026

  5. Detailed Dynamic Heat Transfer in Thick Brick Walls Typical of Lille Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antczak E.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of thermal transfer in old houses massive walls offers a big interest permitting the understanding of their specificities and the choice of a suitable material for their eventual insulation. We propose to study the thermal transfer in massive brick walls that characterize the Northern Europe old houses. To do so, we will begin by defining the thermal transfer mode: we proved that the transfer mode can be reduced to a unidirectional transfer. Then, an experimental wall is built and submitted to two different solicitation types (constant temperature in steady state mode and sinusoidal temperature through a wooden insulated box containing a radiator. The interest of these solicitations is to determine the thermal properties of the wall: the steady-state regime permits to determine the thermal resistances of the system when the harmonic regime permits to determine the thermal capacities of the system.

  6. Monte Carlo determination of the lead equivalent for Syrian Building bricks for diagnostic x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uncertainty band associated with the transmission curve for 100 k Vp x-ray in lead was determined using Monte Carlo methods and the sensitivity analysis approach. All uncertainty sources (Statistical, systematical and the uncertainties arising from the diversity of x-ray tubes) were taken into account. The transmission of 100 k Vp x-ray in Syrian building bricks was then computed together with the uncertainty associated with it. Finally, the lead equivalent thickness for 10, 15 and 20 cm thick bricks were estimated. The results are in very good agreement with experimental results. This study recommends, as a rule of thumb, to use the lead-equivalent values of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 mm for the 10, 15 and 20 cm thick building bricks, respectively. (authors)

  7. Entropy of Warped Taub-NUT AdS Black String via the Brick Wall Method

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chong Oh

    2014-01-01

    When we consider five-dimensional warped Taub-NUT AdS black string with minimally coupled massive scalar field, we calculate an entropy by using the brick wall method. In extremely light effective mass, we find the entropy is proportional to an extra dimension wave number as well as quadratically divergent in a cutoff parameter. After taking zero NUT charge, we find the entropy of warped (AdS) Schwartzshield black hole string has a similar properties in as warped Taub-NUT AdS black string.

  8. Radiation shielding bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation shielding brick for use in building dry walls to form radiation proof enclosures and other structures is described. It is square in shape and comprises a sandwich of an inner layer of lead or similar shielding material between outer layers of plastics material, for structural stability. The ability to mechanically interlock adjacent bricks is provided by shaping the edges as cooperating external and internal V-sections. Relatively leak-free joints are ensured by enlarging the width of the inner layer in the edge region. (author)

  9. Energetic Refurbishment of Historic Brick Buildings:Problems and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Zagorskas, Jurgis; Mykolas Paliulis, Grazvydas; Burinskiene, Marija; Venckauskaite , Jürate; Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    Building standards for energy effectiveness are increasing constantly and the market follows these changes by constructing new buildings in accordance with standards and refurbishment of the existing housing stock. Comprehensive trends in European construction market show tremendous increase in building retrofit works. It can be predicted that after the end of this decade, more than half of the construction works in European cities will be taking place in existing buildings, pushing the const...

  10. Energetic Refurbishment of Historic Brick Buildings: Problems and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Zagorskas, J; Paliulis, G; Burinskienė, M; Venckauskaitė, J; T. Rasmussen

    2013-01-01

    Building standards for energy effectiveness are increasing constantly and the market follows these changes by constructing new buildings in accordance with standards and refurbishment of the existing housing stock. Comprehensive trends in European construction market show tremendous increase in building retrofit works. It can be predicted that after the end of this decade, more than half of the construction works in European cities will be taking place in existing buildin...

  11. Revision of the brick wall method for calculating the black hole thermodynamic quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, F.; Ohta, K.; Yazaki, K.

    2015-09-01

    Within the framework of the "brick wall model," a novel method is developed to compute the contributions of a scalar field to the thermodynamic quantities of black holes. The relations between (transverse) momenta and frequencies in Rindler space are determined numerically with high accuracy and analytically with an accuracy of better than 10% and are compared with the corresponding quantities in Minkowski space. In conflict with earlier results, the thermodynamic properties of black holes turn out to be those of a low-temperature system. The resulting discrepancy for partition function and entropy by 2 orders of magnitude is analyzed in detail. In the final part we carry out the analogous studies for scalar fields in de Sitter space and thereby confirm that our method applies also to the important case of spherically symmetric spaces.

  12. Radon exhalation in some building construction materials and effect of plastering and paints on the radon exhalation rate using fired bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological endeavors of human beings have modified the levels of radiation exposure slightly. The emanation of radon is primarily associated with radium and its ultimate precursor uranium. The radiation dose received by human beings from indoor radon and its progeny is the largest of all doses received either by natural or man-made sources. In order to investigate the effect of paints available in the market on the radon exhalation rate from building materials, several bricks were collected. These bricks were plastered with a mixture of cement and sand. Before measurements bricks were dried for 24 hours. These plastered bricks were then coated with white wash and again dried for 1- 2 hours. After drying the bricks were coated with different brands and colors of paints. Radon exhalation rates measurements were carried out for these painted bricks using 'Sealed can Technique' cylindrical plastic 'Can' of 7.5 cm height and 7.0 cm diameter was sealed to the individual samples by plastic can. In each 'Can' a LR-115 type II plastic detector (2 cm 2cm) was fixed at the top inside of the 'Can', such that the sensitive surface of the detector faces the material and is freely exposed to the emergent radon. Radon decays in the volume of the can record the alpha particles resulting from the 218Po and 214Po deposited on the inner wall of the 'Can'. Radon and its daughters will reach an equilibrium in concentration after one week or more. Hence the equilibrium activity of the emergent radon can be obtained from the geometry of the can and the time of exposure. The results will be discussed. (author)

  13. Natural radioactivity and gamma dose from Sri Lankan clay bricks used in building construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K have been determined by gamma ray spectrometry with an HPGe detector in clay brick samples from kiln sites located in 17 towns. The average values of the measured activities are 35, 72, and 585 Bq kg-1, respectively, for the above radionuclides. The average estimated radium equivalent concentration is 183 Bq kg-1 and is comparable with reported values for many countries in the world. This value and the value obtained from the criteria formula suggest that the use of local clay bricks do not pose a radiological hazard. The calculated average absorbed dose rate in air within buildings was found to be 102 nGy h-1 while the population weighted indoor annual effective dose was 0.20 mSv

  14. Rising damp in building walls: the wall base ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A. S.; Delgado, J. M. P. Q.; de Freitas, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    This work intends to validate a new system for treating rising damp in historic buildings walls. The results of laboratory experiments show that an efficient way of treating rising damp is by ventilating the wall base, using the HUMIVENT technique. The analytical model presented describes very well the observed features of rising damp in walls, verified by laboratory tests, who contributed for a simple sizing of the wall base ventilation system that will be implemented in historic buildings.

  15. A fly ash and shale fired brick production line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYali

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the fly ash and shale fired brick production line with annual output of 1250 million bricks, designed by Xi'an Research and Design Institute of Wall and Roof Material, commissioned by QinDian Building Material Subcompany, and set an example for using fly ash and shale in China.

  16. Gamma-ray exposure build-up factors of some brick materials in the state of Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma-ray exposure build-up factors of raw materials of bricks (soils and fly- ashes) in the state of Punjab were investigated for the photon energy range 0.015 to 15 MeV up to 40 mfp penetration depth by the geometrical progression (GP) method. Appreciable variations in the exposure build-up factor (EBF) are noted for the raw materials. The EBFs of the raw materials of bricks change depending on the photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition. The build-up factors are low at low and high photon energies, whereas they are very high in the medium-energy region. The peak energy of the EBF for soils is 0.3 MeV and 0.2 MeV for fly ashes. The EBFs of the raw materials of bricks are also compared with those of bricks of red mud and common brick materials. Common bricks were found to have the lowest gamma-ray EBF. This study should be useful for emergency preparedness planning and emergency dose estimation for future planned nuclear power plants in the state of Punjab. (authors)

  17. Behavioural Study of RC Flat Plate Multi-Storey Building Persuaded By Stiffness of Masonry Infill Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Muralidhara.G.B; Mrs. Swathi Rani.K.S

    2016-01-01

    With a very swift development in urban areas the framed structures which are infilled by brick masonry or concrete blocks are widely used as partition walls and also exterior walls. Masonry infill walls are common element in structural system which modifies the conduction of building under the lateral load. These structures resist the moderate earthquakes and accomplish well in such a prime manner that even if they have no load bearing function. Evidently, during the time of resol...

  18. Galectin-3 in heart failure pathology--"another brick in the wall"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Radu I; Puschita, Maria; Darabantiu, Dan; Pilat, Luminita

    2015-06-01

    Heart failure is a disease affecting millions of patients each year, and is responsible for burdening the world with high mortality rates. More concerns come from its numerous hospital readmissions (with an estimated number of 2.6 million per year which makes it one of the leading diseases responsible for national healthcare expenditures). Despite drastic improvement of therapies in recent years, heart failure remains a progressive disease. Thus, more attention has been given to finding potential biomarkers involved in the pathological mechanisms of this disease that would potentially lead to faster diagnosis and improved prognosis. One of the emerging biomarkers that has just recently come into the spotlight is galectin-3. It was associated in recent clinical trials with both the progression and severity of heart failure. Ventricular remodelling and myocardial fibrosis are essential for heart failure development and are linked to poor outcomes. An ever-growing body of evidence places galectin-3 as an important link between inflammation and fibrosis, which play a prominent role in cardiac remodelling.This review sums up the most relevant experimental and clinical studies about galectin-3 and its potential prognostic value in heart failure. The article also provides a better understanding of this molecule's involvement in heart failure pathology by modulating cardiac fibrosis. It also weighs whether the available data on galectin-3 are consistent enough to reduce readmissions and mortality while improving diagnosis and future therapies for heart failure, versus the possibility that it is simply"another brick in the wall?" PMID:26226706

  19. Simulation of x-ray attenuation using the code MCNP and determination of the lead equivalent for Syrian building bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uncertainty band associated with the transmission curve for 100 kV x-ray in lead was determined using Monte Carlo methods and the sensitivity analysis approach. All of uncertainty sources: Statistical, systematical and the uncertainties arising from the diversity of x-ray tubes were taken into account. The transmission of 100 kV x-ray in Syrian building bricks was then computed together the uncertainty associated with it. Finally, the lead equivalent thickness for 10, 15 and 20 cm thick bricks were estimated. The results are in very good agreement with experimental results. This study recommends, as a thumb rule, to use the lead-equivalent values of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 mm for the 1, 15 and 20 cm thick building bricks, respectively. (author)

  20. Near-horizon expansion (conformal) approach to the calculation of Black Hole entropy in `t Hooft's brick-wall model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Carlos

    2010-10-01

    A review and the latest results on the near-horizon expansion (conformal) approach to `t Hooft's brick-wall model calculation of Black Hole entropy developed recently by the speaker and his collaborators will be given in this talk. With mainly a graduate student audience in mind, the seminar will be pedagogical in nature, with emphasis on the ideas and logic of the methods and the insights gained with this approach more than on details. If time permits, possible future directions will also be mentioned.

  1. Utilization of bagasse from the beer industry in clay brick production for building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, M. L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes bricks manufactured from bagasse, a by-product of the brewing industry. Raw materials (clay and bagasse were characterized to determine their chemical composition, mineralogical composition and thermal behaviour. Mixtures were prepared with amounts of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 wt% of bagasse incorporated into the clay body. Rectangular test pieces were obtained by application of 54.5 MPa pressure, they were dried at 110 °C and fired at 950 ºC in a laboratory furnace for 1 hour. Ceramic properties related to weight loss on ignition, linear shrinkage, bulk and absolute density, water absorption, water suction and compressive strength were analyzed in order to evaluate the suitability of using this wastes in ceramic matrix to the production of building bricks. The results indicate that the incorporation of the bagasse decreases the absolute and bulk density, increases the water absorption and reduces the compressive strength of the brick.

    Este estudio analiza ladrillos fabricados a partir de bagazo, un subproducto del sector cervecero. Las materias primas (arcilla y bagazo fueron caracterizadas para determinar la composición química, la composición mineralógica y el comportamiento térmico. Las mezclas fueron preparadas adicionando cantidades del 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5 y 10 % en peso de bagazo a la arcilla. Se obtuvieron piezas rectangulares por aplicación de una presión de 54,5 MPa, secadas a 110 ºC y sinterizadas a 950 ºC en un horno mufla durante 1 hora. Las propiedades cerámicas relativas a la pérdida de peso por calcinación, contracción lineal, densidad aparente, densidad absoluta, absorción de agua, succión del agua y resistencia a la compresión, fueron analizadas para evaluar la conveniencia de utilizar estos residuos en matrices cerámicas para la producción de ladrillos para construcción. Los resultados indican que, la incorporación de bagazo disminuye las densidades aparente y absoluta, incrementa la

  2. Modern Solutions to Eliminate Capillarity Moisture from Brick Walls – Comer Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin L. Tamaş

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing stock at this time in our country is, in general, described by the old buildings built before 1990. Their degradation, from waterproofing protection point of view, noticeable by infiltrations of water, both at the level of the superstructure (roof, and the default thermal-hydro isolation and infrastructure (walls, is a result of multiple causes. Some of these causes were: deficient work of hydro isolation, thereby understanding the failure in implementing details, the use of materials with poor technical characteristics or savings regarding use of materials, improperly qualified or unqualified personnel for such activities. Intervention on buildings that have such problems, in order to ensure the requirements and criteria for specific performance of the waterproofing work, should pursue aspects of analysing the current situation, diagnose the causes of infiltrations, determining solutions and how to remedy those works, in order to comply with the specifications of the quality Law 10/1995 and the general requirement of waterproofing isolation.

  3. Hybrid Reinforced Concrete Frame Building with Pumice Brick Masonry Infill under Static Lateral Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the behaviour of hybrid reinforced concrete frame with pumice brick masonry infill under static lateral loading. The term hybrid herein is referred to the frame composed of precast block masonry unit and cast in-place reinforced concrete beams. Parameters considered in this study were frame opening representing doors and windows commonly used in the wall system. Six types of frame namely FS, FB, FDE, FDC, FWE and FWC designation for solid frame, bare frame, frame with door opening at edge, frame with door opening at centre, frame with window opening at edge and frame with window opening at centre respectively were considered. Test results indicated that the FS has a maximum lateral strength greater than that of FB. The lateral strength of FS was about 3.68 of FB. The frames with various openings have lateral strength nearly 2.3 of lateral strength of the bare frame, FB. Ductility factor of the frames varied from 2.4 to 4.92. The residual strength of the frame with openings were varies between 2.33 and 3.35 of the bare frame. The stiffness of the infilled frames with opening were varied from 3.56 to 3.67 of the bare frame. The presence of openings in the infilled frame did not affect the frame stiffness considerably.

  4. Archaeometric study of bricks from the ancient defence walls around the town of Pavia in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniale, F.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on bricks sampled from the defense walls around the historic town of Pavia (northern Italy erected during Roman (uncertain and “Spanish”(sixteenth-seventeenth centuries times. An analysis of colour, macro- and micro-chemical composition,mineralogical clusters and structural-textural features showed that similar raw materials were used in the manufacture of these bricks, although certain variations were identified: particle size is finer in Roman bricks, while the “Spanish” version contains ground carbonate and “chamotte” additives. The “Spanish” bricks,fired at lower temperatures, are more porous. The wide range of firing temperatures used to make “Spanish” bricks was very likely related to the intended use. The sporadic presence of maghemite is discussed in the context of the atmosphere prevailing in the kilns. The “Spanish” bricks are lighter in colour as a result of their carbonate content and lower firing temperature. These characteristics, which affect the weather resistance of the different types of brick, should be taken into account in restoration work.Se investigan ladrillos recogidos en las murallas defensivas de la histórica ciudad de Pavía (norte de Italia, que fueron construidas en tiempos romanos (no establecidosy “españoles” (siglos XVI y XVII.En base al color, composición química tanto total como puntual, asociaciones mineralógicas y características texturales,se concluye que se utilizó una materia prima similar en ambas épocas, con algunas particularidades: granulometría más fina en los romanos, adición de carbonato molido y chamota en los “españoles”. Por su parte, la porosidad es mayor en los ladrillos “españoles”. El amplio rango de temperaturas de cocción observado para estos últimos debe estar relacionado con los distintos usos para los cuales fueron destinados. La presencia esporádica de

  5. Comparison of in-plane cyclic response of unstrengthened and strengthened walls from unfired bricks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hračov, Stanislav; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Král, Radomil

    Žilina: EDIS publishing house University of Zilina, 2014 - (Melcer, J.), s. 47-54 ISBN 978-80-554-0844-6. [Dynamics of Civil Engineering and Transport Structures and Wind Engineering DYN-WIND'2014 /6./. Donovaly (SK), 26.05.2014-29.05.2014] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244123 - NIKER Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : masonry * unfired bricks * strengthening Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.itam.cas.cz/?pid=5

  6. Hygrothermal Behavior of Finnish Building Exterior Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Subba, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    The main problem with the buildings in Finland is most probably moulds growing inside the building components. Due to the very humid climate of Finland, the chance of mould problems is very large. During winter, the temperature difference between the indoor and outdoor environments is very large. Moisture travels with air currents. When air and moisture moves from warm side to cold side of the wall, moisture condenses onto the cold sheathing or cool drywall. This phenomenon can rot the insula...

  7. Control methods for strength of ceramic bricks in the inspection of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulybin A.V.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings up the problem of finding the most accurate, reliable and, at the same time, less time-consuming and relatively inexpensive method of determining strength of ceramic bricks. This task is particularly important in the context of the lack of standards governing the use of nondestructive testing methods for ceramic bricks, and the difficulties associated with sampling of ceramic brick masonry for standard tests.In the paper the possibility of determining the compressive strength of corpulent ceramic bricks by testing cylindrical samples taken from the body of masonry, is explored. The relation between standard samples tests results according to GOST standards № 8265-84 and testing of cylindrical samples is given.The experimental results for influence of the direction of kern selection (horizontally and vertically in reference to flat of brick on the strength is presented. The possibility of application of nondestructive testing methods for measuring strength of ceramic bricks is considered. Also the paper includes the examples of field and laboratory experiments.

  8. Near horizon geometry, Brick wall model and the Entropy of a scalar field in the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we will find the entropy of a scalar field in the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole backgrounds using the brick wall model of t' Hooft. We will use the semi-classical WKB approximation. We will consider the modes which are globally stationary so that the WKB quantization rule used in the brick wall model remains valid. In the Schwarzschild black hole this consideration had led to a new expression of the entropy different from the conventional expression which is inversely divergent in the brick wall cut-off parameter and in terms of a proper distance cut-off parameter, is proportional to the area of the event horizon. The new expression of the scalar field entropy obtained in this article is logarithmically divergent in the brick wall cut-off parameter and is not proportional to the area of the black hole event horizon. For the extremal Reissner-Nordstrom black hole background the entropy of the scalar field is again divergent in the brick wall cut-off parameter and vanishes if the temperature of the Hawking radiation and the black hole is taken to be zero. We will next consider the entropy for a thin shell of matter field surrounding the black hole horizon. When expressed in terms of a covariant cut-off parameter, the entropy of a thin shell of matter field surrounding the horizon in the non-extreme Reissner-Nordstrom black hole background is given by an expression proportional to the area of the black hole horizon. We will briefly explain the significance of this result.

  9. Thermal, economical and environmental analysis of insulated building walls in a cold climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermal, economical and environmental parameters for insulated walls in a cold climate are analysed. • The investigation is carried out for all wall orientations and flat roof during the winter period. • Heating load, time lag and decrement factor are calculated under steady periodic conditions. • The insulation thickness is optimized according to heating requirements of buildings. • Fuel consumption and emissions are calculated for different structure and insulation materials. - Abstract: In this study, thermal, economical and environmental effects in insulated building walls are numerically investigated under dynamic thermal conditions for two different wall structures and two different insulation materials. The investigation is carried out for different wall orientations during the winter period in Kars city which is one of the coldest cities of Turkey. For this purpose, a computer model based on an implicit finite difference procedure, which has been previously validated, is used under steady periodic conditions. Firstly, thermal characteristics such as yearly heating transmission load, yearly averaged time lag and decrement factor are calculated for heating season. The results show that maximum time lag, minimum decrement factor and lowest heating load are obtained in the brick wall with XPS (Extruded polystyrene) while minimum time lag, maximum decrement factor and highest heating load are obtained in the concrete wall with EPS (Expanded polystyrene). Secondly, yearly heating loads obtained under dynamic conditions are used as inputs to an economic model for the determination of the optimum insulation thickness. The optimum insulation thicknesses, energy savings and payback periods are calculated by using life-cycle cost analysis over lifetime of 20 years of the building. For heating season, it is seen that the lowest value of heating load, optimum insulation thickness and energy saving is obtained for the south-facing wall while

  10. ECOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR LOW ENERGY BUILDING WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents constructive solutions for thermal insulation of the building walls, using recycled and biodegradable materials. The thermal insulatingcomposite materials are made of textile fibers obtained from waste of the textile industrial sector, wood fibers and wood chips from the wood industrial sector and mineral materials as binders: gypsum, cement, ceramic dust or industrial clay. For each type of compositematerial, the thermal conductivity coefficient has been determined and compared. The final results of thermal insulation of the walls were obtained after using the software of analyzing the thermal insulation property of various proposed composites. The main advantage of the proposed materials is their ecological characteristic compared with classical structures used today in buildings thermal insulation.

  11. ECOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR LOW ENERGY BUILDING WALLS

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia COŞEREANU; Constantin LĂZĂRESCU; Cristina OLĂRESCU; Wilhelm LAURENZI

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents constructive solutions for thermal insulation of the building walls, using recycled and biodegradable materials. The thermal insulatingcomposite materials are made of textile fibers obtained from waste of the textile industrial sector, wood fibers and wood chips from the wood industrial sector and mineral materials as binders: gypsum, cement, ceramic dust or industrial clay. For each type of compositematerial, the thermal conductivity coefficient has been determined and co...

  12. Differential pressures on building walls during tornados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States, containment structures and some auxiliary structures (control building, auxiliary building, spent fuel building, etc.) in nuclear power plants are required to be designed to withstand the effects of the design basis tornado. In addition to velocity pressures and missile impact a tornado also gives rise to a rapid change in atmospheric pressure, which can, in cases of closed or partially vented structures, produce direct differential pressure loading. In this paper a digital computer program is described which applies a tornado-induced, time-dependent atmospheric pressure change to a building and calculates the differential pressure histories across the interior and exterior walls of the building. Laws for quasi-steady, one-dimensional motion of an ideal compressible gas are used to calculate the pressures due to the flow of air through ports, doors and windows in the building. Numerical examples show that for each assumed atmospheric pressure change history a vent area to compartment volume ratio may be specified as the criterion for a building to be considered fully vented. (orig.)

  13. Differential pressures on building walls during tornadoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States, containment structures and some auxiliary structures (control buildings, auxiliary buildings, spent fuel buildings, etc.) in nuclear power plants are required to be designed to withstand the effects of the design basis tornado. In addition to velocity pressures and missile impact a tornado also causes a rapid change in atmospheric pressure, which can, in cases of closed or partially vented structures, produce direct differential pressure loading. In this paper a digital computer program is described which applies a tornado-induced, time-dependent atmospheric pressure change to a building and calculates the differential pressure histories across the interior and exterior walls of the building. Laws for quasi-steady, one-dimensional motion of an ideal compressible gas are used to calculate the pressures due to the flow of air through ports, doors and windows in the building. Numerical examples show that for each assumed atmospheric pressure change history a vent area to compartment volume ratio may be specified as the criterion for a building to be considered fully vented. (Auth.)

  14. Comparison of in-plane cyclic response of unstrengthened and strengthened walls from unfired bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Hračov, S. (Stanislav); Pospíšil, S.; Král, R. (Radomil)

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a series of in-plane shear tests on non-traditional masonry walls under unstrengthened and strengthened conditions. The applicability and suitability of two different strengthening techniques, the first realized using steel wire ropes and the latter using mortar layer strengthened with two types of geo-nets, has been investigated. The paper focuses on assessing the influences of both techniques in changing of the mechanical parameters of the walls. Co...

  15. Technology Solutions Case Study: Retrofit Measures for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ueno

    2015-10-01

    In this project, the Building Science Corporation team studied a historic brick building in Lawrence, Massachusetts, which is being renovated into 10 condominium units and adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings.

  16. Analysis Of Construction Salt Decomposition Within Walls Of Ceramic Brick In The Midtown Tenement Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Bartosz; Trochonowicz, Maciej

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce issues related to the corrosive effects of construction salts. Sequentially, one will discuss issues related to the distribution of salt in the wall, salinity sources and types of masonry material damage. There will also be presented the results of research conducted by the authors, which allowed determining the distribution of salinity in the walls depending on the depth and height of sampling. The paper will present test results of samples taken from several heights and depths within the same piece of wall and summaries from all facilities. Research conducted by the authors were based on chemical analyzes performed using the prepared chemical tests. Assays are made using titration and colorimetric methods.

  17. Analysis Of Construction Salt Decomposition Within Walls Of Ceramic Brick In The Midtown Tenement Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szostak Bartosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce issues related to the corrosive effects of construction salts. Sequentially, one will discuss issues related to the distribution of salt in the wall, salinity sources and types of masonry material damage. There will also be presented the results of research conducted by the authors, which allowed determining the distribution of salinity in the walls depending on the depth and height of sampling. The paper will present test results of samples taken from several heights and depths within the same piece of wall and summaries from all facilities. Research conducted by the authors were based on chemical analyzes performed using the prepared chemical tests. Assays are made using titration and colorimetric methods.

  18. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING SHIELD WALL ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this analysis is to estimate the shielding wall, ceiling or equivalent door thicknesses that will be required in the Waste Handling Building to maintain the radiation doses to personnel within acceptable limits. The shielding thickness calculated is the minimum required to meet administrative limits, and not necessarily what will be recommended for the final design. The preliminary evaluations will identify the areas which have the greatest impact on mechanical and facility design concepts. The objective is to provide the design teams with the necessary information to assure an efficient and effective design

  19. Strengthening brick masonry columns using ferrocement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to concrete becoming a widely used building material, brick masonry walls and columns were mainly provided in buildings in most parts of the Indo-Pak Sub-Continent. Quite a large number of these old brick masonry buildings have lost strength, which needs to be restored. A research work was carried out to enhance the strength of brick masonry columns through confinement with ferrocement so as to act as a retrofit arrangement in restoring strength of old brick masonry columns. Composite behavior of masonry columns coated with/without ferrocement having 1, 2 and 3 layers of wire meshes were prepared and tested. Bonding agent was also used for some cases. Test results revealed that the application of ferrocement coating on bare masonry columns enhances the compressive strength quite significantly. Ferrocement specimens having 1 layer of wire mesh wrapped inside showed an increase in failure load up to 134% as compared to control specimen. The cracking resistance and stable crack growth mechanism is also improved. The use of bonding agent does not help in improving load carrying capacity however it is effective in controlling the spalling of concrete cover. (author)

  20. "Method, system and storage medium for generating virtual brick models"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An exemplary embodiment is a method for generating a virtual brick model. The virtual brick models are generated by users and uploaded to a centralized host system. Users can build virtual models themselves or download and edit another user's virtual brick models while retaining the identity of the...... original virtual brick model. Routines are provided for both storing user created building steps in and generating automated building instructions for virtual brick models, generating a bill of materials for a virtual brick model and ordering physical bricks corresponding to a virtual brick model....

  1. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives

  2. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives.

  3. Steel-framed buildings: Impacts of wall detail configurations on the whole wall thermal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosny, J.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Christian, J.E.

    1998-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is the influence of architectural wall details on the whole wall thermal performance. Whole wall thermal performance analysis was performed for six light gage steel-framed wall systems (some with wood components). For each wall system, all wall details were simulated using calibrated 3-D finite difference computer modeling. The thermal performance of the six steel-framed wall systems included various system details and the whole wall system thermal performance for a typical single-story ranch house. Currently, predicted heat losses through building walls are typically based on measurements of the wall system clear wall area using test methods such as ASTM C 236 or are calculated by one of the procedures recommended in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals that often is carried out for the clear wall area exclusively. In this paper, clear wall area is defined as the part of the wall system that is free of thermal anomalies due to building envelope details or thermally unaffected by intersections with other surfaces of the building envelope. Clear wall experiments or calculations normally do not include the effects of building envelope details such as corners, window and door openings, and structural intersections with roofs, floors, ceilings, and other walls. In steel-framed wall systems, these details typically consist of much more structural components than the clear wall. For this situation, the thermal properties measured or calculated for the clear wall area do not adequately represent the total wall system thermal performance. Factors that would impact the ability of today`s standard practice to accurately predict the total wall system thermal performance are the accuracy of the calculation methods, the area of the total wall that is clear wall, and the quantity and thermal performance of the various wall system details.

  4. Thermal Performance of Hollow Clay Brick with Low Emissivity Treatment in Surface Enclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Fioretti; Paolo Principi

    2014-01-01

    External walls made with hollow clay brick or block are widely used for their thermal, acoustic and structural properties. However, the performance of the bricks frequently does not conform with the minimum legal requirements or the values required for high efficiency buildings, and for this reason, they need to be integrated with layers of thermal insulation. In this paper, the thermal behavior of hollow clay block with low emissivity treatment on the internal cavity surfaces has been invest...

  5. Effect of Peat on Physicomechanical Properties of Cemented Brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mofachirul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicomechanical properties of bricks and investigates the influence of peat, sand, and cement solid bricks to the role of various types of constructional applications. The achieved compressive strength, spitting strength, flexural strength, unit weight, and ultrasonic pulse velocity are significantly reduced and the water absorption is increased with percentage wise replacement of peat as aggregate in the samples. The maximum 20% of (% mass peat content meets the requirements of relevant well-known international standards. The experimental values illustrate that, the 44% volumetric replacement with peat did not exhibit any sudden brittle fracture even beyond the ultimate loads and a comparatively smooth surface is found. The application of peat as efficient brick substance shows a potential to be used for wall and a viable solution in the economic buildings design.

  6. Effect of peat on physicomechanical properties of cemented brick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Syed Mofachirul; Hashim, Roslan; Islam, A B M Saiful; Kurnia, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicomechanical properties of bricks and investigates the influence of peat, sand, and cement solid bricks to the role of various types of constructional applications. The achieved compressive strength, spitting strength, flexural strength, unit weight, and ultrasonic pulse velocity are significantly reduced and the water absorption is increased with percentage wise replacement of peat as aggregate in the samples. The maximum 20% of (% mass) peat content meets the requirements of relevant well-known international standards. The experimental values illustrate that, the 44% volumetric replacement with peat did not exhibit any sudden brittle fracture even beyond the ultimate loads and a comparatively smooth surface is found. The application of peat as efficient brick substance shows a potential to be used for wall and a viable solution in the economic buildings design. PMID:24982941

  7. Visual documentation process of historic building refurbishment "Improving energy efficiency by insulating wall cavity"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennadji, A.

    2013-07-01

    The North East of Scotland's construction method is similar to most popular building typologies in the UK. This typology can vary in term of external material (Granite, brick or stone) but with a secondary, usually timber sub frame with a lining on its interior. Insulation was seldom a consideration when such buildings were completed. Statistics shows that 80% of existing buildings in the UK will need to be upgraded. The lack of knowledge in dealing with old building fabric's manipulation has a negative impact on buildings' integrity. The documentation of such process seems to be an important step that buildings' actors should undertake to communicate a practical knowledge that is still at incubation stage. We wanted for this documentation to be visual, as descriptions might mislead none specialised and specialised in the field due to the innovative approach our method was conducted with. For the Scottish context this research/experiment will concentrate on existing granite wall buildings with plastered lath internal wall. It is unfortunate to see the commonly beautiful interiors of Scottish buildings disappearing, when the internal linings are removed. Skips are filled with old Plaster and Lath and new linings have to be supplied and fitted. Excessive waste is created in this change. This paper is based on a historic building energy improvement case study financed by the European commission and the Scottish Government. The pilot study consists of insulating an 18th century house using an innovative product and method. The project was a response to a call by the CIC start (Construction Innovation Club), aiming to establish a link between SMEs and the Universities. The project saw the day in collaboration with Icynene Canada, KDL Kishorn (see full list in the acknowledgment). This paper describes the process through which the team went through to improve the building envelope without damaging the buildings original features (Loveday et all). The energy efficiency

  8. Nozzle Bricks and Well Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,brand,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,marking,packing,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of nozzle bricks and well bricks.This standard is applicable to unfired and fired products.

  9. Wall envelopes in office buildings: design trend and implications on cooling load of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wall envelope is a vital element of a building especially to a high rise building where its wall to building volume ratio is higher compared to other building forms. As well as a means of architectural expression, the wall envelope protects and regulates the indoor environment. In recent years there have been many applications of glass products and cladding systems in high-rise buildings built in Kuala Lumpur. This paper describes a recent research and survey on wall envelope designs adopted in 33 high-rise office buildings built in the central business district of Kuala Lumpur since 1990. This research adopts component design analysis to identify dominant trends on wall envelope design for the surveyed buildings. The paper seeks to discourse the implications of this design trend on energy consumption of high-rise office buildings in the country

  10. Shielding walls against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard contains specifications for the shape and requirements set for lead bricks such that they can be used to construct radiation-shielding walls according to the building kit system. The dimensions of the bricks are selected in such a way as to permit any modification of the length, height and thickness of said shielding walls in units of 50 mm. The narrow side of the lead bricks juxtaposed to one another in a wall construction to shield against radiation have to form prismatic grooves and tongues; in this way, direct penetration by radiation is prevented. Only cuboid bricks (serial nos. 55-60 according to Table 10) do not have prismatic tongues and grooves. (orig.)

  11. Investigation and dose assessment of the radioactive level in buildings made of cinder bricks of Xiangxi gold mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation results of the radioactive level in the houses made of cinder bricks of Xiangxi Gold Mine was presented. The measured results and dose assessment shows that the mean of γ external penetrating radiation dose rate including cosmic radiation in houses of cinder bricks is 33.4 x 10-8 Gyh-1 because the bricks have a higher concentration of natural radionuclide 226Ra. The additional annual collective effective dose equivalent to∼5250 persons in such houses is 20.9 man·Sv

  12. Development of a Low-Cost Airborne Ultrasound Sensor for the Detection of Brick Joints behind a Wall Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Bravo, José María; Pérez-Miralles, Juan; Estrada, Héctor; Fernández-Navajas, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive methods are of great interest for the analysis of cultural heritage. Among the different possible techniques, this paper presents a low cost prototype based on the emission and reception of airborne ultrasound without direct contact with the test specimen. We successfully performed a method test for the detection of brick joints under a XVth century Renaissance fresco of the Metropolitan Cathedral of the city of Valencia (Spain). Both laboratory and in situ results are in agreement. Using this prototype system, an early moisture detection system has been installed in the dome that supports the fresco. The result is encouraging and opens interesting prospects for future research. PMID:22438711

  13. Development of a Low-Cost Airborne Ultrasound Sensor for the Detection of Brick Joints behind a Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Fernández-Navajas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive methods are of great interest for the analysis of cultural heritage. Among the different possible techniques, this paper presents a low cost prototype based on the emission and reception of airborne ultrasound without direct contact with the test specimen. We successfully performed a method test for the detection of brick joints under a XVth century Renaissance fresco of the Metropolitan Cathedral of the city of Valencia (Spain. Both laboratory and in situ results are in agreement. Using this prototype system, an early moisture detection system has been installed in the dome that supports the fresco. The result is encouraging and opens interesting prospects for future research.

  14. Behavioural Study of RC Flat Plate Multi-Storey Building Persuaded By Stiffness of Masonry Infill Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Muralidhara.G.B

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With a very swift development in urban areas the framed structures which are infilled by brick masonry or concrete blocks are widely used as partition walls and also exterior walls. Masonry infill walls are common element in structural system which modifies the conduction of building under the lateral load. These structures resist the moderate earthquakes and accomplish well in such a prime manner that even if they have no load bearing function. Evidently, during the time of resolution of such a multi-storey structure, the infilled frame is considered as bare frame, because IS codes do not provide any guide lines for the analysis and design of RC frames with infill wall. This paper addresses the numerical study of G+10 RC flat plate framed building with different cases i.e, soft story at ground level (Basement, with soft story at 5th floor level, without soft storey and bare frame building by using ETABS as soft computing tool. All these cases are analyzed for equivalent static method and Response spectrum method. By this, dynamic properties are evaluated and according to the results obtained conclusions are drawn.

  15. Damage to urban buildings in zones of intensities VIII and VII during the Wenchuan earthquake and discussion on some typical damages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjiang Sun; Yuhong Tang; Chao Zheng; Hongbin Shi; Lin Lin; Zhongxian Sun

    2009-01-01

    The outline and typical characteristics of damages to building in Jiangyou city and Anxian county (intensity VIII), Mianyang city and Deyang city (intensity VII) are introduced in the paper. The damage ratios, based on the sample statistics of multi-story brick buildings together with multi-story brick buildings with RC frame at first story (BBF), are presented. Then some typical damages, such as horizontal cricks of brick masonry buildings, X-shaped cricks on the walls under windows, the damages to columns, beams and infill walls of frame buildings and the damage to half circle-shaped masonry walls, are discussed.

  16. Seismic performance of buildings with thin RC bearing walls

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzáles Fernández, Helbert; López Almansa, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    up to five stories) with thin RC shear-walls have been constructed for low-cost dwellings in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Venezuela, and other countries located in seismic-prone regions. These walls are 10 cm thick and their reinforcement consists mainly of a single layer of welded wire mesh. This construction technology offers two main advantages: economy and rapidity of construction. These buildings do not fulfill the international seismic codes but some national regul...

  17. Survey of naturally radioactive level of some new type wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in seven new type wall materials were surveyed. The radioactivity was determined with HPGe-γ spectrometer. The red mud has the highest radioactivity concentration, followed by slag building blocks, fly-ash building blocks (bricks), gangue bricks and light weight board materials, gypsum blocks. Fly-ash and slag contain higher NORM, which contributes the major part of the radioactivity in new wall materials. (authors)

  18. The production process for water penetrated brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunGuofeng

    2005-01-01

    Waste penetrated brick, which is a green building material with good water penetration, high strength, lower firing temperature, lower production cost, good appearance and good structure, can holding ground water lever. This article analysis the production process and related factor for water penetrated brick:proper particle size distribution, proper shaping method, proper press and proper firing can ensure to produce good quality water penetrated brick.

  19. Study of radon diffusion through clay bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is generated in the earth's crust and is free to migrate through soil and be released to the indoor and outdoor atmosphere. Much attention has been given to the radiological health hazard posed by increased radon concentrations in the living and working environment. In order to study radon profiles for geophysical purposes and to predict its entry indoors, it is necessary to study its transport through building materials. The most common way of modeling radon flow through building materials is the advective transport by pressure-driven air flow from the source. The transport phenomenon of radon through diffusion is a significant contributor to indoor radon entry. The diffusion coefficient of radon gas in building materials is often used as an indication for radon transportability through a porous medium and, furthermore, as an essential tool for quantitative predictions of radon concentrations in dwellings by estimating the exhalation rates of the wall surfaces. Radon diffusion coefficients in bricks were determined by employing the two compartment method in which one compartment is kept at a high radon concentration while the other is initially at low concentration. The radon diffusion coefficient is then deduced by monitoring the radon in the second compartment by measuring the steady state radon flux into the compartment. In this case, a steady-state solution was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. The radon diffusion coefficients were found to vary from 0.32x10-6 m2/s to 0.48 x10-6 m2/s and the diffusion length were from 36x10-2 m to 42 x102 m in bricks. The results indicate that the bricks analyzed are fairly radon tight. (author)

  20. Non-linear thermal analysis of the efficiency of light concrete big-holed bricks by FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Coz Díaz, J. J.; García Nieto, P. J.; Martínez-Luengas, A. Lozano; Domínguez Hernández, J.

    2012-12-01

    This paper shows how advanced numerical methods can help to improve the thermal efficiency of multi-holed brick walls. In order to get this objective, we will present a new methodology based on different numerical simulations. With the help of the finite element analysis (FEA), we present an optimization procedure in order to determine the best big-holed candidate brick from the thermal point of view. With respect to the ecological design and the energy saving for housing and industrial structures, there is also a great interest in light building materials with good physical and thermal behaviors, which fulfils all thermal requirements of the new CTE Spanish rule for further energy savings. On the one hand, we want to validate the numerical analysis procedure, based on the simulation of three-dimensional walls by the finite element method (FEM). On the other hand, we have analyzed the material conductivity for different compositions of the light concrete. The FEM is used for finding accurate solutions of the heat transfer equation for light concrete bigholed brick walls. Mathematically, the non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner recesses of the bricks. Afterwards, the thermal optimization of the walls is carried out from the FEA of several hollow brick geometries through the average mass overall thermal efficiency and the equivalent thermal conductivity. In order to select the appropriate wall satisfying the CTE requirements, detailed instructions are given. Finally, conclusions of this paper are exposed.

  1. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  2. Tests and Analysis of the Compressive Performance of an Integrated Masonry Structure of a Brick-Stem-Insulating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suizi Jia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes, for low buildings, an integrated wall structure of a brick-stem-insulating layer, which plays a major part in both heat preservation and force bearing. The research team has tested the thermal performance of the structure, the results of which are satisfying. To further study the force-bearing performance, the paper carries out compressive tests of specimens of different structural design, with two types of bricks, i.e., clay and recycled concrete bricks; three types of stems, i.e., square-shaped wood, square-shaped steel pipe and circular steel pipe; and one type of insulating layer, i.e., fly ash masonry blocks. Afterward, the force bearing performance, damage that occurred, compressive deformation and ductility of all of the specimens are compared. On the sideline, the structure is applied in the construction of a pilot residence project, yielding favorable outcomes. The results indicate that in comparison with a brick wall with an insulating layer sandwiched in between, the integrated wall structure of bricks and fly ash blocks is a more preferable choice in terms of compressive performance and ductility. The integrated wall structure of brick-stem-fly ash blocks delivers much better performance to this end. Note that regarding the stem’s contribution to compressive strength, circular steel pipe is highest, followed by square-shaped steel pipe and then square-shaped wood. The compressive performance of the sandwiched blocks surpasses that of the two brick wall pieces combined by a large margin.

  3. 3D Printing for Bricks

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2015-01-01

    Building Bytes, by Brian Peters, is a project that uses desktop 3D printers to print bricks for architecture. Instead of using an expensive custom-made printer, it uses a normal standard 3D printer which is available for everyone and makes it more accessible and also easier for fabrication.

  4. Environmental radiation of different building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influences of some parameters on the doserate inside and in the environment of buildings are discussed and calculations of the gammaray exposure from walls of different materials are reported. Results of dose measurements are given and it can be shown, that the used building material has an important influence on the natural radiation dose. Dose rates inside concrete buildings are sometimes lower than those outside; in dwellings with walls of brick we found significant higher doses that outside. (Author)

  5. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls, Lawrence, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-10-01

    ?There are many existing buildings with load-bearing mass masonry walls, whose energy performance could be improved with the retrofit of insulation. However, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw have known solutions. But wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content and relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100 percent RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated vs. non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15 percent) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  6. Device for storage of radioactive material in a building with heat pipes set in the building wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When storing radio-active material in a building, safe and sufficient heat removal must always be guaranteed. On the other hand, the building should be safely closed to the environment. The invention makes it possible to ensure, for such a building with heat pipes set in the building wall, that it is possible to use at least part of the heat generated in the building without limiting the removal of heat. Cooling sleeves are fitted to the heat pipes near the building wall for this purpose, where a cooling circuit with a circulating coolant is connected to the cooling sleeves. (orig.)

  7. In-situ evaluation of compressed brick veneer using the flatjack technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.R.; Gabby, B.A.

    1999-07-01

    The flatjack is a relatively nondestructive tool that allows engineers engaged in the repair and retrofit of masonry buildings (both historic and non-historic) to directly determine the in-situ state of compressive stress in masonry walls. The flatjack technique recently was used on a large modern apartment complex to quantify the compression in a brick veneer that was distressed and had questionable wind-load resistance. The compression in the veneer was due to a combination of concrete frame shrinkage and brick growth in a wall system that lacked horizontal control joints under the steel shelf angles. Although the compression caused spalling in the veneer, it also contributed beneficially to the walls' wind resistance. The amount of compression in the veneer was determined in several location throughout the height of one elevation of the building using flatjacks. The authors found that the compression in the veneer was greater than the flexural tension produced by design wind loads (including a reasonable factor of safety), but below the compressive strength of the brick masonry. This finding allowed a repair solution that was modest relative to strengthening the wall for inadequate wind resistance. Prior to employing the flatjack in the field, the authors conducted in-house research to check the accuracy and reliability of method, and develop their technique. The authors found that by altering gauge points from those locations prescribed by current ASTM standards to those recommended in recent research, greater accuracy could be obtained.

  8. Non-Linear Static Analysis of G+6 Storeyed RC Buildings with Openings in Infill Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen Rathod; Dr. S. S. Dyavanal

    2014-01-01

    Masonry infill walls are commonly used in the RC frame structure buildings. Openings are inevitable part of the infill walls. Openings in infill walls significantly decrease the lateral strength and stiffness of RC frames. In the present study two-dimensional seven storeyed reinforced concrete (RC) building models are considered with of (5%, 25%, and 35% openings Bare frame and soft storey buildings are modeled considering special moment resisting frame (SMRF) for medium soil profile and zone...

  9. Thermal Performance of Hollow Clay Brick with Low Emissivity Treatment in Surface Enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fioretti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available External walls made with hollow clay brick or block are widely used for their thermal, acoustic and structural properties. However, the performance of the bricks frequently does not conform with the minimum legal requirements or the values required for high efficiency buildings, and for this reason, they need to be integrated with layers of thermal insulation. In this paper, the thermal behavior of hollow clay block with low emissivity treatment on the internal cavity surfaces has been investigated. The purpose of this application is to obtain a reduction in the thermal conductivity of the block by lowering the radiative heat exchange in the enclosures. The aims of this paper are to indicate a methodology for evaluating the thermal performance of the brick and to provide information about the benefits that should be obtained. Theoretical evaluations are carried out on several bricks (12 geometries simulated with two different thermal conductivities of the clay, using a finite elements model. The heat exchange procedure is implemented in accordance with the standard, so as to obtain standardized values of the thermal characteristics of the block. Several values of emissivity are hypothesized, related to different kinds of coating. Finally, the values of the thermal transmittance of walls built with the evaluated blocks have been calculated and compared. The results show how coating the internal surface of the cavity provides a reduction in the thermal conductivity of the block, of between 26% and 45%, for a surface emissivity of 0.1.

  10. Energy efficiency of the Rural Wall multi-layer structure in low-rise building design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Golova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study on energy efficiency of various wall design solutions and a new multi-layer wall design for low-rise construction as well as the results of television studies on multi-layer and single-layer envelopes. Indoor climate parameters for various wall design solutions are determined. The study reveals the optimal wall design solutions and specifies the theoretical assessment of their energy efficiency in compliance with Russia's national building code 23-02-2003. The paper presents calculations of building heat loss through the exterior building envelope, reduced resistance to heat transfer of walls and total heat loss of the building with the selected outer wall design during the heating season. Recommendations on the application of the new multi-layer wall design using local wall materials in the construction of energy-efficient low-rise buildings are developed. The recommendations include requirements for wall materials, thermal calculations, production guidelines, properties of layers in a multi-layer walls and physical and mechanical properties of wall layers.

  11. Effective of Earthquake load on Behavior of Rectangular Shear Wall in RC Frame Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hosseini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural walls, or shear walls, are elements used to resist lateral loads, such as those generated by wind and earthquakes. Structural walls are considerably deeper than typical beams or columns. This attribute gives structural walls considerable in-plane stiffness which makes structural walls a natural choice for resisting lateral loads. In addition to considerable strength, structural walls can dissipate a great deal of energy if detailed properly. Walls are an invaluable structural element when protecting buildings from seismic events. Buildings often rely on structural walls as the main lateral force resisting system. Shear walls are required to perform in multiple ways. Shear walls can then be designed to limit building damage to the specified degree. The load-deformation response of the structural walls must be accurately predicted and related to structural damage in order to achieve these performance goals under loading events of various magnitudes. The applied load is generally transferred to the wall by a diaphragm or collector or drag member. The performance of the framed buildings depends on the structural system adopted for the structure The term structural system or structural frame in structural engineering refers to load-resisting sub-system of a structure. The structural system transfers loads through interconnected structural components or members. These structural systems need to be chosen based on its height and loads and need to be carried out, etc. The selection of appropriate structural systems for building must satisfy both strength and stiffness requirements. The structural system must be adequate to resist lateral and gravity loads that cause horizontal shear deformation and overturning deformation. The efficiency of a structural system is measured in terms of their ability to resist lateral load, which increases with the height of the frame. A building can be considered as tall when the effect of lateral loads is

  12. Modelling of a coke oven heating wall

    OpenAIRE

    Landreau, M.; Isler, D.; Gasser, A.; Blond, E.; Daniel, J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    International audience This work deals with thermomechanical modelling of a coke oven heating wall. The objective is to define the safe limits of coke oven battery operating conditions compatible with a long service life in terms of thermal and mechanical stresses. For this purpose a 3D thermomechanical model of a heating wall taking into account the assembly of bricks and joints was developed with PRISME Laboratory. To build an efficient and complete model, different parameters must be ta...

  13. Distribution of natural radioactive isotope concentrations and emanation factors measured on concrete and brick samples produced in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radioactive isotope concentrations and emanation factors were measured on concrete and brick samples produced in different parts of Hungary. The natural activity parameters measured on samples produced in a given factory within a period of 1 to 2 years show normal distribution. Samples received at different times from all the building factories under investigation showed about half normal and half lognormal distributions of natural activity parameters. Calculating with the arithmetical means obtained for each of the natural activities substituted into simple models, it was found that the radon and thoron activity is expected to increase by about 25% and the exposure from external radiation to decrease by a factor of 2.3 in the new prefabricated apartments made of concrete as compared with the conventional apartments with brick walls and concrete ceilings. The data obtained from the measurements were used to establish reference levels for the radiological grading of concrete and brick produced in Hungary

  14. Measurement of natural radionuclides in bricks and brick-making clays from Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In India, bricks as building materials are mainly prepared by clay using the deposited sediments of rivers, and the radionuclide contents in bricks and brick-making clays should vary with origin and geological condition. In this paper, the radionuclide contents of these materials from river bank areas of Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu India are measured by gamma ray spectrometer using NaI (Tl) detector, and compared with those of other countries. The radiation hazard indices, which are evaluated by radium-equivalent (Raeq) activity, are lower than that of NEA-OECD. (authors)

  15. Color Bricks: Building Highly Organized and Strongly Absorbing Multicomponent Arrays of Terpyridyl Perylenes on Metal Oxide Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariola-Leikas, Essi; Ahmed, Zafar; Vivo, Paola; Ojanperä, Anniina; Lahtonen, Kimmo; Saari, Jesse; Valden, Mika; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Efimov, Alexander

    2016-01-22

    Terpyridine-substituted perylenes containing cyclic anhydrides in the peri position were synthesized. The anhydride group served as an anchor for assembly of the terpyridyl-crowned chromophores as monomolecular layers on metal oxide surfaces. Further coordination with Zn(2+) ions allowed for layer-by-layer formation of supramolecular assemblies of perylene imides on the solid substrates. With properly selected anchor and linker molecules it was possible to build high quality structures of greater than ten successive layers by a simple and straightforward procedure. The prepared films were stable and had a broad spectral coverage and high absorbance. To demonstrate their potential use, the synthesized dyes were employed in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, and electron injection from the perylene antennas to titanium dioxide was observed. PMID:26632758

  16. Study of Strength of RC Shear Wall at Different Location on Multi-Storied Residential Building

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Ehtesham Ali; Mohd Minhaj Uddin Aquil

    2014-01-01

    Shear wall systems are one of the most commonly used lateral load resisting systems in high-rise buildings. Shear walls have very high in plane stiffness and strength, which can be used to simultaneously resist large horizontal loads and support gravity loads, making them quite advantageous in many structural engineering applications. There are lots of literatures available to design and analyze the shear wall. However, the decision about the location of shear wall in multi-st...

  17. A numerical study of external building walls containing phase change materials (PCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) have been receiving increased attention, due to their capacity to store large amounts of thermal energy in narrow temperature ranges. This property makes them ideal for passive heat storage in the envelopes of buildings. To study the influence of PCMs in external building walls, a one-dimensional transient heat transfer model has been developed and solved numerically using a finite difference technique. Different external building wall configurations were analyzed for a typical building wall by varying the location of the PCM layer, the orientation of the wall, the ambient conditions and the phase transition temperature of the PCM. The integration of a PCM layer into a building wall diminished the amplitude of the instantaneous heat flux through the wall when the melting temperature of the PCM was properly selected according to the season and wall orientation. Conversely, the results of the work show that there is no significant reduction in the total heat lost during winter regardless of the wall orientation or PCM transition temperature. Higher differences were observed in the heat gained during the summer period, due to the elevated solar radiation fluxes. The high thermal inertia of the wall implies that the inclusion of a PCM layer increases the thermal load during the day while decreasing the thermal load during the night. - Highlights: ► A comparative simulation of a building wall with and without PCMs has been conducted. ► PCM is selected according with the season, the wall orientation and the melting temperature. ► PCM in a building wall help to diminish the internal air temperature swings and to regulate the heat transfer.

  18. Study of Strength of RC Shear Wall at Different Location on Multi-Storied Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ehtesham Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shear wall systems are one of the most commonly used lateral load resisting systems in high-rise buildings. Shear walls have very high in plane stiffness and strength, which can be used to simultaneously resist large horizontal loads and support gravity loads, making them quite advantageous in many structural engineering applications. There are lots of literatures available to design and analyze the shear wall. However, the decision about the location of shear wall in multi-storey building is not much discussed in any literatures. In this paper, therefore, main focus is to determine the solution for shear wall location in multi-storey building. A RCC building of six storey placed in HYDERABAD subjected to earthquake loading in zone-II is considered. An earthquake load is calculated by seismic coefficient method using IS 1893 (PART–I:2002. These analyses were performed using ETABS.

  19. Lead brick with a resistant coating and the coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns a lead brick with a resistant coating made from an elastomer material such silicone type, giving a smooth surface able to be decontaminated. The brick allows to build biological protection barriers to protect users against injurious radiations, specially, x radiations or gamma radiations. (N.C.). 6 refs., 4 figs

  20. Silica Refractory Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the classification,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of silica refractory bricks.This standard is applicable to silica refractory bricks with single weight≤40 kg.

  1. Effect of Peat on Physicomechanical Properties of Cemented Brick

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Mofachirul Islam; Roslan Hashim; A. B. M. Saiful Islam; Ryan Kurnia

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicom...

  2. Arithmetic theory of brick tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new, 'arithmetic', approach to the algebraic theory of brick tilings is developed. This approach enables one to construct a simple classification of brick tilings in Zd and to find new proofs of several classical results on brick packing and tilings in Zd. In addition, possible generalizations of results on integer brick packing to the Euclidean plane R2 are investigated

  3. Measurement of radionuclides in bricks made from refuse ash of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since people spend about 80% of their time in buildings, in order to estimate the radiation exposure dose of nation, it is necessary to grasp indoor dose level. It has been known that as for indoor radiation exposure dose, it is different according to the types of buildings, and generally it is low in wooden houses, and high in concrete and brick buildings. This difference is due to the shielding of environmental radiation by building material and the radiation emitted from building materials themselves. In this study, the radionuclides in the bricks made of sewage slude-incinerated ash and red bricks for the reference were investigated. The radiation emitted from the bricks was measured with a thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD). The sampling and pretreatment, the measuring method, the measurement of the radiation dose on the bricks, and the results are reported. As for the natural radionuclides in the bricks, 7Be was detected in most sludge bricks, and the concentration varied largely according to the data of sampling. It was not detected in red bricks. 40K, 214Bi and 228Ac were detected in all the sludge and red bricks. Artificial radionuclides such as 54Mn, 60Co, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs and 144Ce were not detected in all the sludge and red bricks. The radiation dose on the sludge and red bricks was 20.5 - 21.7 mR, and constant regardless of the data of sampling. (K.I.)

  4. Power Efficiency of Systems Applied for Heating Building and Structure External Walls with Ventilated Air Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    I. F. Fialko; A. S. Statsenko

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers power-efficient systems applied for heating building and structure external walls with ventilated air spaces and prescribes directions and problems pertaining to power-efficiency improvement of such systems.

  5. Automated Reconstruction of Walls from Airborne LIDAR Data for Complete 3d Building Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y.; Zhang, C.; Awrangjeb, M.; Fraser, C. S.

    2012-07-01

    Automated 3D building model generation continues to attract research interests in photogrammetry and computer vision. Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data with increasing point density and accuracy has been recognized as a valuable source for automated 3D building reconstruction. While considerable achievements have been made in roof extraction, limited research has been carried out in modelling and reconstruction of walls, which constitute important components of a full building model. Low point density and irregular point distribution of LIDAR observations on vertical walls render this task complex. This paper develops a novel approach for wall reconstruction from airborne LIDAR data. The developed method commences with point cloud segmentation using a region growing approach. Seed points for planar segments are selected through principle component analysis, and points in the neighbourhood are collected and examined to form planar segments. Afterwards, segment-based classification is performed to identify roofs, walls and planar ground surfaces. For walls with sparse LIDAR observations, a search is conducted in the neighbourhood of each individual roof segment to collect wall points, and the walls are then reconstructed using geometrical and topological constraints. Finally, walls which were not illuminated by the LIDAR sensor are determined via both reconstructed roof data and neighbouring walls. This leads to the generation of topologically consistent and geometrically accurate and complete 3D building models. Experiments have been conducted in two test sites in the Netherlands and Australia to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Results show that planar segments can be reliably extracted in the two reported test sites, which have different point density, and the building walls can be correctly reconstructed if the walls are illuminated by the LIDAR sensor.

  6. Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Thomas F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have been contributed to, and are available from, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. Results Here we extended the same advantages of BioBrick standard biological parts to the plasmid-based vectors that are used to provide and propagate BioBrick parts. We developed a process for engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts. We designed a new set of BioBrick parts that encode many useful vector functions. We combined the new parts to make a BioBrick base vector that facilitates BioBrick vector construction. We demonstrated the utility of the process by constructing seven new BioBrick vectors. We also successfully used the resulting vectors to assemble and propagate other BioBrick standard biological parts. Conclusion We extended the principles of part reuse and standardization to BioBrick vectors. As a result, myriad new BioBrick vectors can be readily produced from all existing and newly designed BioBrick parts. We invite the synthetic biology community to (1 use the process to make and share new BioBrick vectors; (2 expand the current collection of BioBrick vector parts; and (3 characterize and improve the available collection of BioBrick vector parts.

  7. Bricks as indicators for an urban soil genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Thomas; Rokia, Sarah; Schwartz, Christophe; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    Bricks can be considered as anthropogenic markers since they are regularly found in urban soils worldwide. They are among the most resistent residues of building materials, therefore are called technogenic substrates. They have been dumped to urban soils since more than 4000 years and can be dated back to their burning using thermoluminescence. In Berlin, bricks have been piled up to more than 37 rubble mountains in the city after WW II. The devils mountain, the most prominent of them is higher than 60m. However, bricks are known not to be isolated in the soil but to fulfill soil functions due to their porosity. Therefore, they are nice research objects for soil scientists. The purpose of this study is to investigate abundance and functions of bricks in urban soils, focusing on plant nutrition and contamination aspects. Three different Berlin urban soils have been studied for their brick contents in the coarse and fine earth fractions by endless hand sorting. Light and scanning electron microscopy was then employed to investigate the bricks for proofs of plant roots. Third, CEC, pH, EC, Corg, nutrient storage (XRF) and availability (2:1 extract, ion chromatography, AAS) of bricks and fine earth fractions of the corresponding soil horizons have been investigated. The fine earth fractions of the investigated soils contain 3 to 5% of bricks, while the coarse fractions contain up to 50%. We found roots entering brick pores or at least attached to brick surfaces. Therefore, plants can use the water and nutrients stored in bricks. The CEC of bricks is grain size dependent and reaches a maximum of 6 cmolc kg-1 for particles smaller than 0.063 mm. This dependency is not explained by a low pore connectivity. Rather, it is the result of the restricted diffusion into the brick pore system due to the short shaking time in the CEC analysis protocol. From the nutrient storage and availabilities we conclude that bricks can better supply plants with K, Mg, Ca and S than the bulk

  8. Surface dating of bricks, an application of luminescence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Anna; Martini, Marco; Maspero, Francesco; Panzeri, Laura; Sibilia, Emanuela

    2014-05-01

    Luminescence techniques are a powerful tool to date archaeological ceramic materials and geological sediments. Thermoluminescence (TL) is widely used for bricks dating to reconstruct the chronology of urban complexes and the development of human cultures. However, it can sometimes be inconclusive, since TL assesses the firing period of bricks, which can be reused, even several centuries later. This problem can be circumvented using a dating technique based on a resetting event different from the last heating. OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) exploits the last light exposition of the brick surface, which resets the light-sensitive electron traps until the surface is definitely shielded by mortar and superimposed bricks. This advanced application (surface dating) has been successfully attempted on rocks, marble and stone artifacts, but not yet on bricks. A recent conservation campaign at the Certosa di Pavia gave the opportunity to sample some bricks belonging to a XVII century collapsed wall, still tied to their mortars. This was an advantageous condition to test this technique, comparing the dating results with precise historical data. This attempt gave satisfactory results, allowing to identify bricks surely reused and to fully confirm that the edification of the perimetral wall occurred at the end of XVII century.

  9. Monitoring Thermal Performance of Hollow Bricks with Different Cavity Fillers in Difference Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Jerman, Miloš; Fořt, Jan; Černý, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Hollow brick blocks have found widespread use in the building industry during the last decades. The increasing requirements to the thermal insulation properties of building envelopes given by the national standards in Europe led the brick producers to reduce the production of common solid bricks. Brick blocks with more or less complex systems of internal cavities replaced the traditional bricks and became dominant on the building ceramics market. However, contrary to the solid bricks where the thermal conductivity can easily be measured by standard methods, the complex geometry of hollow brick blocks makes the application of common techniques impossible. In this paper, a steady-state technique utilizing a system of two climatic chambers separated by a connecting tunnel for sample positioning is used for the determination of the thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, and thermal transmittance ( U value) of hollow bricks with the cavities filled by air, two different types of mineral wool, polystyrene balls, and foam polyurethane. The particular brick block is provided with the necessary temperature- and heat-flux sensors and thermally insulated in the tunnel. In the climatic chambers, different temperatures are set. After steady-state conditions are established in the measuring system, the effective thermal properties of the brick block are calculated using the measured data. Experimental results show that the best results are achieved with hydrophilic mineral wool as a cavity filler; the worst performance exhibits the brick block with air-filled cavities.

  10. wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining indoor climatic conditions of buildings compatible with the occupant comfort by consuming minimum energy, especially in a tropical climate becomes a challenging problem for researchers. This paper aims to investigate this problem by evaluating the effect of different kind of Photovoltaic Trombe wall system (PV-TW on thermal comfort, energy consumption and CO2 emission. A detailed simulation model of a single room building integrated with PV-TW was modelled using TRNSYS software. Results show that 14-35% PMV index and 26-38% PPD index reduces as system shifted from SPV-TW to DGPV-TW as compared to normal buildings. Thermal comfort indexes (PMV and PPD lie in the recommended range of ASHARE for both DPV-TW and DGPV-TW except for the few months when RH%, solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature were high. Moreover PVTW system significantly reduces energy consumption and CO2 emission of the building and also 2-4.8 °C of temperature differences between indoor and outdoor climate of building was examined.

  11. Acoustic Properties of a Renovated Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Januševičius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the effects of partitions, ceilings and facades on noise insulation in the renovated different buildings. The conducted experiments were aimed at analyzing partitions of 120 mm brick mounted gypsum panels while other walls were 520 mm thick and plastered on both sides. Under natural conditions, sound insulation factors of facades were measured and compared according to comfort classes. The obtained results revealed that thick brick walls of 520 mm insulated the sound of 58 decibels (dB (class B. In contrast, 120 mm brick masonry partition reduced sound only to 48 dB which is class E and agrees with the lowest class of sound insulation. We also calculated the sound insulation factor applying three formulas considering the mass law of sound insulation and comparing it with other previous studies. The paper examines and discusses the findings of the performed calculations and measurements.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Integrated Strip Foundation Systems for Small Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2010-01-01

    A prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was used on site as the bases of two small residential buildings, in this case single-family houses; one was built with a double-brick exterior wall separated by mineral fiber insulation and the other was built with a wood...

  13. Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Tichy; Chuck Murray

    2006-05-31

    This document serves as the Topical Report documenting work completed by Washington State University (WSU) under U.S. Department of Energy Grant, Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings. This project was conducted in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and includes the participation of several industry partners including Weyerhaeuser, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, CertainTeed Corporation and Fortifiber. This document summarizes work completed by Washington State University August 2002 through June 2006. WSU's primary experimental role is the design and implementation of a field testing protocol that monitored long term changes in the hygrothermal response of wall systems. During the project period WSU constructed a test facility, developed a matrix of test wall designs, constructed and installed test walls in the test facility, installed instrumentation in the test walls and recorded data from the test wall specimens. Each year reports were published documenting the hygrothermal response of the test wall systems. Public presentation of the results was, and will continue to be, made available to the building industry at large by industry partners and the University.

  14. Thermal comfort analysis of building assisted with Photo Voltaic Trombe wall

    OpenAIRE

    Irshad Kashif; Habib Khairul; Thirumalaiswamy Nagarajan; Kareem M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining indoor climatic conditions of buildings compatible with the occupant comfort by consuming minimum energy, especially in a tropical climate becomes a challenging problem for researchers. This paper aims to investigate this problem by evaluating the effect of different kind of Photovoltaic Trombe wall system (PV-TW) on thermal comfort, energy consumption and CO2 emission. A detailed simulation model of a single room building integrated with PV-TW was modelled using TRNSYS software. ...

  15. Mud Brick Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2012-01-01

    In the seemingly endless circle of demolition and illegal rebuilding hand-made mud bricks produced from the soil of contested territory become an act of resistance. In June 2011, the Palestinian village Fasayel encountered the Israeli military’s demolition of 21 of the village’s built structures....

  16. Study of the geometry of a voided clay brick using rectangular perforations to optimize its thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to optimize the equivalent transmittance of a wall consisting of voided clay bricks using ceramic material Termoarcilla 29 ECO, complying with the Spanish UNE , European EN and international ISO standards. Various geometries were investigated for the bricks' cross sections, starting from a commercialized block and improvements in its thermal conductivity were studied by varying parameters such as a number of rows in the brick, the type of tongue and grooving and the alternation between contiguous rows in the brick. Simulations were made using a finite elements application . The conclusions of the study were that the thermal properties of a brick are improved by placing the perforations of the voids in a quincunx (in parallel rows, so that every hole is placed between those of the immediate rows, forming equilateral triangles) and that the greater the number of rows, the better the thermal behaviour. Further, if these perforations are extended to the tongue and groove area and a certain clearance is left between the tongue and groove of each brick, the wall's equivalent transmittance is reduced. - Highlights: → This study tries to optimize the equivalent transmittance of a wall of bricks. → Thermal properties of a brick are improved by placing the perforations in a quincunx. → If perforations are extended to the tongue the wall's transmittance is reduced. → A clearance left in the joint of the bricks, reduces the wall's transmittance. → A brick with 26 rows of rectangles with Ueq2-K is obtained.

  17. Non-Linear Static Analysis of G+6 Storeyed RC Buildings with Openings in Infill Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Rathod

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Masonry infill walls are commonly used in the RC frame structure buildings. Openings are inevitable part of the infill walls. Openings in infill walls significantly decrease the lateral strength and stiffness of RC frames. In the present study two-dimensional seven storeyed reinforced concrete (RC building models are considered with of (5%, 25%, and 35% openings Bare frame and soft storey buildings are modeled considering special moment resisting frame (SMRF for medium soil profile and zone III. Concrete block infill walls are modeled as pin-jointed single equivalent diagonal strut. Pushover analysis is carried out for both default and user defined hinge properties as per FEMA 440 guidelines using SAP2000 software. Results of default and user defined hinge properties are studied by pushover analysis. The results of ductility ratio, safety ratio, global stiffness, and hinge status at performance point are compared with the models. Authors conclude that as the percentage of openings increases, vulnerability increases in the infill walls. The user-defined hinge model is better than the default-hinge model in reflecting nonlinear behavior. The misuse of default-hinge properties may lead to unreasonable displacement capacities for existing structures. However, if the default-hinge model is preferred due to simplicity, the user should be aware of what is provided in the program and should avoid the misuse of default-hinge properties.

  18. The Builder Inquires the Bricks: A Study of Roger Waters’ The Wall from the Viewpoint of Jean Francois Lyotard’s Paralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Majid Hayati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the present study was on paralogical potential of the lyrics. For this reason, four tracks from The Wall, which focuses on the alienation and self-captivation of its main character, Pink, because of his nervous breakdown caused by family, school, and society, were analyzed with emphasis on the dialogic/paralogical elements within the album. “Mother”, “Hey You”, “Comfortably Numb”, and “The Trial” were studied separately. After a precise discussion and inspection, it was shown that Pink, as the main character (voice in each of these tracks, allows the other voices (hierarchies to have their say, and thus the continuous paralogy shows itself in the theatre of his mind. As a result, the only way is an ongoing conflict in which all the voices get a chance to speak out, not the deletion and elimination of any of them. Consensus leads to the annihilation of either one side or both/all sides. Therefore, the solution is an unsolvable Babel of conflict with the involvement of different language games (different trends of life.   Keywords: paralogy, The Wall, Roger Waters, language games, polyphony, dialogism     

  19. RESIDENTIAL BUILDING DESIGN CONSIDERING THE BRAZILIAN PERFORMANCE STANDARD: ANALYSES TO WALL PARTITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Alves Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, the design begins by the performance definition of the building parts. The data are then used as a reference to select the viable construction technologies. In Brazil, this practice is still uncommon, mostly in residential projects, because, first, it is defined the architectural characteristics, technological solutions and cost for after consider the technical performance requirements. However, this scenario tends to change due to the publication of the Brazilian performance standard ABNT NBR 15575 (2008 that establishes requirements and quantitative parameters to the five main residential building subsystems (structure, floors, wall partition, envelope and covering, and hydraulic installations, besides to the general requirements for all building. The current version contains requirements for structural performance, fire safety, watertightness, thermal and acoustic performances, functionality, accessibility, environmental impact, durability and maintenance. This standard also considers the concepts of Service Life, Design Life and guaranties periods. The aim of this paper is to present some considerations which must be included to the design process of wall partition for the accomplishment of the performance requirements of ABNT NBR 15575-4 (2008. The considerations are designed to wall partitions, but they can be used as an example to the others building subsystems. This paper was developed based on the bibliographical research and on four case studies, which illustrate how the design process of the wall partition needs to change and what needs to be worked on in order to attend the performance concept and requirements of NBR 15575 (2008.

  20. Shear behaviour of crushed concrete and bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Chidiroglou, Iordanis; O'Flaherty, Fin; Goodwin, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Demolition waste materials mainly consist of concrete and bricks and arise from the demolition of existing structures and buildings. Environmental and economical reasons make their recycling necessary, but to date, their use is curtailed due to the lack of research in determining their properties. This paper reports on the efforts to understand the behavioural characteristics of three types of recycled material to determine their potential for engineering fill applicat...

  1. Laboratory evaluation of cement treated aggregate containing crushed clay brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The waste clay bricks from debris of buildings were evaluated through lab tests as environmental friendly materials for pavement sub-base in the research. Five sets of coarse aggregates which contained 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% crushed bricks, respectively, were blended with sand and treated by 5% cement. The test results indicated that cement treated aggregate which contains crushed clay brick aggregate had a lower maximum dry density (MDD and a higher optimum moisture content (OMC. Moreover, the unconfined compressive strength (UCS, resilience modulus, splitting strength, and frost resistance performance of the specimens decreased with increase of the amount of crushed clay brick aggregate. On the other hand, it can be observed that the use of crushed clay brick in the mixture decreased the dry shrinkage strain of the specimens. Compared with the asphalt pavement design specifications of China, the results imply that the substitution rate of natural aggregate with crushed clay brick aggregate in the cement treated aggregate sub-base material should be less than 50% (5% cement content in the mixture. Furthermore, it needs to be noted that the cement treated aggregate which contains crushed clay bricks should be cautiously used in the cold region due to its insufficient frost resistance performance.

  2. Natural radioactivity in bricks used in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to determine the specific radioactivity concentrations of Ra sup 226, Th sup 232 and K sup 40 in brick samples collected from different areas and compare with the corresponding results for bricks of different countries.Sixteen clay and four cement brick samples were collected from kilns in different areas in Sri Lanka. The gamma ray spectra of the prepared samples were measured using a typical high resolution gamma spectrometer based on a shielded HpGe detector.The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and efficiency over the experimental energy range 186-2700 keV using IAEA reference material RGU-1, RGTH-1 and RGK-1.GANAAS software was used to analyse the photopeaks. The measured average specific radioactivity concentrations of Ra sup 226, Th sup 232, K sup 40 in the clay bricks were 35, 69 and 604 Bq per kg respectively. For cement bricks these values were 17, 42, 525 Bq per kg. The corresponding world average values are 50,50 and 500 Bq per kg for the said radionuclides.All three radionuclides were greater than the world average in clay bricks measured from Mahiyangana. Clay bricks from Ampitiya, Anuradhapura and Nikaweratiya measured values are less than the world average for all three radionuclides. Data on concentrations of natural radionuclides can be used to determine dose rates in relation to building materials

  3. X-ray and back-wall echo ultrasonic examination of wrought iron building structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidovszky István

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The wrought iron building structures constituting part of the architectural heritage, e. g. handrails, gate hinges, columns, arch ties and wall ties represent incorporeal value, but operate as load bearing structures as well. There are few information on their mechanical properties and quality. Due to the inhomogeneity of the material of wrought iron building structures generated during the production, the known metal testing methods, as the tensile and hardness tests or metallographic examination, are not enough to survey the properties of such structures in depth. For the further and more accurate examinations, the application of X-ray and back-wall echo ultrasonic tests are essential. The goal of our paper is the presentation of the application of the examinations used extensively in the machine industry for the testing of wrought iron building structures.

  4. Calculation on cosmic-ray muon exposure rate in non-walled concrete buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer simulations on the exposure indoors from cosmic ray muons were practiced in the framework of non-scattering and non-cascade assumptions. The model buildings were two-dimensional, rectangular, and were made of a normal concrete. A stratified structure was assumed in each building, where no mezzanine was considered. Walls were not taken into account yet. The distributions of the exposure rates in 26-story buildings were illustrated in contour maps for various sets of parameters. All of them gave basically archlike patterns. Analyses of the results showed that the exposure rate is affected most largely by the floor board thickness. The ceiling height would be an insignificant factor for short buildings. The min/max ratio of the muon exposure rate in a moderate size building was estimated to be more than 0.7. (author)

  5. Effect of masonry material and surface absorptivity on critical thermal mass in insulated building walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Concepts of energy savings potential (Δ) and critical thermal mass in insulated walls. ► Energy savings can be achieved through thermal mass for constant wall Rn-value. ► Higher Δ is achieved for heavier mass and for smaller surface absorptivity. ► Higher Δ is achieved for mass located on inside under steady periodic conditions. -- Abstract: Effects of type of masonry material and surface absorptivity to solar radiation on critical thermal mass thickness in insulated building walls are investigated for a fixed wall nominal thermal resistance (Rn-value). The concepts of “thermal-mass energy-savings potential” (Δ) and “critical thermal mass thickness” (Lmas,cr), developed in a previous study, are utilized to determine the thermal mass thickness required for a desired percentage energy savings. Transmission loads are calculated under the climatic data of Riyadh, assuming steady periodic conditions, by using a previously validated computer model. Effects of masonry materials are investigated by using solid and hollow concrete blocks, while surface absorptivity (λ) influence is studied for λ = 0.4 and 0.2. Walls are considered where thermal mass is located on the inside or on the outside relative to insulation layer. Thermal mass thickness is varied between 0 and 50 cm while keeping Rn-value constant. The results show that for a given critical thermal mass thickness, higher energy savings potential is obtained with: (i) walls with solid concrete blocks, (ii) walls with lower surface absorptivity, and (iii) walls with inside thermal mass. Charts are developed for Lmas,cr versus Δ under the different conditions for the benefit of building envelope designers.

  6. Contributing to Net Zero Building: High Energy Efficient EIFS Wall Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbary, Lawrence D. [Dow Corning Corporation; Perkins, Laura L. [Dow Corning Corporation; Serino, Roland [Dryvit Systems, Inc; Preston, Bill [Dryvit Systems, Inc; Kosny, Jan [Fraunhofer USA, Inc. CSE

    2014-01-29

    The team led by Dow Corning collaborated to increase the thermal performance of exterior insulation and finishing systems (EIFS) to reach R-40 performance meeting the needs for high efficiency insulated walls. Additionally, the project helped remove barriers to using EIFS on retrofit commercial buildings desiring high insulated walls. The three wall systems developed within the scope of this project provide the thermal performance of R-24 to R-40 by incorporating vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) into an expanded polystyrene (EPS) encapsulated vacuum insulated sandwich element (VISE). The VISE was incorporated into an EIFS as pre-engineered insulation boards. The VISE is installed using typical EIFS details and network of trained installers. These three wall systems were tested and engineered to be fully code compliant as an EIFS and meet all of the International Building Code structural, durability and fire test requirements for a code compliant exterior wall cladding system. This system is being commercialized under the trade name Dryvit® Outsulation® HE system. Full details, specifications, and application guidelines have been developed for the system. The system has been modeled both thermally and hygrothermally to predict condensation potential. Based on weather models for Baltimore, MD; Boston, MA; Miami, FL; Minneapolis, MN; Phoenix, AZ; and Seattle, WA; condensation and water build up in the wall system is not a concern. Finally, the team conducted a field trial of the system on a building at the former Brunswick Naval Air Station which is being redeveloped by the Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority (Brunswick, Maine). The field trial provided a retrofit R-30 wall onto a wood frame construction, slab on grade, 1800 ft2 building, that was monitored over the course of a year. Simultaneous with the façade retrofit, the building’s windows were upgraded at no charge to this program. The retrofit building used 49% less natural gas during the winter of

  7. Electrokinetic removal of salt from brick masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    A method to effectively remove salts from masonry is lacking. The present study aims at determining the removal efficiency of salts from bricks in an applied low current electric DC field. At first an investigation on removal of NaCl and Na(NO3)2 from spiked bricks in laboratory scale was conducted...... electrodes, a cathode and an anode, that were placed on a masonry wall of an old stable. The masonry had a high concentration of nitrates and problems with hygroscopic moisture. The electrodes consisted of reinforcement steel in carbonate-rich clay. The clay was chosen mainly to improve electric contact...... between metal and masonry and to hinder the acid produced at the anode in reaching the masonry. In the first set of electrodes the clay was too dry, and electric current was only applied for 7 days. Still the highest concentrations of nitrates and chlorides in the clay measured after these 7 days was...

  8. Study of Unsteady State Thermal Characteristics of Homogeneous and Composite Walls of Building and Insulating Materials for Passive Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Talanki, Ashok Babu Puttaranga Setty; Saboor, S

    2014-01-01

    Passive cooling is one of the methods to keep the building cool and to reduce the load on air conditioner. Passive cooling demands the study of the thermal characteristics like admittance, transmittance, decrement factor, time lag, surface factor and surface factor time lags. These characteristics were determined for both homogeneous and composite walls. The buildings are built with composite wall. This demands the study of thermal characteristics of composite wall. In this study, five buildi...

  9. Simulation of Natural Gas Saving Through Foam Light Weight Concrete Utilization in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kamalan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat loss through walls in houses is remarkable and it shares about 25% of total loss. Utilizing Foam Lightweight Concrete (FLC block in walls may lead to reduction in both gas consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to heat insulation property of the block and consequently less energy consumption. The main objective of this research was to investigate how FLC block can save natural gas usage within building envelop. A typical residential building was simulated for pressed brick, terra-cotta block, 3D panel, and FLC block by utilizing Behsazan software. Afterwards, building gas consumption and relevant carbon dioxide emissions were compared for abovementioned wall materials, while the building area was constant and its height was variable. Results showed that annual gas reduction attributed to utilizing FLC block walls with different heights varies from 25.7% to 30.6% and from 18.5% to 23.3% in comparison with pressed brick and terra-cotta block walls, respectively. This reduction for 3D panel walls was about 4.6%. Moreover, CO2 emission reduction depending on the number of floors for FLC block walls with pressed brick, terra-cotta block, and 3D panel walls were equal to 20.8 to 24, 15 to 18.3, and 3.4 to 3.8 kg CO2/m2, respectively.

  10. Air ventilation impacts of the "wall effect" resulting from the alignment of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, S. H. L.; Fung, J. C. H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Kot, S. C.

    The objective of this study is to investigate the air ventilation impacts of the so called "wall effect" caused by the alignment of high-rise buildings in complex building clusters. The research method employs the numerical algorithm of computational fluid dynamics (CFD - FLUENT) to simulate the steady-state wind field in a typical Hong Kong urban setting and investigate pollutant dispersion inside the street canyon utilizing a pollutant transport model. The model settings of validation study were accomplished by comparing the simulation wind field around a single building block to wind tunnel data. The results revealed that our model simulation is fairly close to the wind tunnel measurements. In this paper, a typical dense building distribution in Hong Kong with 2 incident wind directions (0° and 22.5°) is studied. Two performance indicators are used to quantify the air ventilation impacts, namely the velocity ratio ( VR) and the retention time ( T r) of pollutants at the street level. The results indicated that the velocity ratio at 2 m above ground was reduced 40% and retention time of pollutants increased 80% inside the street canyon when high-rise buildings with 4 times height of the street canyon were aligned as a "wall" upstream. While this reduction of air ventilation was anticipated, the magnitude is significant and this result clearly has important implications for building and urban planning.

  11. Lightweight concrete blocks with EVA recycled aggregate: a contribution to the thermal efficiency of building external walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Melo, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regions with lots of shoe production suffer environmental impacts from waste generation during manufacturing of insoles and outsoles. Research conducted in Brazil has demonstrated the technical feasibility to recycle these wastes, especially Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA, as lightweight aggregate, in the production of non-structural cement blocks. This article presents an evaluation of thermal performance with measurements of temperature variation in mini walls (1 m2 built with different materials, including various kinds of EVA block and ceramic bricks. Tests have shown efficient thermal performance for masonry blocks with EVA. These results and supplementary estimates contribute to add value to the EVA block, considering that there are good expectations that the component, with the new geometry proposed, can contribute to the energy efficiency of buildings, highlighting its suitability to most Brazilian bioclimatic regions.Las regiones con una gran producción de calzado sufren impactos ambientales derivados de la generación de residuos durante la producción de plantillas y suelas. Investigaciones realizadas en Brasil han demostrado la viabilidad técnica para el reciclaje de estos residuos, especialmente el Etileno Vinil Acetato (EVA, como agregado ligero en la fabricación de bloques de hormigón no estructurales. Este trabajo presenta una evaluación del rendimiento térmico, con mediciones de la variación de la temperatura en pequeñas paredes (1 m2 construidas con diversos materiales, incluyendo algunos tipos de bloques EVA y ladrillos de cerámica. Las pruebas demostraron actuaciones térmicas eficientes para las muestras con bloques EVA. Estos resultados y cálculos adicionales contribuyen con un aporte de valor añadido al bloque EVA, considerando que existen buenas expectativas del componente, con una nueva propuesta de geometría, pudiendo contribuir a la eficiencia energética de edificios, especialmente por su adecuación a la

  12. Bayesian inferences of the thermal properties of a wall using temperature and heat flux measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias, Marco; Sawlan, Zaid; Scavino, Marco; Tempone, Raul; Wood, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We develop a hierarchical Bayesian inference method to estimate the thermal resistance and the volumetric heat capacity of a wall. These thermal properties are essential for accurate building energy simulations that are needed to make effective energy-saving policies. We apply our methodology to an experimental case study conducted in an environmental chamber, where measurements are recorded every minute from temperature probes and heat flux sensors placed on both sides of a solid brick wall ...

  13. Industrial wastes for firing Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhanXuanye; LuGuansheng; Gaojun

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the feasibility on utilizing high-calcium industrial wastes in firing brick. In China, industrial wastes with over 10% calcium oxide is not regarded as raw materials for producing brick, so it is limited to use industrial wastes. The paper gives out the ideas that high-calcium industrial wastes can be used to produce fired brick by good raw material preparation process and proper methods.

  14. Brick handling: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R D; Handyside, J

    1982-09-01

    A small change in brick dimensions resulted in an increase in the perceived work-load of men loading and unloading pallets of bricks by hand. A laboratory study indicated that the change in brick dimensions required changes in grip pattern in order to unload bricks at the same rate, moving the same number at a time. These changed grip patterns resulted in increased upper body movement, increased chest-muscle activity and higher heart rates. These differences were reflected in higher subjective ratings of fatigue. PMID:15676442

  15. Thermoluminescence measurements of gamma-ray doses attributable to fallout from the Nevada test site using building bricks as natural dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1950's, the U.S. Government conducted an intensive atmospheric nuclear testing program in Nevada. Fallout from these atmospheric tests was measured throughout the U.S. with some of the heaviest concentrations to populated areas falling east of the test site in Washington County, UT. External exposures from 6.5 x 10-4 C kg-1 to 26 x 10-4 C kg-1 (2.5-5.0 R) were reported for this region. This study provides an independent measurement of fallout radiation doses to selected communities in Utah using a thermoluminescence technique originally developed for the dating of ancient pottery. The application of the predose thermoluminescence technique to fallout dosimetry is described. A mean dose of 38 ± 15 mGy (4.4 ± 1.7 R), attributed to fallout radiation, was measured in quartz grains extracted from the outer centimeter of bricks removed from six communities in Washington and Kane Counties in Utah. 48 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Thermoluminescence measurements of gamma-ray doses attributable to fallout from the Nevada test site using building bricks as natural dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, E H; Bailiff, I K; Kenner, G H; Kaipa, P L; Wrenn, M E

    1994-04-01

    During the 1950's, the U.S. Government conducted an intensive atmospheric nuclear testing program in Nevada. Fallout from these atmospheric tests was measured throughout the U.S. with some of the heaviest concentrations to populated areas falling east of the test site in Washington County, UT. External exposures from 6.5 x 10(-4) C kg-1 to 26 x 10(-4) C kg-1 (2.5-5.0 R) were reported for this region. This study provides an independent measurement of fallout radiation doses to selected communities in Utah using a thermoluminescence technique originally developed for the dating of ancient pottery. The application of the predose thermoluminescence technique to fallout dosimetry is described. A mean dose of 38 +/- 15 mGy (4.4 +/- 1.7 R), attributed to fallout radiation, was measured in quartz grains extracted from the outer centimeter of bricks removed from six communities in Washington and Kane Counties in Utah. PMID:8138403

  17. An approximate method for lateral stability analysis of wall-frame buildings including shear deformations of walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kanat Burak Bozdogan; Duygu Ozturk

    2010-06-01

    This study presents an approximate method based on the continuum approach and transfer matrix method for lateral stability analysis of buildings. In this method, the whole structure is idealized as an equivalent sandwich beam which includes all deformations. The effect of shear deformations of walls has been taken into consideration and incorporated in the formulation of the governing equations. Initially the stability differential equation of this equivalent sandwich beam is presented, and then shape functions for each storey is obtained by the solution of the differential equations. By using boundary conditions and stability storey transfer matrices obtained by shape functions, system buckling load can be calculated. To verify the presented method, four numerical examples have been solved. The results of the samples demonstrate the agreement between the presented method and the other methods given in the literature.

  18. Experimental study and advanced CFD simulation of fire safety performance of building external wall insulation system

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhenghua; Zhao Chenggang; Liu Yan; Deng Xiaobing; Ceng Xubin; Liu Songlin; Lan Bin; Nilsson Richard; Jeansson Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Large scale fire tests of building external wall insulation system were conducted. In the experiment, thermal-couples were mounted to measure the insulation system surface temperature and the gas temperature inside rooms at the second and third floors. Photos were also taken during the fire tests. The measurement provides information of the ignition and fire spread of the external insulation system which consists of surface protection layer, glass fibre net, bonding thin layer, anchor and the...

  19. Some examples of external colouration on English brick buildings, c. 1500-1650 Étude de façades peintes de palais anglais, entre 1500 et 1650

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Foyle

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available De études récentes réalisées sur les palais de Hampton Court et Kew Palace ont révélé l’histoire de la couleur des façades. Deux approches successives ont pu être définies. Au xvie siècle, on choisit de simuler une façade de brique par l’emploi de peintures rouge, blanche et noire. Cet usage met en avant la brique dans toute sa dimension décorative. Au xviie siècle, on s’intéresse plutôt à l’usage d’un enduit ocre rouge uniforme appelé « ruddle ». Cette pratique efface la présence de la brique et accentue l’impression d’homogénéité et de « monolithisme » des bâtiments. Cette intervention examine les origines possibles de ces traditions et expose les conséquences du rétablissement de la technique du « ruddling » à Kew Palace.The application of coloured limewashes as external surface finishes on many historic English buildings largely determined the original appearance and intended effect of their architecture. As the final stage in the process of construction, limewashes were more than the thin cosmetics which created the skin‑deep beauty of the building; they could articulate and emphasize chosen architectural elements, or conversely suppress the busy individual units of mural masonry in favour of revealing the entire building in a monolithic homogeneity of colour and texture. This paper examines some English brick buildings of c. 1500‑1650 with which the author is familiar, and asks of the surviving evidence to what extent, how and why colour was applied.

  20. Natural radioactivity content and radionuclides leachability of bricks containing industrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study have been carried out using gamma-ray spectrometric system to determine the natural radioactivity level in bricks made from industrial waste and their associated radiation hazard. Brick-1 and brick-2 contained waste from coal power plant and granite industry, respectively. The leachability of radionuclides from these bricks was also investigated. The activity concentration values of 226Ra, 228Ra, 232Th, and 40K are 64.25, 63.15, 67.9 and 254.19 Bq kg-1, respectively in brick-1, and 193, 164.48, 164.63 and 1348.75 Bq kg-1, respectively in brick-2. The radiation hazard indexes such as radium equivalent activities (Raeq), representative level index (Iγr), external hazard index (Hex) and internal hazard index (Hin) were calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. Results indicate that brick-1 showed less radiological hazard than brick-2. This suggested that brick-1 could be used in building construction without exceeding the proposed criterion level. The leachability of 226Ra for bricks showed the activity concentration slightly exceeded the limit generally used for industrial wastewater for example 1 BqL-1. (author)

  1. Cyclic loading of masonry walls and its anti seismic reinforcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wünsche, Martin; Hračov, Stanislav; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Urushadze, Shota

    Prague : ITAM AS CR, v. v. i., 2012 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.), s. 1565-1572 ISBN 978-80-86246-39-0. [Engineering Mechanics 2012 /18./. Svratka (CZ), 14.05.2012-17.05.2012] Grant ostatní: Evropská komise (EC)(XE) FP7-NIKER-g.a. 244123 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : seismic retrofitting * adobe * brick wall Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  2. Natural radioactivity in different types of bricks fabricated and used in the Cairo region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in samples of different types of bricks (clay, cement, and sand) fabricated and used in urban buildings in the Cairo region in Egypt, using a γ-ray spectrometer with a HpGe-detector. The radiation hazard of the total natural radioactivity in the studied brick was estimated by different approaches. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and the radium-equivalent activity in the studied Egyptian brick samples are compared with the corresponding results for bricks of the different countries and are found to be significantly lower in all cases. (Author)

  3. More than Bricks and Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Gaythorne Row, a terrace of Victorian back-to-back houses in Great Horton, was earmarked for demolition when, in 1986, Bradford Industrial Museum took possession of the three cottages and transported them, brick by brick, to the museum site four miles away. The houses were built in 1876, a year later than the old worsted spinning mill in which the…

  4. Building America Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House, Mount Joy, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of a innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders. The EP&B design combines optimized framing with integrated rigid foam sheathing to increase the wall system's R-value and reduce thermal bridging. The foam sheathing is installed between the wall studs and structural wood sheathing. The exterior wood sheathing is attached directly to a framing extension formed by extended top and bottom plates. The exterior wood sheathing can dry to the exterior and provides bracing, a clear drainage plane and flashing surface for window and door openings, and a nailing surface for siding attachment. With support of the DOE Building America program, Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with Lancaster County Career and Technology Center (LCCTC) to build a NCTH in Lancaster, PA to demonstrate the EP&B wall design in a cold climate (IECC climate zone 5A). The results of the study confirmed the benefits of the systems and the viability of its integration into the house construction process.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of vegetation and green walls on building thermal performance and energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susorova, Irina

    This research explored the use of vegetation in building facades as a potential solution to the problems of urban ecology and the excessive energy consumption in buildings. Vegetated facades substantially reduce building energy use, reduce the urban heat island effect, improve air quality, and increase the biodiversity of plants and animals in cities. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effects of plants on building thermal performance and energy consumption by developing a thermal model of a building facade covered with a layer of plants. The developed mathematical model accounts for thermal physical processes in a vegetated exterior wall including solar radiation, infrared radiative exchange between the facade and sky, the facade and ground, the facade and vegetation layer, convection to and from the facade, evapotranspiration from the plant layer, heat storage in the facade material, and heat conduction through the facade. The model calculates vegetated facade surface temperature and heat flux through the facade for multiple weather conditions, plant physiological characteristics, and facade parameters inputs. The model was validated with the results of a one-week long experiment measuring the thermal properties of bare and vegetated facades on the Illinois Institute of Technology campus. The experiment and subsequent sensitivity analysis demonstrated that a plant layer can effectively reduce the facade exterior surface temperature, daily temperature fluctuations, exterior wall temperature gradient, and, as a result, provide as much additional thermal insulation to the facade as a 2.5 cm layer of expanded polystyrene insulation. The vegetated facade model was also used to analyze the reduction in energy consumption in generic office and residential thermal zones for multiple parameters. The simulations showed that energy reduction could be as high as 6.2% of annual total energy use and 34.6% of cooling energy use in residential thermal zones. Overall

  6. Effect of Thermal Bridges in Insulated Walls on Air-Conditioning Loads Using Whole Building Energy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed F. Zedan; Sami Al-Sanea; Abdulaziz Al-Mujahid; Zeyad Al-Suhaibani

    2016-01-01

    Thermal bridges in building walls are usually caused by mortar joints between insulated building blocks and by the presence of concrete columns and beams within the building envelope. These bridges create an easy path for heat transmission and therefore increase air-conditioning loads. In this study, the effects of mortar joints only on cooling and heating loads in a typical two-story villa in Riyadh are investigated using whole building energy analysis. All loads found in the villa, which br...

  7. Numerical research of stress strain state for the brick residential building in case of unexpected load beyond design value (explosion of domestic gas inside the premises).

    OpenAIRE

    Romashkina, М. А.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. In recent years, there is a potential need for further research in constructional safety of buildings and structures. The researcher should describe indestructability of the bearing system in maintaining buildings and structures, solve the problem of survivability of structures during unexpected load beyond design value. One of such loads is the explosion of domestic gas inside the premises. Damages in separate elements of structures during domestic gas explosion could provoke progre...

  8. Another four bricks in the wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Shawn C.; Ball, Philip; Day, Kat; Scerri, Eric R.; Thornton, Brett F.

    2016-04-01

    Of all the things humans can bestow names upon, new chemical elements are about the rarest. Our group of periodic table experts attempts to read the tea leaves and predict the names for elements 113, 115, 117 and 118.

  9. Use of Cement-Sand Admixture in Laterite Brick Production for Low Cost Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Olufemi AGBEDE

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Laterite was modified with 45% sand content by dry weight and stabilized with up to 9% cement content respectively and used in the production of 330 mm × 150 mm × 150 mm bricks through the application of a pressure of 3 N/mm2 with a brick moulding machine. Results showed that laterite used in this study cannot be stabilized for brick production within the economic cement content of 5% specified for use in Nigeria. However, bricks made with laterite admixed with 45% sand and 5% cement attained a compressive strength of 1.80 N/mm2 which is greater than the specified minimum strength value of 1.65 N/mm2. Cost comparison of available walling materials in Makurdi metropolis showed that the use of bricks made from 45% sand and 5% cement resulted in a saving of 30 - 47% when compared with the use of sandcrete blocks while the use of fired clay bricks resulted in a savings of 19% per square meter of wall. The study therefore recommends the use of laterite bricks in Makurdi and other locations because it is more economical and environmental friendly than fired clay bricks.

  10. Walls shielding against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These specifications are to help the users of lead bricks as under DIN 25407, leaf 1, with the construction of walls shielding against ionizing radiation by examples for the uses of the different types of lead bricks and by recommendations for the construction of shielding walls and for the determination of the wall thickness necessary for shielding against γ-radiation as a function of energy. (orig./AK)

  11. Properties of Magnesia-Hercynite Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huilin

    2008-01-01

    Properties of magnesia-hercynite brick were studied. The coatability, thermal shock resistance, corrosion resistance to cement clinker and thermal conductivity were compared with those of magnesia-chrome brick and magnesia-spinel brick used widely in sintering zone of cement rotary kiln. The result shows that magnesia-hercynite brick is better than magnesia-chrome brick in thermal chock resistance and Corrosi on resistance to cement clinker, is similar to magnesia-chrome brick and is better than magnesia-spinel brick in coatability and thermal conductivity.

  12. Cellular Concrete Bricks with Recycled Expanded Polystyrene Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bosco Hernández-Zaragoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular concrete bricks were obtained by using a lightweight mortar with recycled expanded polystyrene aggregate instead of sandy materials. After determining the block properties (absorption, compressive strength, and tensile stresses, it was found that this brick meets the requirements of the masonry standards used in Mexico. The obtained material is lighter than the commercial ones, which facilitates their rapid elaboration, quality control, and transportation. It is less permeable, which helps prevent moisture formation retaining its strength due to the greater adherence shown with dry polystyrene. It was more flexible, which makes it less vulnerable to cracking walls due to soil displacements. Furthermore, it is economical, because it uses recyclable material and has properties that prevent deterioration increasing its useful life. We recommend the use of the fully dry EP under a dry environment to obtain the best properties of brick.

  13. Electrochemical desalination of bricks - Experimental and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Gry; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland;

    2015-01-01

    Chlorides, nitrates and sulfates play an important role in the salt-decay of porous materials in buildings and monuments. Electrochemical desalination is a technology able to remove salts from such porous materials in order to stop or prevent the decay. In this paper, experimental and numerical......-contaminated bricks with respect to the monovalent ions is discussed. Comparison between the experimental and the simulation results showed that the proposed numerical model is able to predict electrochemical desalination treatments with remarkable accuracy, and it can be used as a predictive tool for the...

  14. A comparative study of in-situ measurement methods of a building wall thermal resistance using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibos, Laurent; Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves

    2015-04-01

    This study concerns the in-situ determination of the thermal resistance of a building wall. Measurements were performed in the PANISSE platform, which is a residential building with two floors located in the town of Villemomble, at about ten kilometers in the east of Paris. During a renovation, a 6cm-thick external insulating layer was fixed onto the cellular concrete walls of the house. Three methods using IR thermography were used to estimate the thermal resistance of the insulated walls. Results are compared to a standardized method (ISO 9869-1) that uses contact sensors. The comparison is made considering estimated thermal resistance values, measurement uncertainties and measurement duration.

  15. Calculation of the thicknesses of the walls of the radiographic inspection building of the NKS enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the month of February, 1983, the Structural Civil Department of the Latin American of Engineering, S.A. de C.V. company (LATISA), outline to the Engineering and Industry Applications Management of the ININ that the industrial group NKS had taken charge them the design of a building where it would lodge a linear electron accelerator of 4 MeV, one source of Co-60 of 30 Ci and an X-ray equipment, tube type, of range of 60 to 300 KV and that to make the design they required to know the necessary thickness of the walls, doors and roof to protect to the workers, outside of the building, of the X and gamma radiations generated by the sources mentioned during the radiographic inspections of metal-mechanical pieces. (Author)

  16. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  17. Improving the thermal performance of the building envelopes with the use of foam glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Portnyagin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on eliminating the defects of thermal insulation on the basis of the previously carried out thermal imaging surveys were given. Constructive solutions of building envelopes were proposed with regard to modeling thermal fields in ELCUT. A typical solution of thermal insulation of the basement joint is the unit exterior insulation of the basement wall to the level of the facing course bottom. This constructive solution is characterized by a significant thermal bridge, in the direction through the cross-section of the floor slab under the insulation of the wall. The article presents the results of eliminating the thermal bridge by substituting of ceramic or silica bricks for thermal insulation bricks of foamglass. We discussed the roof and parapet joint. The paper also presents the results of heat loss calculation when replacing of the top line of backfills above the level of the coating by the brick thermal insulation made of foamglass.

  18. Silica Brick for Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,specification,test method,quality appraisal procedure,labeling,packing,transportation,storage and quality certification of silica brick for coke oven.

  19. Analysis of thermal field within an urban canyon with variable thermophysical characteristics of the building's walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lieto Vollaro, A.; Galli, G.; Vallati, A.; Romagnoli, R.

    2015-11-01

    In a typical urban configuration, a microclimatic analysis has been carried out. Using a CFD method, a N-S oriented urban street canyon, with a given H/W ratio, has been examined. The standard k-ε turbulence model has been used to simulate a three-dimensional flow field and to calculate the thermo-fluid dynamics parameters that characterize the street canyon. In this study has been analyzed the thermal flow field when the walls of the building change the properties of solar radiation absorption, in particular for α=0.2 and α=0.8. Solar radiation considered is that of 21/07 in Milan in two different hours: at 11:00 a.m. and at 02:00 p.m. The study shows the importance of the thermophysical properties of a wall, in the development of the thermal field and flow field. This is a very important topic, in terms of improvement of wellbeing and the quality of the air within the cities, through the choice of materials and colors of the facades of buildings.

  20. Dating bricks of the last two millennia from Newcastle upon Tyne: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricks from a group of four independently dated late medieval buildings in Newcastle upon Tyne have been tested to establish their suitability for luminescence dating as part of a wider study of the dating of post-Roman and medieval brick buildings. The luminescence characteristics of quartz extracted from the bricks were determined using TL (210 deg. C peak) and OSL measurement procedures. Both TL and OSL measurement procedures based on SAR and SARA protocols were applied to determine the palaeodose. The luminescence dates for three sampled locations are in good agreement with the assigned architectural dates; the fourth appears to be older raising doubts concerning the architectural assessment of the sampled phase

  1. Modeling of heat and mass transfer in lateritic building envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the behavior of building envelopes made of local lateritic soil bricks subjected to different climatic conditions. The analysis is developed for the prediction of the temperature, relative humidity and water content behavior within the walls. The building envelopes studied in this work consist of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust in order to obtain small thermal conductivity and low-density materials, and limit the heat transfer between the atmospheric climate and the inside environment. In order to describe coupled heat and moisture transfer in wet porous materials, the coupled equations were solved by the introduction of diffusion coefficients. A numerical model HMtrans, developed for prediction of beat and moisture transfer in multi-layered building components, was used to simulate the temperature, water content and relative humidity profiles within the building envelopes. The results allow the prediction of the duration of the exposed building walls to the local weather conditions. They show that for any of three climatic conditions considered, relative humidity and water content do not exceed 87% and 5% respectively. There is therefore minimum possibility of water condensation in the materials studied. The durability of building envelopes made of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust is not strongly affected by the climatic conditions in tropical and equatorial regions. (author)

  2. Experimental study and advanced CFD simulation of fire safety performance of building external wall insulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhenghua

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Large scale fire tests of building external wall insulation system were conducted. In the experiment, thermal-couples were mounted to measure the insulation system surface temperature and the gas temperature inside rooms at the second and third floors. Photos were also taken during the fire tests. The measurement provides information of the ignition and fire spread of the external insulation system which consists of surface protection layer, glass fibre net, bonding thin layer, anchor and the load bearing wall. Comprehensive simulations of the fire tests were carried out using an advanced CFD fire simulation software Simtec (Simulation of Thermal Engineering Complex [1, 2], which is now released by Simtec Soft Sweden, with the turbulent flow, turbulent combustion, thermal radiation, soot formation, convective heat transfer, the fully coupled three dimensional heat transfer inside solid materials, the ‘burn-out' of the surface protection layer and the pyrolysis of the insulation layer, etc, all computed. The simulation is compared with experimental measurement for validation. The simulation well captured the burning and fire spread of the external insulation wall.

  3. Thermal environmental status testing and analysis of a typical brick-wall solar greenhouse in Tianjin%天津一种典型砖墙日光温室热环境现状的测试与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凡; 马承伟; 刘洋; 宋道林

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we tested the thermal and humidity environmental status in a typical brick-wall solar greenhouse in Tianjin for two winters.The results showed that,daily mean temperature is around 10 ℃,the lowest value is 5.0 ℃ ; daily minimum temperature is 3.4-5.5 ℃ in January and the lowest value is 0.8 ℃,which may cause the crop chilling injury;night temperature indoor is lower and the lowest average night temperature is 2.5 ℃ from December to next February;the night temperature difference between indoor and outdoor is 10-15 ℃.The indoor daily average relative humidity is 66% in the daytime in January,however,the relative humidity is only 50% when soilless culture is used.The average relative humidity at night is high to 99% in all the testing time.Results from this study showed that solar greenhouse can supply proper environment to crops most of the time,but there is still exiting some abnormal conditions (always low temperature and high humidity).We advise to improve the environment performance of solar greenhouse by the following measures:enhance the sunlight transmission from the roof; ensure the solar radiation received by the north wall; advance the thermal insulation and heat storage performance of enclosure structures; improve ventilation and modify cultivation methods.%对天津一种典型的砖墙日光温室进行连续2个冬季的热湿环境现状测试.结果表明:日光温室内日平均气温大部分时间可维持在10℃左右,最冷时仅为5.0℃;日最低气温1月份平均为3.4~5.5℃,极端日最低气温为0.8℃,此温度持续过长则会造成植物的冷害;温室内夜间温度较低,12-02月份室内夜间平均气温最低仅2.5℃;夜间室内外温差为10~15℃.1月份室内白昼平均相对湿度为66%,当采用无土栽培时,湿度仅50%左右;夜间室内相对湿度在整个测试期间都高达99%.可见,日光温室温湿环境大多适宜植物的生长,但仍存在

  4. Biofouling Prevention of Ancient Brick Surfaces by TiO2-Based Nano-Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Graziani; Marco D'Orazio

    2015-01-01

    Brick constitutes a significant part of the construction materials used in historic buildings around the world. This material was used in Architectural Heritage for structural scope, and even for building envelopes. Thus, components made of clay brick were subjected to weathering for a long time, and this causes their deterioration. One of the most important causes for deterioration is biodeterioration caused by algae and cyanobacteria. It compromises the aesthetical properties, and, at a lat...

  5. Perceptions on Barriers to the Use of Burnt Clay Bricks for Housing Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard K. Baiden

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burnt clay bricks can be readily manufactured in Ghana as all ten regions have significant clay deposits with the Ashanti region having the highest estimated deposit of 37.1 million metric tonnes. In recent times, burnt clay bricks have been regarded as old fashioned and replaced by other perceived modern walling units within Kumasi, the metropolitan capital of Ashanti Region, despite its availability, unique advantages (aesthetics, low maintenance cost, etc., and structural and nonstructural properties. This study involved a questionnaire survey of 85 respondents made up of architects, brick manufacturing firms, and brick house owners or occupants in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana and sought to examine their perceptions on barriers to the use of burnt clay bricks for housing construction. The findings revealed that the key factors inhibiting the use of burnt clay bricks for housing construction are low material demand, excessive cost implications, inappropriate use in construction, noncompatibility of burnt clay bricks with other materials, unreliable production, and transportation problems. The findings however provide a platform for stakeholders to address the barriers to enable the extensive use of clay bricks in housing constructions.

  6. Preliminary Report on Engineering Properties and Environmental Resistance of Ancient Mud Bricks from Tell El-Retaba Archaeological Site in the Nile Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzciński Jerzy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The archaeological site Tell el-Retaba in north-eastern Egypt, about 35 km to the west of Ismailia city, is located in the middle of Wadi Tumilat, a shallow valley running from the Nile Delta to the Bitter Lakes, along which flows the Suez Canal. In ancient times the valley was a route between Egypt and Syro-Palestine, strongly fortified in the New Kingdom times (16th–11th century BC. Mud bricks were analyzed from two parts of the Wall 1 (core of grey-brown bricks and inner extension of green bricks in a fortress which existed during the Ramesses II times. Grain-size composition of the studied bricks was almost identical in both parts of the wall, suggesting the same source material for a production of brick. However, significant differences were observed in physical and mechanical properties (uni-axial compressive strength in both types of bricks. Bricks from the core had lower bulk density, higher porosity and soak faster, whereas their resistance parameters were much lower than those of the bricks from the inner extension. The reason for such large differences in brick properties was a technology of their production, particularly proportion of components, water volume added during brick formation or density degree. Brick preparation and in consequence, physical-mechanical properties had direct influence on preservation of defensive structures during environmental changes related to changes of groundwater and surface water levels or of precipitation. Ancient Egyptians responsible for construction works in mud brick structures of the fortress must have had good knowledge and experience. This could be observed particularly for the heaviest and most important construction element that is the defensive wall, founded on well-densified deposits. It was also testified by higher resistance of green bricks from the inner extensions, which probably originated slightly later and were intended to reinforce a weaker core built of grey-brown bricks.

  7. Identification of thermal properties distribution in building wall using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Jordan; Dumoulin, Jean

    2016-04-01

    [1] L. Ibos, J-P. Monchau, V. Feuillet, Y. Candau, A comparative study of in-situ measurement methods of a building wall thermal resistance using infrared thermography, in Proc. SPIE 9534, Twelfth International Conference on Quality Control by Artificial Vision 2015, 95341I (April 30, 2015); doi:10.1117/12.2185126 [2] Nassiopoulos, A., Bourquin, F., On-site building walls characterization, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A : Applications, 63(3) :179 :200, 2013 [3] J. Brouns, Développement d'outils numériques pour l'audit énergétique des bâtiments, PhD thesis, Université Paris-Est, SIE, 2014 [4] J.-L. Lions, Contrôle optimal de systèmes gouvernés par des équations aux dérivées partielles. Book, Dunod editor, 1968.

  8. Effective Pneumatic Scheme and Control Strategy of a Climbing Robot for Class Wall Cleaning on High-rise Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Guanghua Zong; Jianwei Zhang; Houxiang Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A new kind of pneumatic climbing robot is presented to meet the requirements of glass-wall cleaning for high-rise buildings, which is totally actuated by pneumatic cylinders and attached to the glass wall with vacuum suckers. Using the pneumatic actuators the climbing robot can be made lightweight and dexterous. At the same time the movement driven by pneumatic actuators has the characteristic of passive compliance. In order to solve the problems of high speed movement for the Y cylinder and ...

  9. Construction sustainability with adobe bricks type elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Hegyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a criterion defined in the 80, which is essential in all fields of current activity. At the moment, it can not talk about development without being taken into account sustainability criteria. It presents the ensuring for an harmonious development, in line with current needs, without to endanger the possibility to develop and satisfy the needs of future generations. The buildings of adobe bricks-type elements ensure successfully the conditions imposed by this criterion. This type of construction ensures the responsible use of renewable natural resources, the possibility of reuse and recycling of materials, contributes to environmental protection and to pollution reduction, to energy saving and it provides a cleaner and healthier living environment. Not least, the buildings of this type are accessible in terms of cost and can contribute to the development of other fields such as eco-tourism.

  10. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS. A 'light-shining-through-walls' experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALPS collaboration runs a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run. (orig.)

  11. A nondestructive method for diagnostic of insulated building walls using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi Youcef, Mohamed H. A.; Mazioud, Atef; Bremond, Pierre; Ibos, Laurent; Candau, Yves; Piro, Michel; Filloux, Alain

    2007-04-01

    This work deals with the development of an experimental protocol for the diagnostic of multi-layered insulated building walls. First, a test bench is set up in order to measure front and back sides temperatures of standard panels. The panels considered have insulation thicknesses of 2, 6 and 10cm. The front side is heated by two halogen lamps of 500W. A CEDIP Jade Long wave infrared camera and thermocouples are used to carry out temperature measurements. In a second time, a one dimensional model based on thermal quadruples and Laplace transforms was developped under Matlab environment. Also, we developped a three dimensional model based on finite volumes using Fluent computational code. Finally, a method of identification of physical parameters is implemented by performing least square minimization based on Levenberg-Marquardt method. The experimental measurements are compared to theoretical results and by minimization we obtain thermal conductivity and diffusivity as well as thickness of the two layers.

  12. The gamma-ray and neutron shielding factors of fly-ash brick materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive study of gamma-ray exposure build-up factors (EBFs) of fly-ash brick materials has been carried out for photon energies of 0.015–15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path) by a geometrical progression (GP) fitting method. The EBF values of the fly-ash brick materials were found to be dependent upon the photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition, and were found to be higher than the values for mud bricks and common bricks. Above a photon energy of 3 MeV for large penetration depths (>10 mfp), the EBF becomes directly proportional to Zeq. EBFs of fly-ashes were found to be less than or equal to those of concrete for low penetration depths (<10 mfp) for intermediate photon energies up to 1.5 MeV. The EBF values of fly-ash materials were found to be almost independent of Si concentration. The fast neutron removal cross sections of the fly-ash brick materials, mud bricks and common bricks were also calculated to understand their shielding effectiveness. The shielding effectiveness of the fly-ash materials against gamma-ray radiation was lower than that of common and mud bricks. (paper)

  13. The gamma-ray and neutron shielding factors of fly-ash brick materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M

    2014-03-01

    A comprehensive study of gamma-ray exposure build-up factors (EBFs) of fly-ash brick materials has been carried out for photon energies of 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path) by a geometrical progression (GP) fitting method. The EBF values of the fly-ash brick materials were found to be dependent upon the photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition, and were found to be higher than the values for mud bricks and common bricks. Above a photon energy of 3 MeV for large penetration depths (>10 mfp), the EBF becomes directly proportional to Zeq. EBFs of fly-ashes were found to be less than or equal to those of concrete for low penetration depths (brick materials, mud bricks and common bricks were also calculated to understand their shielding effectiveness. The shielding effectiveness of the fly-ash materials against gamma-ray radiation was lower than that of common and mud bricks. PMID:24270465

  14. Defects of non-loadbearing masonry walls due to partial basal supports

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, R. Da Silva; Silva, J. A. R. Mendes da

    2007-01-01

    The attempts to reduce heat transmission heterogeneity all over the external surface of building envelopes include several recommendations about external protection of concrete structures with thin clay brick walls. This procedure was extensively adopted in Portugal during the last ten years in consequence of the new national thermal code. This practice has generated several defects in consequence of the insufficient technological knowledge in this domain. This work analyses some of those def...

  15. Brick finding efficiency in muonic decay tau neutrino events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a new algorithm is used for the brick finding of muonic decay tau neutrino events. The new algorithm uses Hough Transform to select the most significant strips. The events are then classified in few categories depending on the nature of the neutrino interaction. A neural network based on kinematics and geometric configurations of each category is then used to select the right wall. Once the right wall is found the strips selected by the Hough Transform are used to find the X-Y position of the neutrino interaction vertex. The brick finding efficiency of this new algorithm is 72.3%. This represents a tangible improvement with respect to the performance of the previous algorithm used in OPERA [1]. (author)

  16. Enhancing the Mechanical Properties of Lateritic Brick for Better Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Olowu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research considered the production of improved stabilized lateritic Bricks (ISLB with enhanced mechanical properties. The research data were derived from laboratory experiments which include capillary test, erosion test, abrasion test, density test and compressive strength test. Three batches of 290mm x 140mm x 100mm brick samples were produced which are: the Adobe Unstabilized Lateritic Bricks (AULB, Improved Stabilized Lateritic Brick (ISLB and the Control Stabilized Lateritic Bricks (CSLB. Brick stabilization was maintained at 5% by weight of cement. Compaction of the bricks were carried out manually; the moulded bricks were carefully extruded in good shape and placed on clean, hard flat surface to allowed to dry under normal atmospheric temperature and pressure . The ISLB was divided into four groups of 12 bricks samples immersed in solution of zycosil and water in the following proportion by volume: (1:100,(1:200,(1:300 and (1:400 for 30 minutes and dried under normal atmospheric temperature and pressure before curing commenced. The result of the capillary test on bricks samples after 24 hours showed that AULB and CSLB has (0.35 and 0.15kg weight difference equivalent of (0.00599 and 0.00256 kg/m2 /min suction rate while the ISLB have 0.05kg weight difference equivalent to 0.000855kg/m2 /min suction rate. The result of erosion test for brick durability ranked between very firm for ISLB of 1:100, 1:200 and 1:300 Zycosil Water Solution (ZWS, firm for ISLB of 1:400 ZWS; firm for CSLB and loose for AULB. The abrasion test result showed that the ISLB have abrasion value of (1,2,2 and 2% while the CSLB and AULB have (3 and 12% abrasion value. The density of ISLB are (1933.50, 1921.18, 1916.26 and 1908.87 kgm-3 at 28 days while the density of CSLB and AULB were (1926.11 and 1800.49 kgm-3 . Density results conform to minimum specification requirement for lateritic bricks of bulk density of 1810kgm-3 as recommended by the Nigeria Building and

  17. Kaolinite Refractory Bricks for Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ This standard is suitable to the fireclay bricks for blast furnace. 1 Classification, Shape and Dimension 1 According to physical and chemical indexes, the brick can be divided into two trademarks: ZGN-42 and GN-42.

  18. The integrity of CAGR moderator bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedures for assessing the integrity of moderator bricks in Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors is described together with experiments proposed to improve the graphite input data and verify the condition of bricks at the end of life. (author)

  19. Dynamic thermal performance of alveolar brick construction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Even though U-value does not measure thermal inertia, it is the commonly used parameter. → The thermal performance analysis of buildings must include the evaluation of transient parameters. → Transient parameters of alveolar brick constructive system show good agreement with its low energy consumption. -- Abstract: Alveolar bricks are being introduced in building sector due to the simplicity of their construction system and to the elimination of the insulation material. Nevertheless, it is not clear if this new system is energetically efficient and which is its thermal behaviour. This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study to evaluate the thermal behaviour of the alveolar brick construction system, compared with a traditional Mediterranean brick system with insulation. The experimental study consists of measuring the thermal performance of four real house-like cubicles. The thermal transmittance in steady-state, also known as U-value, is calculated theoretically and experimentally for each cubicle, presenting the insulated cubicles as the best construction system, with differences around 45% in comparison to the alveolar one. On the other hand, experimental results show significantly smaller differences on the energy consumption between the alveolar and insulated construction systems during summer period (around 13% higher for the alveolar cubicle). These values demonstrate the high thermal efficiency of the alveolar system. In addition, the lack of agreement between the measured energy consumption and the calculated U-values, guides the authors to analyze the thermal inertia of the different building components. Therefore, several transient parameters, extracted from the heat transfer matrix and from experimental data, are also evaluated. It can be concluded that the alveolar brick construction system presents higher thermal inertia than the insulated one, justifying the low measured energy consumption.

  20. Mechanical properties of adobe bricks in ancient constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Dora; VARUM Humberto; Costa, Aníbal; Martins, Tiago; Pereira, Henrique; Almeida, Joao

    2012-01-01

    A study of the mechanical properties of adobe bricks collected from houses and land dividing walls in Aveiro district, Portugal, representative of existing traditional constructions, was conducted. Cylindrical adobe specimens were subjected to simple compression and splitting tests. From these tests it was possible to evaluate the strength capacity, stiffness and deformation evolution for increasing loading. Correlations between the evaluated properties were determined, and the results obtain...

  1. Peak and residual strengths of brick masonry spandrels

    OpenAIRE

    Beyer, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Unreinforced masonry (URM) walls comprise vertical piers and horizontal spandrels, which together form the lateral load resisting system. Whereas past research yielded significant advances in the understanding of the force-deformation characteristics of masonry piers, knowledge of the behaviour of masonry spandrels is lacking. This paper makes a contribution to our understanding of the seismic behaviour of brick masonry spandrel elements by describing typical behaviour modes and analysing the...

  2. Development and validation of a new TRNSYS type for the simulation of external building walls containing PCM

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznik, F.; VIRGONE, J.; Johannes, K.

    2010-01-01

    International audience In building construction, the use of phase change materials (PCMs) allows the storage/release of energy from the solar radiation and/or internal loads. The application of such materials for lightweight construction (e.g., a wood house) makes it possible to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption. However, in order to assess and optimize phase change materials included in building wall, numerical simulation is mandatory. For that purpose, a new TRNSYS Ty...

  3. Drying of brick as a function of heat flows and analysis of moisture and temperature distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy;

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the driving mechanisms for frost damages in brickwork, laboratory tests has been performed on a test brick wall. These test include monitoring of temperature and moisture distribution in the wall as function of the influence of driving rain, wind speed and solar radiation...

  4. Natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Kazuo [Building Materials Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    As part of our study program on environmental radiation levels is buildings, we have undertaken to measure the natural radioactivity, such as radium-226, thorium-232, and potassium-40 in various inorganic building materials. The specimens of their materials include cements, aggregates, concretes, asbestos cement slates, tiles, gypsum boards, rock wool boards, bricks, wall clays, soils, phosphorous ore, zirconia, zircon flower and zircon sand that used in Japan. The ranges and mean values of natural radioactivity concentrations existing in their materials are tabulated and evaluated. (author)

  5. Natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of our study program on environmental radiation levels is buildings, we have undertaken to measure the natural radioactivity, such as radium-226, thorium-232, and potassium-40 in various inorganic building materials. The specimens of their materials include cements, aggregates, concretes, asbestos cement slates, tiles, gypsum boards, rock wool boards, bricks, wall clays, soils, phosphorous ore, zirconia, zircon flower and zircon sand that used in Japan. The ranges and mean values of natural radioactivity concentrations existing in their materials are tabulated and evaluated. (author)

  6. Can an Electron Rotate a Brick?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2009-01-01

    In "The Theory of Almost Everything", Robert Oerter asserts the following: "Take a beam of electrons that are all spinning in the same direction and fire it at, say, a brick. If you could keep this up for long enough, and if there were no other forces acting on the brick, the electrons would transfer their rotation to the brick, and it would begin…

  7. Bricking a Regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    When Goldman Sachs created the acronym BRIC in 2001,neither the economists nor the rest of the world imagined that Brazil,Russia,India and China would finally sit together to build up a substantial platform one day.

  8. Chinese Standards on Refractories Fireclay Brick and Semi-silica Brick for Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedure,packing,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven. This standard is applicable to the fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven,and the bricks for inner linings of carbon furnace,gas generator and shaft furnace.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Unreinforced Brick Masonry, Section1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosalam, K; Glascoe, L; Bernier, J

    2009-10-02

    Before the advent of concrete and steel, masonry helped build civilizations. From Egypt in Africa, Rome in Europe, Maya in the America to China in Asia, masonry was exploited to construct the most significant, magnificent and long lasting structures on the Earth. Looking at the Egyptian pyramids, Mayan temples, Roman coliseum and Chinese Great Wall, one cannot stop wondering about the significance and popularity that masonry has had through out history. Lourenco et al (1989) summed up the reasons for the popularity of masonry in the following, 'The most important characteristic of masonry construction is its simplicity. Laying pieces of stone or bricks on top of each other, either with or without cohesion via mortar, is a simple, though adequate, technique that has been successful ever since remote ages. Other important characteristics are the aesthetics, solidity, durability, low maintenance, versatility, sound absorption and fire protection' Despite these advantages, masonry is no longer preferred structural material in many parts of the developed world, especially in seismically active parts of the world. Partly, masonry and especially unreinforced masonry (URM) has mechanical properties such as strength and ductility inferior to those of reinforced concrete and steel. Moreover, masonry structures were traditionally built based on rules of thumb acquired over many years of practice and/or empirical data from testing. Accordingly, we do not have a rigorous and uniform method of analysis and design for masonry. Nevertheless, the world still possesses numerous historic and ordinary masonry structures, which require maintenance and strengthening to combat the assault of time and nature. Hence, it is important to study fundamental properties of masonry so that new masonry structures can be effectively designed and built, and the cost for servicing old structures and for building new ones will be less expensive.

  10. The Contrivance of New Mud Bricks for Restoring and Preserving the Edfa Ancient Granary - Sohag, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed EL-GOHARY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A mud brick functions as an element of masonry structures. Being an integral part of a wall mass, it must be understood structurally and chemically. The susceptibility of a mud brick to be affected by decay agents depends on the type of raw materials used, the methods of construction, location, the microclimatic conditions, the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the mud brick itself. In this research, mineralogical composition and granulometric distribution of ancient mud bricks were studied by using some scientific techniques such as XRD, SEM and electrical mechanical sieves, to determine the main components and characteristics, which will serve as reference for the contrivance of new mud bricks. In addition, special knowledge of the physical properties of historic mud bricks were defined by some scientific techniques to get some information about their properties, such as density, porosity, water absorption and shrinkage. Furthermore, all of those characteristics were studied in two groups of new mud bricks, to determine their properties. Finally, ourresults proved that the 6th category in the 1st group and the 10th category in the 2nd group are the most appropriate types for restoring and preserving the studied monument, due to their good physical properties, morphological appearances and their suitable characteristics.

  11. Landfill gas powers brick production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshalls plc produce high-quality facing bricks using tunnel kilns at the company's Stairfoot Brickworks site, in the UK. The company extracts clay from the adjacent quarries, which are subsequently filled with domestic waste. In 1981 Marshalls decided to exploit the landfill gas (LFG) resource 'on its doorstep'. (author)

  12. Elucidating the effects of solar panel waste glass substitution on the physical and mechanical characteristics of clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Huang, Long-Sheng; Shie, Je-Lueng; Cheng, Ching-Jung; Lee, Ching-Hwa; Chang, Tien-Chin

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the effect of solar panel waste glass on fired clay bricks. Brick samples were heated to temperatures which varied from 700-1000 degrees C for 6 h, with a heating rate of 10 degrees C min(-1). The material properties of the resultant material were then determined, including speciation variation, loss on ignition, shrinkage, bulk density, 24-h absorption rate, compressive strength and salt crystallization. The results indicate that increasing the amount of solar panel waste glass resulted in a decrease in the water absorption rate and an increase in the compressive strength of the solar panel waste glass bricks. The 24-h absorption rate and compressive strength of the solar panel waste glass brick made from samples containing 30% solar panel waste glass sintered at 1000 degrees C all met the Chinese National Standard (CNS) building requirements for first-class brick (compressive strengths and water absorption of the bricks were 300 kg cm(-2) and 10% of the brick, respectively). The addition of solar panel waste glass to the mixture reduced the degree of firing shrinkage. The salt crystallization test and wet-dry tests showed that the addition of solar panel waste glass had highly beneficial effects in that it increased the durability of the bricks. This indicates that solar panel waste glass is indeed suitable for the partial replacement of clay in bricks. PMID:23530311

  13. Heat insulating closing system for pressure relief openings in partition walls, especially in nuclear reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention refers to a heat insulating closing system for pressure relief openings in partition walls, especially those of nuclear reactor buildings in the region where the reactor coolant pipe nozzle of the reactor pressure vessel penetrates the biological shield, by means of closing elements fabricated from leightweight material, which are pressed out of their anchorage in case of an overpressure at the reactor side. The invention consists in the closing elements being designed as heat insulating modular inserts contacting at their front side by means of a circumferential shear edge an exterior sealing burst membrane, whose strength in the direction of the differential pressured is such that, if the admissible differential pressure is reached or exceeded the burst membrane is sheared off by the modular insert, which itself is pressed out of its seat. The modular insert may contain mineral fibers as insulating material or may totally consists of metal containing inside stratified insulating foils that are arranged at some distance with respect to each other in the insulating direction and which form insulting cells. (orig./RW)

  14. Integration of liquid-cooled solar collectors into building walls; Gebaeudeintegration von Sonnenkollektoren mit Fluessigkeitskuehlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, S.; Rockendorf, G.; Bartelsen, B. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH Hameln/Emmerthal (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    Three different methods are presented how to integrate active solar thermal components into building facades. The solar thermal absorber acts as overheating protection and the heat produced can be utilized further. The lower annual yield in comparison to roof-mounted installations is counterbalanced by a more uniform solar gain and an improved wall insulation. The new concept of elastomer-metal-absorbers can be realized in different configurations and material combinations and offers attractive options for collector installation. The methods discussed hold the promise of significant cost reductions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es werden drei Methoden vorgestellt, aktive solarthermische Komponenten mit Fluessigkeit als Waermetraeger in die Gebaeudehuelle zu integrieren. Dabei dient der solarthermische Absorber als Ueberhitzungsschutz und die abgefuehrte Waerme kann einer Nutzung zugefuehrt werden. Der geringere jaehrliche Waermeertrag im Vergleich zur Dachmontage wird durch ein gleichmaesssiges Ertragsprofil und eine verbesserte Waermedaemmung weitgehend ausgeglichen. Das neu entwickelte Elastomer-Metall-Absorber-Konzept (EMA-Konzept) ist in unterschiedliche Konfigurationen und Materialkombinationen umsetzbar und eroeffnet attraktive Moeglichkeiten der Kollektorinstallation. Die diskutierten Methoden lassen eine deutliche Kostenersparnis erwarten. (orig.)

  15. Study on prevention of spread of vertical fire along finishing materials for external wall of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Yong Ho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although there are laws in the Korea Building Act relating to exterior finishing materials, fireproof structures and fire-stop of curtain wall structures, the standards relating to and test methods on securing detailed fire safety functions for exterior materials of all buildings including high-rise buildings have not been prepared. This is due to the fact that test methods and standards to quantitatively evaluate the vertical fire spread of the exterior material of buildings do not exist. In addition, while semi non-combustible materials or non-combustible materials are required to be used to prevent fire spread in buildings which exceed 30-stories, it is necessary to review the standards and regulations in cases where fire blocking systems, capable of preventing the vertical fire spread within the curtain wall, are installed to consider permitting the utilization of fire retardant material following an assessment of the construction characteristics of high-rise buildings. The functional evaluation standards and test methods on the vertical fire spread introduced in this study will be a more effective method for performing evaluations to prevent fire spread compared to the currently utilized method of performing small scale tests.

  16. Calculation and measurement of depth dose distributions in bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose accumulated in bricks exposed to gamma radiation can be measured as a function of depth using luminescence methods. The dependence of dose on depth has the potential of providing information on the energy as well as on the angular distribution of the incident radiation, which could give indications on the configuration of the radiation sources. A prerequisite for such an analysis is a comprehensive knowledge on the dependence of dose on depth for different source energies and for specific source configurations. Depth dose distribution in brick walls have been calculated by Monte Carlo simulations for a source distribution on a wall, for a source distribution on the ground and for a parallel photon beam, for source energies ranging from 140 keV to 1600 keV. It is shown that depth dose distributions depend substantially on source configuration and energy. Depth dose distributions measured in ceramic materials irradiated in the laboratory and in a brick from a contaminated area are compared with results of Monte Carlo calculations. (Author)

  17. Effect of Thermal Bridges in Insulated Walls on Air-Conditioning Loads Using Whole Building Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Zedan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal bridges in building walls are usually caused by mortar joints between insulated building blocks and by the presence of concrete columns and beams within the building envelope. These bridges create an easy path for heat transmission and therefore increase air-conditioning loads. In this study, the effects of mortar joints only on cooling and heating loads in a typical two-story villa in Riyadh are investigated using whole building energy analysis. All loads found in the villa, which broadly include ventilation, transmission, solar and internal loads, are considered with schedules based on local lifestyles. The thermal bridging effect of mortar joints is simulated by reducing wall thermal resistance by a percentage that depends on the bridges to wall area ratio (TB area ratio or Amj/Atot and the nominal thermal insulation thickness (Lins. These percentage reductions are obtained from a correlation developed by using a rigorous 2D dynamic model of heat transmission through walls with mortar joints. The reduction in thermal resistance is achieved through minor reductions in insulation thickness, thereby keeping the thermal mass of the wall essentially unchanged. Results indicate that yearly and monthly cooling loads increase almost linearly with the thermal bridge to wall area ratio. The increase in the villa’s yearly loads varies from about 3% for Amj/Atot = 0.02 to about 11% for Amj/Atot = 0.08. The monthly increase is not uniform over the year and reaches a maximum in August, where it ranges from 5% for Amj/Atot = 0.02 to 15% for Amj/Atot = 0.08. In winter, results show that yearly heating loads are generally very small compared to cooling loads and that heating is only needed in December, January and February, starting from late night to late morning. Monthly heating loads increase with the thermal bridge area ratio; however, the variation is not as linear as observed in cooling loads. The present results highlight the importance of

  18. Evaluating the role of ivy (Hedera helix) in moderating wall surface microclimates and contributing to the bioprotection of historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternberg, Troy; Viles, Heather [Oxford University, School of Geography, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Cathersides, Alan [English Heritage, Conservation Department, Kemble Drive, Swindon SN2 2GZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of ivy (Hedera helix L.) on building walls is much debated, with arguments being put forward for it playing a biodeteriorative role (for example through ivy rootlets exploiting cracks and holes) as well as suggestions that it might provide some bioprotection (for example by the ivy canopy protecting the walls from other agents of deterioration such as frost). We have carried out a year-long study of the influence that ivy canopies play on wall surface microclimates at five sites across a range of climatic settings within England, using iButtons to monitor temperature and relative humidity fluctuations at the wall surface on ivy-covered and exposed walls. Hourly data illustrates a general mediating effect of ivy canopies on both temperature and relative humidity regimes. The ivy reduces extremes of temperature and relative humidity, with the most clearcut differences for temperature. Across all five sites the average daily maximum temperature was 36% higher and the average daily minimum temperature 15% lower on exposed vs ivy-covered surfaces. Differences in the exposure level of studied walls (i.e. whether they are shaded or not by trees or other walls) influenced the degree of microclimatic alteration provided by the ivy canopy. Other important factors influencing the strength of the ivy impact on microclimate were found to be thickness of the canopy and aspect of the wall. A detailed analysis of one site, Byland in North Yorkshire, illustrates the seasonal differences in impact of ivy on microclimates, with insulation against freezing being the dominant effect in January, and the removal of high temperature 'spikes' the dominant effect in July. The observed moderating role of ivy canopies on wall surface microclimates will reduce the likelihood of frost and salt deterioration to the building materials, thus contributing to their conservation. Further research needs to be done on other potentially deteriorative roles of ivy before an overall

  19. Non-autoclave silicate brick

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Yaglov; Ya. N. Kovalev; V. N. Romaniuk; G. A. Burak

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding) is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediate...

  20. Investigation of the possibilities of phosphogypsum application for building partitioning Walls - elements of a prefabricated house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum is a waste product in the manufacture of phosphoric acid from phosphorite and sulphuric acid by so-called "wet process" and represents a refuse that is as such simply thrown away. Phosphogypsum which is produced by "dihydrating procedure" contains not only various impurties but also radionuclides, which limits its construction use. Performed testings point to the complexity of phosphogypsum structure and composition while the electron microscope's pictures showed its different crystal composition compared to the natural gypsum. The calcined and refined phosphogypsum can be used for partition walls manufacture. To avoid the danger of the possible presence of radionuclides it is better to use the mixture of natural gypsum and phosphogypsum for this purpose. Substantial saving of materials and economic effect can be achieved in this way. The analyse performed in this work have shown significant presence of radionuclides in phosphogypsum. Gammaspectrometric measurements of radioactivity have determined substantial radioactivity of phosphogypsum. Using the maximum tolerated level values that are legally accepted, as well as equations to calculate indexes of tolerated radionuclide presence, an index of 2.23 has been determined for interiors and 1.13 for exteriors, i.e. 0.64 in case of roads. On the basis of the maximum tolerated level of radioactive building materials contamination (< 1, forbiden is the use of phosphogypsum in interiors, allowed (≈ 1 in exteriors and roads. The tests of heavy metal components in phosphogypsum have proved their presence in the amounts potentially producing consequences if present in closed spaces. That is conditioned by the phosphogypsum quantity, as well as by the area of space partitioned.

  1. Modelling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behaviour of RC buildings using OpenSees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, André; Rodrigues, Hugo; Arêde, António

    2015-06-01

    Recent earthquakes show that masonry infill walls should be taken into account during the design and assessment process of structures, since this type of non-structural elements increase the in-plane stiffness of the structure and consequently the natural period. An overview of the past researches conducted on the modelling of masonry infilled frame issues has been done, with discussion of past analytical investigations and different modelling approaches that many authors have proposed, including micro- and macro-modelling strategies. After this, the present work presents an improved numerical model, based on the Rodrigues et al. (J Earthq Eng 14:390-416, 2010) approach, for simulating the masonry infill walls behaviour in the computer program OpenSees. The main results of the in-plane calibration analyses obtained with one experimental test are presented and discussed. For last, two reinforced concrete regular buildings were studied and subjected to several ground motions, with and without infills' walls.

  2. Design of load-bearing structure of an office building in Kranj

    OpenAIRE

    Possnig, Luka

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents static analysis of load-bearing structure of a three storey office building in Kranj according to current Eurocode standards. The load-bearing structure is made of reinforced concrete and consists of monolith roof and storey plates, brick walls, beams and columns. In the analysis of the structure all impacts, that may influence the structure in its lifecycle are considered. The analysis of the plates was performed with a commercial program SAP2000 (Computers and Structure...

  3. Detection of Indigenous Halobacillus Populations in Damaged Ancient Wall Paintings and Building Materials: Molecular Monitoring and Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Ramos, Cayo; Rölleke, Sabine; Schabereiter-Gurtner, Claudia; Vybiral, Dietmar; Lubitz, Werner; Denner, Ewald B M

    2001-01-01

    Several moderately halophilic gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria have been isolated by conventional enrichment cultures from damaged medieval wall paintings and building materials. Enrichment and isolation were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and fluorescent in situ hybridization. 16S ribosomal DNA analysis showed that the bacteria are most closely related to Halobacillus litoralis. DNA-DNA reassociation experiments identified the isolates as a population of hitherto u...

  4. Cyclic loading of Adobe walls and its anti seismic strengthening reinforcement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wünsche, Martin; Hračov, Stanislav; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Urushadze, Shota

    Prague : Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Transportation Sciences, 2012 - (Jiroušek, O.; Kytýř, D.), s. 27-30 ISBN 978-80-01-05062-0. [Bilateral Czech/German Symposium, Experimental methods and numerical simulation in engineering sciences/13./. Telč (CZ), 05.06.2012-08.06.2012] Grant ostatní: Evropská komise (EC)(XE) FP7-NIKER-g.a. 244123 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : seismic retrofitting * adobe wall * brick wall Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  5. Dismountable wall for radiation shielding and screen realized from this wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wall for protection against neutrons and gamma radiations is made of bricks with a shoulder on the upper and side faces and the complementary shape on the lower face to provide a barrier to radiations. Bricks are made of a heavy material for gamma absorption and of epoxy resin, boric acid and hydrated alumina

  6. Use of bottom ash from olive pomace combustion in the production of eco-friendly fired clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliche-Quesada, D; Leite-Costa, J

    2016-02-01

    Olive pomace bottom ash was used to replace different amounts (10-50wt%) of clay in brick manufacturing. The aim of this study is both studying bricks properties and showing a new way of olive pomace bottom ash recycling. Properties of waste bricks were compared to conventional products following standard procedures in order to determine the maximum waste percentage. The amount of olive pomace bottom ash is limited to 20wt%, obtaining bricks with superior engineering properties when 10wt% of waste is added. Adding higher amount of waste (30-50wt%) resulted in bricks with water absorption and compressive strength values on the edge of meeting those established by standards. Therefore, the addition of 10 and 20wt% of olive pomace bottom ash produced bricks with a bulk density of 1635 and 1527kg/m(3) and a compressive strength of 33.9MPa and 14.2MPa, respectively. Fired bricks fulfil standards requirements for clay masonry units, offering, at the same time, better thermal insulation of buildings due to a reduction in thermal conductivity of 14.4% and 16.8% respectively, compared to control bricks (only clay). PMID:26653359

  7. Automation of TL brick dating by ADAM-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence has become an established dating method for ceramics and more recently for bricks. Based on the experiences of the work carried out since the late 1970's at the Rathgen-Forschungslabor in Berlin on the dating of bricks from historic architecture, and after evaluating all commercially available and some individually built automated and semi-automated TL-readers, a specially adapted machine for the fine grain dating of bricks was constructed in an interdisciplinary research project, undertaken by a team recruited from three faculties of the Czech Technical University in Prague. The result is the automated TL-reader ADAM-1 (Automated Dating Apparatus for Monuments) for the dating of historic architecture. Both the specific adaptation of the technique and the necessary optimal automation have influenced the design of this TL-reader. The principle advantage of brick as opposed to ceramic TL-dating emerges from the possibility of being able to obtain both a large number of samples and an above average quantity of datable material from each sample. This, together with the specific physical and chemical conditions in a brick wall, allowed a rethinking of the traditional error calculation and thus lower error margins as those obtained when dating ceramic shards. The TL-reader must therefore be able to measure and evaluate automatically numerous samples. The annular sample holder of ADAM-1 has 60 sample positions, which allow the irradiation and evaluation of samples taken from two locations. The thirty samples from one sampling point are divided into subgroups, which are processed in various ways. Three samples serve for a rough estimate of the TL sensitivity of the brick material. Nine samples are used for the measurement of 'natural TL' of the material. A further nine samples are used for testing the sensitivity of the material to beta radiation. The last nine samples serve for the testing of the sensitivity to alpha radiation. To determine the

  8. STUDY ON EMPIRICAL SEISMIC CODAL GUIDELINES FOR MASONRY BUILDINGS IN KOLLAM, KERALA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. POTTY

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Masonry structures fail miserably due to lateral loads. Recent earthquakes in India and the world and the resulting losses highlighted the structural inadequacy of masonry buildings to seismic loads. Increase in frequency of earthquake in Kerala recently and increasing concern motivated the study. Localized survey at Kollam town in Kerala found that most of the structures were masonry. Kerala falls in Zones II and III. IS 13828 and IS 4326 provides masonry structures’ empirical design and construction features which may raise the earthquake resistance. The study is concerned with the numerical analysis of brick masonry walls (with and without seismic resistive features subjected to dynamic loading with emphasis on their non-linear behaviour. Mechanical properties of three varieties of brick and three different mix proportion of mortar were determined. Using the material properties, nonlinear dynamic analysis of a masonry wall panel was done using ANSYS software and the ground motion record of Bhuj earthquake. The effect of size and position of openings in the masonry walls, the pier size, provision of lintels and the effect of mortar on resistance of walls under dynamic loads are discussed and possible retrofitting measures are suggested to strengthen the masonry brick wall.

  9. Bauxite Based Bricks for Steel Ladle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the classification,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of bauxite based bricks for steel ladle linings.This standard is applicable to bauxite based bricks for working layer of steel ladle.

  10. Design, Construction and Testing Of a Multipurpose Brick/Block Moulding Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Yakubu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The provision of shelter is one the most basic demand of a Man all over the World. It is one the most important challenges a man faces in his life. The problem of good shelter varies from place to place. A good shelter provides, first and foremost Security and Privacy. In the developed world the problem is less pronounced, but in the developing nation like Nigeria, the problem of shelter is more pronounced. There is about eighteen (18 million housing units’ deficit in Nigeria. One of the most important materials used for building of a shelter is block/brick, but majority of the people cannot afford these materials (blocks or bricks due high cost. Therefore, the production of high quality and affordable blocks/bricks is paramount to solving housing problems in developing countries especially in Nigeria. Thus, this research focused on design construction and testing of a multipurpose machine that produces high quality blocks/bricks for low cost housing. That is, for low income communities/earners. The constructed motorized compressive earth brick (CEB/block making machine can produce on average a total of 2,215 bricks per day and 950 blocks per day. The cost of production of the machine was two hundred and eighty six thousand, eight hundred ninety (N286, 890.00 naira only. Whereas, the most common high-tech motorized CEB machine in Nigeria (Hydraform® with an average capacity of about 3,000 bricks per day costs about six million naira (N6,000,000.00K only. Thus, the machine is very affordable for small scale enterprise (SME. In other words, bricks or blocks produced by using this machine are relatively cheap and affordable for those in the rural areas and for low income earners.

  11. Sustainable Energy in Buildings by Contribution of Passive Solar Wall System

    OpenAIRE

    Pescaru, Radu-Aurel; Baran, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Due to the fact that the use and maintenance of buildings, in our country, absorbs about 40% of the entire energy consumption from primary sources it is important to consider this sector into the context of sustainable development. The sustainable development requires rethinking of the architectural concepts for the building in this regard. If the use of solar energy means that significantly less fossil fuel will be consumed, solar systems must be readily adaptable to existing buildings as...

  12. INFLUENCE OF PIT WALL ANCHORAGE ONTO ADDITIONAL DEFORMATIONS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubetskiy Valeriy Leonidovich

    2012-07-01

    Assessment of additional projected deformations of buildings located in close proximity to pits is exemplified by the specific structure of the pit support system that has active PIT [1] anchors. The authors also consider the influence produced by the structure of anchors onto the two buildings located within the area of influence of the excavation works and protected by the anchors installed underneath the foundations of the two adjacent buildings.

  13. Insulated Masonry Cavity Walls. Proceedings of the Research Correlation Conference by the Building Research Institute, Division of Engineering and Industrial Research. (April 1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Publication of conference paper texts include --(1) history and development of masonry cavity walls, (2) recent research related to determination of thermal and moisture resistance, (3) wall design and detailing, (4) design for crack prevention, (5) mortar specification characteristics, (6) performance experience with low-rise buildings, (7)…

  14. Advancing the Structural Use of Earth-based Bricks: Addressing Key Challenges in the East African Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mang Tia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The research discussed in this paper is a subset of a bigger, NSF funded research project that is directed at investigating the use of sustainable building materials. The deployment context for the research is the hot and humid climate using selected cases from the East African region. The overarching goal for the research is advancing the structural use of earth-based technologies. Significant strides can be made through developing strategies for countering the adverse factors that affect the structural performance of the resulting wall, especially ones related to moisture dynamics. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase was a two-day NSF supported workshop which was held in Tanzania in July 2009. It provided a forum for sharing best practices in earth-based building technologies and developing a research and development roadmap. The priority research areas were broadly classified as optimizing the physio-mechanical properties of earth as a building material and managing socio-cultural impediments. In the second phase of the research, the authors collaborated with researchers from East Africa to conduct experimental work on the optimization of physio-mechanical properties. The specific research issues that have been addressed are: (1 characterizing the chemical reactions that can be linked to deterioration triggered by hygrothermal loads based on the hot and humid context, and; (2 developing a prototype for a simpler, portable, affordable and viable compressed brick production machine. The paper discusses the results from the characterization work that ultimately will be used to design bricks that have specific properties based on an understanding of how different stabilizers affect the hydration process. It also describes a cheaper, portable and more efficient prototype machine that has been developed as part of the follow-up research activities.

  15. Determination of pigments in colour layers on walls of some selected historical buildings using optical and scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For successful restoration of painted walls and painted coloured finishing coats it is necessary to determine the composition of the original colour layers. Identification of the pigments used in The Cistercian Abbey of Sticna and The Manor of Novo Celje was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Selected samples of wall paintings were inspected by the combined application of an optical microscope and a low-vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope to determine their colour and structural features and to identify the position of individual pigment grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to determine the elemental distribution on selected surfaces and elemental composition of individual pigments. It was found that the most abundantly used pigments were iron oxide red, cinnabar, green earth, umber, calcium carbonate white, ultramarine, yellow ochre and carbon black. These identifications have allowed us to compare the use of various pigments in buildings from different historical periods

  16. Wave Manipulation in Metamaterials: A LEGO® Bricks Enabled Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Paolo; Gonella, Stefano

    In this work, we show how simple, reconfigurable arrangements of LEGO® bricks can be turned into the building blocks of an experimental platform for the investigation of wave phenomena in metamaterial architectures. The approach involves the assembly of reconfigurable specimens consisting of patterns of bricks on a baseplate and the use of a 3D laser vibrometer to reconstruct global and local wave features. The ability to seamlessly transition between different topologies makes this an effective approach for rapid experimental verification and proof of concept in the arena of mechanical metamaterials engineering. The intuitive nature of the brick-and-baseplate assembly paradigm can also be leveraged to implement families of intuitive lab demonstrations with significant didactic and scientific outreach potential. The versatility of the platform is tested through a series of experiments that illustrate a variety of wave manipulation effects, such as waveguiding and seismic isolation, both in periodic and disordered topologies. We acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation (Grant CMMI-1266089).

  17. Radioactive research of building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides in 31 pieces of ground bricks from different sources were determined by using the γ spectrometry. The spectra were resolved by the least square method. The contents of U, Th, Ra and 40K in them spread in a wide range. Values of some bricks products were above the limits of the state standard for radiahazards in building materials

  18. ZettaBricks: A Language Compiler and Runtime System for Anyscale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarasinghe, Saman [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-03-27

    This grant supported the ZettaBricks and OpenTuner projects. ZettaBricks is a new implicitly parallel language and compiler where defining multiple implementations of multiple algorithms to solve a problem is the natural way of programming. ZettaBricks makes algorithmic choice a first class construct of the language. Choices are provided in a way that also allows our compiler to tune at a finer granularity. The ZettaBricks compiler autotunes programs by making both fine-grained as well as algorithmic choices. Choices also include different automatic parallelization techniques, data distributions, algorithmic parameters, transformations, and blocking. Additionally, ZettaBricks introduces novel techniques to autotune algorithms for different convergence criteria. When choosing between various direct and iterative methods, the ZettaBricks compiler is able to tune a program in such a way that delivers near-optimal efficiency for any desired level of accuracy. The compiler has the flexibility of utilizing different convergence criteria for the various components within a single algorithm, providing the user with accuracy choice alongside algorithmic choice. OpenTuner is a generalization of the experience gained in building an autotuner for ZettaBricks. OpenTuner is a new open source framework for building domain-specific multi-objective program autotuners. OpenTuner supports fully-customizable configuration representations, an extensible technique representation to allow for domain-specific techniques, and an easy to use interface for communicating with the program to be autotuned. A key capability inside OpenTuner is the use of ensembles of disparate search techniques simultaneously; techniques that perform well will dynamically be allocated a larger proportion of tests.

  19. Investigation of original bricks from Ventspils castle for the purpose of restorations of medieval brick masonry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper mainly tries to characterize Middle Age brick taken from Ventspils Castle (13-17th century). To this aim, the following techniques were applied: visual inspection, X-ray diffraction, mercury porosimetry, physical laboratory tests (water absorption, density, open porosity, saturation coefficient, Mage's index) and chemical analysis. The medieval bricks are still in good condition, any visible damages were not recognized in the course of visual inspection. According to the results of chemical analysis, three types of bricks made from different clays in different centuries were used. According to X-ray diffraction analysis data no one type of medieval bricks contains illite. So sintering temperature of the medieval bricks studied was higher than 900 deg C. The secondary calcite was formed in the structure of bricks from lime mortars under influence of water migration during several centuries. All medieval bricks studied are porous - open porosity of them amounts to 26-30 %. 14-15th century bricks have inclusions of chamotte additive, which makes the bricks less durable to soluble salts and frost, and of organic additive, that imparts the higher porosity. Mage's index for all medieval is less than 0.55, but saturation coefficient is close to 0,78 and it means that these bricks are not enough durable to soluble salts and frost

  20. Properties Evaluation of Concrete using Local Used Bricks as Coarse Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Riaz Bhanbhro; Irfanullah Memon; Aziz Ansari; Ahsan Shah; Bashir Ahmed Memon 2

    2014-01-01

    With time concrete / reinforced concrete has become the popular material for construction. Modern industry utilizes this material a lot and has produced various beautiful, eye catching and amazing structures. Due to modern requirements for living and developed construction industries, the old buildings (usually constructed with brick masonry) are demolished and are replaced with new modern buildings. Demolition of buildings results in waste materials which can create waste related problems an...

  1. Potential Use of Radiant Walls to Transfer Energy Between two Building Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    Due to a reduced energy demand in low energy buildings, low temperature heating and high temperature cooling can be used to control thermal comfort. Nevertheless, highly varying heat loads due to solar radiation can create sometimes an imbalanced energy demand inside the building. Instead of being...... considered as a disturbance, this asymmetry can be used as a heat source for another zone of the building. By means of computer simulations, the possibility of shifting the energy demand between two office rooms with different thermal loads has been studied. Due to the small temperature difference between...

  2. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  3. Keratin film ablation for the fabrication of brick and mortar skin structure using femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Bibi Safia; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Dou, Yuehua; Alam, Khan; Attaullah, Shehnaz; Zari, Islam

    2015-09-01

    The patterning of thin keratin films has been explored to manufacture model skin surfaces based on the "bricks and mortar" view of the relationship between keratin and lipids. It has been demonstrated that laser light is capable of preparing keratin-based "bricks and mortar" wall structure as in epidermis, the outermost layer of the human skin. "Bricks and mortar" pattern in keratin films has been fabricated using an ArF excimer laser (193 nm wavelength) and femtosecond laser (800 and 400 nm wavelength). Due to the very low ablation threshold of keratin, femtosecond laser systems are practical for laser processing of proteins. These model skin structures are fabricated for the first time that will help to produce potentially effective moisturizing products for the protection of skin from dryness, diseases and wrinkles.

  4. Assessment of the mechanical properties of brick masonry by a flat-jack method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Zubkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern Russian methods for defining the mechanical characteristics of brick masonry are based on finding the strength of masonry components (brick and mortar. After getting the results of laboratory tests of components, mechanical characteristics of masonry are calculated using empirical formulae. Those formulae, however, cannot take into consideration the presence of damages and other factors. Obtaining the characteristics (strength and deformation by a direct flat-jack test of masonry fragments on-site looks promising. A widespread use of FEM requires setting accurate deformation features for modeling domes, arches and thin brick outside layer in multilayer walls. Also accurate deformation characteristics are used for calculating temperature loads. The paper gives the results of practical use for the masonry deformation research by the flat-jack test method. The correlation factors are defined and rigidness coefficients of flat-jacks are obtained in the study.

  5. Bridge and brick motifs in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Yuan; Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Cheng, Chia-Ying; Hsieh, Ji-Lung

    2007-04-01

    Acknowledging the expanding role of complex networks in numerous scientific contexts, we examine significant functional and topological differences between bridge and brick motifs for predicting network behaviors and functions. After observing similarities between social networks and their genetic, ecological, and engineering counterparts, we identify a larger number of brick motifs in social networks and bridge motifs in the other three types. We conclude that bridge and brick motif content analysis can assist researchers in understanding the small-world and clustering properties of network structures when investigating network functions and behaviors.

  6. Drying brick masonry by electro-osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    When a fine grained, porous medium is applied an electric DC field, transport of matter occurs, and the transport mechanism in focus of the present study is electro-osmosis, which is transport of water. In laboratory it was shown possible to transport water inside a brick and brick/mortar system ...... a clear movement of water towards the cathode was seen. Thus the basis for utilizing the electro-osmotic effect for drying brick masonry is present, but proper electrodes still needs to be developed....

  7. NON-AUTOCLAVE SILICATE BRICK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yaglov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediately after forming operation. Theoretical basis for the developed technology is capability of silicate dispersive substances (hydrated calcium silicate to transit in non-stable state, to form a rock-like water-resistant solid in the moment of mechanical load application during forming process. Specific feature of the proposed method is an exclusion of additional operations for autoclaving of products from the process of obtaining a silicate brick.Synthetic hydrated calcium silicate in contrast to natural ones are more uniform in composition and structure, they contain less impurities and they are characterized by dispersive composition and due to the mentioned advantages they find wider practical application. Contact-condensation binders permit to manipulate product properties on their basis and ensure maximum correspondence to the requirements of the concrete application. Raw material sources for obtaining synthetic hydrated calcium silicates are practically un-limited because calcium-silicon containing substances are found as in various technogenic wastes so in natural compounds as well. So the problem for obtaining hydrated calcium silicates having contact-condensation ability for structure formation becomes more and more actual one. This transition is considered as dependent principally on arrangement rate of substance particles which determined the level of its instability.

  8. Performance of Buildings in the 2009 Western Sumatra Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deierlein, G.; Hart, T.; Alexander, N.; Hausler, E.; Henderson, S.; Wood, K.; Cedillos, V.; Wijanto, S.; Cabrera, C.; Rudianto, S.

    2009-12-01

    The M7.6 earthquake of 30 September 2009 in Western Sumatra, Indonesia caused significant damage and collapse to hundreds of buildings and the deaths of 1,117 people. In Padang City, with a population of about 900,000 people, building collapse was the primary cause of deaths and serious injuries (313 deaths and 431 serious injuries). The predominant building construction types in Padang are concrete moment frames with brick infill and masonry bearing wall systems. Concrete frames are common in multistory commercial retail buildings, offices, schools, and hotels; and masonry bearing wall systems are primarily used in low-rise (usually single story) residential and school buildings. In general, buildings that collapsed did not conform to modern seismic engineering practices that are required by the current Indonesian building code and would be expected in regions of moderate to high seismicity. While collapse of multi-story concrete buildings was more prevalent in older buildings (more than 10 years old), there were several newer buildings that collapsed. Primary deficiencies identified in collapsed or severely damaged buildings included: (a) soft or weak stories that failed in either by sidesway mechanisms or shear failures followed by loss of axial capacity of columns, (b) lack of ductile reinforcing bar detailing in concrete beams, columns, and beam-column joints, (c) poor quality concrete and mortar materials and workmanship, (d) vulnerable building configurations and designs with incomplete or deficient load paths, and (e) out-of-plane wall failures in unreinforced (or marginally reinforced) masonry. While these deficiencies may be expected in older buildings, damage and collapse to some modern (or recently rennovated buildings) indicates a lack of enforcement of building code provisions for design and construction quality assurance. Many new buildings whose structural systems were undamaged were closed due to extensive earthquake damage to brick infill walls

  9. Effect of olive mill waste addition on the properties of porous fired clay bricks using Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcu, Mucahit; Ozturk, Savas; Yalamac, Emre; Gencel, Osman

    2016-10-01

    Production of porous clay bricks lightened by adding olive mill waste as a pore making additive was investigated. Factors influencing the brick manufacturing process were analyzed by an experimental design, Taguchi method, to find out the most favorable conditions for the production of bricks. The optimum process conditions for brick preparation were investigated by studying the effects of mixture ratios (0, 5 and 10 wt%) and firing temperatures (850, 950 and 1050 °C) on the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the bricks. Apparent density, bulk density, apparent porosity, water absorption, compressive strength, thermal conductivity, microstructure and crystalline phase formations of the fired brick samples were measured. It was found that the use of 10% waste addition reduced the bulk density of the samples up to 1.45 g/cm(3). As the porosities increased from 30.8 to 47.0%, the compressive strengths decreased from 36.9 to 10.26 MPa at firing temperature of 950 °C. The thermal conductivities of samples fired at the same temperature showed a decrease of 31% from 0.638 to 0.436 W/mK, which is hopeful for heat insulation in the buildings. Increasing of the firing temperature also affected their mechanical and physical properties. This study showed that the olive mill waste could be used as a pore maker in brick production. PMID:27343435

  10. Electrokinetic removal of Ca(NO3)2 from bricks to avoid salt induced decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Salt-induced decay of masonry is a serious threat to our cultural heritage. In buildings near agricultural land or stables the masonry may suffer seriously from salt-induced decay from nitrates. It was investigated in laboratory scale with a single brick if Ca(NO$-3$/) $-2$/ could be removed by...

  11. A framework for building scalable web applications for high-resolution cluster-based display walls

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jason

    2015-01-01

    As technology advances, researchers in the natural sciences collect ever-increasing amounts of data. While computer science research often focuses on effective ways to perform computations on large data sets, the visualization of large data sets can be just as important for achieving new insights. Just as cluster computing enables scalable computation on large data sets, so can cluster-based display walls enable scalable visualization of large data sets. At the same time, visualization ...

  12. Burned Microporous Alumina-Graphite Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the definition,classifica-tion,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,marking,packing,transportation and quality certificate of burned microporous alumina-graphite brick.

  13. Silica Brick for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the glossary and definition, marking, shape and dimension, technical requirements, test method, quality appraisal procedure, packing, label, transportation, storage and quality certification of silica brick for hot blast stove.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR ABSORPTANCE OF BUILDING EXTERNAL SURFACES FROM HEAT FLUX POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral ÖZEL

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solar absorptance of external surfaces of buildings has been numerically investigated from the heat gain and losses point of view. For this purpose, external surface solar absorptance was icreased from 0 to 1with an ratio of 0.1 and, for the summer and winter conditions, heat fluxs was calculated by considering orientations of the wall and its roof for brick and concrete structure materials. Besides, external surface absorptance was assumed as 0.2, 0.5 and 0.9, respectively. Than, heat gain and losses were calculated to insulation thickness increasing on the outdoor surface of wall. Results obtained were presented as graphics

  15. Desalination of a brick by application of an electric DC field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Salts in masonry can cause various problems as decay of the masonry itself, lost adhesion of plaster and hygroscopic moisture. Chlorides are among the most common building salts and the present paper is focused on removal of chlorides from a brick in an applied electric field as a step towards...... to the brick during submersion and slower removed in the applied electric field than KCl. This indicates that the removal rate of chloride depends on the associated cation and this must be taken into account when desiding the duration of full scale actions. The electrochemical desalination was very efficient...

  16. Water vapour permeability of clay bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Dondi, M.; Principi, P.; Raimondo, M.; Zanarini, G.

    2003-01-01

    The water vapour permeability of clay bricks has been experimentally measured in order to draw a representative outline of industrial products without pore-forming additives. The correlations between water vapour permeability and the main compositional and microstructural parameters of both bricks and clay bodies have been investigated. A statistical model was set up in order to predict with reasonable precision and reliability, the water vapour permeability on the basis of open porosity, bul...

  17. TO EVALUATION OF EXTERIOR WALL SOUND-PROOFING AT USED PANEL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Chernoivan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory investigations have been executed with the purpose to evaluate an air noise insulation of exterior wall structure  which is encased for warmth-keeping in accordance with methods for light plaster systems and «Thermal screen» while using mineral wool plates of “Beltep” trademark  and expanded polysterene plates of ПСБ-С-brand.In accordance with the results of investigations recommendations are given how to apply plate warmth-keeping jackets which are used in the considered warmth-keeping systems as an efficient sound proofing.

  18. TO EVALUATION OF EXTERIOR WALL SOUND-PROOFING AT USED PANEL BUILDINGS

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Chernoivan; N. V. Chernoivan

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory investigations have been executed with the purpose to evaluate an air noise insulation of exterior wall structure  which is encased for warmth-keeping in accordance with methods for light plaster systems and «Thermal screen» while using mineral wool plates of “Beltep” trademark  and expanded polysterene plates of ПСБ-С-brand.In accordance with the results of investigations recommendations are given how to apply plate warmth-keeping jackets which are used in the considered warmth-ke...

  19. Improvement of open and semi-open core wall system in tall buildings by closing of the core section in the last story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheyroddin, A.; Abdollahzadeh, D.; Mastali, M.

    2014-09-01

    Increasing number of tall buildings in urban population caused development of tall building structures. One of the main lateral load resistant systems is core wall system in high-rise buildings. Core wall system has two important behavioral aspects where the first aspect is related to reduce the lateral displacement by the core bending resistance and the second is governed by increasing of the torsional resistance and core warping of buildings. In this study, the effects of closed section core in the last story have been considered on the behavior of models. Regarding this, all analyses were performed by ETABS 9.2.v software (Wilson and Habibullah). Considering (a) drift and rotation of the core over height of buildings, (b) total and warping stress in the core body, (c) shear in beams due to warping stress, (d) effect of closing last story on period of models in various modes, (e) relative displacement between walls in the core system and (f) site effects in far and near field of fault by UBC97 spectra on base shear coefficient showed that the bimoment in open core is negative in the last quarter of building and it is similar to wall-frame structures. Furthermore, analytical results revealed that closed section core in the last story improves behavior of the last quarter of structure height, since closing of core section in the last story does not have significant effect on reducing base shear value in near and far field of active faults.

  20. Mineralogical, physical and chemical characteristics of historic brick-made structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Midany, A. A.; Mahmoud, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Brick-structured historic buildings represent one of the common monument types. Although they stand till now due to their fused structure, they are subjected to weathering and are affected by environmental deterioration. To perform any conservation/restortation process, a detailed characterization of the current conditions of the bricks is needed for identification of major threats and choosing a suitable material for conservation. In this study, historic brick-made structures was subjected to detailed characterization to identify the composition and quality of raw materials as well as environmental impacts on their original structure. Different characterization techniques such as mineralogical and petrographic examination, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and determination of physical and mechanical properties were used. The results of the characterization indicate that the bricks were manufactured from low-quality clay and treated at a temperature lower than 900 °C. In addition, environment pollution enhanced the presence of some ions, which affected the mechanical properties of bricks and lead to their deterioration and damage.

  1. Rapid radiochemical method for determination of actinides in emergency concrete and brick samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → A rapid fusion method was tested on concrete and brick samples. → Actinides were determined rapidly using the fusion plus extraction chromatography and alpha spectrometry. → Stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA rein cartridges were used with rapid flow rates. → High chemical yields, effective removal of interferences and very good results were obtained. - Abstract: A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in emergency concrete and brick samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis. If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or nuclear accident occurs, there will be a urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including building materials such as concrete and brick, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean-up. The new method for actinides in concrete and brick method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Alpha emitters are prepared using rare earth microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The determination of actinides in concrete and brick sample analysis can be performed in less than 8 h with excellent quality for emergency samples. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory actinide particles are effectively digested.

  2. Evaluation of alternative methodologies to minimize movements of a diaphragm wall close to buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, C.; Ledesma Villalba, Alberto; Lloret Morancho, Antonio; Alonso Pérez de Agreda, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the construction of the high-speed railway passing through Barcelona, a large excavation (21m depth) has made to about 2 m of a building. The excavation was done in the quaternary material typical of the Barcelona plain which consists mainly of low plasticity and slightly cemented compact clays. This material due to its high stiffness can be considered as a "hard soil". In order to minimize movements, several methodologies were considered: change in the thickness of the...

  3. Calculation of the wall pressure field generated on a group of buildings by an external explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim is to work out a three-dimensional code calculating the over-pressure distribution on any structure when an air shock wave arrives, especially in the case of a geometry providing multiple waves reflection. The computer code ZEPHIR was written under the assumption that the phenomena agree with the acoustic laws. An integral formulation leads infinite three-dimensional problems to a bidimensional one on a surface S limiting the real D. The surface S is discretized with triangular elements and replaced by the polyedron constituted by the mesh. The pressure is calculated at the barycenter of the triangular elements, with interpolation between several time-steps. The ZEPHIR code has been validated at first againt analytical solutions obtained for simple obstacle geometries. Test were performed with models of PWR buildings at a scale of 1/40, a cylinder for the reactor building and a parallelepiped for the fuel building, used adjacent or separated by a gap. Plastic explosive permits to obtain the pressure-time history of a hydrocarbon explosion at that scale. The results are in good agreement with the computation. The code ZEPHIR is characterized by a relatively cheap utilization

  4. Office building wall and space HVAC systems: Retrofitting with advanced systems. Applicazione di criteri avanzati nel progetto di ristrutturazione degli impianti di un edificio del terziario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattaneo, P. (Intertecno, Milan (Italy)); Gasparini, R.; Paoletti Gualandi, M. (Ente Nazionale per l' Energia Elettrica, Rome (Italy)); Del Bufalo, L. (LDB, Rome (Italy))

    1992-08-01

    The office building housing the headquarters of the Italian National Electricity Board (ENEL) in Rome is being restructured with a new energy efficient exterior wall system. Built during the early 1960's, this office building's space heating ventilation and air conditioning system is also being replaced by an energy efficient system of innovative design. This paper outlines the national utility's planned energy conservation program, which includes the computerization of all building systems so as to allow integrated building services/energy management, and indicates the logic behind design choices that were made.

  5. 纤维加固震损钢筋混凝土-砖组合开洞墙体的抗震性能%Seismic Performance of FRP-Strengthened Seismically-Damaged RC-Brick Masonry Walls with Opening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷真; 屈俊童; 王勇

    2015-01-01

    An experiment on three 1∶2 scaled reinforced concrete-brick composite walls with opening was conducted to evaluate the seismic performance of severely-damaged low-strength composite walls strengthened by fiber-rein-forced polymer ( FRP) .By a pre-damage experiment simulating earthquake and the low-cycle reversed loading ex-periments with no strengthening , strengthening by using fibers and rehabilitating the specimen after pre-damage , the specimens were compared in terms of experimental phenomena , cracking load , ultimate bearing load and dis-placement , hysteretic curves , energy dissipation capacity , bearing capacity , stiffness degradation , deformation re-covery capacity and FRP strain .The results show that (1) FRP-strengthened walls exhibit the shear-flexural failure mode, which is superior to the shear-dominant failure mode of the specimen without strengthening; ( 2 ) FRP strengthening can improve the seismic performance of the composite walls significantly , but not for the initial crack-ing load;and (3) the seismic performance of the damaged composite masonry walls strengthened with BFRP can recover or even exceed that of the specimen without strengthening .%通过3片1/2缩尺比例的钢筋混凝土-砖组合开洞墙体试验,研究了严重震损低强度组合墙体采用玄武岩纤维加固后的抗震性能;通过模拟地震的预损伤试验,以及不加固、纤维直接加固和预损伤后修复加固试件的低周往复荷载试验,对比分析了不同试件的试验现象、开裂荷载、极限承载力和位移、滞回曲线及耗能能力、承载力及刚度退化、变形恢复能力和玄武岩纤维应变等。结果表明:加固后组合墙体表现出剪-弯破坏的失效模式,优于以剪切破坏为主的未加固试件;纤维加固对组合墙体初始开裂荷载无提高作用,但对其抗震性能的提高程度明显,震损试件加固后的抗震性能得到恢复并且超过未加固试件。

  6. BAC: A computer program for calculating shielding in buildings against initial radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, G.

    1980-10-01

    Calculation methodology and transmission data for BAC in the event of a nuclear explosion are considered. The shielding factor is the rate between the radiation dose at one point in the building and the dose in open air. It is separately calculated for neutrons, gamma rays from fission products, and secondary gamma rays. For this calculation, BAC uses data for radiation transmission in concrete. This program is utilized for fallout shelters and other buildings where walls and floors/roofs are mostly made of concrete and bricks. Instructions for the program are given, and BAC results and values are in certain cases compared with those obtained with the Monte Carlo method.

  7. A fast computational approach for the determination of thermal properties of hollow bricks in energy-related calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As successful products of the recent developments in the building industry aimed at increasing the energy efficiency of buildings, the hollow clay brick blocks with complex systems of internal cavities present a prospective alternative to the traditional solid bricks on the building ceramics market. Determination of their thermal properties, which are essential for any energy-related calculations, is though not an easy task. Contrary to the solid bricks, the application of sophisticated methods is a necessity. In this paper, a fast computational approach for the determination of equivalent thermal conductivity of hollow brick blocks with the cavities filled by air is presented, which can be used as an integral part of energy-related calculations. The thermal conductivity of the brick body is the main input parameter of the model, the convection and radiation in the cavities are taken into account in a simplified form. The error range of the designed method is identified using a thorough uncertainty analysis. A direct comparison of the calculated equivalent thermal conductivity with the results obtained by two different experimental techniques for the same hollow brick block shows a satisfactory agreement, making the designed computational approach a viable alternative to the currently used methods. - Highlights: • A fast approach for determination of thermal properties of hollow bricks is given. • A simplified model including all significant heat transport phenomena is applied. • The error range of the method is identified using a thorough uncertainty analysis. • The verification is done by a comparison with two experimental techniques. • The approach is designed as a part of whole-building energy-related calculations

  8. Investigation of wall and ceiling coatings with respect to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the WAK processing building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing plant WAK shut down in 1991. The operative deconstruction started in 1995. The wall and ceiling coatings of the buildings were investigated with respect to polychlorinated biphenyls. PCB was used in technical facilities due to their thermal and chemical resistance and low conductivity. During the construction of WAK PCB containing coatings were used. Waste materials with PCB contents above a limit of 50 mg/kg are hazardous materials. For the waste disposal the wastes have to be tested with respect to the PCB content. Scrape tests have shown that 67% of the samples have PCB contents above the limit. Core hole drilling samples showed that the PCB content decreases with depth. Further depth profile analyses are necessary to determine the coating thickness to be removed.

  9. Long-term performance of ETICS on external walls of large-panel buildings; Dauerbestaendigkeit von WDVS auf Plattenbau - Fassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuschel, M. [Materialforschungs- und Pruefungsanstalt fuer Bauwesen Leipzig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Urgently required renovation work on external walls of large panel buildings makes novel demands on thermal insulation composites. In the quest for a practice-oriented test method, a pilot project was carried out. Separate parts of a completely renovated housefront were covered with different thermal insulation composites in a way permitting to carry out investigations for a period of several years. The test methods used and the installed thermal insulation composites are described. The results are pointed out. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die dringend erforderlichen Fassadeninstandsetzungen von Plattenbauten stellen an Waermedaemmverbundsysteme neue Anforderungen. Auf der Suche nach einer praxisgerechten Pruefmethode wurde ein Demopruefstand errichtet, der es ermoeglicht im Rahmen einer Komplettsanierung einen separaten Fassadenbereich mit unterschiedlichen Waermedaemmverbundsystemen so zu bekleiden, dass Untersuchungen ueber mehrere Jahre durchgefuehrt werden koennen. Im Folgenden werden die angewendeten Pruefmethoden und die installierten WDV-Systeme erlaeutert. Die einzelnen Ergebnisse werden aufgezeigt.

  10. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS. A 'light-shining-through-walls' experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (DE)] (and others)

    2009-05-15

    The ALPS collaboration runs a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run. (orig.)

  11. Decontaminating lead bricks and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead used for shielding is often surface contaminated with radionuclides and is therefore a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) D008 mixed waste. The technology-based standard for treatment is macroencapsulation. However, decontaminating and recycling the clean lead is a more attractive solution. Los Alamos National Lab. decontaminates material and equipment contaminated with radioisotopes. Decontaminating lead poses special problems because of the RCRA hazard classification and the size of the inventory, now about 100 metric tons and likely to grow substantially because of planned decommissioning operations. This lead, in the form of bricks and other shield shapes, is surface contaminated with fission products. One of the best methods for decontaminating lead is removing the thin superficial layer of contamination with an abrasive medium under pressure. For lead, a mixture of alumina with water and air at about 280 kPa (40 psig) rapidly and effectively decontaminates the lead. The abrasive medium is sprayed onto the lead in a sealed-off area. The slurry of abrasive and particles of lead falls through a floor grating and is collected in a pump. A pump sends the slurry mixture back to the spray gun, creating a continuous process

  12. Hydraulics of natural convection flows in building walling with air gap (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrochenko M.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural convection flow in vertical flat ducts with heated face is used to intensify the transfer in technical systems, such as ventilated gaps of facade designs. Understanding of physical processes that accompany the air flow in vertical flat parallel-plate ducts gives ameliorating the structures designing process and increasing its operating characteristics.The aim of this work is evaluation the average speed of natural convection air flow in vertical parallel-plate duct with different temperature of walls. It is enough for barotropic natural convection flow in the vertical parallel-plate ducts that the polytropic index in the barotropic state do not exceed the polytropic index in the equilibrium state. Polytropic index in the uniform and barotropic natural convection flow is almost proportional to the length of the channel. It is established that the shorter the channel, the greater must be the heat flux that creates vertical traction, and vice versa.

  13. Determination of attenuation properties of massive ceramic bricks cladded with mortars containing barite used as protective barrier for radiodiagnostic rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to determine the properties of attenuation of the walls built with massive ceramic bricks to be used as protection barriers in environments of Medicine and Dentistry, when submitted to X-ray diagnosis. Massive ceramic bricks are used thoroughly in constructions as a calking element. The properties of attenuation of these materials were obtained starting from the application of the model of Archer to a group of attenuation curves with wide beams generated in the tensions of 70, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 150 kVp. A radiological equipment of constant potential was used in the Laboratory of IEE/USP, two cameras of ionization of 6cm3, coupled to two radiation monitors. The results show that for a tension of 100kVp, the thickness of 10cm of wall made with massive ceramic bricks corresponds to 1mm of lead. (author)

  14. Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. Four air-based HVAC distribution systems were assessed:-a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  15. Behavior of plasters on the modern heat-effective exterior walls of buildings (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babkov V.V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical and mechanical characteristics, the most significant for the plasters with regard to the features of their behavior as the coating of building faces were evaluated. Results of quantitative estimation of stresses in the plaster layers on surfaces of different stiffness due to the plaster shrinkage are given. It is shown that with a decrease of the surface modulus of elasticity, stresses in the plaster coating are decreased either due to reduction of the effect of its deformations’ constraint. By analysis and with experiments it is proved, that the main factor evaluating the ultimate extensibility of the mortar is its viscoelasticity modulus, while mortar strength increase involves its stresses increase.

  16. Effective Pneumatic Scheme and Control Strategy of a Climbing Robot for Class Wall Cleaning on High-rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Zong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of pneumatic climbing robot is presented to meet the requirements of glass-wall cleaning for high-rise buildings, which is totally actuated by pneumatic cylinders and attached to the glass wall with vacuum suckers. Using the pneumatic actuators the climbing robot can be made lightweight and dexterous. At the same time the movement driven by pneumatic actuators has the characteristic of passive compliance. In order to solve the problems of high speed movement for the Y cylinder and precise position control of the X cylinder, the applied pneumatic schemes of X and Y cylinders are employed to drive the high-speed on-off solenoid valves and an ordinary valve to adjust the air-flow and pressure to the cylinders. Furthermore a method of segment and variable bang-bang controller is proposed to implement the accurate control of the position servo system for the X cylinder during the sideways movement. Testing results show that the novel approach can effectively improve the control quality. This cleaning robot can meet the requirements of realization.

  17. Pro-software `Paroi` for building engineering. Calculation of thermal performances; Progiciel Paroi pour le batiment. Calcul des performances thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianous, Ph. de [Isover Saint-Gobain, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    1998-10-01

    `Paroi` is a pro-software for the calculation of the thermal transmission coefficient of a given building wall. It allows to model a complex mono-dimensional wall made of a succession of opaque or semi-transparent walls (wall, bricks, plaster, insulating material..) eventually separated with air. It is thus possible to quantify the influence of the different parameters on the thermal performances. It is possible to analyze the influence of air spaces around the insulating material, or the influence of the materials emission factor or of the solar radiation. This software, which takes into account the eventual radiant heat transfers inside the wall, is a basic tool for the study of thermal insulation systems. This article presents successively: 1 - description of the software; 2 - thermal model: wall definition, boundary conditions, thermal model; 3 - configuration and installation; 4 - use: help, modeling, example, exit. (J.S.)

  18. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete.

  19. Gamma dose rate in natural radioactivity of bricks of different local regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the radiation hazard due to natural radioactivity in bricks and to calculate the gamma radiation dose rate from the bricks used in Sri Lankan buildings. Specific activities of the natural radionuclides in sixteen clay and four cement brick samples collected from kilns in different areas in Sri Lanka were analysed by gamma ray spectrometry. The gamma radiation hazard associated with these bricks was assessed according to the values of two different indices, Radium equivalent activity and representative level index. In terms of the radium equivalent a criterion has been used to limit the annual radiation dose from building materials to 1.5 mGy. Ra sub eq is convenient for comparing the specific activities of materials containing different concentrations of the radionuclides measured and the values ranged from 50-365 Bq per kg in the samples measured in this study. Based on these values an annual external radiation dose ranging from 0.21 - 1.48 mGy per year is calculated inside buildings constructed using bricks.Absorbed dose rates in air was calculated using dose coefficient values 0.0414, 0.623 and 0.461 nGy per hour per Bq per Kg for K sup 40, Th sup 232 and Ra sup 226 respectively. If the entire day is spent inside a typical masonry building the activity utilization index is unity by definition and is deemed to imply a dose rate of 80 nGy per hour. (0.70 mGy per year) In the present study the dose rate from cement bricks is less than this value ranging from 0.35-0.57 mGy per year. However, 10 of the clay bricks gave a dose rate greater than this value. The highest dose rate measured was 1.475 mGy per year from Mahiyangana which double the typical value 0.70 mGy per year

  20. Experimental assessment of a phase change material for wall building use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal performances of a PCM copolymer composite wallboard has been experimentally investigated in a full scale test room. The test cell is totally controlled so that a typical day can be repeated (temperature and solar radiative flux). Effects of the PCM are investigated comparing the results obtained with and without composite wallboards for three cases: a summer day, a winter day and a mid-season day. The results show that: (1) for all the cases tested, the decrement factor varies between 0.73 and 0.78 which is quite interesting for use in buildings and particularly for renovation; (2) the air temperature in the room with PCM lowers up to 4.2oC, the comfort enhancement is more important if the surface temperatures are also considered; (3) the PCM wallboards enhance the natural convection in the room and then there is no thermal stratification contrary to the room without composite; (4) the numerical experiments are fully described and can then be used to evaluate PCM numerical modeling.

  1. Frost resistance of concrete with crushed brick as aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Janković Ksenija; Bojović Dragan; Nikolić Dragan; Lončar Ljiljana; Romakov Zoran

    2010-01-01

    The investigation included concrete made by using recycled brick as aggregate. Experimental work included several types of concrete made with the same cement content (385 kg/m3), and same consistency (slump about 1 cm). Recycled brick and combination of natural river aggregate and recycled brick were used as aggregates. The influence of percentage and grain size of crushed brick aggregate on concrete compressive strength, water absorption and frost resistance were observed. On the basis of th...

  2. STRUCTURAL SOLUTIONS AND SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE THERMAL PROTECTION ANALYSIS OF EXTERIOR WALLS OF BUILDINGS MADE OF AUTOCLAVED GAS-CONCRETE BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedov Anatolij Ivanovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Relevant structural solutions, physical and mechanical characteristics, coefficients of thermal conductivity for exterior masonry walls made of autoclaved gas-concrete blocks are provided in the article. If a single-layer wall is under consideration, an autoclaved gas-concrete block is capable of performing the two principal functions of a shell structure, including the function of thermal protection and the bearing function. The functions are performed simultaneously. Therefore, the application of the above masonry material means the design development and erection of exterior walls of residential buildings noteworthy for their thermal efficiency. In the event of frameless structures, the height of the residential building in question may be up to 5 stories, while the use of a monolithic or a ready-made frame makes it possible to build high-rise buildings, and the number of stories is not limited in this case. If the average block density is equal to 400…500 kilograms per cubic meter, the designed wall thickness is to be equal to 400 mm. Its thermal resistance may be lower than the one set in the event of the per-element design of the thermal protection (Rreq = 3.41 м2 C/Watt, in Ufa, although it will meet the requirements of the applicable regulations if per-unit power consumption rate is considered.

  3. Evaluation of external exposures of the population of Ozyorsk, Russia, with luminescence measurements of bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Clemens; Jacob, P; Ulanovsky, A; Fiedler, I; Mokrov, Y; Rovny, S

    2009-11-01

    Recently discovered historical documents indicate that large releases of noble gases (mainly (41)Ar and radioactive isotopes of Kr and Xe) from the Mayak Production Association (MPA) over the period from 1948 to 1956 may have caused considerable external exposures of both, inhabitants of Ozyorsk and former inhabitants of villages at the upper Techa River. To quantify this exposure, seven brick samples from three buildings in Ozyorsk, located 8-10 km north-northwest from the radioactive gas release points, were taken. The absorbed dose in brick was measured in a depth interval of 3-13 mm below the exposed surface of the bricks by means of the thermoluminescence (TL) and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) method. Generally, luminescence properties using TL were more favorable for precise dose determination than using OSL, but within their uncertainties the results from both methods agree well with each other. The absorbed dose due to natural radiation was assessed and subtracted under the assumption of the bricks to be completely dry. The weighted average of the anthropogenic dose for all samples measured by TL and OSL is 10 +/- 9 and 1 +/- 9 mGy, respectively. An upper limit for a possible anthropogenic dose in brick that would not be detected due to the measurement uncertainties is estimated at 24 mGy. This corresponds to an effective dose of about 21 mSv. A similar range of values is obtained in recently published dispersion calculations that were based on reconstructed MPA releases. It is concluded that the release of radioactive noble gases from the radiochemical and reactor plants at Mayak PA did not lead to a significant external exposure of the population of Ozyorsk. In addition, the study demonstrates the detection limit for anthropogenic doses in ca. 60-year-old bricks to be about 24 mGy, if luminescence methods are used. PMID:19680674

  4. Construction solutions for the exterior walls in the process of increasing the width of residential buildings of brownfield construction in seismic hazardousand dry hot conditions of Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-01-01

    The main object of this study is the reconstruction, renovation and modernization of the housing built in the period 1975—1985. These buildings have low energy efficiency due to the poor thermal insulation properties of the walls. These apartments do not meet the necessary requirements for year round warmth and comfort.Reconstruction is more preferable, than new-build, because of the cost saving for the land acquisition. Reconstruction is generally 1.5 times cheaper than new-build with 25—40 ...

  5. The problems of operational reliability exterior walls of a building based on the autoclaved aerated concrete blocks and possibility of their protection from moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Samofeev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic mechanisms and factors that have destructive effect on the state of autoclaved aerocrete in the exterior walls of operated buildings are shown. These mechanisms are wetting the wall, the effect of moisture during freezing, carbonation hydrosilicate structure-phase of material. The possibilities of protection exterior walls with using hydrophobic multilayered vapor permeable stucco are estimated, which were accepted for protecting facades apartment buildings on the basis autoclaved aerocrete blocks in Bashkiriya.In the Republic of Bashkortostan in October 2010 was put into operation factory for production blocks with capaciry 225,000 m3 per year at OAO "GlavBashStroy" on equipment Masa-Henke, whose products are currently being investigated

  6. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail in...

  7. Deposition of caesium to surfaces of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outdoor surfaces of several different types of building material have been analysed for 134Cs and 137Cs and the results used to estimate deposition velocities using integrated air doses. The Chernobyl reactor accident would have been the only significant source of 134Cs and, for materials unlikely to have intercepted precipitation during the passage of the main plume, dry deposition velocities have been inferred. Substantial amounts of 137Cs on the older building materials would have been due to nuclear weapons fall-out. For brick walls, 134Cs levels were below the limits of analytical detection and upper limits of dry deposition velocity have been estimated. Values have also been inferred for roofing felt and flat clay and corrugated concrete roof tiles. 137Cs levels on older roofing materials indicate significant weathering of weapons fall-out. (author)

  8. Chemically-bonded brick production based on burned clay by means of semidry pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voroshilov, Ivan, E-mail: Nixon.06@mail.ru; Endzhievskaya, Irina, E-mail: icaend@mail.ru; Vasilovskaya, Nina, E-mail: icaend@mail.ru [FSAEI HVE Siberian Federal University, 82 Svobodny Prospekt, Krasnoyarsk, 660130 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    We presented a study on the possibility of using the burnt rocks of the Krasnoyarsk Territory for production of chemically-bonded materials in the form of bricks which are so widely used in multistory housing and private house construction. The radiographic analysis of the composition of burnt rock was conducted and a modifier to adjust the composition uniformity was identified. The mixing moisture content was identified and optimal amount at 13-15% was determined. The method of semidry pressing has been chosen. The process of obtaining moldings has been theoretically proved; the advantages of chemically-bonded wall materials compared to ceramic brick were shown. The production of efficient artificial stone based on material burnt rocks, which is comparable with conventionally effective ceramic materials or effective with cell tile was proved, the density of the burned clay-based cell tile makes up to 1630-1785 kg \\ m{sup 3}, with compressive strength of 13.6-20.0 MPa depending on the compression ratio and cement consumption, frost resistance index is F50, and the thermal conductivity in the masonry is λ = 0,459-0,546 W \\ m {sup *} °C. The clear geometric dimensions of pressed products allow the use of the chemically-bonded brick based on burnt clay as a facing brick.

  9. Chemically-bonded brick production based on burned clay by means of semidry pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voroshilov, Ivan; Endzhievskaya, Irina; Vasilovskaya, Nina

    2016-01-01

    We presented a study on the possibility of using the burnt rocks of the Krasnoyarsk Territory for production of chemically-bonded materials in the form of bricks which are so widely used in multistory housing and private house construction. The radiographic analysis of the composition of burnt rock was conducted and a modifier to adjust the composition uniformity was identified. The mixing moisture content was identified and optimal amount at 13-15% was determined. The method of semidry pressing has been chosen. The process of obtaining moldings has been theoretically proved; the advantages of chemically-bonded wall materials compared to ceramic brick were shown. The production of efficient artificial stone based on material burnt rocks, which is comparable with conventionally effective ceramic materials or effective with cell tile was proved, the density of the burned clay-based cell tile makes up to 1630-1785 kg m3, with compressive strength of 13.6-20.0 MPa depending on the compression ratio and cement consumption, frost resistance index is F50, and the thermal conductivity in the masonry is λ = 0,459-0,546 W m * °C. The clear geometric dimensions of pressed products allow the use of the chemically-bonded brick based on burnt clay as a facing brick.

  10. Beyond the Brick Walls: Homeschooling Students with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kathleen B.; Bennett, Katie E.; Lane, Justin D.; Mataras, Theologia K.

    2013-01-01

    The percentage of children with special needs receiving academic instruction at home has substantially increased since a resurgence of homeschooling during the 1990s. In light of this information, the purpose of this article was to provide an overview of the history and laws related to homeschooling, the characteristics of homeschool families, and…

  11. Demand for Local Public Schooling: Another Brick in the Wall.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlin, Åsa; Johansson, Eva

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the demand for local public school expenditures in Sweden. By using survey data, a method previously never applied to Swedish data, the paper provides an additional piece of evidence on individual demand for publicly provided local services. Estimating a linear demand specification, we find that the demand is inelastic with respect to income and tax, much in line with previous Swedish findings in a median voter framework. Estimation of a log-linear demand specific...

  12. Development of a thermally enhanced frame wall with phase-change materials for on-peak air conditioning demand reduction and energy savings in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Zhang [Greenheck Fan Corp., Schofield, WI (United States); Medina, Mario A. [Kansas Univ., Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering Dept., Lawrence, KS (United States); King, Jennifer B. [Goetting and Associates, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a thermally enhanced frame wall that reduces peak air conditioning demand in residential buildings. A frame wall that integrates a highly crystalline paraffin phase-change material (PCM), via macro-encapsulation, was developed, constructed, and evaluated. This prototype wall is referred to as phase-change frame wall (PCFW). Results from field testing show that the PCFW reduced wall peak heat fluxes by as much as 38%. For a period of several days that included walls facing different directions, the average wall peak heat flux reduction was approximately 15% when PCFWs with a 10% concentration of PCM (based on indoor sheathing weight) were used and approximately 9% when a 20% PCM concentration was used. The average space-cooling load was reduced by approximately 8.6% when 10% PCM was applied and 10.8% when 20% PCM was used. The level of insulation in the PCFWs that were tested was 1.94m{sup 2} K/W (R-11). (Author)

  13. Building and degradation of secondary cell walls: are there common patterns of lamellar assembly of cellulose microfibrils and cell wall delamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; Ruel, Katia; Joseleau, Jean-Paul; Aronne, Giovanna

    2010-08-01

    During cell wall formation and degradation, it is possible to detect cellulose microfibrils assembled into thicker and thinner lamellar structures, respectively, following inverse parallel patterns. The aim of this study was to analyse such patterns of microfibril aggregation and cell wall delamination. The thickness of microfibrils and lamellae was measured on digital images of both growing and degrading cell walls viewed by means of transmission electron microscopy. To objectively detect, measure and classify microfibrils and lamellae into thickness classes, a method based on the application of computerized image analysis combined with graphical and statistical methods was developed. The method allowed common classes of microfibrils and lamellae in cell walls to be identified from different origins. During both the formation and degradation of cell walls, a preferential formation of structures with specific thickness was evidenced. The results obtained with the developed method allowed objective analysis of patterns of microfibril aggregation and evidenced a trend of doubling/halving lamellar structures, during cell wall formation/degradation in materials from different origin and which have undergone different treatments. PMID:20532796

  14. The reaction of the building structure with window unit to the explosiveimpact on the basis of dynamic equation solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doronin Fedor Leonidovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When designing residential buildings, additional measures for increasing the strength at dynamic effects indoors are not foreseen. The walls of the structure fixed in the framework are not designed for shock wave caused by explosion of utility gas. When designing a building, the task of the special dynamic load is often reduced to the calculation of the safe shock pressure, exceeding of which leads to the destruction of the structures. The wall with the window area under dynamic effects is a blast relief panel, which reduces the excess pressure inside the room. The proposed method of calculating a design with a window unit allows determining the dynamic reaction of the wall on explosive pulse. The proposed calculation technique of the constructions at shock loads allows tracing the changes of the inertial forces and displacements at any stage of dynamic response. The reaction to dynamic loads can be also set for non-monolithic structures, consisting of different materials with different conditions of fastening. Elastoplastic reaction of a brick wall with glass units was determined using step-by-step method of linear acceleration. The calculation of stress-strain state of brick walls with window panes determined the strength properties of the structures close to the monolithic version. The proposed technique of numerical solution of dynamic equations is applied only in the analysis of elastic systems, in which the dynamic characteristics remain unchanged throughout the reaction process.

  15. Investigation on Production and Markets of Silica Bricks in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhongqi; CHU Guosheng; WANG Tiezheng; PAN Shangxin

    2003-01-01

    The annual output of China' s silica brick amounts up to over 300 thousand tons, which accounts for more than 70% of the total output of silica bricks in the world.Besides satisfying domestic markets, China's silica bricks have been exported to many countries and regions such as Japan, USA etc. In this paper, the situation of silica bricks production, technology, sales and exporting have been described. Also suggestions on improvement of silica bricks quality and exporting, corporation with foreign partners have been put forward in order to win larger market share both at home and abroad.

  16. Investigation on Production and Markets of Silica Bricks in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZhongqi; CHUGuosheng; WANGTiezheng; PANShangxin

    2003-01-01

    The annual output of China's silica brick amounts up to over 300 thousand tons, which accounts for more than 70% of the total oupout of silica bricks in the world. Besides satisfying domestic markets, China's silica bricks have been exported to many countries and retions such as Japan, USA etc. In this paper, the situation of silica bricks production, technology, sales and exporting have been described. Also suggestions on improvement of silica bricks quality and exporting, corporation with foreign partners have been put forward in order to win larger market share both aat home and abroad.

  17. Adherence Characteristics of Cement Clinker on Basic Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zongqi; Michel Rigaud

    2002-01-01

    Based on the sandwich test, adherence mechanisms of cement clinker on various basic bricks were tackled by microstructural observations with help of cathodoluminescence technique. Doloma based bricks offer sufficient lime to react with clinker, forming C3 S rich layer and initializing superior adherence. However, clinker with low silica ratio leads to MgO agglomeration at the interface of doloma bricks, which reduces adherence strength. On magnesia spinel bricks, fine, crystalline spinel easily reacts with lime containing phases from clinker to form lowmelting phases and belite zone, which shows high adherence performance. Lack of fine spinel in magnesia spinel bricks results in poor adherence.

  18. Urban waste as a potential source for brick plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, K. E.; Eberendu, A.; Griffin, J.; Gegbe, H.; Ike, C.; Aboo, A.

    1982-02-01

    A joint government/industry/university project was formulated to address the technical feasibility of utilizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a commercial fuel for the brick industry. Specifically, refuse derived fuel (RDF) from MSW was investigated for three potential applications in the brick industry: (1) rotary brick kilns; (2) tunnel brick kilns; and (3) moisture dryers. The successful development of such a procedure would be a dramatic achievement with widespread applicability, transferability, and commercial merit for energy displacement. The sampling, collection, and analysis of MSW, the analysis of RDF, and the potential utilization of RDF as an alternate source of fuel for the brick industry are described.

  19. Further development of a computational method to evaluate indoor gamma dose-rate from building materials using external wall measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sometimes, when it is impossible to perform a direct measurement, it is critical to obtain an estimate of the indoor gamma dose rate with adequate accuracy and precision. With a method we set up - the IN-OUT method - it is possible to estimate the indoor gamma dose rate attributable to building materials. Gamma dose rates are measured in contact with an external wall of a dwelling, and then a 'room model' elaboration accounts for the geometrical and structural characteristics of the dwelling. The method was validated over more than 200 dwellings in three Italian regions within the 'SETIL' project, the Italian epidemiological study on the aetiology of childhood leukaemia, lymphoma and neuroblastoma. In a first phase, indoor gamma dose rate estimates were obtained using the detailed dwelling information contained in questionnaires filled-in and collected during the indoor measurements. These estimates were very close to the measured values. A more general, less site-dependent approach has now been implemented for 74 dwellings of one region (Latium); by assuming average values for many indoor parameters instead of using the detailed data from the questionnaires, we evaluated the predictive characteristics of this method in situations where detailed data are not available. The ratio between estimated and measured indoor values has an overall average of 1.00 and 20% coefficient of variation. The results are very similar for tuff and concrete dwellings and support the usefulness of the IN-OUT method to obtain an estimate of the indoor gamma dose rate. (author)

  20. Architectural Thermal Forms II: Brick Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre

    The paper presents an architectural concept and design method that investigates the use of dynamic factors in evolutionary form finding processes. The architectural construct, phenotype, is based on a brick assembly and how this can be organized based upon material properties and environmental...

  1. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  2. Incorporation feasibility of leather residues in bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, J.B. [Minho Univ. (Portugal). Civil Engineering Dept.; Valente, A.; Pires, M.J. [Inst. of Development and Innovation Technology of Minho, Braga (Portugal); Tavares, T. [Biological Engineering Dept., Univ. of Minho, Braga (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The footwear industry has strips of leather as one of its by-products. These leather residues, due to their high chromium content, can be regarded as a threat to the environment, particularly if no care is taken with their disposal. With the incorporation of the residues in ceramic products, after trituration, is possible to neutralise the eventual toxicity of chromium. In a laboratory study we produced prismatic bricks using clay from the region and incorporating 1, 3 and 5% (by mass) of leather residues. This corresponds at about 20, 60 and 100% (by apparent volume). The moulds were filled up with paste and, in order to have some compactness, the ceramic paste was compressed with a spatula. After that, it began the process of drying and burning the bricks. They were tested to flexure, compression and leaching. The results showed that the toxicity of chromium disappeared in the bricks. The mechanical tests showed a decrease in strength for the specimens with leather residue. The compressive strength decreases about 22% for 1% of incorporation of leather residue. However, as bricks were lighter and more porous, we can expect that they are better for thermal isolation. (orig.)

  3. Outside corner and method of making in the making lead brick (plain brick) using rotary table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been developed a tool that can be used for defining angles on the fabrication of lead bricks. The angles are both outside of the lead bricks that correspond to male and female shape respectively. The lead bricks should be in accordance to ISO 7212-1986 standard which has angle tolerance 90° 0+15 for male and 90° 0-15 for female. The accuracy of these angles is very important to maintain the equilibrium position of the bricks so that their arrangement will not lining or collapse. A rotary table is used for the fabrication to make easier in setting up any related working apparatus and to have precision measurement result. However, a lot of operator do not know yet how to operate such a rotary table to produce angle with such an eligible tolerance. Therefore, a method of measurement in machining lead brick process using a rotary table is necessarily required. This method will be used as a reference to have angle accuracy of 0,03° in producing outside and inside angles or male and female lead bricks. (author)

  4. Compressive strength of brick masonry made with weak mortars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Steen; Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    2013-01-01

    strength of masonry depends only on the strength of the bricks. A compression failure in masonry made with weak mortars occurs as a tension failure in the bricks, as they seek to prevent the mortar from being pressed out of the joints. The expression is derived by assuming hydrostatic pressure in the...... mortar joints, which is the most unfavourable stress distribution with respect to tensile stresses in bricks. The expression is compared with the results of compression tests of masonry made with weak mortars. It can take into account bricks with arbitrary dimensions as well as perforated bricks. For a...... stronger mortar (fm≈6 N/mm2) compression tests of masonry with perforated bricks show that the EC6 expression is not always safe for Danish masonry. This is probably because the tensile strength of the bricks also has an effect on the compressive strength of masonry when the mortar is stronger than weak...

  5. A Brick and Mortar Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretter, Thomas; Ardasheva, Yuliya; Bookstrom, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Literacy skills are critical for building science knowledge. For English Language Learners (ELLs)--the fastest growing population in U.S. schools (Goldenberg 2008)--learning English compounds the challenge of learning complex science concepts. This challenge is particularly acute for learning academic, science-specific English words and language…

  6. Life cycle assessment of regional brick manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Aguilar, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This document presents a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA study to quantify the environmental cradle-to-gate impact of the manufacture of brick for the construction industry, produced with material of igneous source. Its mineral composition and thermal isolation properties were characterized for use in real estate construction. The LCA results for brick manufacture using this material identified the greatest environmental impact to be associated with material extraction and its proportional cement content. Additionally, this document presents an evaluation of the environmental impact of the manufacturing process by comparing traditional fired clay brick and brick of the material under study. In conclusion, the studied material shows thermal insulation qualities and suitability for the manufacture of bricks with low incorporated energy.Este trabajo presenta un estudio de Análisis de Ciclo de Vida (ACV para cuantificar los impactos ambientales de la cuna a la puerta de la manufactura de ladrillos para la industria de la construcción, fabricados de un material de origen ígneo. Se caracterizó su composición mineralógica y propiedades de aislamiento térmico para ser usado en la construcción de inmuebles. Los resultados ACV de la fabricación de ladrillos de este material, identificaron la mayor contribución a los impactos ambientales asociados a la extracción del material y la cantidad proporcional de cemento. Adicionalmente, se presenta una evaluación comparativa del impacto ambiental entre la manufactura de un ladrillo tradicional de arcilla cocido y de un ladrillo del material en estudio. En conclusión el material estudiado muestra cualidades de aislamiento térmico y es adecuado para la fabricación de ladrillos con baja energía incorporada.

  7. Scaling unreinforced masonry structures with hollow-core clay bricks for laboratory testing

    OpenAIRE

    Petry, Sarah; Beyer, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    For a shake table test on a four-storey structure with both unreinforced hollow-core brick masonry (URM) walls and reinforced concrete (RC) walls, the test unit had to be constructed at half-scale. While past experience showed that testing RC structural elements at reduced scale leads to similar results as full-scale tests, a literature review on tests of scaled masonry revealed that scaling of masonry was more challenging. For instance, several researchers reported that the scaled masonry wa...

  8. Assessment of natural radioactivity and mass attenuation coefficients of brick and roofing tile used in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damla, N., E-mail: nevzat.damla@batman.edu.tr [Batman University, Department of Physics, 72060 Batman (Turkey); Cevik, U.; Kobya, A.I. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Celik, A. [Giresun University, Department of Physics, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Celik, N. [Guemueshane University, Department of Physics Engineering, 29100 Guemueshane Turkey (Turkey); Yildirim, I. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Forest Industry, 61080 Tranzon (Turkey)

    2011-08-15

    In this study the distribution of natural radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K) in brick and roofing tile samples commonly used as building materials in Turkey was measured by using gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations, radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}), representative level index, indoor absorbed dose rate in air values and annual effective dose due to the intake of the above-mentioned radionuclides in the brick and roofing tile samples were estimated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The measured average activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were 34 {+-} 14, 34 {+-} 13 and 462 {+-} 175 Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively, for brick samples. For roofing tile, the average activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured to be 34 {+-} 14, 33 {+-} 12 and 429 {+-} 161 Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries. The Ra{sub eq} values of all samples were lower than the limit of 370 Bq.kg{sup -1}, equivalent to a gamma dose of 1.5 mSv.a{sup -1} recommended by OECD. This study shows that the measured brick and roofing tile samples do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard and are safe to be used as building materials. Moreover, the experimental mass attenuation coefficients ({mu}/{rho}) of brick and roofing tile samples were determined in the energy range 80-1332 keV using the gamma ray transmission method. The experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values obtained using XCOM. It was found that the computed values and the experimental results of this work are in good agreement with those reported in the literature. The chemical compositions and structural analysis (XRD) of the brick and roofing tile samples are also presented. - Highlights: > In this study, the distribution of natural

  9. Assessment of natural radioactivity and mass attenuation coefficients of brick and roofing tile used in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the distribution of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K) in brick and roofing tile samples commonly used as building materials in Turkey was measured by using gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations, radium equivalent activities (Raeq), representative level index, indoor absorbed dose rate in air values and annual effective dose due to the intake of the above-mentioned radionuclides in the brick and roofing tile samples were estimated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The measured average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were 34 ± 14, 34 ± 13 and 462 ± 175 Bq.kg-1, respectively, for brick samples. For roofing tile, the average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured to be 34 ± 14, 33 ± 12 and 429 ± 161 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries. The Raeq values of all samples were lower than the limit of 370 Bq.kg-1, equivalent to a gamma dose of 1.5 mSv.a-1 recommended by OECD. This study shows that the measured brick and roofing tile samples do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard and are safe to be used as building materials. Moreover, the experimental mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of brick and roofing tile samples were determined in the energy range 80-1332 keV using the gamma ray transmission method. The experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values obtained using XCOM. It was found that the computed values and the experimental results of this work are in good agreement with those reported in the literature. The chemical compositions and structural analysis (XRD) of the brick and roofing tile samples are also presented. - Highlights: → In this study, the distribution of natural radionuclides in brick and roofing tile samples used in Turkey were studied. → Associated potential

  10. Application of Optimum Compaction Energy in the Development of Bricks Made with Construction Trash Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lopez-Lara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, bricks frequently show different densities and therefore different resistances because the compaction energy is not considered in their production. Expansive soils represent a problem for light buildings over them because of volumetric instability. A generalized solution has been to extract them and substitute them by inert soil; thus they become construction trash. So, in this work the compaction energy aspect and the use of construction trash soils in the elaboration of resistant masonry bricks of homogeneous and controlled density are a new contribution in the production of bricks of better quality. First, the soil was stabilized with CaOH which leads to a decrease in its volumetric changes. Then, they were compacted with a specific energy for obtaining an optimal and maximum controlled density to ensure an increase in strength. Our results show that two optimal compaction energies can be considered with respect to the variation of optimum moisture in masonry bricks of expansive soil stabilized with lime. The first is when the optimal humidity reaches its smallest value (integrated soil lumps and the second is when humidity increases (disintegrated soil lumps, after reaching its lowest value. We also conclude that high compaction energy does not improve density values.

  11. Bond Behavior of Historical Clay Bricks Strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymers (SRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Sacco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the strengthening interventions of past and historical masonry constructions, the non-standardized manufacture processes, the ageing and the damage of masonry units, could significantly affect the properties of the surfaces where strengthening materials are applied. This aspect requires particular care in evaluating the performance of externally bonded strengthening layers, especially with reference to the detachment mechanism. The bond response of old masonries could be very different from that occurring in new masonry units which are the ones generally considered in most of the bond tests available in technical literature. The aim of the present paper is the study of the bond behavior of historical clay bricks strengthened with steel reinforced polymers (SRP materials. In particular, the results of an experimental study concerning new manufactured clay bricks and old bricks extracted from different historical masonry buildings are presented. The obtained results, particularly in terms of bond resistance, detachment mechanism and strain distributions, are discussed for the purpose of analyzing the peculiarities of the historical bricks in comparison with new manufactured ones. Some considerations on the efficacy of the theoretical formulations of the recent Italian code are also carried out.

  12. Making fired bricks with spent equilibrium catalyst-a technical feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, M.-L.; Chen, L.-M.; Lai, Y.-C.; Chou, S.-F.

    2009-01-01

    Fluid catalytic cracking in an oil refinery uses a catalyst, such as an alumino-silicate zeolite, in the conversion of heavy hydrocarbons to light hydrocarbons. A small fraction of the catalyst is continually replaced with fresh catalyst to maintain activity. In North America, more than 400 tons of spent alumino-silicate equilibrium catalyst (spent e-cat), and worldwide, more than 1,100 tons, are generated daily, most of which is disposed of in landfills (municipal and on-site facilities). In this study, three spent e-cat samples were tested in a value-added application that would utilize this waste in the manufacturing of fired bricks. The results of this study indicate that spent e-cat is a technically feasible raw material substitute for the clay and shale commonly used in fired brick production. Fired bricks produced with up to 30 wt% of spent e-cat showed good physical appearance and their water absorption properties met the ASTM C 62 specifications for building bricks of either the moderate-or severe-weathering grade.

  13. Technological behaviour and recycling potential of spent foundry sands in clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Santurde, R; Andrés, A; Viguri, J R; Raimondo, M; Guarini, G; Zanelli, C; Dondi, M

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of recycling spent foundry sand in clay bricks was assessed in laboratory, pilot line and industrial trials, using naturally occurring sand as a reference. Raw materials were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, and leaching and combined to produce bodies containing up to 35% wt. sand. The extrusion, drying and firing behaviour (plasticity, drying sensitivity, mechanical strength, bulk density, water absorption, and shrinkage) were determined. The microstructure, phase composition, durability and leaching (EN 12457, granular materials, end-life step, European Waste Landfill Directive; NEN 7345, monolithic materials, use-life step, Dutch Building Material Decree) were evaluated for bricks manufactured at optimal firing temperature. These results demonstrate that spent foundry sand can be recycled in clay bricks. There are no relevant technological drawbacks, but the feasibility strongly depends on the properties of the raw materials. Spent foundry sand may be introduced into bricks up to 30% wt. Most of the hazardous elements from the spent foundry sand are inertized during firing and the concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates are below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill excepting for chromium and lead; however, their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible. PMID:21129840

  14. Construction solutions for the exterior walls in the process of increasing the width of residential buildings of brownfield construction in seismic hazardousand dry hot conditions of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main object of this study is the reconstruction, renovation and modernization of the housing built in the period 1975—1985. These buildings have low energy efficiency due to the poor thermal insulation properties of the walls. These apartments do not meet the necessary requirements for year round warmth and comfort.Reconstruction is more preferable, than new-build, because of the cost saving for the land acquisition. Reconstruction is generally 1.5 times cheaper than new-build with 25—40 % reduced cost on building materials and engineering infrastructure.Increasing the width of the apartment blocks from 12 to 15 m can save 9—10 % on the consumption of thermal energy for heating and reduce the m2 construction cost by 5.5—7.0 %. In—5-9 storey high-rise buildings the savings are 3—5 %.Therefore, the width of the apartment block should preferably be between 9—12 m but could be extended to 18 m. The depth of the apartments themselves will be 5.4 — 6.0 —7.2 or 9.0 m. During the reconstruction of 5-storey residential buildings (Building Type105 in a seismic zone, an increase in the width of the block and the lateral stiffness of the building is achieved by building a new reinforced concrete (RC frame on both sides of the building with a depth of between 2 and 6 m. This technique is especially effective in increasing the seismic resistance of the building. Self-supporting walls of cellular concrete blocks (density 600 kg/m3 and a thickness of 300 mm are constructed on the outside of the frame, taking care to avoid cold bridges.Model studies have shown that in the conditions of hot-arid climate the thickness of the air gap in a ventilated facade does not significantly change the cooling-energy consumption of the building, and heating consumption is significantly increased. The building's energy consumption is most influenced by the volume of the air in the air gap. By increasing the ventilation rate in the air gap, the energy

  15. An Analysis of the Shear Resistence of Multple-Bulkhead Tier-Brick Masonry Buildings under Seismil Effect%地震作用多层砌体房屋横墙抗剪分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜宪华; 于长海

    2000-01-01

    分析了在地震作用下,多层砌体刚性楼面的房屋中,490 mim、370 mm和240 mm的抗剪横墙在地震荷载作用下哪一道横墙先破坏取决于墙体负荷宽度.由此,提出了一种横墙抗震验算的直接判别方法,供设计人员参考使用.%Calculations of destruction sequence of 490 mm, 370 mm and 240 mm shear crosswalls in a multi-storey masonry rigid floor house under the impact on earthquake is conductedto give the conclusion that the critical factor is load width. A simple calcution method forearthquake proof strength of cross walls is also given.

  16. Determination of shielding factors for typical buildings in Brazil; Determinacao dos fatores de blindagem para construcoes tipicamente brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas, Isabel Cristina Poquet

    2006-10-15

    This study presents a methodology for the determination of the air kerma inside buildings due to contamination on the external surfaces and the shielding factors for the construction material to be used on emergency assessment systems for urban areas. The commonly used construction materials were simulated with the MCNP computer code. A special methodology to simulate the bricks with holes were developed, mixing all different regions into a single one, making the simulation easier and faster. The effective density and the attenuation coefficients for the 50-3000 keV energy range were determined. The effective protection for the bricks with no cement cover decreases by 40-50% for energies greater then 300 keV when compared to bricks covered on both sides. With the data made available it was possible to evaluate the influence of the construction materials densities and thickness on the exposure due to external surfaces contamination and to estimate the error on the dose when the shielding factor applied on the calculation differs from the more realistic ones. The shielding factors for three types of walls were determined for a five rooms house. Special protection procedures should be applied for houses built with bricks with no cement cover, because they are due to the double of the dose when compared to houses built with bricks two-sided cement covered. The influence of windows and doors were evaluated too. This work was developed at the IRD in order to provide information on the construction material commonly uses on building in Brazil. (author)

  17. Archaeomagnetic Study performed on Early Medieval Buildings from western France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.; Dufresne, P.; Blain, S.; Guibert, P.; Oberlin, C.; Sapin, C.

    2009-05-01

    A multiple dating study, involving a collaboration between specialists of dating techniques (thermoluminescence (TL) and radiocarbon), historians of art and archaeologists, has been carried out on several early medieval buildings from western France. The early medieval period is not well known especially in France where there is a lack of visible evidence that identifies pre-Romanesque architecture. The majority of buildings to have survived from this period are religious ones, considered important enough to be made of strong, non-perishable material such as stone or brick, as for example the churches of Notre-Dame-sous- Terre in the Mont-Saint-Michel or St Martin in Angers. Due to their significance in architectural history, it is imperative to position them accurately in the chronology of the history of art. Bricks are often used to build up round-headed arches or to reinforce the frame of a wall with bonding courses in those churches. TL dating and archeomagnetic analysis were performed on cores drilled within bricks while radiocarbon dating were undertaken on coals found within mortars. In order to increase the number of data during the early Middle Ages, archeointensity determinations using the classical Thellier technique with anisotropy of thermal remanence and cooling rate corrections were performed. Archaeomagnetic directions were used to recognize the firing position of bricsk during manufacture. Reliable and precise ages were obtained on the church Notre-Dame-sous-Terre; they indicate two phases of building in 950±50AD and 990±50AD. Mean archeointensities obtained on 17 (21) samples from the first (second) phases appears very closed 69.1±1.2 and 68.3±1.6 microTesla. Ages and archeomagnetic results obtained on 4 other sites will be presented and compared to the available data in western Europe.

  18. Preparation of Baking-Free Brick from Manganese Residue and Its Mechanical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Wang; Dong-yan Liu

    2013-01-01

    The increasing amount of waste residue produced during the electrolytic preparation process of manganese has nowadays brought about serious environmental problems. The research on utilization of manganese slag has been a hot spot around the world. The utilization of manganese slag is not only environment friendly, but also economically feasible. In the current work, a summarization of the main methods to produced building materials from manganese slag materials was given. Baking-free brick, a...

  19. Execution of high rise frame-wall reinforced concrete building using the precast structural form; PCa kozo katawaku wo mochiita koso hekishiki ramen kozo jutaku no seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, T.; Matsuura, T.; Ito, T.; Kageyama, S. [Hazama Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This paper introduces construction of a high-rise residential house using thin PCa members, which work also as concrete forms, in wall pillars. This building uses PCa members in wall pillars, beams and floors, and is of a wall-type rigid-frame structure using conventional construction methods for antiseismic walls. The wall pillars are common to all the stories, and use PCa-structured forms. The PCa-structured form is a rectangle with hollow cross section having a pillar width of 600 mm, pillar height of 1800 mm, and a wall thickness of 80 mm. The formwork to fabricate a PCa-structured form is made of steel, and consists of an inner form and an outer form. The inner form is constructed with checker plates to enhance integrity of the form with post-cast concrete. According to the result of a construction experiment using full-size members, no crack generation, swelling in the concrete forms, and filling voids were found. As a result of performing a bending shear experiment, the test specimen showed fracture characteristics preceded by bending yield as seen in a test specimen made by continuous concrete placement. Equivalent withstanding force and transformation performance were also discovered. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  20. Biofouling Prevention of Ancient Brick Surfaces by TiO2-Based Nano-Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Graziani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Brick constitutes a significant part of the construction materials used in historic buildings around the world. This material was used in Architectural Heritage for structural scope, and even for building envelopes. Thus, components made of clay brick were subjected to weathering for a long time, and this causes their deterioration. One of the most important causes for deterioration is biodeterioration caused by algae and cyanobacteria. It compromises the aesthetical properties, and, at a later stage, the integrity of the elements. In fact, traditional products used for the remediation/prevention of biofouling do not ensure long-term protection, and they need re-application over time. The use of nanotechnology, especially the use of photocatalytic products for the prevention of organic contamination of building façades is increasing. In this study, TiO2-based photocatalytic nano-coatings were applied to ancient brick, and its efficiency towards biofouling was studied. A composed suspension of algae and cyanobacteria was sprinkled on the bricks’ surface for a duration of twelve weeks. Digital Image Analysis and colorimetric measurements were carried out to evaluate algal growth on specimens’ surfaces. Results show that photocatalytic nano-coating was able to inhibit biofouling on bricks’ surfaces. In addition, substrata (their porosity and roughness clearly influences the adhesion of algal cells.

  1. X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Flourescence of Ancient Bricks of Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17, Bujang Valley, Kedah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliskandar Ramli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17 is one of the temple sites that used bricks as the main construction material and based on Global Positioning System, Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17 located at N5 41 43.4 E100 25 21.3. Apart from bricks, laterite stones were also used as the basis of the construction’s structure which is octagonal in shape that is a stupa. Based on relative dating of this site, it is proposed that it was built between the 7 to 9th centuries AD. At this site, bricks containing rice husks were also found. These rice husks were used as strengthening material or one of the rituals when building temples. This combine evidence shows that the Old Kedah Malay community had already practised the paddy cultivation system since the 7th century AD or earlier. This study will focus on material composition analysis of ancient bricks that were used to construct this temple of which the main purpose is to see whether the raw materials used to produce those bricks utilised local raw materials or not. This is because the usage of local raw materials was associated with brick making technology that was already mastered by the local community. Two analysis techniques will be used namely the X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF and the X-Ray Diffraction Technique (XRD in determining the content of the major and trace elements as well as the mineral content in the ancient bricks. The findings show that the major minerals contained in the ancient bricks of Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17 are quartz, muscovite and microline while the other minerals that exist are kaolinite. The mineral content and physical observation of the bricks indicate that the open burning technique was used to produce these bricks because of the presence of kaolinite in one of the samples (BP17 (xv. The kaolinite content shows that the samples were baked at a temperature less than 550˚C. The content of the major and trace elements also shows that these bricks were produced from the same source and

  2. Potential Energy Savings Due to Phase Change Material in a Building Wall Assembly: An Examination of Two Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Kenneth W [ORNL; Stovall, Therese K [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    Phase change material (PCM), placed in an exterior wall, alters the temperature profile within the wall and thus influences the heat transport through the wall. This may reduce the net energy transport through the wall via interactions with diurnal temperature swings in the external environment or reduce the electricity needed to meet the net load through the wall by shifting the time of the peak load to a time when the cooling system operates more efficiently. This study covers a broad range of parameters that can influence the effectiveness of such a merged thermal storage-thermal insulation system. These parameters included climate, PCM location within the wall, amount of PCM, midpoint of the PCM melting and freezing range relative to the indoor setpoint temperature, temperature range over which phase change occurs, and the wall orientation. Two climates are investigated using finite difference and optimization analyses: Phoenix and Baltimore, with two utility rate schedules. Although potential savings for a PCM with optimized properties were greater when the PCM was concentrated near the inside wall surface, other considerations described here lead to a recommendation for a full-thickness application. An examination of the temperature distribution within the walls also revealed the potential for this system to reduce the amount of energy transported through the wall framing. Finally, economic benefits can exceed energy savings when time-of-day utility rates are in effect, reflecting the value of peak load reductions for the utility grid.

  3. A study of natural radioactivity in different types of bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports radioactivity in bricks measured using gamma spectroscopy. Sixteen samples of clay bricks and four samples of cement bricks were analysed. The mean activity concentrations of Th sup 232, Ra sup 226 and K sup 40 in clay bricks were 63,33 and 530 Bq per kg respectively. In cement brick samples these mean activity concentrations were 17, 42 and 524 Bq per kg respectively. Radium equivalent values obtained for clay bricks and cement bricks ranged from 16-348 and 89-142 Bq per kg respectively. Ra sub eq is a measure to ascertain whether these masonry materials have a radiation hazard. The mean value for Ra sub eq for typical masonry in the world is 370 Bq per kg and as such the values obtained in this study indicate that these masonry materials are not radioactively hazardous. The criterion limit which is also a measure to consider whether it is radioactively hazardous to use these materials in dwellings show that the values obtained are 0.22 and 0.16 for clay and cement bricks respectively. Thus the value obtained from this criterion limit further strengthens the fact that the bricks do not pose a radiation hazard. The mean annual dose from clay and cement bricks were also calculated.(AU)

  4. Experimental characterisation of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle Eco-bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Characterisation of a novel “Eco-brick” by recycling PET bottles and plastic waste. • Eco-bricks have properties for possible uses in construction. • Consistent manufacturing of Eco-bricks demonstrated to be possible. • Weight of Eco-bricks has a nearly linear relationship with mechanical strength. • Light passage and sound reduction potential of Eco-bricks shown to be good. - Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of recycling waste plastic by considering the feasibility of use of Eco-bricks for constructional purposes. The Eco-bricks are formed by packing plastic within Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles. Guidelines were provided for the construction of Eco-bricks. Experiments were carried out to characterise some of the properties of these bricks. Compression test, sound insulation assessment and light transmission were considered in this regard and compared with traditional construction materials and conditions. Possible applications of Eco-bricks were discussed. The paper presents the first attempt to characterise these bricks and the results encourage future use of them to a significantly wider extent and for various purposes

  5. Building America Case Study: Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast, Devens, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage, when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing. Moisture conditions in double stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double stud assemblies were compared.

  6. Investigation of late antique bricks from archaeological sites of contemporary Serbia as a basis of conservation works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Ana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available and revitalization of building heritage of the territory of contemporary Serbia includes numerous late classical archaeological sites. In spite of the efforts oriented to their adequate protection and presentation, the up-to-date conservation practice has faced various problems, particularly those related to the conservation of the brickwork. Problems especially emerge when the need for the new bricks arises, due to their different quality in comparison with those of historical ones. The problem is emphasized by the fact that the recent conservation process, practiced in this region, has not been followed by any qualitative analysis, either of historical or contemporary bricks. Therefore, the results of the recent investigation focused on characterization of late antique bricks from the region have been presented in this paper, seen in the context of conservation works.

  7. Brane Brick Models in the Mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Sebastian; Seong, Rak-Kyeong; Vafa, Cumrun

    2016-01-01

    Brane brick models are Type IIA brane configurations that encode the $2d$ $\\mathcal{N}=(0,2)$ gauge theories on the worldvolume of D1-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds. We use mirror symmetry to improve our understanding of this correspondence and to provide a systematic approach for constructing brane brick models starting from geometry. The mirror configuration consists of D5-branes wrapping 4-spheres and the gauge theory is determined by how they intersect. We also explain how $2d$ $(0,2)$ triality is realized in terms of geometric transitions in the mirror geometry. Mirror symmetry leads to a geometric unification of dualities in different dimensions, where the order of duality is $n-1$ for a Calabi-Yau $n$-fold. This makes us conjecture the existence of a quadrality symmetry in $0d$. Finally, we comment on how the M-theory lift of brane brick models connects to the classification of $2d$ $(0,2)$ theories in terms of 4-manifolds.

  8. Urban-environmental study from the Juarez municipality brick factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Romo Aguilar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to evaluate the current situation of the traditional and ecological brick kilns in Juarez. The evaluation is addressed in both the environmental and socio-economic context. The brick production belongs to the informal economic sector without any regulatory scheme and without taxation. Its very low technology has serious impacts on the binational environment of the Paso del Norte region, through the highly polluted emissions to the atmosphere. However, the social and economic context of people working in this industry does not allow important changes, thus, making difficult any initiative for the brick kilns improvements and relocation. The main information source was a very concise survey applied to whole universe of brick makers. Data survey was registered in a Geographic Information System (GIS environment allowing us the analysis of the brick kilns in a spatial context. Finally, this document presents a descriptive profile of the brick kilns production and for the brickmakers.

  9. Characterization, reproduction and optimization of traditional adobe bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Eftychiou, Marina; Costi de Castrillo, Maria; Illampas, Rogiros

    2013-04-01

    Adobe bricks were first introduced 10-12,000 years ago. Extensive use of the material throughout the centuries has led to strong local traditions of building with earth and has established adobe masonry as an important feature of the international architectural heritage. Today, despite no longer being a prevalent building material, adobes are still in use, since a number of earthen structures survive worldwide. Furthermore, the simplicity, low cost and almost negligible embodied energy associated with the production of adobes, as well as their good thermal and acoustic properties, render them an attractive option for use in contemporary sustainable construction. Therefore, several ongoing research projects internationally investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of traditional adobe bricks and the design/production of optimized adobes, with improved characteristics, for use in contemporary architecture. Here, we present ongoing research on adobe bricks carried out in the framework of the project E& IXEIPH EI / POION/0609/41, which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus, through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. Our work focuses on the characterization of traditional adobes, their reproduction and optimization in the laboratory to produce materials with improved physicomechanical properties. Results up-to-date show that traditional adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in relevant X-ray diffraction analyses. The average capillary water absorption coefficient (measured against a saturated sponge surface) of samples collected from market suppliers rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1 -2, while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. The response of traditional adobes to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average compressive strength recorded depends on the form of test specimen (cube, cylinder, prism). Samples with aspect

  10. Effect of Waterproofing Agent B and Curing Temperature on Properties of the Burning-free, Autoclave Curing-free and Non-cement Building Bricks Made from Iron Tailings%防水剂B和养护温度对铁尾矿三免砖性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐民主; 雷国元; 宋均平; 罗文斌; 谭青; 李瑞杰

    2015-01-01

    Burning-free,autoclave curing-free and non-cement building bricks( three-free for short) were prepared with the fine low-silica iron ore tailing and the self-made non-cement curing agent as the raw material. The effect of the content of waterproofing agent B and curing temperature on the properties of the products such as the compressive strength,water resist-ance,frost resistance and anti-carbonization,and also its mechanisms were studied. The results showed that with the dosage of waterproofing agent B increase,compressive strength and 24 h water absorption of products decreased while saturated compres-sive strength and softening coefficient are increased first and then decreased. With the increase of initial curing temperature, water resistance,frost resistance and compressive strength in every curing time are improved significantly. According to the mechanism analysis by XRD and FI-TR,the results show that hydrated calcium silicate gel and ettringite are strength binder phase of three-free bricks. Meanwhile,the addition of waterproofing agent B does not affect the composition of binding phase. The increase of initial curing temperature and the addition of waterproofing agent B can inhibit the carbonation reaction within products and improve water resistance. The results of theoretical analysis can explain the effect of curing temperature and water-proofing agent B on performance of the products. It provides theory basis for the high-effect waterproofing agent and the optimi-zation of the curing conditions.%以某细粒低硅铁尾矿和无水泥固化剂为原料,制备免烧免蒸免水泥建材砖(简称“三免砖”)。研究了防水剂B和养护温度对制品抗压强度、耐水性和抗冻性的影响及其机制。试验结果表明:随着防水剂B掺量的增加,制品的干抗压强度和24 h吸水率均下降,饱和抗压强度和软化系数均先升后降;随着初期养护温度的升高,制品的耐水性、抗冻性和各龄期

  11. Experimental bond behavior of FRP sheets glued on brick masonry

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Daniel V.; Basílio, Ismael; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental characterization of the mechanical tensile and shear bond behavior of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets externally glued on masonry prisms, in terms of load capacity and stress distribution along the bonded length. The brick masonry adopted tries to replicate ancient brick masonry, by using handmade low strength solids bricks and low strength lime based mortar. Key parameters relative to the FRP-masonry interface response, particularly bo...

  12. Impact of Building Walls of Historic Objects from Half-Timbered Wall in their State of Thermal Protection / Wpływ Budowy Ścian Historycznych Budynków z Muru Pruskiego Na Ich Stan Ochrony Cieplnej

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanowska-Gwiżdż, Agnieszka; Steidl, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the problems connected with preserved examples of buildings in Upper Silesia that contain the elements of half-timbered walls. This type of construction currently characterizes houses of various utility functions. Often, their formation was related to the construction of patron settlements, accompanied by the development of industrial plants. Today, there is a problem of insufficient thermal insulation of barriers in half-timbered houses and numerous attempts to improve their thermal parameters are observed. In this type of projects, the correct determination of the existing state in terms of construction of the barrier and thermal protection seems to be important, as the starting points for further analysis. The study determines the insulation of frame walls with ceramic fill, with a variety of material and construction solutions. Literature examples and in situ measurements results were used for the research.

  13. Frost resistance of concrete with crushed brick as aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ksenija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation included concrete made by using recycled brick as aggregate. Experimental work included several types of concrete made with the same cement content (385 kg/m3, and same consistency (slump about 1 cm. Recycled brick and combination of natural river aggregate and recycled brick were used as aggregates. The influence of percentage and grain size of crushed brick aggregate on concrete compressive strength, water absorption and frost resistance were observed. On the basis of the results obtained during experimental research, a general conclusion can be drawn that the application of recycled concrete as aggregate can lead to new composites with satisfactory physical-mechanical properties.

  14. Modelling of radiolytically corroded commercial AGR graphite fuel bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profiling of cross-sectional slices taken from a commercial AGR(CAGR) moderator fuel brick provides a method for modelling graphite property changes associated with radiolytic corrosion. A measure of the change in overall brick strength can be obtained by loading to failure the profiled slice under simulated loaded-core conditions. The application of this technique to predict the behaviour of radiolytically corroded CAGR fuel bricks is described. The effect on brick strength of different corrosion profiles, which result from exposure in different coolant gas mixtures, is examined and a simple relationship between strength and an expression describing the corrosion profile derived. (author)

  15. Production and Development of LRCO‘s Silica Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAXianghong; LIZhenmin; 等

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of development and production of silica bricks at Luoyang Refrac-tories(Group) Co.,Ltd,(Former Luoyang Refrac-tories Factory). Through the improvement and in-troducing technology from abroad the company's management and quality standard on silica bricks production has reached a higher level.The physical and chemical specifications,as well as the appear-ance of silica bricks for coke ovens,hot blast stoves and glass kilns have reached the advanced interna-tional level.Now the company has become producing base and main exporting base various kinds of silica bricks in China.

  16. Durability of compressed soil-cement bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Valle, A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This papers shows the evaluation process of the durability of compressed soil-cement bricks. A great number of tests were made to determine the behavior of bricks when they are compression loaded and under the influence of moisture. Two different types of soils were used to produce the bricks, a lime-clay soil and a sand one. The sand soil is very resistant. The other one has a limited use. An experimental design was used to test the bricks. It is a rotational and quadratic method with a hexagonal figure which contains replicas at the central point. This method ensures the reliability of test results. Otherwise, it would reduce the amount of specimens necessary for the tests. The optimun moisture content is obtained by using a press machine. It is more rational than the standard Proctor compactation test, because it applies the same type and amount of energy used to produce the bricks. The obtained results show the behavior differences between the two compressed soil-cement bricks subjected to the compression test, water absorption and wetting and drying tests. The durability tests results are very important in the possible use of the bricks produced.

    En el trabajo se evalúa la durabilidad de elementos aglomerados de suelo estabilizado. Se realiza un amplio número de ensayos encaminados a determinar el comportamiento frente a la acción de las cargas y la humedad de dos suelos con características diferentes: uno limo-arcilloso y el otro arenoso. Este último presenta resultados muy favorables en ambas direcciones. El otro, con un posible uso más limitado. Se emplea un método de diseño experimental del tipo rotacional cuadrático en hexágono, con réplicas en el punto central, el que garantiza la confiabilidad de los resultados de los ensayos, a la vez que disminuye la cantidad de especímenes a ensayar. Se determina la humedad óptima a utilizar en las diferentes dosificaciones empleando la máquina compactadora, que resulta m

  17. Depth-dose distribution in bricks determined by thermoluminescence and by Monte-Carlo calculation for external γ-dose reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of depth-dose distributions in bricks sampled from walls in areas with nuclear waste or accident contamination has the potential of providing information on the energy and source configuration of the γ-radiation that had been incident on the brick. In this study, a brick from a mill facing a shallow water reservoir of the contaminated Techa river in the South Ural region is investigated. Thermoluminescene (TL) methods were used to measure the accumulated dose at several depths in the brick. The accidental external γ-dose is obtained by subtracting the natural radiation background dose from the total accumulated dose. In the first segment of the brick, at a depth of about 1.5 cm, the accident dose was found to be roughly 3.5 Gy. Monte-Carlo simulations of the photon transport form the reservoir bed contaminated with 137Cs were calculated for different depths in the brick. The calculations were made assuming different attenuating water levels. It is found that the depth-dose distribution determined by measurements corresponds to a water level between 20 and 50 cm. The results indicate that the TL measurements combined with Monte-Carlo modelling calculations are highly promising for external γ-dose reconstruction applications. (Author)

  18. Determination of radon and thoron exhalation rate from the walls surface by CR-39 track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid-state nuclear track detectors are finding expanded uses in various environment research investigations. Inhalation dose due to indoor radon/thoron and their short lived progeny concentrations constitute a major part of the total natural background radiation received by the population. Many measurements of radon concentration in the environment also involve using a dosimeter containing solid state nuclear track detector. The walls of houses included building materials such as granite, bricks, sand, cement etc., contain uranium and thorium in various amounts. Therefore the knowledge of true value exhalation rate of Rn and Tn from building materials represents scientific and practical interest in environmental radiation protection and ecology. In the present work, we have used calibrated plastic cups with two CR-39 detectors. The first detector fixed on bottom of cup in distance of cup height from walls surface and records alpha particles from radon only. The second detector fixed on the top of cup and records alpha particles from thoron and radon. The detected surface of the cup is situated in perpendicular position to surface of the wall. The detectors were exposed for 20-30 days. After exposition, the detectors were chemically etched and analyzed. The exhalation rate per unit area of the concrete, fired and unfired brick walls varied 0.091, 0.078 and 0.1 Bq m-2 h-1 for the radon, 3470, 200 and 5800 Bq m-2 h-1 for the thoron, accordingly. The number and location of radon and thoron alpha tracks were determined using an optical microscope and an image analysis system based on special developed software. The software for track images treatment by application of digital image processing has been developed. All program modules are made in DELPHI execution environment by using Pascal object-oriented language.

  19. Life-cycle assessment of lightweight textile membrane partition walls

    OpenAIRE

    Neiva, Sara Daniela Oliveira; Mateus, Ricardo; Macieira, Mónica; Mendonça, Paulo, ed. lit.; Bragança, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyze the environmental, functional and economical performances of some conceptual lightweights textiles membranes partitions walls and to compare one of them with two technologies present in Portuguese market: i) the heavyweight conventional hollow brick partition wall; and ii) the lightweight reference plasterboard partition wall. Advantages of use textile/ fibrous/ membrane based materials in partition walls are focused and they may contribute for the development of new partit...

  20. Study of radon exhalation rate from different types of surfaces of building and activity of 226Ra in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon exhalation rate from different surfaces of ground floor vary from 0.95 -3.2 mBq.m-2.s-1. The average value in the first floor surface is 1.2 mBq.m-2.s-1 and exhalation from walls vary from 0.752 - 3.85 mBq.m-2s-1 and with a bare surface it is 5.49 mBq.m-2.s-1. The activity of 226Ra in building materials is estimated by using emanometer. The activity of 226Ra is low in sand (4.01 Bq.kg-1) and is high for granite (55 Bq.kg-1), and almost same in concrete and brick. The activity of 226 Ra in building materials is low compared to the global average. (author)

  1. Embodied Energy and CO2 Analyses of Mud-brick and Cement-block Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abanda F.Henry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In building projects, the extraction of vast quantities of materials is too common. The extraction of materials and the erection of buildings consume embodied energy and emit carbon dioxide (CO2 that impact negatively on the environment. Therefore it is necessary to consider embodied energy and CO2 amongst other factors in selecting building materials for use in building projects. In most developing countries, building environmental performance analysis has yet to gain interest from the construction community. However, with recent increase in sustainability awareness, both developed and developing nations have engaged in efforts to tackle this challenge. Embodied energy and CO2 are among the leading parameters in assessing environmental building performance. In Cameroon, studies about the assessment of embodied energy and CO2 of building projects are scarce. Hence, professionals find it difficult to make alternative choices for building materials to use in their different building projects. This study uses a detailed process analysis approach supported by two popular housing types in Cameroon (mud-brick and cement-block houses to assess the embodied energy and CO2 impacts from building materials. The emerging Building Information Modelling (BIM tool was used to validate the computational results of the process analysis method. The findings revealed the embodied energy and CO2 for the mud-brick houses are 137934.91 MJ (2007.8 MJ/m2 and 15665.56 Kg CO2 (228.03 Kg CO2/m2; the cement-block houses are 292326.81 MJ (3065.51 MJ/m2 and 37829.19 Kg CO2 (396.7 Kg CO2/m2 respectively. Thus, the cement-block house expends at least 1.5 times more embodied energy and emits at least 1.7 times more embodied CO2 than mud-brick house. Although these findings cannot be generalized, they nonetheless indicate the importance of considering embodied energy and CO2 in making alternative choices for use in different building projects.

  2. Incorporation feasibility of leather residues in bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de; Valente, A; Pires, M.J.; Tavares, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The footwear industry has strips of leather as one of its by-products. These leather residues, due to their high chromium content, can be regarded as a threat to the environment, particularly if no care is taken with their disposal. With the incorporation of the residues in ceramic products, after trituration, is possible to neutralise the eventual toxicity of chromium. In a laboratory study we produced prismatic bricks using clay from the region and incorporating 1, 3 and 5% (by mass) of lea...

  3. An Exploration of the Nanoworld with LEGO Bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Miller, Josiah D.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Obermaier, Lauren M.

    2011-01-01

    LEGO bricks can be used for a number of demonstrations of chemical structures and properties, especially at the nanoscale level. These bricks can also be used to model instrumentation that probes these structures and properties. Detailed resources about many of these demonstrations are located on the extensive Web site "Exploring the Nanoworld…

  4. Investigation for picking up a brick from the melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tool to pick up the roof brick on the bottom of the melter was designed and manufactured after investigation of fundamental design of the tool, investigation of material of the tool, and some mock up tests. After that, picking up the brick in the melter was done, and it was successful after the second modification of the tool. (author)

  5. 78 FR 3449 - Silica Bricks and Shapes From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... 23, 2012 (77 FR 70185). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on December 6, 2012, and all... COMMISSION Silica Bricks and Shapes From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... China of silica bricks and shapes, provided for in subheading 6902.20.10 of the Harmonized...

  6. Inside the Sex Ed Studio: An Interview with Peggy Brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    "Inside the Sex Ed Studio" profiles leaders in the field of sexuality education. Peggy Brick, former director of Planned Parenthood of Greater Northern New Jersey's Center for Family Life Education (CFLE) and author of numerous sexuality education resources used worldwide, is the subject of this interview. Ms. Brick was interviewed by William J.…

  7. Utilization of Household Sewage Sludge in Brick making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunGuofeng

    2005-01-01

    Household sewage sludge is a kind of solid waste produced in sewage purifying at sewage farm. in procedure of water purifying, which can be used as raw material for producing fired brick. This article compares the chemical composition between household sewage sludge and clay, and explores two kinds of production process for making brick with Household sewage sludge.

  8. Spalling Resistant Bauxite Based Bricks for Cement Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,classification,labeling,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of spalling resistant bauxite based bricks for cement kiln.This standard is applicable to the spalling resistant bauxite based bricks for cement kiln.

  9. Possible weathering of the brick matrix when exposed to water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for deterioration of bricks are frost, crystallization pressure and chemical exposure. Despite of this the effect of chemical exposure is limited clarified. Depending on the brick type the original pH of bricks are 9-10. Though bricks can to subjected to water in shape of acid rain...... with a pH as low as 3. The exposure of acid rain and rain water to bricks is expected to have an influence on the brick matrix dependent on the specific exposure but to which extend? The present work is a systematic test of the influence of the pH on the brick matrix where the effect of water...... with different well-defined pH values are examined to investigate the long term effect of acid rain or other reasons causing pH changes to bricks (as e.g. electrokinetic treatment). Through capillary suction, macro pictures from the exposed surfaces, measurement of the pH and electrical conductivity it seemed...

  10. Solar Walls in tsbi3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    tsbi3 is a user-friendly and flexible computer program, which provides support to the design team in the analysis of the indoor climate and the energy performance of buildings. The solar wall module gives tsbi3 the capability of simulating solar walls and their interaction with the building. This...... version, C, of tsbi3 is capable of simulating five types of solar walls say: mass-walls, Trombe-walls, double Trombe-walls, internally ventilated walls and solar walls for preheating ventilation air. The user's guide gives a description of the capabilities and how to simulate solar walls in tsbi3....

  11. 建筑结构设计中剪力墙结构设计%The Shear Wall Structure Design in the Building Structure Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛

    2014-01-01

    This article through the analysis of the problems and solutions of the shear wall structure design in the building structure design improves the development quality of construc-tion industry in China and guarantee the rapid progress of Chi-nese social economy.%本文通过对建筑结构设计中剪力墙结构设计的问题和解决措施的分析,提升了我国建筑行业的发展质量,保证了我国社会经济的快速进步。

  12. Exploring water as building bricks in enzyme engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendil-Forssell, Peter; Martinelle, Mats; Syrén, Per-Olof

    2015-12-18

    A novel enzyme engineering strategy for accelerated catalysis based on redesigning a water network through protein backbone deshielding is presented. Fundamental insight into the energetic consequences associated with the design is discussed in the light of experimental results and computer simulations. Using water as biobricks provides unique opportunities when transition state stabilisation is not easily attained by traditional enzyme engineering. PMID:26426706

  13. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)

  14. Infrared (IR) stimulated luminescence from modern bricks in retrospective dosimetry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has frequently been observed that certain roof tiles and bricks, especially from relatively modern European buildings, do not contain enough quartz grains in a suitable grain size range to permit dose reconstruction using thermoluminescence (TL) or optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) methods. In this paper the feasibility of using infrared-stimulated luminescence (IRSL) on the feldspar fraction of such bricks and tiles has been investigated. Appropriate preheating treatments were employed in order to select the most stable signals, and procedures were developed to enhance the signal to noise ratio. The possible effect of anomalous fading under application of these procedures was tested. In the dose range above 100 mGy, it has been demonstrated that using IRSL on the feldspar fraction of such material provides a feasible alternative to the use of green-light-stimulated luminescence (GLSL) on the quartz fraction, for the purposes of retrospective dosimetry. Furthermore, since the use of IRSL as described in this paper involves the measurement of polymineral fine grain fractions of bricks, a technique for the calibration of the built-in β source against the γ source in Secondary Standard Dosimetry facilities for routine use of the technique is described

  15. Evaluation of bricks durability using destructive and nondestructive methods (DT and NDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cultrone, G.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the physical-mechanical behaviour of solid bricks treated with consolidants and/or water-repellents in accelerated aging tests to determine their durability. The bricks were manufactured with a quartz-rich clay lacking in carbonates to which was added small amounts of different additives (calcite, dolomite or sodium chloride. During the manufacturing process, we attempted to replicate solid bricks similar to those used in many Cultural Heritage buildings. We have concluded that silicon resin gives the best results, whatever the additive used, whereas acrylic resin gives the least satisfactory results.

    Se ha estudiado el comportamiento físico-mecánico de ladrillos macizos tratados con productos consolidantes y/o hidrofugantes frente a ensayos acelerados de alteración para evaluar su durabilidad. En la fabricación de las piezas cerámicas se ha utilizado un material arcilloso rico en cuarzo y sin carbonatos al que se han añadido pequeñas cantidades de distintos aditivos (calcita, dolomita o sal. En el proceso de elaboración se han intentado reproducir ladrillos macizos similares a los empleados en muchos edificios del Patrimonio Arquitectónico. Se concluye que el uso de resina de silicona proporciona los mejores resultados, cualquiera que sea el aditivo añadido, mientras que los resultados menos satisfactorios se han calculado cuando se ha empleado una resina acrílica.

  16. Daylighting and Cooling of Atrium Buildings in Warm Climates: Impact of the Top-Fenestration and Wall Mass Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Morad Rachid

    1992-01-01

    Sun-lighting and daylighting contribute greatly to the aesthetic value of an atrium. However, today's atria are often found either over-lit with extensive cooling loads, or under-lit requiring increased artificial lighting loads. The increase of the top-glazing area increases the cooling loads and decreases the lighting loads. The increase of the mass in the atrium walls decreases the maximum atrium temperature and the cooling loads. Furthermore, the mass distribution and its reflectance affect the lighting levels at the atrium floor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the simultaneous impact of the top-fenestration and the mass and reflectance of atrium walls on the cooling and daylighting performance of atria in warm climates. It attempts to determine the optimum top-fenestration for efficient daylighting and low cooling loads. The daylighting performance was evaluated through illumination measurements in physical models in a sky simulator. The cooling performance was evaluated using the software TRNSYS 13.1. Two types of top-fenestration were tested: horizontal and vertical south-facing, each with three alternate areas. The variations of the atrium walls included materials (standard frame and heavyweight concrete) and percentage and reflectance of the solid area. Two and four-story atria were considered, each with square and linear configuration. The performance was evaluated for three warm climates. The optimum top-fenestration for efficient daylighting was determined. The daylighting prediction algorithm was extended to include the effective reflectance of the atrium walls. The increase of mass in the atrium walls significantly decreased the atrium temperature range, the maximum atrium temperature, and the cooling loads. This impact decreased from horizontal to vertical south-facing top-glazing. The vertical south-facing top-glazing and, to a lesser degree, the reduction of the glazed atrium cover by 50% had more cooling benefits than increasing the

  17. Radon-222 exhalation from Danish building materials: H + H Industri A/S results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    1999-01-01

    rate measurements for 10 samples of Danish building materials are reported. Samples include ordinary concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete,autoclaved aerated concrete, bricks, and gypsum board. The maximum mass-specific exhalation rate is about 20 m Bq h"-"1 kg "-"1. Under consideration of the......This report describes a closed-chamber method for laboratory measurements of the rate at which radon-222 degasses (exhales) from small building material samples. The chamber is 55 L in volume and the main sample geometry is a slab of dimensions 5x30x30cm"3 . Numerical modelling is used to assess...... specific applications of the investigated building materials, the contribution to the indoor radon-222concentration in a single-family reference house is calculated. Numerical modelling is used to help extrapolate the laboratory measurements on small samples to full scale walls. Application of typical...

  18. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-04-01

    Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg)-contaminated urban areas in the world. Exposure is amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. The objectives of this study were to compare two Hg-leaching procedures, and their application as risk-assessment screening tools in Hg-contaminated adobe brick homes in Huancavelica. The purpose was to evaluate potential health implications, particularly for children, after ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. Hg was measured in adobe brick and dirt floor samples from 60 households by total Hg extraction, simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction, and sequential selective extraction (SSE), which provides more detailed data but is resource-intensive. Most of the Hg present in samples was relatively insoluble, although in some households soluble Hg species were present at concentrations that may be of concern after ingestion. A strong correlation was identified between results from simulated GF extraction of adobe bricks and dirt floors and the more soluble fractions of Hg from SSE. Simulated GF extraction data were combined with ingestion and body mass characteristics for small children to compare potential risk of ingestion of Hg-contaminated soil with current health standards. Simulated GF extraction can be used as a risk assessment screening tool for effective allocation of time and resources to households that have measurable concentrations of bioaccessible Hg. Combining simulated GF extraction data with health standards enables intervention strategies targeted at households with the greatest potential health threat from ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. PMID:25169738

  19. Shielding walls against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard shall be applied to closed shielding facilities which, together with the lead bricks according to DIN 25 407 part 1 and the functional elements according to this standard, are designed to make possible the setting-up of complete shieldings for hot cells in beta-gamma-technique (see DIN 25 407 part 3) according to modular principles. This standard is intended to facilitate the design and construction of hot cells with shielding walls made of lead as well as the interchangeability of individual constructional elements in existing shielding walls. (orig./HP)

  20. Ventilated external walls, constructed based on the building physics principles developed by Karl Gertis.; Hinterlueftete Aussenwaende, konstruiert aufgrund der von Karl Gertis erarbeiteten bauphysikalischen Grundlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cziesielski, Erich [CRP Bauingenieure GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    In his postdoctoral thesis Karl Gertis described the basic principles of the function and the geometric boundary conditions for the construction of ventilated external walls. The proposed revision of DIN 18516-1:2008-09 will again based on the fundamental results of his work. Meanwhile, further work has been carried out on various aspects, including the work by Janser and Marquardt on wind load assumptions and the corrosion-inhibiting effect of ventilated external walls. Ventilated external facings can be retrofitted to damaged walls in large-panel buildings to improve thermal insulation, as a remedial measure for joint defects, and in order to improve corrosion protection. This paper discusses the physical mechanisms relating to wind load reduction and corrosion protection. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die grundlegende Arbeit ueber die Wirkungsweise und die geometrischen Randbedingungen bei der Konstruktion hinterluefteter Aussenwandkonstruktionen hat Karl Gertis mit seiner Habilitationsschrift verfasst. Auch in der geplanten Neufassung von DIN 18516-1:2008-09 wird auf die grundlegenden Ergebnisse seiner Arbeit unveraendert zugegriffen werden. Weiterfuehrende Arbeiten wurden unter anderem ueber die anzusetzenden Windlastannahmen und die korrosionshemmende Wirkung hinterluefteter Aussenwaende von Janser und Marquardt durchgefuehrt. Durch die nachtraegliche Montage von hinterluefteten Aussenwandkonstruktionen auf die geschaedigten Waende des Grosstafelbaus kann sowohl die Waermedaemmung verbessert werden als auch eine Sanierung der Fugen erfolgen; insbesondere wird aber durch das Aufbringen hinterluefteter Aussenwandkonstruktionen der Korrosionsschutz wesentlich verbessert. Im Folgenden werden die Wirkmechanismen hinsichtlich der Reduzierung der Windlast und des Korrosionsschutzes beschrieben. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Intercomparison of luminescence measurements of bricks from Dolon' village: Experimental methodology and results of European study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques were applied to quartz grains extracted from various depths in bricks taken from buildings in the village of Dolon', Kazakhstan, to determine the cumulative absorbed dose, DT. The measurements were performed in four laboratories (EU supported Measurement Group). The results obtained using TL and OSL are compared and discussed with reference to known sources of experimental uncertainty and relevant luminescence characteristics that may affect the evaluation of the absorbed dose. The external nature of the irradiation due to gamma rays from radionuclides is verified by the measurement of depth-dose profiles, and these are compared with those obtained in previous studies for bricks from the same region. To produce these profiles, the cumulative dose due to natural background radiation, DBG, was assessed, particularly based on the concentrations of radionuclides of lithogenic origin within the bricks and the surrounding environment. The consistency of these estimates of DBG was assessed using depth-dose data and absorbed dose determinations for bricks collected from shielded locations. The values cumulative absorbed dose since the onset of fallout, Dx, were calculated as the difference between the values of total cumulative dose in bricks since its manufacture, DT, and values of DBG. Furthermore, estimations of the cumulative absorbed doses in air in the reference location near the sampled buildings, RLDx, were obtained using corresponding conversion factors, CRL, estimated on the basis of previous work. In addition to results for samples distributed for the International Intercomparison, reference is made to relevant results from samples that were collected in 1999 from Dolon' village and studied as part of EU-supported research. (author)

  2. Thermal Performance of the Storage Brick Containing Microencapsulated PCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of microencapsulated phase change materials(PCMs) provides several advantages over conventional PCM application. The heat storage system, as well as heat recovery system, can be built to a smaller size than the normal systems for a given thermal cycling capacity. This microencapsulated PCM technique has not yet been commercialized, however. In this work sodium acetate trihydrate(CH3COONa · 3H2O) was selected for the PCM and was encapsulated. This microencapsulated PCM was mixed with cement mortar for utilization as a floor heating system. In this experiment performed here the main purpose was to investigate the thermal performance of a storage brick with microencapsulated PCM concentration. The thermal performance of this storage brick is dependent on PCM concentration, flow rate and cooling temperature of the heat transfer fluid, etc. The results showed that cycle time was shortened as the PCM content was increased and as the mass flow rate was increased. The same effect was obtained when the cooling temperature was decreased. For each thermal storage brick the overall heat transfer coefficient(U-value) was constant for a 0% brick, but was increased with time for the bricks containing microencapsulated PCM. For the same mass flow rate, as the cooling temperature decreased, the amount of heat withdrawn increased, and in particular a critical cooling temperature was found for each thermal storage brick. The average effectiveness of each thermal storage brick was found to be approximately 48%, 51% and 58% respectively

  3. Basis and classification of efflorescences in construction bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, J. Ma.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The efflorescence problem in clay products and more specifically in construction bricks is a pathology which produce a decrease in the aesthetic quality of buildings. Their types and causes are very different and only a review of all the variables and classification can allow to start the understanding of this phenomenon. Basically, the migration of soluble salts from different sources is the responsible of this pathology. Here is shown directly and briefly the main principles of efflorescece formation with some of the most frequent examples.

    El problema de las eflorescencias en productos de tierra cocida y en concreto en los ladrillos de construcción, constituye una patología que disminuye la calidad estética de los edificios. Sus tipos y causas son muy diversas y sólo una revisión, de todas las clases y variables que influyen en la aparición de eflorescencias, puede permitir empezar a comprender este fenómeno. Fundamentalmente es la migración de sales solubles de distinta procedencia la responsable de esta patología. Se muestran, de una manera directa y resumida, los principios básicos de formación de eflorescencias, con ejemplos de las más frecuentes.

  4. Gamma-ray activity and dose rate of brick samples from some areas of North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to measure natural radioactivity due to γ-rays from building materials and consequently to determine the dose rate from these materials. This helps to implement precautionary measures whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. A knowledge of gamma radioactivity is required by the building construction association to adopt preventive measures to mitigate or minimize the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The aim of this work was to measure the gamma activity due to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in bricks from the Peshawar, Nowshera and Mardan districts of NWFP of Pakistan. The radiological doses to the occupants from the brick floor of a wooden house were calculated. The average γ dose equivalent rate was calculated to be 0.14 mSv per year, which is well below the external γ dose limit of 0.46 mSv per year as given in UNSCEAR

  5. Natural radioactivity in the bricks fabricated around Kasur (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gamma ray activity has been measured in the bricks fabricated in the area around Kasur. The deviations of maximum and minimum values from average values in the measured gamma ray activities due to 40K, /sup 226/Ra and /sup 232/Th are less than 20%. Comparison with the bricks fabricated in Rawalpindi and Islamabad showed that the bricks of Kasur area have about 25% higher gamma-ray activity for the nuclides 40K, /sup 226/Ra and /sup 232 Th/ as well as for the total activity. (author)

  6. Moisture properties of the lightweight brick body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čáchová, Monika; Koňáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Keppert, Martin; Černý, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Brick have been used for thousands years and during that time they went throw the long development. One of the possibilities how to changed properties of ceramic products is to change material compositions. This article is focused on utilization of lightening additives. Commonly used sawdust is compared with straw. The matter of measurement was to determine its influence on moisture properties. Basic physical properties were measured as well, since mainly open porosity has influence on water transport. Achieved results proved that utilization of straw leads to open porosity decrease. Particularly the amount of small pores (diameter under 1µm) went down. Regarding the moisture properties water vapor transport ability was decreased by adding straw in to the ceramic, while ability of water liquid transport remained unaffected.

  7. Surface Water Quality Assessment of the Jirania Brick Cluster – A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Amarendra Jamatia; Sukanta Chakraborty

    2014-01-01

    Along with the infrastructural development works, the demand for construction materials is increasing rapidly, which in turns lead to the rapid growth of brick manufacturing industries. Large demand of bricks in development and construction sectors has resulted in mushrooming of brick industries clusters at the outskirt of Agartala City. Jirania brick industries cluster is one of largest cluster of the Tripura State (India). Approximately 45% of total bricks of the State are b...

  8. The Key Points of Building an Online Store

    OpenAIRE

    Etuaro, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Online shopping is becoming more popular in Finland and online shopping sales levels have increased. There has been concern that brick and mortar stores are losing their customers to online stores and that Finnish stores are losing their customers to international online stores. One solution to this concern is that Finnish brick and mortar stores also start selling online. But how to build online stores? The aim of this thesis was to study about building an online store based on theory and...

  9. Building elements and systems using vacuum insulated panels in external walling; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Steinke, G.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a research project concerning vacuum-insulated building elements and systems. The advantages of the thin vacuum insulation panels (VIP) are listed and compared with the increasingly thick layers of conventional insulation required for low energy consumption buildings that meet so-called 'passive house' standard. The aims of the research project are discussed which addressed the particular requirements placed on the materials and their protection against external damage. The monitoring of vacuum state using RFID chips is discussed. Various protective elements are examined. Also, facade constructions and the avoidance of thermal short circuits are discussed. Illustrated examples of applications are presented and developments in this fast-moving area are commented on.

  10. A neuro-fuzzy model for prediction of the indoor temperature in typical Australian residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alasha' ary, Haitham; Moghtaderi, Behdad; Page, Adrian; Sugo, Heber [Priority Research Centre for Energy, Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    The Masonry Research Group at The University of Newcastle, Australia has embarked on an extensive research program to study the thermal performance of common walling systems in Australian residential buildings by studying the thermal behaviour of four representative purpose-built thermal test buildings (referred to as 'test modules' or simply 'modules' hereafter). The modules are situated on the university campus and are constructed from brick veneer (BV), cavity brick (CB) and lightweight (LW) constructions. The program of study has both experimental and analytical strands, including the use of a neuro-fuzzy approach to predict the thermal behaviour. The latter approach employs an experimental adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) which is used in this study to predict the room (indoor) temperatures of the modules under a range of climatic conditions pertinent to Newcastle (NSW, Australia). The study shows that this neuro-fuzzy model is capable of accurately predicting the room temperature of such buildings; thus providing a potential computationally efficient and inexpensive predictive tool for the more effective thermal design of housing. (author)

  11. Properties of bricks produced from Greenlandic marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Ida Maria Gieysztor; Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Chen, Wan;

    2015-01-01

    ). Miniature bricks werethen prepared according to the optimal conditions and formed at a pressure of 20 MPa, fired at 1020 Cfor 3:5 days at the brickwork Wienerberger Tegl in Helsinge, Denmark. The durability properties suchas porosity, water absorption, bulk density, linear shrinkage, and compressive...... submersion in cold water to fulfilthe requirements for severe weathering according to ASTM-C62 (2013). It was concluded that the firingtemperature needed to be increased in order to obtain a more durable brick-type, suitable for the Arcticclimate.......This study investigated the possibility of a local brick production from fine grained marine sediments (MS) near Sisimiut, Greenland. The assessment is based on the physical and mechanical properties of clay bricks concerning the resistance to the harsh, Arctic weather conditions, together with an...

  12. High Alumina Refractory Bricks for Electric Arc Furnace Roofs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the sort, technical requirement, test method, inspection rules, marking, packing, transportation, storage and quality certification of high alumina refractory bricks for electric arc furnace roofs.

  13. Brane Brick Models and 2d (0,2) Triality

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Sebastian; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    We provide a brane realization of 2d (0,2) Gadde-Gukov-Putrov triality in terms of brane brick models. These are Type IIA brane configurations that are T-dual to D1-branes over singular toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds. Triality translates into a local transformation of brane brick models, whose simplest representative is a cube move. We present explicit examples and construct their triality networks. We also argue that the classical mesonic moduli space of brane brick model theories, which corresponds to the probed Calabi-Yau 4-fold, is invariant under triality. Finally, we discuss triality in terms of phase boundaries, which play a central role in connecting Calabi-Yau 4-folds to brane brick models.

  14. Natural radioactivity levels in building materials used in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fawzia

    All building materials contain various amounts of radioactive nuclides. The levels of natural radioactivity in 43 selected typical building materials used in the construction of walls, windows and doors were determined. For the first time, the radioactivity of iron was measured, revealing the existence of 60Co. A shielded high-purity germanium detector was used to measure the abundance of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The materials examined in this work showed radioactivity levels below the limit estimated from radium equivalent activity for acceptable radiation doses attributable to building materials, except for the fact that one gypsum sample showed higher levels of activity than average world levels. The studied building materials were classified according to the radium equivalent activities, which varied from highest to lowest levels as follows: clay, cement, brick, gypsum except from Abu-Zaabal, sand, wood, iron, glass and hydrated lime The existence of the 137Cs isotope in some building materials was confirmed and its concentration levels were determined (ranging from 0.04 to 21.156 Bq kg-1). The alpha-activity of radon was measured in a number of building materials using CR-39 detectors.

  15. The production technology of shale fly ash fired brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaoYuhua

    2005-01-01

    When we construct the shale fly-ash fired brick production line, the first of all is that we must explored mineral raw material in detailed, and prove up the exploitable storage,so that the storage of raw material can supply the production line adequately when the factory has been set up.The second is that we must analyze the raw material completely. According to the raw material basic properties,we can decide process of the brick making.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL SHOCK BEHAVIOUR IN ALUMINA BASED REFRACTORY BRICKS

    OpenAIRE

    N. Sinan KÖKSAL; B. Sadık ÜNLÜ; Cevdet MERİÇ

    2003-01-01

    cUnderstanding of mechanical and thermal properties of refractory bricks used in industry is an important aspect to determine appropriate operating conditions. In this study, commercial refractory materials used in the sector of iron steel 45 % and 80 % alumina (Al2O3) of content refractory bricks were investigated. To determinate thermal shock behavior and mechanical properties of samples, thermal shock tests were applied by quenching in the water at the temperature differences of 500, 70...

  17. High Temperature Property Development of Bauxite Based Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Molin; K. Ghanbari Ahari; B. Josiek; J. Molin

    2003-01-01

    Physical properties and microstructural evolution on firing of 3 types of bauxite based refractory bricks were carried out using techniques such as porosimetry, XRD and SEM. The groups differed from each other by progressive refining of the matrix or bond phase. It is revealed that such a refinement of the matrix can improve the high temperature properties of the bricks made from poor grade materials.

  18. Cellular Concrete Bricks with Recycled Expanded Polystyrene Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Bosco Hernández-Zaragoza; Teresa López-Lara; Jaime Horta-Rangel; Carlos López-Cajún; Eduardo Rojas-González; F. J. García-Rodríguez; Jorge Adue

    2013-01-01

    Cellular concrete bricks were obtained by using a lightweight mortar with recycled expanded polystyrene aggregate instead of sandy materials. After determining the block properties (absorption, compressive strength, and tensile stresses), it was found that this brick meets the requirements of the masonry standards used in Mexico. The obtained material is lighter than the commercial ones, which facilitates their rapid elaboration, quality control, and transportation. It is less permeable, whic...

  19. Reutilization of leather residue by incorporation in bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de; Valente, A. R.; Pires, M.J.; Tavares, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    Leather strips is one by-product of the footwear industry. Due to high chromium content, this leather residue can be regarded as a threat to the environment, particularly if no care is taken with its disposal. With the incorporation of this residue into ceramic products, it is possible to neutralise the chromium toxicity. In a laboratory study, the authors produced prismatic bricks using clay from the region, incorporating 1, 3 and 5 mass-% of leather residues. The bricks were tested regardin...

  20. Application of neutron radiography to building industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography (NR) technique has been adopted to study the characteristics of some Bangladeshi building materials, e.g. bricks, ceramic bricks, heavy concrete, MS rod and shielding materials (borax mixed and boron mixed shields) and some Slovanian building materials, local names of which are Siporex, Malta, Opeka and Beton. Measurements were made to determine defects in all the samples and water absorption behaviour of the Slovanian building materials. Optical density of the neutron radiographs was adopted for measurements in both the cases. (author)

  1. Contribution to the study of gas and liquid transfers inside damaged concrete walls under thermo-hydric stress: application to confinement buildings in test and accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is the study of fluid transfers induced by two types of stresses (test of tightness and LOCA-type accident), inside a concrete wall integrating the inhomogeneities and singularities susceptible to be present inside the confinement building of a nuclear reactor. After the study of several types of concretes, based on the permeabilities and types of gas flows involved, the experimental phase has permitted to test at scale 1 (1.3 m thickness) and in test and accidental conditions, a concrete composition which fulfills a representativeness criterion. The modeling part has been carried out using the thermo-hydro-mechanical model of non-saturated porous media, recently embedded inside the Code-Aster of EDF. The synthesis of physical observations and of numerical simulations has permitted to better constrain the different roles of the porous structure, in particular about the transposition between a air flow and a air + steam flow. (J.S.)

  2. Recycling of radioactive oil sludge waste into pavement brick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia produces about 1450 tons of radioactive oil sludge waste per year and there is an urgent need to find a permanent solution to the storage and disposal of this radioactive waste problem. Several treatment methods such bacteria farming, ultracentrifuge, steam reforming and incineration are currently being used but the core issue of the radioactive material in the oil sludge had not been solved. The paper relates a study on utilizing the radioactive component of the oil sludge and turning them into pavement brick. Characteristic study of this radioactive component by XRD and XRF show that it mainly comprised of quartz and anorthite minerals. While the radioactivity analysis by gamma technique shows that more than 90 % of this radioactivity comes from this soil component with Ra-226 and Ra-228 as the main radionuclides. A vitrified brick was then produced from this sediment by mixing it with low radioactive local red clay. The result also shows that the formation of the vitrified layer may be due high content of K in the red clay. Tensile test on the brick shows that it has more than four times the strength of commercial clay brick. Long duration leaching test on the brick also shows that there is no dissolution of radionuclide from the brick. (author)

  3. A study of fly ash-lime granule unfired brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Chindaprasirt; K. Pimraksa [Khon Kaen University (Thailand). Department of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, the properties of fly ash-lime granule unfired bricks are studied. Granules were prepared from mixtures of fly ash and lime at fly ash to hydrated lime ratios of 100:0 (Ca/Si = 0.2), 95:5 (Ca/Si = 0.35) and 90:10 (Ca/Si = 0.5). After a period of moist curing, the microstructure and mineralogy of the granules were studied. Microstructure examination reveals that new phases in the form of needle-like particles are formed at the surface of granule. The granules were used to make unfired bricks using hydrothermal treatment at temperature of 130 {+-} 5{sup o}C and pressure of 0.14 MPa. The microstructures, mineralogical compositions, mechanical properties and environmental impact of bricks were determined. The results reveal that the strengths of unfired bricks are dependent on the fineness of fly ash. The strength is higher with an increase in fly ash fineness. The strengths of the fly ash-lime granule unfired brick are excellent at 47.0-62.5 MPa. The high strength is due to the formation of new products consisting mainly of hibschite and Al-substituted 11 {angstrom} tobermorite. The main advantage of utilization of granule is the ability to increase the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash through moisture retained in the granule. In addition, the heavy elements, in particular Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn are efficiently retained in the fly ash-lime granule unfired brick.

  4. Building materials and systems with vacuum insulation panels for external walls; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Steinke, G.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at materials and systems using vacuum insulation panels (VIP) for the construction of external walls. The aim of this research project was the development, practical use and market introduction of VIP systems that take account of the special properties of VIP. Along with partners in industry, applications involving external and internal insulation were examined. The need for protecting the vacuum panels against mechanical damage is stressed. The specific needs for the protection of external and internal applications are discussed. The dynamic developments in this relatively new area are commented on. Various mounting systems are examined and commented on. The thermal properties of such insulation systems and applications are noted and commented on.

  5. Hydrophilic Modification of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube for Building Photonic Crystals with Enhanced Color Visibility and Mechanical Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihu Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Low color visibility and poor mechanical strength of polystyrene (PS photonic crystal films have been the main shortcomings for the potential applications in paints or displays. This paper presents a simple method to fabricate PS/MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite photonic crystal films with enhanced color visibility and mechanical strength. First, MWCNTs was modified through radical addition reaction by aniline 2,5-double sulfonic acid diazonium salt to generate hydrophilic surface and good water dispersity. Then the MWCNTs dispersion was blended with PS emulsion to form homogeneous PS/MWCNTs emulsion mixtures and fabricate composite films through thermal-assisted method. The obtained films exhibit high color visibility under natural light and improved mechanical strength owing to the light-adsorption property and crosslinking effect of MWCNTs. The utilization of MWCNTs in improving the properties of photonic crystals is significant for various applications, such as in paints and displays.

  6. Hydrophilic Modification of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube for Building Photonic Crystals with Enhanced Color Visibility and Mechanical Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feihu; Tang, Bingtao; Xiu, Jinghai; Zhang, Shufen

    2016-01-01

    Low color visibility and poor mechanical strength of polystyrene (PS) photonic crystal films have been the main shortcomings for the potential applications in paints or displays. This paper presents a simple method to fabricate PS/MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes) composite photonic crystal films with enhanced color visibility and mechanical strength. First, MWCNTs was modified through radical addition reaction by aniline 2,5-double sulfonic acid diazonium salt to generate hydrophilic surface and good water dispersity. Then the MWCNTs dispersion was blended with PS emulsion to form homogeneous PS/MWCNTs emulsion mixtures and fabricate composite films through thermal-assisted method. The obtained films exhibit high color visibility under natural light and improved mechanical strength owing to the light-adsorption property and crosslinking effect of MWCNTs. The utilization of MWCNTs in improving the properties of photonic crystals is significant for various applications, such as in paints and displays. PMID:27136514

  7. Thermophysical characteristics of low density autoclaved aerated concrete and their influence on durability of exterior walls of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Krutilin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental studies of thermophysical characteristics of autoclaved aerated concrete with density of 400 and 500 kg/m3. The dependence of thermal conductivity on temperature and humidity was determined. The boundary humidities were set for which ice is either not formed or its amount is negligible in the pores of the materials at the temperature below zero. The new method of non-isothermal liquid transport coefficient determination was suggested. It was found that one of the basic mechanisms of moving water for cellular concrete samples with a moisture content over 30 % by weight is non-isothermal liquid transport. The effect of humidity on durability of exterior walls is estimated according to cellular concrete frost-resistance tests.

  8. Different Modelling Approaches to Coupling Wall and Floor Panels within a Dynamic Finite Element Model of a Lightweight Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiel, Nikolaj; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Niu, Bin;

    2012-01-01

    with possible sound emission as a consequence, must be avoided. A parametric modular finite element model has been developed for this purpose as described in a companion paper presented at this conference. In [1]. This model is intended as a basis for vibro-acoustic analysis of lightweight buildings....... In this way a well-defined master geometry is present onto which all panels can be tied. But as the skeleton is an element itself, it will have a physical mass and a corresponding stiffness to be included in the linear system of equations. This means that the skeleton will influence the structure...

  9. Comparison of the thermal properties of clay samples as potential walling material for naturally cooled building design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The thermal properties of different clay samples obtainedfrom locations in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria were investigated andcomppared, and in order to establish their suitability as buildingmaterial from energy conservation point of view. The results showedthat sstoneware clay has the highest solar radiation absorptivityof 22.32 m-1 while kaolin clay has the lowest radiation absoptivityof 14.46 m-1. A model for the prediction of temperature variationwith thickness of the samples was developed. Results showed thatkaolin would make the best choice for the design of a naturallycooled building.

  10. Influence of Wall Surface and Air Modelling in Finite-Element Analysis of Sound Transmission Between Rooms in Lightweight Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens;

    2012-01-01

    Noise is a nuisance in the built environment, and to avoid undesirable transmission of sound and vibration within a building, its vibro-acoustic performance must be addressed in the design phase. For heavy structures, a reliable assessment of the sound pressure levels can be made by statistical...... be adopted. Five different cases are compared: A model that only includes the structure, a model with semi-infinite elements to account for radiation from the structure into the air, a model introducing finite elements for the acoustic field, a model with dissipation of sound inside the room, and finally...

  11. Review on Seismic Rehabilitation of a 56-Story RC Tall Building having Shear Wall System Based on A Nonlinear Dynamic Performance Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehran tower is a 56 story reinforced concrete tall building consisting of three wings with identical plan dimensions each approximately 48 meters by 22 meters. The three wings are at 120 degree from each other and have no expansions/seismic Joints. This paper contains the consideration of the retrofitting of the Tehran tower based on the findings of an exhaustive investigation of the nonlinear performance evaluation efforts. It has tried to show the procedure followed, methodologies utilized, and the results obtained for life-safety and collapse-prevention evaluation of the building. More over the weak zones of the structure due to analysis results are introduced and appropriate retrofit technique for satisfaction related life-safety and collapse-prevention criteria is presented. Actually in this project to improve the local behavior of coupling panels which are located regularly in main walls and definitely have been recognized as the most vulnerable structural elements, making use of steel plates which are connected to concrete members by chemical anchors has been used as the best retrofitting method for this case. Therefore in the final section of this paper it has been tried to explain the professional practical method utilized to perform the mentioned retrofitting project

  12. Review on Seismic Rehabilitation of a 56-Story RC Tall Building having Shear Wall System Based on A Nonlinear Dynamic Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epackachi, S.; Esmaili, O.; Mirghaderi, S. R.; Taheri, A. A.

    2008-07-01

    Tehran tower is a 56 story reinforced concrete tall building consisting of three wings with identical plan dimensions each approximately 48 meters by 22 meters. The three wings are at 120 degree from each other and have no expansions/seismic Joints. This paper contains the consideration of the retrofitting of the Tehran tower based on the findings of an exhaustive investigation of the nonlinear performance evaluation efforts. It has tried to show the procedure followed, methodologies utilized, and the results obtained for life-safety and collapse-prevention evaluation of the building. More over the weak zones of the structure due to analysis results are introduced and appropriate retrofit technique for satisfaction related life-safety and collapse-prevention criteria is presented. Actually in this project to improve the local behavior of coupling panels which are located regularly in main walls and definitely have been recognized as the most vulnerable structural elements, making use of steel plates which are connected to concrete members by chemical anchors has been used as the best retrofitting method for this case. Therefore in the final section of this paper it has been tried to explain the professional practical method utilized to perform the mentioned retrofitting project.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Modern Building Thermal Envelope Designs in the Semi-Arid Continental Climate of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Mohammad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the thermal performance of a range of modern wall constructions used in the residential buildings of Tehran in order to find the most appropriate alternative to the traditional un-fired clay and brick materials, which are increasingly being replaced in favor of more slender wall constructions employing hollow clay, autoclaved aerated concrete or light expanded clay aggregate blocks. The importance of improving the building envelope through estimating the potential for energy saving due to the application of the most energy-efficient wall type is presented and the wall constructions currently erected in Tehran are introduced along with their dynamic and steady-state thermal properties. The application of a dynamic simulation tool is explained and the output of the thermal simulation model is compared with the dynamic thermal properties of the wall constructions to assess their performance in summer and in winter. Finally, the best and worst wall type in terms of their cyclic thermal performance and their ability to moderate outdoor conditions is identified through comparison of the predicted indoor temperature and a target comfort temperature.

  14. Feasibility study of prompt gamma neutron activation for NDT measurement of moisture in stone and brick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conservation of stone and brick architecture or sculpture often involves damage caused by moisture. The feasibility of a NDT method based on prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA) for measuring the element hydrogen as an indication of water is being evaluated. This includes systematic characterization of the lithology and physical properties of seven building stones and one brick type used in the buildings of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. To determine the required dynamic range of the NDT method, moisture-related properties were measured by standard methods. Cold neutron PGNA was also used to determine chemically bound water (CBW) content. The CBW does not damage porous masonry, but creates an H background that defines the minimum level of detection of damaging moisture. The CBW was on the order of 0.5% for all the stones. This rules out the measurement of hygric processes in all of the stones and hydric processed for the stones with fine scale pore-size distributions The upper bound of moisture content, set by porosity through water immersion, was on the order of 5%. The dynamic range is about 10–20. The H count rates were roughly 1–3 cps. Taking into account differences in neutron energies and fluxes and sample volume between cold PGNA and a portable PGNA instrument, it appears that it is feasible to apply PGNA in the field

  15. [Building of defects of the bladder wall by membrane, created on the basis of type I collagen (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalov, A A; Mksimov, V A; Kirpatovskiĭ, V I; Kudriavtsev, Iu V; Karpov, V K; Tokarev, F K; Kamalov, D M; Burov, V N; Okhobotov, D A

    2012-01-01

    Experimental study was performed on 24 Chinchilla rabbits, which underwent resection of the bladder with building of defect by membrane "Collost", created on the basis of type I collagen. The functional state of the bladder in situ was assessed by infusion cystomanometry during repeated surgery at 7, 14 day and at 1, 3, 6 months, and at 1 and 1.5 years. It is found that developing detrusor pressure during bladder contractions was decreased by 10 times in the first week of the study; it was in line with the subcompensation after 3 months, and was restored at 6 month. At 1 and 1.5 years, increase of cumulative function of bladder while saving detrusor pressure was observed. Dilating cystoplastics using biopolymer "Collost" provides good long-term functional results. PMID:23379236

  16. Catastrophic vs gradual collapse of thin-walled nanocrystalline Ni hollow cylinders as building blocks of microlattice structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jie; Jang, Dongchan; Valdevit, Lorenzo; Schaedler, Tobias A; Jacobsen, Alan J; B Carter, William; Greer, Julia R

    2011-10-12

    Lightweight yet stiff and strong lattice structures are attractive for various engineering applications, such as cores of sandwich shells and components designed for impact mitigation. Recent breakthroughs in manufacturing enable efficient fabrication of hierarchically architected microlattices, with dimensional control spanning seven orders of magnitude in length scale. These materials have the potential to exploit desirable nanoscale-size effects in a macroscopic structure, as long as their mechanical behavior at each appropriate scale - nano, micro, and macro levels - is properly understood. In this letter, we report the nanomechanical response of individual microlattice members. We show that hollow nanocrystalline Ni cylinders differing only in wall thicknesses, 500 and 150 nm, exhibit strikingly different collapse modes: the 500 nm sample collapses in a brittle manner, via a single strain burst, while the 150 nm sample shows a gradual collapse, via a series of small and discrete strain bursts. Further, compressive strength in 150 nm sample is 99.2% lower than predicted by shell buckling theory, likely due to localized buckling and fracture events observed during in situ compression experiments. We attribute this difference to the size-induced transition in deformation behavior, unique to nanoscale, and discuss it in the framework of "size effects" in crystalline strength. PMID:21851060

  17. ESR dosimetry using quartz grains in bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present studies indicate that ESR dosimetry of A-bomb can be done using the signal at g=2.0008 for quartz grains in bricks collected at distances of about less than 1 - 2 km from the epicenter of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. One can estimate that ESR dating of archaeological samples of a few thousands years before present is also possible using quartz grains of ancient ceramics. As the sensitivity of ESR spectrometer is improved, the minimum number of the detectable spins will be further reduced. The minimum detectable dose of 1.6 ± 0.6 Gy and the detectable age of a few thousand years would be reduced by one or two orders of the magnitude. This indicates that ESR dosimetry can replace TLD because of the advantage of repeated measurements of a sample. If a few dose can be measured, ESR dating based on dosimetry will go into the field from geology to archaeology and probably into history and forensic science. (author)

  18. Properties of Nanocrystals-formulated Aluminosilicate Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Conciauro

    2015-10-01

    insulating and/or mechanical properties. The nanocrystals- modified refractories showed variations in properties, with respect to the untreated aluminosilicate reference in heat- insulating performances (thermal diffusivities were measured by the “hot disk” technique. In general, they also showed improvements in mechanical compression resist‐ ance for all of the samples at 2 wt. %. The best heat insula‐ tion was obtained with the addition of nano-aluminium hydroxide at 2 wt. %, while the highest mechanical compres‐ sion breaking resistance was found with nano-CaCO3 at 2 wt. %. These outcomes were investigated with complemen‐ tary techniques, like mercury porosimetry for porosity, and Archimedes methods to measure physical properties like the bulk and apparent densities, apparent porosities and water absorption. The results show that the nano-alumini‐ um hydroxide modified bricks were the most porous, which could explain the best heat-insulating performances. There is a less straightforward explanation for the mechanical resistance results, as they may have relations with the characteristics of the pores. Furthermore, the nanoparti‐ cles may have possible reactions with the matrix during the heat treatments.

  19. Increase in fire resistance of building expansion joints via intumescent sealant composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Osipov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the possibility of increasing the fireproof efficiency of the intumescent sealant composition for the heat-insulating unit when sealing expansion joints between concrete elements. Fire protection of building structures is a part of the general system of measures to ensure fire safety and fire resistance of buildings and structures. It aims to reduce the structures’ fire hazard and provide them with the required fire resistance. The main objectives of fire protection are: fire prevention, initial flame breakdown, reduction of fire hazards and fire localization. The material we developed may be used to seal closed and drained exterior wall joints or fire control elements; connections between reinforced concrete and bricks; local sealing of various types of cavities with prescribed fire resistance and so on.

  20. Ceramic bricks made from municipal solid waste incineration-derived clay and ashes: a quality study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto García Ubaque

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analytical data from tests on bricks made from different clay/ash mixtures. The ashes used were obtained from a Hoffmann-type brick-making furnace equipped for coal and municipal solid waste co-firing. The bricks were physically and chemically characterised and their quality was determined by porosimetry, water absorption, breaking load and tensile strength tests. Brick loading capacity increased by up to 10% with ash mixtures and decreased at higher percentages, whereas water absorption increased brick loading capacity for all mixtures. This study showed that clay/ash bricks complied with all the quality standards required in Colombia.

  1. INFLUENCE OF SULFATE AND CHLORIDE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FIRED CLAY MASONRY WALL

    OpenAIRE

    mohd haziman bin wan ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of aggressive environment on the mechanical properties of masonry systems. The investigation involved the measurement of strength and modulus of elasticity of single leaf brick masonry wall which were built from fired clay bricks in conjunction with designation (iii) mortar with proportions of 1: 1: 6 (OPC: lime: sand). After being constructed, the specimens were cured under polythene sheet for 14 days in a controlled environment room with 80 ± 5% relative hu...

  2. On results of measurement and method of behavior analysis for land slide protection wall in excavation works for main building foundation of No.2 plant in Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokyo Electric Power Co. has been constructing the nuclear power station having 8 million kW capacity of seven BWR plants in the site of about 4.2 million m2 in Niigata Prefecture. No.1 BWR plant of 1100 MWe output started the operation in September, 1985. As a rule, the important structures in nuclear power stations such as a reactor building and a turbine building are to be directly supported on bedrocks, and in this case, on the mudstone of Nishiyama strata. As this Nishiyama strata exists in large depth, the excavation works for the foundations of buildings are to be carried out by installing large scale land slide protection walls. In this report, among the excavation works for the main building foundation of No.2 plant, the results of examining the behavior of the land slide protection wall installed in soft rock ground based on the results of measurement of vertical excavation by land slide protection method and the techniques of its analysis are described. The geological features, the design of land slide protection walls, the measurement of the land slide protection walls and surrounding ground and the results, and the examination of the analysis methods by a beam model and FEM are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. Quaternary ammonium biocides as antimicrobial agents protecting historical wood and brick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Koziróg, Anna; Otlewska, Anna; Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina; Brycki, Bogumił; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used in disinfection of water, surfaces and instruments as well as in textile, leather and food industries because of their relatively low toxicity, broad antimicrobial spectrum, non-volatility and chemical stability. Due to these advantages, QACs are also used in restoration and can be applied on historical material. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of biocides based on quaternary ammonium salts and containing various excipients in the protection of historical materials against microbial growth. The study determined the antimicrobial activity of three biocides against bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus muralis, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians, and moulds: Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium citreonigrum, Cladosporium cladosporioides I, Acremonium strictum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium cladosporioides II, all isolated from historical wood and brick. Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians bacteria, and Cladosporium cladosporioides I and Acremonium strictum moulds showed high sensitivity to quaternary ammonium biocides. Historical wood can be effectively disinfected by three applications of biocide A (30% v/v) containing dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), citric acid, propiconazole and propanol. Disinfection of historical brick can be carried out by three applications of 6% v/v solutions of biocide B (based on DDAC and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid - EDTA) or biocide C (containing a non-ionic surfactant, DDAC and EDTA). Effective protection of historical building materials against microbial growth for a period of seven days can be achieved by the application of biocide A (30% v/v) on the wood surface and biocide B (6% v/v) on the brick surface. PMID:26629794

  4. Developing innovative systems for reinforced masonry walls

    OpenAIRE

    Mosele, F.; Porto, F. da; Modena, C.; Fusco, A. di; Cesare, G. di; Vasconcelos, Graça; Haach, V.; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Beer, I; Schmidt, U.; Brameshuber, W.; Scheufler, W.; Schermer, D. C.; Zilch, K.

    2006-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities has recently funded a CRAFT research project aimed at developing innovative systems for load and non-load-bearing reinforced masonry walls. The project involves twelve partners coming from four different European countries, among which there are universities and research centres, small and medium enterprises for the production of clay and concrete units and mortars, a company for advanced metal products and industrial associations of brick and block ...

  5. About the survey of building structures with signs of biodeterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Startsev

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article different types of biological destructors and mechanism of their influence on building structures are examined. Experience in the survey of masonry, brick, metal, wooden, reinforced-concrete buildings damaged or destroyed biologically is depicted. Recommendations for microbiological survey of buildings are given.

  6. 75 FR 20813 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from the People's Republic of China: Amended Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Determination, 75 FR 11847 (March 12, 2010) (``Preliminary Determination''). We are amending our Preliminary... International Trade Administration Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from the People's Republic of China: Amended... value (``LTFV'') in the antidumping duty investigation of certain magnesia carbon bricks...

  7. esearch and Application of Burned Microporous High Alumian—Graphite(Al/C) Brick in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANXiaoming; SONGMusen

    1999-01-01

    This paper inroduces the research background,technology,product property and application of burned microporous high alumina-graphite brick (Al2O3-C brick) used in blast furnace,The difference of property between Al2O3-C brick and other blast furnace refractories is discussed .The results of simulative tests show that ,Al2O3-C brick has good alkali resistance,slag resistance,thermal shock resistance,oxidation resistance,high thermal conductivity,low permeability and low solubility in molten iron,The brick with micropores of average radius less than 1μm has been successively applied to fourteen blast furnaces, the lining life of the brick is almost as long as that of Si3N4 bonded SiC brick Al2O3-C brick will be widely used in lower stack ,belly,bosh and hearth in the future.

  8. Production of Silica-refractory Bricks from White Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazze Almarahle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, no refractories are produced in Jordan, but large quantities are imported for use in the lining of furnaces and kilns in the metallurgical industries.The aim of this study is to initiate a program of research for production of silica-refractory bricks from local materials.The raw material, which has been used in this study was white sand. This sand contains less than 0.5% Fe2O3 and is therefore suitable for production of glass. The sand used for production of glass is also suitable for production of silica refractory bricks. The method for production of this bricks consists of mixing the white sand with 2.5 CaO (milklime which acts as a binder and mineraliser in order to convert the free quartz to tridymite and crystobalite.

  9. Analysis of Some Building Damage Phenomena in the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Min; Li Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    The Ms 8. 0 Wenchuan earthquake caused a great deal of damage and collapse to engineering structures. Survey of disaster and engineering damage was made in detail by the authors and other researchers in the extreme earthquake disaster area. The paper makes an overview of the earthquake disaster status and damage phenomena which include brick-concrete buildings, frame structures, brick-wood structures, and timber frame residential buildings. Furthermore, the causes of the disaster and building damage phenomena are briefly discussed. In addition, some typical damage phenomena are specialized. According to the phenomena mentioned above, some feasible seismic measures are suggested for the development of buildings in future.

  10. Comparative study on fast classification of brick samples by combination of principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis using stand-off and table-top laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focusing on historical aspect, during archeological excavation or restoration works of buildings or different structures built from bricks it is important to determine, preferably in-situ and in real-time, the locality of bricks origin. Fast classification of bricks on the base of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) spectra is possible using multivariate statistical methods. Combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was applied in this case. LIBS was used to classify altogether the 29 brick samples from 7 different localities. Realizing comparative study using two different LIBS setups — stand-off and table-top it is shown that stand-off LIBS has a big potential for archeological in-field measurements. - Highlights: • Comparison of two potentially field-deployable LIBS setups is introduced. • The aim is classification of LIBS spectra of brick samples into several localities. • LDA filled with PCA scores is proposed as an effective classification method. • An influence of brick firing temperature on LIBS spectra is discovered and examined

  11. An accelerated test method for efflorescence in clay bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation into the creation of accelerated efflorescence in clay bricks was undertaken with a view to creating a viable test procedure for determining efflorescence potential. The testing programme incorporated ambient conditions similar to those which promote efflorescence growth in bricks in use. Theoretical investigations into the physical mechanism underlying the creation of efflorescence directed the attempts to accelerate the process. It was found that calcium sulphate efflorescence could not be sufficiently accelerated such that a useful efflorescence test procedure could be proposed. The inability to produce accelerated efflorescence in brick samples was attributed to limitations associated with time dependent salt diffusion in the efflorescence mechanism. The preliminary testing that was undertaken into the creation of efflorescence prompted the use of acid assisted methods to accelerate efflorescence. The acid assisted method that was adopted to provide a possible indication of efflorescence potential relies upon the transformation of low solubility calcium to a more soluble form. The movement of the transformed salt is then induced by cyclic temperature exposure at temperatures similar to those experienced in Spring. The appearance of the transformed calcium salt on the surface of the brick specimen provides an indication of the efflorescence potential. Brick piers constructed on an exposed site and monitored over a 12 month period provided information on the validity of the acid assisted test method. The efflorescence observed on the piers correlated well with that predicted by the acid assisted test, suggesting that the new test has the potential to accurately predict the efflorescence potential of clay bricks Relationships between other properties such as air permeability, sorptivity and tensile strength were investigated such that an alternative method of predicting efflorescence could be achieved. It was found that (within the bounds of the

  12. Experimental and numerical researches on collision of graphite bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Collisions between two graphite bricks have been studied in the experiment. • Linear track and optics acquisition system were used to obtain collision characters. • The contact time decreases while the coefficient of restitution rises up with speed. • Specimen's rotating slightly to adjust posture is the main factor of the contact time. • The collision characters are sensitive to the posture deviation of specimens. - Abstract: Graphite bricks have important applications in high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). The core of HTGR is a pebble-bed surrounded by graphite bricks, so vibrations and collisions between graphite bricks caused by external excitation have important influence on structural stability of the core. The experiment is aimed at studying the collisions between two bricks, using linear track test and optics acquisition system to obtain the collision characteristics of graphite bricks. Experimental results show the contact time decreases while the coefficient of restitution rises up with collision speed increasing. The results data are well-distributed and basic rules are credible. In the experiment, the impact surfaces did not make contact at the same time, as the specimens would twirl gently to adjust posture, and perfect flat collision was difficult to achieve. We simulated the collision process by a two-dimensional numerical model which had a small collision angle between the two contact surfaces. The simulation results fit well with experimental data and reveal the main influence factor of the collision characteristics. We have also discussed factors of small collision angle in the experiment, the dispersion degree of the contact time data in different speed ranges and the relationship between the coefficient of restitution and the speed. Discussion on the posture adjustment in a flat collision is an important part in the paper, and the analysis of that is meaningful for the future dynamic simulation of the core

  13. Experimental and numerical researches on collision of graphite bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Lie; Wang, Hongtao [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Libin, E-mail: slb@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Haitao [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ma, Shaopeng [Department of Mechanics, School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Collisions between two graphite bricks have been studied in the experiment. • Linear track and optics acquisition system were used to obtain collision characters. • The contact time decreases while the coefficient of restitution rises up with speed. • Specimen's rotating slightly to adjust posture is the main factor of the contact time. • The collision characters are sensitive to the posture deviation of specimens. - Abstract: Graphite bricks have important applications in high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). The core of HTGR is a pebble-bed surrounded by graphite bricks, so vibrations and collisions between graphite bricks caused by external excitation have important influence on structural stability of the core. The experiment is aimed at studying the collisions between two bricks, using linear track test and optics acquisition system to obtain the collision characteristics of graphite bricks. Experimental results show the contact time decreases while the coefficient of restitution rises up with collision speed increasing. The results data are well-distributed and basic rules are credible. In the experiment, the impact surfaces did not make contact at the same time, as the specimens would twirl gently to adjust posture, and perfect flat collision was difficult to achieve. We simulated the collision process by a two-dimensional numerical model which had a small collision angle between the two contact surfaces. The simulation results fit well with experimental data and reveal the main influence factor of the collision characteristics. We have also discussed factors of small collision angle in the experiment, the dispersion degree of the contact time data in different speed ranges and the relationship between the coefficient of restitution and the speed. Discussion on the posture adjustment in a flat collision is an important part in the paper, and the analysis of that is meaningful for the future dynamic simulation of the core

  14. Introducing Energy-efficient Clean Technologies in the Brick Sector of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This study's objectives are: (i) to present the pros and cons of existing and alternative brick technologies in Bangladesh with specific focus on pollution and energy efficiency; (ii) to estimate the private and social benefits of these technologies (iii) to summarize China's experience in the development of the brick industry, as the world leader brick producer and (iv) to provide concret...

  15. Seismic analysis and testing of clay tile walls at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent DOE 6430.1A General Design Criteria has emphasized the importance of determining the adequacy and, hence, safety of both new and old facilities to natural phenomenon hazards such as earthquakes and high winds. In order to meet the criteria, an existing unreinforced clay time wall, which is an integral part of a new facility being placed in an old building, has been evaluated for resistance to seismic events. Part I of this paper consists of the analytical studies. The facility was mathematically modeled and analyzed using a finite element program. The material properties used in the analysis are based exclusively on data available in the current engineering literature for masonry blocks and walls. The results of the analysis conclude that the wall is adequate to meet the seismic requirements per the new criteria, but the results of the testing program described in Part II will eventually need to be incorporated into the analysis. Part II documents the results of a testing program to obtain material properties of the masonry and verify the values used in the analysis of Part I. The fact that most of the available testing data is on brick and concrete block and that the condition of the walls throughout the plants is suspect led to the testing program. The following tests on clay-tile walls, units, and panels were performed: (1) in-situ mortar joint shear strength of existing 12-inch walls, (2) compression strength, (3) tensile strength, and (4) diagonal tension (shear) strength of panels taken from the existing walls. The test results at this time are fairly inconclusive and have high standard deviations. The testing program is ongoing and is currently being expanded

  16. Creative Building Design for Innovative Earth Science Teaching and Outreach (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Earth Science departments can blend the physical “bricks and mortar” facility with programs and educational displays to create a facility that is a permanent outreach tool and a welcoming home for teaching and research. The new Frederick Albert Sutton building at the University of Utah is one of the first LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified Earth Science buildings in the country. Throughout the structure, creative architectural designs are combined with sustainability, artful geologic displays, and community partnerships. Distinctive features of the building include: 1) Unique, inviting geologic designs such as cross bedding pattern in the concrete foundation; “a river runs through it” (a pebble tile “stream” inside the entrance); “confluence” lobby with spectacular Eocene Green River fossil fish and plant walls; polished rock slabs; and many natural stone elements. All displays are also designed as teaching tools. 2) Student-generated, energy efficient, sustainable projects such as: solar tube lights, xeriscape & rock monoliths, rainwater collection, roof garden, pervious cement, and energy monitoring. 3) Reinforced concrete foundation for vibration-free analytical measurements, and exposed lab ceilings for duct work and infrastructure adaptability. The spectacular displays for this special project were made possible by new partnerships within the community. Companies participated with generous, in-kind donations (e.g., services, stone flooring and slabs, and landscape rocks). They received recognition in the building and in literature acknowledging donors. A beautiful built environment creates space that students, faculty, and staff are proud of. People feel good about coming to work, and they are happy about their surroundings. This makes a strong recruiting tool, with more productive and satisfied employees. Buildings with architectural interest and displays can showcase geology as art and science, while highlighting

  17. INTOLERANT ATTITUDES BUILD WALLS AND BLOCK THE CONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES: a cognitive-discoursive analysis of systematic metaphor emersion in opinion article genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Pelosi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents partial results of a research which is aimed at verifying how figurative language, specifically metaphoric and metonymic language, present in different textual genres such as the literary and the journalistic genres, contributes to the emergence and negotiation of meaning. The theoretic and methodological basis of the research comes from Conceptual Metaphor Theory, originally proposed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980 and expanded in the 90’s by theoreticians such as Grady (1997, and from Metaphor-Led Discourse Analysis (CAMERON ET AL, 2009; CAMERON; MASLEN, 2010. Research implementation involves two stages. An analysis of four exemplars of the genres under investigation according to Metaphor-Led Discourse Analysis and a second analysis, still to be carried out, of the talk of three focus groups composed by students of a state school in Santa Maria, RS, after the reading of the different genres. The preliminary analysis presented of the opinion article selected for this study reveals the presence of image-kinesthetic schemas and metaphoric/metonymic vehicles which structure the language present in the analyzed genre and contribute to the emergence of the systematic metaphor INTOLERANT ATTITUDES BUILD WALLS AND BLOCK THE CONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES.

  18. Radon exhalation rate from the soil, sand and brick samples collected from NWFP and FATA (Pakistan))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to characterise the building materials as an indoor radon source, knowledge of the radon exhalation rate from these materials is very important. In this regard, soil, sand and brick samples were collected from different places of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) (Pakistan)). The samples were processed and placed in plastic containers. NRPB radon dosemeters were installed in it at heights of 25 cm above the surface of the samples and containers were then hermetically sealed. After 40-80 d of exposure to radon, CR-39 detectors were removed from the dosemeter holders and etched in 25% NaOH at 80 deg. C for 16 h. From the measured radon concentration values, 222Rn exhalation rates were determined. Exhalation rate form soil, sand and brick samples was found to vary from 114 ± 11 to 416 ± 9 mBq m-2 h-1, 205 ± 16 to 291 ± 13 mBq m-2 h-1 and 245 ± 12 to 365 ± 11 mBq m-2 h-1, respectively. (authors)

  19. A novel method for a multi-level hierarchical composite with brick-and-mortar structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Kristina; Wolff, Michael F. H.; Salikov, Vitalij; Heinrich, Stefan; Schneider, Gerold A.

    2013-07-01

    The fascination for hierarchically structured hard tissues such as enamel or nacre arises from their unique structure-properties-relationship. During the last decades this numerously motivated the synthesis of composites, mimicking the brick-and-mortar structure of nacre. However, there is still a lack in synthetic engineering materials displaying a true hierarchical structure. Here, we present a novel multi-step processing route for anisotropic 2-level hierarchical composites by combining different coating techniques on different length scales. It comprises polymer-encapsulated ceramic particles as building blocks for the first level, followed by spouted bed spray granulation for a second level, and finally directional hot pressing to anisotropically consolidate the composite. The microstructure achieved reveals a brick-and-mortar hierarchical structure with distinct, however not yet optimized mechanical properties on each level. It opens up a completely new processing route for the synthesis of multi-level hierarchically structured composites, giving prospects to multi-functional structure-properties relationships.

  20. Evaluation of Crawlspace Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    In 2011 and early 2012, Building Science Corporation (BSC) collaborated with Innova Services Corporation on a multifamily community unvented crawlspace retrofit project at Oakwood Gardens in Lansdale, Pennsylvania. BSC provided design consulting services and pre- and post-retrofit evaluation, testing, and data monitoring. The existing condition was a vented crawlspace with an uninsulated floor between the crawlspace and the dwelling units above. The crawlspace was therefore a critically weak link in the building enclosure and was ripe for improvement. Saving energy was the primary interest and goal, but the greatest challenge in this unvented crawlspace retrofit project was working through a crawlspace bulk water intrusion problem caused by inadequate site drainage, window well drainage, foundation wall drainage, and a rising water table during rainy periods. While the unvented crawlspace retrofit was effective in reducing heat loss, and the majority of the bulk water drainage problems had been resolved, the important finding was that some of the wood joists embedded in masonry pockets behind the brick veneer were showing signs of moisture damage.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN CONCRETE BLOCK, EXTRUDED CLAY BRICK, AND MUD BRICK TAKEN FROM OGBOMOSO, SOUTHWESTERN, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bolaji Omogbemiga AYINMODE; FAMAKINWA, Rebecca Oluwadamilola; Jonathan Olanipekun AJAYI

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the natural radioactivity in concrete block, extruded clay brick, and mud brick taken from Ogbomoso city. The six samples were collected from different part of the city, and were analyzed using highly sensitive HPGe gamma spectrometer. The mean activity concentration in Bq Kg -1 of 40K , 238 U (226Ra) and 232Th were 135.10 ± 3.23, 9.58 ± 3.16 and 14.30 ± 3.32 respectively in concrete block ; 66.34 ± 6.66, 6.81 ± 2.26 and 6.78 ± 2....

  2. Comparative analysis of dose rates in bricks determined by neutron activation analysis, alpha counting and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the thermoluminescence fine grain dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the age from the equivalent dose and to obtain an optimized and efficient procedure for thermoluminescence (TL) dating, it is necessary to obtain the values of both the internal and the external dose rates from dated samples and from their environment. The measurements described and compared in this paper refer to bricks from historic buildings and a fine-grain dating method. The external doses are therefore negligible, if the samples are taken from a sufficient depth in the wall. However, both the alpha dose rate and the beta and gamma dose rates must be taken into account in the internal dose. The internal dose rate to fine-grain samples is caused by the concentrations of natural radionuclides 238U, 235U, 232Th and members of their decay chains, and by 40K concentrations. Various methods can be used for determining trace concentrations of these natural radionuclides and their contributions to the dose rate. The dose rate fraction from 238U and 232Th can be calculated, e.g., from the alpha count rate, or from the concentrations of 238U and 232Th, measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The dose rate fraction from 40K can be calculated from the concentration of potassium measured, e.g., by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) or by NAA. Alpha counting and XRF are relatively simple and are accessible for an ordinary laboratory. NAA can be considered as a more accurate method, but it is more demanding regarding time and costs, since it needs a nuclear reactor as a neutron source. A comparison of these methods allows us to decide whether the time- and cost-saving simpler techniques introduce uncertainty that is still acceptable. - Highlights: • Dose rates from natural U, Th and K in bricks were determined for the purpose of TL dating. • Results from neutron activation analysis, alpha counting and X-ray fluorescence analysis were compared. • Good match was observed for K determination. • Systematically lower dose rates from U and Th

  3. Wind Load Test of Earthbag Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Scott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Earthbag construction is a sustainable, low-cost, housing option for developing countries. Earthbag structures are built of individual soil-filled fabric bags (i.e., sand bags stacked in a running bond pattern. Once stacked, earthbags are compacted and the soil inside the bags is dried in-place to form earthen bricks. Barbed wires are placed between each course to affect shear transfer within the wall. Results of an out-of-plane load test on a full-scale earthbag wall are presented in this paper. The wall was subjected to out-of-plane pressure up to 3.16 kPa, which resulted in plastic deformations up to 50 mm. The wall did not collapse during loading. Wall behavior and force transfer mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community. PMID:27100004

  5. Preparation and characterization of green bricks using pharmaceutical industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuna Rani, M; Bhagawan, D; Himabindu, V; Venkateswara Reddy, V; Saritha, P

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports on recycling of industrial wastes (three pharmaceutical industrial sludges) into environmental friendly value-added materials. Stabilization/Solidification (S/S or bricks) process was applied to make a safer way for the utilization of pharmaceutical waste. The additives in this study include binders (cement, lime and bentonite) and strengthening material (pulverized fuel ash (PFA), silica fume and quarry dust) was used at different compositions. Bricks were cured for 28 days, and the following analysis-like compressive strength, leachability of heavy metals, mineralogical phase identity by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal behaviour by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) had done. All the bricks were observed to achieve the standard compressive strength as required for construction according to BIS standards. Metal concentration in the leachate has reached the dischargeable limits according to Brazilian standards. Results of this study demonstrate that production of bricks is a promising and achievable productive use of pharmaceutical sludge. PMID:26286801

  6. Unfired clay bricks – retention curves and liquid diffusivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Kristensen, A.; Hansen, E.J. de Place

    This paper presents retention curves and liquid diffusivities of two different types of unfired clay bricks, both produced in Denmark on commercial basis. The retention curves are determined by use of pressure plate and pressure membrane apparatuses. The liquid diffusivity is calculated on the...

  7. 3-dimensional analysis of FELIX brick with hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic induction on FELIX brick with a hole has been analyzed with 3-Dimensional EDDYNET computer code. Incorporating loop currents on hexahedral meshes, the 3-Dimensional EDDYNET program solves eddy current problems by a network approach, and provides good accuracy even for coarse meshes. (author)

  8. Brick and Stone Masonry Series. Duty Task List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in brick and stone masonry. The tasks required for 15 different duties performed by bricklayers and 13 different duties typically performed by rocklayers are outlined. The following bricklaying duties are covered: estimating materials for and laying out a…

  9. Energy and Moisture Impact of EIFS Walls in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Johnston, David [EIFS Industry Members Association (EIMA)

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper summarizes a family of computer simulations that have been performed to assess the hygrothermal performance of exterior insulation finish systems and discusses the validation of the model prior to its use. This research deals with evaluation of the performance of a number of selected wall systems in all 8 IECC USA climate zones. The research produced a range of performances that are representative of generic EIFS wall systems, and not for a specific manufactured product. A comparison was performed between three different EIFS walls and a brick wall system.

  10. Using Selected Transient Methods for Measurements of Thermophysical Parameters of Building Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Cviklovič Vladimír; Paulovič Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with thermophysical properties of red and white bricks. If we want to protect the high standard of quality building materials, we need to know the physical parameters which can evaluate the quality. The most important for building materials are mainly thermophysical, mechanical parameters and parameters which can determine the structure of materials. The article presents results of thermophysical parameters measurements of red and white bricks during the temperature stabili...

  11. A user's guide to COMULIP (a program for determining brick movements in an AGR core)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COMULIP (COre Movements Using LInear Programming) is a set of computer programs which allows the user to find the maximum movements of bricks in a layer of 16 sided polygonal bricks and 4 sided interstitial bricks, as in the core of the Hinkley 'B' Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor. The user supplies the dimensions of the bricks and keys, the boundary constraints and specifies the brick and direction for which the maximum movement is to be found. To facilitate data input, a standard set of dimensions is entered together with individual brick dimensions which differ. The linear programming method is used to maximise an objective function, which in this case is the movement of a specified brick in a given direction, subject to a set of linear constraints, which define the geometrical condition that no brick should overlap. The elasticity of the bricks is not taken into account, the effect of this being small compared with that of the clearances. The model analysed is a two dimensional horizontal cross-section through the core. This report forms the user's guide to the computer programs and gives details of the input data required and the output produced, as well as a brief description of the solution technique. The program may be used to study the effect of dimensional changes and brick or key damage, which occur during the lifetime of the reactor, on the movement of bricks. (author)

  12. Study on Microstructure and Slag Corrosion Mechanism of High Chrome Bricks for Gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Research was focused on slag corrosion mechanism of high chrome bricks used for different types of gasifier by comparing the structure of high chrome bricks for petroleum coke gasifier and water-coal slurry gasifier with slag corroded testing brick and water coal slurry gasifier through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) examination and X-ray diffraction. Results show that for high chrome brick used for petroleum coke gasifier, corrosion is mainly caused by Cr2O3 in the brick and V2O5 in molten slag and liquid phase generation at low temperature; for high chrome brick used for water-coal slurry gasifier, corrosion is caused by dissolution of Cr2O3 in molten slag and corrosion of ZrO2. For LIRR-HK95 brick, it performs better petroleum coke corrosion resistance than the others due to the optimal composition and structure.

  13. Effects of waste glass additions on quality of textile sludge-based bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ari; Urabe, Takeo; Kishimoto, Naoyuki; Mizuhara, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the utilization of textile sludge as a substitute for clay in brick production. The addition of textile sludge to a brick specimen enhanced its pores, thus reducing the quality of the product. However, the addition of waste glass to brick production materials improved the quality of the brick in terms of both compressive strength and water absorption. Maximum compressive strength was observed with the following composition of waste materials: 30% textile sludge, 60% clay and 10% waste glass. The melting of waste glass clogged up pores on the brick, which improved water absorption performance and compressive strength. Moreover, a leaching test on a sludge-based brick to which 10% waste glass did not detect significant heavy metal compounds in leachates, with the product being in conformance with standard regulations. The recycling of textile sludge for brick production, when combined with waste glass additions, may thus be promising in terms of both product quality and environmental aspects. PMID:25812619

  14. Inventorying Toronto's single detached housing stocks to examine the availability of clay brick for urban mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Deniz; Gorgolewski, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the stocks of clay brick in Toronto's single detached housing, to provide parameters for city scale material reuse and recycling. Based on consensus from the literature and statistics on Toronto's single detached housing stocks, city scale reusable and recyclable stocks were estimated to provide an understanding of what volume could be saved from landfill and reintroduced into the urban fabric. On average 2523-4542 m(3) of brick was determined to be available annually for reuse, which would account for 20-36% of the volume of virgin brick consumed in new house construction in 2012. A higher volume, 6187 m(3) of brick, was determined to be available annually for recycling because more of the prevalence of cement-based mortar, which creates challenges for brick reuse in Toronto. The results demonstrated that older housing containing reusable brick were being mostly landfilled and replaced with housing that contained only recyclable brick. PMID:25912626

  15. Building a Great Green Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Under red flags fluttering in the early pring breeze, 260 volunteers planted more than 500 trees in suburban Beijing on March 23. On March 27, a warm Saturday in Beijing, 168 minister-level government officials volunteered leisure time to plant trees in Beijing's Fangshan District.The volunteers planted trees to mark China's 32nd Tree Planting Day, or Arbor Day, which falls on March 12 each year.Because of cold weather this March, largescale tree-planting activities in Beijing have been postponed to late March and early April, said the General Office of Capital Forestation Commission.

  16. Tsunami vulnerability of buildings and people in South Java – field observations after the July 2006 Java tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nugrahadi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A team of scientists from New Zealand and Indonesia undertook a reconnaissance mission to the South Java area affected by the tsunami of 17 July 2006. The team used GPS-based surveying equipment to measure ground profiles and inundation depths along 17 transects across affected areas near the port city of Cilacap and the resort town of Pangandaran. The purpose of the work was to acquire data for calibration of models used to estimate tsunami inundations, casualty rates and damage levels. Additional information was gathered from interviews with eyewitnesses. The degree of damage observed was diverse, being primarily dependant on water depth and the building construction type. Water depths were typically 2 to 4 m where housing was seriously damaged. Damage levels ranged from total for older brick houses, to about 50% for newer buildings with rudimentary reinforced-concrete beams and columns, to 5–20% for engineered residential houses and multi-storey hotels with heavier RC columns. "Punchout" of weak brick walls was widespread. Despite various natural warning signs very few people were alerted to the impending tsunami. Hence, the death toll was significant, with average death and injury rates both being about 10% of the people exposed, for water depths of about 3 m.

  17. 聚碳酸酯(PC)多层板窗在建筑中的节能效果%Energy Efficiency of a Building with Multi-Wall Polycarbonate Sheet Windows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峥嵘; 汪海生; 顾书英; 许乾慰; 张懿

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics and structures of the multi-wall polycarbonate (PC) sheets were analyzed. Whole-year energy consumption simulation on a building with multi-wall polycarbonate sheets as windows was carried out using EnergyPlus software. The heat gain (loss) of four kinds of multi-wall PC windows were compared with that of the normal double-layers windows. And the energy consumption and fee were calculated.%  浅析了PC多层板的材料及结构特性,利用EnergyPlus模拟了某建筑的全年能耗,对比分析了4种PC多层板窗与普通双层玻璃窗的得(失)热量,并计算其耗能量及费用。

  18. Analysis of stress distribution in dry masonry walls using three fringe photoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Iqbal; Ramesh, K.; M. P., Hariprasad

    2015-03-01

    Masonry being a composite system is very complex to study with analytical methods alone. Quantitative digital photoelastic analysis using Three Fringe Photoelasticity (TFP) is carried out on a model of a dry masonry wall with bricks made up of epoxy, loaded with a concentrated load. The result obtained provides insight into the micromechanics of force transmission and interactions between bricks in masonry. The result shows that force transmission through the wall occurs at discrete points. A tree like hierarchical pattern of stress flow is observed. It is also observed that the stress percolation results in the existence of stress-free zones in the model domain.

  19. 温室效应在建筑外墙绿化上的应用与研究%On application of green-house effect in reforestation of external walls of buildings and its research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜鹏

    2011-01-01

    The paper illustrates the concept of the green-house effect,explores the application of the green-house effect in the reforestation of the external walls of buildings,introduces the planted types of the plants in the reforestation of the external walls in buildings,and points out the relative problems in the adoption of the green-house effect in the reforestation of the external walls of buildings,so as to direct the practice and to improve the urban environment.%对温室效应的概念进行了阐述,探讨了温室效应在建筑外墙绿化中的应用,介绍了建筑外墙绿化的植物栽种类型,并指出了建筑外墙绿化中采用温室效应时应注意的相关问题,以期指导实践,改善城市环境。

  20. Assessment of the in-plane shear strength of stone masonry walls by simplified models

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Graça; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2006-01-01

    The present work intends to represent a further step in the knowledge of ancient stone masonry walls through an experimental approach, from which only few information is available. The main results of an experimental program based on in-plane static cyclic tests conduct on masonry wall panels with distinct masonry bond are presented. It is also revealed that simplified models, often used to predict the lateral shear strength of brick masonry walls submitted to static in-plane l...

  1. Surface Water Quality Assessment of the Jirania Brick Cluster – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarendra Jamatia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with the infrastructural development works, the demand for construction materials is increasing rapidly, which in turns lead to the rapid growth of brick manufacturing industries. Large demand of bricks in development and construction sectors has resulted in mushrooming of brick industries clusters at the outskirt of Agartala City. Jirania brick industries cluster is one of largest cluster of the Tripura State (India. Approximately 45% of total bricks of the State are being produced from the Jirania brick industries clusters. The use of conventional technology for brick making has resulted significant contribution of pollution load to the environment. The main components of environment which are being affected by the brick industries include but not limited to air, water, soil etc. The present study is carried out to identify the potential contribution of pollution load on surface water sources of the region from the mentioned brick industries. The surface water samples collected from nine sampling station located at different places in the area are analyzed and the experimental results of various quality parameters are presented in the paper. Such a study will help to estimate the total pollution load of the brick industry in the mentioned area.

  2. Pozzolanic mortars based on waste building materials for the restoration of historical buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Pašalić Snežana; Vučetić Snežana; Zorić Dmitar; Ducman Vilma; Ranogajec Jonjaua

    2012-01-01

    The environmental aspects of waste building materials have been of great interest in recent years. For the sector of building materials this means increased recycling, reduction of energy consumption and natural resources preservation. This also presents an important contribution in the field of environmental protection. The work deals with the development of pozzolanic mortars made of waste building materials, ground red structure bricks and raw clay materials of inadequate characteris...

  3. Evaluation of Two CEDA Weatherization Pilot Implementations of an Exterior Insulation and Over-Clad Retrofit Strategy for Residential Masonry Buildings in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2013-08-01

    This project examines the implementation of an exterior insulation and over-clad strategy for brick masonry buildings in Chicago. The strategy was implemented at a free-standing two story two-family dwelling and a larger free-standing multifamily building. The test homes selected for this research represent predominant housing types for the Chicago area. High heating energy use typical in these buildings threaten housing affordability. Uninsulated mass masonry wall assemblies also have a strongly detrimental impact on comfort. Significant changes to the performance of masonry wall assemblies is generally beyond the reach of typical weatherization (Wx) program resources. The Community and Economic Development Association of Cook County, Inc. (CEDA) has secured a Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) innovation grant sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). This grant provides CEDA the opportunity to pursue a pilot implementation of innovative approaches to retrofit in masonry wall enclosures. The exterior insulation and over-clad strategy implemented through this project was designed to allow implementation by contractors active in CEDA weatherization programs and using materials and methods familiar to these contractors. The retrofit measures are evaluated in terms of feasibility, cost and performance. Through observations of the strategies implemented, the research described in this report identifies measures critical to performance as well as conditions for wider adoption. The research also identifies common factors that must be considered in determining whether the exterior insulation and over-clad strategy is appropriate for the building.

  4. Boron-containing neutron shielding building ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data are presented on the composition of raw materials as well as on the properties and chemical composition of finished products of ceramics intended for neutron shielding. It is shown that 0.8 % content of B2O3 in bricks of ceramic mass proposed halves neutron radiation from the source of 106 neutr·s-1 close rate compared to bricks of boron free ceramic mass. Results of tests on water absorption and compression strength make it possible to recommend new ceramics to be used as tiles and facade building materials

  5. Analysis on steel ratio in Liu' an resettlement housing building cost%六安安置房建筑造价中钢筋比例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪刚; 章晓晖; 陈大伟

    2011-01-01

    通过六安市不同年份、不同结构类型共30个安置房建筑工程实例的造价分析,得出砖混结构中钢筋工程占土建造价的比例约为19%,框架结构约为29%,框架一剪力墙结构约为26%,为合理控制建筑造价提供指导。%Through analyzing 30 resettlement housing building engineering cost in different years and with different structure types in Liu' an city, it finds that steel engineering accounts for 19% of civil work in brick-concrete structure, frame structure accounts for 29%, frame-shear wall structure accounts for 26%, which has provided guidance for rationally controlling building cost.

  6. Fingermark recovery from riot debris: Bricks and stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lisa; Fisher, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    During the UK riots in August 2011, large volumes of bricks and stones were used as weapons or projectiles in acts of violence or to gain illegal entry to properties. As a result, it has been emphasised that it is necessary to determine suitable chemical treatment(s) that will enable the development of fingermarks on such items in order to identify those involved. This study has undertaken the task of attempting to develop latent fingermarks on common house bricks, limestone and sandstone using current techniques including ninhydrin and fluorescence. Results produced have shown that, with fluorescent fingerprint powder, silver nitrate and superglue providing the best results, it is now possible to enhance fingermarks that were previously left undeveloped. In addition, Isomark T-1 Rapid Grey High Resolution Forensic Impression Material has proved extremely effective as an alternative method of recovering fingermarks developed with fluorescent fingerprint powder. PMID:25753994

  7. Low Temperature Regolith Bricks for In-Situ Structural Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Kevin; Sakthivel, Tamil S.; Mantovani, James; Seal, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    Current technology for producing in-situ structural materials on future missions to Mars or the moon relies heavily on energy-intensive sintering processes to produce solid bricks from regolith. This process requires heating the material up to temperatures in excess of 1000 C and results in solid regolith pieces with compressive strengths in the range of 14000 to 28000 psi, but are heavily dependent on the porosity of the final material and are brittle. This method is currently preferred over a low temperature cementation process to prevent consumption of precious water and other non-renewable materials. A high strength structural material with low energy requirements is still needed for future colonization of other planets. To fulfill these requirements, a nano-functionalization process has been developed to produce structural bricks from regolith simulant and shows promising mechanical strength results. Functionalization of granular silicate particles into alkoxides using a simple low temperature chemical process produces a high surface area zeolite particles that are held together via inter-particle oxygen bonding. Addition of water in the resulting zeolite particles produces a sol-gel reaction called "inorganic polymerization" which gives a strong solid material after a curing process at 60 C. The aqueous solution by-product of the reaction is currently being investigated for its reusability; an essential component of any ISRU technology. For this study, two batches of regolith bricks are synthesized from JSC-1A; the first batch from fresh solvents and chemicals, the second batch made from the water solution by-product of the first batch. This is done to determine the feasibility of recycling necessary components of the synthesis process, mainly water. Characterization including BET surface area, SEM, and EDS has been done on the regolith bricks as well as the constituent particles,. The specific surface area of 17.53 sq m/g (average) of the granular regolith

  8. Comparative analysis of dose rates in bricks determined by neutron activation analysis, alpha counting and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the thermoluminescence fine grain dating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártová, H.; Kučera, J.; Musílek, L.; Trojek, T.

    2014-11-01

    In order to evaluate the age from the equivalent dose and to obtain an optimized and efficient procedure for thermoluminescence (TL) dating, it is necessary to obtain the values of both the internal and the external dose rates from dated samples and from their environment. The measurements described and compared in this paper refer to bricks from historic buildings and a fine-grain dating method. The external doses are therefore negligible, if the samples are taken from a sufficient depth in the wall. However, both the alpha dose rate and the beta and gamma dose rates must be taken into account in the internal dose. The internal dose rate to fine-grain samples is caused by the concentrations of natural radionuclides 238U, 235U, 232Th and members of their decay chains, and by 40K concentrations. Various methods can be used for determining trace concentrations of these natural radionuclides and their contributions to the dose rate. The dose rate fraction from 238U and 232Th can be calculated, e.g., from the alpha count rate, or from the concentrations of 238U and 232Th, measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The dose rate fraction from 40K can be calculated from the concentration of potassium measured, e.g., by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) or by NAA. Alpha counting and XRF are relatively simple and are accessible for an ordinary laboratory. NAA can be considered as a more accurate method, but it is more demanding regarding time and costs, since it needs a nuclear reactor as a neutron source. A comparison of these methods allows us to decide whether the time- and cost-saving simpler techniques introduce uncertainty that is still acceptable.

  9. Modeling Influenza Antigenic Shift and Drift with LEGO Bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Boriana Marintcheva

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of antigenic shift and drift could be found in almost every microbiology and virology syllabus, usually taught in the context of Influenza virus biology. They are central to understanding viral diversity and evolution and have direct application to anti-flu vaccine design and effectiveness. To aid student understanding of the concepts, I have developed an exercise to visualize the mechanistic aspects of antigenic shift and drift using LEGO bricks. This hands-on/minds-on exercise ...

  10. Valorization and inertization of galvanic sludge waste in clay bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Villarejo, L.; Martínez-Martínez, S; Carrasco-Hurtado, B.; Eliche-Quesada, D.; Ureña-Nieto, C.; Sánchez-Soto, Pedro José

    2015-01-01

    Galvanic sludge wastes (GSW) are produced by the physico-chemical treatments of wastewater generated by electroplating plants. These materials have a significant potential for the production of clay ceramic bricks. This paper focuses on the viability of the inertization of heavy metals from GSW mixed with clays. The original materials were obtained by mixing three types of raw clay (red, yellow and black) in equal parts with GSW. These mixtures were characterized by XRD, XRF, and chemical ele...

  11. TorBricks: Blocking-Resistant Tor Bridge Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, Mahdi; Saia, Jared; Crandall, Jedidiah

    2016-01-01

    Tor is currently the most popular network for anonymous Internet access. It critically relies on volunteer nodes called bridges for relaying Internet traffic when a user's ISP blocks connections to Tor. Unfortunately, current methods for distributing bridges are vulnerable to malicious users who obtain and block bridge addresses. In this paper, we propose TorBricks, a protocol for distributing Tor bridges to n users, even when an unknown number t < n of these users are controlled by a malicio...

  12. A practical proposal for solving the world's cigarette butt problem: Recycling in fired clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerani, Abbas; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Larobina, Luke

    2016-06-01

    The disposal and littering of cigarette butts (CBs) is a serious environmental problem. Trillions of cigarettes are produced every year worldwide, resulting in millions of tonnes of toxic waste being dumped into the environment in the form of cigarette butts. As CBs have poor biodegradability, it can take many years for them to break down. This paper reviews and presents some of the results of a study on the recycling of CBs into fired clay bricks. Bricks with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% CB content by weight were manufactured and tested, and then compared against control clay bricks with 0% CB content. The results showed that the dry density decreased by up to 30% and the compressive strength decreased by 88% in bricks with 10% CBs. The calculated compressive strength of bricks with 1% CBs was determined to be 19.53Mpa. To investigate the effect of mixing time, bricks with 7.5% CB content were manufactured with different mixing times of 5, 10, and 15min. To test the effect of heating time on the properties of CB bricks, the heating rate used during manufacturing was changed to 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). Bricks with 0% and 5% CB content were fired with these heating rates. Leachate tests were carried out for bricks with 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% CB content. The emissions released during firing were tested for bricks with 0% and 5% CB content using heating rates of 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). The gases tested were carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), chlorine (Cl2), nitrogen oxide (NO), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Finally, estimations were made for the energy that could be saved by firing bricks incorporating CBs. Calculations showed that up to 58% of the firing energy could potentially be saved. Bricks were shown to be a viable solution for the disposal of CBs. They can reduce contamination caused by cigarette butts and provide a masonry construction material that can be either loadbearing or non-loadbearing, depending on the quantity of CBs incorporated. This

  13. Bricks and urbanism in the Indus Valley rise and decline

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Aurangzeb

    2013-01-01

    The Indus Valley Culture (IVC), often denoted by its major city Harappa, spanned almost two millennia from 3200 to 1300 BC. Its tradition reaches back to 7000 BC: a 4000 year long expansion of villages and towns, of trading activity, and of technological advancements culminates between 2600 and 1900 BC in the built-up of large brick-built cities, writing, and political authority; the IVC emerges as one of the first great civilizations in history. During the ensuing 600 years, however, key technologies fall out of use, urban centers are depopulated, and people leave the former core areas of the IVC; although many different hypotheses have been put forward, a conclusive causal chain for this decline has not yet been established. We here combine literature estimates on brick typology, and on urban area for individual cities; in the context of the existing extensive data on Harappan artifact find sites and put in their chronological order, the combined narratives told by bricks, cities, and extent, can provide a ...

  14. Experimental study of masonry wall exposed to blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad, S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of protecting the nation against the attack of terrorism has raised the importance to explore the understanding of building materials against the explosion. Unlike most of the building materials, brick masonry materials offer relatively small resistance against blast loading. In this research, a brick masonry wall was exposed to varying blast load at different scaled distances. Six tests with different amounts of explosives at various distances were carried out. Pressure time history, acceleration time history and strain at specific location were measured. The parameters measured from experimental pressure time history and acceleration time history is compared with those determined by ConWep to establish the correlations between experimental determined records and ConWep values. The experimental results were also compared with some researchers. These correlations may assist in understanding the behaviour of masonry structures subjected to explosive loading.Con el reto que supone proteger a la nación contra atentados terroristas se ha visto acrecentada la importancia de conocer el comportamiento de materiales de construcción cuando se someten a una carga explosiva. Al contrario de la mayoría de los materiales, las fábricas de ladrillo ofrecen poca resistencia a dichas cargas. En el presente trabajo, se estudió el comportamiento de una fábrica de ladrillo ante cargas explosivas colocadas a diferentes distancias del muro. Se realizaron seis pruebas con explosivos de potencias distintas y a diferentes distancias. Se trazaron las curvas presión-tiempo y aceleración-tiempo, midiéndose asimismo la deformación en un punto concreto. Los valores experimentales de las curvas presión-tiempo y aceleración-tiempo se compararon con los que se calcularon con la ayuda de la aplicación informática ConWep a fin de establecer las correlaciones entre ambos conjuntos de resultados. También se compararon los resultados experimentales

  15. Diffusion and electromigration in clay bricks influenced by differences in the pore system resulting from firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2012-01-01

    effective diffusion coefficient was empirically determined for chloride and sodium through the application of an electric DC field across the bricks. The lowest effective diffusion coefficient was found for the dark colored brick, increasing for the medium and bright colored respectively. This finding...... pore system to contribute to an overall understanding of ion transport in porous materials.The pore system in bricks are influenced by the firing degree, clay mixture composition and ion content. The present paper focuses on the pore system and effects from clay mixture composition and ion content were...... neglected by using the same brick type from the same brickwork (delivered at the same pallet). The used bricks were fired in a circular kiln were uneven heating during firing occurs. Significant color differences were visible between the bricks in the pallet and for the investigation purpose they were...

  16. Utilization of concentrate of membrane filtration of bleach plant effluent in brick production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilization potential of membrane filtration retentate (concentrate) of bleach plant effluent from paper industry, in bricks production, was investigated in the present study. Bricks were prepared by using retentate of membrane filtration in place of water. The physical properties measured for bricks were dimensions, density, moisture content, compressive strength, water absorption and porosity. Chemical analysis of the bricks was performed for water leachability and acid leachability, using ASTM Standard methods D 3987-06 and D 5233-92 respectively. The leachate samples were analyzed for Al, Cu, Fe, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn using AAS (atomic absorption spectrophotometer). Adsorbable organic halides (AOX) of leachate were analyzed by using AOX analyzer model ECS 1200 using column method. It was observed that the physical and chemical properties of bricks especially fire clay bricks were not adversely affected by the use of wastewater. Therefore, the organic matter of the retentate of membrane filtration creates no problems for this application.

  17. REBELLION: SECOND GENERATION BANGLADESHI IMMIGRANTS IN BRICK LANE BY MONICA ALI

    OpenAIRE

    A. Nejat TÖNGÜR*

    2013-01-01

    Brick Lane is one of the few novels which reflect the lives of first and second generation Bangladeshi immigrants in Britain. Although Brick Lane focuses on Nazneen as central character, the novel provides very rich information about the life styles, work patterns, family structure, and cultural, social, economic and religious dynamics of the Bangladeshi community in Brick Lane. Ali also shows that the second-generation young Bangladeshis are distinct with their frequent clashes with their pa...

  18. Determination of element composition in CoffeeBricks before and after incineration

    OpenAIRE

    Fröling, Annika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose for this study was to determine the element composition in CoffeeBricks before and after incineration. The difference between element composition in CoffeeBricks (barbecue briquettes made out of spent coffee grounds) and regular barbecue briquettes was also evaluated in this study. Aqua regia digests from the ash residues of CoffeeBricks and the ash residues of regular barbecue briquettes were analyzed with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). H2SO4/H...

  19. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Fan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea, and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results: The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05, and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05 were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions: Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  20. Effect of Age and Environment on Strength of Old Baked Clay Bricks of Indus Valley Civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAWAB ALI LAKHO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of experimental investigations conducted on old baked clay bricks of Indus Valley civilization of tenth century. The object of this study is to evaluate the effect of age and environmental conditions on the strength of the baked clay bricks which are about 1000 years old. The brick samples were collected from six different archeological sites at the banks of old route of River Indus in district Sanghar, Sindh, Pakistan. These specimens were tested for apparent density, compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of rupture and the weathering effects on them during the course of time. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials standard for baked clay bricks, based on compressive strength, suggests that the bricks of four sites can withstand severe weathering while the bricks of two sites are resistant to moderate weathering. These results were compared to the values of the corresponding data of bricks, of same period, obtained from the historical monuments of the world as reported in the literature. The comparison showed that the values of physical properties of old baked clay bricks of Indus valley civilization of tenth century are in agreement with that of old baked clay bricks of contemporary era. The results of this study could also be helpful for preservation of old archeological sites of Indus valley civilization.

  1. The technical research on the huge glazed brick from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    ‘Qin brick and Han tile’ has a great worldwide reputation in the architectural history of China. According to the former archaeological materials, the big hollow brick is usually one meter long and thirty to forty centimeters wide, while the solid brick is generally much smaller. But in 1995, large scale vestiges and structures were un- earthed at the center of Guangzhou’s old district, from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace, which was built some 2000 years ago during the Western-Han Dynasty. A great number of earthen structural members were discovered, especially the solid glazed bricks in various beautiful patterns with an astonishing thickness and size. Some of them are one meter square, more than 20 centimeters thick, and weight half a ton, which are named ‘Brick No.1 in the world’ by excavators. People have shown great interest in how to make these huge glazed bricks at the ancient tech- nical conditions, because it is very difficult to manufacture such huge bricks even with the modern technology. At the request of Guangdong Nanyue Kingdom Palace Museum, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics carried out systematical measurements and analysis on these bricks and studied the physical and chemical forming mechanisms from their chemical compositions, structure, and physical character- istics. Here the technical characteristics of the bricks are also discussed.

  2. Corrosion Mechanism of MgO-CaO Brick for AOD Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiandong; GE Changchun; SHEN Weiping

    2006-01-01

    Residual MgO-CaO brick after being used in AOD furnace was determined by OM, SEM and EDAX. Corrosion mechanism of MgO-CaO brick as furnace lining was studied. Results show that: The corrosion of MgOCaO brick is mainly attributed to the solution and infiltration of silicate liquid phase. Transverse cracks between reacted zone and original zone are parallel to the working face, which is an important factor for deteriorating the corrosion of MgO-CaO bricks.

  3. Dredged sediments as a resource for brick production: Possibilities and barriers from a consumers’ perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Consumers are suspicious towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Technical quality, safety and environmental impacts are considered key characteristics. • Public has insufficient knowledge on bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Sensitization and provision of information to customers are of primary importance. - Abstract: A possible solution for the oversupply of dredged sediments is their use as a raw material in brick production. Despite the fact that several examples (e.g., Agostini et al., 2007; Hamer and Karius, 2002; Xu et al., 2014) show that this application is feasible, some economic, technical and social limitations interfere with the development of a market of dredged materials in brick production in Flanders. While we describe the main characteristics of the supply side, we focus on the limitations and barriers from the demand side in the present study. Based on a consumers survey we analyze consumers’ risk perceptions and attitudes towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. Consumers in Flanders are rather suspicious with respect to bricks produced from dredged sediments and their risk perception is mainly determined by the possibility of a bad bargain (brick of inferior quality) and the connotation with chemical contamination. The willingness to pay for bricks made from dredged sediments is mainly influenced by the age of the respondents, as well environmental awareness, and the respondents’ belief in their ability to influence environmental problems. Sensitization and information of customers seems to be of primary importance to make dredged-sediment-derived bricks a successful product

  4. Bauxite Based Refractory Bricks for Hot Blast Stove YB/T 5016-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Chai Junlan

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1Scope This standard specifies the technical requirements, test method, inspection rules, packing, marking, transportation, storage and quality certificate of bauxite based refractory bricks for hot blast stove.

  5. Dredged sediments as a resource for brick production: Possibilities and barriers from a consumers’ perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappuyns, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.cappuyns@kuleuven.be; Deweirt, Valentine; Rousseau, Sandra

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Consumers are suspicious towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Technical quality, safety and environmental impacts are considered key characteristics. • Public has insufficient knowledge on bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Sensitization and provision of information to customers are of primary importance. - Abstract: A possible solution for the oversupply of dredged sediments is their use as a raw material in brick production. Despite the fact that several examples (e.g., Agostini et al., 2007; Hamer and Karius, 2002; Xu et al., 2014) show that this application is feasible, some economic, technical and social limitations interfere with the development of a market of dredged materials in brick production in Flanders. While we describe the main characteristics of the supply side, we focus on the limitations and barriers from the demand side in the present study. Based on a consumers survey we analyze consumers’ risk perceptions and attitudes towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. Consumers in Flanders are rather suspicious with respect to bricks produced from dredged sediments and their risk perception is mainly determined by the possibility of a bad bargain (brick of inferior quality) and the connotation with chemical contamination. The willingness to pay for bricks made from dredged sediments is mainly influenced by the age of the respondents, as well environmental awareness, and the respondents’ belief in their ability to influence environmental problems. Sensitization and information of customers seems to be of primary importance to make dredged-sediment-derived bricks a successful product.

  6. Drying kinetics of some building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Moropoulou, A.; M Karoglou; Giakoumaki, A.; Krokida, M. K.; Maroulis, Z. B.; G.D. Saravacos

    2005-01-01

    Moisture is one of the most deteriorating factors of buildings. The deteriorating effect of moisture occurs mainly during the drying phase, and not in the wetting phase. Appropriate parameters of the drying kinetics are required for the building materials. Environmental factors, such as air temperature, air humidity, and air velocity affect drying. An experimental air dryer of controlled drying air conditions was used to investigate the drying performance of 4 stone materials, 2 bricks and 7 ...

  7. 某砖混结构建筑受采动影响分析与加固维修方案∗%Analysis and reinforcing and maintenance scheme of a brick-concrete structure building with the influence of mining moves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田迎斌

    2014-01-01

    以河北省某矿工业广场内运销办公楼为例,介绍了建筑概况和工业广场压覆煤层的情况,分析了4#煤层开采对建筑的影响,预测了建筑损坏程度的发展趋势,提出了建筑的加固维修方案,确保了运销办公楼的安全正常使用。%The author took a distribution office building in a mine industrial square of Hebei Province as an example,introduced the general situation of the buildings and the coal seams un-der the industrial square,analyzed the influence on the buildings of the 4th coal seam mining, predicted the development tendency of the building damage,provided the reinforcement and ma-intenance scheme of the buildings,and also ensured the safety and normal use of this distribution office building.

  8. Nature and origin of white efflorescence on bricks, artificial stones, and joint mortars of modern houses evaluated by portable Raman spectroscopy and laboratory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Héctor; Maguregui, Maite; Trebolazabala, Josu; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2015-02-01

    Bricks and mortar currently constitute one of the most important building materials used in the construction of most modern facades. The deterioration of these materials is caused primarily by the impact of numerous external stressors, while poor manufacturing quality, particularly of mortars, can also contribute to this process. In this work, the non-invasive Raman spectroscopy technique was used to identify the recently formed deterioration compounds (primarily sulfates and nitrates) in bricks, artificial stones, and joint mortars from detached houses in the Bilbao metropolitan area (Basque Country, North of Spain), as well as to investigate the deterioration processes taking place in these materials. Additionally, to confirm and in some cases complement the results obtained with Raman spectroscopy, SEM-EDS and XRD measurements were also carried out. PMID:25456662

  9. Plasma technologies application for building materials surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokitin, G. G.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Volokitin, O. G.; Shehovtzov, V. V.; Luchkin, A. G.; Kashapov, N. F.

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature arc plasma was used to process building surface materials, such as silicate brick, sand lime brick, concrete and wood. It was shown that building surface materials modification with low temperature plasma positively affects frost resistance, water permeability and chemical resistance with high adhesion strength. Short time plasma processing is rather economical than traditional processing thermic methods. Plasma processing makes wood surface uniquely waterproof and gives high operational properties, dimensional and geometrical stability. It also increases compression resistance and decreases inner tensions level in material.

  10. Cell Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Canut, Hervé; Boudart, Georges; Albenne, Cécile; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F

    2008-01-01

    This chapter covers our present knowledge of cell wall proteomics highlighting the distinctive features of cell walls and cell wall proteins in relation to problems encountered for protein extraction, separation and identification. It provides clues to design strategies for efficient cell wall proteomic studies. It gives an overview of the kinds of proteins that have yet been identified: the expected proteins vs the identified proteins. Finally, the new vision of the cell wall proteome, and t...

  11. Nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent seismic vibrations of external buildings from transmitting to the side walls of a reactor container in a tank type FBR reactor building. Constitution: The reactor building is structured such that the base mat for a reactor container chamber and a reactor container is separated from the base mat for the walls of building, and gas-tight material such as silicon rubber is filled in the gap therebetween. With such a constitution, even if the crane-supporting wall vibrates violently upon occurrence of earthqualkes, the seismic vibrations do not transmit toward the reactor container chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  12. New age estimations for the western outer city wall of ancient Tayma (NW Saudi Arabia) based on OSL and radiocarbon data and geomorphologic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M.; Klasen, N.; Brückner, H.; Eichmann, R.; Hausleiter, A.; Al-Najem, M. H.; Al-Said, S. F.; Schneider, P. I.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2004 tremendous progress has been achieved in deciphering the cultural genesis of the Tayma oasis (NW Saudi Arabia), due to the joint investigations of the German Archaeological Institute Berlin (DAI), the General Commission for Tourism and Antiquities, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the Department of Archaeology and Epigraphy, King Saud University Riyadh. Nevertheless, archaeological research is still suffering from a lacking locally-based absolute chronology of buildings. The pattern of ancient constructions at Tayma is dominated by a prominent city wall system surrounding the ancient town center (Qraya) and stretching 15 km around the oasis. Its internal structure indicates several building periods, i.e. phases of wall modification or extension of the entire system. So far, according to silex and carnelian fragments included in the mud bricks and a previous 14C age of charcoal remains from the central excavation district (wall section at Area A), an initial construction date of the wall between the late 3rd and the early 2nd millennium BC seemed likely. At the excavated western outer city wall a new systematic dating approach - combining the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C methods - has been applied to generate a reliable age for the oldest branch of the wall system which nowadays is covered by aeolian sand. The dune deposit is genetically related to the existence of the wall and, therefore, dating its accumulation provides termini ante quem for the construction of the wall. Five OSL dates were generated from the dune deposit providing ages between 4,900 and 3,500 yrs. Two radiocarbon ages support the dating sequence and also contribute to its consistency. By combining the results with geomorphologic evidence we draw the following conclusions: Initial settlement activities at Qraya were accompanied by a regulation of wadi dynamics and the construction of the outer city wall, indicated by the abrupt boundary between the pre-settlement alluvial

  13. Strength Measure of Assembled Lightweight Brick and Discussion%装配式轻型砖的强度测定及其思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕巧巍; 张福贵

    2001-01-01

    本文总结了目前具有最大孔洞率的装配式轻型砖的抗压、抗剪强度测定结果,发现其抗压、抗剪强度甚为理想这一重要事实,进一步提出了此装配式轻型砖作为半承重、半围护的新型围护结构材料的设想,从而为充分发挥其装配式轻型砖的承载潜力,设计出更加经济合理的工业与民用建筑打下基础。%The measure result of compressive strength and shearing strengthof assembled lightweight brick with biggest hole rate in China is summarized in the paper. On the basis of the better compressive strength and shearing strength, the paper raises the idea of utilizing the assembled lightweight brick as a new type of semi-load-bearing wall materials, and fully develop the load-bearing of the assembled lightweight brick.

  14. Calculation of the thicknesses of the walls of the radiographic inspection building of the NKS enterprise; Calculo de los espesores de los muros del edificio de inspeccion radiografica de la empresa NKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez A, G.; Gutierrez R, C

    1983-07-15

    During the month of February, 1983, the Structural Civil Department of the Latin American of Engineering, S.A. de C.V. company (LATISA), outline to the Engineering and Industry Applications Management of the ININ that the industrial group NKS had taken charge them the design of a building where it would lodge a linear electron accelerator of 4 MeV, one source of Co-60 of 30 Ci and an X-ray equipment, tube type, of range of 60 to 300 KV and that to make the design they required to know the necessary thickness of the walls, doors and roof to protect to the workers, outside of the building, of the X and gamma radiations generated by the sources mentioned during the radiographic inspections of metal-mechanical pieces. (Author)

  15. Building envelope for New Buildings and Energy Renovation of Existing Buildings. Project results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Rose, Jørgen; Esbensen, Peter Kjær; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    facts, a group of scientists at the Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, have started a research project to develop better solutions for new building and energy renovation.The publication report the status after the first 3 year of the Building Envelope Project with......At the energy conference in 1995, Denmark agreed on reducing the total CO2-emission by 20%. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to increase thermal insulation thickness both in new and retrofitted buildings.This will, for both cases, impose a series of building physics problems, as the knowledge...... emphasis on the following subjects:Scientific basis for calculation programs, Development of calculationsmethods for heat transfer, Development of new building envelope components, Roofing system based on wooden roof elements, Roofing system with drying properties, Moisture uptake and drying from brick...

  16. Plane Geometry: From the Floor Plan of a House to the Quantity of Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Scott Puhl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the application of a potentially meaningful teaching strategy for plane geometry which was applied in high school as an activity of identifying and reconstructing students’ previous knowledge on spatial geometry. The proposal aims to promote the meaningful learning, encourage students as active and more autonomous subjects and show the importance of studying this content. The study began with reading a story about the fire of Kiss Nightclub, where overcrowding was cited as one of the causes. To understand the mathematical sense of overcrowding, the students built the 1 m² and simulated the situation of the club on the night of the tragedy. Further, taking advantage of the interest and involvement of students, they were challenged to build the floor plan of a house. For this, chosen and measured bricks and ceramic would use in building the house. Finally, in joint work, all critically analyzed the work of the groups, plans and models, making a comparison between the various projects. The evaluation of this experience was very positive, because the students were motivated, learning together, and realizing the significance and meaning of the study of areas of plane figures.

  17. Application of INAA for chemical characterization of ancient bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a powerful nuclear analytical technique for non-destructive analysis of solid samples including ceramics. INAA using high flux reactor neutrons from Dhruva reactor was utilized for analysis 20 ancient bricks obtained from Buddhist sites of Andhra Pradesh, India. For comparison, two recent/modern potteries were also analyzed. Concentrations of 24 elements were determined by relative method. Concentration ratios (La/Ce) as well as statistical cluster analysis (using 14 selected elements) were used for grouping these artifacts, as part of provenance study. These results showed that the 22 samples fell in two major groups, which are in good agreement with collection locations. (author)

  18. Implementasi Konsep Kecerdasan Buatan Dalam Rancang Bangun Game Brick Breaker

    OpenAIRE

    Ayuni, Wulan

    2011-01-01

    Games as a medium of entertainment has grown rapidly along with the development of technology as well. One of the elements that play an important role in a games is artificial intelligence. With artificial intelligence, expected elements in the games can act as natural as possible like human being. In this Brick Breaker games, the author apply the concept of fuzzy logic in determining the strength and agility of reflector board of the ball against the arrival of the ball. In designing of this...

  19. Research on Design of Curtain Wall in Building Movement Joint%论建筑物变形缝位置的幕墙设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛

    2014-01-01

    The design of building curtain wal in movement joint is an important part of the modern architecture, which has a profound impact on the shape and the safety of buildings. In this paper, the movement joint of deformation in building cu-rtain wal is briefly introduced, and the importance and pri-nciples of design of building curtain wal in movement joint is analyzed.%建筑物变形缝位置的幕墙设计是现代建筑中的重要组成部分,对于建筑物的外形和安全性有着深远的影响。本文主要对建筑物的变形缝进行简单概述,并对变形缝位置幕墙设计的重要性及原则进行分析。

  20. Building Blocks of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Mehlhase, Sascha; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This article presents possibilities to impart knowledge of and enthusiasm for particle physics to essentially all non-expert target audiences by the use of LEGO bricks and models of particle physics experiments built from these. Methods of using LEGO models, both as a passive exhibit and as part of interactive outreach events, are presented, along with a historical review of the “Build Your Own Particle Detector” programme and the corresponding idea of hosting competitions in building detector models in LEGO pieces as a perfect setting to grasp people’s attention, get them involved and ultimately convey knowledge in particle physics to them.