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Sample records for brewing

  1. Market structure and competition in the Italian brewing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Garavaglia Christian

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper consists in the analysis of market structure and the degree of competition in the Italian brewing industry. Many works include the brewing industry in the broader food industry. These analyses obviously present aggregated results that turn out to be poor and not clear. In this paper we analyse the brewing industry separately, investigating its characteristics related to the process of competition, and thus showing how the brewing industry presents different features com...

  2. Globalization of Brewing and Economies of Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    beers and economies of scale in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based on information...... from the Annual Reports of the eight largest breweries in the world, the estimation proved a reduction in these costs of more than ten percent when doubling the size of the brewing group. This finding verifies that the restructuring of the brewing industry creates significant scale benefits to be...

  3. Enrichment of xanthohumol in the brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Sascha; Zürcher, Achim; Back, Werner

    2005-09-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), a component of hops, is lost in significant quantities in the conventional brewing process. In commercial beers less than 0.2 mg XN/L are found. In order to increase the yield of XN in the brewing process, the parameters of XN recovery were studied. During wort boiling, XN is largely isomerised to isoxanthohumol. Further losses are owing to the precipitation and absorption of XN to yeast cells and haze particles and by filtration. The use of XN-enriched hop products combined with a late hop dosage during wort boiling proved to be effective in increasing the XN content in beer. The yield was further raised by a low-pitching rate and the abnegation of beer stabilisation. The use of dark malts had a positive effect on the XN recovery. Investigations of roasted malt extracts revealed several high-molecular substances that are able to form complexes with XN. These complexes proved to be stable in the brewing process. Depending on the addition of roasted malt or special XN-enriched roasted malt extracts, dark beers with more than 10 mg XN/L were achieved. Results obtained led to a brewing technology that produced on an industrial scale pale wheat beer with more than 1 mg XN/L. PMID:16097021

  4. Mycotoxins in South African traditionally brewed beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhav, B; Naicker, V

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally brewed alcoholic beverages are regularly consumed by most ethnic black South Africans. Maize and barley, both of which are used for producing locally brewed alcoholic beer, are frequently contaminated by mycotoxin-producing moulds. The study was undertaken to investigate whether these toxins are present in raw grains and the traditional beers imbibed by the local black African population. It was established that the raw ingredients (sorghum, sorghum malt grains, maize grits), commercially produced traditional beers (Utshwala and Utshwala special) and home-brewed beers (Umqombotha, Isiqatha, Imfulamfula) were contaminated by bacteria and fungi (both yeasts and moulds). The contaminating moulds were isolated and identified. The contaminated samples were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, zearalenone, citrinin, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin A using a multi-mycotoxin thin-layer chromatography screening method and the toxins were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Grain samples were infected by. Aspergillus flavus, A. alliaceus, A. clavatus, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp. and Mucor spp. Sorghum malt grain samples contained the toxin zear alenone. No mycotoxin-producing fungi were present in the fermented beers but two of six commercial beer samples contained aflatoxins (200 and 400 microg l(-1) and 45% (13 of 29) of the home-brewed beers had zear alenone (range 2.6-426 microg l(-1) and/or ochratoxin A (3-2340 microg l(-1). PMID:11811766

  5. Development of a Vermi Tea Brewing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnalyn C. Cabaces

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost, a product of the composting system that utilizes earthworms for the decomposition of the biosolids and/or solid wastes is now considered in organic farming. But since it is applied in solid form, it is difficult for some plants to take up the nutrient contents. The liquid form is the vermi tea which facilitates the plants for fast absorption of the nutrients. The main objective of this study is to develop a vermi tea brewing machine taking into consideration system components and material specifications. Specifically, it aimed to establish the operating time of the machine and to evaluate its performance in terms of brewing efficiency and percent yield. The properties of the produced vermi tea were also evaluated. This is a developmental type of study which consists of development stage, preliminary testing stage and the performance testing stage. The vermi tea brewing machine comprised mainly of the cylindrical container, copper tubings, air pump, vermicompost container and support frame. During preliminary testing, the established machine’s operating time was 24 hours. Performance testing of the machine resulted to 99.58% yield and the brewing efficiency was acceptable in terms of the dissolved oxygen after the process. Properties of the produced vermi tea were tested by accredited laboratories and resulted to ph of 4.23, total NPK of 0.033%, dissolved oxygen of 5.62 mg/L, total coliform of 4,500,000 CFU/ml, mold of 3,000 CFU/ml and yeast of 3,000 CFU/ml. These are acceptable values which indicated that it can be used to improve farming activities.

  6. Changes of protein profile during the brewing process

    OpenAIRE

    Benkovská, D. (Dagmar); Flodrová, D. (Dana); Bobálová, J. (Janette)

    2012-01-01

    Our work was focused on the protein identification in individual stages of brewing process. The greatest attention was paid to the proteins that resist the harsh conditions applied during brewing and therefore may influence various beer properties. These proteins (nsLTPs, protein Z and group of protease/alpha-amylase inhibitors) belong to the group of PRs.

  7. Development of a Vermi Tea Brewing Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Donnalyn C. Cabaces; Maria Anna C. Medrano; Aileen P. Mauro; Joemel A. Landicho

    2015-01-01

    Vermicompost, a product of the composting system that utilizes earthworms for the decomposition of the biosolids and/or solid wastes is now considered in organic farming. But since it is applied in solid form, it is difficult for some plants to take up the nutrient contents. The liquid form is the vermi tea which facilitates the plants for fast absorption of the nutrients. The main objective of this study is to develop a vermi tea brewing machine taking into consideration system components an...

  8. Energy-Saving in Brew-Rectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Ulyanau

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates dynamics of rectification process on one plate of a column. The basic channels controlling brew-rectification process are described in the paper.The paper also considers problems pertaining to synthesis of an adaptive system that controls non-stationary objects with delay. Synthesis of adaptive systems that automatically control product quality and saving on power resources and productivity with the help of the second method of Lyapunov has been carried out in the paper.Industrial introduction of the given automatic control system of technological process shall permit to increase productivity of a rectification (10–15 %, to decrease specific power consumption by (5–10 % while preserving the specified quality of rectified ethyl alcohol and decrease alcohol losses with luting water and malt-residue.

  9. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  10. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were assambled in order to increase the brewing yeast fermentation performance. The primary fermentation was 14 days, followed by another 14 days of secondary fermentation (maturation. The must fermentation monitoring was done by the automatic FermentoStar analyzer. The whole fermentation process was monitorized (temperature, pH, alcohol concentration, apparent and total wort extract.

  11. Changes in headspace volatile concentrations of coffee brews caused by the roasting process and the brewing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Galilea, Isabel; Fournier, Nicole; Cid, Concepción; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2006-11-01

    Headspace-solid-phase microextraction technique (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) were used to characterize the aroma compounds of coffee brews from commercial conventional and torrefacto roasted coffee prepared by filter coffeemaker and espresso machine. A total of 47 volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to differentiate coffee brew samples by volatile compounds. Conventional and torrefacto roasted coffee brews were separated successfully by principal component 1 (68.5% of variance), and filter and espresso ones were separated by principal component 2 (19.5% of variance). By GC olfactometry, a total of 34 aroma compounds have been perceived at least in half of the coffee extracts and among them 28 were identified, among which octanal was identified for the first time as a contributor to coffee brew aroma. PMID:17061834

  12. Volatile Aroma Compounds in Various Brewed Green Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmo Yoon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for aroma/flavor of the brewed liquor of a range of green tea samples from various countries as consumed and to determine if green teas from the same region have similarities in volatile composition when green tea samples are prepared for consumption. Twenty-four green tea samples from eight different countries were brewed as recommended for consumer brewing. The aroma volatiles were extracted by HS-SPME, separated on a gas chromatograph and identified using a mass spectrometer. Thirty-eight compounds were identified and the concentrations were semi-quantified. The concentrations were lower than those reported by other researchers, probably because this research examined headspace volatiles from brewed tea rather than solvent extraction of leaves. No relationship to country of origin was found, which indicates that other factors have a greater influence than country of origin on aroma.

  13. Design and development of mobile Email system based on brew and IMAP4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to achieve IMAP4 support agreement in the mobile e-mail client application on the smart phone, using the Qualcomm introduced wireless devices designed for the BREW platform. Research on the BREW platform mobile and IMAP4 protocol, design and implement the 3G technology standard smart phone e-mail client based on the BREW platform. (authors)

  14. Near-infrared Spectroscopy in the Brewing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileoni, Valeria; Marconi, Ombretta; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an exhaustive description of the use of Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy in the brewing industry. This technique is widely used for quality control testing of raw materials, intermediates, and finished products, as well as process monitoring during malting and brewing. In particular, most of the reviewed works focus on the assessment of barley properties, aimed at quickly selecting the best barley varieties in order to produce a high-quality malt leading to high-quality beer. Various works concerning the use of NIR in the evaluation of raw materials, such as barley, malt, hop, and yeast, are also summarized here. The implementation of NIR sensors for the control of malting and brewing processes is also highlighted, as well as the use of NIR for quality assessment of the final product. PMID:24915307

  15. Spent grains : a new support for brewing yeast immobilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Brányik, Tomáš; Vicente, A. A.; Cruz, José Machado; Teixeira, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    A novel carrier obtained from spent grains, a brewing by-product, was used for brewing yeast immobilisation in a continuous bubble-column reactor. The multiple-layer cell adhesion to the carrier particles resulted in a maximum cell load of 430 mg dry cell gˉ¹ dry carrier (d.c.). After 120 h of reactor operation, the cell load of DEAEmodified carrier was below 40 mg dry cell gˉ¹ d.c. while the values for non-modified carrier reached at least 100 mg dry cell gˉ¹ d.c. The changes in ...

  16. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.; Ostertag, K.; Radgen, P.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of five case studies of energy management in German breweries. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the brewing sector may be improved. The results of the study for the brewing sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the brewing sector - Case studies of energy management in the German brewing sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German brewing sector; - The role of energy service companies in the brewing sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  17. Study of protein profile in individual stages of brewing process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benkovská, Dagmar; Flodrová, Dana; Psota, V.; Bobálová, Janette

    Berlin : Freie Universität Berlin, 2011. s. 350. [Proteomic Forum 2011. 03.04.2011-07.04.2011, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : proteins * barley * brewing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  18. Immobilized cell technology in beer brewing: Current experience and results

    OpenAIRE

    Leskošek-Čukalov Ida J.; Nedović Viktor A.

    2005-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology (ICT) has been attracting continual attention in the brewing industry over the past 30 years. Some of the reasons are: faster fermentation rates and increased volumetric productivity, compared to those of traditional beer production based on freely suspended cells, as well as the possibility of continuous operation. Nowadays, ICT technology is well established in secondary fermentation and alcohol- free and low-alcohol beer production. In main fermentation, the sit...

  19. Effects of the M&A Wave in the Global Brewing Industry 2000-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Erik S.; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewing groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. Based on a major data base the paper traces some causes and assesses the main effects of the M&A strategies in the global beer industry. The results verify that the 4 large acquiring brewing groups are more efficient than a control group of 200 large breweries but they have...

  20. Evaluation of Biofunctional Compounds Content from Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca C. Fărcaş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee, one of the most popular beverages worldwide, is an infusion of ground, roasted coffee beans. Today, coffee is considered a functional food, especially due to its high content of compounds that exert antioxidant and other beneficial biological properties. The annual consumption exceeds 5 billion kilograms of coffee, which corresponds to 500 billion cups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, caffeine as well as the antioxidant activity of three brewed coffee samples in order to assess the amount of these bioactive compounds in a cup of coffee. The quantification of total phenolic compounds was achieved by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoids content was determined using a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based spectrophotometric method. The caffeine was extracted from brewed coffee samples with dichlormethane and then was quantified by measuring the absorbance of the extract at 260 nm. The antioxidant capacity of each coffee sample was assessed by evaluating their radical scavenging activity on DPPH radical. Even though Arabica coffee variety is appreciated for its fine aroma profile, Robusta variety has proved to be richer in phenolic compounds, flavonoids and caffeine. The larger amount of compounds with antioxidant properties found in Robusta brewed coffee was also confirmed by the obtained antioxidant capacity values.

  1. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Brew during the Brewing Corn Malt in the Production of Maize Beer in Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diakabana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study consists in the production of a traditional beer from maize in the Congo. The traditional method of brewing corn malt has three main stages: malting corn, brewing corn malt and fermentation. During the brewing corn malt, endogenous amylase activity is destroyed during the stiffening of the starch to about 80°C. A pre-cooking of the mash is necessitated to promote amylolyse at 50°C with an exogenous enzyme. The use of a preparation of α-amylase can liquefy the mash and produce a sweet wort (average density = 12.5° Balling rich in dextrin corresponding to an apparent extract of 4° Balling in beer. The rising profile of the pH of the corn malt mash, from mashing to extract the wort does not affect the pH of the beer produced. This beer, slightly alcoholic (3.6% ethanol, is characterized by a nomal acid pH (pH = 4.15 on average and a brown color (25 EBC units. Its slight bitterness (21 EBU and the fine aroma of a beer closer barley produced industrially in the Congo.

  2. Effects of different brewing conditions on catechin content and sensory acceptance in Turkish green tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saklar, Sena; Ertas, Erdal; Ozdemir, Ibrahim S; Karadeniz, Bulent

    2015-10-01

    The optimal brewing conditions for Turkish green tea were determined on the basis of extracted catechins and sensory attributes. Green tea infusions were prepared at 75, 85 and 95 °C with brewing times of 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 45 min. The amounts of epistructured catechins (EGCG, EGC, ECG, EC), non-epistructured catechins (C, GC, GCG) and caffeine in brewed tea samples were analysed. Sensory analyses were performed by nine trained panelists for infusion colour, taste, aroma and overall acceptability. Brewing at 85 °C for 3 min was found to be the optimal condition, where the EGCG content was at a maximum of 50.69 mg/100 ml with the highest sensory scores. It was observed that the yield of epistructured catechins increased rapidly for the first 3-5 min of brewing at 85 °C, and increased brewing time resulted in a decrease in the yield of epistructured catechins. The amount of nonepistructured catechins continued to increase with longer extraction times. Sensory scores for infusion colour, taste, aroma and overall acceptability were highest at 3 and 5 min brewing times at all temperatures. Sensory scores were very low for 30 and 45 min brewing at 85 and 95 °C due to the bitter taste and dark colour. PMID:26396411

  3. [IMPLEMENTATION OF MEASURES FOR OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE AT ENTERPRISES OF BREWING INDUSTRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonov, G V; Novikova, L V; Chusova, A E

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are considered the legal basics of the occupational hygiene of brewing production: acts, bylaws and normative legal acts. There are characterized types of supervision and control (state, departmental, public) implementing the abidance of the sanitary legislation at the enterprises of the brewing industry. There are presented sanitary and hygienic requirements to the enterprises of the brewing industry. There are designated measures of occupational hygiene of brewing production: a sink, cleaning--removal of various pollutions, and also disinfection--process of the decline in quantity of microorganisms to safe level. There are considered some characteristics of pollutions which are subject to removal at various stages ofproduction of beer and stages of sanitary processing of brewing systems according to chemical properties of substances. PMID:27029175

  4. BrewPub - en virksomhed i mikrobryggeri branchen

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Kasper Kornelius; Klindt Pedersen, Susie; Juul-Larsen, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    With the offset in a case, this project deals with the analysis of a possible strategic expansion in the field of microbreweries. Our case is a small microbrewery combined with a pub and a restaurant, called BrewPub. We are contemplating the possibility for them to expand by also producing their beer in bottles/cans and as a result become available on the marked of retail. We analyse this possibility by looking at their current strategy. Furthermore we apply a range of the...

  5. Changes of protein profile during the brewing process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benkovská, Dagmar; Flodrová, Dana; Bobálová, Janette

    Brno : Vysoké učení technické v Brně, Fakulta chemická, 2012, s. 43-48. ISBN 978-80-214-4425-6. [Studentská odborná konference Chemie a společnost 2011/2012. Brno (CZ), 16.02.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : proteomics * barley * beer * brewing process Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0210046

  6. Selenite biotransformation during brewing. Evaluation by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Maria; da Silva, Erik Galvão P; Pérez-Corona, Teresa; Cámara, Carmen; Ferreira, Sergio L C; Madrid, Yolanda

    2012-01-15

    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and lactic bacteria have shown their ability to accumulate and transform inorganic selenium into organo Se compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate selenium biotransformation during brewing by using S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces uvarum for Ale and Lager fermentation, respectively. Se-enriched beer was produced by the addition of sodium selenite (0, 0.2, 1.0, 2.0, 10.0, 20.0 μg Se mL(-1), respectively) to the fermentation media composed of yeast, malt extract and water. The alcoholic fermentation process was not affected by the presence of selenium regardless of the type of Saccharomyces being used. The percentage of selenium incorporated into beer, added between 1.0 and 10 μg mL(-1) was 55-60% of the selenium initially present. Se-compounds in post-fermentation (beer and yeast) products were investigated by using an analytical methodology based on HPLC-ICP-MS. For this purpose, several sample treatments, including ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis, in conjunction with different separation mechanisms like dialysis and anion exchange HPLC chromatography were applied for unambiguously identifying Se-species that produce during brewing. Selenomethionine was the main selenium compound identified in beer and yeast, being this species in the only case of the former not associated to peptides or proteins. PMID:22265498

  7. Sensory and Instrumental Flavor Changes in Green Tea Brewed Multiple Times

    OpenAIRE

    Jeehyun Lee; Delores Chambers; Edgar Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Green teas in leaf form are brewed multiple times, a common selling point. However, the flavor changes, both sensory and volatile compounds, of green teas that have been brewed multiple times are unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine how the aroma and flavor of green teas change as they are brewed multiple times, to determine if a relationship exists between green tea flavors and green tea volatile compounds, and to suggest the number of times that green tea leaves can be br...

  8. Experimental Study on Extruded Beer Adjunct Used for Brewing Beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN De-chao

    2004-01-01

    The properties of saccharified and boiled worts between extruded and traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts were studied at the laboratory and a small beer brewing equipment( 100 L) in this paper. Test results indicate that the main saccharification indices and filtration speeds of worts between extruded and traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts are similar basically. The collected rate of extracted material of worts of extruded beer adjuncts is 8%more than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts. Fermentation time of worts of extruded beer adjuncts is 10 %less than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts. The energy consumption of extruded beer adjuncts in saccharification process is 13 % less than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts.

  9. High levels of melatonin generated during the brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Moreno, H; Calvo, J R; Maldonado, M D

    2013-08-01

    Beer is a beverage consumed worldwide. It is produced from cereals (barley or wheat) and contains a wide array of bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceutical compounds. Specifically, high melatonin concentrations have been found in beer. Beers with high alcohol content are those that present the greatest concentrations of melatonin and vice versa. In this study, gel filtration chromatography and ELISA were combined for melatonin determination. We brewed beer to determine, for the first time, the beer production steps in which melatonin appears. We conclude that the barley, which is malted and ground in the early process, and the yeast, during the second fermentation, are the largest contributors to the enrichment of the beer with melatonin. PMID:23607887

  10. Immobilized cell technology in beer brewing: Current experience and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leskošek-Čukalov Ida J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized cell technology (ICT has been attracting continual attention in the brewing industry over the past 30 years. Some of the reasons are: faster fermentation rates and increased volumetric productivity, compared to those of traditional beer production based on freely suspended cells, as well as the possibility of continuous operation. Nowadays, ICT technology is well established in secondary fermentation and alcohol- free and low-alcohol beer production. In main fermentation, the situation is more complex and this process is still under scrutiny on both the lab and pilot levels. The paper outlines the most important ICT processes developed for beer brewing and provides an overview of carrier materials, bioreactor design and examples of their industrial applications, as well as some recent results obtained by our research group. We investigated the possible applications of polyvinyl alcohol in the form of LentiKats®, as a potential porous matrices carrier for beer fermentation. Given are the results of growth studies of immobilized brewer's yeast Saccharomyces uvarum and the kinetic parameters obtained by using alginate microbeads with immobilized yeast cells and suspension of yeast cells as controls. The results indicate that the immobilization procedure in LentiKat® carriers has a negligible effect on cell viability and growth. The apparent specific growth rate of cells released in medium was comparable to that of freely suspended cells, implying preserved cell vitality. A series of batch fermentations performed in shaken flasks and an air-lift bioreactor indicated that the immobilized cells retained high fermentation activity. The full attenuation in green beer was reached after 48 hours in shaken flasks and less than 24 hours of fermentation in gas-lift bioreactors.

  11. Quantification of Caffeoylquinic Acids in Coffee Brews by HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeenfard, Marzieh; Rocha, Lígia; Alves, Arminda

    2014-01-01

    The influence of different brewing conditions on the concentration of the main caffeoylquinic acids (3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), 4-caffeoylquinic acid (4-CQA), and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA)) was investigated. For this purpose, twenty-four coffee brews were extracted and analyzed using HPLC-DAD at 325 nm. Our findings demonstrate the great impact of brewing techniques on the caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) content. The major isomer was 3-CQA, accounting for about 50% of the total CQAs, followed by 5-CQA and 4-CQA, accounting for about 24-36% for each one. The total content of CQAs was in the range of 45.79 to 1662.01 mg/L, found in iced cappuccino and pod espresso, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that coffee brews, in particular those prepared using pressurized methods, can be considered as the potential sources of antioxidants such as CQAs. PMID:25587489

  12. Coffee brew melanoidins Structural and Functional Properties of Brown-Colored Coffee Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis was the identification of structural and functional properties of coffee brew melanoidins, and their formation mechanisms, that are formed upon roasting of coffee beans.

  13. Influence of preserved brewing yeast strains on fermentation behavior and flocculation capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Chul; Wackerbauer, Karl; Beckmann, Martin; Kang, Soon Ah

    2007-01-01

    Preservation methods on the physiological and brewing technical characters in bottom and top brewing yeast strains were investigated. The preserved yeasts were reactivated after 24 months storage and grown up to stationary phase. The samples of filter paper storage indicated a higher cell growth and viability during propagation than those of nitrogen and lyophilization storage independent on propagation temperature. In addition, the filter paper storage demonstrated a faster absorption of fre...

  14. Effects of the M&A Wave in the Global Brewing Industry 2000-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewing groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. Industry consolidation has taken the shape of merger...... and acquisition activity more than organic growth or international joint ventures. Based on a major data base the paper traces some causes and assesses the effects of M&A strategies in the global beer industry....

  15. Investigation of Ancient Egyptian Baking and Brewing Methods by Correlative Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel

    1996-07-26

    Ancient Egyptian methods of baking and brewing are investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy of desiccated bread loaves and beer remains. The results suggest that current conceptions about ancient Egyptian bread and beer making should be modified. Bread was made not only with flour from raw grain, but sometimes also with malt and with yeast. Brewing blended cooked and uncooked malt with water; the mixture was strained free of husk before inoculation with yeast. PMID:8662535

  16. Evaluation of the level of the organic brewing industry in selected countries of the European union

    OpenAIRE

    Fidrová, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the topic "Evaluation of the Level of Organic Brewing Industry in Selected Countries of the European Union". It is describing the current situation of organic hop growing industry and organic brewing industry in two selected countries that are the Czech Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany with the help of two analyses of the external environment (PESTEL analysis and the Porter's Diamond Model). On the basis of these two analyses the evaluation and compa...

  17. Some novel applications of instrumental analytical techniques to the brewing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Brian

    1996-01-01

    Modem instrumental analytical techniques play an important role in the brewing industry today. They are extensively used for both a quality control/quality assurance function and for research purposes. At all stages of the production process, from the assessment of raw materials, through the brewing process, fermentation, maturation, blending of finished beer, packaging and shelf life studies instrumental analytical techniques provide critical data which allow the brewer to understand and kee...

  18. Does Strategic Group Membership Affect Firm Performance? An Analysis of the German Brewing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Theuvsen, Ludwig; Heyder, Matthias; Niederhut-Bollmann, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The concept of strategic groups has been successfully applied for analyzing firm strategies, structures and performance in various industries. Based on a largescale empirical study, this paper identifies strategic groups in the German brewing industry and analyzes the effects of group membership on economic performance. The brewing industry is an interesting research object. The severe economic crisis German breweries face in their home market and the deep structural changes reshaping the glo...

  19. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis. PMID:26304363

  20. Influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews on metabolic parameters of rats fed with hiperlipidemic diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Ariana de Souza Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews (Coffea arabica L and C. canephora Pierre on the metabolic parameters of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (initial weight of 270 g ± 20 g were used in the study, which were divided into six groups five each. The treatments were normal diet, hyperlipidemic diet, hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee arabica or canephora brews (7.2 mL/kg/day and hyperlipidemic diet associated to decaffeinated arabica, or canephora brews, using the same dosage. After 41 days, performance analyses were conducted.The rats were then euthanized and the carcasses were used for the analysis of dried ether extract and crude protein. Fractions of adipose tissue were processed for histological analysis. There was a reduction in weight gain and accumulation of lipids in the carcasses, lower diameter of adipocytes and a lower relative weight of the liver and kidneys of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee brew. Integral coffee brew reduced the obesity in the rats receiving hyperlipidemic diet, but the same effect did not occur with the decaffeinated types.

  1. 40 CFR 63.2166 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations if I monitor brew ethanol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations if I monitor brew ethanol? 63.2166 Section 63.2166 Protection of... demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations if I monitor brew ethanol? (a) You...

  2. 40 CFR 63.2164 - If I monitor brew ethanol, what are my monitoring installation, operation, and maintenance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true If I monitor brew ethanol, what are my... monitor brew ethanol, what are my monitoring installation, operation, and maintenance requirements? (a... section. (1) Calibrate the GC at least daily, by analyzing standard solutions of ethanol in water...

  3. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm-1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  4. The influence of different types of preparation (espresso and brew) on coffee aroma and main bioactive constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Cortese, Manuela; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular hot drinks in the world; it may be prepared by several methods, but the most common forms are boiled (brew) and pressurized (espresso). Analytical studies on the substances responsible for the pleasant aroma of roasted coffee have been carried out for more than 100 years. Brew coffee and espresso coffee (EC) have a different and peculiar aroma profile, demonstrating the importance of the brewing process on the final product sensorial quality. Concerning bioactive compounds, the extraction mechanism plays a crucial role. The differences in the composition of coffee brew in chlorogenic acids and caffeine content is the result of the different procedures of coffee preparation. The aim of the present review is to detail how the brewing process affects coffee aroma and composition. PMID:26171629

  5. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Lyman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm−1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  6. BReW: Blackbox Resource Selection for e-Science Workflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmhan, Yogesh [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Soroush, Emad [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Van Ingen, Catharine [Microsoft Research, San Francisco, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deb [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-10-04

    Workflows are commonly used to model data intensive scientific analysis. As computational resource needs increase for eScience, emerging platforms like clouds present additional resource choices for scientists and policy makers. We introduce BReW, a tool enables users to make rapid, highlevel platform selection for their workflows using limited workflow knowledge. This helps make informed decisions on whether to port a workflow to a new platform. Our analysis of synthetic and real eScience workflows shows that using just total runtime length, maximum task fanout, and total data used and produced by the workflow, BReW can provide platform predictions comparable to whitebox models with detailed workflow knowledge.

  7. Pearling barley to alter the composition of the raw material before brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.; Noordman, T.R.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Partly replacing malt with unmalted barley is a trend in brewing. The use of unmalted barley, however, leads to issues such as haze and high mash viscosity, due to its higher content of undesired components. Pearling, an abrasive method to remove the outer layers of the barley kernels has been shown

  8. Brewing Beer in the Laboratory: Grain Amylases and Yeast's Sweet Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Blake; Deutschman, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Brewing beer provides a straightforward and robust laboratory counterpart to classroom discussions of fermentation, a staple of the biochemistry curriculum. An exercise is described that provides several connections between lecture and laboratory content. Students first extract fermentable carbohydrates from whole grains, then ferment these with…

  9. Occurrence of furan in coffee from Spanish market: Contribution of brewing and roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaki, M S; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2011-06-15

    In this work, we evaluated the occurrence of furan in brews obtained from regular, decaffeinated, and instant coffee and commercial packed capsules. For this purpose, a previously developed automated headspace solid-phase microextraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used. Initially, the influence of HS-SPME conditions on furan formation was evaluated. In addition, the effect of roasting conditions (temperature and time) used for coffee beans on furan formation was also studied. We found that low temperature and long roasting time (140°C and 20min) decreases the final furan content. Furan concentrations in regular ground coffee brews from an espresso coffee machine were higher (43-146ng/ml) than those obtained from a home drip coffee maker (20 and 78ng/ml), while decaffeinated coffee brews from a home drip coffee maker (14-65ng/ml) showed a furan concentration similar to that obtained from regular coffee. Relatively low concentrations of this compound (12-35ng/ml) were found in instant coffee brews, while commercial packed coffee capsules showed the highest concentrations (117-244ng/ml). Finally, the daily intake of furan through coffee consumption in Barcelona (Spain) (0.03-0.38μg/kg of body weight) was estimated. PMID:25213922

  10. The Ubiquity of Good Taste: A Spatial Analysis of the Craft Brewing Industry in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Neil; Mclaughlin, Ralph; Moore, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The performance and composition of the U.S. brewing industry has changed dramatically over the past three decades. The industry displays contradictory shifts in both aggregate production volume and number of firms. While aggregate beer production in the US has increased modestly, per capita production has decreased steadily since the early 1980s, dropping 26 percent between 1981 and 2011. However, the number of brewing establishments increased substantially during the same period, expanding f...

  11. Analysis of elements present in beers and brewing waters by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used for determination of Si, Na, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Cs, and La in Czech beers and brewing waters. The Si concentration in beer determined by the reaction 29Si(n,p)29Al with fast neutrons confirmed that beer is an important Si source in human diet. Determination of other trace elements by NAA with the whole spectrum of reactor neutrons aimed at the feasibility of identification of Gambrinus beers brewed in various breweries. The elements Ca and V appeared to be the best candidates for this purpose. The concentrations of elements determined by NAA were also compared with the recommended daily element intake for humans. The accuracy of the method was proved by analysis of reference materials, specifically NIST SRM 2704 Buffalo River Sediment, NIST SRM 1633b Coal Fly Ash, and NIST SRM 1515 Apple Leaves. (author)

  12. Research progress on the brewing techniques of new-type rice wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Aiquan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-01-15

    As a traditional alcoholic beverage, Chinese rice wine (CRW) with high nutritional value and unique flavor has been popular in China for thousands of years. Although traditional production methods had been used without change for centuries, numerous technological innovations in the last decades have greatly impacted on the CRW industry. However, reviews related to the technology research progress in this field are relatively few. This article aimed at providing a brief summary of the recent developments in the new brewing technologies for making CRW. Based on the comparison between the conventional methods and the innovative technologies of CRW brewing, three principal aspects were summarized and sorted, including the innovation of raw material pretreatment, the optimization of fermentation and the reform of sterilization technology. Furthermore, by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of these methods, various issues are addressed related to the prospect of the CRW industry. PMID:27542505

  13. Strategic management in turbulent markets: The case of the German and Croatian brewing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Niederhut-Bollmann, Chistoph; Theuvsen, Ludwig

    2008-01-01

    European beer markets are characterized by major changes that are forcing breweries to redesign their competitive strategies. In this paper, we analyze the changes in the German and Croatian brewing industries by referring to Porter's five forces model and generic strategies framework. The analysis reveals growing competitive pressures in both markets and a wide spectrum of competitive strategies. Whereas in Germany cost leaders have gained market shares, the Croatian market is strongly influ...

  14. Impact of the brewing process on the concentration of silicon in lager beer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Ivana; Cejnar, R.; Kučera, Jan; Dostálek, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 4 (2014), s. 433-437. ISSN 0046-9750 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : beer * brewing * hops * INAA * malt * silicon Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2014

  15. 14C concentration of liberated CO2 in the free fermentation process of Japanese SAKE brewing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The daily variation of 14C concentrations of liberated CO2 in the free fermentation process of Japanese SAKE brewing was studied. Each of the concentrations measured in the initial and final stages of the fermentation process correlated with levels of koji rice and steamed rice, obtained from different areas and used for SAKE production. This shows that analysis of fermenting CO2 of SAKE could be used to estimate the 14C level in a local environment. (author) 4 refs.; 1 tab

  16. Contribution of Phenolics and Maillard Reaction Products to the Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Brews

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, I.A. (Iziar A.); Cid, C.; Peña, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and a rich source of antioxidants. The amounts of these antioxidants are influenced by several technological factors. Besides, antioxidants identified in coffee (chlorogenic acids, volatile and non-volatile Maillard reaction products) may contribute to the overall antioxidant capacity in different proportions. Therefore the aim of this research was to evaluate the actual contribution to the overall antioxidant capacity of coffee brews ...

  17. M&A as a driver of global competition in the brewing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewer groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. The paper describes the development and puts...... it into an industrial economics framework. Based on a major data base the paper further assesses the effects of M&A strategies in the global beer industry....

  18. M&A as a driver of global competition in the brewing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewer groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. The paper describes the development and puts it into an industrial economics framework. Based on a major data base the paper further assesses the effects of M&A strategies in the global beer industry.

  19. M&A as a Driver of Global Competition in the Brewing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewer groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. The paper describes the development and puts it into an industrial economics framework. Based on a major data base the paper further assesses the effects of M&A strategies in the global beer industry

  20. Optimised quantification of the antiyeast activity of different barley malts towards a lager brewing yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nierop, Sandra N E; Axcell, Barry C; Cantrell, Ian C; Rautenbach, Marina

    2008-10-01

    The brewing of beer involves two major biological systems, namely malted barley (malt) and yeast. Both malt and yeast show natural variation and assessing the impact of differing malts on yeast performance is important in the optimisation of the brewing process. Currently, the brewing industry uses well-established tests to assess malt quality, but these frequently fail to predict malt-associated problem fermentations, such as incomplete fermentations, premature yeast flocculation (PYF) and gushing of the final beer product. Antimicrobial compounds, and in particular antiyeast compounds in malt, may be one of the unknown and unmeasured malt factors leading to problem fermentations. In this study, the adaptation of antimicrobial assays for the determination of antiyeast activity in malt is described. Our adapted assay was able to detect differing antiyeast activities in nine malt samples. For this sample set, malts associated with PYF during fermentation and gushing activity in beer showed high antiyeast activity. Both PYF and gushing are malt quality issues associated with fungal infection of barley in the field which may result in elevated antimicrobial activity in the barley grain. Also, two more malts that passed the normal quality control tests were also observed to have high antiyeast activity and such malts must be considered as suspect. Based on our results, this assay is a useful measure of malt quality as it quantifies the antiyeast activity in malt which may adversely impact on brewery fermentation. PMID:18721679

  1. Development of industrial brewing yeast with low acetaldehyde production and improved flavor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjing; Shen, Nan; Yin, Hua; Liu, Chunfeng; Li, Yongxian; Li, Qi

    2013-02-01

    Higher acetaldehyde concentration in beer is one of the main concerns of current beer industry in China. Acetaldehyde is always synthesized during beer brewing by the metabolism of yeast. Here, using ethanol as the sole carbon source and 4-methylpyrazole as the selection marker, we constructed a new mutant strain with lower acetaldehyde production and improved ethanol tolerance via traditional mutagenesis strategy. European Brewery Convention tube fermentation tests comparing the fermentation broths of mutant strain and industrial brewing strain showed that the acetaldehyde concentration of mutant strain was 81.67 % lower, whereas its resistant staling value was 1.0-fold higher. Owing to the mutation, the alcohol dehydrogenase activity of the mutant strain decreased to about 30 % of the wild-type strain. In the meantime, the fermentation performance of the newly screened strain has little difference compared with the wild-type strain, and there are no safety problems regarding the industrial usage of the mutant strain. Therefore, we suggest that the newly screened strain could be directly applied to brewing industry. PMID:23296804

  2. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voeten Helene ACM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results Porn video shows and local brew dens were identified as popular events where unprotected multipartner, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents. Video halls - rooms with a TV and VCR - often show pornography at night for a very small fee, and minors are allowed. Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships characterised the sexual encounters of youth, frequently facilitated by the abuse of alcohol, which is available for minors at low cost in local brew dens. For many sexually active girls, their vulnerability to STI/HIV infection is enhanced due to financial inequality, gender-related power difference and cultural norms. The desire for love and sexual pleasure also contributed to their multiple concurrent partnerships. A substantial number of girls and young women engaged in transactional sex, often with much older working partners. These partners had a stronger socio-economic position than young women, enabling them to use money/gifts as leverage for sex. Condom use was irregular during all types of sexual encounters. Conclusions In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. These places should be regulated and monitored by the government. Our study strongly points to female vulnerabilities and the role of men in perpetuating the local epidemic. Young men should be targeted in prevention activities, to change their attitudes related to power and control in relationships. Girls

  3. Use of non-saccharomyces Torulaspora delbrueckii yeast strains in winemaking and brewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tataridis Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Selected Saccharomyces yeast strains have been used for more than 150 years in brewing and for several decades in winemaking. They are necessary in brewing because of the boiling of the wort, which results in the death of all yeast cells, with the exception of some Belgian style beers (ex. Lambic, where the wort is left to be colonized by indigenous yeast and bacteria from the environment and ferment naturally. In winemaking their use is also pertinent because they provide regular and timely fermentations, inhibit the growth of indigenous spoilage microorganisms and contribute to the desired sensory characters. Even though the use of selected Saccharomyces strains provides better quality assurance in winemaking in comparison to the unknown microbial consortia in the must, it has been debated for a long time now whether the use of selected industrial Saccharomyces strains results in wines with less sensory complexity and “terroir” character. In previous decades, non-Saccharomyces yeasts were mainly considered as spoilage/problematic yeast, since they exhibited low fermentation ability and other negative traits. In the last decades experiments have shown that there are some non-Saccharomyces strains (Candida, Pichia, Kluyveromyces, Torulaspora, etc which, even though they are not able to complete the fermentation they can still be used in sequential inoculation-fermentation with Saccharomyces to increase sensory complexity of the wines. Through fermentation in a laboratory scale, we have observed that the overall effects of selected Torulaspora delbrueckii yeast strains, is highly positive, leading to products with pronounced sensory complexity and floral/fruity aroma in winemaking and brewing.

  4. Fundamental studies on the application of enzymes when brewing with unmalted oats and sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    Schnitzenbaumer, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    The use of unmalted oats or sorghum in brewing has great potential for creating new beer types/flavors and saving costs. However, the substitution of barley malt with oat or sorghum adjunct is not only innovative but also challenging due to their specific grain characteristics. The overall objectives of this Ph.D. project were: 1) to investigate the impact of various types and levels of oats or sorghum on the quality/processability of mashes, worts, and beers; 2) to provide solutions as regar...

  5. Contribution of ethanol-tolerant xylanase G2 from Aspergillus oryzae on Japanese sake brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Hisashi; Zhou, Yan; Mikami, Shigeaki

    2010-12-01

    We purified three xylanase isozymes (XynF1, XynF3 and XynG2) from a solid-state Aspergillus oryzae RIB128 culture using chromatography. The results of our sake-brewing experiment, in which we used exogenously supplemented enzymes, revealed that only XynG2 improved the alcohol yield and the material utilization. The alcohol yield of the XynG2 batch displayed an increase of 4.4% in comparison to the control, and the amount of sake cake decreased by 4.6%. The contribution of XynG2 was further confirmed through our brewing experiment in which we used the yeast heterogeneously expressing fungal xylanase isozymes. Interestingly XynG1, an enzyme with a XynG2-like sequence that is more vulnerable to ethanol, did not improve the sake-mash fermentation. The stability of XynG2 in ethanol was prominent, and it retained most of its original activity after we exposed it to 80% ethanol for 30min, whereas the stability of the other isozymes in ethanol, including XynG1, was much lower (20-25% ethanol). We concluded, therefore, that the improvement of material utilization achieved with XynG2 is primarily attributable to its characteristically high stability in ethanol, thereby, effectively degrading rice endosperm cell walls under high-alcohol conditions such as a sake-mash environment. PMID:20727822

  6. Drinking pattern and its relation to hemoglobin concentration in local brew consumers from the Kathmandu Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the hemoglobin concentration in alcohol consumers (home made brew-Chang) and compare it with non- alcohohcs healthy subjects. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was determined in 2053 alcoholic consumers (males: 1056; females: 997) and was compared with 1 027 (males: 623; females: 404) healthy non-alcoholic con-trol subjects. The Hb concentration in alcoholic male and female were 13.42 ± 2.14 g/dL and 12.19 ± 1.55 g/dL compared with control showing 14.43 ± 1.07 g/dL and 12.73 ± 1.41 g/dL in males and females respectively. The differences in Hb concentration between alcoholic and non- alcoholic consumers were highly significant in both genders with a P value of 0. 000 674 in males and 0.004 732 in females. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification test (AUDIT) scores was advocated to alcoholic consum-ers to test the severity of drunkenness and disorders related to it. A total of 887 males and 663 females crossed the cut-off limits of ≥8 AUDIT scores showing the addiction towards drinking habits of local brew.

  7. Optimally accepted salt reduction across cultures. Naturally brewed soy sauce used in three countries with different food cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimojo, R.; Sato, T.; Imamura, M.; Leong, L.P.; Itohiya, Y.; Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.

    2014-01-01

    To explore the influence of food-culture on partial replacement of salt by naturally brewed soy sauce, the results of a procedure, based on equivalence of overall taste intensity and pleasantness, were compared in three countries. Per country, untrained consumers assessed pleasantness and some senso

  8. Strange Brew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard Christiansen, Lærke; Lounsbury, Michael

    2013-01-01

    creatively combine elements from different logics into newly designed artifacts. An illustrative case study of a global brewery group’s development of such an artifact – a Responsible Drinking Guide Book – is outlined. We argue that intraorganizational institutional bricolage first requires the...... combined elements from social responsibility and market logics by drawing upon extant organizational resources from different times and spaces in an effort to reconstitute their collective organizational identity....

  9. Still Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tea culture and China are synonymous, but even old-style teahouses have to change with the times Xinquan Tea House is filled with old men who seemingly have known each other for years. They share unrestrained and far-ranging conversations on topics that range from tea ceremony culture to how to sort out all the world's troubles. Situated in De'nei Dajie street in downtown Beijing, this teahouse is known as a qingchaguan (teahouse serving tea without

  10. Production of alpha-amylase with Aspergillus oryzae on spent brewing grain by solid substrate fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogar, B; Szakacs, G; Tengerdy, R P; Linden, J C; Pandey, A

    2002-01-01

    Ten Aspergillus oryzae strains were screened in solid substrate fermentation for alpha-amylase production on spent brewing grain (SBG) and on corn fiber. SBG proved to be a better substrate for enzyme production than corn fiber. A Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to optimize the medium composition for the best strain. Solid substrate fermentation on optimized medium with A. oryzae NRRL 1808 (=ATCC 12892) strain in stationary 500-mL Erlenmeyer flask culture yielded 4519 U of alpha-amylase/g of dry matter substrate in 3 d. The whole solid substrate fermentation material (crude enzyme, in situ enzyme) may be considered a cheap biocatalytic material for animal feed rations and for bioalcohol production from starchy materials. PMID:12396145

  11. Monitoring of Glucose in Beer Brewing by a Carbon Nanotubes Based Nylon Nanofibrous Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, preparation, and characterization of a novel glucose electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX into a nylon nanofibrous membrane (NFM prepared by electrospinning and functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT. A disc of such GOX/CNT/NFM membrane (40 μm in thickness was used for coating the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, with ferrocene methanol as mediator. The binding of GOX around the CNT/NFM greatly enhances the electron transfer, which results in a biosensor with a current five times higher than without CNT. The potential usefulness of the proposed biosensor was demonstrated with the analysis of glucose in commercial beverages and along the monitoring of the brewing process for making beer, from the mashing to the fermentation steps.

  12. 家庭酿造红葡萄酒工艺条件的研究%Research on the Conditions of Red Wine Brewed Progress in the Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温建辉

    2013-01-01

      通过测定几种市售鲜食葡萄与酿酒专用葡萄的平均粒重、含糖量、酸度等指标,比较和论述了它们在酿酒方面的差异,指出由于提子果胶含量较高、含酸量较低,故不宜选用提子酿造葡萄酒。%  By measuring the index of average grain weight, sugar content and acidity of table grapes commercially available and wine-brewed dedicated grapes, the differences of brewing are compared and discussed. The article points out the reason why hard grapes should not be used to brew wine. The choices of raw grapes, containers, sugar volume and yeast have been analyzed. The author analyses and discusses the conditions of wine-brewed progress in the family on the basis of the further study on wine-brewed theory in combination with brewing practice in recent years.

  13. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested. PMID:26616936

  14. Chemical transformations of characteristic hop secondary metabolites in relation to beer properties and the brewing process: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenackers, Bart; De Cooman, Luc; De Vos, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The annual production of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) exceeds 100,000 mt and is almost exclusively consumed by the brewing industry. The value of hops is attributed to their characteristic secondary metabolites; these metabolites are precursors which are transformed during the brewing process into important bittering, aromatising and preservative components with rather low efficiency. By selectively transforming these components off-line, both their utilisation efficiency and functionality can be significantly improved. Therefore, the chemical transformations of these secondary metabolites will be considered with special attention to recent advances in the field. The considered components are the hop alpha-acids, hop beta-acids and xanthohumol, which are components unique to hops, and alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, sesquiterpenes which are highly characteristic of hops. PMID:25442616

  15. 3-D TECATE/BREW: Thermal, stress, and birefringent ray-tracing codes for solid-state laser design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the physics, code formulations, and numerics that are used in the TECATE (totally Eulerian code for anisotropic thermo-elasticity) and BREW (birefringent ray-tracing of electromagnetic waves) codes for laser design. These codes resolve thermal, stress, and birefringent optical effects in 3-D stationary solid-state systems. This suite of three constituent codes is a package referred to as LASRPAK

  16. Communicating the Corporate Social Responsibility Activities of the UK Division of an International Brewing Company through Sustainability Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Olayinka, Ogunrinade

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability reporting has risen to prominence in recent years, and has been particularly identified as having the potential to make significant positive contributions to organisational reputation. This project aims to answer the question of how Molson Coors Brewing Company (UK) (MCBC) can best develop its own sustainability reporting in order to enhance the company’s standing both within the alcohol industry and the wider society. In pursuing this aim I draw upon a peer group reporting c...

  17. Ferulic acid release and 4-vinylguaiacol formation during brewing and fermentation: indications for feruloyl esterase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghe, Stefan; Benoot, Koen; Delvaux, Filip; Vanderhaegen, Bart; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2004-02-11

    The release of ferulic acid and the subsequent thermal or enzymatic decarboxylation to 4-vinylguaiacol are inherent to the beer production process. Phenolic, medicinal, or clove-like flavors originating from 4-vinylguaiacol frequently occur in beer made with wheat or wheat malt. To evaluate the release of ferulic acid and the transformation to 4-vinylguaiacol, beer was brewed with different proportions of barley malt, wheat, and wheat malt. Ferulic acid as well as 4-vinylguaiacol levels were determined by HPLC at several stages of the beer production process. During brewing, ferulic acid was released at the initial mashing phase, whereas moderate levels of 4-vinylguaiacol were formed by wort boiling. Higher levels of the phenolic flavor compound were produced during fermentations with brewery yeast strains of the Pof(+) phenotype. In beer made with barley malt, ferulic acid was mainly released during the brewing process. Conversely, 60-90% of ferulic acid in wheat or wheat malt beer was hydrolyzed during fermentation, causing higher 4-vinylguaiacol levels in these beers. As cereal enzymes are most likely inactivated during wort boiling, the additional release of ferulic acid during fermentation suggests the activity of feruloyl esterases produced by brewer's yeast. PMID:14759156

  18. Hop-Derived Prenylflavonoids and Their Importance in Brewing Technology – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mudura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Beer is one of the world’s most popular beverage products. Beer is all natural ingredients, so moderate consumption contributes to a healthy daily diet. Beer contains a large variety of phenolic compounds which are derived from the processed cereal (70% and hops (30% and which are responsible for the antioxidant activity of the beverage. Hops (Humulus lupulus L. are an essential ingredient of beer and are a source of polyphenols that contain the prenyl or geranyl group in the chemical structure, xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, 6-prenilnaringenin and 8-prenylnaringenin. The prenylflavonoid's compounds found in beer have different biological activities demonstrated in vitro as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and antiviral. Important quantities of prenylflavonoids are lost during wort production. The losses may be explained by the low solubility of these compounds and its insufficient extraction in wort. Using appropriate engineering strategies, improvements in the recovery of prenylflavonoids from hops into beer has involved increased hopping rate, improved brewing process, especially wort boiling, increased colored malt yields and management of beer fermentations.Beer is one of the world’s most popular beverage products. Beer is all natural ingredients, so moderate consumption contributes to a healthy daily diet. Beer contains a large variety of phenolic compounds which are derived from the processed cereal (70% and hops (30% and which are responsible for the antioxidant activity of the beverage. Hops (Humulus lupulus L. are an essential ingredient of beer and are a source of polyphenols that contain the prenyl or geranyl group in the chemical structure, xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, 6-prenilnaringenin and 8-prenylnaringenin. The prenylflavonoid's compounds found in beer have different biological activities demonstrated in vitro as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and antiviral. Important

  19. COBRA: A Computational Brewing Application for Predicting the Molecular Composition of Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fooshee, David R.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Baldi, Pierre

    2012-05-08

    Atmospheric organic aerosols (OA) represent a significant fraction of airborne particulate matter and can impact climate, visibility, and human health. These mixtures are difficult to characterize experimentally due to the enormous complexity and dynamic nature of their chemical composition. We introduce a novel Computational Brewing Application (COBRA) and apply it to modeling oligomerization chemistry stemming from condensation and addition reactions of monomers pertinent to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by photooxidation of isoprene. COBRA uses two lists as input: a list of chemical structures comprising the molecular starting pool, and a list of rules defining potential reactions between molecules. Reactions are performed iteratively, with products of all previous iterations serving as reactants for the next one. The simulation generated thousands of molecular structures in the mass range of 120-500 Da, and correctly predicted ~70% of the individual SOA constituents observed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Selected predicted structures were confirmed with tandem mass spectrometry. Esterification and hemiacetal formation reactions were shown to play the most significant role in oligomer formation, whereas aldol condensation was shown to be insignificant. COBRA is not limited to atmospheric aerosol chemistry, but is broadly applicable to the prediction of reaction products in other complex mixtures for which reasonable reaction mechanisms and seed molecules can be supplied by experimental or theoretical methods.

  20. Influence of the brewing process on furfuryl ethyl ether formation during beer aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhaegen, Bart; Neven, Hedwig; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2004-11-01

    In beer, the development of a solvent-like stale flavor is associated with the formation of furfuryl ethyl ether. The synthesis rate of this important flavor compound is proportional to the concentration of furfuryl alcohol in beer. This study shows that furfuryl alcohol in beer is mainly formed by Maillard reactions initiated during wort boiling and malt production. A mechanism for its formation from alpha-(1,4)-oligoglucans and amino acids in wort and beer is proposed. During wort boiling, a quadratic relationship was found between the wort extract concentration, on the one hand, and the increase of furfuryl alcohol and furfural, on the other. The reduction of furfural by yeast during fermentation further increases the furfuryl alcohol content. In pale beers, the furfuryl alcohol concentration is essentially determined by the thermal load on wort during brewing operations. In dark beers, a considerable fraction of furfuryl alcohol may, however, come from the dark malts used. These results lead to important practical conclusions concerning the control over furfuryl ethyl ether in beer. PMID:15506813

  1. A thermostable Gloeophyllum trabeum xylanase with potential for the brewing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Luo, Huiying; Yu, Wangning; Ma, Rui; You, Shuai; Liu, Weina; Hou, Lingyu; Zheng, Fei; Xie, Xiangming; Yao, Bin

    2016-05-15

    A xylanase gene of glycoside hydrolase family 10, GtXyn10, was cloned from Gloeophyllum trabeum CBS 900.73 and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. Purified recombinant GtXyn10 exhibited significant activities to xylan (100.0%), lichenan (11.2%), glucan (15.2%) and p-nitrophenol-β-cellobiose (18.6%), demonstrated the maximum xylanase and glucanase activities at pH 4.5-5.0 and 75°C, retained stability over the pH range of 2.0-7.5 and at 70°C, and was resistant to pepsin and trypsin, most metal ions and SDS. Multiple sequence alignment and modeled-structure analysis identified a unique Gly48 in GtXyn10, and site-directed mutagenesis of Gly48 to Lys improved the temperature optimum up to 80°C. Under simulated mashing conditions, GtXyn10 (80U) reduced the mash viscosity by 12.8% and improved the filtration rate by 31.3%. All these properties above make GtXyn10 attractive for potential applications in the feed and brewing industries. PMID:26776003

  2. Production of freeze-dried yeast culture for the brewing of traditional sorghum beer, tchapalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guessan, Florent K; Coulibaly, Hermann W; Alloue-Boraud, Mireille W A; Cot, Marlène; Djè, Koffi Marcellin

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a well-known dehydration method widely used to preserve microorganisms. In order to produce freeze-dried yeast starter culture for the brewing purpose of African sorghum beer, we tested protective agents (sucrose, glucose, glycerol) in combination with support materials (millet, maize, sorghum, and cassava flours) at 1:1 ratio (v/v). The yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae F 12-7 and Candida tropicalis C 0-7 previously isolated from sorghum beer were used in a mixed culture at a ratio of 2:1 (C. tropicalis/S. cerevisiae). After the freeze-drying, the residual water contents were between 0.78 -2.27%, 0.55 -4.09%, and 0.40-2.61%, respectively, with sucrose, glucose and glycerol. The dried yeasts viabilities were between 4.0% and 10.6%. Among the protective agents used, sucrose was found to be the best protectant giving cell viabilities of 8.4-10.6%. Considering the support materials, millet flour was the best support after drying. When the freeze-dried yeast powders were stored at 4°C and room temperature (25-28°C) for up to 3 months, the survival rates were the highest with cassava flour as the support material. PMID:26788308

  3. Screening for new brewing yeasts in the non-Saccharomyces sector with Torulaspora delbrueckii as model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Maximilian; Kopecká, Jana; Meier-Dörnberg, Tim; Zarnkow, Martin; Jacob, Fritz; Hutzler, Mathias

    2016-04-01

    This study describes a screening system for future brewing yeasts focusing on non-Saccharomyces yeasts. The aim was to find new yeast strains that can ferment beer wort into a respectable beer. Ten Torulaspora delbrueckii strains were put through the screening system, which included sugar utilization tests, hop resistance tests, ethanol resistance tests, polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting, propagation tests, amino acid catabolism and anabolism, phenolic off-flavour tests and trial fermentations. Trial fermentations were analysed for extract reduction, pH drop, yeast concentration in bulk fluid and fermentation by-products. All investigated strains were able to partly ferment wort sugars and showed high tolerance to hop compounds and ethanol. One of the investigated yeast strains fermented all the wort sugars and produced a respectable fruity flavour and a beer of average ethanol content with a high volatile flavour compound concentration. Two other strains could possibly be used for pre-fermentation as a bio-flavouring agent for beers that have been post-fermented by Saccharomyces strains as a consequence of their low sugar utilization but good flavour-forming properties. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26647111

  4. Differentiation of roasted and soluble coffees through physical fractionation of selected essential and nonessential metals in their brews and exploratory data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Pawel; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Stelmach, Ewelina; Welna, Maja

    2016-11-01

    An analytical scheme for physical fractionation of Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sr and Zn in ground roasted and soluble coffees brews was proposed. It was based on ultrafiltration through five ultrafiltration membranes having molecular weight cut-offs of 5, 10, 30, 50 and 100kDa. The highest ">100kDa" and the lowest "fractions were established to differentiate the studied coffees brews the most. Al, Cu, Fe and Ni were mostly associated with the ">100kDa" fraction, while Co, K, Mg and Na - with the "fraction. For Ba, Ca, Mn, Sr and Zn, ">100kDa" and "fractions contributions were equally accounted. The physical fractionation pattern of selected metals was convenient for discovering important features of brews of both coffee types and differences between them by principal component analysis and then classifying them by linear discriminant analysis. PMID:27591664

  5. The Survey of Microbial Quality of the Dry Sample, Extract and Brewing of some Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh VALIASILL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants may be exposed to a wide range of microbial contamination during pre- and post- harvest stages and they can present high microbial counts. In this study, the microbial quality of 44 samples of dry herbs namely: mint (Menthaspp., lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, summer savory (Satureja hortensis, zataria (Zataria multiflora, Indian valerian (Valeriana wallichii, their brewing and extracts were analyzed. Total count using plate count agar medium (PCA, coliform count by Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBL, Enterobacteriacea by Violet Red Bile Glucose (VRBG were evaluated. Medium Baird-Parker agar (BP medium and Tryptone Bile X-Gluc (TBX medium were used for the isolation and enumeration of Staphylococcus aurous and E. coli spp. respectively. Furthermore, Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar medium (XLD and Bismuth Sulfite Agar medium(BSA were used for detection of Salmonella spp. Fungal and mold contamination was assessed using yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol agar. The results showed that the contamination of the samples with total count (100% and Enterobacteriaceae (85%, total coliform (83%, mold and yeast (98% and E. coli ssp. (2.27 were detected, including in the study samples the absence of pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aurous, Salmonella spp. Moreover, the extract had a lower microbial load in comparison to dry herb samples. Also, the lowest and the highest of contamination rates were observed for Indian valerian and zataria, respectively. According to the results, there is a need to control the environmental conditions and improve hygiene in the production process; even more, it is recommended to choose a suitable decontamination method for disinfection during packing medicinal plants and during post-packing manipulation and transport.

  6. 酿制红枣酒酵母菌的筛选%Study on Screening of Jujube Wine Brewing Yeasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛希跃; 许倩; 杨海燕

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The purpose of this research was to screen yeast to reduce the high alcohol content in brewing jujube wine. [Method] Dried jujube was used as raw materials, and by comparing the dates of wine alcohol gauge, reducing sugar and soluble solids and high alcohol content, the best varieties of yeast and the best volume were filtered. [Result] Results showed that the best jujube wine brewing yeast strains of the three yeasts was SY -wine yeast, the appropriate additive amount was 0. 3 g/L. [ Conclusion ] The jujube wine brewed by SY - wine yeast has high alcoholicity, good color and flavor, and the nourishment is abundant.%[目的]筛选酿制红枣酒的酵母菌.筛选适合该种红枣的酿酒酵母,降低枣酒中高级醇含量.[方法]以干红枣为原料,通过比较枣酒的酒精度、还原糖、可溶性固形物及高级醇含量筛选出最适酵母品种及最佳添加量.[结果]三种酵母菌中最适酿造红枣酒的酵母为SY型葡萄酒酵母,其适宜的添加量为0.3 g/L.[结论]SY型葡萄酒酵母为红枣酒发酵最合适的酵母菌,产品酒度高、色泽和风味好,营养丰富.

  7. Impact of brewing process operations on phytate, phenolic compounds and in vitro solubility of iron and zinc in opaque sorghum beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beer is a significant component of the diet of millions of poor people in rural Africa. This study reports the effect of traditional brewing operations on its level of micronutrients, especially iron and zinc. The example of a West African sorghum beer, tchoukoutou, in Northern Benin

  8. Yeast: the soul of beer's aroma--a review of flavour-active esters and higher alcohols produced by the brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Brányik, Tomás; Vicente, António A

    2014-03-01

    Among the most important factors influencing beer quality is the presence of well-adjusted amounts of higher alcohols and esters. Thus, a heavy body of literature focuses on these substances and on the parameters influencing their production by the brewing yeast. Additionally, the complex metabolic pathways involved in their synthesis require special attention. More than a century of data, mainly in genetic and proteomic fields, has built up enough information to describe in detail each step in the pathway for the synthesis of higher alcohols and their esters, but there is still place for more. Higher alcohols are formed either by anabolism or catabolism (Ehrlich pathway) of amino acids. Esters are formed by enzymatic condensation of organic acids and alcohols. The current paper reviews the up-to-date knowledge in the pathways involving the synthesis of higher alcohols and esters by brewing yeasts. Fermentation parameters affecting yeast response during biosynthesis of these aromatic substances are also fully reviewed. PMID:24384752

  9. A simplified determination of total concentrations of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in addition to their bioaccessible fraction in popular instant coffee brews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-04-15

    A direct analysis of instant coffee brews with HR-CS-FAAS spectrometry to determine the total Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn content has been developed and validated. The proposed method is simple and fast; it delivers good analytical performance; its accuracy being within -3% to 3%, its precision--2-3% and detection limits--0.03, 0.04, 0.004 and 0.01 mg l(-1) for Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn, respectively. In addition, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn bioaccessibility in instant coffee brews was measured by means of the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion with the use of simulated gastric and intestinal juice solutions. Absorption of metals in intestinal villi was simulated by means of ultrafiltration over semi-permeable membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 5 kDa. Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn concentrations in permeates of instant coffee gastrointestinal incubates were measured with HR-CS-FAA spectrometry. PMID:26616965

  10. Ayahuasca, psychedelic studies and health sciences: the politics of knowledge and inquiry into an Amazonian plant brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Kenneth W; Labate, Beatriz C

    2014-01-01

    This article offers critical sociological and philosophical reflections on ayahuasca and other psychedelics as objects of research in medicine, health and human sciences. It situates 21st century scientific inquiry on ayahuasca in the broader context of how early modern European social trends and intellectual pursuits translated into new forms of empiricism and experimental philosophy, but later evolved into a form of dogmatism that convenienced the political suppression of academic inquiry into psychedelics. Applying ideas from the field of science and technology studies, we consider how ayahuasca's myriad ontological representations in the 21st century--for example, plant teacher, traditional medicine, religious sacrament, material commodity, cognitive tool, illicit drug--influence our understanding of it as an object of inquiry. We then explore epistemological issues related to ayahuasca studies, including how the indigenous and mestizo concept of "plant teacher" or the more instrumental notion of psychedelics as "cognitive tools" may impact understanding of knowledge. This leads to questions about whether scientists engaged in ayahuasca research should be expected to have personal experiences with the brew, and how these may be perceived to help or hinder the objectivity of their pursuits. We conclude with some brief reflections on the politics of psychedelic research and impediments to academic knowledge production in the field of psychedelic studies. PMID:25563448

  11. Copy number variations of genes involved in stress responses reflect the redox state and DNA damage in brewing yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Deregowska, Anna; Skoneczny, Marek; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Natkanska, Urszula; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Rawska, Ewa; Potocki, Leszek; Kuna, Ewelina; Panek, Anita; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The yeast strains of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex involved in beer production are a heterogeneous group whose genetic and genomic features are not adequately determined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a genetic characterization of selected group of commercially available brewing yeasts both ale top-fermenting and lager bottom-fermenting strains. Molecular karyotyping revealed that the diversity of chromosome patterns and four strains with the most accented genetic variabilities were selected and subjected to genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis. The differences in the gene copy number were found in five functional gene categories: (1) maltose metabolism and transport, (2) response to toxin, (3) siderophore transport, (4) cellular aldehyde metabolic process, and (5) L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase activity (p stress stimuli compared to other strains. We suggest that compromised stress response may not only promote oxidant-based changes in the nucleolus state that may affect fermentation performance but also provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:27299603

  12. Effect of roasting conditions on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in ground Arabica coffee and coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houessou, Justin Koffi; Maloug, Saber; Leveque, Anne-Sophie; Delteil, Corine; Heyd, Bertrand; Camel, Valérie

    2007-11-14

    Roasting is a critical process in coffee production as it enables the development of flavor and aroma. At the same time, roasting may lead to the formation of nondesirable compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, Arabica green coffee beans from Cuba were roasted under controlled conditions to monitor PAH formation during the roasting process. Roasting was performed in a pilot spouted bed roaster, with the inlet air temperature varying from 180 to 260 degrees C, using both dark (20 min) and light (5 min) roasting conditions. Several PAHs were determined in both roasted coffee samples and green coffee samples. Also, coffee brews, obtained using an electric coffee maker, were analyzed for final estimation of PAH transfer coefficients to the infusion. Formation of phenanthrene, anthracene, and benzo[a]anthracene in coffee beans was observed at temperatures above 220 degrees C, whereas formation of pyrene and chrysene required 260 degrees C. Low levels of benzo[g,h,i]perylene were also noted for dark roasting under 260 degrees C, with simultaneous partial degradation of three-cycle PAHs, suggesting that transformation of low molecular PAHs to high molecular PAHs occurs as the roasting degree is increased. The PAH transfer to the infusion was quite moderate (<35%), with a slightly lower extractability for dark-roasted coffee as compared to light-roasted coffee. PMID:17941690

  13. Brewing technology of golden needle black rice wine%金针菇黑米酒的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班清

    2011-01-01

    Golden needle black rice wine was brewed of black rice, fresh golden needle mushroom, potato. The extraction of Lycium barbarum L., Radix Polygoni multiflori, Cordyceps sinensis, Chinese Yam and honey were added to produce a new type healthy wine. The health functions were: nourishing stomach, curing lung and spleen deficiency, anticancer, anti-fatigue and aging-delay.%金针菇黑米酒是以黑米、鲜金针菇、马铃薯、百合等为主料,采用传统发酵工艺酿造出低度酒后,再辅以枸杞子、何首乌、冬虫夏草、肉苁蓉,山药等多味中药的浸提汁以及蜂蜜,生产出的一种具有养肺虚、健脾养胃、抗癌、抗疲劳、延缓衰老等的新型保健酒。

  14. The Brewing Process of Wheat-poured Wine%“麦淋酒”的酿造工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王都留; 叶文斌; 杨建东; 何九军

    2012-01-01

    "麦淋酒"是礼县大潭人酿造的一种低度酒,属白酒中的一种小曲酒.该酒以小麦为主要原料以青稞、荞及高粱为次要原料酿造.其酒色透明,酒味独特,性地平和.麦淋酒在酿制过程中采用纯粮食酿造,不添加任何其它物质,特别是以"百草尖"自制独特的酒曲,使该酒口味独特,具有一定的保健作用.其酿造过程一般经过制曲、发酵、烤酒三个阶段.%"wheat-poured wine" is a low alcohol liquors distilled by local people of the datan in Lixian, and this spirits is belong to a yeast liquor. The main raw materials of the wine are wheat, buckwheat and sorghum as for secondary raw materials. Wheat-poured wine are transparent, unique flavor and moderate taste. Which is made of pure grain, not adding other substances, in brewing process, Yeast-making, fermenting and roasting are three major stages. Specially, if "Baieao tip" is as distiller's yeast, this spirits has a u- nique taste and a certain role in health care.

  15. Epimerization of Green Tea Catechins During Brewing Does Not Affect the Ability to Poison Human Type II Topoisomerases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmel, M. Anne; Byl, Jo Ann W.; Osheroff, Neil

    2013-01-01

    (−)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant and biologically active polyphenol in green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves and many of its cellular effects are consistent with its actions as a topoisomerase II poison. In contrast to genistein and several other related bioflavonoids that act as interfacial poisons, EGCG was the first bioflavonoid shown to act as a covalent topoisomerase II poison. Although studies routinely examine the effects of dietary phytochemicals on enzyme and cellular systems, they often fail to consider that many compounds are altered during cooking or cellular metabolism. To this point, the majority of EGCG (and related catechins) in green tea leaves is epimerized during the brewing process. Epimerization reverses the stereochemistry of the bond that bridges the B- and C-rings, and converts EGCG to (−)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG). Consequently, a significant proportion of EGCG that is ingested during the consumption of green tea is actually GCG. Therefore, the effects of GCG and related epimerized green tea catechins on human topoisomerase IIα and IIβ were characterized. GCG increased levels of DNA cleavage mediated by both enzyme isoforms with an activity that was similar to that of EGCG. GCG acted primarily by inhibiting the ability of topoisomerase IIα and IIβ to ligate cleaved DNA. Several lines of evidence indicate that GCG functions as a covalent topoisomerase II poison that adducts the enzyme. Finally, epimerization did not affect the reactivity of the chemical substituents (the three hydroxyl groups on the Bring) that were required for enzyme poisoning. Thus, the activity of covalent topoisomerase II poisons appears to be less sensitive to stereochemical changes than interfacial poisons. PMID:23514406

  16. Detection and Quantification of Gluten during the Brewing and Fermentation of Beer Using Antibody-Based Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rakhi; Zoerb, Hans F; Cho, Chung Y; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-06-01

    In 2013 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defined the term ''gluten-free'' and identified a gap in the analytical methodology for detection and quantification of gluten in foods subjected to fermentation and hydrolysis. To ascertain the ability of current enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect and quantify gluten in fermented and hydrolyzed products, sorghum beer was spiked in the initial phases of production with 0, 20, and 200 μg/ml wheat gluten, and samples were collected throughout the beer production process. The samples were analyzed using five sandwich ELISAs and two competitive ELISAs and by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with Western analysis employing four antibodies (MIoBS, R5, G12, and Skerritt). The sensitivity of the MIoBS ELISA (0.25 ppm) enabled the reliable detection of gluten throughout the manufacturing process, including fermentation, when the initial concentration of 20 μg/ml dropped to 2 μg/ml. The R5 antibody-based and G12 antibody-based sandwich ELISAs were unable to reliably detect gluten, initially at 20 μg/ml, after the onset of production. The Skerritt antibody-based sandwich ELISA overestimated the gluten concentration in all samples. The R5 antibody-based and G12 antibody-based competitive ELISAs were less sensitive than the sandwich ELISAs and did not provide accurate results for quantifying gluten concentration. The Western analyses were able to detect gluten at less than 5 μg/ml in the samples and confirmed the results of the ELISAs. Although further research is necessary before all problems associated with detection and quantification of hydrolyzed and fermented gluten are resolved, the analytical methods recommended by the FDA for regulatory samples can detect ≥ 20 μg/ml gluten that has undergone brewing and fermentation processes associated with the manufacture of beer. PMID:26038908

  17. 酸浆果酒酿造工艺研究%Brewing technology of Physalis fruit wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉香; 冯志彬; 周元; 刘进杰; 刘金红; 汪亭

    2009-01-01

    以酸浆为原料了生产酸浆果酒工艺,考察果胶酶用量对酸浆出汁率的影响,以及SO2添加量、发酵温度、接种量对酸浆果酒品质的影响.结果表明:果胶酶用量为0.6g/kg时,可提高出汁率9%;酸浆酒的最佳发酵条件为:SO2添加量0.8mL/L ~1.0mL/L,发酵温度为18℃~22℃,接种量5%.酿制出的酸浆果酒色泽好,澄清透明,酒味浓郁,酒体丰满,具有酸浆的特殊清香.%Physalis was used as raw materials to study on Physalis wine production process, and to inspect the effect of the amount of pectinase on Physalis juice rate and the effect of SO2 added, the fermentation temperature and inoculum on quality of physalis fruit wine.The results showed that the rate of Physalis juice can increase by 9% when the add amount of pectinase is 0.6g/kg; the optimal fermentation conditions were as follow: SO2 concentration 0.8ml/L ~1.0ml/L, fermentation temperature 18℃~ 22℃, inoculum 5%.Physalis brewed wine was featured with good color, clarify transparent and rich taste, at the same time with the special scent.

  18. Brewing with 100%barley beer beverage using the top-fermentation%上面发酵100%大麦啤酒饮料的酿造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔云前; 庞帅; 朱维岳

    2014-01-01

    利用100%大麦添加Ondea Pro复合酶进行啤酒饮料的酿造,同时进行100%大麦芽啤酒的酿造,对制取的麦汁和成品进行理化指标检测。对比发现:100%大麦麦汁成分和100%大麦芽麦汁成分相差不多,能够为酵母生长繁殖提供足够的营养成分。成品检测中,风味物质含量相差不多,感官品评相差不大。使用100%大麦进行啤酒酿造,能有效降低麦芽成本,减少麦芽制备过程中的环境污染,具有推广价值。%100%barley added Ondea Pro®complex enzyme is used to brewing beer,at the same time, brewing beer with 100% malt.Then, the worts, beer ingredients and the corresponding physical and chemical indicators were tested , respectively .The results showed that:in 100% malt wort and 100%barley wort almost the same ingredients,both of them can provide enough nutrients for yeast growth and reproduction.The flavor compounds content in both of the beers are similar.Brewing with 100% barley can fundamentally solve the conventional high cost of raw materials for barley malt, high energy consumption in malting.The final product is worth being promoted.

  19. Technology and Attention Problems of Home-brewing Grape Wine%家酿葡萄酒工艺及应注意的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白杜娟

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the home-brewing grape wine quality, the operating technologies and attention problems at the operating processesof brewing grape wine from selecting materials to storing were outlined. In order to ensure the normal fermentation, sulphurous acid and yeastshould be added after grape had been crushed. In order to improve wine quality,the management of ambient temperature at pre-fermentation,postfermentation and wine storage stage should be strengthened. In order to make crystal clear,aroma,and mellow taste wine,artificial clarifying andblending should be carried out.%为了提高家酿葡萄酒的质量,简述了家酿葡萄酒从选料到贮存各部分的操作工艺及应注意的问题,提出葡萄破碎后应添加亚硫酸及酵母,以保证发酵的正常进行;应加强前期发酵、后期发酵和葡萄酒贮存期间的环境温度管理,以提高葡萄酒质量;开展人工澄清及勾兑,可使酒液清澈透明、香气浓郁、口味醇厚.

  20. 大平顶枣保健果醋酿造工艺探究%Study on Brewing Process of Dapingding Jujube Health Fruit Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晓磊; 刘香军

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Dapingding jujubes were taken as raw material, and brewed to health vinegar through the deep liquid fermentation. We studied the effects of jujube vinegar fermentation conditions and determine the optimal brewing process. The results showed that the optimum fermentation conditions of Dapingding health vinegar are that:the fermentation temperature at 32℃, the amount of edible alcohol addotion 8%, fermentation period 3 days, and the inoculation amount 6%.%本文以大平顶枣为原料,经过深层液态发酵法酿造保健果醋,研究了影响大枣保健果醋的发酵条件,确定最佳酿造工艺。结果表明,大平顶枣最佳果醋发酵条件:发酵温度32℃,添加食用酒精量8%,发酵时间3d,接种量6%。

  1. Study on Brewing Process of Dapingding Jujube Health Fruit Vinegar%大平顶枣保健果醋酿造工艺探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晓磊; 刘香军

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Dapingding jujubes were taken as raw material, and brewed to health vinegar through the deep liquid fermentation. We studied the effects of jujube vinegar fermentation conditions and determine the optimal brewing process. The results showed that the optimum fermentation conditions of Dapingding health vinegar are that:the fermentation temperature at 32℃, the amount of edible alcohol addotion 8%, fermentation period 3 days, and the inoculation amount 6%.%本文以大平顶枣为原料,经过深层液态发酵法酿造保健果醋,研究了影响大枣保健果醋的发酵条件,确定最佳酿造工艺。结果表明,大平顶枣最佳果醋发酵条件:发酵温度32℃,添加食用酒精量8%,发酵时间3d,接种量6%。

  2. Headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), and solid phase microextraction (SPME) applied to the analysis of roasted Arabica coffee and coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicchi, Carlo; Iori, Cristina; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Sandra, Pat

    2002-01-30

    Headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), two recently introduced solventless enrichment techniques, have been applied to the analysis of the headspace of Arabica roasted coffee and of the headspace of the brew and of the brew itself. In both HSSE and SBSE enrichment is performed on a thick film of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) coated onto a magnet incorporated in a glass jacket. Sampling is done by placing the PDMS stir bar in the headspace (gas phase extraction or HSSE) or by immersing it in the liquid (liquid phase extraction or SBSE). The stir bar is then thermally desorbed on-line with capillary GC-MS. The performance of HSSE and SBSE have been compared through the determination of the recoveries and relative abundances of 16 components of the coffee volatile fraction to classical static headspace (S-HS) and to headspace and in-sample solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and IS-SPME, respectively) applying the fibers PDMS 100 microm, Carbowax/divinylbenzene 65 microm (CW/DVB), Carboxen/PDMS 75 microm(CAR/PDMS), polyacrylate 85 microm(PA), PDMS/divinylbenzene 65 microm(PDMS/DVB), and Carboxen/divinylbenzene/PDMS 50-30 microm(CAR/PDMS/DVB). In all cases, HSSE and SBSE gave higher recoveries, and this is entirely due to the high amount of PDMS applied. PMID:11804511

  3. Modelling Brewing Industry Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to analyse the price behaviour of the second to eleventh strongest brewers on the Czech market on the basis of the price behaviour of the price leader, this being Plzeňský Prazdroj (a member of SABMiller. Using monthly prices (the number of observations is generally 108 periods, is modelled the length of delay between the price leader and the other breweries making a price change. A linear regressive analysis is used to produce the model. The beer brands are divided into 3 segments: super- premium, mainstream and non-alcoholic beer and prices are modelled separately for barrelled and bottled beer if the data is available to allow it. The results of each brewery’s behaviour are summarised in conclusion. The information presented in the article is the product of working on the Research Plan MSM 6046070906, “The Economics of Czech agriculture resources and their efficient use within a multifunctional agri-food systems framework”.

  4. Modelling Brewing Industry Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, T

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to analyse the price behaviour of the second to eleventh strongest brewers on the Czech market on the basis of the price behaviour of the price leader, this being Plzeňskı Prazdroj (a member of SABMiller). Using monthly prices (the number of observations is generally 108 periods), is modelled the length of delay between the price leader and the other breweries making a price change. A linear regressive analysis is used to produce the model. The beer brands are...

  5. Development of brewing science in (and since) the late 19th century: molecular profiles of 110-130 year old beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Andrea; Ravasio, Davide; Qin, Fen;

    2015-01-01

    The 19th century witnessed many advances in scientific enzymology and microbiology that laid the foundations for modern biotechnological industries. In the current study, we analyze the content of original lager beer samples from the 1880s, 1890s and 1900s with emphasis on the carbohydrate content...... and composition. The historic samples include the oldest samples brewed with pure Saccharomyces carlsbergensis yeast strains. While no detailed record of beer pasteurization at the time is available, historic samples indicate a gradual improvement of bottled beer handling from the 1880s to the 1900s......, with decreasing contamination by enzymatic and microbial activities over this time span. Samples are sufficiently well preserved to allow comparisons to present-day references, thus yielding molecular signatures of the effects of 20th century science on beer production. Opposite to rather stable...

  6. The Utilization of Refined Maize Starch in Brewing%玉米淀粉在啤酒酿造中的使用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海明

    2001-01-01

    玉米淀粉对于酿造师来说是一种最纯的淀粉原料,它没有得到广泛使用的原因主要是其价格比玉米粉或酿造大米昂贵,不过近几年来玉米淀粉的价格已接近大米的价格,为酿造师提供了良好的选择余地。玉米淀粉的蛋白质、脂肪、多酚含量很低,使用玉米淀粉作为辅料能延长啤酒的保质期、提高啤酒的风味稳定性、降低啤酒的色度。玉米淀粉可全部转化为可溶性物质,所以不会引起过滤问题。玉米淀粉应用的市场前景在很大程度上取决于其相对价格。%Refined maize starch is by far the purest starch available to the brewer. Its use has been limited because of its price is higher relative to those of corn grits and brewers' rice. Within the last few years, however, the price of refined maize starch has come close to that of rice and offers the brewer an attractive alternative. It contains very little nitrogenous material and lipid and polyphenol, so using of refined maize starch as a brewing adjunct could prolong beer shelf- life,improve beer flavour stability, and decrease beer color. Since starch is wholly coverted to soluble materials, it don' t cause run - off problems. The outlook of refined maize starch as a brewing adjunct will depend to a large extent on relative pricing.

  7. Studies on the Simultaneous Formation of Aroma-Active and Toxicologically Relevant Vinyl Aromatics from Free Phenolic Acids during Wheat Beer Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-03-23

    During the brewing process of wheat beer, the desired aroma-active vinyl aromatics 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol as well as the undesired and toxicologically relevant styrene are formed from their respective precursors, free ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid, deriving from the malts. Analysis of eight commercial wheat beers revealed high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol always in parallel with high concentrations of styrene or low concentrations of the odorants in parallel with low styrene concentrations, suggesting a similar pathway. To better understand the formation of these vinyl aromatics, each process step of wheat beer brewing and the use of different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated. During wort boiling, only a moderate decarboxylation of free phenolic acids and formation of desired and undesired vinyl aromatics were monitored due to the thermal treatment. In contrast, this reaction mainly occurred enzymatically catalyzed during fermentation with S. cerevisiae strain W68 with normal Pof(+) activity (phenolic off-flavor) resulting in a wheat beer eliciting the typical aroma requested by consumers due to high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (1790 μg/L) and 4-vinylphenol (937 μg/L). Unfortunately, also a high concentration of undesired styrene (28.3 μg/L) was observed. Using a special S. cerevisiae strain without Pof(+) activity resulted in a significant styrene reduction (

  8. 提高酱醪质量生产高档本酿造酱油%Improving the quality of soy sauce mash to make high natural brew soy sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈龙青; 吴洁

    2001-01-01

    本文通过改变和调整高盐稀发酵酱油工艺的发酵条件、管理方法、生产菌种以及拌曲盐水量、浓度等达到提高酱醪质量及生酱油出品率的目的,从而生产出高档本酿造酱油。%Improving the quality of moromi and the ratio of raw sauce output by the way of change the brew condition、the way of administration、strains of production,the quantity and the concentration of the koji making mixture salt water in the process of high salt diluted state fermentation to make high natural brew soy sauce.

  9. Study On The Brewing Rice Koji Qing Shuang Type Chinese Rice Wine%用米曲酿制清爽型黄酒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛青钟

    2014-01-01

    Using orthogonal test trials of the three levels of the four factors of glutinous rice, water, yeast and koji dosage, The results show that:Koji brewed without wheat Qu taste and no enzyme preparations taste so refreshing, the taste good Semi qing shuang type chinese rice wine is feasible, Qing shuang type chinese rice wine instead of wheat koji koji system, Reduce the use of starter 10%, Improve liquor yield;Feeding glutinous rice 100%, The amount of water is 192.0%, Plus yeast starter 10.6%, The Garmisch Qu amount to 15.4%in the most appropriate; Koji traditional craft brewed Qing shuang type chinese rice wine while exploring the impact of its fermentation. Provide a scientific basis for the Qing shuang type chinese rice wine production process improvements.%运用正交试验法对糯米、水、酒母和米曲加量四个因子三个水平的试验研究。结果表明:用米曲酿制成无麦曲味和无酶制剂味等的清爽、口感好的半干清爽型黄酒是可行的,用米曲代替麦曲制清爽型黄酒,减少用曲量10%,提高出酒率;以投料糯米100%计,则加水量为192.0%,加酒母量为10.6%,加米曲量为15.4%最适宜;同时探索了用米曲传统工艺酿制清爽型黄酒对其发酵的影响规律,为清爽型黄酒生产工艺的改进提供科学依据。

  10. Studies on identification and fermentation characterization of yeasts isolated from Chongming rice wine brewing process%崇明老白酒酿造过程中酵母菌的鉴定及其特性初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁准梅; 徐毅菁; 柯芳芳; 李爽

    2015-01-01

    从八二酒曲及酿造崇明老白酒过程中分离纯化得到1株白色酵母菌和1株红色酵母菌,采用分子生物学方法进行鉴定,并对其酿造老白酒的特性进行了分析。结果显示,八二酒曲及崇明老白酒酿造过程中的优势酵母菌为酿酒酵母(Saccaromyces cerevisiae),从酿酒过程中分离的红色酵母菌为粘红酵母(Rhodotorula mucilaginosa )。采用粘红酵母和米根霉曲酿造的酒液的酒精度为11.9%vol,残余还原糖含量为11.2 g/100 mL,总酸含量为4.59 g/L,总酯含量为4.42 g/L。纯化的酿酒酵母和米根霉曲酿成的酒液口味醇和爽口,酒曲的纯化有助于开发出口感更爽口的老白酒。混合酵母和米根霉曲酿造的酒液呈典型的崇明老白酒风味,粘红酵母的参与对崇明老白酒口味风格的形成有一定的作用。%One white yeast strain and one red yeast strain were isolated from No. 82 starter and the brewing process of Chongming rice wine. Both strains were identified by morphological and molecular biological methods of ITS-rDNA gene sequence analysis and their effects on rice wine quality during brewing process were compared. The results showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the dominant strain in No. 82 strarter and Chongming rice wine brewing process;the red yeast strain isolated from the brewing process was Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The rice wine brewed with Rhodotorula mucilagi-nosa and Rhizopus oryzae,with alcohol 11. 9%vol,residual sugar 11. 2 g/100 mL,total acid 4. 59 g/L and total ester 4. 42 g/L. The rice wine brewed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhizopus oryzae had a fresh and full-bodied taste, indicated that the purified wine yeast helped to develop more refreshing sense of rice wine. The rice wine brewed with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa,Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhizopus oryzae tasted with typical Chongming rice wine flavor, indicated that with the participation of

  11. Analysis of furan in coffee of different provenance by head-space solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: effect of brewing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Pera, Lara; Liberatore, Alfredo; Avellone, Giuseppe; Fanara, Serena; Dugo, Giacomo; Agozzino, Pasquale

    2009-06-01

    A simple, sensitive and accurate method for the analysis of furan in roasted coffee has been used based on headspace-solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The extraction was performed using 75-microm carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber. Ionic strength, extraction time and temperature, and desorption time were assessed as the most important parameters affecting the HS-SPME procedure and d(4)-furan was used as the internal standard. The linearity range was in the range 0.0075-0.486 ng g(-1); the LOD and LOQ calculated using the signal-to-noise ratio approach were 0.002 and 0.006 ng g(-1), respectively. The inter- and intra-day precision was 8 and 10%, respectively. The concentration of furan found in batches of roasted coffee powder different producing countries ranged from 57.3 to 587.3 ng g(-1). The mean reduction in furan levels observed when brewing coffee by either infusion, using a moka pot or an expresso machine was 57, 67.5 and 63.3%, respectively. PMID:19680951

  12. Teff (Eragrostis tef) as a raw material for malting, brewing and manufacturing of gluten-free foods and beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Mekonnen Melaku; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The demand for gluten-free foods is certainly increasing. Interest in teff has increased noticeably due to its very attractive nutritional profile and gluten-free nature of the grain, making it a suitable substitute for wheat and other cereals in their food applications as well as foods for people with celiac disease. The main objective of this article is to review researches on teff, evaluate its suitability for different food applications, and give direction for further research on its applications for health food market. Teff is a tropical low risk cereal that grows in a wider ecology and can tolerate harsh environmental conditions where most other cereals are less viable. It has an excellent balance of amino acid composition (including all 8 essential amino acids for humans) making it an excellent material for malting and brewing. Because of its small size, teff is made into whole-grain flour (bran and germ included), resulting in a very high fiber content and high nutrient content in general. Teff is useful to improve the haemoglobin level in human body and helps to prevent malaria, incidence of anaemia and diabetes. The nutrient composition of teff grain indicates that it has a good potential to be used in foods and beverages worldwide. The high levels of simple sugars and α-amino acids as a result of breakdown of starch and protein, respectively, are essential for fermentation and beer making. PMID:26396284

  13. Method to Improve Enzymatic Activity during Beer Brewing%改善啤酒酿造过程酶活力方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乃侨; 孙丽华

    2011-01-01

    以国外大麦Gairdner为原料,分别用麦芽厂所用的空白水、pH值4.0盐酸溶液、pH值4.0硫酸溶液、100 mg/L钙离子溶液、1μg/L赤霉素溶液使大麦浸渍、发芽来达到降低绿麦芽内部pH值的目的,实验结果表明,虽然硫酸、盐酸2种强酸物质具备降低大麦发芽内部pH值的能力,但其食品安全性差、对设备腐蚀大,而用钙离子和赤霉素溶液培养大麦发芽,虽然在大麦发芽过程中对pH值的变化影响不是很稳定,但均能使大麦发芽结束点即绿麦芽的pH值降低,所以对于后期啤酒的酿造均能够使淀粉酶、蛋白酶等活力近于最适pH值状态,为在啤酒酿造过程中减少外源添加酸的使用量,或为温和型弱酸或酸性中草药等物质的添加提供条件.%The aim of the experiment was to reduce pH value inside green malt during barley germination using Gaird-ner barley as raw material, soaking respectively with fresh water used in the malt factory, pH 4. 0 hydrochloric acid solution, pH 4.0 sulphuric acid solution, 100 mg/L calcium ion solution, and 1 u.g/L gibberellin solution. The results showed that although strong acids of sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid possesses the capabilities to reduce pH value inside the barley during the germination, yet the food security is poor, and they corrode the facilities greatly, though while using calcium ion and/or gibberellin solution to cultivate barley to germinate had unstable pH changes during the barley germination, but they all could reduce pH value when reaching the end of barley germination I. E. Green malt. Therefore, at the late stage of beer brewing it could reach closely to the most suitable pH value for the activities of amylase and protease, to reduce the adding amount of acid during the beer brewing process, or provide conditions of adding mild weak acids and/or acidic Chinese medical herbs, and other materials.

  14. Study on the Brewing Techniques of Herbalal Coffee Rice Wine%草本咖啡糯米酒的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 陈秀英; 陈安均

    2012-01-01

    Brew coffee rice wine with ratafia yeast, using glutinous rice and herbal coffee as the materials. And measure a series of indexes which had effect on the zymotechnics of coffee rice wine, such as the incipient sugar content of fermentation broth, the incipient pH of the fermentation broth and the inoculum size of yeast. As the result, when the incipient sugar content and pH were 16 °Bx and pH 3.5 respectively, the yeast suspensions was inoculated with 5%, and the admixture was fermented for 8 d at 25 ℃ and post-fermented 20 d at 20 ℃, the quality of coffee rice wine was the best.%以糯米、草本咖啡为原料,采用液体发酵法用果酒酵母酿制草本咖啡糯米酒。研究了发酵液初始糖度、发酵液初始pH、酵母接种量对咖啡糯米酒发酵的影响,并通过正交试验优选出酿制草本咖啡糯米酒的最佳工艺条件为:初始糖度为18°Bx、初始pH3.5,接种5%的酵母菌悬液,4-25℃下主发酵8d,再在20℃ TNK酵20d,得到的草本咖啡糯米酒的整体质量最好。

  15. Furanic compounds and furfural in different coffee products by headspace liquid-phase micro-extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: survey and effect of brewing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichi, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh-Mohammadi, Vahid; Hashemi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Abdorreza

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the levels of furan, 2-methylfuran, 2,5-dimethylfuran, vinyl furan, 2-methoxymethyl-furan and furfural in different coffee products were evaluated. Simultaneous determination of these six furanic compounds was performed by a head space liquid-phase micro-extraction (HS-LPME) method. A total of 67 coffee powder samples were analysed. The effects of boiling and espresso-making procedures on the levels of furanic compounds were investigated. The results showed that different types of coffee samples contained different concentrations of furanic compounds, due to the various processing conditions such as temperature, degree of roasting and fineness of grind. Among the different coffee samples, the highest level of furan (6320 µg kg⁻¹) was detected in ground coffee, while coffee-mix samples showed the lowest furan concentration (10 µg kg⁻¹). Levels in brewed coffees indicated that, except for furfural, brewing by an espresso machine caused significant loss of furanic compounds. PMID:25356540

  16. Efeito da bebida de café descascado sobre a atividade antioxidante, os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos em ratos Peeled coffee brew effect in the antioxidant activity hematological and biochemical parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris da Silveira Duarte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o efeito da bebida filtrada, preparada com café-arábica descascado, sobre a peroxidação de lipídios, os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos in vivo. Para isso foram utilizados ratos que ingeriram 280 mg/kg/dia da bebida de café por 7 dias (tratamento agudo e 30 dias (tratamento crônico. A fim de determinar se a bebida de café é capaz de reduzir o estresse oxidativo, foi analisada a peroxidação de lipídios isolados de cérebro de rato analisando-se as substâncias reativas do ácido tiobarbitúrico. A ingestão da bebida por 7 e 30 dias inibiu significativamente a peroxidação lipídica (p The aim of this study was to verify the effect of filtered coffee brew prepared with peeled Coffea arabica on the lipid peroxidation and on hematological and biochemical parameters in vivo. Rats were ingested 280 mg/kg/day of coffee brew for 7 days (acute treatment and 30 days (chronic treatment. In order to determine whether coffee can reduce the oxidative stress, the rats brain isolated lipid peroxidation was accessed evaluating the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs.The ingestion of coffee brew for 7 and 30 days inhibited, significantly, the malondialdehyde concentration (p 0.05 between the percentage of peroxidation inhibition when the acute (48.6% and chronic (53.4% treatments were compared. The chronic ingestion of moderate doses of filtered coffee brew did not modify the plasma level of the hematological and biochemical parameters analyzed. The results indicate the beneficial health effect of moderated filtered coffee brew ingestion since it inhibited lipid peroxidation, but did not change the rats cholesterol and triacylglycerol plasma levels.

  17. Analysis of the Fatty Acid Composition after Brewing Mountain Grape Skin and Seed by GC/MS%酿酒后山葡萄皮和籽中脂肪酸成分的GC/MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁旭光; 侯冬岩; 李铁纯; 回瑞华

    2014-01-01

    After the brewing mountain grape skins and seeds in the fatty acid composition are analysed. Soxhlet extraction method to extract wine after mountain grape skins and seeds in the fatty oil,with potassium hydroxide methanol solution to methyl ester of fatty acid in fatty oil,and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry instrument is analyzed. Results show that the wine after the mountain grape skins identified 9 kinds of fatty acids,including three kinds of unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 72. 59% of the total fatty acid,linoleic acid accounted for 44. 98% of total fatty acid,oleic acid accounted for 25. 35% of total fatty acids. After brew-ing mountain grape seed identified 5 kinds of fatty acids,including three kinds of unsaturated fatty acids ac-counted for 87. 30% of the total fatty acid,linoleic acid accounted for 69. 58% of total fatty acid,oleic acid ac-counted for 14. 90% of total fatty acids.%对酿酒后山葡萄皮和籽中脂肪酸成分进行分析.采用索氏提取法提取酿酒后山葡萄皮和籽中的脂肪油,以氢氧化钾甲醇溶液对脂肪油中的脂肪酸进行甲酯化,用气相色谱-质谱联用仪进行分析.结果表明:酿酒后山葡萄皮鉴定出9种脂肪酸,其中不饱和脂肪酸3种占脂肪酸总量的72.59%,亚油酸占脂肪酸总量的44.98%、油酸占脂肪酸总量的25.35%;酿酒后山葡萄籽鉴定出5种脂肪酸,其中不饱和脂肪酸3种占脂肪酸总量的87.30%,亚油酸占脂肪酸总量的69.58%、油酸占脂肪酸总量的14.90%.

  18. Characterization of a β-glucanase produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus, and its potential for application in the brewing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Carlos R

    2006-12-01

    -glucanase produced by R. microsporus var. microsporus. was determined to be consistently lower. Conclusion The zygomycete microfungus R. microsporus var. microsporus produced a 1,3-1,4-β-D-glucan 4-glucanhydrolase (EC 3.2.1.73 which is able to hydrolyze β-D-glucan that contains both the 1,3- and 1,4-bonds (barley β-glucans. Its molecular mass was 33.7 kDa. Maximum activity was detected at pH values in the range of 4–5, and temperatures in the range of 50–60°C. The enzyme was able to reduce both the viscosity of the brewer mash and the filtration time, indicating its potential value for the brewing industry.

  19. Determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using polymeric ionic liquid-based sorbent coatings in solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliero, Cecilia; Ho, Tien D; Zhang, Cheng; Bicchi, Carlo; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-06-01

    This study describes a simple and rapid sampling method employing a polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coating in direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the trace-level analysis of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder. The crosslinked PIL sorbent coating demonstrated superior sensitivity in the extraction of acrylamide compared to all commercially available SPME coatings. A spin coating method was developed to evenly distribute the PIL coating on the SPME support and reproducibly produce fibers with a large film thickness. Ninhydrin was employed as a quenching reagent during extraction to inhibit the production of interfering acrylamide. The PIL fiber produced a limit of quantitation for acrylamide of 10μgL(-1) and achieved comparable results to the ISO method in the analysis of six coffee powder samples. PMID:27157428

  20. Matrix-compatible sorbent coatings based on structurally-tuned polymeric ionic liquids for the determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliero, Cecilia; Nan, He; Bicchi, Carlo; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-08-12

    Nine crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based SPME sorbent coatings were designed and screened in this study for the trace level determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The structure of the ionic liquid (IL) monomer was tailored by introducing different functional groups to the cation and the nature of the IL crosslinker was designed by altering both the structure of the cation as well as counteranions. The extraction efficiency of the new PIL coatings towards acrylamide was investigated and compared to a previously reported PIL sorbent coating. All PIL fibers exhibited excellent analytical precision and linearity. The PIL fiber coating consisting of 50% 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylbenzimidazolium)dodecane dibis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide as IL crosslinker in 1-vinyl-3-(10-hydroxydecyl)imidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide IL monomer resulted in a limit of quantitation of 0.5μgL(-1) with in-solution SPME sampling. The hydroxyl moiety appended to the IL cation was observed to significantly increase the sensitivity of the PIL coating toward acrylamide. The quantitation of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder was performed using the different PIL-based fibers by the method of standard addition after a quenching reaction using ninhydrin to inhibit the formation of interfering acrylamide in the GC inlet, mainly by asparagine thermal degradation. Excellent repeatability with relative standard deviations below 10% were obtained on the real coffee samples and the structure of the coatings appeared intact by scanning electron microscopy after coffee sampling proving the matrix-compatibility of the PIL sorbent coatings. PMID:27423776

  1. 拟内孢霉酵母的特性和在黄酒酿造中的作用研究*%Contemplated In The Within Yeast Characteristics And The Chinese Rice Wine Brewing*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛青钟; 俞关松

    2013-01-01

      对拟内孢霉酵母的形态、糖化能力、耐酒精能力、产孢子、产香、产酒精能力等特性进行了研究,对拟内孢霉酵母在黄酒酿造中制酒药过程、淋饭酒母制作过程、发酵过程、浸米过程、制曲过程等作用进行了研究;结果表明:拟内孢霉酵母是酒药香气的主要产生菌,是淋饭酒母制作过程搭窝糖化期的主要糖化菌之一,是淋饭酒母制作过程搭窝糖化期窝液香气的主要产生菌,在黄酒酿造中具有重要作用。%Intends Endomycopsis yeast morphology saccharification ability, alcohol-resistant ability, spore-producing incense, alcohol production capacity and other characteristics of the study, Contemplated within Endomycopsis yeast Chinese Rice Wine brewing the system collaboration process, pour the the rice yeast starter making process, the fermentation process, the process of soaking rice koji process; The results show that: Contemplated within Endomycopsis yeast aroma producing bacteria collaboration, Cream the the rice yeast starter making process her nest in one of the major glycosylated bacteria glycated period, Cream the the rice yeast starter making process makes his nest glycated Wo liquid aroma producing bacteria,Play an important role in Chinese Rice Wine brewing.

  2. Application of response surface methodology in optimization of brewing technology of Fructus Cannabis steeping wine%响应面分析法在优化火麻仁酒酿造工艺中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翾; 李红良; 谢嘉雯

    2012-01-01

    研究了以大米为原料发酵得到的米酒为酒基,浸泡火麻仁制作火麻仁酒的工艺条件。首先通过单因素试验分别考察了火麻仁的颗粒度、火麻仁的添加量、浸泡时间、浸泡温度对火麻仁酒感官评价的影响,然后采用Design-Expert软件中心组合设计法设计正交试验,通过响应面分析法获得了火麻仁酒酿制的最佳工艺条件为:火麻仁的颗粒度25目、火麻仁的添加量32%、浸泡时间5.5d、浸泡温度23℃。利用本工艺制作的火麻仁酒色泽亮黄、诸香和谐纯正、火麻仁甘味与米酒甜味协调适中、1:7感良好、风格独特。%This research mainly studied the brewing technology the Fructus cannabis steeping wine, which took the rice wine as the liquor base. The effects of the granularity of Fructus cannabis, the addition of Fructus cannabis, the soaking time, the soaking temperature on the sensory evaluation of the Fructus cannabis steeping wine were determined respectively by the single factor experiments, on which the orthogonal experiments were designed by the central composite design of Design-Expert soft. And the optimum brewing conditions of the Fructus cannabis steeping wine were obtained as follows: 1.25 mm for the granularity of Fructus cannabis, 32% for the addition of Fructus cannabis, 5.5 days for the soaking time and 23℃for the soaking temperature. The Fructus cannabis steeping wine obtained under the condition was bright yellow, good for taste, aroma harmonious and has a particular flavor of fructus cannabis.

  3. A Novel GH7 Endo-β-1,4-Glucanase from Neosartorya fischeri P1 with Good Thermostability, Broad Substrate Specificity and Potential Application in the Brewing Industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liu

    Full Text Available An endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene, cel7A, was cloned from the thermophilic cellulase-producing fungus Neosartorya fischeri P1 and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The 1,410-bp full-length gene encodes a polypeptide of 469 amino acids consisting of a putative signal peptide at residues 1-20, a catalytic domain of glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GH7, a short Thr/Ser-rich linker and a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM 1. The purified recombinant Cel7A had pH and temperature optima of pH 5.0 and 60°C, respectively, and showed broad pH adaptability (pH 3.0-6.0 and excellent stability at pH3.0-8.0 and 60°C. Belonging to the group of nonspecific endoglucanases, Cel7A exhibited the highest activity on barley β-glucan (2020 ± 9 U mg-1, moderate on lichenan and CMC-Na, and weak on laminarin, locust bean galactomannan, Avicel, and filter paper. Under simulated mashing conditions, addition of Cel7A (99 μg reduced the mash viscosity by 9.1% and filtration time by 24.6%. These favorable enzymatic properties make Cel7A as a good candidate for applications in the brewing industry.

  4. Effects research of fatty acid composition and brewing temperature on the infant formula milk powder%婴幼儿配方奶粉中脂肪酸组成及冲调温度对其影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟丽; 苏珊珊; 王晓君; 于珍青

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过比较研究婴幼儿配方奶粉的组成,模拟真实的奶粉冲调环境,考察不同冲调温度对婴幼儿配方奶粉脂肪酸的影响,为婴幼儿配方奶粉的科学冲调提供科学依据。方法:选择30℃、40℃、50℃、60℃、70℃、80℃、90℃的冲调奶粉溶液和原对照奶粉,检测其脂肪酸组成并进行对比分析。结果:婴幼儿配方奶粉与母乳在脂肪酸组成上极为相似,在试验水温下冲调配方奶粉溶液脂肪酸无明显变化。但是随着冲调水温的升高,饱和脂肪酸含量有微小的上升趋势,而不饱和脂肪酸均有微小减少。结论:婴幼儿配方奶粉含有丰富的不饱和脂肪酸,温度对其有一定的影响,建议在日常冲调配方奶粉时即冲即食,切忌长时间高温熬煮造成不饱和脂肪酸变异对婴幼儿的影响。%Objective:To provide scientific basis for brewing the infant formula milk powder scientifically,by the comparison of the composition of infant formula milk powder,simulation of real brewing surrounding,and investigation of the effect of different brewing temperature on the fatty acid of infant formula milk powder.Method:We tested the fatty acid compositions of milk powder solutions brewed at 30℃,40℃,50℃,60℃,70℃,80℃ and 90℃ and that of origical control milk powder solution,and compared the results for analysis.Results:The infant formula milk powder was very similar to breast milk on fatty acid composition.There were no significant changes of fatty acid by brewing infant formula milk powder at the experimental temperature.However,as the temperature rose,the content of saturated fatty acid increased slightly,and the content of unsaturated fatty acid decreased slightly. Conclusion:The infant formula milk powder contains ample unsaturated fatty acids which can be affected by temperature to a certain extent.It suggests that the routine infant formula milk powder solution should be freshly

  5. 利用智利外海茎柔鱼内脏速酿鱼露的研究%Study on fish sauce brewed from the viscera of Dosidicus gigass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲映红; 王敏; 刘志东; 陈新军; 陈舜胜

    2011-01-01

    目的 以智利外海茎柔鱼内脏为原料,采用保温、加曲、加酶等不同速酿方法制备鱼露.方法 测定鱼露在不同酿制阶段的pH值、氨基酸态氮和章鱼胺含量,并对最终样品作感官评价.结果 与结论酿制20 d内,pH值和氨基酸态氮变化显著,20 d后趋于稳定.鱼露酿制前期,章鱼胺含量逐渐增加,15~20 d时,达到最大值,然后又呈下降趋势.保温和加曲速酿的样品在气味上优于加酶的样品.%Objective To brew fish sauce using the viscera of Dosidicus gigass. Methods To shorten brewage period, methods such as insulation, adding enzyme or koji were adopted. The changes of pH value,amino acid nitrogen and content of octopamine during brewage were investigated. The sensory characteristics were also evaluated. Results and Conclusion The pH value and amino acid nitrogen increased obviously in the first 20 days and then became steady. The content of octopamine climbed to the top of 6~7 mg · L-1 ml during 15~20 days of brewage and decreased afterwards. The smell of fish sauce added enzyme was the most unpleasant among the three kinds of samples.

  6. Research on Biodiversity of Yeasts Associated with Hongqu Glutinous Rice Wine Starters and the Traditional Brewing Process%红曲黄酒酿造用曲及传统酿造过程中酵母菌的多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕旭聪; 翁星; 黄若兰; 张雯; 饶平凡; 倪莉

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨红曲黄酒酿造用曲中酵母菌多样性以及传统酿造过程中酵母菌菌群结构变化,为我国传统红曲黄酒中酵母菌资源的利用和对传统酿酒的有效控制及现代化酿酒新工艺的建立提供基础数据.方法:收集福建各地区的红曲黄酒酿造用曲20份,从中分离纯化出300株酵母菌,通过ITS1-5.8S-ITS2的PCR-RFLP指纹图谱对酵母菌进行分型,从各个分型类群中随机选取代表菌株,利用26S rDNA基因D1/D2区域序列分析进行分类鉴定;并采用PCR-RFLP快速分型鉴定技术分析红曲黄酒传统酿造过程中酵母菌菌群结构的变化.结果:从红曲黄酒酿造用酒曲中总共分离鉴定出12种类型酵母菌,其中扣囊复膜孢酵母(Saccharomycopsis fibuligera)、酿酒酵母(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)和弗比恩毕赤酵母(Pichia fabianii)是酒曲中3种主要的酵母菌类型.红曲黄酒传统酿造过程酵母菌群的跟踪分析共鉴定出4种酵母菌,即酿酒酵母、扣囊复膜孢酵母、季也蒙毕赤酵母(Pichia guilliermondii)、粘性红圆酵母(Rhodotorula mucilagnosa).在酿造前期扣囊复膜孢酵母是优势酵母菌,而在酿造的后期,酿酒酵母完全取代之成为优势菌.结论:红曲黄酒酿造用酒曲中的酵母菌具有丰富的生物多样性,红曲黄酒传统酿造过程酵母菌菌群结构处于动态变化,最终酿酒酵母成为酿造体系的优势酵母菌.%Objective: To analyze the biodivereity of the yeast species associated with Hongqu glutinous rice wine starters and the yeast dynamics of the traditional brewing process, and to provide essential data for utilization of yeasts in the traditional Hongqu glutinous rice wine of China, effective control of the traditional brewing process and establishment of new brewing process. Methods: 300 yeast strains were isolated from 20 samples of Hongqu glutinous rice wine starter. The isolates were identified by rTSl-5.8S-ITS2 gene region PCR-RFLP and the

  7. Study on brewing technology of Clausena lansium fruit wine with wine yeast and da qu%果酒酵母粉辅以大曲酿造黄皮果酒工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘谋泉; 孔美兰; 张福平; 黄绵纯; 王宇星; 方雁慧

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different fermentation technology on the quality of Clausena lansium fruit wine(produced by matured and Clausena lansium) were studied.The optimum production conditi-ions were determined by single factors and orthogonal experiments,sensory evaluation and physio-chemical indexes measurement. The results were as follows;after breaking of Clausena lansium,adapt initial amount of sugar to 18%,initial pH4.0, inoculation amount of yeast 1.0g/L,ratio of da qu and fruit wine yeast 1:2. Under the temperature 35℃ , Clausena lansium fruit was fermented for 9d. Then,the fruit wine was further brewed through later fermentation, clarifying and sterilization.Under above conditions,the Clausena lansium fruit wine was produced in the color of dark yellow,liquor taste,pretty sweet,and had special coordinated fragrant smell of Clausena lansium fruit and maintained the rnerapeutic Values of the fruit. The fruit wine was found that alcohol content of persimmon wine reached 6~9%vol,total amount of sugar(glucose)≤3g/L,total acid(citric acid)6.0~8.0g/L.%以七、八成熟黄皮为原料,研究不同发酵工艺对黄皮果酒的影响.通过单因素实验、正交实验、感官品评和理化指标检测分析,确定其生产工艺为:黄皮破碎后,调节初始含糖量为18%,初始pH4.0,大曲和果酒酵母总接种量为1.0g/L,其中大曲和葡萄酒干酵母质量比为1∶2,发酵温度为35℃,发酵时间为9d;再经陈酿、澄清、除菌过滤得黄皮果酒.成品果酒酒体深黄色,口感醇厚,甘甜爽口,保持了黄皮果的特征香味,有独特的风味,其酒度为6~9%vol,总糖(g/L,以葡萄糖计)≤3,总酸(g/L,以柠檬酸计)为6.0~8.0.

  8. Study on Brewing Technology of Navel Orange Fruit Wine by Immobilized Yeast%固定化酵母酿造脐橙果酒的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余森艳; 李志红; 程海韵

    2015-01-01

    以脐橙为原料,对游离酵母和固定化酵母发酵制备脐橙果酒进行对比试验分析,并采用单因素试验和正交试验对固定化酵母发酵的初始糖度、酵母菌用量、发酵温度进行了工艺优化,最后对固定化酵母细胞重复利用进行了初步研究。结果表明:固定化酵母比游离酵母发酵速度快,酒精产生量多;固定化酵母发酵制备脐橙果酒的最佳工艺条件为:初始糖度16%,酵母菌用量0.6%,发酵温度24℃,在此条件下发酵6 d后得到果香浓郁、色泽金黄、澄清透明、酒精度为9.0% vol的优质脐橙果酒;固定化酵母可以重复利用,经3次重复发酵后果酒的酒精度仍能达到6.4% vol。%Using navel oranges as the major raw material ,free yeast and immobilized yeast were used respectively in the experimental production of navel orange wine .The brewing conditions for the ini‐tial sugar content ,yeast dosage and temperature were optimized with immobilized yeast fermentation by using single‐factor test and orthogonal experiments .Finally ,the preliminary study on the continu‐ous fermentation of immobilized yeast was carried out .Results showed that immobilized yeast led to quicker fermentation than free yeast and also had high fermenting alcohol content .The optimum tech‐nical conditions for immobilized yeast fermentation were as the following :initial sugar concentration was 16% ,the yeast dosage is 0 .6% ,and the temperature is 24 ℃ .The alcohol content of navel or‐ange wine amounted to 9 .0% vol under the optimum conditions after 6 days of fermentation with fruity flavor ,golden‐yellow color and good clarification level .Immobilized yeast could be reused for fermentation ,and the alcohol content of wine could still reach 6 .4% vol for 3 times of fermentation .

  9. Marketing and Globalization of the Brewing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    beers and economies of scale at the firm level in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale at the firm level in marketing and...... significant economies of scale benefits at the firm level to be shared between the merging partners as marketing and distribution costs are very high in this industry....

  10. Brewing Analytics Quality for Cloud Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li; Jain, Pooja; Chow, Kingsum; Guirguis, Emad; Wu, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing has become increasingly popular. Many options of cloud deployments are available. Testing cloud performance would enable us to choose a cloud deployment based on the requirements. In this paper, we present an innovative process, implemented in software, to allow us to assess the quality of the cloud performance data. The process combines performance data from multiple machines, spanning across user experience data, workload performance metrics, and readily available system per...

  11. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora Coldea; Elena Mudura; Călin Şibotean; Emil Comşa

    2014-01-01

    Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were as...

  12. Advertising and concentration in the brewing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market and the world market, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based...

  13. Marine biogeochemistry: Phytoplankton in a witch's brew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrenfeld, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Natural seafloor hydrocarbon seeps are responsible for roughly half of the oil released into the ocean. As these oils and gases rise to the surface, they transport nutrients upwards, benefiting phytoplankton in the upper sunlit layer.

  14. Bootlegging Literacy Sponsorship, Brewing up Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Tracey Hammler

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers how community literacy programs factor into broader economies of literacy development. The author analyzes two Appalachian community literacy projects, Shirley Brice Heath's ethnographic project in the Carolina Piedmont and Highlander Research and Education Center's organizing efforts with the Appalachian People's Movement, to…

  15. Brewing Organizational Responses to Institutional Logics

    OpenAIRE

    Højgaard Christiansen, Lærke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines how the multinational brewer Carlsberg Group responds to the issue of ‘alcohol-related harm’, expressed in its work with the focus area of ‘responsible drinking’ (RD). RD is associated with different initiatives aimed at reducing the misuse of alcohol, e.g., youth drinking, binge drinking (i.e., drinking to excess), and drunk driving. The issue of ‘alcohol-related harm’ is not a new issue, but public perception of the issue has changed in the directio...

  16. Advertising and concentration in the brewing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    The opening of the markets in East Asia and Eastern Europe in the 1990s changed the structure of the beer markets and in the following years a large wave of mergers and acquisitions took place. The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012, discusses some of the main...... drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market and the world market, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based...

  17. Advertising and Concentration in the Brewing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012, discusses some of the main drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market...

  18. Brewing the Recipe for Beer Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Calvo Porral; Normand Bourgault; Domingo Calvo Dopico

    2013-01-01

    This research study aims to analyze the sources and consequences of beverages’ Brand Equity, and more specifically, the beer Brand Equity in a Sothern European mature market. For this purpose, based on the customer-based Aaker’s Brand Equity model, we developed an empirical study, using structural equation modeling (SEM) in order to assess how beer Brand Equity stems from in the brewery industry and to analyze its consequences in consumer behavior. Our findings suggest that the beer brand ima...

  19. A New Brewing and Stock Grape Cultivar‘Huapu 1’%酿酒与砧木兼用葡萄新品种‘华葡 1 号’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波; 修德仁; 王宝亮; 王孝娣; 魏长存; 何锦兴; 郑晓翠; 刘万春; 刘凤之

    2012-01-01

    ‘Huapu 1’is a grape cultivar derived from‘Zuoshanyi’בWhite Malaga’. The fruits ripen in the mid to late September in Xingcheng area. The berry is round and purple-black color. Its average fruit cluster weight is 214.4 g,and the average single berry weight is 3.1 g. There are no berry drop or little and green berry,in the fruit cluster while maturing. The soluble solids content is 24.1% and 38.5% respectively,the titratable acid content is 1.27% and 1.32% respectively,the juice yield is 70.16% and 20.48% respectively in early October and early December. It has a high yield,early bearing,cold tolerance and disease resistance. Dry-red and ice-red wine brewed from its berry has high quality. The rooting and seedling rate of its cutting is 86.4%–95.7% and 74.1%–88.5% respectively,it is a good rootstock for table grape grafting.%酿酒与砧木兼用葡萄新品种‘华葡1号’是以‘左山一’与‘白马拉加’杂交育成,在辽宁兴城9月中下旬成熟。果穗中等大,平均单穗质量214.4 g,无小青粒及采前落粒现象。果粒圆形,紫黑色,平均单粒质量3.1 g。10月初采收,可溶性固形物含量24.1%,可滴定酸含量1.27%,出汁率70.16%;延迟到12月上旬采收,可溶性固形物含量38.54%,可滴定酸含量1.32%,出汁率20.48%。抗寒、抗病性强。产量高,用其酿造的干红和冰红葡萄酒酒质好。硬枝扦插生根率86.4%-95.7%,成苗率74.1% -88.5%,与‘红地球’和‘巨峰’等鲜食葡萄品种嫁接亲和力好,可作抗寒砧木。

  20. Application of “SP-3” and “SP-2” in the whole wheat beer brewing%“SP-3”与“SP-2”在全小麦啤酒酿造中应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁仲; 杨继远

    2011-01-01

    " SP-3 " was a new beer yeast strain, while " SP-02 " was the normal strain used in the production of malt beer. Comparison experiments of the application of" SP-3 " and " SP-2 " in production of wheat beer were conducted. The results showed that strains " SP-3 " is more adaptable in the whole wheat beer brewing than that of strain " SP-2 ". The parameters of beer by strain "SP-3 " were superior to that of" SP-2 ", which has pure taste, clean and soft, could meet for the current consumer's requirements.%“SP-3”是新选育的啤酒酵母菌株,而“SP-2”为通常生产大麦芽啤酒使用的啤酒酵母菌株,“SP-3”与“SP-2”啤酒酵母菌株在全小麦啤酒生产中应用对比试验结果表明,“SP-3”啤酒酵母菌株在全小麦芽啤酒的酿造中适用性较强,各项指标均优于“SP-2”啤酒酵母菌株,用其酿制的啤酒口感纯正、清爽、柔和,能够较好地适应当前消费者的口感需求.

  1. Aproveitamento da água de umidificação de malte da moagem úmida como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja Utilization of the wet milling malt steep water as raw material on brewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar G. VENTURINI FILHO

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A água de umidificação de malte, resultante da moagem úmida, pode ser usada como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja. Há, entretanto, cervejarias que descartam esse subproduto, e conseqüentemente, o extrato nele contido. Em função disso, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a possibilidade de ganho de rendimento na mosturação e alterações nas características químicas e sensoriais da bebida, em virtude do uso dessa água. Cervejas do tipo Pilsen foram produzidas de duas formas: com e sem água de umidificação de malte. Utilizou-se como matéria prima malte, lúpulo, xarope de maltose, água destilada e água de umidificação de malte. O mosto foi produzido pelo processo de infusão, separado do bagaço de malte por filtração convencional e fervido durante 60 minutos. Após seu resfriamento e clarificação o mosto foi inoculado com levedura de baixa fermentação (1,3g/l, ps e colocado para fermentar a 10°C. A fermentação foi encerrada com 90% da atenuação limite. Em seguida, a cerveja foi engarrafada e maturada a 0°C por 14 dias. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento do rendimento de mosturação, em função do uso da água de umidificação de malte, foi estatisticamente não significativo. A utilização dessa água praticamente não alterou as características químicas e sensoriais da cerveja, havendo apenas um leve aumento na intensidade de cor da bebida (7,1 x 8,0 EBC. Considerando, no entanto, que a água de umidificação de malte obtida em nível industrial apresenta maior concentração de extrato em relação àquela produzida em laboratório, espera-se que o uso da primeira traga ganho de rendimento industrial sem alterações significativas nas características da cerveja.The wet milling malt steep water can be used as raw material on brewing. However, some breweries discard this water containing a certain amount of extract. Based on this fact, the aim of this work was to evaluate possible

  2. Mold and mycotoxin problems encountered during malting and brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Hall, Charlene E

    2007-10-20

    Fusarium infections in grains can have severe effects on malt and beer. While some degree of Fusarium mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol, present in infected barley may be lost during steeping, the Fusarium mold is still capable of growth and mycotoxin production during steeping, germination and kilning. Therefore, detoxification of grain before malting may not be practical unless further growth of the mold is also prevented. Methods to reduce the amount of mold growth during malting are needed. Physical, chemical and biological methods are reviewed. Irradiation looks very promising as a means to prevent Fusarium growth during malting, but the effect on the surviving mold to produce mycotoxins and the effect on malt quality needs further study. Chemical treatments such as ozonation, which would not leave residual chemical in the beer also appear to be promising. Although biological control methods may be desirable, due to the use of "natural" inhibition, the effects of these inhibitors on malt and beer quality requires further investigation. It may also be possible to incorporate detoxifying genes into fermentation yeasts, which would result in detoxification of the wort when mold growth is no longer a problem. Development of these types of technological interventions should help improve the safety of products, such as beer, made from Fusarium infected grain. PMID:17727998

  3. Protein composition of malting barley varieties required in brewing industry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flodrová, Dana; Benkovská, Dagmar; Bobálová, Janette

    Berlin : Freie Universität Berlin, 2011. s. 354. [Proteomic Forum 2011. 03.04.2011-07.04.2011, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : barley * varieties * proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  4. Salt Reduction in Foods Using Naturally Brewed Soy Sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.; Shimojo, R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, health concerns related to salt/sodium chloride consumption have caused an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, sodium chloride (NaCl) reduction in foods has become an important challenge. The more so, since a decrease in NaCl content is often reported to be associ

  5. An Application of ISO 5725 in Brewing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Batchvarov, V; Marinova, G.; Mateev, P.; Christozov, D.

    2003-01-01

    2002 Mathematics Subject Classification: 62P30, 62P10. The colloidal stability is very important part of the total beer quality. The stabilized beers have to have a long shelf-life. Determination of some haze forming complexes could be very useful for prediction of beer colloidal stability. We study the repeatability and reproducibility of a method for determination of some haze forming complexes in beer. The method was tested in 10 laboratories. All of theme analyzed the same beer samples...

  6. Implementation of lean tools and techniques in brewing

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, João Mário Marques

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Biológica (área de especialização em Tecnologia Química e Alimentar) Esta dissertação foi desenvolvida no âmbito da conclusão do Mestrado Integrado em Engenharia Biológica, na empresa Unicer Bebidas, S.A.. Este projeto visou a aplicação de metodologias e conceitos Lean Production, no âmbito da melhoria contínua do processo de produção de cerveja. O Lean Production visa a eliminação de atividades que gerem desperdício, isto é, ativida...

  7. The Impact of Xamthohumol on a Brewing Yeast’s Viability, Vitality and Metabolite Formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Magalhaes, P.H.; Carvalho, A.B.; Goncalves, L.M.; Pacheco, J.G.; Guido, L.F.; Brányik, T.; Rodrigues, P.G.; Kuncová, Gabriela; Dostálek, P.; Barros, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 3 (2011), s. 368-376. ISSN 0046-9750 Grant ostatní: FCT(PT) PJM:SFRH/BD/27834/2006; FCT(PT) LMG:SFRH/BD/36791/2007; FCT(PT) JGP:SFRH/BD/30279/2006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : beer * xanthohumol * yeast Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.660, year: 2011 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-80755180700&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=kuncova%2cg&sid=nWEtd4PqxEYtj7bOsbEcl0M%3a60&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=22&s=AUTHOR-NAME%28kuncova%2cg%29&relpos=0&relpos=0&searchTerm=AUTHOR-NAME(kuncova,g)

  8. Trouble Brewing: Using Observations of Invariant Behavior to Detect Malicious Agency in Distributed Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Thomas Richard; Wolthusen, Stephen D.

    Recent research on intrusion detection in supervisory data acquisition and control (SCADA) and DCS systems has focused on anomaly detection at protocol level based on the well-defined nature of traffic on such networks. Here, we consider attacks which compromise sensors or actuators (including physical manipulation), where intrusion may not be readily apparent as data and computational states can be controlled to give an appearance of normality, and sensor and control systems have limited accuracy. To counter these, we propose to consider indirect relations between sensor readings to detect such attacks through concurrent observations as determined by control laws and constraints.

  9. Brewing Bokashi: Strengthening Student Skills in Dilution Theory through Fermentation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Zdor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic microbiological techniques that students should master is that of using dilution theory to calculate the levels of bacteria in a fluid. This tip reports on using a rice water-milk fermentation mixture termed Bokashi as an easily implemented exercise in the basic microbiological lab to give students multiple opportunities to use dilution theory. Due to the shifts in bacterial community composition over time, a variety of microbes can be cultured using selective and nonselective media. Microscopic observation and the use of GEN III microplates to determine the collective phenotypic pattern of the mixture both give additional opportunities for students to hone their skills in bacterial analysis. Due to the decrease in the pH of the mixture over time, the notion of acid tolerance in bacteria can be explored and assessed using the microplate. By performing multiple rounds of serial dilutions and spread plating, students can practice their skill at using dilution theory several times over the course of the exercise.

  10. Study of Airing Way of Fermented Grain in Brewing of Luzhou-flavor Liquor

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Long; Ying-ying Ma; Hui-bo Luo; Zong-hua Ao; Jian-gang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Effects of different airing way of fermented grains on the physical and chemical indicators, uniformity, of unfermented grain and pits fermentation of Luzhou-flavor liquor were studied in this study. The results indicated that as the way of mechanization airing, the machine airing way absolutely more meets the technology demand on the production of Luzhou-flavor liquor than the airing on-field and airing on-bed. Furthermore, it not only benefits for the stability and uniformity of fermented g...

  11. Quantification of protein-derived thiols during atmosphere-controlled brewing in laboratory scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murmann, Anne Nordmark; Andersen, Preben; Mauch, Alexander;

    2016-01-01

    . Fermentation caused an increase in free thiols, and the balance between free and total thiols was shifted toward a higher degree of free thiols. This was explained by either a reducing effect of fermentation or secretion of thiol-containing compounds from yeast. The efficiency of sulfite to reduce reversibly...

  12. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.W. Njue (Carolyne); H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène); P. Remes (Pieter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya. Met

  13. Computer epistemology a treatise on the feasibility of the unfeasible or old ideas brewed new

    CERN Document Server

    Vámos, Tibor

    1991-01-01

    This book is an essay on relevant problems of epistemology (the theory of knowledge) related to computer science. It draws a continuous line between the earliest scientific approaches of epistemology, starting with the Greek Classics and the recent practical and theoretical problems of computer modelling, and by that the appropriate application of computers to our present problems. Uncertainty, logic and language are the key issues of this road leading to some new aspects of cognitive psychology and unification of the different results for a modelling procedure. The book is not a textbook but

  14. Brewing Service Quality in Higher Education: Characteristics of Ingredients that Make up the Recipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Roland K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to explore the influences of service quality in higher education and the perceptions associated with the implementation of a Singapore tertiary institution. It draws on the underpinnings of SERVQUAL, and discusses the dichotomy and interrelation between customer perception and expectation. Design/methodology/approach:…

  15. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Njue, Carolyne; Voeten, Hélène; Remes, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya. Methods. We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results: Porn video ...

  16. Accounting for taste:Conversation, Categorisation and Certification in the Sensory Assessment of Craft Brewing

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The recent rapid growth of “craft beer” has led to a search for definitions and categorisation of that sector with “beer style” used as one criterion. This thesis explores the origins of these style definitions and how they act as a technology of classification which affects how sensory judgments are formed and expressed in practice, and how judges are examined and certified. The investigation draws on actor-network theory and ethnomethodology to trace how taste descriptions are assembled and...

  17. MultiNational Corporations work environment of brewing firms and employees productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga Abiola OJO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the multinational work environment and employee productivity by examining if the elements conducive work environment assists MNCs (multinational corporations employee to be motivated at work and if the provision of infrastructural facilities have a significant relationship on employee satisfaction that affect employee productivity. The data required for this study was gotten through the instrument of questionnaire. One hundred and twenty four (124 copies of questionnaire were administered out of which one hundred and thirteen (113 were retrieved for analysis. Three hypotheses were formulated from the structured research questions. Regression and correlational analysis were used to test the hypotheses through the statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS 18.0. The result showed that conducive work environment assists MNCs employee to be motivated at work (R2 = 0.546, at P < 0.05 and that provision of infrastructural facilities have a significant relationship on employee satisfaction (0.699, at P < 0.05. The study therefore recommends among others that that organization should see conducive environment and infrastructural development as a way of helping them to continue being in businesses rather than seeing it as a means of luxury to achieve their desires because it has been proven that infrastructural facility development has assisted in enhancing employee satisfaction.

  18. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Voeten Helene ACM; Njue Carolyne; Remes Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results Porn video shows a...

  19. 2D-HPLC and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis of barley proteins glycated during brewing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petry-Podgorska, Inga; Žídková, Jitka; Flodrová, Dana; Bobálová, Janette

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 878, č. 30 (2010), s. 3143-3148. ISSN 1570-0232 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : 2D-HPLC * MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry * barley Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.971, year: 2010

  20. A new strategy for using banana as an ingredient in the brewing process

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Giovani B. M.; Silva, Daniel Pereira da; Vicente, A.A.; Felipe, Maria das Graças A.; Teixeira, J.A.; Silva, João B. Almeida e

    2008-01-01

    Beer is a traditionally fermented beverage made from malted grains of barley, hops, yeast, and water, while banana is an important food crop cultivated widely in tropical and subtropical areas and is one of the major fruits in Brazil. Besides, the banana is also very favorable to food industry (e.g. fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids, presence of minerals, and providing low acidity. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate a new st...

  1. The effect of dewaxing of green coffee on the coffee brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegen, G.H.D. van der

    1979-01-01

    The two commercially most important mild treatments for green coffee are the steam treatment and the dewaxing process. In the former treatment the green coffee is just steamed. In the dewaxing process the waxy layer is extracted from the green coffee with an organic solvent, after which this coffee

  2. Brewing Business vs Brewers' Identities (Culture - Equilibrium Factor between European Identity and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Frosin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available If ever rough or severe, this title got right to the bottom of the question of the cultural diversity and the world nation’s identity, it points at the very truth: the businessmen and the financial oligarchy think they can get away with anything! They don’t give a damn about culture of the European or every other identity… We choose an example about how they make fun of these very serious questions, and we gave our commentary on this difficult (or tricky? problem. A text enacted by UNESCO contradicts itself because of a blunder, that we shall reveal in our report. Finally, they betray themselves, since they speak of (just for a laugh… cultural goods, cultural industry or cultural products and so on… Naturally, a question arises: do they have anything to do with the Culture?!

  3. Brewing complications: the effect of acute ethanol exposure on wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Radek, Katherine A.; Ranzer, Matthew J.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol consumption is linked to a higher incidence of traumatic wounds and increases the risk for morbidity and mortality following surgical or traumatic injury. One of the most profound effects of acute ethanol exposure on wound healing occurs during the inflammatory response, and altered cytokine production is a primary component. Acute ethanol exposure also impairs the proliferative response during healing, causing delays in epithelial coverage, collagen synthesis, and blood vessel regrow...

  4. Discipline Issues: Is There a Tempest Brewing in B.C. Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Educational policy in British Columbia does not distinguish between special needs and regular class students in relation to discipline practices. Although Canadian courts have generally upheld the rights of school boards rather than the unspecified rights of special needs children, a recent court case suggests the possibility of change. (JW)

  5. Strategically Targeting the Shebeen Market in Namibia With Social Media : Case: Camelthorn Brewing Company

    OpenAIRE

    Vesikko, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Social media strategies are essential for SMEs such as microbreweries that want to interact and engage with consumers with little cost. Social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Youtube and LinkedIn provide a platform for online conversation and can be used to better understand a target market. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how Camelthorn Brewery Company can use social media to strategically target the shebeen market in Namibia. The scope of the thesis covers legally trading s...

  6. Nanolaser Spectroscopy of Genetically Engineered Yeast: New Tool for a Better Brew?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Paul L.; Hendricks, Judy K.; Naviaux, Robert K.; Yaffe, Michael P.

    2006-03-01

    A basic function of the cell membrane is to selectively uptake ions or molecules from its environment to concentrate them into the interior. This concentration difference results in an osmostic pressure difference across the membrane. Ultimately, this pressure and its fluctuation from cell to cell will be limited by the availability and fluctuations of the solute concentrations in solution, the extent of inter-cell communication, and the state of respiring intracellular mitochondria that fuel the process. To measure these fluctuations, we have employed a high-speed nanolaser technique that samples the osmotic pressure in individual yeast cells and isolated mitochondria. We analyzed 2 yeast cell strains, normal baker’s yeast and a genetically-altered version, that differ only by the presence of mitochondrial DNA. The absence of mitochondrial DNA results in the complete loss of all the mtDNA-encoded proteins and RNAs, and loss of the pigmented, heme-containing cytochromes. These cells have mitochondria, but the mitochondria lack most normal respiratory chain complexes. The frequency distributions in the nanolaser spectra produced by wild-type and modified cells and mitochondria show a striking shift from Gaussian to Poissonian distributions, revealing a powerful novel method for studying statistical physics of yeast.

  7. The Science of Solubility: Using Reverse Engineering to Brew a Perfect Cup of Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Andrew B.; Sickel, Aaron J.; Cribbs, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards call for the integration of science and engineering. Often, the introduction of engineering activities occurs after instruction in the science content. That is, engineering is used as a way for students to elaborate on science ideas that have already been explored. However, using only this sequence of…

  8. Interactions between major chlorogenic acid isomers and chemical changes in coffee brew that affect antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Xue, Wei; Kennepohl, Pierre; Kitts, David D

    2016-12-15

    Coffee bean source and roasting conditions significantly (p<0.05) affected the content of chlorogenic acid (CGA) isomers, several indices of browning and subsequent antioxidant values. Principal component analysis was used to interpret the correlations between physiochemical and antioxidant parameters of coffee. CGA isomer content was positively correlated (p<0.001) to capacity of coffee to reduce nitric oxide and scavenge Frémy's salt. Indices of browning in roasted coffee were positively correlated (p<0.001) to ABTS and TEMPO radical scavenging capacity, respectively. Only the CGA content of coffee corresponded to intracellular antioxidant capacity measured in Caco-2 intestinal cells. This study concluded that the intracellular antioxidant capacity that best describes potential health benefits of coffee positively corresponds best with CGA content. PMID:27451179

  9. The Renewal of Mature Industries: An Examination of the Revival of the Dutch Beer Brewing Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Kroezen (Jochem J.)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Many mature industries have recently experienced a remarkable revival. Yet, other important industries appear to remain impervious to change. While the evolution of industries is an important topic in the industrial organization and organizational sociology literature,

  10. Corporate Social Responsibility into the 21st century : Brewing a better future?

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschstein, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), a field still under development, has already seen different phases. With new technological advancements and the demand for ethical business growing –how has history affected the theory and practice in this field? Is Corporate Social Responsibility moving into new directions, and how do global players deal with challenges in the field while trying to stay ahead of their competition? Interests and efforts in Corporate Social Responsibility are seemingly gr...

  11. Effect of Growth Conditions on Flocculation and Cell Surface Hydrophobicity of Brewing Yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecká, J.; Němec, M.; Matoulková, D.; Čejka, P.; Jelínková, Markéta; Felsberg, Jürgen; Sigler, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 2 (2015), s. 143-150. ISSN 0361-0470 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Ale and lager yeast * Cell surface hydrophobicity * FLO genes Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.886, year: 2014

  12. Torulaspora delbrueckii in the brewing process: A new approach to enhance bioflavour and to reduce ethanol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Laura; Agarbati, Alice; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, consumers require fermented alcoholic beverages with particular and enhanced flavour profiles while avoiding the health concerns due to high ethanol content. Here, the use of Torulaspora delbrueckii was evaluated for beer production, in both pure and in mixed cultures with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter strain (US-05). The yeast interactions were also evaluated. In mixed fermentations with S. cerevisiae, the main analytical characters from T. delbrueckii were comparable with those of the S. cerevisiae starter strain, but the beers were characterized by a distinctive overall analytical and aromatic profile. Indeed, there were interactions between S. cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii, with enhanced ethyl hexanoate (0.048 mg l(-1)) and ethyl octaonate (0.014 mg l(-1)) levels at the 1:20 and 1:10 inoculation ratios, respectively; while phenyl ethyl acetate increased in all mix combinations. The presence of T. delbrueckii resulted in reduced β-phenyl ethanol and isoamyl acetate levels, which are responsible for floral and fruity aromas, respectively. Beer produced with T. delbrueckii pure cultures had a low alcohol content (2.66%; v/v), while also showing a particularly analytical and aromatic profile. PMID:26919817

  13. Selection of Brewing Yeasts for Mead%蜂蜜酒酿造酵母的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 艾遥琴; 李从发; 陈文学

    2014-01-01

    蜂蜜酒是通过酵母菌在稀释的蜂蜜液中发酵而成的一种传统酒。对4种活性干酵母EC1118、安琪、DV10、 D254的发酵特性进行研究,比较4种干酵母在蜂蜜稀释液中的产气能力、产酒精能力、产香能力,并对其酒精耐受性、酸耐受性、SO2耐受性等3个方面进行综合比较,筛选出酿造蜂蜜酒的优良菌种。结果表明,EC1118发酵能力、产香能力强,耐受性强,适合用于蜂蜜发酵。%Mead is a traditional drink, which results from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey carried out by yeasts. Four active dry yeasts, namely EC1118, Angel Yeast, DV10, D254 were studied. The gas producing, flavor producing and ethanol production ability were determined to compare their differences. These yeasts were also evaluated in terms of their fermentation performance under ethanol, sulfur dioxide and acidity. The results obtained in this work show that EC1118, are appropriate for mead production. This strain exhibited powerful gas producing, good flavor and better fermentation capabilities.

  14. 40 CFR 63.2161 - What performance tests and other procedures must I use if I monitor brew ethanol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the EPA Test Method 25A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, over the entire length of a batch. The three... each fermentation stage over the period of EPA Test Method 25A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A... measured by EPA Test Method 25A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, must be linear with a...

  15. 啤酒酵母的基因改良研究动态%Genetic Modification in Brewing Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柳莹

    2000-01-01

    近年来,利用基因工程进行酵母的育种在发酵广谱碳水化合物、提高糖化效率,改良酵母凝聚特性和改善啤酒风味方面取得了很大成绩.基因重组菌株将逐步应用到生产实践中.

  16. Research on brewing techniques of Gonggan oranges wine%贡柑果酒酿造工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘功良; 白卫东; 赵文红; 刁素琴

    2012-01-01

    以贡柑为原料,经打浆、酶解和脱苦等预处理,对贡柑果酒酿造的工艺参数等进行研究;以初始pH值、接种量、SO2添加量和发酵温度为因素,做4因素3水平的正交试验.结果表明,贡柑果汁经0.6%β-环糊精处理80min,酵母接种量为0.06%,二氧化硫添加量为90mg/L,初始pH值为4.5,发酵温度为33℃,发酵周期为7d,可得到浅黄色、澄清透明、风味好、营养丰富的贡柑果酒.%Gonggan orange which was used as material through shelling, beating and hydrolysis with pectin enzymatic, debitterization with β-cy-clodextrin, addition of sugar and acid, filtering, fermentation with the yeast, was made into orange wine. The Gonggan fruit was debitterized with 0.6% β-cyclodextrin for 80min. Through the single-factor and orthogonal experiment, the optimum technological conditions of fruit fermentation were as followed, inoculation volume of 0.06%, SO2 90mg/L, pH value 4.5, fermentation temperature 33℃, and time 7d. The produced orange wine had advantages in light yellow, transparent, sapid and nutritional abundance.

  17. The Brewed Rice Vinegar Kurozu Increases HSPA1A Expression and Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction in Aged P8 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kanouchi

    Full Text Available Kurozu is a traditional Japanese rice vinegar. During fermentation and aging of the Kurozu liquid in an earthenware jar over 1 year, a solid residue called Kurozu Moromi is produced. In the present study, we evaluated whether concentrated Kurozu or Kurozu Moromi could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in the senescence-accelerated P8 mouse. Senescence-accelerated P8 mice were fed 0.25% (w/w concentrated Kurozu or 0.5% (w/w Kurozu Moromi for 4 or 25 weeks. Kurozu suppressed cognitive dysfunction and amyloid accumulation in the brain, while Kurozu Moromi showed a tendency to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, but the effect was not significant. We hypothesize that concentrated Kurozu has an antioxidant effect; however, the level of lipid peroxidation in the brain did not differ in senescence-accelerated P8 mice. DNA microarray analysis indicated that concentrated Kurozu increased HSPA1A mRNA expression, a protein that prevents protein misfolding and aggregation. The increase in HSPA1A expression by Kurozu was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting methods. The suppression of amyloid accumulation by concentrated Kurozu may be associated with HSPA1A induction. However, concentrated Kurozu could not increase HSPA1A expression in mouse primary neurons, suggesting it may not directly affect neurons.

  18. Brewing with Distinction: The Implications of a Quality Symbol for the Craft Beer Industry of British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Oppenheimer, Leonardo Manuel

    2008-01-01

    A growing segment of the Canadian beer market is the microbrew/craft beer segment. For the palates of many beer connoisseurs, craft beer has a taste that distinguishes it from other beers, thus setting it apart from the mass-marketed products of the giant commercial breweries. However, a large proportion of beer consumers in Canada remain oblivious to the virtues and properties that make craft beer unique. This study examines the feasibility of creating a quality symbol of distinction as a me...

  19. Brouwen, branden en bedienen. Werkende vrouwen in de Nederlandse dranknijverheid, 1500-1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dekken, M.

    2009-01-01

    Brewing was always one of the household activities women performed. Some of them brewed more than needed for their own family and sold the surplus to others. During the Middle Ages commercial brewing in Dutch towns evolved and in a short period brewing industry became to be dominated by men. However

  20. Research Progress of Lactic Acid Bacteria Application to Cider Brewing%乳酸菌在苹果酒中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕兆林; 姚永红; 林西; 任美玲; 张柏林

    2012-01-01

    通过添加乳酸茵,苹果酒在主发酵后能继续进行二次发酵,即苹果酸-乳酸发酵,该过程具有增加苹果酒风味多样性的作用.论述在苹果酒中添加乳酸茵的菌种要求、发酵条件对乳酸茵诱导苹果酸-乳酸发酵的影响,及乳酸茵与苹果酒感官和风味的关系.%The secondary fermentation, i. e. , malolactic fermentation (MLF) could take place in the cider after the primary fermentation if lactic acid bacteria were added, which could improve the flavor diversity of the cider , making the taste softer and weakening the influence of styphnic acid. The requirements for the lactic acid bacteria which could be added to cider, the influence of different fermentation conditions on induction of the lactic acid bacteria to motivate malolactic fermentation and the correlations between the lactic acid bacteria and the flavor and other properties of cider were discussed in the paper.

  1. Home brew technetium : clinical scale desktop plasma fusion neutron source to produce Tc99m as an alternative to industrial scale fission reactor sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Tc-99m (decay product of Mo-99) accounts for ∼ 90% of world's production of radiopharmaceuticals. Recent unexpected shutdowns of two fission reactors and routine maintenance closures .e created a global shortage of Tc-99m, hence the large global effort to find alternative sources. This project aims to design and produce a novel prototype Mo-99/Tc-99m source. An operational desktop neutron source is available at the University of Sydney, employing a deuterium fusion-plasma to create 2.45 MeV neutrons. These neutrons will be used to activate Mo-98 thin an activation vessel. In one embodiment, the activation vessel contains an aqueous slurry or gel containing Mo-98 which converts to 0-99 upon activation. The decay product Tc-99m could then be milked, similar to existing Tc-99m generators. Monte Carlo will be :ed to assess yield versus size and geometry for various vessel designs. The neutron source filled with deuterium operating at 250 W, produces 3 x 106 neutrons continuously. The neutron flux can be increased ∼ 100-fold if the fill gas is 50% tritium and by another ∼ 100-1000-fold by increasing the power. This is being designed for local use, perhaps on the scale f one or a few hospitals, so the yield would not need to be industrial ;ale as with fission reactor sources. This device is low cost <$300 K) compared with cyclotrons and fission reactors.

  2. Research and Application of Mead Brewing Technology%蜂蜜酒酿造工艺技术的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅国城

    2014-01-01

    蜂蜜酒是以蜂蜜为原料,经过发酵后所获得的酒精饮料.为了酿造较高酒精度的优质蜂蜜酒,从蜜源挑选、蜜汁灭菌、溶氧操作、选育优良酵母菌株.确定蜂蜜酒发酵过程中流加的次数,流加的量和流加间隔时间,并建立流加的方程.适温发酵、过滤除浊、精心调配等工序,取得蜂蜜酒酿造最佳技术参数.

  3. 水果型木瓜果酒酿造工艺%RESEARCH OF BREWING TECHNIQUE OF FRUITY PAWPAW CIDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟华锋

    2009-01-01

    研究以水果型木瓜为原料加工成果酒的酿造工艺,采用正交试验法,分析温度、接种量、初始pH值、糖度对水果型木瓜果酒质量的影响,确定最佳工艺参数,结果:温度25℃、酵母接种量0.25 g/L、初始pH值4.0、搪度22%.在此条件下酿造,可得到酒度适中、色泽好、风味佳的水果型木瓜果酒.

  4. Medium and Long-term Opportunities and Risks of the Biotechnological Production of Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Resources. The Potential of White Biotechnology. The BREW Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, M.; Crank, M.; Dornburg, V.; Hermann, B.; Roes, L. [Department of Science, Technology and Society NWS, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Huesing, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research FhG-ISl, Karlsruhe (Germany); Overbeek, L. [Plant Research International PRI, Wageningen (Netherlands); Terragni, F.; Recchia, E. [CERISS, Centro per I' Educazione, la Ricerca, I' lnformazione su Scienza e Society, Milan (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    This study investigates the medium and long-term opportunities and risks of the biotechnological production of organic chemicals. The objective is to gain better understanding of the techno-economic and the societal viability of White Biotechnology in the coming decades. The key research questions are which products could be made with White Biotechnology, whether these products can contribute to savings of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, under which conditions the products become economically viable, which risks may originate from the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in fermentation and what the public perception is. The main purpose of Chapter 2 is to provide an overview of emerging key White Biotechnology products and to explain which chemicals could be produced on their basis. For a selection of these products, detailed environmental and economic assessments are conducted in Chapter 3 (in specific terms, i.e. per tonne of product). Chapter 3 discusses also the so-called Generic Approach which is the methodology we developed and applied to assess future processes and processes, for which very little information is available. In Chapter 4, three scenario projections are developed for Europe (EU-25), thereby assuming benign, moderate and disadvantageous conditions for bio-based chemicals. The purpose of this chapter is hence to understand to which extent restructuring of the chemical sector might occur under which conditions. In Chapter 5, the risks related to the use of White Biotechnology are addressed. The main purpose of this chapter is to give insight into the main risk components influencing the overall risk and of the knowledge gaps. Both conventional risks (e.g., human toxicity and accidents) and risks related to generic modification (e.g., horizontal gene transfer) are analyzed. Since the public perception may play an important role for the implementation of White Biotechnology on a large scale, these issues are discussed in Chapter 6, thereby drawing conclusions from the literature and presenting the outcome of a survey. Finally, the findings are summarized and conclusions are drawn in Chapter 7.

  5. Effect of Brewing Duration on the Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Abilities of Tea Phenolic and Alkaloid Compounds in a t-BHP Oxidative Stress-Induced Rat Hepatocyte Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Braud

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tea is an interesting source of antioxidants capable of counteracting the oxidative stress implicated in liver diseases. We investigated the impact of antioxidant molecules provided by a mixture of teas’ leaves (green, oolong, pu-erh after different infusion durations in the prevention of oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes, by comparison with pure epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the main representative of tea catechins. Dried aqueous tea extracts (ATE obtained after 5, 15 and 30 min infusion time were characterized for total polyphenols (gallic acid equivalent, catechins, gallic acid and caffeine (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS contents, and for scavenging ability against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical. Hepatoprotection was evaluated through hepatocyte viability tests using tert-butyl hydroperoxide as a stress inducer, (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, neutral red uptake, real-time cellular impedance and mitochondrial function tests. We showed that a 5-min incubation time is sufficient for an optimal bioaccessibility of tea compounds with the highest antioxidative ability, which decreases for longer durations. A 4-h pretreatment of cells with ATE significantly prevented cell death by regulating reactive oxygen species production and maintaining mitochondrial integrity. Pure EGCG, at doses similar in ATE (5–12 µM, was inefficient, suggesting a plausible synergy of several water-soluble tea compounds to explain the ATE beneficial effects.

  6. Big International Retailers Brewing Valiant Campaign in China%跨国零售巨头中国大战在即

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳; 倩倩

    2004-01-01

    @@ 2004年12月11日,是个什么日子? 相信中外零售企业都很清楚.按照中国在加入WTO时的承诺,这一天将宣告中国零售业入世过渡期的结束,它更意味着中国对零售市场全面向外资开放承诺的兑现.

  7. Changes of sour taste and the composition of carboxylic acids induced in brewed coffee by γ-irradiation on green beans and storage of roast beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil santos green coffee beans were irradiated with 60Co-γ rays at doses of 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 1.5 Mrad respectively and changes of the composition of carboxylic acids in roast beans were analyzed by means of GLC together with those of the organoleptic properties of roast beans during storage by use of the cup testing. The total acid content immediately after roasting was about 6,000 mg/100 g (roast beans) and the composition of carboxylic acids was as follows. Chlorogenic acid: hydroxy-carboxylic acids: mono-carboxylic acid: others = 73 : 18 : 7 : 2. Fresh coffee flavour was influenced markedly especially in acid taste by both irradiation of γ-rays on green beans and storage of roast beans, because of the change of above acids composition. On γ-ray irradiation, the change of the acid composition were more clear than that of stored roast beans. Therefore, the quality of γ-irradiated coffee beans seems to be closely associated with the ratio of hydroxy-carboxylic acids mg/ monocarboxylic acids mg, but little with total acid content. (author)

  8. Effect of different brewing times on antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of loosely packed and bagged black teas (Camellia sinensisL.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinab Nikniaz; Reza Mahdavi; Seyed Jamal Ghaemmaghami; Neda Lotfi Yaghin; Leila Nikniaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Determination and comparison of the effect of infusion time on the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol contents of bagged and loosely packed black teas. Materials and Methods: For twenty loosely packed and eleven bagged tea samples, the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content were analyzed using FRAP and Folin-Ciocalteau methods, respectively. The ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test and independent t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The antioxidant activ...

  9. 利用茎柔鱼废弃物酿制鱼露的研究%Study on Fish Sauce Brewed by the Waste of Dosidicus gigass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲映红; 刘志东; 陈舜胜

    2014-01-01

    以智利外海茎柔鱼废弃物为原料,采用保温、加曲保温、加酶保温等不同速酿方法制备鱼露,测定鱼露在酿制过程中的pH和氨基酸态氮,并对最终样品作感官评价.结果表明,酿制20 d内,pH和氨基酸态氮变化显著,20 d后二者均趋于稳定.常温自然酿制鱼露中的各种变化速度较速酿鱼露缓慢得多.感官评定的结果表明,保温和加曲保温速酿的样品在气味优于加酶保温速酿的样品.对保温速酿鱼露中组胺和重金属含量测定的结果表明,其中组胺及砷、镉的含量均已超标,不适于直接作为调味品食用.

  10. 基于BREW平台的手机游戏设计与实现%Mobile Game Design and Implementation Based on BREW Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁静

    2009-01-01

    BREW是美国高通公司为手机的增值应用而开发推广的一套完整的开发平台.文章介绍了BREW的核心技术,开发人员可以在BREW平台下利用C/C++语言进行程序开发,通过本地下载或无线下载装到手机上运行.在该平台下,通过一个手机软件的实例,具体分析了资源器编辑、程序设计与实现、计算机仿真等的全过程.

  11. 啤酒中生物胺的产生与控制%Biogenic Amines Produced and Controled in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴延东

    2003-01-01

    发酵食品中普遍存在有生物胺,适量的生物胺有助于人体正常的生理功能,但过量吸收会引起不良的生理反应.针对啤酒酿造过程中生物胺的产生途径,提出了相应的解决办法.

  12. Teff (Eragrostis tef) as a raw material for malting, brewing and manufacturing of gluten-free foods and beverages: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Gebremariam, Mekonnen Melaku; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The demand for gluten-free foods is certainly increasing. Interest in teff has increased noticeably due to its very attractive nutritional profile and gluten-free nature of the grain, making it a suitable substitute for wheat and other cereals in their food applications as well as foods for people with celiac disease. The main objective of this article is to review researches on teff, evaluate its suitability for different food applications, and give direction for further research on its appl...

  13. Growth Model and Metabolic Activity of Brewing Yeast Biofilm on the Surface of Spent Grains: A Biocatalyst for Continuous Beer Fermentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brányik, T.; Vicente, A. A.; Kuncová, Gabriela; Podrazký, Ondřej; Dostálek, P.; Teixeira, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 20 (2004), s. 1733-1740. ISSN 8756-7938. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2004 /16./. Praha, 22.08.2004-26.08.2004] Grant ostatní: SFRH(PT) BPD/3541/2000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : growth model * beer fermentation * immobilized cells Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.635, year: 2004

  14. Effect of Temperature on the Formation and Decomposition of Butan-2-3-dione in Wort Brewed with Sorghum and Barley During Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Nkiko, M.O.; Taiwo, E.A.; Uruebor, A.; Ogunyemi, A.

    2006-01-01

    The rate of breakdown of fermentable sugar and the formation/ decomposition of butan-2,3-dione (diacetyl) in wort made with unmalted sorghum, malted sorghum, malted barley and sorghum/barley malt adjunct during fermentation was studied as a function of temperature. The rate of fermentation of sugar, formation and decomposition of butan-2,3-dione increases with increasing temperature and is dependent on the nature of the substrate. The decomposition of butan-2,3-dione is faster in wort made wi...

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF THE EFFECTS OF BREWING INDUSTRY CONCENTRATION AMONG LARGE AND SMALL COMPANIES OPERATING ON THE POLISH MARKET IN 2004-2011 PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Łobos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polish beer market is characterised by a high degree of concentration. The market share of Kompania Piwowarska, Grupa Żywiec and Carlsberg Polska is 90%. Many authors stress concentration as an important factor when explaining why various industries are more or less effective or more or less profitable. Firms from concentrated industries report, on average, higher profitability than those in non-concentrated industries. The aim of this paper is to analyse the differences of economic efficiency of large (group I and small (group II entities involved in the production of beer. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the test group of companies was based on selected financial ratios (return on assets, return on sales, inventory turnover, total debt ratio.

  16. Biopivo a biochmel

    OpenAIRE

    Čiháková, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with the cultivation of organic hops, comparison between parameters of ecologically and conventionally grown hops presented in the literature. Another part of the thesis is concerned with the differences between technologies for ordinary beer brewing and bio-beer brewing. It also describes the bio-quality brewing ingredients and analyses both Czech and foreign market with organic beer. In the methodological section, the factual bio-beer brewing process is discussed. ...

  17. Vers une intégration du sorgho comme matière première pour la brasserie moderne (synthèse bibliographique)

    OpenAIRE

    Bwanganga Tawaba, JC.; Ba, K.; Destain, J.; Malumba, P.; Béra, F.; Thonart, P.

    2013-01-01

    Towards the integration of sorghum as an adjunct in the modern brewery industry. A review. Despite the relatively recent use of sorghum in brewing, the accumulated information from studies on the use of this cereal in malting and brewing is far from basic; the biochemistry of sorghum malting consolidates this knowledge. Despite the interest accorded to demonstrating the use of sorghum in brewing, the possibilities and limitations of using this cereal in the modern malting and brewing industri...

  18. Effects of Wheat Gluten Protein Peptides on the Fermentation Performance of Yeast under Super High Gravity Brewing%小麦面筋蛋白活性肽对啤酒超高浓度酿造的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵谋明; 莫芬; 赵海锋; 刘丰源

    2014-01-01

    研究了不同分子段小麦面筋蛋白活性肽对啤酒超高浓度酿造的影响,结果表明:在超高浓度酿造条件下,不同分子段的小麦面筋蛋白活性肽对酿酒酵母的促增殖和发酵效果不同,其中小分子肽段WGP-Ⅲ (Mw<3 ku)具有更合理的氨基酸组成比例,表现出最强的促酵母增殖和发酵效果.不同分子小麦面筋活性肽段WGP-Ⅰ (Mw=5~10 ku)、WGP-Ⅱ (Mw=3~5 ku)、WGP-Ⅲ与CK相比,初始FAN含量分别提高了27%、33%和47%.WGP-Ⅲ增加了最多的麦汁初始FAN水平,且发酵结束时FAN利用率为58%,较空白提高了11%.向20(°P)麦汁中补充0.3%(m/V)的小麦面筋蛋白肽WGP-Ⅲ,可使稳定期酵母生物量提高30%,乙醇浓度提高5%,氨基氮利用率提高11%,发酵时间缩短4 d.同时总醇增加68%,总酯降低17%,小分子肽段的添加并不影响啤酒的感官品质,使啤酒风味更加协调.

  19. Trial on Introduction of New Variety" Xuelanhong" for Brewing Vitis Amurensis Rupr.Wine%酿造干红山葡萄酒新品种“雪兰红”引种试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘肃; 曲炳章; 刘景宽; 郭振贵; 刘涛; 韩达

    2013-01-01

    酿造干红山葡萄酒新品种“雪兰红”引种试验结果表明:该品种表现果穗大、果实含糖和出汁率高、总酸和单宁低,均达到酿造干红山葡萄酒的工艺要求,酒质好.“雪兰红”5~7年生树平均单产67kg/株、1 494.8kg/667m2、22.4t/hm2.比对照品种“左优红”增产16.0%.在集安市种植“雪兰红”的纯利润是种植玉米的2.89倍,经济效益显著.%The trial results showed that"Xuelanhong"produced big ears,high fruit sugar,high juice yield,low total acid and tannin,wine quality has reached dry wine process requirements.The average yield was 6.7kg per plant,1494.8kg per acre,22.4t per hectare of 5 ~ 7 year old tree.Increased production 16% than"Zuoyouhong".The net profit is 2.89 times of corn cultivation benefit in Ji'an.

  20. Feasible research on brewing fruit wine with fruit juice of chinese dwarf cherry (Cerasus humilis sok.)%钙果汁酿造果酒的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郄志民; 陈安均; 何卫军; 韩世政

    2007-01-01

    试验以山西省的世丰1号钙果为原料,调整钙果汁的糖度为22 %、pH为3.8、游离SO2浓度为100 mg/L,以安琪牌酿酒酵母为发酵菌种,于22 ℃~25 ℃条件下进行发酵,最终酿造出了风味独特、品质优良的钙果果酒.初步证明了用钙果酿造果酒的可行性.

  1. A survey of the development of the Chinese brewing industry(2001-2002)%中国啤酒制造业发展概览(2001-2002年度)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文刚

    2004-01-01

    Not only the market capacity and puichasing power per capica,but also the openness level and system environment etc of the Chinese beer market all have qualitative leap, compared with those in middle of nineties of last century.

  2. 啤酒废酵母中的游离氨基氮对苹果酒发酵的影响%Influence of Free Nitrogen Source in Brewing Yeast on Apple Brand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海翔; 尹卓容; 苗延林

    2002-01-01

    氮源是酵母生长所必需的营养物质之一,经实验分析测定发现,发酵前添加0.2%的啤酒废酵母,有利于提高苹果酒的产量和质量.苹果汁接种酵母后,于室温下(15℃)9d内酒精含量由0上升为6.7%,还原糖12.03%下降为0.23%,转化率可达到90%以上.

  3. 啤酒酿造中欧盟的啤酒花供应特点%A Character of the EU Hop Supply for the World Beer Brewing Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Pavlovic; Viljem Pavlovic; 谷方红

    2012-01-01

    基于作者在国际啤酒花种植协会的活动和研究结果以及对相关文献的回顾,对欧盟的啤酒花产业结构、生产特点和欧盟啤酒花产业在世界啤酒行业的经济地位进行了综述。论述表明,欧盟啤酒花产业结构发生了很大变化。以市场为导向的结构调整及改变更具竞争力。在2000年至2008年期间,欧盟主要啤酒花种植国家中啤酒花农场的数量大幅下降。导致几乎所有欧盟成员国农场的平均规模有所增加。为保证生产利润的最大化,啤酒花农场的专业化程度在增加,经营模式也逐渐向企业经营模式转变。%This article is based on authors' research results, activities within the International Hop Growers' Convention (IHGC) and a review of the literature available. It aims at giving an overview of the EU hop industry struc- ture, production characteristics and its economic position within the world beer industry. The results demonstrate that the production structure in the hop industry sector varies greatly across EU countries. Furthermore, the structure is changing due to a market - driven structural adjustment aimed at being more competitive. The number of farms growing hops in the main hop -producing countries in the EU declined significantly during the 2000 -2008 period. As a re- suit, the average farm size increased in almost all EU member states. The rate of specialization of hops farms is general- ly increasing. Hop farmers are stepwise becoming entrepreneurs, trying to achieve a farm size that creates production more lucrative.

  4. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  5. Coffee and spent coffee extracts protect against cell mutagens and inhibit growth of food-borne pathogen microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Cid, C.; Peña, M. P.; Arbillaga, L. (Leire); Vitas, A I; Bravo, J.; Monente, C. (Carmen)

    2015-01-01

    Coffee consumption decreases the risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. The by-product obtained after brewing process (spent coffee) also has antioxidant capacity. Spent coffee and coffee brews (filter and espresso) extracts were obtained from Arabica and Robusta coffees, respectively. Spent coffee showed slightly high amounts in chlorogenic acids, but caffeine content was similar to their respective coffee brew. All samples exhibited strong protection activity against indirect acting mut...

  6. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk Ian; Kettle Alec; Hofmeister Sonja; Virdie Amarjeet; Kenny Javier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew). Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discr...

  7. The Effect of Labour Turnover in Brewery Industries in Nigeria (A Study of Guinness Brewery Industries Plc and Bendel Brewery Ltd in Benin City

    OpenAIRE

    E. Akpeti; S.K. Ogungbenle; M. Josiah; A.C. Benedict

    2012-01-01

    This research study investigated the effect of labour turnover in Brewery industries in Nigeria. Labour turnover is a costly problem and an economic drain to Brewing Industries. Labour turnover costs Brewing industries in Nigeria huge sum of money in recruiting and training replacements. Additional costs are incured through new employees that are more subject to accidents, causes more breakages and make more errors than experienced worker. Brewing industries incur losses through reduced produ...

  8. Ekonomická analýza pivovarnického průmyslu v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Starý, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Diploma Thesis deals with current conditions of brewing industry in the Czech Republic. In the theoretical part are defined the base concepts and brewing industry involvement are defined in the area of manufacturing industry and its classification in economics activities. It also inform us with brewing history in the world and the Czech Republic and further it focuses an beer, its production, distribution and legislative relating. The following pages concern the reserved geographical brand “Č...

  9. 40 CFR 63.2160 - By what date must I conduct an initial compliance demonstration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Manufacturing of Nutritional Yeast... brew ethanol concentration and calculating volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in...

  10. The Canadian Competition Bureau’s Attempt to Halt Beer Merger Goes Flat

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Katz

    2008-01-01

    On January 22, 2008, the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal (FCA) rejected the Competition Bureau's appeal in Labatt , refusing the Bureau's request for section 100 relief and more time to investigate Labatt Brewing Co. Ltd.'s proposed 2007 acquisition of Lakeport Brewing.

  11. The Chemistry of Beer Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Graham G.

    2004-01-01

    Brewing of beer, one of the oldest biotechnology industries was one of the earliest processes to be undertaken on commercial basis. Biological instability involves contamination of bacteria, yeast, or mycelia fungi and there is always a risk in brewing that beer can become contaminated by micro-organisms.

  12. Vers une intégration du sorgho comme matière première pour la brasserie moderne (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bwanganga Tawaba, JC.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Towards the integration of sorghum as an adjunct in the modern brewery industry. A review. Despite the relatively recent use of sorghum in brewing, the accumulated information from studies on the use of this cereal in malting and brewing is far from basic; the biochemistry of sorghum malting consolidates this knowledge. Despite the interest accorded to demonstrating the use of sorghum in brewing, the possibilities and limitations of using this cereal in the modern malting and brewing industries have not yet been fully elucidated. Furthermore, all the transformations involved in these processes are far from being completely understood. This review provides a wealth of knowledge on the properties of sorghum, which is of interest to both the maltster and the brewer, such as: grain composition, malted grain biochemistry and physiology, brewing and fermentation of sorghum, etc. The progress and difficulties encountered during sorghum malting are presented in a way that will be helpful to the brewer.

  13. Postavení pivovarnického průmyslu v ČR

    OpenAIRE

    Baxa, Milan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to analyze the brewing industry in the Czech Republic and to consider the latest trends in the brewing industry at present. The thesis is divided into five chapters. The first chapter characterises the position of the brewing industry in the national economy of the Czech Republic. The most important section of the thesis is the second chapter, which analyzes the production of beer and the structure of the branch in the Czech Republic. Export of Czech beer ab...

  14. 抽脂美容酿纠纷依法调解显公正--医疗纠纷人民调解案例分析%Disputes Brewed by Liposuction Beauty, Fair Resolution through Mediation according to Law--People's Mediation Cases of Medical Disputes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷红力

    2015-01-01

    医疗纠纷人民调解制度在全国各地逐渐展开,发挥了积极的作用。在调解过程中,需要运用到一系列的方法和技巧;就此,本文通过对一例抽脂美容手术的医疗纠纷的分析,详细讲述了根据现场实际情况巧妙使用一系列调解方法和技巧的过程,具有较好的实践借鉴和指引价值。%People's mediation system for medical disputes gradually spread all over the country, and it has played a positive role. We need apply a series of methods and techniques to the process of mediation. Therefore, taking one medical dispute of liposuction plastic surgery as an example, the author described in detail the media-tion process of ingenious use of a series of methods and techniques according to the actual situation, which had a good practical value for reference and guidance.

  15. Aproveitamento da água de umidificação de malte da moagem úmida como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja Utilization of the wet milling malt steep water as raw material on brewing

    OpenAIRE

    VENTURINI FILHO Waldemar G.; NOJIMOTO T.

    1999-01-01

    A água de umidificação de malte, resultante da moagem úmida, pode ser usada como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja. Há, entretanto, cervejarias que descartam esse subproduto, e conseqüentemente, o extrato nele contido. Em função disso, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a possibilidade de ganho de rendimento na mosturação e alterações nas características químicas e sensoriais da bebida, em virtude do uso dessa água. Cervejas do tipo Pilsen foram produzidas de duas formas: com ...

  16. Life Difficulty and Eternal Dilemma Brewed by Emotional Desire——Comparison between Connie and Cao Qiqiao%情欲酿制的生命难局与永恒困境——康尼与曹七巧形象比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伏涛; 王瑜

    2011-01-01

    中的康妮是资本主义文明束缚下追求真正爱情的英国贵族少妇,中的曹七巧是封建伦理道德桎梏下有着变态情欲的中国下层社会妇女,她们是个性迥异的两位女性形象.不同的社会地位、生活环境与时代背景造就不同的性格,她们同是在痛苦的婚姻下苦苦挣扎,在欲望的压抑中饱受煎熬,虽然都在绝望中反抗,却谁也选不出悲剧的结局.两位作家通过他们塑造的两位女性形象凸显了女性悲剧命运的深层文化内涵.

  17. 27 CFR 13.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 CFR Part 13, Labeling Proceedings. Brewer. Any person who brews beer (except a person who produces... than the juice of sound, ripe grapes, imitation wine, compounds sold as wine, vermouth, cider,...

  18. Foreign Banks Set Sights on Housing Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Having cleared all the hurdles to enter the market, locally incorporated foreign banks declare their intentions to dive into the personal housing loan business in China A battle is brewing between domestic and locally incorporated foreign banks over the

  19. Palm prints

    OpenAIRE

    Goffin, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Palms – set of A2 prints showing at Brew & Foam Gallery – Off the Wall & Pipeline, Hawaii Develop from the 'Palms zine' earlier this year, the set of images have requested within the surf event community.

  20. A New Health Perk for Coffee Drinkers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_158098.html A New Health Perk for Coffee Drinkers? The brew, in any form, might cut ... 2016 FRIDAY, April 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Drinking coffee may cut your risk of colon cancer by ...

  1. The role of lager beer yeast in oxidative stability of model beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berner, Torben Sune; Arneborg, Nils

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: In this study, we investigated the relationship between the ability of lager brewing yeast strains to tolerate oxidative stress and their ability to produce oxidative stable model beer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Screening of 21 lager brewing yeast strains against diamide and paraquat showed...... that the oxidative stress resistance was strain dependent. Fermentation of model wort in European Brewing Convention tubes using three yeast strains with varying oxidative stress resistances resulted in three model beers with different rates of radical formation as measured by electron spin resonance in forced...... in the model beers. CONCLUSIONS: A more oxidative stable beer is not obtained by a more-oxidative-stress-tolerant lager brewing yeast strain, exhibiting a higher secretion of thioredoxin, but rather by a less-oxidative-stress-tolerant strain, exhibiting a higher iron uptake. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT...

  2. 23 CFR 1313.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... limited to, ale, lager, porter, stout, sake, and other similar fermented beverages brewed or produced from.... (f) Other associated costs permitted by statute means labor costs, management costs, and...

  3. 21 CFR 172.560 - Modified hop extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... additive is used or intended for use as a flavoring agent in the brewing of beer. (b) The food additive is..., ethyl alcohol, or isopropyl alcohol acidified with hydrochloric or sulfuric acid; oxidation...

  4. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisk Ian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

  5. What Is a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to anesthetize the patient with something called monitored anesthesia. It’s a very gentle brew, which the patient ... the anesthesiologist, so he can save on his anesthesia. I tell him five minutes, but they know ...

  6. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    2003-01-01

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Mega

  7. Atraktivita odvětví pivovarnictví v ČR

    OpenAIRE

    Cupáková, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This master's thesis deals with an analysis of the brewing industry in the Czech Republic. The main aim of this thesis is to evaluate the attractiveness of the sector and to develop suggestions and recommendations for enterprises considering entering the researched sector and for companies already operating in the brewing industry. Recommendations for potential new entrants derive from an evaluation of industry attractiveness, and proposals for current breweries stem from an assessment of opp...

  8. Trendy v nahrazování sladu jinými surovinami při výrobě piva

    OpenAIRE

    Dostál, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to describe raw materials as brewing adjuncts of beer production and also gives advantages and disadvantages to each of them. The opening chapter includes explanation of elementary terms such as definition of beer, which ingredients are constituent in beer (barley, hops, water, yeast) and its characterization. The next chapter gives general explanation of brewery and brewing equipment and how beer is made. The term adjunct is used to refer corn, rice, wheat, unmalte...

  9. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Denis De Keukeleire

    2000-01-01

    Beer brewing is an intricate process encompassing mixing and further elaboration of four essential raw materials, including barley malt, brewing water, hops and yeast. Particularly hops determine to a great extent typical beer qualities such as bitter taste, hoppy flavour, and foam stability. Conversely, hop-derived bitter acids account for an offending lightstruck flavour, which is formed on exposure of beer to light. These various processes are presented in detail, while due emphasis is pla...

  10. MARKETING PLAN FOR CHURCH STREET BREWERY

    OpenAIRE

    Penttinen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the craft brewing industry in the United States is booming and increasing its market share and output, even though the overall brewing industry is in decline. In the past 10 years, craft beer has gained a significant market share of 7.8%, and the industry has grown 11% annually. Consumer behavior has also changed towards customers valuing quality over quantity. This has led to an increase in the demand for craft beer and in the number of microbreweries. The aim o...

  11. Analysis of production and consumption of beer in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Zamrzlová, Jiřina

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the analysis of production, consumption, export and import of beer in the Czech Republic in the years 1990 - 2011. The lengths of the time period of the individual indicators vary according to availability of the necessary data. The aim of this work is to assess the development of these indicators and predict their value for the year 2012. The theoretical work introduces to the problems of brewing and describes the origins of beer and Czech brewing, present ...

  12. Trendy v produkci a spotřebě piva

    OpenAIRE

    Bukovská, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Subject of the thesis is given to production of beer and its consumption in the Czech Republic . This bachelor’s thehis deals tells about history of the brewing industry, production of beer and its marketing. Furthermore the work presents features of factors having impact on the product. Here is presented market with beer and the biggest exporters and beer producers. As well is appraised position of the brewing as on inland trade so on abroad. Foreshadowed is eventual prospective developme...

  13. Aktuální trendy ve výrobě a distribuci piva ve světle dlouhodobých trendů české pivní kultury (na příkladu Plzeňského Prazdroje).

    OpenAIRE

    Černý, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this master thesis is to analyze actual and long-term trends in production and distribution of beer in the Czech area. The master thesis is divided into several parts. The first part presents basic information about the influence of brewing industry on the European and Czech economies; in the following part are described trends of distribution and production of beer in the past which influenced current state of Czech brewing industry. Last part of this thesis is concentrating o...

  14. わが国ビール産業の揺籃期 : 麦酒醸造技術の伝播と継承

    OpenAIRE

    山ノ内, 敏隆; ヤマノウチ, トシタカ; Toshitaka, YAMANOUCHI

    2004-01-01

    There were two routes that the beer brewing technology had been spread over Japan. One was the genealogy of Copeland. Yokoyama and Kubo played the biggest role in this genealogy. They contributed the rise of the beer industry in Japan. The oter was the govermmental route. Nakagawa contributed to establish Kaitakushi Brewery. He is the most important person who transplanted the Germany beer brewing technology in Japan.

  15. Lokalizační faktory pivovarnického průmyslu

    OpenAIRE

    Kadeřávková, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is focused on definition of basic factors of localization of brewing industry in Czech Republic. Traditionally, beer is the part of Czech culture. The aim of this thesis is to identify main factors of localization, to analyze them and to evaluate their influence on spatial distribution of brewing industry in Czech Republic. Thesis is divided into four parts. The first part is focused on summary of basic theoretical knowledge of localization. The second part summarizes important fa...

  16. Pivovarnictví a uplatňování českého piva

    OpenAIRE

    Marková, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This graduation thesis deals with the brewing industry, especially the production and the consumption of beer. The theoretical concepts are focused on the history of brewing, used raw materials and the desired quality features and value. The next section focuses on the development of the beer production, consumption of beer in the world and the Czech Republic. Then discusses the determinants and describes their impact. For the production of beer were selected determinants of be...

  17. Analýza výroby a spotřeby piva v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Masojídek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis describes the overall development and changes in the branch of Czech brewing since its beginning until the current trends. There are presented the basic raw materials for the production of beer even the production process, in the thesis. Briefly characterized here are the different types of beer, trade mark relating to the brewing industry, and government intervention in commodity beer and hops. Thesis thoroughly analyses the development and current situation of the Czech ...

  18. Microbial diversity and metabolite composition of Belgian red-brown acidic ales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauwaert, Isabel; Roels, Sanne P; Van Nieuwerburg, Filip; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-03-16

    Belgian red-brown acidic ales are sour and alcoholic fermented beers, which are produced by mixed-culture fermentation and blending. The brews are aged in oak barrels for about two years, after which mature beer is blended with young, non-aged beer to obtain the end-products. The present study evaluated the microbial community diversity of Belgian red-brown acidic ales at the end of the maturation phase of three subsequent brews of three different breweries. The microbial diversity was compared with the metabolite composition of the brews at the end of the maturation phase. Therefore, mature brew samples were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (bacteria) and the internal transcribed spacer region (yeasts) and a broad range of metabolites was quantified. The most important microbial species present in the Belgian red-brown acidic ales investigated were Pediococcus damnosus, Dekkera bruxellensis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus. In addition, this culture-independent analysis revealed operational taxonomic units that were assigned to an unclassified fungal community member, Candida, and Lactobacillus. The main metabolites present in the brew samples were L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid, and ethanol, whereas acetic acid was produced in lower quantities. The most prevailing aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate, which might be of impact on the aroma of the end-products. PMID:26802571

  19. [Overexpression of FKS1 to improve yeast autolysis-stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wang, Jinjing; Li, Qi

    2015-09-01

    With the development of high gravity brewing, yeast cells are exposed to multiple brewing-associated stresses, such as increased osmotic pressure, enhanced alcohol concentration and nutritional imbalance. These will speed up yeast autolysis, which seriously influence beer flavor and quality. To increase yeast anti-autolytic ability, FKS1 overexpression strain was constructed by 18S rDNA. The concentration of β-1,3-glucan of overexpression strain was 62% higher than that of wild type strain. Meantime, FKS1 overexpression strain increased anti-stress ability at 8% ethanol, 0.4 mol/L NaCl and starvation stress. Under simulated autolysis, FKS1 showed good anti-autolytic ability by slower autolysis. These results confirms the potential of FKS1 overexpression to tackle yeast autolysis in high-gravity brewing. PMID:26955712

  20. Economic Viability of Brewery Spent Grain as a Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the technical feasibility and economic viability of use grain wastes from the beer brewing process as fuel to generate the heat needed in subsequent brewing process. The study finds that while use of spent grain as a biofuel is technically feasible, the economics are not attractive. Economic viability is limited by the underuse of capital equipment. The investment in heating equipment requires a higher utilization that the client brewer currently anticipates. It may be possible in the future that changing factors may swing the decision to a more positive one.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos CP 62580 (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Tranferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM, Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, Morelos CP 62760 (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this. (author)

  3. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis De Keukeleire

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Beer brewing is an intricate process encompassing mixing and further elaboration of four essential raw materials, including barley malt, brewing water, hops and yeast. Particularly hops determine to a great extent typical beer qualities such as bitter taste, hoppy flavour, and foam stability. Conversely, hop-derived bitter acids account for an offending lightstruck flavour, which is formed on exposure of beer to light. These various processes are presented in detail, while due emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art hop technology, which provides brewers with efficient means to control bitterness, foam, and light-stability thereby allowing for the production of beers with consistent quality.

  4. Obchod s pivem v České republice a Německu

    OpenAIRE

    Schottková, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The Czech Republic and Germany are inseparably connected with a tradition of the brewing. However, both countries went through a different way of a political as well as economic development during the last 60 years. The aim of this bachelor thesis is to find out, if it is possible to predict the development of the Czech beer industry according to the knowledge of the development of the brewing in Germany. The first chapter concentrate on the history of the beer industry and kinds of beer. The...

  5. Simplified Mashing Efficiency. Novel Method for Optimization of Food Industry Wort Production with the Use of Adjuncts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwed Łukasz P.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Malt extracts and malt concentrates have a broad range of application in food industry. Those products are obtained by methods similar to brewing worts. The possible reduction of cost can be achieved by application of malt substitutes likewise in brewing industry. As the malt concentrates for food industry do not have to fulfill strict norms for beer production it is possible to produce much cheaper products. It was proved that by means of mathematic optimization it is possible to determine the optimal share of unmalted material for cheap yet effective production of wort.

  6. Pivovarnictví v právní teorii a praxi

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlová, Eliška

    2013-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the financial health of Pilsner Urquell, a.s., and the brewery Nova Paka, a.s., in the years 2007 to 2012. The work is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical. The first part deals with the nature and legal treatment of the brewing industry in the Czech Republic. In the theoretical part is broken down the evolution of beer on world markets, its taxation, history of Czech brewing and malting and Brewery industry in the current state of the Czech Republic. There i...

  7. Statistická analýza vývoje výsledků pivovarského průmyslu České republiky po vstupu do Evropské unie

    OpenAIRE

    Rampáková, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis is focused on the statistical analysis of the development of the brewing industry results in the Czech Republic after the accession to the European Union. The aim of the work is thru the analysis of the time series affect the development of the brewing industry on the basis of initial datas from the period 1993 - 2009. Within the thesis will be described and analyzed the total beer production in the Czech Republic, the number of active breweries, the average production of o...

  8. Fluorescence studies of beer protein uptake by silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperson, Kathleen; Birch, David J. S.; Leiper, Kenneth; McKeown, Ian P.

    2001-05-01

    Fluorescence has been investigated with respect to new methods for monitoring protein uptake by silica, with particular attention being given to haze forming proteins and foam proteins present in beer. These are of particular interest to the brewing industry as an important aspect of the brewing process is the prevention of chill haze formation. This is necessary in order to maintain the clarity of the beer and to extend the shelf life. Chill haze, which is a result of the interaction of certain proteins with some polyphenols, can be prevented by the removal of one or both of these constituents.

  9. Special Issue: Recent Developments in Finance and Banking after the 2008 Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Apergis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The sub-prime financial crisis was not simply the result of excessive leverage and inadequate capital, but it was brewing for some time as a result of a gradual deterioration of business leadership, lapses in governance and in the regulatory framework (particularly in derivatives markets, and an ineffective risk-management framework.[...

  10. WEEKLY WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    1. INDIA A patient is carried on a stretcher at a Calcutta hospital on December 15 after drinking poisonous liquor. A batch of home-brewed liquor possibly laced with a lethal dose of the highly toxic chemical methanol killed 170 people in eastern India

  11. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans, cafestol, as an agonist ligand for the farnesoid and pregnane X receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Kreeft, Arja J.; Hooiveld, Guido J. E. J.; Moen, Corina J. A.; Mueller, Michael; Frants, Rune R.; Kasanmoentalib, Soemini; Post, Sabine M.; Princen, Hans M. G.; Porter, J. Gordon; Katan, Martijn B.; Hofker, Marten H.; Moore, David D.

    2007-01-01

    Cafestol, a diterpene present in unfiltered coffee brews such as Scandinavian boiled, Turkish, and cafetiere coffee, is the most potent cholesterol-elevating compound-knownin the human diet. Several genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis have previously been shown to be targets of cafestol, inclu

  12. The Future of Teaching Research in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Current literature on teaching research methodology in the social sciences highlights the changing nature of our world in terms of its complexity and diversity, and points to how this affects the way in which we search for answers to related problems (Brew 2003, 3; Tashakkori and Teddlie 2003, 74). New ways of approaching research problems that…

  13. Energy and exergy analyses of malt drink production in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy requirements and exergy inefficiencies for processing of malt drink were estimated for a Nigerian brewery. The process was divided into twenty-one basic unit operations and grouped into four main group operations: silo house, brew house, filter room and packaging house. The energy intensity for processing a batch of 9.8 tonnes brew grains to 562 hl of malt drink was estimated as 261.63 MJ/hl consisting of electrical (41.01%), thermal (58.81%) and manual (0.19%) of the total energy. The most energy intensive group operation was the Packaging House operation, followed by the Brew House operation with energy intensities of 223.19 and 35.94 MJ/hl, respectively. The exergy analysis revealed that the packaging house operation was responsible for most of the inefficiency (92.16%) followed by brew house operation (7.17%) and the silo house and filter room operations with less than 1% of the total exergy lost. The most exergy loss took place in the pasteurizer, which accounted for 59.75% of the overall system inefficiency. Modification in the pasteurizer and use of spent grains as alternate source of energy in the steam boiler were recommended to improve the energy efficiency of the system.

  14. Clinical Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates cannot cross the epithelial barrier in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Llopis, Silvia; Jespersen, Lene;

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is generally considered to be a safe organism and is essential to produce many different kinds of foods as well as being widely used as a dietary supplement. However, several isolates, which are genetically related to brewing and baking yeasts, have shown virulent traits...

  15. Turning Traffic Jams to Jelly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Beijing, known for having the worst traffic in China, is brewing up a traffic plan with the harshest ever measures to ensure smooth traffic flow as the capital's gridlock during rush hour and private car sales soar. On December 13, the Beijing Municipal Government started soliciting public opinions for a draft plan designed to relieve the city's traffic problems.

  16. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  17. Ways of Light Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2009-01-01

    @@ "The planning of the right industry restructuring and revitalization" was officially released on May 18th this year. This planning mainly includes food, cereals, oil, batteries, leather, paper, fermentation, brewing, sugar refining and home electrical appliances. As a response to a comprehensive action plan, the planning period is from 2009 to 2011.

  18. The Impact of Hop Products on Beer Foam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Baszczyňski, Martin; Linhart, P.; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek

    Prague: ICPF ASCR, 2013. s. 92. ISBN N. [Workshop on Smart and Green Interfaces 2013. 20.3.2013-22.03.2013, Prague] Grant ostatní: COST(XE) MP1106 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : beer foam * brewing industry * analysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  19. RESTAURANT INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Terrazas Winery Terrazas Winery,from Argentina’s Mendoza wine region,has launched a food and wine promotion by cooperating with more than 100 top restaurants in Beijing,Guangzhou,Shanghai and Shenzhen. Combining the charm of its high quality wine with traditional Chinese culture,Terrazas uses Malbec red wine brewed with

  20. Alpha-Amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Both (Porcine and bacterial) starch degrading enzymes highly valued by the biotechnology industry. (Porcine) A major target for protein engineering and the study of diabetes, obesity and dental care. (Bacterial) Major industrial and biotechnology interest used in brewing, baking, and food processing. World's number one industrial protein.

  1. What Is a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is kind enough to anesthetize the patient with something called monitored anesthesia. It’s a very gentle brew, ... this is another, I believe I am seeing something (inaudible) getting food into there. It’s food, but ...

  2. Teapots Made of Zisha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yang

    2012-01-01

    PEOPLE worldwide drink Chinese tea daily and may be familiar with all kinds of East Asian teas. But dry leaves alone do not capture everything there is to know ahout China's tea culture. To become a qualified tea drinker. there is much to learn about the pots in which the leavcs are brewed.

  3. New “Dog Only” Beer Hits Shelves%荷兰推出狗狗啤酒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A Dutch① brewer② has started producing beer for the dogs and man's best friend can now join man in an ice cold brew. Dog Beer is made from a special blend of beef extracts and malt, giving dogs that clean, crisp lager taste while adding some meaty goodnes

  4. Studies of iso-alpha-acids : analysis, purification, and stability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, Alfi

    2006-01-01

    The female cones of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) are added to beer, providing taste and flavour and contributing to the stability of foam. The main constituents of hop related to these properties are generically known as alpha-acids. During the brewing process, these acids are isomerized, resulting in t

  5. Pivovarské kvasinky a reakce na stres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigler, Karel; Matoulková, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, 7-8 (2011), s. 277-284. ISSN 0023-5830 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : laboratory yeast * brewing yeast * stresses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  6. Břehová a umělá infiltrace pitné vody

    OpenAIRE

    Čeloudová, Klára

    2014-01-01

    In this bacalo rwork are characterised wals of intaking surface and subterranean waters, then is explained the resolution of bank and artificialin filtration. Shore and artificial infiltration is practically described in Karany area. Further is mentioned usage for huge resources in food processing, such as brewing, maltingetc.

  7. Extraction of espresso coffee by using gradient of temperature. Effect on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of espresso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, C Alejandra; Fiol, Núria; González, Carlos; Saez, Marc; Villaescusa, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Espresso extraction is generally carried out at a fixed temperature within the range 85-95°C. In this work the extraction of the espressos was made in a new generation coffee machine that enables temperature profiling of the brewing water. The effect of using gradient of temperature to brew espressos on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the beverage has been investigated. Three different extraction temperature profiles were tested: updrawn gradient (88-93°C), downdrawn gradient (93-88°C) and fixed temperature (90°C). The coffee species investigated were Robusta, Arabica natural and Washed Arabica. Results proved that the use of gradient temperature for brewing espressos allows increasing or decreasing the extraction of some chemical compounds from coffee grounds. Moreover an appropriate gradient of temperature can highlight or hide some sensorial attributes. In conclusion, the possibility of programming gradient of temperature in the coffee machines recently introduced in the market opens new expectations in the field of espresso brewing. PMID:27507518

  8. Pharmacological profile of Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Flavonoid from Hops (Humulus lupulus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Hansen, Poul Erik; Wang, Genzhu;

    2015-01-01

    The female inflorescences of hops (Humulus lupulus L.), a well-known bittering agent used in the brewing industry, have long been used in traditional medicines. Xanthohumol (XN) is one of the bioactive substances contributing to its medical applications. Among foodstuffs XN is found primarily in ...

  9. Bio-assisted synthesis of mesoporous Li3V2(PO4)3 for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, W.; Zhang, X.D.; Du, X.Y.;

    2013-01-01

    The mesoporous biocarbon coated Li3V2(PO4)3(MBC-LVP) cathode material is synthesized by abiotemplate-assisted sol–gel reaction process using low-cost beer waste brewing yeasts (BWBYs) as bothstructural template and biocarbon source. The structure and electrochemical performances of MBC-LVPwere in...

  10. Salmonella Agona Outbreak from Contaminated Aniseed, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Judith; Schrauder, Annette; Alpers, Katharina; Werber, Dirk; Frank, Christina; Prager, Rita; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Broll, Susanne; Feil, Fabian; Roggentin, Peter; Bockemühl, Jochen; Tschäpe, Helmut; Ammon, Andrea; Stark, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    A nationwide outbreak of Salmonella Agona caused by aniseed-containing herbal tea occurred from October 2002 through July 2003 among infants in Germany. Consumers should adhere strictly to brewing instructions, although in exceptional cases this precaution may not be protective, particularly when preparing tea for vulnerable age groups.

  11. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY AND PRIORITY DIRECTIONS OF ACTIVIZATION OF SOCIAL INVESTMENTS OF THE ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grishnova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the features of social investment and estimated impact of social investment on key financial and economic indicators of the breweries. Is proved priority areas in social investment and offered to recommendation to improve social investment in the enterprises of the brewing industry in Ukraine.

  12. Will Exam Credits for Women Help Erase Gender Inequality?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Xinyang,a city in central China’s Henan Province,is well known for the green tea it produces called Xinyang maojian,a rare brew that is much in demand.Recently, however,the city made headlines for an en- tirely different reason—a new set of policies to take care of its women.

  13. Greener and Rapid Access to Bio-Active Heterocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new kind of chemical revolution “GREEN CHEMISTRY” is brewing, 150 years after the first one transformed modern life with a host of conveniences. It protects the environment, not by cleaning up, but by inventing new chemistry and new chemical processes that do not pollute. The f...

  14. 27 CFR 7.24 - Class and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by volume shall bear the class designations “beer”, “lager beer”, “lager”, “ale”, “porter”, or “stout... high temperature, possessing the characteristics generally attributed to “ale,” “porter,” or “stout... standard brewing practices) shall bear any of these class designations. (f) Geographical names...

  15. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    ' in risk perception research covering structure, process, and the social dynamics of risk debates. After that I will present results from a recently completed research project. In this project, we specifically looked into consumers' perceptions of gene technology applied to brewing, and how...... these perceptions related to consumers' attitudes and choice behavior....

  16. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccc of... - Requirements for Performance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Method 4* *EPA Test Methods found in appendix A of 40 CFR part 60. ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Manufacturing of Nutritional Yeast Part... stated in § 63.2161, if you demonstrate compliance by monitoring brew ethanol, you must comply with...

  17. The Impact of Hop Products on Beer Foam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Baszczyňski, Martin; Linhart, P.; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek

    Prague : ICPF ASCR, 2013. s. 92. ISBN N. [Workshop on Smart and Green Interfaces 2013. 20.3.2013-22.03.2013, Prague] Grant ostatní: COST(XE) MP1106 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : beer foam * brewing industry * analysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  18. From Mothers' Pensions to Aid to Dependent Children in the Great Plains: The Course from Charity to Entitlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. Alton

    2012-01-01

    The most important third-party movement in American history emerged out of the social and economic chaos brewing in the Great Plains in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. The maelstrom, labeled Populism, contained a powerful, indeed a truly revolutionary message--that man was his brother's keeper. This concept proved to have…

  19. 27 CFR 25.23 - Restrictions on use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beverages, vitamins, ice, malt, malt syrup, and other by-products of the brewing process, or soft drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages; (2) For processing spent grain, carbon dioxide, and yeast; and (3) For... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.23 Restrictions on use. (a) Use...

  20. What Is a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the most important procedure to save life. Essentially, it’s the only procedure that will prevent colon cancer ... anesthetize the patient with something called monitored anesthesia. It’s a very gentle brew, which the patient will ...

  1. Ponteration over 2004 China International beer festival%对2004中国国际啤酒节的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China Inter national China International Beer Festival fosters and markets the brands for the establishments, put in to effect brand development strategy, heightens the brand's popularity and reputation, provides the rare environment and sage. It is an advance opportunity for the brewing enterprises to improve their whole economic benefit and their competitiveness in the world market.

  2. Parenting Manuals on Underage Drinking: Differences between Alcohol Industry and Non-Industry Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Gordon B.; Merrill, Ray M.; Owens, Adam; Barleen, Nathan A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is some debate over the efficacy of alcohol industry parenting manuals. Purpose: This study compares the content and focus of alcohol industry and non-industry "talk to your child about drinking" parenting manuals. Methods: Parenting manuals from Anheuser-Busch and Miller Brewing Company were compared to federal government and…

  3. Fungi in the Ancient World: How Mushrooms, Mildews, Molds and Yeast Shaped the Early Civilizations of Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Near East. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This monograph comprises a survey of roles of fungi in ancient societies of the western tradition or its predecessors in Egypt and western Asia. Topics include the use of yeasts in brewing and baking, poisonous and mycotoxigenic fungi, fungi used for medicinal purposes or for other technologies, pla...

  4. Vliv pivovarského procesu na profil proteinů ječmene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benkovská, Dagmar; Flodrová, Dana; Psota, V.; Bobálová, Janette

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, 7-8 (2011), 260-265. ISSN 0023-5830 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : barley * proteins * brewing process Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  5. Effect of malt milling for wort extract content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Géczi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Beer manufacturing is one of the most ancient procedures of food manufacturing. The four (in many cases much more ingredients, the great numbers of technological steps and variations of technological parameters (temperature, time, pressure etc. have a major influence on both type and quality of the final product. As a result of this, studying beer brewing may offer a great deal of possibilities for numerous researches, scientific examinations, and can provide useful informations for the manufacturing companies as well. At the „Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra" we examined an entire beer brewing process in October 2013, utilising the Ahlborn sensors, which were integrated in the instruments. Simultaneously, in Gödöllő at the Szent István University, we analysed the effect of malt milling on extract yield and the filterability of wort. We used the brewing parameters (temperature, time, volume ratios, which were experienced in the microbrewery and published in professional literature. Our results verify the conclusions drawn in the professional literature, however they point out the importance of grinding. Results performed on the yields with different grain-constitution might directly be utilised for the specialists of recently in Slovakia and Hungary spreading small-scale, handicraft, and homemade beer brewing.

  6. Filtering apparatus and method for mixing, extraction and/or separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a filtering apparatus and method for mixing a compound of solid and fluid phases, separating the phases and/or extracting fluid from the compound. One embodiment of the invention discloses a filtering apparatus comprising a first filter section accommodating a fir...... beer brewing procedure....

  7. Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains sorghum and millet during malting and mashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Y; Bryce, J H; Goodfellow, V; MacKinlay, J; Agu, R C; Brosnan, J M; Bringhurst, T A; Harrison, B

    2012-04-11

    Our study showed that sorghum and millet followed a similar pattern of changes when they were malted under similar conditions. When the malt from these cereals was mashed, both cereal types produced wide spectra of substrates (sugars and amino acids) that are required for yeast fermentation when malted at either lower or higher temperatures. At the germination temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C used in malting both cereal types, production of reducing sugars and that of free amino nitrogen (FAN) were similar. This is an important quality attribute for both cereals because it implies that variation in temperature during the malting of sorghum and millet, especially when malting temperature is difficult to control, and also reflecting temperature variations, experienced in different countries, will not have an adverse effect on the production and release of amino acids and sugars required by yeast during fermentation. Such consistency in the availability of yeast food (substrates) for metabolism during fermentation when sorghum and millet are malted at various temperatures is likely to reduce processing issues when their malts are used for brewing. Although sorghum has gained wide application in the brewing industry, and has been used extensively in brewing gluten-free beer on industrial scale, this is not the case with millet. The work described here provides novel information regarding the potential of millet for brewing. When both cereals were malted, the results obtained for millet in this study followed patterns similar to those of sorghum. This suggests that millet, in terms of sugars and amino acids, can play a role similar to that of sorghum in the brewing industry. This further suggests that millet, like sorghum, would be a good raw material for brewing gluten-free beer. Inclusion of millet as a brewing raw material will increase the availability of suitable materials (raw material sustainability) for use in the production of gluten-free beer, beverages, and

  8. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion of commercial tea products available in uae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, twenty four commercial tea samples were assayed to determine their free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic contents based on the brewing/infusing period. Tea samples were infused/brewed in 200 mL boiled water at 120 degree C for 1, 2 and 5 min, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of tea infusion/brewing were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay method. The results were ranged from 67.81-90.51% for black tea bags, 90.37-94.51% for green tea bags, 24.66-92.25% for black tea powder, 16.08-93.06% for green tea powder and 32.90- 45.54% for Camomile herbal infusion. The results showed that 1 or 2 min black tea bags infusion exhibited highest radical scavenging activity than 5 min infusion. Antioxidant activities of tea powders were variable with the amount of tea powder. It was observed that antioxidant activity increased with increasing boiling time for smaller amount of sample. In contrary, shorter boiling time was better for larger amount of sample. The polyphenol contents of tea infusion were determined and the results were expressed as milligram quercetin equivalent/200 mL of tea infusion. The polyphenol content was increased with increased brewing period. In contrary, brewing for longer time rendered extract less antiradical activity. This study suggests that infusing tea bag for 1 or 2 min is sufficient for getting infusion with maximum radical scavenging activity and in case of tea powder, shorter boiling time is better for larger amount of powder or small amount of powder should be boiled for minimum 5 min for rendering extract with maximum radical scavenging activity. (author)

  9. Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains rice and buckwheat during malting and mashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, R C; Chiba, Y; Goodfellow, V; MacKinlay, J; Brosnan, J M; Bringhurst, T A; Jack, F R; Harrison, B; Pearson, S Y; Bryce, J H

    2012-10-10

    This study examined the performance of rice and buckwheat when malted under various temperature conditions and for different lengths of time. The mashed malts produced from both rice and buckwheat contained a wide spectra of sugars and amino acids that are required for yeast fermentation, regardless of malting temperature. At the germination temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C used, production of reducing sugars and free amino nitrogen (FAN) followed similar patterns. This implies that temperature variations, experienced in different countries, will not have an adverse effect on the production and release of amino acids and sugars, required by yeast during fermentation, from these grains. Such consistency in the availability of yeast substrates is likely to reduce differences in processing when these malts are used for brewing. This study revealed that, while rice malt consistently produced more maltose than glucose, buckwheat malt gave several times more glucose than maltose, across all germination temperatures. Buckwheat malt also produced more soluble and free amino nitrogen than rice malt. Unlike sorghum, which has gained wide application in the brewing industry for the production of gluten-free beer, the use of rice and buckwheat is minimal. This study provides novel information regarding the potential of rice and buckwheat for brewing. Both followed similar patterns to sorghum, suggesting that they could play a similar role to sorghum in the brewing industry. Inclusion of rice and buckwheat as brewing raw materials will increase the availability of suitable materials for use in the production of gluten-free beer, potentially making it more sustainable, cheaper, and more widely available. PMID:22950683

  10. 樱桃酿造啤酒加工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚瑞祺; 马兆瑞

    2014-01-01

    以大麦芽、啤酒酵母、啤酒花和樱桃汁等为主要原料酿制樱桃啤酒,阐明麦芽汁制备、发酵等工艺的操作要点,探讨樱桃果汁添加量、樱桃果汁添加时间、啤酒花添加量对樱桃酿造啤酒的风味影响。结果表明,后发酵开始时加入樱桃果汁15%,啤酒花添加量0.06%较为适宜,所得樱桃酿造啤酒风味纯正,有明显的酒花香气。%The processing technology of cherry brewing beer is researched in this paper. Barley malt, beer yeast, hops and cherry juice cherry beer are used as the main raw material to brew cherry brewing beer. Besides, the operating points of wort preparation and fermentation processes are clarified. The addition amount of cherry juice, cherry juice adding time, and addition amount of hops are discussed for the flavor of cherry brewing beer. The results show that cherry juice should be added at the beginning of post-fermentation and its addition is 15%. The addition amount of hops is 0.06%, cherry brewing beer is better with pure flavor and clear hop aroma in this condition.

  11. Investigation of shelf-life extension of sorghum beer (Chibuku) by removing the second conversion of malt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyauripo, Josphat; Parawira, Wilson; Tinofa, Sharai; Kudita, Ivy; Ndengu, Clement

    2009-02-28

    The effect of removing the second step of malt conversion in the brewing of Chibuku beer was investigated with the intention of extending the shelf-life of the product. Chibuku was brewed in the laboratory scale fermenters using Delta Beverages' standard brewing procedure. A variation was made where the second malt conversion was not conducted on one brew. The effect of increasing pasteurisation time was also investigated. The extension of shelf-life was determined by following the physicochemical and the sensory profile of the products for a period of ten days under sub-tropical ambient conditions. Ethanol productions were similar between the control and test beers (without second conversion malt). A product with overall acceptability of 70% was made from the brew without the second malt conversion and with 15 min pasteurisation at 80 degrees C. The product was, however, low in bite and head retention, but had less bacterial load, decreased acid production, and improved keeping quality by at least two days. However, due to contamination of the pitching yeast with lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total acids rapidly increased after 168 h and caused unacceptable sourness. Increasing pasteurisation time to 20 min reduced bacterial load of the wort to figures as low as 2 x 10(3) cfu/ml. General hygiene levels of the brewery were acceptable and no coliforms were detected in the product or contact surfaces along the production line. Bacterial contamination of the product mainly comes from the raw materials with pasteurisation greatly reducing this load. If improved, the procedure has the potential of extending the shelf-life of the beer to beyond 168 h. PMID:19162356

  12. Fermentation of Apple Juice with a Selected Yeast Strain Isolated from the Fermented Foods of Himalayan Regions and Its Organoleptic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, S S; Keshani

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, suggesting differences in aroma and flavor of their brewing products. Apple is a predominant fruit in Himachal Pradesh and apple cider is one of the most popular drinks all around the world hence, it was chosen for sensory evaluation of six selected yeast strains. Organoleptic studies and sensory analysis suggested Sc21 and Sc01 as best indigenous strains for soft and hard cider, respectively, indicating their potential in enriching the local products with enhanced quality. PMID:27446050

  13. Ethnobotany, traditional knowledge and socioeconomic importance of native drink among the Oraon tribe of Malda district in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Saha

    2015-03-01

    Results: Present study revealed that four medicinal plant species along with rice having strong local ethnomedicinal value were used to prepare this indigenous drink. Oraon prepare the brew using their unique home-made distillation process. Commercialization of this local brew represents an alternative income to develop their economic condition, especially for poor households. The Index of Importance Value (IVs was considered to evaluate the importance, usage, and knowledge of the five studied species. Conclusion: It could be concluded that practices of chullu preparation represent a bonding between ethnic knowledge and Oraon people of the province. Commercialization of chullu may be considered as a source of alternative way of income for poor households in the region. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 34-39

  14. Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piddocke, Maya Petrova; kreisz, Stefan; Heldt-Hansen, Hans Peter;

    2009-01-01

    of high-gravity brewing on the fermentation performance of the brewer’s yeast under model brewing conditions. The lager brewer’s strain Weihenstephan 34/70 strain was characterized at three different gravities by adding either glucose or maltose syrups to the basic wort. We observed that increased gravity...... resulted in a lower specific growth rate, a longer lag phase before initiation of ethanol production, incomplete sugar utilization, and an increase in the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in the final beer. Increasing the gravity by adding maltose syrup as opposed to glucose syrup...... of sugar syrups on the fermentation performance and the flavor profile of the final beer....

  15. Last Orders for Foster's Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael O' Neill

    2006-01-01

    @@ Tempted by an unddderdeveloped market and a growing taste for beer, Foster's saw big potential in the Chinese brewing sector. But this potential has come tomothing and the Australian brewer has finally rang time on its China investments After over ten years, several failed partnerships and millions of dollars in losses, Australia's Foster's Group has finally called last orders on its expensive dip into the Chinese brewing market. In a decision announced in June, Foster's sold its Shanghai brewery for an undisclosed amount to Japan's Suntory. Speaking shortly after the sale, a Foster's spokesperson was optimistic that the salewould not affect the brewer's intemational ambitions: "As we look to growing the Foster's brand as an international premium brand rather than being a local brewer, Shanghai no longer fits."

  16. Multi-method research strategy for understanding changes in storage protein composition in developing barley grain to improve nutritional profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is cultivated in a range of diverse environments and is widely utilised as feed for animal and as malt in brewing. Nitrogen (N) is a key macronutrient whch directly increases plant growth and is used as a fertiliser to meet the demands for higher yield. However, the in...... regimes. To reach the objective, integrated transcriptomics and proteomics analysis complemented with AAs profiling have been undertaken....

  17. Problematika distribuce zboží v oblasti pivovarnictví

    OpenAIRE

    Zajíčková, Eva

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the use of operations research methods in managing distribution in brewing company. The thesis description is a solution of the multi-circuit transport problem. The aim of the thesis is to create optimal distribution lines of beer distribution, specifically for the company Brewery Litovel, Ltd. The whole problem will sort out by using Mayer's method, Littles method and specialized optimization LINGO program. The resulting distribution route will be finally compared with...

  18. Beer is the cattle of women: sorghum beer commercialization and dietary intake of agropastoral families in Karamoja, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Akol, Helen A; Gray, Sandra J

    2010-04-01

    Karimojong agropastoralists of Uganda have employed a dual subsistence strategy of cattle herding and sorghum cultivation to survive in an unpredictable environment, one afflicted by a severe humanitarian crisis. Armed raiding since the 1970s has led to devastating cattle losses, high male mortality, and increased sedentarization of women and children in densely populated homesteads, where infectious diseases and malnutrition rates are prevalent. Fieldwork in 1998-1999 confirmed the detrimental effects of armed raiding on child growth and development. During this period, however, women maintained largely traditional subsistence patterns. Follow-up fieldwork in 2004 revealed surprising subsistence changes: sorghum beer, an important food and ritual item, was being brewed for sale, which had not been noted in previous literature on the Karimojong. We outline the role of beer in the diet by analyzing the nutritional profile of Karimojong women and children, nutrients supplied by beer, and those supplied by foodstuffs purchased with sales profits. Commercial beer supplied from 3 to 6% of energy intake, and grains leftover from brewing (dregs) supplied from 3 to 12%. Selling beer was women's preferred form of casual labor, with differing patterns of participation in brewing between rural and peri-urban areas. Women who were paid in currency relied on profits to purchase nutrient-rich supplemental foodstuffs important in an otherwise marginal diet, as well as beer. The households of women who worked for other brewers or purchased beer wholesale and sold it retail relied heavily on dregs for daily subsistence. Nutrient intake was highest among women with cattle and sorghum who brewed and sold beer from their homesteads, and lowest among women who lacked sorghum and worked for commercial brewers in urban centers. Because nutritional status remains marginal in Karamoja, beer commercialization as a consequence of subsistence changes could have dramatic health consequences

  19. The Medigap Market: Product and Pricing Trends, 1999-2001.

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Chollet

    2003-01-01

    Increasing numbers of Medicare beneficiaries have turned to the Medigap market to insure against Medicare’s out-of-pocket costs. This publication reviews product types and average premiums of the 10 federally standardized Medigap products. It notes that trouble could be brewing in this market as enrollment in the basic benefit (Plan A) increased as much as enrollment in the nine other plans combined. Meanwhile, the average premium for basic Medigap coverage jumped more than 13 percent per yea...

  20. Možnosti stanovení těkavých látek při výrobě piva

    OpenAIRE

    Rozsypalová, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    The thesis discusses the possibilities of determination of chlorophenols in beer. A review of literature describes the complex properties of chlorinated phenols. Summarizes their physical, chemical and toxicological properties and characterizes their possible inputs into the environment. In the experimental part is the main theme of the determination of chlorophenols in samples of small breweries and beers called as home brew. These are various types of beer, in which the amount of chlorophen...

  1. Ministry Proposes Interest Tax Cancellation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESSYZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Despite temporary economic stagnation due to the SARS outbreak and a distinctly chilly stock market performance, China's macro economy roared ahead in 2003. Latest official figures show that the country has recorded a 9.1 percent gross domestic production (GDP) growth,its highest level since 1997. However,debate is brewing over whether the economy is showing signs of overheating or simply going through an acceptable warming up period.

  2. Potential Economic Pitfalls Call for Removal of Institutional Drawbacks——An Interview with Mr. FAN Gang (樊纲), Ph.D. of Economics, Doctoral Advisor, Director of National Research Institute of Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 封莉

    2007-01-01

    The continuous rise of consumer price index (CPI) has increased concern over China’s macroeconomic situation. Will inflation have a disastrous impact on the Chinese economy? What risks are brewing behind the booming real estate and stock markets? Have bubbles already occurred in the Chinese economy? From his office in Guohong Building, Beijing, Dr. Fan Gang gave his views on these questions in an exclusive interview with China Economist.

  3. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE PROCESS OF BEER PRIMARY FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Solgajová; Helena Frančáková; Štefan Dráb; Žigmund Tóth

    2013-01-01

    Beer is a very popular and widespread drink worldwide. Beer may be defined as a foamy alcoholic drink aerated by carbon dioxide that is formed during fermentation. Sensorial and analytical character of beer is mainly formed during process of primary fermentation. Our work has monitored the influence of temperature of fermentation substrate on the process of primary fermentation during beer production. Obtained values of temperature and apparent extract out of four brews of 10% light hopped wo...

  4. Metabolite Profiling during Fermentation of Makgeolli by the Wild Yeast Strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y98-5

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hye Ryun; Kim, Jae-Ho; Ahn, Byung Hak; Bai, Dong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Makgeolli is a traditional Korean alcoholic beverage. The flavor of makgeolli is primarily determined by metabolic products such as free sugars, amino acids, organic acids, and aromatic compounds, which are produced during the fermentation of raw materials by molds and yeasts present in nuruk, a Korean fermentation starter. In this study, makgeolli was brewed using the wild yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y98-5, and temporal changes in the metabolites during fermentation were analyzed b...

  5. Postavení vybraného pivovaru, resp. pivovarnické společnosti na českém trhu

    OpenAIRE

    Půlpánová, Petra

    2011-01-01

    The presented dissertation "The position of selected brewery, respectively. brewing company in the Czech market" aims to summarize and evaluate the total financial health of the chosen company. The financial analysis was carried out on the base of evaluation of absolute and differential ratio indicators. The dissertation also includes a calculation of the overall indicators of the Altman Index. The dissertation is thematically divided into two parts. The first, theoretic part, represented the...

  6. The Effect of Oatmeal And The Mucilage From The Nopal Cactus In The Production of Lactic Acid In Sourdough

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Flores-Chávez; Julio Montañez-Saenz

    2014-01-01

    The use of sourdough process as a form of leavening is one of the oldest biotechnological processes in food production and has been used for thousands of years to improve flavor, texture and microbiological shelf life of bread. Its main function is to leaven the dough to produce a more gaseous dough piece and much more aerated bread. In Europe, cereal fermentations are mainly applied to the brewing industry, providing sourmashes, and to baking, in which sourdough plays an impo...

  7. Vouchering of Forensically Important Fly Specimens by Nondestructive DNA Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong Yoon; Park, Seong Hwan; Piao, Huguo; Chung, Ukhee; Ko, Kwang Soo; Hwang, Juck-Joon

    2013-01-01

    DNA extraction frequently requires destruction of whole samples. However, when the sample is very rare or has taxonomic importance, nondestructive DNA extraction is required for preservation of voucher specimens. In the case of arthropod specimens, minor anatomical structures such as a single leg or a single wing are often sacrificed instead of the whole body for DNA extraction. In an attempt to save the entire anatomical structure of specimens, several authors tried to brew the whole specime...

  8. The Therapeutic Potentials of Ayahuasca: Possible Effects against Various Diseases of Civilization

    OpenAIRE

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Winkelman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive brew of two main components. Its active agents are β-carboline and tryptamine derivatives. As a sacrament, ayahuasca is still a central element of many healing ceremonies in the Amazon Basin and its ritual consumption has become common among the mestizo populations of South America. Ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of traditional medicine and cultural psychiatry. During the last two decades, the substance has become inc...

  9. Pengaruh Letak Daun dan Lama Fermentasi terhadap Mutu Teh Daun Gaharu

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmadini, Fathia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find the effect of leaf position and fermentation time on the quality of agarwood tea leaf and to study the potential of agarwood leaf as brewed tea. The research was using completely randomized design with two factors, i.e leaf position (L): (shoot leaf, the second leaf, and the third leaf) and fermentation time (T) : (70 minutes, 80 minutes, 90 minutes and 100 minutes). Parameters analyzed were yield, moisture content, ash content, tannin content, antioxidant...

  10. Physiological tests for yeast brewery cells immobilized on modified chamotte carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Berlowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Dorota; Ambroziak, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    In this study yeast cell physiological activity was assessed on the basis of the in situ activity of two important enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. FUN1 dye bioconversion and cellular ATP content were also taken as important indicators of yeast cell activity. The study was conducted on six brewing yeast strains, which were either free cells or immobilized on a chamotte carrier. The experimental data obtained indicate clearly that, in most cases, the immobilized cel...

  11. Gas bubble formation in the cytoplasm of a fermenting yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Swart, Chantel W.; Dithebe, Khumisho; Pohl, Carolina H.; Swart, Hendrik C.; Coetsee, Elizabeth; van Wyk, Pieter WJ; Swarts, Jannie C.; Lodolo, Elizabeth J; Kock, Johan LF

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Current paradigms assume that gas bubbles cannot be formed within yeasts although these workhorses of the baking and brewing industries vigorously produce and release CO2 gas. We show that yeasts produce gas bubbles that fill a significant part of the cell. The missing link between intracellular CO2 production by glycolysis and eventual CO2 release from cells has therefore been resolved. Yeasts may serve as model to study CO2 behavior under pressurized conditions that may impact on f...

  12. Designer Yeasts for the Fermentation Industry of the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Pretorius, Isak S.; du Toit, Maret; van Rensburg, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has enjoyed a long and distinguished history in the fermention industry. Owing to its efficiency in producing alcohol, S. cerevisiae is, without doubt, the most important commercial microorganism with GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) status. By brewing beer and sparkling wine, mankind’s oldest domesticated organism made possible the world’s first biotechnological processes. With the emergence of modern molecular genetics, S. cerevisiae has again b...

  13. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Franco; Eva Martínez-Pinilla; Ainhoa Oñatibia-Astibia

    2013-01-01

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time a...

  14. Effect of brewery wastewater on growth and physiological changes in maize, sunflower and sesame crops

    OpenAIRE

    K. Senthilraja; P. Jothimani; G. Rajannan

    2013-01-01

    Beer is the fifth most consumed beverage in the world. The brewing industry is one of the largest users of water. Even though substantial technological improvements have been made in the past, it has been documented that approximately 3 to 10 litres of wastewater is generated per litre of beer. The crops tested for management of brewery wastewater were maize, sunflower and sesame which had the characteristics of fast growth, high salinity tolerance; potential for producing commercial products...

  15. Preliminary detection method for added rice- and sugarcane-derived brewer's alcohol in bulk samples of sake by measurement of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Izu, Hanae; Fujii, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    The δD and δ(18)O of sake without ethanol extraction as well as the δ(13)C of ethanol were determined in order to detect rice-derived brewer's alcohol. Brewing tests demonstrated that the δD decreases upon addition of brewer's alcohol (both rice- and sugarcane-derived), while the δ(18)O has little response to either, and the δ(13)C increases only for added sugarcane-derived alcohol. PMID:25666864

  16. What is needed for the steam revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, David

    2004-01-01

    In four sequences, standing beside a huge steam wheel, Simon Schaffer discusses some of the things that are needed for the development of the steam revolution. These include reliable cylinders (from gun manufacture), good boilers ( from brewing), and feed-back mechanisms (from clocks). Only in England did one have the concentration of skills and the suitable social mobility to allow this to happen in the later seventeenth and early eighteenth century.

  17. Novel ingredients from brewers' spent grain - bioactivity in cell culture model systems and bioactivity retention in fortified food products

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Aoife Louise

    2013-01-01

    Functional food ingredients, with scientifically proven and validated bioactive effects, present an effective means of inferring physiological health benefits to consumers to reduce the risk of certain diseases. The search for novel bioactive compounds for incorporation into functional foods is particularly active, with brewers’ spent grain (BSG, a brewing industry co-product) representing a unique source of potentially bioactive compounds. The DNA protective, antioxidant and immunomodulatory...

  18. Economic Crises: The Impact on Australia and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The Financial Crisis accelerated a latent Fiscal Crisis that had been brewing in many Western countries. The paper outlines the causes of the Financial Crisis, and how this increased expenditure and reduced revenues for many Western governments. But these additional fiscal stresses merely advanced the day of reckoning when fiscal problems had to be faced Demographics (the Baby Boom effect) dictated that reforms would be required in taxation, health care and pensions to smooth the transition. ...

  19. Potential antioxidant, genoprotective and neuroprotective effect of spent coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, J; Cid, C.; Peña, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of coffee cups are consumed every day around the world, producing spent coffee grounds in tons. Coffee is highly rich in antioxidants and part of them could still remain in spent coffee grounds after brewing process. Therefore, the objective of the present research was to evaluate the potential antioxidant, genoprotective and neuroprotective effects of spent coffee and to identify the main responsible compounds (chlorogenic acids, caffeine and melanoidins). For that purpose, chemical...

  20. Continuous immobilized yeast reactor system for complete beer fermentation using spent grains and corncobs as carrier materials

    OpenAIRE

    Brányik, Tomáš; Silva, Daniel Pereira da; Vicente, A.A.; Lehnert, Radek; Silva, João B. Almeida e; Dostálek, Pavel; Teixeira, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Despite extensive research carried out in the last few decades, continuous beer fermentation has not yet managed to outperform the traditional batch technology. An industrial breakthrough in favour of continuous brewing using immobilized yeast could be expected only on achievement of the following process characteristics: simple design, low investment costs, flexible operation, effective process control and good product quality. The application of cheap carrier materials of by-produc...

  1. Optimalizace odpadového hospodářství v potravinářském výrobním podniku

    OpenAIRE

    CHLUMECKÝ, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is written as a literature review in which I focused on the issue of waste in the food industry and especially in the brewing industry, I focus on waste water which is relatively high share and environmental economics, and also very inportant. The first part deals with the legislation, distribution and processing of waste according to another use. Another patr is devoted to the guality of incoming water, its treatment processes for production and subseguent purification in wastewa...

  2. Live Blogging Science News: The Rosetta Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.

    2016-03-01

    When one of the world's most popular online news websites decides to cover a space science event live, you know that something big is brewing. Stuart Clark reports on how live blogging can be used for science reporting and how an idea that was triggered by his observations during the Rosetta flyby of the asteroid Lutetia and the landing of the Curiosity rover on Mars led to him live blogging two of Rosetta's most memorable occasions for The Guardian newspaper.

  3. Hear our plea: Voices of early free Methodist women in denominational print culture

    OpenAIRE

    Mesaros-Winckles, Christy

    2011-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century a gender battle was brewing in the Free Methodist Church. Since the denomination’s founding in 1860, women had pursued ordination. With the support of the denomination’s founder, Benjamin Titus Roberts, women began to wage a fierce editorial campaign in the pages of the denominational weekly magazine, The Free Methodist and the quadrennial special publication General Conference Dailies. The articles written by women and in defense of women’s roles in the denomin...

  4. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of naturally occurring D-amino acids in sake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogami, Yoshitaka; Okada, Kaori; Oikawa, Tadao

    2011-11-01

    We measured all of the D- and L-amino acids in 141 bottles of sakes using HPLC. We used two precolumn derivatization methods of amino acid enantiomer detection with o-phthalaldehyde and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, as well as (+)-1-(9-fluorenyl)ethyl chloroformate/1-aminoadamantane and one postcolumn derivatization method with o-phthalaldehyde and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. We found that the sakes contained the D-amino acids forms of Ala, Asn, Asp, Arg, Glu, Gln, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Ser, Tyr, Val, Phe, and Pro. We were not able to detect D-Met, D-Thr D-Trp in any of the sakes analyzed. The most abundant D-Ala, D-Asp, and D-Glu ranged from 66.9 to 524.3 μM corresponding to relative 34.4, 12.0, and 14.6% D-enantiomer. The basic parameters that generally determine the taste of sake such as the sake meter value (SMV; "Nihonshudo"), acidity ("Sando"), amino acid value ("Aminosando"), alcohol content by volume, and rice species of raw material show no significant relationship to the D-amino acid content of sake. The brewing water ("Shikomimizu") and brewing process had effects on the D-amino acid content of the sakes: the D-amino acid contents of the sakes brewed with deep-sea water "Kaiyoushinosousui", "Kimoto yeast starter", "Yamahaimoto", and the long aging process "Choukijukusei" are high compared with those of other sakes analyzed. Additionally, the D-amino acid content of sakes that were brewed with the adenine auxotroph of sake yeast ("Sekishoku seishu kobo", Saccharomyces cerevisiae) without pasteurization ("Hiire") increased after storage at 25 °C for three months. PMID:21555255

  5. Kvalita surovin pro výrobu piva

    OpenAIRE

    Souček, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The subject of the thesis "The quality of raw materials for beer production" is a quality brewing ingredients - barley malt, malt, hops, water and brewer's yeast. Individual ingredients are generally characterized. The main part of the thesis deals with the assessment of quality of raw materials according to various criteria such as the genetic basis, agroecological factors, and technological requirements. The paper also discusses the methods of measurement quality.

  6. Klasické pivovarnické polotovary ve vybraném minipivovaru

    OpenAIRE

    Vosátka, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis is focused on production of beer and costs in microbrewery Brewing yard Lipan in 2004 – 2011 and its evaluation. In theoretical part are described classic semi-finished products as malt, hop and yeast. In this part is listed their distribution, characteristics and use in production of beer. In the next part of this diploma thesis is described chosen microbrewery and created econometrics models of production and cost functions. After made evaluation this econometrics mode...

  7. Bioslad a biopivo

    OpenAIRE

    Braný, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The first part involves literature search, which presents the theoretical part, describing the beer history in chronological sequence as well as the situation on market with bioproducts. In the chapter “History "is briefly introduced the development of brewing and malting in the ancient world, the beginnings of the ancient civilizations, the raw materials used in those days. Chapter “Basic raw materials for beer production” characterizes all raw materials for the production process of bio...

  8. Revaluation of Waste Yeast from Beer Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Suruceanu; Sonia Socaci; Teodora Coldea; Elena Mudura

    2013-01-01

    Brewing yeast is an important waste product from beer production. The valorification of slurry yeast mainly consists of separation of vitamins and important nitrogen compounds. The hops compounds, one of the most important raw materials in beer technology are removed beforehand valorification. The prenylflavonoids compounds from hops are important bioactive compounds that can be revaluation with proper technology. Revaluation of prenylflavonoids from waste yeast into dietary supplement, ident...

  9. Progress and constraints on professional development of university academic staff in Cambodia : a case of a university

    OpenAIRE

    Ros, Vutha

    2014-01-01

    Professional development is pivotal for academic staff (Akiba, & LeTendre, 2009; Brew, 1995; Day & Sachs, 2004; Kahn & Walsh, 2006; Richards & Farrell, 2005). However, little is known about professional development of the academic staff in Cambodia. To fill this gap, this study aims at investigating the progress and constraints on the Cambodian academic staff’s professional development. This qualitative research study involves semi-structured interviews with eight academic staff, three heads ...

  10. Studi Perbandingan Efektivitas Infus Kelopak Bunga Rosela (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.) yang Segar dan Kering terhadap Kadar Kolesterol Serum Darah Marmut

    OpenAIRE

    Hutahaean, Andi Josep Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a plant long used as a soft drink and medical herb, has been found to reduce blood cholesterol in animals. Commonly Hibiscus sabdariffa L. were used by brewing the dried roselle calyces (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) but the fresh roselle calyces were reported uncommonly in Indonesia. The aim of this research is to compare the effectivity of fresh to dried roselle calyx in reducing blood cholesterol. It has been conducted study of cholesterol reducing effect in groups of...

  11. Security dynamics in the South Atlantic: Brazil and the United States in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Seabra

    2013-01-01

    This article acknowledges the international community’s growing concern over the new security dynamics currently brewing in the South Atlantic, and the potential upgrade of this area on the internationalsecurity agenda. By building on both old and new threats in the background interest being displayed by such countries as Brazil and the US towards this specific area, and by highlighting these two countries’ political-strategic interests in Africa, this article provides an accurate portrait of...

  12. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Biotin Biosynthesis Gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hong; Ito, Kiyoshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells generally cannot synthesize biotin, a vitamin required for many carboxylation reactions. Although sake yeasts, which are used for Japanese sake brewing, are classified as S. cerevisiae, they do not require biotin for their growth. In this study, we identified a novel open reading frame (ORF) in the genome of one strain of sake yeast that we speculated to be involved in biotin synthesis. Homologs of this gene are widely distributed in the genomes of sake ye...

  13. Dynamic Workflows and Advanced Data Management for Problem Solving Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Moisa, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Workflow management in problem solving environments (PSEs) is an emerging topic that aims to combine both data-oriented and execution-oriented views of scientific experiments, and closely integrate the processes underlying the practice of computational science with the software artifacts constituted by the PSE. This thesis presents a workflow management solution called BREW (BetteR Experiments through Workflow management) that provides functionality along four dimensions: components and insta...

  14. Retardation in seed germination and induction of oxidative stress in lettuce plants upon spent coffee grounds exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Teresa; Pereira, J. A.; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Casal, Susana; Baptista, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, several strategies have been tentatively applied to reuse spent coffee grounds (SCG). This residue, obtained after the brewing process, has a global production around 6 million tons per year. The use of SCG in domestic agriculture is an increasing popular practice. However, scientific evidences about their effect on plants remain unknown. Caffeine present in SCG (about 0.2%) together with tannins and chlorogenic acids could have a toxic effect on soil microorganisms and p...

  15. Food for thought on the evolution of toxicology and the phasing out of animal testing

    OpenAIRE

    Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    There is something brewing in the field of toxicology: Last year's vision and strategy document published by the US National Academy of Sciences (NRC, 2007) has excited many toxicologists on both sides of the Atlantic. In February 2008 several American agencies announced a coalition to set this into practice (www.sciencemag.org/content/vol319/issue 5865/index.dtl): We propose a shift from primarily in vivo animal studies to in vitro assays, in vivo assays with lower organisms, and computatio...

  16. Reliable estimation of dietary exposure to furan from coffee: An automatic vending machine as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Mesías, Marta; Morales, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide Food Safety Agencies have classified furan as carcinogenic and cytotoxic due to its effects in animal studies, and it has been associated with harmful effects to human health. It has been pointed out that coffee consumption is the major contributor to dietary furan exposure for adults. However, furan is highly volatile and its losses due to volatilization in the cup during the time expend to consume the coffee brew should be taken into account for a realistic estimation of the level...

  17. Validity of animal models for the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee diterpenes in human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, de, B.; Sawyer, J K; Katan, M.B.; Rudel, L L

    1999-01-01

    Cafestol and kahweol, coffee lipids present in unfiltered coffee brews, potently increase LDL-cholesterol concentration in human subjects. We searched for an animal species in which cafestol similarly increases LDL-cholesterol. Such an animal model could be used subsequently as a model to study the mechanism of action of cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol increased serum lipids in African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), cebus (Cebus apella) and rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys,...

  18. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment. PMID:26857464

  19. Isolation and Identification of Prenylflavonoids from Humulus lupulus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-Shu; ZHOU Ya-Wei; YE Yun-Hua; LI Mei-Lan

    2003-01-01

    @@ The hop plant (Humulus lupulus L. Cannabinaceae ) is cultivated widely through the temperate zones of the world. The female inflorescences of the hop plant (hops) are used in the brewing industry to give bitterness and aroma of beer. In China, hops are used as stomachics, diuretic and tranquilizer. [1] A number of prenylflavonoids have been isolated from hops, [2,3] which caused attention because of their potential anti-cancer properties, [4] endocrine activities, [5] and diacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibition. [6

  20. The Joint Use of Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue for the Evaluation of the Sensorial Properties of Green and Black Tea Infusions as Related to Their Chemical Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna Buratti; Antonella Casiraghi; Paola Minghetti; Gabriella Giovanelli

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of the brewing method on the amount of the major catechins, methylxanthines, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in green and black teas, and to correlate the chemical composition of tea infusions to their sensorial properties by the combined use of the electronic nose and tongue. For this purpose, tea infusions were prepared from 7 green teas and 6 black teas using different extraction times (3 - 5 and 10 min). The extr...

  1. Die Wirkung von grünem Tee, schwarzem Tee sowie schwarzem Tee mit Milch auf die vaskuläre Endothelfunktion bei postmenopausalen Frauen

    OpenAIRE

    Portatius, Amélie von

    2010-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies indicate that tea exerts protection against cardiovascular diseases. It is assumed that catechins are the tea components responsible for these beneficial effects. In black tea, catechin concentrations are significantly lower than in green tea. However, a question of much debate is whether addition of milk modifies the biological activities of tea. A total of 21 healthy female volunteers consumed either 500 mL of freshly brewed green tea, black tea, black tea ...

  2. Tea polyphenols for health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2007-01-01

    People have been consuming brewed tea from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant for almost 50 centuries. Although health benefits have been attributed to tea, especially green tea consumption since the beginning of its history, scientific investigations of this beverage and its constituents have been underway for less than three decades. Currently, tea, in the form of green or black tea, next to water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. In vitro and animal studies provide...

  3. Marketingový výzkum minipivovarů

    OpenAIRE

    Stolfa, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Subject of this thesis is to compare four Prague microbreweries. The author will address shortcomings and pre-set criteria given by microbreweries. There will be introduced the current knowledge about the work of staff, quality of food and freshness of brewed beer. The theoretical part will focus on the various stages of marketing research, marketing mix and the process of STP (Segmentation, Targeting, Positioning). In the practical part, the author prepares its own observation based on t...

  4. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Urgert, R.; Katan, M B

    1996-01-01

    Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear mildly to affect the integrity of liver cells. Both effects are transient after withdrawal of the diterpenes, and it is as yet unsure whether these effects are associated. Patients at increased ri...

  5. Biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Menendez; Paula Garcia-Fraile; Raul Rivas

    2015-01-01

    Cellulases have numerous applications in several industries, including biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, pulp and paper, textile, laundry, and agriculture.Cellulose-degrading bacteria are widely spread in nature, being isolated from quite different environments. Cellulose degradation is the result of a synergic process between an endoglucanase, an exoglucanase and a,β-glucosidase. Bacterial endoglucanases degrade ß-1,4-glucan linkages of cellulose amorphous zones, mean...

  6. Analysis of Comprehensive Utilization of Coconut Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Kan; Liang, Dong; Zhang, Xirui

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the coconut cultivation in China, and the current comprehensive utilization of waste resources generated during cultivation and processing of coconut. The wastes generated in the process of cultivation include old coconut tree trunk, roots, withered coconut leaves, coconut flower and fallen cracking coconut, mainly used for biogas extraction, direct combustion and power generation, brewing, pharmacy, and processing of building materials; the wastes generated ...

  7. Způsoby sanitace v agropotravinářském průmyslu

    OpenAIRE

    Bahenský, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor´s thesis was to describe individual sanitation methods in food industries. The thesis is focused on breweries, dairies industry and slaughteries. In brewery is described the process of sanitation of brew house, fermentation and lager tanks, cylindricoconical tanks (CCT), kegs, bottle washing machines, belt conveyor and tunnel pasteurizers. The difference between alcalic, combined and acid sanitation is explained on the sanitation of KEG casks. In dairy industry sta...

  8. Antidepressant effects of a single dose of ayahuasca in patients with recurrent depression: a preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    Osório, Flávia L.; Rafael F. Sanches; Ligia R. Macedo; Rafael G. dos Santos; João P. Maia-de-Oliveira; Lauro Wichert-Ana; Draulio B. de Araujo; Jordi Riba; José A. Crippa; Hallak, Jaime E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Ayahuasca (AYA), a natural psychedelic brew prepared from Amazonian plants and rich in dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmine, causes effects of subjective well-being and may therefore have antidepressant actions. This study sought to evaluate the effects of a single dose of AYA in six volunteers with a current depressive episode. Methods: Open-label trial conducted in an inpatient psychiatric unit. Results: Statistically significant reductions of up to 82% in depressive scores were...

  9. A THERMOMECHANICAL PROCESS FOR IMPROVING ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF BREWER'S SPENT GRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Maache-Rezzoug, Zoulikha; Maugard, Thierry; Goude, Romain; Nouviaire, Armelle; Sannier, Frédéric; Rezzoug, Sid-Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    International audience Brewers' spent grain (BSG), the main low-value solid residue, is the major by-product of the brewing industry, representing around 85 % of the total by-product generated. This raw material is renewable, at low cost, largely available throughout the year and produced in large quantities. BSG was hydrothermally treated by instantaneous controlled pressure drop process (DIC) at five pressure levels (or five temperatures), with as objective to observe the effect of the p...

  10. Strategy as Central and Peripheral Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Juul Andersen, Torben; Fredens, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    Corporate entrepreneurship is deemed essential to uncover opportunities that shape the future strategic path and adapt the firm to environmental change (e.g., Covin and Miles, 1999; Wolcott and Lippitz, 2007). At the same time, rational central processes are important to execute strategic actions in a coordinated manner (e.g., Baum and Wally, 2003; Brews and Hunt, 1999; Goll and Rasheed, 1997). That is, the organization’s adaptive responses and dynamic capabilities are embedded...

  11. Enhanced metabolite generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Devicharan

    2012-03-27

    The present invention relates to the enhanced production of metabolites by a process whereby a carbon source is oxidized with a fermentative microbe in a compartment having a portal. An electron acceptor is added to the compartment to assist the microbe in the removal of excess electrons. The electron acceptor accepts electrons from the microbe after oxidation of the carbon source. Other transfers of electrons can take place to enhance the production of the metabolite, such as acids, biofuels or brewed beverages.

  12. Investigation on the extractability of melanoidins in portioned espresso coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, C.; Mesías, Marta; Morales, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Coffee melanoidins have attracted interest as a result of its potential health benefits. This investigation aims to elucidate the extraction behavior of melanoidins and their populations during the preparation of portioned espresso coffee and its relationship with the antioxidant activity of the coffee brew. Filter-paper pods, FAP capsule, and clone capsule containing light roasted coffee have been investigated. An accumulative fractionation approach has applied to model ...

  13. Production of Thermostable α-amylases by Solid State Fermentation-A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Regulapati; Prem N. Malav; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N

    2007-01-01

    α-amylases are digestive enzymes which hydrolyze α-1,4-glycosidic bonds in starch. α-amylases have a lot of potential applications in food processing industries such as sugar, baking, brewing and preparation of digestive aids. Thermostable α-amylases have received a lot of importance because of their usage under harsh industrial conditions. α-amylases can be produced by microorganisms using submerged and solid state fermentation. However, solid state fermentation is attractive because of usag...

  14. Cerveza tropical: de pequeño negocio familiar a empresa multinacional 1924-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago de Luxán Meléndez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se enuncia, a grandes rasgos, la evolución de una empresa industrial del subsector bebidas, en Canarias (7924-1993, primando los aspectos relacionados con las estrategias comerciales.This article discurses, from a general point of view, the evolution of an industrial brewing firm in the Canary Islands, making special considerations on its commercial srategic plans.

  15. Estudos metabonómicos sobre a qualidade e estabilidade da cerveja

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, João Eduardo A.

    2011-01-01

    The work reported in this thesis aimed at applying the methodology known as metabonomics to the detailed study of a particular type of beer and its quality control, with basis on the use of multivariate analysis (MVA) to extract meaningful information from given analytical data sets. In Chapter 1, a detailed description of beer is given considering the brewing process, main characteristics and typical composition of beer, beer stability and the commonly used analytical te...

  16. The natural history of the sleep and respiratory engineering track at EMBC 1988 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Leder, Ron S; Schlotthauer, Gaston; Penzel, Thomas; Jané Campos, Raimon

    2010-01-01

    Sleep science and respiratory engineering as medical subspecialties and research areas grew up side-by-side with biomedical engineering. The formation of EMBS in the 1950's and the discovery of REM sleep in the 1950's led to parallel development and interaction of sleep and biomedical engineering in diagnostics and therapeutics. Over the last 60 years, sleep investigators have relied on biomedical engineering to home-brew the equipment they used to measure physiology during sleep,...

  17. Enhanced ethanol production from brewer's spent grain by a Fusarium oxysporum consolidated system

    OpenAIRE

    Christakopoulos Paul; Xiros Charilaos

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Brewer's spent grain (BG), a by-product of the brewing process, is attracting increasing scientific interest as a low-cost feedstock for many biotechnological applications. BG in the present study is evaluated as a substrate for lignocellulolytic enzyme production and for the production of ethanol by the mesophilic fungus Fusarium oxysporum under submerged conditions, implementing a consolidated bioconversion process. Fermentation experiments were performed with sugar mixt...

  18. Study on oligosaccharide composition of wort and beer samples by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čmelík, Richard; Berkecz, R.; Janáky, T.; Bobálová, Janette

    Olomouc : Faculty of Science, Palacký University Olomouc, 2010 - (Maier, V.), s. 56-57 ISBN 978-80-244-2470-5. - (CHEMICA 47S). [Advances in Chromatography and Electrophoresis & Chiranal 2010. Olomouc (CZ), 08.02.2010-11.02.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06037; GA MŠk MEB040807 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : HPLC * mass spectrometry * brewing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  19. Conflict over Relocation Divides a Catholic Law School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    A mutiny may be brewing at a Catholic law school whose board has voted to pack it up and move it from Ann Arbor, Michigan to a rural community in southwest Florida. More than half of the professors at Ave Maria School of Law are fighting the move to Ave Maria, Florida, the town being created by Thomas S. Monaghan, the Domino's Pizza mogul who…

  20. Craft Beer Marketing. Do You Have to be First, Best, or Unique to Succeed?

    OpenAIRE

    Lahnalampi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the interplay of marketing and design in the craft brewing industry in Finland. The goal was to figure out what craft brewers do to successfully market their products. The thesis first explains that craft beer is different from generic beer in that it is uncompromising in its ingredients, special flavours, and sole focus on the beer rather than stock prices. Craft breweries use grassroots and guerrilla marketing tactics. They are heavily involved in social media marketi...

  1. Evaluation of beer deterioration by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry/multivariate analysis: A rapid tool for assessing beer composition

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, João A; Barros, António S.; Carvalho, Beatriz; Brandão, Tiago; Gil, Ana M; Ferreira, António C. Silva

    2011-01-01

    Beer stability is a major concern for the brewing industry, as beer characteristics may be subject to significant changes during storage. This paper describes a novel non-targeted methodology for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in a lager beer exposed to accelerated aging (induced by thermal treatment: 18 days at 45 ◦C), using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in tandem with multivariate analysis (GC–MS/MVA). Optimization of the chromatographic run was performed, achi...

  2. Statistická analýza výroby a spotřeby piva Rodinného pivovaru Bernard, a.s.

    OpenAIRE

    Šťastný, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Diploma thesis with title Statistical analysis of beer production and consumption by the Bernard Family Brewery, Ltd. analyzes the results of the development of production and financial ratios in the period 2000-2009. The theoretical part includes basic concepts and knowledge about beer history, brewing, influence of beer for health and marketing. The practical part engages in the development of Czech beer industry and the Bernard Family Brewery, Ltd. Analyzes basic indicators of production ...

  3. Can Niche Agriculturalists Take Notes from the Craft Beer Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Woolverton, Andrea E.; Parcell, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    This industry-level case study focuses on the growth cycles of craft brewing, a niche industry. The research case is defined as the craft beer industry evolution including the surrounding institutional and consumer environments. The research goal is to provide insight for niche agriculturalists by examining the case of the successful niche craft beer industry. First, the environment surrounding craft beer reemergence is analyzed. We examine the current state of the craft beer industry with a ...

  4. Zajištění kvality v technologii výroby piva

    OpenAIRE

    POLANECKÝ, Lukáš

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the Bachelor thesis "Ensuring quality in beer production technology" is a quality management system according to standard 9000 and food safety management system according to ISO 22000, a system of critical control points (HACCP) and legislative requirements and regulations. The work describes the characteristics of the above systems. The paper also documents the basic characteristics of the raw materials for beer production and application of the HACCP system in the brewing ind...

  5. Optimalizace varného procesu piva s přídavkem netradičních surovin

    OpenAIRE

    Hájek, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis called "Optimization of beer brewing process with the addition of unconvential materials" focuses on the possibilities of using nopal powder for beer production. Introductory part of the literature review focuses on the standart and unconvential materials for beer production including characteristics of nopal (Opuncia ficus-indica). Another part of the review describes the process of beer production. Last part of the literature review focuses on non-starch polysaccharides ...

  6. Transcriptome Sequence and Plasmid Copy Number Analysis of the Brewery Isolate Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344T during Growth in Beer

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Pittet; Phister, Trevor G.; Barry Ziola

    2013-01-01

    Growth of specific lactic acid bacteria in beer leads to spoiled product and economic loss for the brewing industry. Microbial growth is typically inhibited by the combined stresses found in beer (e.g., ethanol, hops, low pH, minimal nutrients); however, certain bacteria have adapted to grow in this harsh environment. Considering little is known about the mechanisms used by bacteria to grow in and spoil beer, transcriptome sequencing was performed on a variant of the beer-spoilage organism Pe...

  7. ビールの硫化水素に基づく未熟臭とその排除法

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 俊明; タカハシ, トシアキ; Toshiaki, TAKAHASHI

    1993-01-01

    In the brewing industry, bottom fermeting brewer's yeast has produced hydrogen sulfide during the primary fermentation process. Hydrogen sulfide has given the unpleasant immature flavor such as rotten egg into the primary or secondary fermenting liquor. However, in the normaly produced final beer the immature flavor has disappeared in general. In spite of the above mentioned fact, sometimes the immature flavor based on the hydrogen sulfide have found in final beer during the imperfect control...

  8. Do Ethical Consumers Care About Price? A Revealed Preference Analysis of Fair Trade Coffee Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The existing literature on socially responsible purchasing relies heavily on stated preference measures elicited through surveys that utilize hypothetical market choices. This paper explores consumers’ revealed purchasing behavior with regard to fair trade coffee and is apparently the first to do so in an actual market setting. In a series of experiments, we investigated differences in consumer responsiveness to relative price changes in fair trade and non-fair trade brewed coffees. In orde...

  9. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Zioła-Frankowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  10. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Lehman, Bryan

    2003-09-01

    Annually, breweries in the United States spend over $200 million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 38 percent of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that given available technology, there are still opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the brewing industry. Brewers value highly the quality, taste and drinkability of their beer. Brewing companies have and are expected to continue to spend capital on cost-effective energy conservation measures that meet these quality, taste and drinkability requirements. For individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies.

  11. Final Technical Report-Grant # DE-FG02-97ER45628 ?Structural Diorder in Materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Edward A

    2009-02-23

    Since the grant was renewed in 2000 and 2003 final technical reports of the grant have been previously submitted for those years. For that reason this final technical report covers the last four years of the grant. We had an exceptionally successful and productive last four years under the support of the grant. Our progress takes three different aspects, described in more detail below: 1.1 instrumentation, infrastructure, and other research support at Sector 20 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS); 1.2 research on which Profs. Stern or Seidler were PI?s; and 1.3 research on which Profs. Stern or Seidler were co-PI?s or where Drs. Dale Brewe or Julie Cross were authors or co-authors. Drs. Brewe and Cross are the two research scientists (permanently stationed at sector 20) who are supported by the grant. They provide support to the scientific goals of the grant and more broadly provide research support for many general users at Sector 20. Finally, in section 1.4 we provide a complete list of publications resulting from funding in the grant on which at least one of Stern, Seidler, Cross, or Brewe were co-authors. Given the inclusion of operations funding in the grant, this is of course a subset of the full scientific impact of the grant.

  12. Effect of Superheated Steam Roasting on Radical Scavenging Activity and Phenolic Content of Robusta Coffee Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooi Ee Shan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Robusta coffee is one of the coffee species grown in Malaysia. However, there is little research conducted on Robusta coffee beans as Arabica coffee is more popular among the consumers. Coffee is a rich source of antioxidants, therefore research on antioxidant properties of Robusta coffee beans is important to explore its market value. Nowadays, most of coffee analysis is on conventional roasted coffee which reduces their antioxidant properties. In this study, Robusta coffee beans (Coffea canephora were subjected to superheated steam roasting at 200, 220 and 240 ˚C for 20-40 min to obtain light, medium and dark roast. The effect of different roasting temperature and time on the total phenolic content (TPC and radical scavenging activity (RSA of Robusta coffee bean was investigated. Total phenolic content of coffee brews decreased with the increase of roasting degree due to the degradation of phenolic compounds. The highest phenolic content was found at 220 ˚C for 20 min. Meanwhile, brews extracted from light roasted coffee and medium roasted at 220 ˚C for 20 min showed a maximum scavenging activity than those from green coffee. Brews from dark roasted coffee showed lowest radical scavenging activity and total phenol content. Hence, based on the results from this study, the best superheated steam roasting condition is at 220 ˚C for 20 min (medium roast to achieve a maximum antioxidant activity and highest phenolic content.

  13. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J. Groessl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample (N=83,778 women was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0–<4 cups, and high (4+ cups. Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53% new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02–1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93–1.38. Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05–1.36 and high nondrip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01–2.02 were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF FIRST WORT PART AND AFTERWORTS ON SACCHARIFICATION OF WORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Líšková

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Wort is a basic product of mashing, which forms the first intermediate in beer production and constitute the base of its final value. For qualitative value wort has the greatest impact grist per brew, which is a description of materials, they bring to brew extract and determine its the volume and concentration. The main component grist per brew for light and dark beers is stored pale malt and possibly a smaller proportion of adjuncts. The aim of our work was to assess the qualitative parameters of malt in terms of content extract and its impact on the amount of produced the first wort part and afterwort and their qualitative values expressed in % saccharification and volumes. We measured 3 types of malts with the content of the extract 75.2%, 76.1%, 77.2% in the original sample, which determined mainly reached saccharification of first part wort and other afterwort parts one and two. In terms attained of saccharification it was necessary to use on sparge of spent grains at afterwort number two only the amount of water, which would be not affect the total saccharification of wort and its qualitative parameters.doi:10.5219/114 

  15. Dissipation, transfer and safety evaluation of emamectin benzoate in tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Luo, Fengjian; Zhang, Xinzhong; Jiang, Yaping; Lou, Zhengyun; Chen, Zongmao

    2016-07-01

    The dissipation and residue of emamectin benzoate in tea leaves and the residue transfer from tea leaves to tea brew were investigated by modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass (UPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries ranged 85.3-101.3% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005mgkg(-1) in tea leaves and 0.0004mgL(-1) in brew. Emamectin benzoate dissipated rapidly in tea with half-life (t1/2) of 1.0-1.3days. The terminal residues of emamectin benzoate were less than 0.062mgkg(-1). The leaching rate of emamectin benzoate from freshly-made tea to brew was <5%. The risk of emamectin benzoate at the recommended dosage was negligible to humans depending on risk quotient (RQ) value, that was lower than 1 significantly. This study could provide guidance for the safe use of emamectin benzoate and serve as a reference for the establishment of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China. PMID:26920285

  16. Effect of Household Coffee Processing on Pesticide Residues as a Means of Ensuring Consumers' Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-09-30

    Coffee is a highly consumed and popular beverage all over the world; however, coffee beans used for daily consumption may contain pesticide residues that may cause adverse health effects to consumers. In this monitoring study, the effect of household coffee processing on pesticide residues in coffee beans was investigated. Twelve pesticides, including metabolites and isomers (endosulfan α, endosulfan β, cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT, and p'p-DDT) were spiked in coffee beans collected from a local market in southwestern Ethiopia. The subsequent household coffee processing conditions (washing, roasting, and brewing) were established as closely as possible to the traditional household coffee processing in Ethiopia. Washing of coffee beans showed 14.63-57.69 percent reduction, while the roasting process reduced up to 99.8 percent. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, permethrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan α and β in roasting and all of the 12 pesticides in the coffee brewing processes were not detected. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the reduction of pesticide residues by washing is significantly different from roasting and brewing (P 0.05). The processing factor (PF) was less than one (PF < 1), which indicates reduction of pesticides under study during processing of the coffee beans. The cumulative effect of the three processing methods has a paramount importance in evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of pesticide residues, particularly in coffee beans. PMID:26344013

  17. The Effect of Labour Turnover in Brewery Industries in Nigeria (A Study of Guinness Brewery Industries Plc and Bendel Brewery Ltd in Benin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Akpeti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research study investigated the effect of labour turnover in Brewery industries in Nigeria. Labour turnover is a costly problem and an economic drain to Brewing Industries. Labour turnover costs Brewing industries in Nigeria huge sum of money in recruiting and training replacements. Additional costs are incured through new employees that are more subject to accidents, causes more breakages and make more errors than experienced worker. Brewing industries incur losses through reduced production, work disruption and increases scrap and over-time as a result of departed workers. A cross-sectional survey was utilized to collect data for answering research questionnaires and testing hypothesis in this research work. The data collected from questionnaire instrument were also analyzed using percentage. The research finding showed that the effect of labour turnover were reduced production, increase cost of recruitment, work disruption, increased scrap and overtime and additional labour turnover. Reduced production was found to have the foremost effect on labour turnover and this affects output and profit. A comparison of the effect of labour turnover between Bendel Brewery and Guinness Brewery showed that Bendel Brewery rated increase cost of recruitment and training replacements as the major effect of labour turnover while Guineas Brewery rated reduced production. The variables that were hypothetically tested as the causes of turnover had significant effect on brewery industries in Nigeria.

  18. Access to Confidential Alcohol Industry Documents: From ‘Big Tobacco’ to ‘Big Booze’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms Laura Bond

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND:Internal tobacco industry document searches have led to the discovery of hitherto unpublisheddocuments that provide insights into the drinks industry. The documents uncover key concerns andstrategies for the drinks industry with focus on the Miller Brewing Company and the Beer Institute.METHODS:The identification of the Philip Morris 1996 CEO Issues Book from the tobacco document archives led to asystematic search for alcohol-related documents. The search was conducted by entering alcohol-relatedterms into search fields of tobacco document archive sites available on the World Wide WebRESULTS:Key areas of concern for the Miller Brewing Company, the Beer Institute, and more broadly, the alcoholindustry include developments of legislative and regulatory controls such as tax increases, advertisingrestrictions and blood alcohol content lowering and public perceptions of harms relating to drunk driving,binge drinking and underage alcohol consumption. Strategies proposed by the Miller Brewing Companyand the Beer Institute to combat these concerns include ally development and maintenance and thepromotion of personal responsibility.CONCLUSIONS:These once confidential internal documents provide new evidence on the drinks industry’s concernsabout possible alcohol control measures and the strategies used to help overcome these concerns. The document findings justify the public health community’s cynicism about the alcohol industry whileproviding a new source of information to assist development in the regulation and control of the drinksindustry.

  19. Evaluation of non-volatile metabolites in beer stored at high temperature and utility as an accelerated method to predict flavour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Adam L; Broeckling, Corey D; Sedin, Dana; Holbrook, Christian; Barr, Lindsay; Kirkpatrick, Kaylyn; Prenni, Jessica E

    2016-06-01

    Flavour stability is vital to the brewing industry as beer is often stored for an extended time under variable conditions. Developing an accelerated model to evaluate brewing techniques that affect flavour stability is an important area of research. Here, we performed metabolomics on non-volatile compounds in beer stored at 37 °C between 1 and 14 days for two beer types: an amber ale and an India pale ale. The experiment determined high temperature to influence non-volatile metabolites, including the purine 5-methylthioadenosine (5-MTA). In a second experiment, three brewing techniques were evaluated for improved flavour stability: use of antioxidant crowns, chelation of pro-oxidants, and varying plant content in hops. Sensory analysis determined the hop method was associated with improved flavour stability, and this was consistent with reduced 5-MTA at both regular and high temperature storage. Future studies are warranted to understand the influence of 5-MTA on flavour and aging within different beer types. PMID:26830592

  20. Proteomics, peptidomics, and immunogenic potential of wheat beer (Weissbier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Mamone, Gianfranco; Cutignano, Adele; Fontana, Angelo; Zurlo, Lucia; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Wheat beer is a traditional light-colored top-fermenting beer brewed with at least 50% malted (e.g., German Weissbier) or unmalted (e.g., Belgian Witbier) wheat (Triticum aestivum) as an adjunct to barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt. For the first time, we explored the proteome of three Weissbier samples, using both 2D electrophoresis (2DE)-based and 2DE-free strategies. Overall, 58 different gene products arising from barley, wheat, and yeast (Saccharomyces spp.) were identified in the protein fraction of a representative Weissbier sample analyzed in detail. Analogous to all-barley-malt beers (BMB), barley and wheat Z-type serpins and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins dominated the proteome of Weissbier. Several α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors also survived the harsh brewing conditions. During brewing, hundreds of peptides are released into beer. By liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) analysis, we characterized 167 peptides belonging to 44 proteins, including gliadins, hordeins, and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Because of the interference from the overabundant yeast-derived peptides, we identified only a limited number of epitopes potentially triggering celiac disease. However, Weissbier samples contained 374, 372, and 382 ppm gliadin-equivalent peptides, as determined with the competitive G12 ELISA, which is roughly 10-fold higher than a lager BMB (41 ppm), thereby confirming that Weissbier is unsuited for celiacs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that Weissbier also contained large-sized prolamins immunoresponsive to antigliadin IgA antibodies from the pooled sera of celiac patients (n = 4). PMID:25793656

  1. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Edward D; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers' yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers' yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer's yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers' yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers' yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed "Vegemite Beer" would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings. PMID:27602264

  2. 新品种北冰红左优红在吉林省集安地区大面积栽培的研究%Study on Cultivation of New Cultivar “Beibinghong” and “Zuoyouhong” in Ji'an of Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭振贵; 潘肃; 曲炳章; 刘燕; 刘雅坤; 刘涛; 刘正军

    2011-01-01

    进行酿造冰红山葡萄酒新品种北冰红和酿造干红山葡萄酒新品种左优红大面积生产栽培试验结果表明:由于集安地区无霜期长、有效积温高,植株表现果穗大,果实含糖、出汁率和产量高,总酸和单宁低,均都达到酿造冰红和干红山葡萄酒的工艺要求,酒质好.在集安市大面积种植北冰红和左优红纯利润是种植玉米的3.12~3.82倍,经济效益显著.%The large area cultivation experiment on the new ice-red brewing grape cultivar " Beibinghong" and the new dry-red brewing grape cultivar "Zuoyouhong" was carried out. The results showed that: Because of the longer frostless season and higher effective accumulated temperature in Ji'an, the main economical characters of the two wine grape cultivars were well and t met the requirements of brewing ice-red wine and dry-red wine. These characters included the large cluster, high content of sugar, juice content and yield; whereas, the content of total acid and tannin in fruit was low. Therefore the liquor quality of wine was rather good. The remarkable production cultivation benefit of "Beibinghong" and "Zuoyouhong" was 3.12 - 3.82 times more than corn in City Ji'an, and economic benefit was notable.

  3. 传统黄酒淋饭酒母中污染少量有害菌对发酵的影响研究%Traditional Chinese Rice Wine Pouring A Small Amount Of Rice-sprinkling Mother Yeast In The Contamination Of Harmful Bacteria On Fermentation Influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛青钟; 郭柯洋; 胡金凤

    2011-01-01

    对淋饭酒母中微生物的检测,发现有少量异常形态的细菌——有害菌;通过用有有害菌的淋饭酒母单独酿制加饭酒与正常淋饭酒母酿制加饭酒进行试验比较研究,结果表明:有有害菌的淋饭酒母单独酿制加饭酒,对发酵有影响,酒精度上升慢,易出现酸败,不能作酒母使用;防止有害菌污染的措施有:按照三边发酵机理理论控制工艺条件、选择正常的酒药和淋饭酒母做种、工器具的彻底灭菌等。%Rice-sprinkling mother yeas on microbial leaching test,Found a small amount of abnormal forms of bacteria-harmful bacteria;Through the leaching of harmful bacteria with a single rice-sprinkling mother yeast brewed shaoxing rice-adding wine brewing rice-sprinkling mother yeast and normal leaching test shaoxing rice-adding wine comparative study,The results showed that: Leaching of harmful bacteria have a single brewing rice-sprinkling mother yeast of shaoxing rice-adding wine,Impact on the fermentation,Alcohol increased slowly,Prone to rancidity,Rice-sprinkling mother yeast can not be used;Measures to prevent contamination of harmful bacteria are: Theory of control mechanism in accordance with the trilateral fermentation process conditions,Chooses the normal yeast and rice-sprinkling mother yeast to do plants,Thorough sterilization and other industrial equipment.

  4. Study of innovative methods of control in the cereal productive chain for the production of beer and spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Sileoni, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Researches performed during the PhD course intended to assess innovative applications of near-infrared spectroscopy in reflectance (NIR) in the production chain of beer. The purpose is to measure by NIR the "malting quality" (MQ) parameter of barley, to monitor the malting process and to know if a certain type of barley is suitable for the production of beer and spirits. Moreover, NIR will be applied to monitor the brewing process. First of all, it was possible to check the quality of the...

  5. The visible problems of the invisible computer: A skeptical look at information appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Odlyzko, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The future is said to belong to information appliances, specialized and easy to use devices that will have the car tell the coffee pot to brew a cup of coffee just in time for our arrival home. These gadgets are supposed to eliminate the complexity and resulting frustrations of the PC. The thesis of this essay is that while information appliances will proliferate, they will not lessen the perception of an exasperating electronic environment. The interaction of the coffee pot, the car, the sma...

  6. The Medigap Market Product and Pricing Trends 19992001

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah J Chollet

    2003-01-01

    Increasing numbers of Medicare beneficiaries have turned to the Medigap market to insure against Medicare’s out-of-pocket costs. This publication reviews product types and average premiums of the 10 federally standardized Medigap products. It notes that trouble could be brewing in this market as enrollment in the basic benefit (Plan A) increased as much as enrollment in the nine other plans combined. Meanwhile, the average premium for basic Medigap coverage jumped more than 13 percent per y...

  7. CSR in the Coffee Industry: Sustainability Issues at Nestlé-Nespresso and Starbucks

    OpenAIRE

    Hamann, Lisa; Luschnat, Kaya; Niemuth, Stephanie; Smolarz, Paulina; Golombek, Svenja

    2014-01-01

    The coffee sector’s active engagement with sustainability issues appears to be a relatively new phenomenon. Even newer is the necessity to deal with recycling and waste. Next to the waste produced by the “coffee to go” mobile drinking culture and coffee bars, the popularity of coffee capsules – i.e. single-use containers made of metal or plastics – is creating mountains of waste unknown to the traditional method of brewing coffee. The pioneer in this premium coffee sector has been Nespresso, ...

  8. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya; Walimuni Prabhashini Kaushalya Mendis Abeysekera; Chatura Tissa Dayendra Ratnasooriya

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To access the anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe (OP) grade black tea with a view to develop an anti-aging skin formulation. Methods: Five concentrations (0.125, 0.250, 0.500, 1.000 and 2.000 mg/mL) of black tea brew (BTB) were made using a freeze dried sample of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea which was prepared according to international organization for standardization specification. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was u...

  9. Chemical composition of lipids in brewer's spent grain: A promising source of valuable phytochemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Río Andrade, José Carlos del; Prinsen, Pepijn; Gutiérrez Suárez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Brewer’s spent grain (BSG) is an important by-product from the brewing process produced in high amounts worldwide. BSG is rich in carbohydrates, lignin, proteins and lipids. In this work, the chemical composition of the lipids in BSG was studied in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The predominant lipids were triglycerides (67% of total extract), followed by a series of free fatty acids (18%). Lower amounts of monoglycerides (1.6%) and diglycerides (7.7%) were also identifie...

  10. Chemical-analytical and sensory characterisation of kettle hoppy aroma of beer

    OpenAIRE

    Praet, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Hops constitute an indispensable raw material for beer production. The hop essential oil (-derived) volatiles are at the origin of the highly desired hoppy aroma of beer. (Bio)chemical transformations and losses during the brewing process alter the hop oil volatile fingerprint, resulting in hoppy aroma in beer that is clearly different from the aroma of the hops. Nevertheless, the nature of hoppy aroma is up-to-date far from understood. Especially ‘noble kettle hop’ aroma, which is a typical ...

  11. Essence and Prospect of International Export Control Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ International export control regimes are referring to the regimes and systems concerning limitation of export and transference of military-use and dual-use items and related parts as well as technologies. In the past couple of years, the control regimes have shown a strengthening posture. In addition, a new global export control regime is brewing. Hence export control has caught the attention of the international community, and particularly of the circles of armament control and commerce. The author would like to make some analyses of the posture and then try to predict the trend of international export control regimes.

  12. Tingkat Kesukaan Masyarakat Terhadap Teh Daun Gaharu (A malaccensis Lamk.) Dibandingkan Teh Lain Yang Beredar Dipasaran

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Roy Brema

    2015-01-01

    Agarwood leaves contain chemical compounds such as flavonoid, flavons, flafonols and isoflavones that can be use as a brewed beverage. That has a function as an antioxidant. Consumen preference on agarwood leaf tea quite liked or socially acceptable. The objective of this research was to determine the consumen preference on agarwood leaf tea compared other tea on the market. Types of tea on the market were used as a comparison is C. cinencis tea and soursop leaf tea. This study was made in 4 ...

  13. Enhancing adhesion of yeast brewery strains to chamotte carriers through aminosilane surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Dorota; Ambroziak, Wojciech

    2013-07-01

    The adhesion of cells to solid supports is described as surface-dependent, being largely determined by the properties of the surface. In this study, ceramic surfaces modified using different organosilanes were tested for proadhesive properties using industrial brewery yeast strains in different physiological states. Eight brewing strains were tested: bottom-fermenting Saccharomyces pastorianus and top-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To determine adhesion efficiency light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and the fluorymetric method were used. Modification of chamotte carriers by 3-(3-anino-2-hydroxy-1-propoxy) propyldimethoxysilane and 3-(N, N-dimethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium propyldimethoxysilane groups increased their biomass load significantly. PMID:23420113

  14. Maximisation of fuel ethanol from pawpaw fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V.C.; Ayanru, D.K.G.; Ogbeide, O.N.; Okiy, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Fermentation of slurry from pawpaw fruits (Carica papaya L.) was carried out under conditions of non-sterilization, sterilization, pasteurization, and varying concentrations of yeast cells (Saccharomyces carlsbergensis), incubation times and temperatures. For a slurry pH of 3.5, a maximum of 6.84% of ethanol was produced at yeast cell concentration of 4.3 X 10/sup 8/ cells/ml and for incubation time of ca. 24 hr at 25/sup 0/C. This value of ethanol compares well with 8-10% ethanol produced by the brewing and distilling industries by using conventional raw materials and fermentation techniques.

  15. Maximisation of fuel ethanol from pawpaw fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V.C.; Ayarnu, D.K.G.; Ogbeide, O.N.; Okiy, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Fermentation of slurry from pawpaw fruits (Carica papaya L.) was carried out under conditions of non-sterilization, sterilization, pasteurization, and varying concentrations of yeast cells (Saccharomyces carlsbergensis), incubation times and temperatures. For a slurry pH of 3.5, a maximum of 6.84% of ethanol was produced at yeast cell concentration of 4.3 x 10 to the power of 8 cells/ml and for incubation time of ca. 24 hours at 25 degrees C. This value of ethanol compares well with 8-10% ethanol produced by the brewing and distilling industries by using conventional raw materials and fermentation techniques. (Refs. 18).

  16. Effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the red blood cell count and RBC indices in the HIV infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP drug regimen in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Bbosa, Godfrey S.; Kyegombe, David B.; William W. Anokbonggo; Aloysius Lubega; Apollo Mugisha; Jasper Ogwal-Okeng

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common problem in Uganda. Among the types of alcohols consumed include beers, spirits, liqueurs, wines and traditional brew. These alcohols are easily accessible and consumed by many people including the HIV infected patients who are on the d4T/3TC/NVP regimen. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intake on the red blood cell count (RBC) and the RBC indices in the HIV-infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP regimen. It was a case control study t...

  17. Suppressive effects of coffee on the SOS responses induced by UV and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SOS-inducing activity of UV or chemical mutagens was strongly suppressed by instant coffee in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. As decaffeinated instant coffee showed a similarly strong suppressive effect, it would seem that caffeine, a known inhibitor of SOS responses, is not responsible for the effect observed. The suppression was also shown by freshly brewed coffee extracts. However, the suppression was absent in green coffee-bean extracts. These results suggest that coffee contains some substance(s) which, apart from caffeine, suppresses SOS-inducing activity of UV or chemical mutagens and that the suppressive substance(s) are produced by roasting coffee beans. (Auth.)

  18. 地域評論 佐久の新名物「安養寺らーめん」

    OpenAIRE

    中藤, 保則

    2008-01-01

    Anyouji Temple(Yasuhara in Saku City) is known as one of the most venerable temple in Saku City, and is called also the place where Shinshumiso(soybean paste) was born. 5years ago the priests started to cultivate soybeans in Anyouji’s farm, and Izumiya miso brewery of long standing in Iwamurada started to brew Anyoujimiso, In 2008 spring Sakur Chamber of Commerce and Industry planed to make Anyouji Ramen with Saku Ramen Association as a new special product using Anyoujimiso in Saku. This Anyo...

  19. THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS ON ALGERIAN ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Zeyneb GUELLIL; Fatima Zahra ALIOUI; Soufyane BADRAOUI

    2015-01-01

    The Global Economic Crisis and 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s , The financial crisis, brewing for a while, really started to show its effects in the middle of 2007 and into 2008. It is a situation where macro indicator like economic growth rate fall in most countries across the world. “Although economists largely failed to predict this global economic seismic shock, they have since made up for their ov...

  20. Two-photon imaging and analysis of neural network dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lutcke H.; Helmchen F.

    2011-01-01

    The glow of a starry night sky, the smell of a freshly brewed cup of coffee or the sound of ocean waves breaking on the beach are representations of the physical world that have been created by the dynamic interactions of thousands of neurons in our brains. How the brain mediates perceptions, creates thoughts, stores memories and initiates actions remains one of the most profound puzzles in biology, if not all of science. A key to a mechanistic understanding of how the nervous system works is...

  1. ANÁLISE ESTRATÉGICA PARA IMPLANTAÇÃO DE EMPRESAS DE PEQUENO PORTE: CERVEJARIAS ARTESANAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanir Luís Kalnin

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1980’s, following the success in the US and Europe, a new market segment with a high capital investment/return ratio was started in Brazil. It is called Craft Brewing and it is characterized by small breweries producing alternative beer. The author of this paper, through the analysis of the achievements and failures of this business in Brazil, proposes a strategy definition model for the segment, aiming at increasing the chances of success of the small entrepreneurs interested in investing in this kind of business.

  2. Effects of processing on mycotoxin stability in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Jafar; Maleki, Gisoo

    2014-09-01

    The mycotoxins that generally occur in cereals and other products are not completely destroyed during food-processing operations and can contaminate finished processed foods. The mycotoxins most usually associated with cereal grains are aflatoxins, ochratoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisins. The various food processes that may have effects on mycotoxins include cleaning, milling, brewing, cooking, baking, frying, roasting, flaking, alkaline cooking, nixtamalization, and extrusion. Most of the food processes have variable effects on mycotoxins, with those that utilize high temperatures having the greatest effects. In general, the processes reduce mycotoxin concentrations significantly, but do not eliminate them completely. This review focuses on the effects of various thermal treatments on mycotoxins. PMID:24497303

  3. A COFFEE PRESS TO SUIT TONFISK DESIGN’S WARM TEA AND COFFEE SERIES : Designing within an Existing Product Family

    OpenAIRE

    Virolainen, Heini

    2015-01-01

    This thesis work describes the design process of making a product concept to Tonfisk Design’s WARM tea and coffee series. A coffee press was designed by studying how to design within existing product family. The design process itself dealt with ergonomics, production, and materials. The coffee press as a subject needed references to coffee culture, brewing techniques, and its history. The aim was to design a coffee press to suit Tonfisk Design’s WARM tea and coffee series, which finally w...

  4. Release of hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of flavour-active volatile phenols during the beer production process

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbeneden, Nele

    2007-01-01

    Among the flavour-active volatile phenols in beer, most of them originate from the raw materials used in the brewing process. Only some of them can be formed by yeast activity, namely 4-vinylguaiacol (4VG) and 4-vinylphenol (4VP). The presence of these volatile phenolic compounds is considered undesirable when present in excessive concentration in bottom-fermented pilsner beers, hence the term “phenolic off-flavour” (POF). It is attributed to beers with a strong medicinal, clove-like aroma. D...

  5. Development of aromatic hop compounds and bitterness in beer during room temperature- and cold storage based on three different hopping methods

    OpenAIRE

    Torgals, Ann Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine whether storage temperature or hopping method had influence on the aroma and bitterness in beer. The focus was set on the aroma that comes from hops, and not from yeast. The secondary objective to this study was to explore the development of the alcohol, CO2 and bitterness in the beer after priming and bottling. The thesis’ main perspective is that of home brewers, and to some extent that of microbreweries. Beer was brewed with 100 % pilsn...

  6. EMBARGO 12 MESES ABRIL 2016 Assessment of total (free and bound) phenolic compounds in spent coffee extracts

    OpenAIRE

    CID, C; Peña, M. P.; Irigoyen, A; Ludwig, I.A. (Iziar A.); Monente, C. (Carmen)

    2015-01-01

    Spent coffee is the main byproduct of the brewing process and a potential source of bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic acids easily extracted with water. Free and bound caffeoylquinic (3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA), dicaffeoylquinic (3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, 4,5-diCQA), caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, sinapic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were measured by HPLC, after the application of three treatments (alkaline, acid, saline) to spent coffee extracts. Around 2-fold higher content of total phenolics has be...

  7. Security dynamics in the South Atlantic: Brazil and the United States in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Seabra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article acknowledges the international community’s growing concern over the new security dynamics currently brewing in the South Atlantic, and the potential upgrade of this area on the internationalsecurity agenda. By building on both old and new threats in the background interest being displayed by such countries as Brazil and the US towards this specific area, and by highlighting these two countries’ political-strategic interests in Africa, this article provides an accurate portrait of the current security context, which ranges from the chances of competition of all the actors involved to the opportunities for cooperation between them.

  8. Methylxanthines and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, C; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R N

    1987-10-15

    We investigated the relationship between methylxanthine consumption and breast cancer using data from a case-control study which included 1,510 cases and 1,882 controls identified through a nation-wide breast cancer screening program. There was no evidence of a positive association between methylxanthine consumption and risk of breast cancer. In fact, there was some suggestion of a negative association, particularly in women diagnosed after age 50. In addition, there was no evidence of increased risk with past or recent methylxanthine consumption, or with the consumption of caffeine or specific beverages, most notably brewed or instant caffeinated coffee and tea. PMID:3117709

  9. Smashing CoffeeScript

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Brew the perfect code with CoffeeScript If you're familiar with JavaScript and the often-frustrating process of creating complex applications, a nice cup of CoffeeScript can help. CoffeeScript is a programming language that compiles into JavaScript and simplifies the entire development process. Now you can tap the full power of CoffeeScript with Smashing CoffeeScript. This full-color, practical book explains CoffeeScript language, syntax, and processes, and will soon have you producing concise and quality code. Ultimately, you'll create RIAs and mobile apps faster, with less

  10. ANÁLISE ESTRATÉGICA PARA IMPLANTAÇÃO DE EMPRESAS DE PEQUENO PORTE: CERVEJARIAS ARTESANAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Joanir Luís Kalnin; Nelson Casarotto Filho; João Ernesto E. Castro

    2002-01-01

    In the late 1980’s, following the success in the US and Europe, a new market segment with a high capital investment/return ratio was started in Brazil. It is called Craft Brewing and it is characterized by small breweries producing alternative beer. The author of this paper, through the analysis of the achievements and failures of this business in Brazil, proposes a strategy definition model for the segment, aiming at increasing the chances of success of the small entrepreneurs interested in ...

  11. Consumers' perception of novel beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide

    to many consumers. After a decade of growth, the Danish craft brewing segment is rapidly reaching maturity, and a higher degree of consumer orientation seems to be needed for continuing success. The aim of this PhD project was to investigate some of the key aspects of consumers’ perception of novel beers...... industry. More generally, this work makes a number of original contributions to our understanding of determinants of consumers’ perception of novel food and beverages, as well as methodological advances in the use of consumers as subjects in sensory and consumer research....

  12. Natural hazard metaphors for financial crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gordon

    2001-02-01

    Linguistic metaphors drawn from natural hazards are commonly used at times of financial crisis. A brewing storm, a seismic shock, etc., evoke the abruptness and severity of a market collapse. If the language of windstorms, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions is helpful in illustrating a financial crisis, what about the mathematics of natural catastrophes? Already, earthquake prediction methods have been applied to economic recessions, and volcanic eruption forecasting techniques have been applied to market crashes. The purpose of this contribution is to survey broadly the mathematics of natural catastrophes, so as to convey the range of underlying principles, some of which may serve as mathematical metaphors for financial applications.

  13. INPROVING OF THE QUALITY FOOD FOR ANIMALS BY PULSED POWER PLASMA DISCHARGE

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Gnapowski; Ernest Gnapowski; Aneta Duda

    2015-01-01

    Soy beans powder mixed with water is a good food for animals. However, there are two problems with this brew. One is that soy beans powder is sunk down to fast. Parts of soy beans powder are too big and too heavy. Animals do not eat soy beans powder because after a few minutes (around 3min) is sunk down and soy beans are on the bottom case. Another negative point is a quick growth of mold, especially during summer when the temperature is highest. Mold is making food unhealthy and causes unple...

  14. Ameliorative effect of black tea on nicotine induced cardiovascular pathogenesis in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamhoseinian, Ahmad; Joukar, Farzin; Joukar, Siyavash; Najafipour, Hamid; Shahouzehi, Beydolah

    2012-01-01

    Regarding the role of nicotine in the development of cardiovascular complications of smoking, we investigated whether black tea has a modulatory effect on cardiovascular pathogenesis of nicotine in rat. Animals were randomized to control, tea, nicotine and tea plus nicotine groups. Test groups received black tea brewed (adding 400 ml boiling water to 10 g Lipton black tea for 5 min) orally alone or with nicotine 2 mg/kg/day, s.c. separately or combined for four weeks. On 28th day, lipids p...

  15. Application of site-specific natural isotope fractionation (SNIF-NMR) of hydrogen to the characterization of European beers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G.J.; Benbernou, M.; Lantier, F. (Nantes Univ., 44 (France))

    More than one hundred samples of European beers have been investigated by the new SNIF-NMR method which is based on 2H NMR at the natural abundance level and enables site-specific natural isotope fractionation factors in ethanol to be determined. The relative (R) and absolute (D/H)sub(i) parameters are shown to be characteristic of the country where the beers are brewed and the observed variations are explained in terms of cereal composition, water resource, and manufacturing processing (fermentation, yeast, temperature cycle). These new parameters find analytical and mechanistic applications in the identification of a beer and in the investigation of a fermentation process.

  16. Application of site-specific natural isotope fractionation (SNIF-NMR) of hydrogen to the characterization of European beers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than one hundred samples of European beers have been investigated by the new SNIF-NMR method which is based on 2H NMR at the natural abundance level and enables site-specific natural isotope fractionation factors in ethanol to be determined. The relative (R) and absolute (D/H)sub(i) parameters are shown to be characteristic of the country where the beers are brewed and the observed variations are explained in terms of cereal composition, water resource, and manufacturing processing (fermentation, yeast, temperature cycle). These new parameters find analytical and mechanistic applications in the identification of a beer and in the investigation of a fermentation process. (author)

  17. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during malting and beer manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Nigel B.; Costigan, Gavin T.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Woodfield, Michael J.

    Estimates have been made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during different stages of beer manufacture. The estimates are based on recent measurements and plant specification data supplied by manufacturers. Data were obtained for three main manufacturing processes (malting, wort processing and fermentation) for three commercial beer types. Some data on the speciation of emitted compounds have been obtained. Based on these measurements, an estimate of the total unabated VOC emission. from the U.K. brewing industry was calculated as 3.5 kta -1, over 95% of which was generated during barley malting. This value does not include any correction for air pollution control.

  18. In situ examination of Lactobacillus brevis after exposure to an oxidizing disinfectant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yu; Knøchel, Susanne; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Beer is a hostile environment for most microorganisms, but some lactic acid bacteria can grow in this environment. This is primarily because these organisms have developed the ability to grow in the presence of hops. It has been speculated that hop resistance is inversely correlated to resistance...... against oxidation, and this would have great impact on the use of various disinfectants in the brewing industry. In this study, we cultivated bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and then investigated the in situ outgrowth of individual cells into microcolonies on de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS...

  19. Výroba sladu a piva v České republice, homebrewing a minipivovary

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanová, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor's thesis is to describe the process of making the malt, its division and beer brewing in the Czech republic. The description of most widely used raw materials and their potential usage follows. The part of this project is dedicated to main aspects of the high public interest in small breweries and its products. A research amongst small breweries located near Brno showed, that the main reason for this interest is the diversity of beer produced there. The brewers in sma...

  20. Global Competitiveness in the Beer Industry: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash C. Jain

    1994-01-01

    Three companies (Anheuser-Busch, Miller, and Coors) in the brewing industry accounted for 78 percent of the U.S. market in 1992. Among these three, Anheuser-Busch is the apparent leader with 46.2 percent of the market. Although Anheuser-Busch produces and markets a number of brands, the Budweiser brand has been the top selling beer with 24.1 percent market share in 1992. Lately, light beers have been gaining ground, a trend likely to continue in the future. Foreign beer brands account for abo...

  1. Mezinárodní obchod s chmelem a faktory, jenž ho ovlivňují

    OpenAIRE

    Francl, Petr

    2011-01-01

    According to available information, total acreage of hop-gardens in the world in 2010 was an area of 52,156 hectares, which represents a decrease of total 4591 hectares from the previous year. That represents almost 8 % decrease. In the world were harvested during the last year nearly 100,000 tonnes of raw hops. From this total amount were extracted approximately 9,475 tons of important alpha acids. Alpha acids are resinous substances, the most important part of the hops for beer brewing....

  2. Degradation of a mono sulfonated azo dye by an integrated bio sorption and anaerobic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simulated textile effluent containing a mono sulphonated azo dye was fed to an anaerobic bioreactor in which a natural adsorbent, spent brewery grains (SBG), was incorporated. SABG is a by-product of the brewing industry and could act as adsorbent as well an electron shuttle (lignin fraction) in the dye degradation mechanism. Furthermore, it can also work as a conditioner for the anaerobic biomass. The influence of the dye (Acid Orange 7, AO7) concentration (60 and 150 mg/L) and the presence of SBG in the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was evaluated. (Author)

  3. PLS2 regression as a tool for selection of optimal analytical modality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Esbensen, Kim

    technologies and price classes are able to decipher relevant process information simultaneously. The question then is: how to choose between available technologies without compromising the quality and usability of the data. We apply PLS2 modelling to quantify the relative merits of competing, or complementing......, analytical modalities. We here present results from a feasibility study, where Fourier Transform Near InfraRed (FT-NIR), Fourier Transform Mid InfraRed (FT-MIR), and Raman laser spectroscopy were applied on the same set of samples obtained from a pilot-scale beer brewing process. Quantitative PLS1 models...

  4. Construction of a recombinant wine yeast strain expressing beta-(1,4)-endoglucanase and its use in microvinification processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-González, J. A.; González, R; Querol, A.; Sendra, J.; Ramón, D

    1993-01-01

    A genetic transformation system for an industrial wine yeast strain is presented here. The system is based on the acquisition of cycloheximide resistance and is a direct adaptation of a previously published procedure for brewing yeasts (L. Del Pozo, D. Abarca, M. G. Claros, and A. Jiménez, Curr. Genet. 19:353-358, 1991). Transformants arose at an optimal frequency of 0.5 transformant per microgram of DNA, are stable in the absence of selective pressure, and produce wine in the same way as the...

  5. Draft genome sequence and annotation of Lactobacillus acetotolerans BM-LA14527, a beer-spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Peters, Brian M; Li, Bing; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2016-09-01

    Lactobacillus acetotolerans is a hard-to-culture beer-spoilage bacterium capable of entering into the viable putative nonculturable (VPNC) state. As part of an initial strategy to investigate the phenotypic behavior of L. acetotolerans, draft genome sequencing was performed. Results demonstrated a total of 1824 predicted annotated genes, with several potential VPNC- and beer-spoilage-associated genes identified. Importantly, this is the first genome sequence of L. acetotolerans as beer-spoilage bacteria and it may aid in further analysis of L. acetotolerans and other beer-spoilage bacteria, with direct implications for food safety control in the beer brewing industry. PMID:27559043

  6. Studies of iso-alpha-acids: analysis, purification, and stability.

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib, Alfi

    2006-01-01

    The female cones of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) are added to beer, providing taste and flavour and contributing to the stability of foam. The main constituents of hop related to these properties are generically known as alpha-acids. During the brewing process, these acids are isomerized, resulting in the formation of three pairs of trans-/cis-iso-alpha–acids. The aim of this thesis project was to develop a method for the analysis (Chapter 2 and 7) as well as the purification of iso-alpha-acids (...

  7. Thermodynamics and historical relevance of a jetting thermometer made of Chinese zisha ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vincent; Attinger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Following a recent trend of scientific studies on artwork, we study here the thermodynamics of a thermometer made of zisha ceramic, related to the Chinese tea culture. The thermometer represents a boy who "urinates" shortly after hot water is poured onto his head. Long jetting distance is said to indicate that the water temperature is hot enough to brew tea. Here, a thermodynamic model describes the jetting phenomenon of that pee-pee boy. The study demonstrates how thermal expansion of an interior air pocket causes jetting. A thermodynamic potential is shown to define maximum jetting velocity. Seven optimization criteria to maximize jetting distance are provided, including two dimensionless numbers. Predicted jetting distances, jet durations, and temperatures agree very well with infrared and optical measurements. Specifically, the study confirms that jetting distances are sensitive enough to measure water temperature in the context of tea brewing. Optimization results show that longer jets are produced by large individuals, with low body mass index, with a boyhood of medium size inclined at an angle π/4. The study ends by considering the possibility that ceramic jetting artifacts like the pee-pee boy might have been the first thermometers known to mankind, before Galileo Galilei's thermoscope. PMID:27431925

  8. Effects of ayahuasca on psychometric measures of anxiety, panic-like and hopelessness in Santo Daime members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R G; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Strassman, R J; Motta, V; Cruz, A P M

    2007-07-25

    The use of the hallucinogenic brew ayahuasca, obtained from infusing the shredded stalk of the malpighiaceous plant Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of other plants such as Psychotria viridis, is growing in urban centers of Europe, South and North America in the last several decades. Despite this diffusion, little is known about its effects on emotional states. The present study investigated the effects of ayahuasca on psychometric measures of anxiety, panic-like and hopelessness in members of the Santo Daime, an ayahuasca-using religion. Standard questionnaires were used to evaluate state-anxiety (STAI-state), trait-anxiety (STAI-trait), panic-like (ASI-R) and hopelessness (BHS) in participants that ingested ayahuasca for at least 10 consecutive years. The study was done in the Santo Daime church, where the questionnaires were administered 1h after the ingestion of the brew, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure. While under the acute effects of ayahuasca, participants scored lower on the scales for panic and hopelessness related states. Ayahuasca ingestion did not modify state- or trait-anxiety. The results are discussed in terms of the possible use of ayahuasca in alleviating signs of hopelessness and panic-like related symptoms. PMID:17532158

  9. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  10. Detection of BRAF V600 Mutations in Melanoma: Evaluation of Concordance between the Cobas® 4800 BRAF V600 Mutation Test and the Methods Used in French National Cancer Institute (INCa) Platforms in a Real-Life Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourah, Samia; Denis, Marc G.; Narducci, Fabienne Escande; Solassol, Jérôme; Merlin, Jean-Louis; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Ouafik, L’Houcine; Emile, Jean-François; Heller, Remy; Souvignet, Claude; Bergougnoux, Loïc; Merlio, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Vemurafenib is approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma in patients with BRAF V600 mutation. In pivotal clinical trials, BRAF testing has always been done with the approved cobas 4800 BRAF test. In routine practice, several methods are available and are used according to the laboratories usual procedures. A national, multicenter, non-interventional study was conducted with prospective and consecutive collection of tumor samples. A parallel evaluation was performed in routine practice between the cobas 4800 BRAF V600 mutation test and home brew methods (HBMs) of 12 national laboratories, labelled and funded by the French National Cancer Institute (INCa). For 420 melanoma samples tested, the cobas method versus HBM showed a high concordance (93.3%; kappa = 0.86) in BRAF V600 genotyping with similar mutation rates (34.0% versus 35.7%, respectively). Overall, 97.4% and 98.6% of samples gave valid results using the cobas and HBM, respectively. Of the 185 samples strictly fulfilling the cobas guidelines, the concordance rate was even higher (95.7%; kappa = 0.91; 95%CI [0.85; 0.97]). Out of the 420 samples tested, 28 (6.7%) showed discordance between HBM and cobas. This prospective study shows a high concordance rate between the cobas 4800 BRAF V600 test and home brew methods in the routine detection of BRAF V600E mutations. PMID:25789737

  11. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  12. Health status of ayahuasca users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Mizumoto, Suely; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Strassman, Rick J

    2012-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychedelic brew originally used for magico-religious purposes by Amerindian populations of the western Amazon Basin. Throughout the last four decades, the use of ayahuasca spread towards major cities in all regions of Brazil and abroad. This trend has raised concerns that regular use of this N,N-dimethyltryptamine- and harmala-alkaloid-containing tea may lead to mental and physical health problems associated typically with drug abuse. To further elucidate the mental and physical health of ayahuasca users, we conducted a literature search in the international medical PubMed database. Inclusion criteria were evaluation of any related effect of ayahuasca use that occurred after the resolution of acute effects of the brew. Fifteen publications were related to emotional, cognitive, and physical health of ayahuasca users. The accumulated data suggest that ayahuasca use is safe and may even be, under certain conditions, beneficial. However, methodological bias of the reviewed studies might have contributed to the preponderance of beneficial effects and to the few adverse effects reported. The data up to now do not appear to allow for definitive conclusions to be drawn on the effects of ayahuasca use on mental and physical health, but some studies point in the direction of beneficial effects. Additional studies are suggested to provide further clarification. PMID:22761152

  13. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ekman Schenberg

    Full Text Available Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT, harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  14. Physiological tests for yeast brewery cells immobilized on modified chamotte carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Dorota; Ambroziak, Wojciech

    2013-11-01

    In this study yeast cell physiological activity was assessed on the basis of the in situ activity of two important enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. FUN1 dye bioconversion and cellular ATP content were also taken as important indicators of yeast cell activity. The study was conducted on six brewing yeast strains, which were either free cells or immobilized on a chamotte carrier. The experimental data obtained indicate clearly that, in most cases, the immobilized cells showed lower enzyme activity than free cells from analogous cultures. Pyruvate decarboxylase activity in immobilized cells was higher than in planktonic cell populations only in the case of the Saccharomyces pastorianus 680 strain. However, in a comparative assessment of the fermentation process, conducted with the use of free and immobilized cells, much more favorable dynamics and carbon dioxide productivity were observed in immobilized cells, especially in the case of brewing lager yeast strains. This may explain the higher total cell density per volume unit of the fermented medium and the improved resistance of immobilized cells to environmental changes. PMID:23887884

  15. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid–liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE and without heating (CEE were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE. The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA, but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat.

  16. Flaking process increases the NF-κB inhibition activity and melanoidin extractability of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yi-Fang; Hu, Kang; Hatzold, Thomas; Black, Richard M; Chen, Don

    2013-09-01

    Research on the health impacts of coffee has escalated. However, few studies were devoted to understanding the potential impact of mechanical processing on coffee's chemistry and subsequent health implications. Coffee flaking is a commonly used process to improve extractability and aroma characteristics. In this study, we studied the biochemical activity, chemical composition, and microstructure of coffee before and after flaking. We found that flaked coffee extract had 3.3-fold higher activity in inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation than regular coffee extract. Interestingly, flaking did not significantly alter the amount of coffee phenolics. It increased coffee melanoidin, by 2.1-fold, which likely contributed to the observed higher activity in inhibiting NF-κB activation. Flaking crushed cell walls revealed by microscopy might possibly result in disruption of polysaccharide entanglement and release of high-molecular-weight compounds, such as melanoidins. Consequently, the increased melanoidin content in the brew resulted in the increased inhibition of NF-κB activation. Small molecules, like coffee phenolics, are readily soluble in water during coffee brewing even without flaking, suggesting that flaking has no effect on its extractability. In summary, our investigation revealed that flaking enhanced NF-κB inhibition activity, possibly through the release of melanoidins from crushed cell microstructures. PMID:24804042

  17. Development of an enzymatic fish hydrolysate and its use in instant soup bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, A; Morales de Léon, J; Bourges Rodríguez, H

    1985-12-01

    The successful conservation of fish products, at low costs, is a subject of special interest in the developing countries. Conscious of this fact, our group has been studying several fish conservation methods, such as autolysis with high salt concentrations, and has obtained a sauce of high nutritive value and long shelf life. Nevertheless, the reaction process takes from four to six months. In the study herein reported, the hydrolysis was accelerated and controlled by using the following enzymes: papain, HT proteolytic, and Brew (N) zyme. The hydrolysate was then mixed with cereals to prepare instant soups. As results indicated, the best hydrolysate was obtained with Brew (N) zyme at 50 degrees C and 8.30 hours. This hydrolysate contains 93.0 g/100 g crude protein with a protein efficiency ratio (PER) and a net protein utilization (NPU) of 60% that of casein's NPU as well as a content of 0.8% ether extract. The lowest-cost mixtures with the highest nutritive value were: hydrolysate-wheat-soymeal, and hydrolysate-rice-soymeal, with 38.3 and 29.7 protein per 100 g of mixture, respectively, and a NPU of 79.0 and 79.8% in relation to casein, respectively. The soups prepared had a satisfactory acceptance rating. There were no significant differences in flavor and aroma at a confidence level of 95%. The cost per gram of protein is about US$ 0.22 per kg. PMID:3842931

  18. Can impurities from soil-contaminated coffees reach the cup?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depending on the harvest conditions, coffee beans can be contaminated by soil when dropped to the ground. It is well known that agricultural soils act as sinks for agrochemicals applied to the crops. While coffee is brewed, substances present in the roasted and ground coffee beans are extracted by hot water, emphasizing the need to assess the possible transfer of impurities from the soil to the beverage. Soil-contaminated samples of roasted coffee beans were split into 2 groups according to the treatments: (a) washed and ground and (b) only ground. Brewing was performed in a household espresso machine for both coffees. The resulting beverage was freeze-dried and the elemental composition determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mass fractions of the terrigenous elements Fe, La, Sc, Sm and Th in the freeze-dried non-washed coffee beverages were, at least, 2 times higher than in the washed samples. These elements are tracers of the soil, indicating that the impurities from the soil reached the beverage. (author)

  19. Antidiarrhoeal activity of Sri Lankan Dust grade Black Tea (Camellia sinensis L. in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W D Ratnasooriya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the antidiarrhoeal potential of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis in mice using high grown unblend Dust grade No: 1 tea. Different concentrations of black tea brew (BTB [84 mg/ ml (equivalent to 1.5 cups, 167 mg/ ml (equivalent to 3 cups, 501 mg/ ml (equivalent to 9 cups or 1336 mg/ ml (equivalent to 24 cups], or a high concentration (equivalent to 9 cups of green tea brew (GTB of Chinese and Japanese types or reference drug, toperamide (10 mg/ kg were orally administered to different groups of mice (N = 9-12/group and were subjected to two antidiarrhoeal tests: normal defecation test and castor oil-induced diarrhoea test. The results show that BTB of Sri Lankan Dust grade tea dose-dependently and markedly decreased the number of faecal boluses produced in the normal defecation test and improved the severity of the diarroheal condition in the castor oil-induced diarrhoea test. However, the antidiarrhoeal effect of BTB was superior to Japanese type of GTB and inferior to loperamide. BTB also prolonged the gastrointestinal transit time, impaired intestinal fluid secretion, increased intestinal fluid absorption and reduced in vitro nitric oxide production. It is concluded that Sri Lankan black tea possesses marked antidiarrhoeal activity supporting the folkloric claim that Sri Lankan black tea is a good remedy for acute non specific diarrhoea.

  20. Securitization: A state attorney general`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, F.J.

    1997-10-01

    Securitization will put hundreds of millions of dollars in the hands of utilities and line the pockets of Wall Street bankers, but it`s a highly dubious proposition for consumers and advocates of competition. Investor-owned utilities are not just salivating over large stranded cost recovery for past uneconomic decisions, but are dreaming of billions of dollars of up-front cash that securitization will provide. Whether the utilities sense any {open_quotes}ill a brewing,{close_quotes} the author does not know, but he believes that once the particulars of securitization are brought to the light of day, public pressures will mount and will indeed bring {open_quotes}some ill a-brewing{close_quotes} to the morass known as securitization. Securitization has arisen as a means by which utilities can recover their stranded costs. Under the pending concept of securitization, utilities calculate their estimated future losses and then offer bonds on the open market equal to the amount of stranded costs they wish to recover. This article addresses the myriad shortcomings of the securitization process from the perspective of the general public. It does not address whether any level of stranded cost recovery, in and of itself, is appropriate, but assumes, for the sake of argument, that utilities will be permitted some level of stranded cost recovery and addresses only the question of whether securitization is the proper vehicle for recovery of those costs.

  1. Study on the Technology to Produce the Secondary Fermentaton Hullessbarley Beer%二次发酵青稞啤酒工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周韶华; 宋扬; 周广田

    2015-01-01

    二次发酵青稞啤酒以大麦麦芽、小麦麦芽和青稞麦芽为原料,通过上面发酵酵母No.303主发酵和下面发酵酵母No.308后发酵而成,符合优质淡色啤酒国家标准且具有怡人的特征香气。本生产工艺的研究为二次发酵青稞啤酒的开发提供了可行的工艺参数。%The secondary fermentaton hullessbarley beer was brewed with malt, wheat malt, hullessbarley malt as the main raw material, through lord fermentation by top-fermentation yeast and secondary fermentation by bottom-fermentation yeast. The secondary fermentaton hullessbarley beer meets the national standards of ale beer, and has a pleasant flavor. This research on brewing process of the secondery fermentaton hullessbarley beer provides the best way to produce this kind of beer product.

  2. Induced gene expression in industrial Saccharomyces pastorianus var. carlsbergensis TUM 34/70: evaluation of temperature and ethanol inducible native promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, S; Engstler, C; Procopio, S; Becker, T

    2016-05-01

    Induced gene expression is an important trait in yeast metabolic engineering, but current regulations prevent the use of conventional expression systems, such as galactose and copper, in food and beverage fermentations. This article examines the suitability of temperature-inducible native promoters for use in the industrial yeast strain Saccharomyces pastorianus var. carlsbergensis TUM 34/70 under brewing conditions. Ten different promoters were cloned and characterized under varying temperature shifts and ethanol concentrations using a green fluorescent protein reporter. The activities of these promoters varied depending upon the stress conditions applied. A temperature shift to 4°C led to the highest fold changes of PSSA3, PUBI4 and PHSP104 by 5.4, 4.5 and 5.0, respectively. Ethanol shock at 24°C showed marked, concentration-dependent induction of the promoters. Here, PHSP104 showed its highest induction at ethanol concentrations between 4% (v/v) and 6% (v/v). The highest fold changes of PSSA3 and PUBI4 were found at 10% (v/v) ethanol. In comparison, the ethanol shock at a typical fermentation temperature (12°C) leads to lower induction patterns of these promoters. Taken together, the data show that three promoters (PHSP104, PUBI4 and PSSA3) have high potential for targeted gene expression in self-cloning brewing yeast using temperature shifts. PMID:26882929

  3. Cadmium in jamaican bush teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo Fung, L A; Rattray, V R; Lalor, G C

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 µg/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.04-1.18 µg of Cd and would contribute 0.1-0.3 µg of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 µg Cd/kg body weight established by the World Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants. PMID:25303189

  4. Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Diseases – Has the Time Come to Change Dietary Advice? A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzejska Regina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The question whether coffee has a negative or a positive impact on human health has been the topic of much heated debate for years. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only failed to confirm earlier concerns, but in fact suggested a positive effect of coffee intake. Latest studies revealed that people who drink at least 3 cups of coffee per day are at a lower risk for type 2 diabetes, as well as liver and colon cancer. The reports on a possible correlation between coffee drinking and heart diseases have also generated optimistic results. No adverse associations between coffee consumption and coronary heart disease, stroke, and hypertension have been found. What is more, some authors demonstrated that coffee drinking may prevent cardiovascular diseases. Composition of coffee is determined by the strength of the brew and brewing methods. Unfiltered coffee is rich in cholesterol-raising diterpenes, therefore patients with dyslipidemia should be advised to drink filtered rather than non-filtered coffee. On the other hand coffee contains polyphenols which act as antioxidants, and these compounds are probably responsible for the suggested beneficial effect of coffee on health. This article summarizes the current literature reports on this controversial topic.

  5. Elemental composition of green coffee and its contribution to dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şemen, Sevcan; Mercan, Selda; Yayla, Murat; Açıkkol, Münevver

    2017-01-15

    The concentration of twenty-seven elements (Li, Be, B, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi, Th, and U) in green coffee samples and their infusions were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Prior to analysis, green coffee samples were prepared by microwave digestion, while infusions were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The accuracy and precision of the proposed methods were verified by recovery experiments. Considering samples; K, Cu, and Al had the highest mean concentrations with 6714.5μgg(-1), 12.1μgg(-1), and 25.9μgg(-1) among major, trace and toxic elements, respectively. The impact of brewing type on leachability of elements was also studied and the results outlined that mean leachability of elements to Turkish coffee were greater than to mud coffee. Furthermore, dietary element intakes through green coffee consumption were also estimated. This is the first study presenting wide range of elements in green coffee brews and calculating dietary intakes. PMID:27542454

  6. Potential Application of Yeast β-Glucans in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Zechner-krpan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Different β-glucans are found in a variety of natural sources such as bacteria, yeast, algae, mushrooms, barley and oat. They have potential use in medicine and pharmacy, food, cosmetic and chemical industries, in veterinary medicine and feed production. The use of different β-glucans in food industry and their main characteristics important for food production are described in this paper. This review focuses on beneficial properties and application of β-glucans isolated from different yeasts, especially those that are considered as waste from brewing industry. Spent brewer’s yeast, a by-product of beer production, could be used as a raw-material for isolation of β-glucan. In spite of the fact that large quantities of brewer’s yeast are used as a feedstuff , certain quantities are still treated as a liquid waste. β-Glucan is one of the compounds that can achieve a greater commercial value than the brewer’s yeast itself and maximize the total profitability of the brewing process. β-Glucan isolated from spent brewer’s yeast possesses properties that are benefi cial for food production. Therefore, the use of spent brewer’s yeast for isolation of β-glucan intended for food industry would represent a payable technological and economical choice for breweries.

  7. Identification of a mutation causing a defective spindle assembly checkpoint in high ethyl caproate-producing sake yeast strain K1801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshima, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Ryo; Kume, Kazunori; Okada, Hiroki; Ichikawa, Eri; Tamura, Hiroyasu; Hasuda, Hirokazu; Inahashi, Masaaki; Okazaki, Naoto; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Mizunuma, Masaki; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Hirata, Dai

    2016-08-01

    In high-quality sake brewing, the cerulenin-resistant sake yeast K1801 with high ethyl caproate-producing ability has been used widely; however, K1801 has a defective spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). To identify the mutation causing this defect, we first searched for sake yeasts with a SAC-defect like K1801 and found that K13 had such a defect. Then, we searched for a common SNP in only K1801 and K13 by examining 15 checkpoint-related genes in 23 sake yeasts, and found 1 mutation, R48P of Cdc55, the PP2A regulatory B subunit that is important for the SAC. Furthermore, we confirmed that the Cdc55-R48P mutation was responsible for the SAC-defect in K1801 by molecular genetic analyses. Morphological analysis indicated that this mutation caused a high cell morphological variation. But this mutation did not affect the excellent brewing properties of K1801. Thus, this mutation is a target for breeding of a new risk-free K1801 with normal checkpoint integrity. PMID:27191586

  8. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Ahn, Dong Uk; Eun, Jong Bang; Moon, Sun Hee

    2016-01-01

    The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee) still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid-liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE) and without heating (CEE) were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE). The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA), but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat. PMID:27384587

  9. Measuring Ochratoxin A Concentrations in Coffee Beverages with Immunoaffinity Columns and Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ling; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Chen, Chia-Yang

    2016-03-01

    This study developed and validated a method for measuring concentrations of ochratoxin A (OTA) in coffee beverages, not coffee beans. The new method involved extraction using immunoaffinity columns and ultra-performance LC (UPLC)-MS/MS using isotope-dilution techniques. The combination of a fused-core column and UPLC significantly shortened chromatographic time to 3 min compared to reported UPLC methods. The method was sensitive, with an LOD and LOQ of 0.52 and 1.73 pg/mL, respectively. Quantitative intraday (n = 4) and interday (n = 4) biases and RSD were both below 15%. The OTA levels in 40 samples of freshly brewed coffee from chain stores, 24 samples of canned ready-to-drink coffee, and 6 beverages made from instant coffee granules ranged from 1.60 to 93.2 pg/mL (90% positive), 6.00 to 131 pg/mL (100% positive), and 21.8 to 59.0 pg/mL (100% positive), respectively. Based on published tolerable daily intake, men and women in Taiwan should consume no more than 6.3 and 5.1 fifteen gram packages of instant coffee per day, respectively. Specific suggestions were not made for brewed coffee and canned coffee because of their large variation in OTA concentrations. This study should be more relevant to actual human exposure than those studying OTA in green, roasted, and ground coffee beans alone. PMID:26965577

  10. Extractability of radiocesium from processed green tea leaves with hot water. The first emergent tea leaves harvested after the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some tea tree planting areas within 300 km from the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), it was found that newly emerged tea plant leaves for green tea contained two radiocesium species (cesium-134 and cesium-137). In this study, using processed green tea leaves for drinking, extraction ratios of radiocesium under several brew conditions were observed. When 90 deg C water was used, 50-70% of radiocesium was extracted into the water, while 54-60% of radiocesium was extracted with 60 deg C water. A part of radiocesium would be removed from leaves if the leaves were washed with 20 and 60 deg C water before brewing, and the efficiencies were 11 and 32%, respectively. Newly emerged camellia leaves were used to simulate the radiocesium removal ratio from raw tea leaves by washing and boiling; radioactivity concentration was decreased to 60% of the original concentration with washing and 10 min boiling. From these results, it was found that almost half of the radiocesium would not be removed from raw or processed tea leaves. The values obtained in the present study could be used for internal radiation dose estimation from tea leaves. (author)

  11. Purification and characterisation of arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase I responsible for the filterability of barley malt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Gao, Fei; Cai, Guolin; Jin, Zhao; Lu, Jian; Dong, Jianjun; Yin, Hua; Yu, Junhong; Yang, Mei

    2015-05-01

    Dan'er is a widely grown malt barley cultivar in China, but its filterability defects have severely impeded its application in beer brewing. Previous investigations have suggested that we should identify the malt filterability correlated proteins, one of which was postulated to be arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase I (AXAH-I). To verify this hypothesis, we purified AXAH-I from Dan'er malt, characterised its enzyme performance, and investigated its influence on filterability by adding different amounts of purified enzyme to the mash. With 6 mU g(-1) malt AXAH-I supplemented, the wort separation rate increased by 31.8%, viscosity decreased by 3.6%, and the endosperm reserve contents declined concomitantly. Unexpectedly, the wort turbidity increased with increasing AXAH-I. We also tried to optimise the use of currently available commercial enzyme products for filterability improvement in beer brewing, by supplementing them with purified AXAH-I and β-amylase. AXAH-I could be a functional component for novel commercial enzyme products in the beer industry. PMID:25529682

  12. Traditional Aboriginal Preparation Alters the Chemical Profile of Carica papaya Leaves and Impacts on Cytotoxicity towards Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Hodson, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya leaf decoction, an Australian Aboriginal remedy, has been used widely for its healing capabilities against cancer, with numerous anecdotal reports. In this study we investigated its in vitro cytotoxicity on human squamous cell carcinoma cells followed by metabolomic profiling of Carica papaya leaf decoction and leaf juice/brewed leaf juice to determine the effects imparted by the long heating process typical of the Aboriginal remedy preparation. MTT assay results showed that in comparison with the decoction, the leaf juice not only exhibited a stronger cytotoxic effect on SCC25 cancer cells, but also produced a significant cancer-selective effect as shown by tests on non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Furthermore, evidence from testing brewed leaf juice on these two cell lines suggested that the brewing process markedly reduced the selective effect of Carica papaya leaf on SCC25 cancer cells. To tentatively identify the compounds that contribute to the distinct selective anticancer activity of leaf juice, an untargeted metabolomic approach employing Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry followed by multivariate data analysis was applied. Some 90 and 104 peaks in positive and negative mode respectively were selected as discriminatory features from the chemical profile of leaf juice and >1500 putative compound IDs were obtained via database searching. Direct comparison of chromatographic and tandem mass spectral data to available reference compounds confirmed one feature as a match with its proposed authentic standard, namely pheophorbide A. However, despite pheophorbide A exhibiting cytotoxic activity on SCC25 cancer cells, it did not prove to be the compound contributing principally to the selective activity of leaf juice. With promising results suggesting stronger and more selective anticancer effects when compared to the Aboriginal remedy, Carica papaya leaf juice warrants further study

  13. The development of processing technology for black tea-salty sweet-biscuits%红茶咸香饼干加工工艺的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢朝敏; 温立香; 王淋靓; 任二芳; 罗小杰; 艾静汶; 叶雪英

    2015-01-01

    研究红茶咸香饼干加工工艺。分别通过单因素实验确定了红茶的制备工艺和红茶的冲泡工艺,红茶制备采用鲜叶→萎凋(室温)→机械揉捻→轻发酵(35℃×3h,湿度90%)→烘干的制备工艺方案;红茶的冲泡采用洗茶→纯水仪过滤水冲泡(95℃×5min)→茶叶与茶汤分离→出茶的冲泡方案。利用正交实验确定了红茶咸香饼干的最佳配方为:低筋面粉180g、盐2g、泡打粉1.5g、黄油45g、红茶汤45g、全蛋液30g。%We researched the processing technology of black tea-salty sweet-biscuits.The preparation and brewing process of black tea were determined by single factor experiment and the preparation process program was that, fresh leaves→withering (room temperature)→mechanical rolling→light fermentation (35℃×3h,humidity 90%)→drying.The brewing process was that washing tea→brewed by filtered water of pure water meter(95℃×5min)→separating the tea and tea soup.And then,the best formula of black tea-salty sweet-biscuits was confirmed by an orthogonal experiment, the best technical skill was that low-gluten flour 180g, salt 2g, baking powder 1.5g, butter 45g,black tea soup 45g, whole egg 30g.

  14. 酵母液态发酵法生产复合型柿子酒的研究%Study of Making Composite Wine From Persimmon by Liquid Yeast Fermentation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高清山

    2013-01-01

    This paper studied the process of making persimmon wine from the composite pulp of persimmon, apple, and hawthorn berries. To compare the fermentation properties, two strains of yeast were selected but tested individually during the fermentation and brewing process. The results show that the 1450 strain of yeast performs better for the brewing of persimmon. With this strain as the production yeast we carried out optimization experiments on the fermentation process and found the optimum fermentation conditions as followed:temperature 28℃, addition level of SO2 80mg/L, addition level of Pectinase 0.6ml/L, inoculum 10%. Optimized by orthogonal test we found the best formula or ratio of the raw materials for making the composite persimmon wine is 7:3:1 with persimmon, apple, and hawthorn in that order. The persimmon wine brewed with this process appears golden yellow in color, has fruit and wine fragrance, and tastes well.%研究了以柿子、苹果、山楂为原料制成复合果浆,采用单株酵母发酵酿造技术,对2株酵母菌株在复合果浆中的发酵性能进行测定,确定了1450酵母比较适合复合柿子酒的酿造。以该菌株为生产菌种,对发酵工艺进行优化实验,最佳发酵工艺条件为:温度为28℃、SO2添加量为80mg/L、果胶酶添加量0.6mL/L、接种量10%。通过正交试验优选出复合柿子酒原料的调配方案为:柿子、苹果、山楂用量比为7:3:1。以此酿造而成的柿子酒,酒体金黄,具有果香及酒香,口感协调。

  15. Synthesis of alpha-amylase by Aspergillus oryzae in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Febe; Sabu, A; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Szakacs, George; Pandey, Ashok

    2002-01-01

    Spent Brewing Grains (SBG) was evaluated for its efficacy to be used as sole carbon source for the synthesis of alpha-amylase in solid-state fermentation using a fungal strain of Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 6270. Enzyme production was superior when the culture grew on mesophilic temperatures and best yields were at 25 degrees C. At 30 degrees C, yields were almost comparable. Maximum production of alpha-amylase [6870 U/g dry substrate (gds)] was obtained when SSF was carried out at 30 degrees C for 96 h using SBG medium, which had initial moisture of 70% and was inoculated using a spore suspension containing 1 x 10(7) spores/ml. Supplementation of SBG with external carbon sources such as mono-, di and polysaccharides caused repression in enzyme synthesis by the fungal culture. PMID:12362403

  16. 乳酸菌在原池浇淋发酵酱油中的应用%Appl ication of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermentation of Soy Sauce in Pond with Spraying-extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔治辉; 王来生

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are an important microorganism in soy sauce brewing,which play a vital role in the flavor formation of soy sauce.Add lactic acid bacteria in the fermentation of soy sauce in the pond with spraying-extraction not only can improve the production yield of soy sauce,but also can significantly improve the flavor of soy sauce.%乳酸菌是酱油酿造过程中的重要微生物,对酱油风味的形成起着至关重要的作用。在原池浇淋发酵酱油过程中添加乳酸菌,不仅能提高酱油出品率,而且能明显改善酱油风味。

  17. Proper tea drinking habits facilitate teenagers' healthy growth%科学饮茶有利于青少年健康成长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭雅敏

    2011-01-01

    本文针对青少年大量饮用碳酸饮料的现状,阐述了科学饮茶有利于青少年身体健康、修身养性、培养高尚的道德情操,提出了青少年如何科学合理饮茶、泡好茶,并希望茶产业推出更多适合青少年口味、绿色而又时尚的茶饮品。%Based on the current situation that teenagers drinking too much carbonated beverages, the article illustrates the benefits of proper tea drinking habits to teenagers' mental and physical health. The paper introduces the healthy ways for tea brewing and drinking, and suggests that more teenager - targeted tea products be developed in the marketplace.

  18. Chinese vinegar classification via volatiles using long-optical-path infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, D; Zheng, W; Jiao, L; Lang, Y; Zhao, X

    2016-03-01

    Different brands of Chinese vinegar are similar in appearance, color and aroma, making their discrimination difficult. The compositions and concentrations of the volatiles released from different vinegars vary by raw material and brewing process and thus offer a means to discriminate vinegars. In this study, we enhanced the detection sensitivity of the infrared spectrometer by extending its optical path. We measured the infrared spectra of the volatiles from 5 brands of Chinese vinegar and observed the spectral characteristics corresponding to alcohols, esters, acids, furfural, etc. Different brands of Chinese vinegar had obviously different infrared spectra and could be classified through chemometrics analysis. Furthermore, we established classification models and demonstrated their effectiveness for classifying different brands of vinegar. This study demonstrates that long-optical-path infrared spectroscopy has the ability to discriminate Chinese vinegars with the advantages that it is fast and non-destructive and eliminates the need for sampling. PMID:26471531

  19. 白话文运动视域下安徽人的白话报刊实践%THE VERNACULAR NEWSPAPER PRACTICES OF ANHUI NATIVES IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF VERNACULAR LANGUAGE MOVEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤

    2015-01-01

    白话报刊作为重要的语言推广媒体,在近代白话文运动中的地位十分重要. 安徽人的白话报刊实践从准备人才、酝酿环境、理论探索等方面推动了白话文运动深入发展. 白话文运动最终取得成功,安徽人的白话报刊实践功不可没.%Vernacular newspapers, as important language media, are very important in the modern vernacular movement. The vernacular newspaper practice of Anhui natives promoted the development of Vernacular Language Movement in China from the aspects of professional personnel cultivation, environment brewing and theoretical exploration. The success of Vernacular Lan-guage Movement can not be achieved without the vernacular newspaper practices of Anhui natives.

  20. The efficacy of karkadeh tea in controlling post-prandial blood glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Cooper, Ross Gordon; Suliman, Moustafa Ahmed;

    2009-01-01

    obesity. Approach: In order to investigate the efficacy of "karkadeh" Roselle-Hibiscus sabdariffa tea as a means of reducing post-prandial blood glucose levels in human subjects, 10g of dried karkadeh was brewed in 500ml of water, allowed to infuse for 60 min and imbibed along with a high glycemic index...... food. Results: Data show that in one individual, karkadeh tea taken in connection with a carbohydrate based breakfast meal resulted in a significant increase (17%; p<0.01) in blood glucose level cf. an ordinary breakfast tea 60 min after ingestion. Moreover, in a study involving eight individuals, a...... slower rise to maximum levels and a greater Area Under the Curve (AUC) in terms of blood glucose was noted for the karkadeh tea plus a high glycemic index food cf. that of water imbibition with an identical high glycemic food. Conclusions/Recommendations: Karkadeh tea appears to have an efffect in terms...

  1. Feminización y subalternización del otro enemigo. Construcción y destrucción de corporalidades en contextos de conflicto armado y violencia extrema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Alejandra Cortés Ibáñez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying extreme violence entails a profound analysis of the individual and collective Self. Cruelty is a terrible human quality and, as such, condenses a big part of our construction as subjects in relation to the other; cruelty is usually intimate, where proximity between executioner and victim is brewed, especially in the not few cases where sexual abuses are involved in armed conflicts. Physical and psychological abuses frequently perpetrated in various armed conflicts are part of a logic where the enemy embodies a hated and threatening alterity, which must be destroyed by any means possible. Thus, the perpetrator constructs itself as an ultra-masculine subject, in the dominant position, and sees the victim as something subjugated, dominated, humiliated and feminized. The bodies involved are vessels, and deposits of symbols and representations of what is at stake, of what is trying to be destroyed and remade.

  2. Use of headspace gas chromatographic/FTIR for the monitoring of volatiles in commercial brand coffees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Senja V.; Compton, David A.

    1989-12-01

    Recently, the area of food analysis and product safety has become of major concern to consumers. Therefore, companies involved in the quality assurance of theirproducts have been encouraged to perform extensive analyses to guarantee safety and satisfaction. One of the largest consumer products in the beverage marketplace is coffee. Much emphasis has been placed upon the safety of the decaffeination processes used by various manufacturers; these involve extraction of the caffeine by a solvent system that may be aqueous or organic, and is sometimes,super-critical. Additionally, aroma (fragrance) of brewing coffee has been found to be of major concern to the individual by the marketing departments of the coffee companies. The heads ace analysis of coffees can be used to discover the species retained after the decaffeination of coffee, as well as to distinguish the volatile species released upon treatment of the coffee at boiling water temperatures.

  3. Operators in Yemen draw warning from Saudis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that foreign oil companies with concessions in northern Yemen have been drawn into a border dispute between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. At least six companies received letters from the Saudi government warning them that steps, as yet undefined, will be taken if exploration extends into disputed areas. A second territorial dispute also appears to be brewing in the region. Iran has ejected United Arab Emirates nationals from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is jointly administered by Iran and Sharjah, one of the emirates. The U.A.E. government has reported the situation to the Gulf Cooperation Council, triggering a denial from Iran that anyone has been deported from the island

  4. Ayahuasca Alters Structural Parameters of the Rat Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitol, Dimitrius L; Siéssere, Selma; Dos Santos, Rafael G; Rosa, Maria L N M; Hallak, Jaime E C; Scalize, Priscilla H; Pereira, Bruno F; Iyomasa, Melina M; Semprini, Marisa; Riba, Jordi; Regalo, Simone C H

    2015-07-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic brew traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian indigenous groups for therapeutic purposes. It is prepared by the decoction of Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of Psychotria viridis. Banisteriopsis caapi contains β-carbolines that are inhibitors of monoamine oxidase and P. viris is rich in dimethyltryptamine, a 5-HT(1A/2A/2C) agonist. Acute ayahuasca administration produces moderate cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers, but information regarding long-term use is lacking. This study investigated the effects of ayahuasca (2-4 mL/kg) in the rat aorta after acute and chronic (14 days) administration. Ayahuasca caused flattening and stretching of vascular smooth muscle cells and changes in the arrangement and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. Chronic treatment with the higher dose significantly increased media thickness and the ratio of media thickness to lumen diameter. More research is needed on the cardiovascular function of long-term ayahuasca consumers. PMID:25714595

  5. The Study of Cross-layer Optimization for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks Implemented in Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xu; Shi, Lei; Han, Jianghong; Lu, Jingting

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks deployed in coal mines could help companies provide workers working in coal mines with more qualified working conditions. With the underground information collected by sensor nodes at hand, the underground working conditions could be evaluated more precisely. However, sensor nodes may tend to malfunction due to their limited energy supply. In this paper, we study the cross-layer optimization problem for wireless rechargeable sensor networks implemented in coal mines, of which the energy could be replenished through the newly-brewed wireless energy transfer technique. The main results of this article are two-fold: firstly, we obtain the optimal relay nodes’ placement according to the minimum overall energy consumption criterion through the Lagrange dual problem and KKT conditions; secondly, the optimal strategies for recharging locomotives and wireless sensor networks are acquired by solving a cross-layer optimization problem. The cyclic nature of these strategies is also manifested through simulations in this paper. PMID:26828500

  6. Biodiversity of brewery yeast strains and their fermentative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Dorota; Rajkowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the genetic, biochemical, fermentative and physiological characteristics of brewery yeast strains and performed a hierarchical cluster analysis to evaluate their similarity. We used five different ale and lager yeast strains, originating from different European breweries and deposited at the National Collection of Yeast Cultures (UK). Ale and lager strains exhibited different genomic properties, but their assimilation profiles and pyruvate decarboxylase activities corresponded to their species classifications. The activity of another enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase, varied between different brewing strains. Our results confirmed that ATP and glycogen content, and the activity of the key metabolic enzymes succinate dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase, may be good general indicators of cell viability. However, the genetic properties, physiology and fermentation capacity of different brewery yeasts are unique to individual strains. PMID:25267007

  7. The complete chloroplast genomes of Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Daniela; White, Kristin H; Keepers, Kyle G; Kane, Nolan C

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis and Humulus are sister genera comprising the entirety of the Cannabaceae sensu stricto, including C. sativa L. (marijuana, hemp), and H. lupulus L. (hops) as two economically important crops. These two plants have been used by humans for many purposes including as a fiber, food, medicine, or inebriant in the case of C. sativa, and as a flavoring component in beer brewing in the case of H. lupulus. In this study, we report the complete chloroplast genomes for two distinct hemp varieties of C. sativa, Italian "Carmagnola" and Russian "Dagestani", and one Czech variety of H. lupulus "Saazer". Both C. sativa genomes are 153 871 bp in length, while the H. lupulus genome is 153 751 bp. The genomes from the two C. sativa varieties differ in 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), while the H. lupulus genome differs in 1722 SNPs from both C. sativa cultivars. PMID:26329384

  8. Dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Winemaking, brewing and baking are some of the oldest biotechnological processes. In all of them, alcoholic fermentation is the main biotransformation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae the primary microorganism. Although a wide variety of microbial species may participate in alcoholic fermentation and...... contribute to the sensory properties of end-products, the yeast S. cerevisiae invariably dominates the final stages of fermentation. The ability of S. cerevisiae to outcompete other microbial species during alcoholic fermentation processes, such as winemaking, has traditionally been ascribed to its high...... fermentative power and capacity to withstand the harsh environmental conditions, i.e. high levels of ethanol and organic acids, low pH values, scarce oxygen availability and depletion of certain nutrients. However, in recent years, several studies have raised evidence that S. cerevisiae, beyond its remarkable...

  9. Environmental Control Of A Genetic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Chaitan; Bailey, James E.

    1991-01-01

    E. coli bacteria altered to contain DNA sequence encoding production of hemoglobin made to produce hemoglobin at rates decreasing with increases in concentration of oxygen in culture media. Represents amplification of part of method described in "Cloned Hemoglobin Genes Enhance Growth Of Cells" (NPO-17517). Manipulation of promoter/regulator DNA sequences opens promising new subfield of recombinant-DNA technology for environmental control of expression of selected DNA sequences. New recombinant-DNA fusion gene products, expression vectors, and nucleotide-base sequences will emerge. Likely applications include such aerobic processes as manufacture of cloned proteins and synthesis of metabolites, production of chemicals by fermentation, enzymatic degradation, treatment of wastes, brewing, and variety of oxidative chemical reactions.

  10. Premonitory phenomenon of El Ni(n)o event reflected in the observations of LOD and sea level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Data sets of the changes of the length of day, the sea surface temperature in the eastern Pacific and of the sea level in Hong Long from tide gauge observations are used to analyze and reveal the reflections in the observations of the length of day and the sea level changes concerned with the premonitory phenomenon of next El Ni(n)o event. The results from this study indicate that a new El Ni(n)o event has been brewing with the ending of the strong La Nina event that started in early summer of 1998. The estimated formation period of the new El Ni(n)o event will begin before the end of 2000, and the peak period may be reached at around the end of 2001.

  11. THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS ON ALGERIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyneb GUELLIL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Economic Crisis and 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s , The financial crisis, brewing for a while, really started to show its effects in the middle of 2007 and into 2008. It is a situation where macro indicator like economic growth rate fall in most countries across the world. “Although economists largely failed to predict this global economic seismic shock, they have since made up for their oversight by generating a large and growing literature explaining the crisis.” In this discussion paper explores what happened and what issues arise from the Global Financial Crisis on the global economy and the Algerian economic in particular.

  12. Unsafe abortion and postabortion care-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Forty percent of the world's women are living in countries with restrictive abortion laws, which prohibit abortion or only allow abortion to protect a woman's life or her physical or mental health. In countries where abortion is restricted, women have to resort to clandestine interventions to have...... an unwanted pregnancy terminated. As a consequence, high rates of unsafe abortion are seen, such as in sub-Saharan Africa where unsafe abortion occurs at rates of 18-39/1 000 women. The circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on traditional methods known and type of...... providers present. Health professionals are prone to use instrumental procedures to induce the abortion, whereas traditional providers often make a brew of herbs to be drunk in one or more doses. In countries with restrictive abortion laws, high rates of maternal death must be expected and globally an...

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Fatty Acid Salts Against Microbial in Koji-Muro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Aya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae are used as koji fungi in the spot of the brewing. Since koji-muro (room for making koji was a low level of airtightness, microbial contamination has long been a concern to the alcoholic beverage production. Therefore, we focused on the fatty acid salt which is the main component of soap. Fatty acid salts have been reported to show some antibacterial and antifungal activity. This study aimed to find the effectiveness of the fatty acid salt in koji-muro. Nine fatty acid salts were tested. The result, C12K was antibacterial effect against B. subtilis. C10K and C12K was antifungal effect against R. oryzae. These results suggest C12K has potential in the field of koji-muro.

  14. 出口欧洲一体化模式——东亚一体化能从欧盟学到什么

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽莎

    2010-01-01

    Facing with such an international environment and challenges, regional integration becomes a key manifestation o fglobalization. The EU and ASEAN are two main important regional international organizations in Eurasia, which have a strong influence on world affairs. Contrasting to the brewing in the East Asian economic integration, the European integration have already traversed a much longer road, and achieved an outstanding success. In this sense, some elements of the EU can be potentially applied to ASEAN as well as the whole East Asian integration, especially in the field of economic cooperation. And the priority should be gradually reducing or eliminating tariffs in East Asia and realize a truly free trade area in East Asia. This paper talks about the applicability of some EU elements to ASEAN as well as the East Asian in the following aspects: construction of institutions; establishment of single market; narrowing the development gap, Political reconciliation and common ideologies.

  15. Immunomodulatory effect of halophilic lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus Th221 from soy sauce moromi grown in high-salt medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Kurokawa, Toshiko; Shirakami, Tomoyuki; Tsuji, Ryohei F; Nishimura, Ikuko

    2008-02-10

    A halophilic lactic acid bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophilus, was found to possess an immunomodulatory activity that promotes T helper type 1 (Th1) immunity in addition to its important roles in soy sauce brewing. Strain Th221 was selected from 151 strains isolated from soy sauce (shoyu) moromi, since it induced strong interleukin (IL)-12 production by mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The relationship between the salt concentration in the medium and the IL-12 production-inducing activity of this strain was investigated, and the activity was found to be strong when the bacteria were grown in medium containing > or =10% (w/v) salt. The Th1-promoting activity was also manifested in an in vivo mouse study, since Th1-dependant contact sensitivity was augmented and Th2 immunity, as evaluated by specific immunoglobulin E production, was suppressed following oral ingestion of Th221. Based on these findings, Th221 administration may be useful for improving allergic symptoms. PMID:18061297

  16. Cloning and characterization of the beer foaming gene CFG1 from Saccharomyces pastorianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Lucía; Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Sánchez-Pérez, Angeles; Villa, Tomás G

    2012-10-31

    Foam production is an essential characteristic of beer, generated mainly from the proteins present in the malt and, to a minor extent, from the mannoproteins in brewer's yeast cell walls. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the novel fermentation gene CFG1 (Carlsbergensis foaming gene) from Saccharomyces pastorianus. CFG1 encodes the cell wall protein Cfg1p, a 105 kDa protein highly homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall mannoproteins, particularly those involved in foam formation, such as Awa1p and Fpg1p. Further characterization of Cfg1p revealed that this novel protein is responsible for beer foam stabilization. This report represents the first time that a brewing yeast foaming gene has been cloned and its action fully characterized. PMID:23039128

  17. Fate of xanthohumol and related prenylflavonoids from hops to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J F; Taylor, A W; Clawson, J E; Deinzer, M L

    1999-06-01

    The fate of three prenylated flavonoids of the chalcone type, xanthohumol, desmethylxanthohumol, and 3'-geranylchalconaringenin, was monitored with LC/MS-MS from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) to beer in two brewing trials. The three prenylchalcones were largely converted into their isomeric flavanones, isoxanthohumol, prenylnaringenins, and geranylnaringenins, respectively, in the boiling wort. Losses of prenylflavonoids were due to incomplete extraction from the hops into the wort (13-25%), adsorption to insoluble malt proteins (18-26%), and adsorption to yeast cells (11-32%) during fermentation. The overall yield of xanthohumol, after lagering of the beer and largely in the form of isoxanthohumol, amounted to 22-30% of the hops' xanthohumol. About 10% of the hops' desmethylxanthohumol, completely converted into prenylnaringenins, remained in the beers. 3'-Geranylchalconaringenin behaved similarly to desmethylxanthohumol. Solubility experiments indicated that (1) malt carbohydrates form soluble complexes with xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol and (2) solubility does not dictate the isoxanthohumol levels of finished beers. PMID:10794646

  18. Development and validation of a triplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three mustard species and three celery varieties in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents a triplex real-time PCR assay allowing the simultaneous detection of three mustard species (white, black and brown mustard) and three celery varieties (celery roots, celery stalks and leaf celery) in foodstuffs. The triplex assay does not show cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae. Low cross-reactivities were observed with fenugreek, cumin, ginger, caraway, turmeric, lovage and rye, the ΔCt values were, however, ⩾ 12 compared to positive controls. The triplex assay allows the detection of traces of DNA of the allergenic components in spite of an excess of the other DNA templates. Analysis of extracts from model sausages containing defined concentrations of mustard and celery showed that the triplex assay is applicable to both raw and processed foods. It was found to allow the detection of 1 ppm black/brown mustard and 50 ppm white mustard and celery in raw and brewed sausages with a probability ⩾ 95%. PMID:25872425

  19. The Study of Cross-layer Optimization for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks Implemented in Coal Mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xu; Shi, Lei; Han, Jianghong; Lu, Jingting

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks deployed in coal mines could help companies provide workers working in coal mines with more qualified working conditions. With the underground information collected by sensor nodes at hand, the underground working conditions could be evaluated more precisely. However, sensor nodes may tend to malfunction due to their limited energy supply. In this paper, we study the cross-layer optimization problem for wireless rechargeable sensor networks implemented in coal mines, of which the energy could be replenished through the newly-brewed wireless energy transfer technique. The main results of this article are two-fold: firstly, we obtain the optimal relay nodes' placement according to the minimum overall energy consumption criterion through the Lagrange dual problem and KKT conditions; secondly, the optimal strategies for recharging locomotives and wireless sensor networks are acquired by solving a cross-layer optimization problem. The cyclic nature of these strategies is also manifested through simulations in this paper. PMID:26828500

  20. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German energy service companies sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koewener, D.; Schleich, J.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research conducted in the German energy service sector to assess to what extent energy service companies (ESCOs) can help overcome the barriers to energy in the higher education, brewing and mechanical engineering sectors. This report complements the sector for Germany within the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000; Schleich/Boede 2000a; Schleich/Boede 2000b; Schleich et al., 2000). The report characterises the German energy service sector, contains a description and analysis of four case studies in the energy service sector, identifies the main barriers and chances for ESCOs in the higher education, brewery and mechanical engineering sectors, and concludes with brief recommendations on how these barriers may be overcome. The results of the study are summarised here under the following headings: Characterising the energy service sector in Germany; - Case studies of energy service companies in Germany; - The role of ESCOs in the case-study sectors; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  1. Keeping open-quotes itclose quotes down on the farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The open-quotes tank farmclose quotes for storing nuclear waste at the Hanford, Washington plutonium production complex has been a safety concern for some time. Special attention has been paid to a particular tank known as 101-SY, which periodically burps a witches' brew of chemicals. Concerns have been voiced that this tank presents an explosion hazard. Three years ago the Energy Department agreed to improve the monitoring of the 53 storage tanks considered most dangerous. In February, however, Oregon Congressman Ron Wynden made public the Energy Department's internal open-quotes Red Teamclose quotes report on the Hanford waste tanks. The unencouraging findings of the Red Team are briefly outlined in this article. Included are reports of numerous failures of tank monitoring equipment, but also findings that the tanks are being monitored more frequently than previously

  2. Assessing Students' Attitudes In A College Physics Course In Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Jorge; Alarcon, Hugo

    2010-10-01

    Considering the benefits of modeling instruction in improving conceptual learning while students work more like scientists, an implementation was made in an introductory Physics course in a Mexican University. Recently Brewe, Kramer and O'Brien have observed positive attitudinal shifts using modeling instruction in a course with a reduced number of students. These results are opposite to previous observations with methodologies that promote active learning. Inspired in those results, the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) was applied as pre and post tests in two Mechanics courses with modeling. In comparison to the different categories of the CLASS, significant positive shifts have been determined in Overall, Sophistication in Problem Solving, and Applied Conceptual Understanding in a sample of 44 students.

  3. Impaired Uptake and/or Utilization of Leucine by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Suppressed by the SPT15-300 Allele of the TATA-Binding Protein Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baerends, RJ; Qiu, Jin-Long; Rasmussen, Simon;

    2009-01-01

    mutant allele of the SPT15 gene (SPT15-300) corresponding to the three amino acid changes F177S, Y195H, and K218R has been reported (H. Alper, J. Moxley, E. Nevoigt, G. R. Fink, and G. Stephanopoulos, Science 314:1565-1568, 2006). The SPT15 gene codes for the TATA-binding protein. This finding prompted...... us to examine the effect of expression of the SPT15-300 allele in various yeast species of industrial importance. Expression of SPT15-300 in leucine-prototrophic strains of S. cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, or Saccharomyces pastorianus (lager brewing yeast), however, did not improve tolerance to...... ethanol on complex rich medium (yeast extract-peptone-dextrose). The enhanced growth of the laboratory yeast strain BY4741 expressing the SPT15-300 mutant allele was seen only on defined media with low concentrations of leucine, indicating that the apparent improved growth in the presence of ethanol was...

  4. Methodology, results and experience of independent brachytherapy plan verifications based on DICOM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a high dose rate source together with an afterloading treatment delivery in brachytherapy plans allows for dose modulation minimizing dose to staff. An independent verification of the exported data to the treatment station is required by local regulations (being also a widely accepted recommendation on the international literature2). We have developed a methodology under home brew code to import DICOM treatment data onto an Excel spreadsheet that is able to calculate dose on given reference points using the TG-43 formalism of the AAPM3-5. It employs analytic fits of anisotropy factor and radial dose function for different sources6-8. The end point implementations we present here allow merging in one step an independent verification and a treatment printout. The use of DICOM standard makes our code versatile and provides greater compatibility with respect to current treatment planning systems. (Author)

  5. EFFECT OF ALLELOCHEMICALS FROM CRESSA CRETICA L. ON IN VITRO POLLEN GERMINATION OF CAJANUS CAJAN (L. MILL SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbhar B. A.1 and Patel G. R. 2

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cressa cretica L. belonging to family Convolvulaceae, commonly known as Boknu is a erect, small, dwarf shrub, usually grows in sandy or muddy saline habitats. Brew baker and Kwack's basal medium was used for germination of pollen grains. At low concentration (5% and 10% of water extract of Cressa cretica plant (WEC reported minimum inhibitory effect i.e., 57.84% 42.78% respectively on in vitro pollen germination of Cajanus cajan. The maximum reduced pollen germination was observed under 75% concentration of leaf extract (8.69% and pollens were no germinated on 100% of WEC as compared to control (70% after 15 minutes. The aerial parts of Cressa cretica L. yielded five flavonoids that were identified.

  6. Lectures given at the 4th Session of the Centro Internazionale Matematico Estivo (C.I.M.E.)

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This book is devoted to the presentation of some flow problems in porous media having relevant industrial applications. The main topics covered are: the manufacturing of composite materials, the espresso coffee brewing process, the filtration of liquids through diapers, various questions about flow problems in oil reservoirs and the theory of homogenization. The aim is to show that filtration problems arising in very practical industrial context exhibit interesting and highly nontrivial mathematical aspects. Thus the style of the book is mathematically rigorous, but specifically oriented towards applications, so that it is intended for both applied mathematicians and researchers in various areas of technological interest. The reader is required to have a good knowledge of the classical theory of PDE and basic functional analysis.

  7. Effects of natural plant extracts and gamma rays on lactobacillus isolated from Korean traditional raw rice wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ji Young; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Recently, Korean traditional raw rice wines (RRW) have received attention because they are a nutritious food with health properties. But the rapid deterioration of fermented RRW is one of the serious problems for brewing and marketing in the world beyond Korea. The goal of this study was to develop a way to enhance the quality and to lengthen the period of circulation of the RRW. A lactic acid bacterium was isolated from RRW. It was identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (98%) based on its biochemical properties, and 16S rRNA sequence. Treatments of RRW with gamma radiation and green tea extracts reduced the bacterial population except for yeasts and Lactobacillus in the RRW. This result suggested that the natural plant extracts and catechin products can be used as an effective natural storage agent.

  8. Free Beer and Engaging Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    This paper presents an analysis of art collective Superflex' FREE BEER project; a beer brand and an art work that seeks to promote a critical understanding of free creativity and intellectual property rights by inviting beer enthusiasts to brew their own beer. The paper seeks to demonstrate how...... the project contributes to Superflex' profile as contemporary avant-garde artists and how their work has contributed to the field of design. More specifically the paper seeks to demonstrate how the FREE BEER project succeeds in establishing a context of meaning that involves a political as well as a business...... dimension, and which makes possible the exchange of values to and from these dimensions as well as that of art. In the paper, this context of meaning is constructed in terms of a complex chain of analogies by means of which amateur beer production and beer consumption becomes an expression of the belief...

  9. Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) inhibits the methylglyoxal mediated protein glycation and potentiates its reversing activity in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate inhibitory activity of methylglyoxal (MGO) mediated protein glycation and ability to potentiate its reversing activity and range of antioxidant properties of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea. Methods: Freeze dried black tea brew (BTB) was used as the sample in this study. Anti-glycation and glycation reversing activity was studied in bovine serum albumin (BSA)-MGO model. Antioxidant properties were studied using total polyphenolic content, total flavonoid content, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine and ferric reducing antioxidant power in vitro antioxidant assays. Results: The results demonstrated significant (P Conclusions: The novel properties observed for Sri Lankan orange pekoe grade black tea indicate its usefulness as a supplementary beverage in managing MGO and advanced glycation end products related diseases and ailments.

  10. More Genetic Engineering With Cloned Hemoglobin Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Cells modified to enhance growth and production of proteins. Method for enhancing both growth of micro-organisms in vitro and production of various proteins or metalbolites in these micro-organisms provides for incorporation of selected chromosomal or extrachormosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences into micro-organisms from other cells or from artificial sources. Incorporated DNA includes parts encoding desired product(s) or characteristic(s) of cells and parts that control expression of productor characteristic-encoding parts in response to variations in environment. Extended method enables increased research into growth of organisms in oxygen-poor environments. Industrial applications found in enhancement of processing steps requiring oxygen in fermentation, enzymatic degradation, treatment of wastes containing toxic chemicals, brewing, and some oxidative chemical reactions.

  11. Revealing a 5,000-y-old beer recipe in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajing; Liu, Li; Ball, Terry; Yu, Linjie; Li, Yuanqing; Xing, Fulai

    2016-06-01

    The pottery vessels from the Mijiaya site reveal, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence of in situ beer making in China, based on the analyses of starch, phytolith, and chemical residues. Our data reveal a surprising beer recipe in which broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi), and tubers were fermented together. The results indicate that people in China established advanced beer-brewing technology by using specialized tools and creating favorable fermentation conditions around 5,000 y ago. Our findings imply that early beer making may have motivated the initial translocation of barley from the Western Eurasia into the Central Plain of China before the crop became a part of agricultural subsistence in the region 3,000 y later. PMID:27217567

  12. THE MALT EXTRACT, RELATIVE EXTRACT AND DIASTATIC POWER AS A VARIETAL CHARACTERISTIC OF MALTING BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Dráb

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Malting quality of barley depends on genetic and agro-ekological factors. Chemical composition of malting barley and its technological parameters are very important for malting and brewing, due to this fact the quality of barley must be strictly evaluated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of variety, locality and year of production on the 5 technological parameters of malt: extract, relative extract at 45 °C, Kolbach index, diastatic power and friability. It was found out that the barley variety significantly influenced the following parameters: extract, relative extract and diastatic power. The growing locality weakly influenced qualitative parameters i.e. Kolbach index and relative extract at 45°C. The study confirmed the most significant impact of the year on the Kolbach index and friability.

  13. The application of multi-parameter flow cytometry to monitor individual microbial cell physiological state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Christopher J; Nebe-Von-Caron, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    The development of multi-parameter flow cytometric techniques in our laboratories has led to a functional classification of the physiological state of single celled micro-organisms, including both yeast and bacteria. This classification is based on the presence or absence of an intact fully polarized cytoplasmic membrane and the transport systems across it. Using these techniques it is possible to resolve a cells physiological state, beyond culturability to include metabolic activity enabling assessment of population heterogeneity. Importantly results are available in real-time, 1-2 min after a sample is taken, enabling informed decisions to be taken about a process. These techniques have been extensively applied by us for monitoring the stress responses of micro-organisms in such diverse areas as brewing, bio-remediation, bio-transformation, food processing and pharmaceutical fermentation, some of which are discussed here. PMID:15217160

  14. Methodology, results and experience of independent brachytherapy plan verifications based on DICOM standard; Implementacion, resultados y experiencia de una verificacion independiente de tratamientos de braquiterapia basada en el estandar DICOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrando Sanchez, A.; Pardo Perez, E.; Castro Novals, J.; Casa de Julian, M. A. de la; Cabello Murillo, E.; Diaz Fuentes, R.; Molina Lopez, M. Y.

    2013-09-01

    The use of a high dose rate source together with an afterloading treatment delivery in brachytherapy plans allows for dose modulation minimizing dose to staff. An independent verification of the exported data to the treatment station is required by local regulations (being also a widely accepted recommendation on the international literature). We have developed a methodology under home brew code to import DICOM treatment data onto an Excel spreadsheet that is able to calculate dose on given reference points using the TG-43 formalism of the AAPM3-5. It employs analytic fits of anisotropy factor and radial dose function for different sources. The end point implementations we present here allow merging in one step an independent verification and a treatment printout. The use of DICOM standard makes our code versatile and provides greater compatibility with respect to current treatment planning systems. (Author)

  15. Analysis of Comprehensive Utilization of Coconut Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kan; ZHENG; Dong; LIANG; Xirui; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the coconut cultivation in China,and the current comprehensive utilization of waste resources generated during cultivation and processing of coconut.The wastes generated in the process of cultivation include old coconut tree trunk,roots,withered coconut leaves,coconut flower and fallen cracking coconut,mainly used for biogas extraction,direct combustion and power generation,brewing,pharmacy,and processing of building materials;the wastes generated during processing include coconut water,coconut coat,coconut shell and coconut meal,mainly used for processing beverages,pharmaceutical products,activated carbon,medium and feed.This paper analyzes and explores some problems in the process of comprehensive utilization of coconut waste in China,such as insufficient understanding,inadequate development and lack of research efforts,and finally puts forth the corresponding development countermeasures.

  16. Effects of the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee beverages on oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, André Luiz Machado; Fonseca, Miriam das Dores Mendes; Meireles, Elisson Lamin Jerônimo; Duarte, Stella Maris da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Rita; Paula, Fernanda Borges de Araujo

    2012-03-01

    Many authors attribute the antioxidant activity of brewed coffee to its caffeine content. In addition, caffeine intake has been associated with increased performance during physical exercise. This study analyzed the in vivo effects of drinking caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee (8%, w/v) on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in the anterior tibialis muscles of rats subjected to intense exercise. It was observed that exercise induced lipid peroxidation (estimated using malondialdehyde) and protein oxidation (evaluated by determining the formation of carbonyl groups) in the muscle (P coffee and caffeine solution did not exhibit antioxidant activity in vivo. Caffeinated instant coffee beverage intake did not induce changes in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities but was able to diminish lipid and protein oxidation in the anterior tibialis muscles of rats after exercise (P exercise. PMID:22173821

  17. Application of High Resolution-Continuum Source Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS): determination of trace elements in tea and tisanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Domínguez-González, María Raquel; Aboal-Somoza, Manuel; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2015-03-01

    A new application of HR-CS FAAS (High Resolution-Continuum Source Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) has been developed for the determination of several trace elements (Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Na and Zn) in infusions made from tea, rooibos and tea with seaweed samples. The proposed methods are fast, inexpensive and show good performances: the mean analytical recovery was approximately 100%. The mean limit of detection was 29.4 μg/l, and the mean limit of quantification was 98.0 μg/l (both limits refer to the brewed samples). Due to the matrix effect observed, the standard addition method had to be applied. Preliminary classification (based on metal contents) using chemometric techniques such as PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and CA (Cluster Analysis), was successful for infusions made from rooibos and tea with seaweed, but inconclusive for black and green teas. PMID:25306375

  18. 近红外光谱技术在食品检测中的应用研究进展%Progress on Application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Technology in Food Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 曾铭; 要磊; 喻零春; 刘伟云

    2011-01-01

    Analyzes the principle and superiority of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique, and focuses on application of the technology in the grain crops, garden stuff, milk and dairy products, meat and meat products brewing food. And the existing problems of this technology were discussed and its development trend was predicted.%分析了近红外光谱(NIRS)分析技术的原理和优越性,着重论述了该技术在粮食作物、果蔬、乳及乳制品、肉及肉制品、酿造食品等方面的应用,并对该技术所存在问题进行了探讨,对其发展趋势进行了展望。

  19. Development and validation of a real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea) in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Wolny, Martina; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

    2013-05-01

    The paper presents a real-time PCR method allowing the simultaneous detection of traces of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea) in food. The primers and the probe target the B. nigra partial RT gene for reverse transcriptase from gypsy-like retroelement 13G42-26. The real-time PCR method does not show any cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae species with the exception of white mustard. Low cross-reactivities with cinnamon, cumin, fenugreek, ginger, rye and turmeric can be ignored because in common mustard containing foodstuffs these biological species are present in very low amounts. By analysing serially diluted DNA extracts from black and brown mustard, the DNA of both mustard species could be detected down to 0.1 pg. With 10 ng DNA per PCR tube the real-time PCR method allows the detection of 5 ppm black and brown mustard in brewed sausages. PMID:23265498

  20. Circulating images of virtual systems: trodes, gloves, and goggles in the eighties and nineties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mizuko; Fisher, Scott S.

    1997-05-01

    Since the late 80s, the popular imagination surrounding virtual systems has been lively and contested, an intriguing brew of cyberpunk fiction, government and corporate research, and product development, with a dash of countercultural excess. Virtual systems, in their myriad forms, have captured the interest not only of scientists and engineers, but also of a broad spectrum of social actors, including the popular and alternative press, fiction and comic writers, visual artists, film and television producers, as well as large sectors of a curious public, all of whom have produced diverse and creative images of these systems for a range of different audiences. The circulation of images of virtual systems points to some of the ways in which the production of technology can be located not only in engineering labs but also various realms of mass media and public culture. Focusing on images of gloves and goggles, this paper describes some of the pathways through which images of virtual systems have traveled.