WorldWideScience

Sample records for brewing

  1. Brewing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelter, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Following the brewing process from grain to glass, this course uses the biological and chemical principles of brewing to teach science to the nonscience major. Discussion of the scientific aspects of malting, mashing, fermentation, and the making of different beer styles is complemented by laboratory exercises that use scientific methods to…

  2. Brewing with fractionated barley

    OpenAIRE

    Donkelaar, van, CC René

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw barley, however, contains less endogenous enzymes and more undesired components for the use of beer brewing, compared to malted barley.  The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how ba...

  3. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  4. The use of enzymes for beer brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Mostert, Joost; Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    The exergetic performance of beer produced by the conventional malting and brewing process is compared with that of beer produced using an enzyme-assisted process. The aim is to estimate if the use of an exogenous enzyme formulation reduces the environmental impact of the overall brewing process. Th

  5. Low Molecular Weight Melanoidins in Coffee Brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Roos, E.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of low molecular weight (LMw) coffee brew melanoidins is challenging due to the presence of many non-melanoidin components that complicate analysis. This study focused on the isolation of LMw coffee brew melanoidins by separation of melanoidins from non-melanoidin components that are presen

  6. The Microbiology of Malting and Brewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Brewing beer involves microbial activity at every stage, from raw material production and malting to stability in the package. Most of these activities are desirable, as beer is the result of a traditional food fermentation, but others represent threats to the quality of the final product and must be controlled actively through careful management, the daily task of maltsters and brewers globally. This review collates current knowledge relevant to the biology of brewing yeast, fermentation management, and the microbial ecology of beer and brewing. PMID:23699253

  7. The microbiology of malting and brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Bamforth, Charles W

    2013-06-01

    Brewing beer involves microbial activity at every stage, from raw material production and malting to stability in the package. Most of these activities are desirable, as beer is the result of a traditional food fermentation, but others represent threats to the quality of the final product and must be controlled actively through careful management, the daily task of maltsters and brewers globally. This review collates current knowledge relevant to the biology of brewing yeast, fermentation management, and the microbial ecology of beer and brewing.

  8. Fate of pesticides during beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Suga, Keiko; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-04-27

    The fates of more than 300 pesticide residues were investigated in the course of beer brewing. Ground malt artificially contaminated with pesticides was brewed via steps such as mashing, boiling, and fermentation. Analytical samples were taken from wort, spent grain, and beer produced at certain key points in the brewing process. The samples were extracted and purified with the QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe) method and were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a multiresidue method. In the results, a majority of pesticides showed a reduction in the unhopped wort and were adsorbed onto the spent grain after mashing. In addition, some pesticides diminished during the boiling and fermentation. This suggests that the reduction was caused mainly by adsorption, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. After the entire process of brewing, the risks of contaminating beer with pesticides were reduced remarkably, and only a few pesticides remained without being removed or resolved.

  9. Arabinogalactan Proteins Are Incorporated in Negatively Charged Coffee Brew Melanoidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Laat, de M.P.F.C.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2007-01-01

    The charge properties of melanoidins in high molecular weight (HMw) coffee brew fractions, isolated by diafiltration and membrane dialysis, were studied. Ion exchange chromatography experiments with the HMw fractions showed that coffee brew melanoidins were negatively charged whereas these molecules

  10. Rural brewing, exclusion, and development policy-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, M

    1996-10-01

    This article highlights the economic role of women in the brewing industry in rural and periurban areas of sub-Saharan African countries. Local beer drinking is a form of social exchange and a reward for time-intensive work. Modern beer brewing in rural areas is a family operation. Beer is produced for subsistence and for sale. Locally brewed beer has a lower alcohol content than commercial brews. The author refers to Pradervand's (1990) study of local brewing in five east and west African countries. Pradervand found that men spent an estimated CFAF 18 billion per year on local brews compared to the value of total national exports of CFAF 21 billion per year in 1996. The male Kitui in rural Kenya were found to spend 60% of their weekly income on beer. Women dominate brewing in eastern and southern Africa. Rural beers are grain based (maize, millet, or sorghum), but may also be made from bananas, bamboo, sugar cane, or coconut. An estimated 25% of women in a village survey in Tanzania reported that beer was brewed one to four times a month. Another survey in the 1980s found that 73% of women brewed beer at some time. Beer brewing is a very significant economic activity for rural women. It provides higher levels of income and employment. Urban brewing by women has a negative image that rural women's beer brewing does not have. Grain for brewing comes from family farms or markets. Women's clubs are used as income generation groups for loans and as support groups. Women's beer brewing is not supported by development interventions or recognized by UN agencies. There are resource implications due to an estimated 5%-30% of annual wood consumption used for beer brewing. If women's role in beer brewing is ignored, male-dominated commercial interests will further marginalize rural women.

  11. Combining unmalted barley and pearling gives good quality brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Hageman, Jos A.; Oguz, Serhat; Noordman, Tom R.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with unmalted barley can reduce the use of raw materials, thereby increasing the efficiency of the brewing process. However, unmalted barley contains several undesired components for brewing and has a low enzymatic activity. Pearling, an abrasive milling method, has been proposed as a pre

  12. On beer, brewing and better thermal insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Herder, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    The art of brewing goes back to very ancient times. Though little has changed in the actual brewing process, the technical equipment has been improved considerably. Cooling the brew, gives also a need for thermal insulation. In the beginning cork has been used as an thermal insulation material, followed by cellular plastic foam and fibrous insulants in the past 30 years. All these materials gradually absorb water, caused by the phenomena that water vapour in the air tends to go into the direction of the cold pipe surface. In practice it appeared to be impossible to make the above insulation materials vapourtight. Water vapour will condensate in the insulation material into water. Water being the greatest enemy of insulation material. Cellular glass insulation, well-known in the petro-chemical industry, has proven to be 100% vapourtight, so an excellent choice for cold piping and equipment. 5 figs.

  13. Globalization of Brewing and Economies of Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    for beers and economies of scale in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based on information...... from the Annual Reports of the eight largest breweries in the world, the estimation proved a reduction in these costs of more than ten percent when doubling the size of the brewing group. This finding verifies that the restructuring of the brewing industry creates significant scale benefits...

  14. Progress in Brewing Science and Beer Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamforth, C W

    2017-03-15

    The brewing of beer is an ancient biotechnology, the unit processes of which have not changed in hundreds of years. Equally, scientific study within the brewing industry not only has ensured that modern beer making is highly controlled, leading to highly consistent, high-quality, healthful beverages, but also has informed many other fermentation-based industries. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Volume 8 is June 7, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  15. QTL mapping of sake brewing characteristics of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katou, Taku; Namise, Masahiro; Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2009-04-01

    A haploid sake yeast strain derived from the commercial diploid sake yeast strain Kyokai no. 7 showed better characteristics for sake brewing compared to the haploid laboratory yeast strain X2180-1B, including higher production of ethanol and aromatic components. A hybrid of these two strains showed intermediate characteristics in most cases. After sporulation of the hybrid strain, we obtained 100 haploid segregants of the hybrid. Small-scale sake brewing tests of these segregants showed a smooth continuous distribution of the sake brewing characteristics, suggesting that these traits are determined by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). To examine these sake brewing characteristics at the genomic level, we performed QTL analysis of sake brewing characteristics using 142 DNA markers that showed heterogeneity between the two parental strains. As a result, we identified 25 significant QTLs involved in the specification of sake brewing characteristics such as ethanol fermentation and the production of aromatic components.

  16. Development of a Vermi Tea Brewing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnalyn C. Cabaces

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost, a product of the composting system that utilizes earthworms for the decomposition of the biosolids and/or solid wastes is now considered in organic farming. But since it is applied in solid form, it is difficult for some plants to take up the nutrient contents. The liquid form is the vermi tea which facilitates the plants for fast absorption of the nutrients. The main objective of this study is to develop a vermi tea brewing machine taking into consideration system components and material specifications. Specifically, it aimed to establish the operating time of the machine and to evaluate its performance in terms of brewing efficiency and percent yield. The properties of the produced vermi tea were also evaluated. This is a developmental type of study which consists of development stage, preliminary testing stage and the performance testing stage. The vermi tea brewing machine comprised mainly of the cylindrical container, copper tubings, air pump, vermicompost container and support frame. During preliminary testing, the established machine’s operating time was 24 hours. Performance testing of the machine resulted to 99.58% yield and the brewing efficiency was acceptable in terms of the dissolved oxygen after the process. Properties of the produced vermi tea were tested by accredited laboratories and resulted to ph of 4.23, total NPK of 0.033%, dissolved oxygen of 5.62 mg/L, total coliform of 4,500,000 CFU/ml, mold of 3,000 CFU/ml and yeast of 3,000 CFU/ml. These are acceptable values which indicated that it can be used to improve farming activities.

  17. Novel brewing yeast hybrids: creation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Gibson, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The natural interspecies Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrid yeast is responsible for global lager beer production and is one of the most important industrial microorganisms. Its success in the lager brewing environment is due to a combination of traits not commonly found in pure yeast species, principally low-temperature tolerance, and maltotriose utilization. Parental transgression is typical of hybrid organisms and has been exploited previously for, e.g., the production of wine yeast with beneficial properties. The parental strain S. eubayanus has only been discovered recently and newly created lager yeast strains have not yet been applied industrially. A number of reports attest to the feasibility of this approach and artificially created hybrids are likely to have a significant impact on the future of lager brewing. De novo S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus hybrids outperform their parent strains in a number of respects, including, but not restricted to, fermentation rate, sugar utilization, stress tolerance, and aroma formation. Hybrid genome function and stability, as well as different techniques for generating hybrids and their relative merits are discussed. Hybridization not only offers the possibility of generating novel non-GM brewing yeast strains with unique properties, but is expected to aid in unraveling the complex evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast.

  18. Fate of Fusarium Toxins during Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habler, Katharina; Geissinger, Cajetan; Hofer, Katharina; Schüler, Jan; Moghari, Sarah; Hess, Michael; Gastl, Martina; Rychlik, Michael

    2017-01-11

    Some information is available about the fate of Fusarium toxins during the brewing process, but only little is known about the single processing steps in detail. In our study we produced beer from two different barley cultivars inoculated with three different Fusarium species, namely, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium avenaceum, producing a wide range of mycotoxins such as type B trichothecenes, type A trichothecenes, and enniatins. By the use of multi-mycotoxin LC-MS/MS stable isotope dilution methods we were able to follow the fate of Fusarium toxins during the entire brewing process. In particular, the type B trichothecenes deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol showed similar behaviors. Between 35 and 52% of those toxins remained in the beer after filtration. The contents of the potentially hazardous deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and the type A trichothecenes increased during mashing, but a rapid decrease of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside content was found during the following steps of lautering and wort boiling. The concentration of enniatins greatly decreased with the discarding of spent grains or finally with the hot break. The results of our study show the retention of diverse Fusarium toxins during the brewing process and allow for assessing the food safety of beer regarding the monitored Fusarium mycotoxins.

  19. Low molecular weight melanoidins in coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekedam, E Koen; Roos, Ellen; Schols, Henk A; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Smit, Gerrit

    2008-06-11

    Analysis of low molecular weight (LMw) coffee brew melanoidins is challenging due to the presence of many non-melanoidin components that complicate analysis. This study focused on the isolation of LMw coffee brew melanoidins by separation of melanoidins from non-melanoidin components that are present in LMw coffee brew material. LMw coffee fractions differing in polarity were obtained by reversed-phase solid phase extraction and their melanoidin, sugar, nitrogen, caffeine, trigonelline, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, quinic acid, caffeic acid, and phenolic groups contents were determined. The sugar composition, the charge properties, and the absorbance at various wavelengths were investigated as well. The majority of the LMw melanoidins were found to have an apolar character, whereas most non-melanoidins have a polar character. The three isolated melanoidin-rich fractions represented 56% of the LMw coffee melanoidins and were free from non-melanoidin components. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that the melanoidins isolated showed similar features as high molecular weight coffee melanoidins. All three melanoidin fractions contained approximately 3% nitrogen, indicating the presence of incorporated amino acids or proteins. Surprisingly, glucose was the main sugar present in these melanoidins, and it was reasoned that sucrose is the most likely source for this glucose within the melanoidin structure. It was also found that LMw melanoidins exposed a negative charge, and this negative charge was inversely proportional to the apolar character of the melanoidins. Phenolic group levels as high as 47% were found, which could be explained by the incorporation of chlorogenic acids in these melanoidins.

  20. Analysis of the hybrid genomes of brewing yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolat, I.

    2016-01-01

    One of the best guarded secrets of brewers is represented by the brewing yeast employed in beer fermentation, due to its profound impact upon the specific flavour profile of the final product. The current research tackles the genome diversity of lager brewing strains as well as their impact on impor

  1. Roasting Effects on Formation Mechanisms of Coffee Brew Melanoidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Loots, M.J.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the roasting degree on coffee brew melanoidin properties and formation mechanisms was studied. Coffee brew fractions differing in molecular weight (Mw) were isolated from green and light-, medium-, and dark-roasted coffee beans. Isolated fractions were characterized for their melanoidi

  2. Incorporation of Chlorogenic Acids in Coffee Brew Melanoidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van T.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    The incorporation of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and their subunits quinic and caffeic acids (QA and CA) in coffee brew melanoidins was studied. Fractions with different molecular weights, ionic charges, and ethanol solubilities were isolated from coffee brew. Fractions were saponified, and the release

  3. Immobilization: A Revolution in Traditional Brewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkajärvi, Ilkka; Linko, Matti

    In nature many micro-organisms tend to bind to solid surfaces. This tendency has long been utilized in a number of processes, for example in producing vinegar and acetic acid in bioreactors filled with wood shavings. Acetobacteria are attached to the surface of these shavings. In modern technical language: they are immobilized. Also yeast cells can be immobilized. In the brewing industry this has been the basis for maintaining efficient, continuous fermentation in bioreactors with very high yeast concentrations. The most dramatic change in brewing over recent years has been the replacement of traditional lagering of several weeks by a continuous process in which the residence time is only about 2h. Continuous primary fermentation is used on a commercial scale in New Zealand. In this process, instead of a carrier, yeast is retained in reactors by returning it partly after separation. In many pilot scale experiments the primary fermentation is shortened from about 1week to 1-2days using immobilized yeast reactors. When using certain genetically modified yeast strains no secondary fermentation is needed, and the total fermentation time in immobilized yeast reactors can therefore be shortened to only 2days.

  4. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Brew during the Brewing Corn Malt in the Production of Maize Beer in Congo

    OpenAIRE

    P. Diakabana; M. Mvoula-Tsiéri; J. Dhellot; S.C. Kobawila; D. Louembé

    2013-01-01

    The study consists in the production of a traditional beer from maize in the Congo. The traditional method of brewing corn malt has three main stages: malting corn, brewing corn malt and fermentation. During the brewing corn malt, endogenous amylase activity is destroyed during the stiffening of the starch to about 80°C. A pre-cooking of the mash is necessitated to promote amylolyse at 50°C with an exogenous enzyme. The use of a preparation of α-amylase can liquefy the mash and produce a swee...

  5. Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat......, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions...... and higher viscosity than malt wort. Furthermore, the use of 100 % unmalted grains resulted in a decrease in the levels of colour and brightness, as well as higher alcohols and esters in the final beers. Consequently, the study provides valuable information for exploring beer brewing with 100 % unmalted...

  6. Brewing for Students: An Inquiry-Based Microbiology Lab †

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Brian K.; Usman Alam; Samantha J Dacanay; Amanda K. Lee; Shaffer, Justin F.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to improve and assess student learning, there has been a push to increase the incorporation of discovery-driven modules and those that contain real-world relevance into laboratory curricula. To further this effort, we have developed, implemented, and assessed an undergraduate microbiology laboratory experiment that requires students to use the scientific method while brewing beer. The experiment allows students to brew their own beer and characterize it based on taste, alcohol co...

  7. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were assambled in order to increase the brewing yeast fermentation performance. The primary fermentation was 14 days, followed by another 14 days of secondary fermentation (maturation. The must fermentation monitoring was done by the automatic FermentoStar analyzer. The whole fermentation process was monitorized (temperature, pH, alcohol concentration, apparent and total wort extract.

  8. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  9. Marketing and Globalization of the Brewing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    The globalization of the brewing industry after the turn of the century through a large wave of mergers and acquisitions has changed the structure of the world beer markets. The chapter tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012 and points to high transportation costs...... for beers and economies of scale at the firm level in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale at the firm level in marketing...... significant economies of scale benefits at the firm level to be shared between the merging partners as marketing and distribution costs are very high in this industry....

  10. Marketing and Globalization of the Brewing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    The globalization of the brewing industry after the turn of the century through a large wave of mergers and acquisitions has changed the structure of the world beer markets. The chapter tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012 and points to high transportation costs...... significant economies of scale benefits at the firm level to be shared between the merging partners as marketing and distribution costs are very high in this industry....... for beers and economies of scale at the firm level in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale at the firm level in marketing...

  11. Energy-Saving in Brew-Rectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Ulyanau

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates dynamics of rectification process on one plate of a column. The basic channels controlling brew-rectification process are described in the paper.The paper also considers problems pertaining to synthesis of an adaptive system that controls non-stationary objects with delay. Synthesis of adaptive systems that automatically control product quality and saving on power resources and productivity with the help of the second method of Lyapunov has been carried out in the paper.Industrial introduction of the given automatic control system of technological process shall permit to increase productivity of a rectification (10–15 %, to decrease specific power consumption by (5–10 % while preserving the specified quality of rectified ethyl alcohol and decrease alcohol losses with luting water and malt-residue.

  12. Genome sequence of the lager brewing yeast, an interspecies hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Yoshihiro; Kanamori, Takeshi; Itoh, Takehiko; Kodama, Yukiko; Rainieri, Sandra; Nakamura, Norihisa; Shimonaga, Tomoko; Hattori, Masahira; Ashikari, Toshihiko

    2009-04-01

    This work presents the genome sequencing of the lager brewing yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) Weihenstephan 34/70, a strain widely used in lager beer brewing. The 25 Mb genome comprises two nuclear sub-genomes originating from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus and one circular mitochondrial genome originating from S. bayanus. Thirty-six different types of chromosomes were found including eight chromosomes with translocations between the two sub-genomes, whose breakpoints are within the orthologous open reading frames. Several gene loci responsible for typical lager brewing yeast characteristics such as maltotriose uptake and sulfite production have been increased in number by chromosomal rearrangements. Despite an overall high degree of conservation of the synteny with S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus, the syntenies were not well conserved in the sub-telomeric regions that contain lager brewing yeast characteristic and specific genes. Deletion of larger chromosomal regions, a massive unilateral decrease of the ribosomal DNA cluster and bilateral truncations of over 60 genes reflect a post-hybridization evolution process. Truncations and deletions of less efficient maltose and maltotriose uptake genes may indicate the result of adaptation to brewing. The genome sequence of this interspecies hybrid yeast provides a new tool for better understanding of lager brewing yeast behavior in industrial beer production.

  13. Incorporation of chlorogenic acids in coffee brew melanoidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekedam, E Koen; Schols, Henk A; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Smit, Gerrit

    2008-03-26

    The incorporation of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and their subunits quinic and caffeic acids (QA and CA) in coffee brew melanoidins was studied. Fractions with different molecular weights, ionic charges, and ethanol solubilities were isolated from coffee brew. Fractions were saponified, and the released QA and CA were quantified. For all melanoidin fractions, it was found that more QA than CA was released. QA levels correlated with melanoidin levels, indicating that QA is incorporated in melanoidins. The QA level was correlated with increasing ionic charge of the melanoidin populations, suggesting that QA may contribute to the negative charge and consequently is, most likely, not linked via its carboxyl group. The QA level correlated with the phenolic acid group level, as determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, indicating that QA was incorporated to a similar extent as the polyphenolic moiety from CGA. The QA and CA released from brew fractions by enzymes confirmed the incorporation of intact CGAs. Intact CGAs are proposed to be incorporated in melanoidins upon roasting via CA through mainly nonester linkages. This complex can be written as Mel=CA-QA, in which Mel represents the melanoidin backbone, =CA represents CA nonester-linked to the melanoidin backbone, and -QA represents QA ester-linked to CA. Additionally, a total of 12% of QA was identified in coffee brew, whereas only 6% was reported in the literature so far. The relevance of the additional QA on coffee brew stability is discussed.

  14. 40 CFR 63.2161 - What performance tests and other procedures must I use if I monitor brew ethanol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures must I use if I monitor brew ethanol? 63.2161 Section 63.2161 Protection of Environment... and other procedures must I use if I monitor brew ethanol? (a) You must conduct each performance test... performance test simultaneously with brew ethanol monitoring to establish a brew-to-exhaust...

  15. Fate of mycotoxins during beer brewing and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are frequent contaminants of grains, and breweries need, therefore, to pay close attention to the risk of contamination in beer made from such grains as barley and corn. The fate of 14 types of mycotoxin (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone) during beer brewing was investigated in this study. Malt artificially spiked with each mycotoxin was put through the mashing, filtration, boiling and fermentation processes involved in brewing. After brewing, the levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, and zearalenone were found to have decreased to less than 20% of their initial concentration. They had been adsorbed mainly to the spent grain and removed from the unhopped wort. Additionally, as zearalenone was known, patulin was metabolized to the less toxic compound during the fermentation process. The risk of carry-over to beer was therefore reduced for half of the mycotoxins studied. However, attention still needs to be paid to the risk of trichothecene contamination.

  16. Near-infrared Spectroscopy in the Brewing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileoni, Valeria; Marconi, Ombretta; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an exhaustive description of the use of Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy in the brewing industry. This technique is widely used for quality control testing of raw materials, intermediates, and finished products, as well as process monitoring during malting and brewing. In particular, most of the reviewed works focus on the assessment of barley properties, aimed at quickly selecting the best barley varieties in order to produce a high-quality malt leading to high-quality beer. Various works concerning the use of NIR in the evaluation of raw materials, such as barley, malt, hop, and yeast, are also summarized here. The implementation of NIR sensors for the control of malting and brewing processes is also highlighted, as well as the use of NIR for quality assessment of the final product.

  17. Spent grains : a new support for brewing yeast immobilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Brányik, Tomáš; A.A. Vicente; Cruz, José Machado; Teixeira, J. A

    2001-01-01

    A novel carrier obtained from spent grains, a brewing by-product, was used for brewing yeast immobilisation in a continuous bubble-column reactor. The multiple-layer cell adhesion to the carrier particles resulted in a maximum cell load of 430 mg dry cell gˉ¹ dry carrier (d.c.). After 120 h of reactor operation, the cell load of DEAEmodified carrier was below 40 mg dry cell gˉ¹ d.c. while the values for non-modified carrier reached at least 100 mg dry cell gˉ¹ d.c. The changes in ...

  18. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.; Ostertag, K.; Radgen, P.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of five case studies of energy management in German breweries. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the brewing sector may be improved. The results of the study for the brewing sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the brewing sector - Case studies of energy management in the German brewing sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German brewing sector; - The role of energy service companies in the brewing sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  19. Brewing for Students: An Inquiry-Based Microbiology Lab †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Brian K.; Alam, Usman; Dacanay, Samantha J.; Lee, Amanda K.; Shaffer, Justin F.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to improve and assess student learning, there has been a push to increase the incorporation of discovery-driven modules and those that contain real-world relevance into laboratory curricula. To further this effort, we have developed, implemented, and assessed an undergraduate microbiology laboratory experiment that requires students to use the scientific method while brewing beer. The experiment allows students to brew their own beer and characterize it based on taste, alcohol content, calorie content, pH, and standard reference method. In addition, we assessed whether students were capable of achieving the module learning objectives through a pre-/posttest, student self-evaluation, exam-embedded questions, and an associated worksheet. These objectives included describing the role of the brewing ingredients and predicting how altering the ingredients would affect the characteristics of the beer, amongst others. By completing this experimental module, students accomplished the module objectives, had greater interest in brewing, and were more likely to view beer in scientific terms. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:26753030

  20. Brewing as a Comprehensive Learning Platform in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rudi P.; Sørensen, Jens L.; Simonsen, Morten E.; Madsen, Henrik T.; Muff, Jens; Strandgaard, Morten; Søgaard, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical engineering is mostly taught using traditional classroom teaching and laboratory experiments when possible. Being a wide discipline encompassing topics such as analytical chemistry, process design, and microbiology, it may be argued that brewing of beer has many relations to chemical engineering topic-wise. This work illustrates how…

  1. Brewing for Students: An Inquiry-Based Microbiology Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Sato

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to improve and assess student learning, there has been a push to increase the incorporation of discovery-driven modules and those that contain real-world relevance into laboratory curricula. To further this effort, we have developed, implemented, and assessed an undergraduate microbiology laboratory experiment that requires students to use the scientific method while brewing beer. The experiment allows students to brew their own beer and characterize it based on taste, alcohol content, calorie content, pH, and standard reference method. In addition, we assessed whether students were capable of achieving the module learning objectives through a pre-/posttest, student self-evaluation, exam-embedded questions, and an associated worksheet. These objectives included describing the role of the brewing ingredients and predicting how altering the ingredients would affect the characteristics of the beer, amongst others. By completing this experimental module, students accomplished the module objectives, had greater interest in brewing, and were more likely to view beer in scientific terms. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the Guidelines for Biosafety in Teaching Laboratories, available at www.asm.org. The Editors of JMBE recommend that adopters of the protocols included in this article follow a minimum of Biosafety Level 1 practices.

  2. The Biology and Chemistry of Brewing: An Interdisciplinary Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Paul D.; Deutschman, William A.; Avery, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    For the past nine years, we have been offering an interdisciplinary course for science majors: The Biology and Chemistry of Brewing. This course is primarily laboratory- and inquiry-based; from a total of 24 h of student/instructor contact time, approximately 6 h are devoted to lecture, and the other 18 h are divided between laboratory exercises,…

  3. Brewing for Students: An Inquiry-Based Microbiology Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Brian K; Alam, Usman; Dacanay, Samantha J; Lee, Amanda K; Shaffer, Justin F

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to improve and assess student learning, there has been a push to increase the incorporation of discovery-driven modules and those that contain real-world relevance into laboratory curricula. To further this effort, we have developed, implemented, and assessed an undergraduate microbiology laboratory experiment that requires students to use the scientific method while brewing beer. The experiment allows students to brew their own beer and characterize it based on taste, alcohol content, calorie content, pH, and standard reference method. In addition, we assessed whether students were capable of achieving the module learning objectives through a pre-/posttest, student self-evaluation, exam-embedded questions, and an associated worksheet. These objectives included describing the role of the brewing ingredients and predicting how altering the ingredients would affect the characteristics of the beer, amongst others. By completing this experimental module, students accomplished the module objectives, had greater interest in brewing, and were more likely to view beer in scientific terms. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  4. Arabinogalactan proteins are incorporated in negatively charged coffee brew melanoidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekedam, E Koen; De Laat, Marieke P F C; Schols, Henk A; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Smit, Gerrit

    2007-02-07

    The charge properties of melanoidins in high molecular weight (HMw) coffee brew fractions, isolated by diafiltration and membrane dialysis, were studied. Ion exchange chromatography experiments with the HMw fractions showed that coffee brew melanoidins were negatively charged whereas these molecules did not expose any positive charge at the pH of coffee brew. Fractions with different ionic charges were isolated and subsequently characterized by means of the specific extinction coefficient (K(mix 405nm)), sugar composition, phenolic group content, nitrogen content, and the arabinogalactan protein (AGP) specific Yariv gel-diffusion assay. The isolated fractions were different in composition and AGP was found to be present in one of the HMw fractions. The AGP accounted for 6% of the coffee brew dry matter and had a moderate negative charge, probably caused by the presence of uronic acids. As the fraction that precipitated with Yariv was brown (K(mix 405nm) = 1.2), compared to a white color in the green bean, it was concluded that these AGPs had undergone Maillard reaction resulting in an AGP-melanoidin complex. The presence of mannose (presumably from galactomannan) indicates the incorporation of galactomannans in the AGP-melanoidin complex. As the uronic acid content in the more negatively charged melanoidin-rich, AGP-poor HMw fractions decreased, it was hypothesized that acidic groups are formed or incorporated during melanoidin formation.

  5. Implementation of Mobile Streaming Media Player Based on BREW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-rong; LIU Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays mobile streaming service through cell phone is becoming the highlight of new value-added mobile services. Based on the present CDMA1x wireless data network and Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless (BREW) platform, adopting compression technologies of H.264 and QCP, a set of streaming media players are designed and implemented, and the principle, structure, key technologies and performance analysis of this system are introduced. This player works well in practice.

  6. Bioprotective potential of lactic acid bacteria in malting and brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Susan; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2008-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are naturally associated with many foods or their raw ingredients and are popularly used in food fermentation to enhance the sensory, aromatic, and textural properties of food. These microorganisms are well recognized for their biopreservative properties, which are achieved through the production of antimicrobial compounds such as lactic acid, diacetyl, bacteriocins, and other metabolites. The antifungal activity of certain LAB is less well characterized, but organic acids, as yet uncharacterized proteinaceous compounds, and cyclic dipeptides can inhibit the growth of some fungi. A variety of microbes are carried on raw materials used in beer brewing, rendering the process susceptible to contamination and often resulting in spoilage or inferior quality of the finished product. The application of antimicrobial-producing LAB at various points in the malting and brewing process could help to negate this problem, providing an added hurdle for spoilage organisms to overcome and leading to the production of a higher quality beer. This review outlines the bioprotective potential of LAB and its application with specific reference to the brewing industry.

  7. Evaluation of Biofunctional Compounds Content from Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca C. Fărcaş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee, one of the most popular beverages worldwide, is an infusion of ground, roasted coffee beans. Today, coffee is considered a functional food, especially due to its high content of compounds that exert antioxidant and other beneficial biological properties. The annual consumption exceeds 5 billion kilograms of coffee, which corresponds to 500 billion cups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, caffeine as well as the antioxidant activity of three brewed coffee samples in order to assess the amount of these bioactive compounds in a cup of coffee. The quantification of total phenolic compounds was achieved by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoids content was determined using a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based spectrophotometric method. The caffeine was extracted from brewed coffee samples with dichlormethane and then was quantified by measuring the absorbance of the extract at 260 nm. The antioxidant capacity of each coffee sample was assessed by evaluating their radical scavenging activity on DPPH radical. Even though Arabica coffee variety is appreciated for its fine aroma profile, Robusta variety has proved to be richer in phenolic compounds, flavonoids and caffeine. The larger amount of compounds with antioxidant properties found in Robusta brewed coffee was also confirmed by the obtained antioxidant capacity values.

  8. Analysis of aging in lager brewing yeast during serial repitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühligen, Franziska; Lindner, Patrick; Fetzer, Ingo; Stahl, Frank; Scheper, Thomas; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Susann

    2014-10-10

    Serial repitching of brewing yeast inoculates is an important economic factor in the brewing industry, as their propagation is time and resource intensive. Here, we investigated whether replicative aging and/or the population distribution status changed during serial repitching in three different breweries with the same brewing yeast strain but different abiotic backgrounds and repitching regimes with varying numbers of reuses. Next to bud scar numbers the DNA content of the Saccharomyces pastorianus HEBRU cells was analyzed. Gene expression patterns were investigated using low-density microarrays with genes for aging, stress, storage compound metabolism and cell cycle. Two breweries showed a stable rejuvenation rate during serial repitching. In a third brewery the fraction of virgin cells varied, which could be explained with differing wort aeration rates. Furthermore, the number of bud scars per cell and cell size correlated in all 3 breweries throughout all runs. Transcriptome analyses revealed that from the 6th run on, mainly for the cells positive gene expression could be seen, for example up-regulation of trehalose and glycogen metabolism genes. Additionally, the cells' settling in the cone was dependent on cell size, with the lowest and the uppermost cone layers showing the highest amount of dead cells. In general, cells do not progressively age during extended serial repitching.

  9. Efficient Implementation of the Pairing on Mobilephones Using BREW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, Motoi; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    Pairing based cryptosystems can accomplish novel security applications such as ID-based cryptosystems, which have not been constructed efficiently without the pairing. The processing speed of the pairing based cryptosystems is relatively slow compared with the other conventional public key cryptosystems. However, several efficient algorithms for computing the pairing have been proposed, namely Duursma-Lee algorithm and its variant ηT pairing. In this paper, we present an efficient implementation of the pairing over some mobilephones. Moreover, we compare the processing speed of the pairing with that of the other standard public key cryptosystems, i. e. RSA cryptosystem and elliptic curve cryptosystem. Indeed the processing speed of our implementation in ARM9 processors on BREW achieves under 100 milliseconds using the supersingular curve over F397. In addition, the pairing is more efficient than the other public key cryptosystems, and the pairing can be achieved enough also on BREW mobilephones. It has become efficient enough to implement security applications, such as short signature, ID-based cryptosystems or broadcast encryption, using the pairing on BREW mobilephones.

  10. Mobile software module design on BREW%基于BREW 的手机软件模块设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建祥; 高礼忠

    2009-01-01

    BREW 是高通公司为了适应数据通信业务应用的日益广泛而推出的一个开发平台.本文阐述了BREW技术的特点,设计了基于BREW的上层手机软件工作平台,给出了详细的模块划分及工作机制.

  11. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Brew during the Brewing Corn Malt in the Production of Maize Beer in Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diakabana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study consists in the production of a traditional beer from maize in the Congo. The traditional method of brewing corn malt has three main stages: malting corn, brewing corn malt and fermentation. During the brewing corn malt, endogenous amylase activity is destroyed during the stiffening of the starch to about 80°C. A pre-cooking of the mash is necessitated to promote amylolyse at 50°C with an exogenous enzyme. The use of a preparation of α-amylase can liquefy the mash and produce a sweet wort (average density = 12.5° Balling rich in dextrin corresponding to an apparent extract of 4° Balling in beer. The rising profile of the pH of the corn malt mash, from mashing to extract the wort does not affect the pH of the beer produced. This beer, slightly alcoholic (3.6% ethanol, is characterized by a nomal acid pH (pH = 4.15 on average and a brown color (25 EBC units. Its slight bitterness (21 EBU and the fine aroma of a beer closer barley produced industrially in the Congo.

  12. 40 CFR 63.2164 - If I monitor brew ethanol, what are my monitoring installation, operation, and maintenance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true If I monitor brew ethanol, what are my... monitor brew ethanol, what are my monitoring installation, operation, and maintenance requirements? (a... considered by us to be generally optimum. Use the brew-to-exhaust correlation equation established under §...

  13. 40 CFR 63.2166 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations if I monitor brew ethanol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with the emission limitations if I monitor brew ethanol? 63.2166 Section 63.2166 Protection of... demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations if I monitor brew ethanol? (a) You must... subpart. (b) You must establish the brew-to-exhaust correlation for each fermentation stage according...

  14. Quantification of protein-derived thiols during atmosphere-controlled brewing in laboratory scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murmann, Anne Nordmark; Andersen, Preben; Mauch, Alexander;

    2016-01-01

    An atmosphere-controlled brewing system was built to study thiol oxidation during brewing in laboratory scale under conditions with limited oxygen exposure. Quantification of free and total thiols and protein showed that thiols were lost during wort boiling possibly owing to protein precipitation...

  15. Effects of different brewing conditions on catechin content and sensory acceptance in Turkish green tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saklar, Sena; Ertas, Erdal; Ozdemir, Ibrahim S; Karadeniz, Bulent

    2015-10-01

    The optimal brewing conditions for Turkish green tea were determined on the basis of extracted catechins and sensory attributes. Green tea infusions were prepared at 75, 85 and 95 °C with brewing times of 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 45 min. The amounts of epistructured catechins (EGCG, EGC, ECG, EC), non-epistructured catechins (C, GC, GCG) and caffeine in brewed tea samples were analysed. Sensory analyses were performed by nine trained panelists for infusion colour, taste, aroma and overall acceptability. Brewing at 85 °C for 3 min was found to be the optimal condition, where the EGCG content was at a maximum of 50.69 mg/100 ml with the highest sensory scores. It was observed that the yield of epistructured catechins increased rapidly for the first 3-5 min of brewing at 85 °C, and increased brewing time resulted in a decrease in the yield of epistructured catechins. The amount of nonepistructured catechins continued to increase with longer extraction times. Sensory scores for infusion colour, taste, aroma and overall acceptability were highest at 3 and 5 min brewing times at all temperatures. Sensory scores were very low for 30 and 45 min brewing at 85 and 95 °C due to the bitter taste and dark colour.

  16. [IMPLEMENTATION OF MEASURES FOR OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE AT ENTERPRISES OF BREWING INDUSTRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonov, G V; Novikova, L V; Chusova, A E

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are considered the legal basics of the occupational hygiene of brewing production: acts, bylaws and normative legal acts. There are characterized types of supervision and control (state, departmental, public) implementing the abidance of the sanitary legislation at the enterprises of the brewing industry. There are presented sanitary and hygienic requirements to the enterprises of the brewing industry. There are designated measures of occupational hygiene of brewing production: a sink, cleaning--removal of various pollutions, and also disinfection--process of the decline in quantity of microorganisms to safe level. There are considered some characteristics of pollutions which are subject to removal at various stages ofproduction of beer and stages of sanitary processing of brewing systems according to chemical properties of substances.

  17. LABOUR PROTECTION AND SAFETY IN THE BREWING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Melnik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the quantification of the level of safety in the brewing industry, which allows determining the contribution of each employee to ensure healthy and safe working conditions. Factors have also been shown to affect the safety of each of the employees. Knowledge of the characteristics and limits of each of the factors makes it possible to secure workflow and solve potential problems early. Previously considered a comprehensive approach that allows full control of the security protecting the entire brewing industry. Efficient and safe work is possible only if the working environment at the workplace to meet all the requirements of international standards in the field of occupational safety and health. Therefore, each category from a number of activities, which can significantly reduce the level of injury, and ending with the characteristics of each of the factors for drawing up a plan to ensure the maximum protection of the company's employees, was discussed. Chemical, physical, biological and psychophysical factors may exist alone or in combination with each other. It is therefore important to identify in advance all of them and to take all measures relating to ensure safe working conditions in each of the processes. Separately considered optimal and allowable values of temperature, relative humidity and air velocity in the working area of industrial premises. The parameters were established for the purpose of continuous monitoring in order to ensure comfortable and safe work environment for each employee. In some cases it is necessary to consult with technicians to get the full picture of the possible threats posed by each type of equipment. Especially dangerous in terms of occupational safety and health in the brewing industry is a cooking workshop, where the air temperature in the working area is significantly increased, as well as the bottling plant (noisy.

  18. The sensitivity of brewing micro-organisms to silver

    OpenAIRE

    Strecker, P.G.

    2015-01-01

    With respect to microbiological food safety, beer is thought to be very safe. This is due to the inability of pathogenic organisms to survive in the harsh environment that beer presents, due to low pH, alcohol content and hop acids. However, there are some organisms which have adapted to brewery conditions and can cause off-flavours, hazes or low ethanol yield. The effects of spoilage and subsequent product recall can result in massive economic losses for brewing companies affected. Silver na...

  19. A novel brewing process via controlled hydrodynamic cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Albanese, Lorenzo; Meneguzzo, Francesco; Pagliaro, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a completely new brewing equipment and process based upon controlled hydrodynamic cavitation, providing significant advantages in terms of lowered capital cost, reduced production time, enhanced energy and production efficiency, food safety, while preserving beer organoleptic qualities. Experiments carried out on real microbrewery volume scale using the new and conventional technology unquestionably confirm the relevance of the new findings. Impacts of these discoveries are potentially far reaching, as beer is the worldwide most widely consumed alcoholic beverage, therefore highly relevant to health, environment the economy and even to local identities.

  20. Modifications of Saccharomyces pastorianus cell wall polysaccharides with brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Rita; Coelho, Elisabete; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2015-06-25

    The cell wall polysaccharides of brewers spent yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus (BSY) and the inoculum yeast (IY) were studied in order to understand the changes induced by the brewing process. The hot water and alkali extractions performed solubilized mainly mannoproteins, more branched for BSY than those of IY. Also, (31)P solid state NMR showed that the BSY mannoproteins were 3 times more phosphorylated. By electron microscopy it was observed that the final residues of alkali sequential extraction until 4M KOH preserved the yeast three-dimensional structure. The final residues, composed mainly by glucans (92%), showed that the BSY, when compared with IY, contained higher amount of (1→4)-linked Glc (43% for BSY and 16% for IY) and lower (1→3)-linked Glc (17% for BSY and 42% for IY). The enzymatic treatment of final residue showed that both BSY and IY had (α1→4)-linked Glc and (β1→4)-linked Glc, in a 2:1 ratio, showing that S. pastorianus increases their cellulose-like linkages with the brewing process.

  1. Selenite biotransformation during brewing. Evaluation by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Maria; da Silva, Erik Galvão P; Pérez-Corona, Teresa; Cámara, Carmen; Ferreira, Sergio L C; Madrid, Yolanda

    2012-01-15

    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and lactic bacteria have shown their ability to accumulate and transform inorganic selenium into organo Se compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate selenium biotransformation during brewing by using S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces uvarum for Ale and Lager fermentation, respectively. Se-enriched beer was produced by the addition of sodium selenite (0, 0.2, 1.0, 2.0, 10.0, 20.0 μg Se mL(-1), respectively) to the fermentation media composed of yeast, malt extract and water. The alcoholic fermentation process was not affected by the presence of selenium regardless of the type of Saccharomyces being used. The percentage of selenium incorporated into beer, added between 1.0 and 10 μg mL(-1) was 55-60% of the selenium initially present. Se-compounds in post-fermentation (beer and yeast) products were investigated by using an analytical methodology based on HPLC-ICP-MS. For this purpose, several sample treatments, including ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis, in conjunction with different separation mechanisms like dialysis and anion exchange HPLC chromatography were applied for unambiguously identifying Se-species that produce during brewing. Selenomethionine was the main selenium compound identified in beer and yeast, being this species in the only case of the former not associated to peptides or proteins.

  2. Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast and a brewer's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, N; Nishimori, C; Fujishige, I W; Mizuno, A; Takahashi, T; Sato, K

    2001-01-01

    Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast (a lysine auxotrophic mutant of sake yeast K-14) and a brewer's yeast (a respiratory-deficient mutant of the top fermentation yeast NCYC1333) was performed to take advantage of the beneficial characteristics of sake yeasts, i.e., the high productivity of esters, high tolerance to ethanol, and high osmotolerance. The fusant (F-32) obtained was different from the parental yeasts regarding, for example, the assimilation of carbon sources and tolerance to ethanol. A brewing trial with the fusant was carried out using a 100-l pilot-scale plant. The fusant fermented wort more rapidly than the parental brewer's yeast. However, the sedimentation capacity of the fusant was relatively low. The beer brewed using the fusant contained more ethanol and esters compared to that brewed using the parental brewer's yeast. The fusant also obtained osmotolerance in the fermentation of maltose and fermented high-gravity wort well.

  3. Vacuolar morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the process of wine making and Japanese sake brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shingo; Ikeda, Kayo; Miki, Takeo; Wakai, Yoshinori; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2010-09-01

    Although ethanol and osmotic stress affect the vacuolar morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, little information is available about changes in vacuolar morphology during the processes of wine making and Japanese sake (rice wine) brewing. Here, we elucidated changes in the morphology of yeast vacuoles using Zrc1p-GFP, a vacuolar membrane protein, so as to better understand yeast physiology during the brewing process. Wine yeast cells (OC-2 and EC1118) contained highly fragmented vacuoles in the sake mash (moromi) as well as in the grape must. Although sake yeast cells (Kyokai no. 9 and no. 10) also contained highly fragmented vacuoles during the wine-making process, they showed quite a distinct vacuolar morphology during sake brewing. Since the environment surrounding sake yeast cells in the sake mash did not differ much from that surrounding wine yeast cells, the difference in vacuolar morphology during sake brewing between wine yeast and sake yeast was likely caused by innate characters.

  4. Coffee brew melanoidins Structural and Functional Properties of Brown-Colored Coffee Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis was the identification of structural and functional properties of coffee brew melanoidins, and their formation mechanisms, that are formed upon roasting of coffee beans.

  5. Effects of the M&A Wave in the Global Brewing Industry 2000-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewing groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. Industry consolidation has taken the shape of merger an...... and acquisition activity more than organic growth or international joint ventures. Based on a major data base the paper traces some causes and assesses the effects of M&A strategies in the global beer industry....

  6. Influence of preserved brewing yeast strains on fermentation behavior and flocculation capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Chul; Wackerbauer, Karl; Beckmann, Martin; Kang, Soon Ah

    2007-01-01

    Preservation methods on the physiological and brewing technical characters in bottom and top brewing yeast strains were investigated. The preserved yeasts were reactivated after 24 months storage and grown up to stationary phase. The samples of filter paper storage indicated a higher cell growth and viability during propagation than those of nitrogen and lyophilization storage independent on propagation temperature. In addition, the filter paper storage demonstrated a faster absorption of fre...

  7. M&A as a driver of global competition in the brewing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewer groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. The paper describes the development and puts it into an ......The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewer groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. The paper describes the development and puts...

  8. Some novel applications of instrumental analytical techniques to the brewing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Brian

    1996-01-01

    Modem instrumental analytical techniques play an important role in the brewing industry today. They are extensively used for both a quality control/quality assurance function and for research purposes. At all stages of the production process, from the assessment of raw materials, through the brewing process, fermentation, maturation, blending of finished beer, packaging and shelf life studies instrumental analytical techniques provide critical data which allow the brewer to understand and kee...

  9. Experimental Study on Extruded Beer Adjunct Used for Brewing Beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN De-chao

    2004-01-01

    The properties of saccharified and boiled worts between extruded and traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts were studied at the laboratory and a small beer brewing equipment( 100 L) in this paper. Test results indicate that the main saccharification indices and filtration speeds of worts between extruded and traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts are similar basically. The collected rate of extracted material of worts of extruded beer adjuncts is 8%more than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts. Fermentation time of worts of extruded beer adjuncts is 10 %less than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts. The energy consumption of extruded beer adjuncts in saccharification process is 13 % less than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts.

  10. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis.

  11. Immobilized cell technology in beer brewing: Current experience and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leskošek-Čukalov Ida J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized cell technology (ICT has been attracting continual attention in the brewing industry over the past 30 years. Some of the reasons are: faster fermentation rates and increased volumetric productivity, compared to those of traditional beer production based on freely suspended cells, as well as the possibility of continuous operation. Nowadays, ICT technology is well established in secondary fermentation and alcohol- free and low-alcohol beer production. In main fermentation, the situation is more complex and this process is still under scrutiny on both the lab and pilot levels. The paper outlines the most important ICT processes developed for beer brewing and provides an overview of carrier materials, bioreactor design and examples of their industrial applications, as well as some recent results obtained by our research group. We investigated the possible applications of polyvinyl alcohol in the form of LentiKats®, as a potential porous matrices carrier for beer fermentation. Given are the results of growth studies of immobilized brewer's yeast Saccharomyces uvarum and the kinetic parameters obtained by using alginate microbeads with immobilized yeast cells and suspension of yeast cells as controls. The results indicate that the immobilization procedure in LentiKat® carriers has a negligible effect on cell viability and growth. The apparent specific growth rate of cells released in medium was comparable to that of freely suspended cells, implying preserved cell vitality. A series of batch fermentations performed in shaken flasks and an air-lift bioreactor indicated that the immobilized cells retained high fermentation activity. The full attenuation in green beer was reached after 48 hours in shaken flasks and less than 24 hours of fermentation in gas-lift bioreactors.

  12. Genetic diversity and phylogeny of Japanese sake-brewing rice as revealed by AFLP and nuclear and chloroplast SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Z; Mori, N; Kawamura, M; Ishii, T; Yoshida, S; Ikegami, M; Takumi, S; Nakamura, C

    2004-11-01

    Japanese rice ( Oryza sativa L.) cultivars that are strictly used for the brewing of sake (Japanese rice wine) represent a unique and traditional group. These cultivars are characterized by common traits such as large grain size with low protein content and a large, central white-core structure. To understand the genetic diversity and phylogenetic characteristics of sake-brewing rice, we performed amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat analyses, using 95 cultivars of local and modern sake-brewing rice together with 76 cultivars of local and modern cooking rice. Our analysis of both nuclear and chloroplast genome polymorphisms showed that the genetic diversity in sake-brewing rice cultivars was much smaller than the diversity found in cooking rice cultivars. Interestingly, the genetic diversity within the modern sake-brewing cultivars was about twofold higher than the diversity within the local sake-brewing cultivars, which was in contrast to the cooking cultivars. This is most likely due to introgression of the modern cooking cultivars into the modern sake-brewing cultivars through breeding practices. Cluster analysis and chloroplast haplotype analysis suggested that the local sake-brewing cultivars originated monophyletically in the western regions of Japan. Analysis of variance tests showed that several markers were significantly associated with sake-brewing traits, particularly with the large white-core structure.

  13. The Benefits and Risks of Consuming Brewed Tea: Beware of Toxic Element Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Schwalfenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing concern is evident about contamination of foodstuffs and natural health products. Methods. Common off-the-shelf varieties of black, green, white, and oolong teas sold in tea bags were used for analysis in this study. Toxic element testing was performed on 30 different teas by analyzing (i tea leaves, (ii tea steeped for 3-4 minutes, and (iii tea steeped for 15–17 minutes. Results were compared to existing preferred endpoints. Results. All brewed teas contained lead with 73% of teas brewed for 3 minutes and 83% brewed for 15 minutes having lead levels considered unsafe for consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Aluminum levels were above recommended guidelines in 20% of brewed teas. No mercury was found at detectable levels in any brewed tea samples. Teas contained several beneficial elements such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Of trace minerals, only manganese levels were found to be excessive in some black teas. Conclusions. Toxic contamination by heavy metals was found in most of the teas sampled. Some tea samples are considered unsafe. There are no existing guidelines for routine testing or reporting of toxicant levels in “naturally” occurring products. Public health warnings or industry regulation might be indicated to protect consumer safety.

  14. Brewing characteristics of haploid strains isolated from sake yeast Kyokai No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katou, Taku; Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2008-11-01

    Sake yeast exhibit various characteristics that make them more suitable for sake brewing compared to other yeast strains. Since sake yeast strains are Saccharomyces cerevisiae heterothallic diploid strains, it is likely that they have heterozygous alleles on homologous chromosomes (heterozygosity) due to spontaneous mutations. If this is the case, segregation of phenotypic traits in haploid strains after sporulation and concomitant meiosis of sake yeast strains would be expected to occur. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated 100 haploid strains from Kyokai No. 7 (K7), a typical sake yeast strain in Japan, and compared their brewing characteristics in small-scale sake-brewing tests. Analyses of the resultant sake samples showed a smooth and continuous distribution of analytical values for brewing characteristics, suggesting that K7 has multiple heterozygosities that affect brewing characteristics and that these heterozygous alleles do segregate after sporulation. Correlation and principal component analyses suggested that the analytical parameters could be classified into two groups, indicating fermentation ability and sake flavour.

  15. Multi-locus genotyping of bottom fermenting yeasts by single nucleotide polymorphisms indicative of brewing characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikushima, Shigehito; Tateishi, Yoshiyuki; Kanai, Keiko; Shimada, Emiko; Tanaka, Misa; Ishiguro, Tatsuji; Mizutani, Satoru; Kobayashi, Osamu

    2012-04-01

    Yeast plays a capital role in brewing fermentation and has a direct impact on flavor and aroma. For the evaluation of competent brewing strains during quality control or development of novel strains it is standard practice to perform fermentation tests, which are costly and time-consuming. Here, we have categorized DNA markers which enable to distinguish and to screen brewing strains more efficiently than ever before. Sequence analysis at 289 loci in the genomes of six bottom fermenting Saccharomyces pastorianus strains revealed that 30 loci contained single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). By determining the nucleotide sequences at the SNP-loci in 26 other S. pastorianus strains and 20 strains of the top fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, almost all these strains could be discriminated solely on the basis of the SNPs. By comparing the fermentative phenotypes of these strains we found that some DNA markers showed a strong association with brewing characteristics, such as the production of ethyl acetate and hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Therefore, the DNA markers we identified will facilitate quality control and the efficient development of brewing yeast strains.

  16. Variability of some diterpene esters in coffee beverages as influenced by brewing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeenfard, Marzieh; Erny, Guillaume L; Alves, Arminda

    2016-11-01

    Several coffee brews, including classical and commercial beverages, were analyzed for their diterpene esters content (cafestol and kahweol linoleate, oleate, palmitate and stearate) by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) combined with spectral deconvolution. Due to the coelution of cafestol and kahweol esters at 225 nm, HPLC-DAD did not give accurate quantification of cafestol esters. Accordingly, spectral deconvolution was used to deconvolve the co-migrating profiles. Total cafestol and kahweol esters content of classical coffee brews ranged from 5-232 to 2-1016 mg/L, respectively. Commercial blends contained 1-54 mg/L of total cafestol esters and 2-403 mg/L of total kahweol esters. Boiled coffee had the highest diterpene esters content, while filtered and instant brews showed the lowest concentrations. However, individual diterpene esters content was not affected by brewing procedure as in terms of kahweol esters, kahweol palmitate was the main compound in all samples, followed by kahweol linoleate, oleate and stearate. Higher amounts of cafestol palmitate and stearate were also observed compared to cafestol linoleate and cafestol oleate. The ratio of diterpene esters esterified with unsaturated fatty acids to total diterpene esters was considered as measure of their unsaturation in analyzed samples which varied from 47 to 52%. Providing new information regarding the diterpene esters content and their distribution in coffee brews will allow a better use of coffee as a functional beverage.

  17. Molecular characterization of new natural hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii in brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sara S; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2008-04-01

    We analyzed 24 beer strains from different origins by using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of different gene regions, and six new Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces kudriavzevii hybrid strains were found. This is the first time that the presence in brewing of this new type of hybrid has been demonstrated. From the comparative molecular analysis of these natural hybrids with respect to those described in wines, it can be concluded that these originated from at least two hybridization events and that some brewing hybrids share a common origin with wine hybrids. Finally, a reduction of the S. kudriavzevii fraction of the hybrid genomes was observed, but this reduction was found to vary among hybrids regardless of the source of isolation. The fact that 25% of the strains analyzed were discovered to be S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii hybrids suggests that an important fraction of brewing strains classified as S. cerevisiae may correspond to hybrids, contributing to the complexity of Saccharomyces diversity in brewing environments. The present study raises new questions about the prevalence of these new hybrids in brewing as well as their contribution to the properties of the final product.

  18. Influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews on metabolic parameters of rats fed with hiperlipidemic diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Ariana de Souza Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews (Coffea arabica L and C. canephora Pierre on the metabolic parameters of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (initial weight of 270 g ± 20 g were used in the study, which were divided into six groups five each. The treatments were normal diet, hyperlipidemic diet, hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee arabica or canephora brews (7.2 mL/kg/day and hyperlipidemic diet associated to decaffeinated arabica, or canephora brews, using the same dosage. After 41 days, performance analyses were conducted.The rats were then euthanized and the carcasses were used for the analysis of dried ether extract and crude protein. Fractions of adipose tissue were processed for histological analysis. There was a reduction in weight gain and accumulation of lipids in the carcasses, lower diameter of adipocytes and a lower relative weight of the liver and kidneys of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee brew. Integral coffee brew reduced the obesity in the rats receiving hyperlipidemic diet, but the same effect did not occur with the decaffeinated types.

  19. Complexity and accountability: the witches' brew of psychiatric genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-Ayllon, Michael; Bartlett, Andrew; Featherstone, Katie

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the role of complexity in descriptions of the aetiology of common psychiatric disorders. While scientists attest to the discovery of an underlying reality of complex inheritance--the so-called 'witches' brew' of genetic and non-genetic factors--we argue that 'complexity' also performs rhetorical work. In our analysis of scientific review papers (1999-2008), we find a relatively stable genre of accountability in which descriptions of complexity appear to neutralize past failures by incorporating different and sometimes competing methodological perspectives. We identify two temporal strategies: retrospective accounting, which reconstructs a history of psychiatric genetics that deals with the recent failures, citing earlier twin studies as proof of the heritability of common psychiatric disorders; and prospective accounting, which engages in the careful reconstruction of expectations by balancing methodological limitations with moderated optimism. Together, these strategies produce a simple-to-complex narrative that belies the ambivalent nature of complexity. We show that the rhetorical construction of complexity in scientific review papers is oriented to bridging disciplinary boundaries, marshalling new resources and reconstructing expectations that justify delays in gene discovery and risk prediction.

  20. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae- the main character in beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodolo, Elizabeth J; Kock, Johan L F; Axcell, Barry C; Brooks, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Historically, mankind and yeast developed a relationship that led to the discovery of fermented beverages. Numerous inventions have led to improved technologies and capabilities to optimize fermentation technology on an industrial scale. The role of brewing yeast in the beer-making process is reviewed and its importance as the main character is highlighted. On considering the various outcomes of functions in a brewery, it has been found that these functions are focused on supporting the supply of yeast requirements for fermentation and ultimately to maintain the integrity of the product. The functions/processes include: nutrient supply to the yeast (raw material supply for brewhouse wort production); utilities (supply of water, heat and cooling); quality assurance practices (hygiene practices, microbiological integrity measures and other specifications); plant automation (vessels, pipes, pumps, valves, sensors, stirrers and centrifuges); filtration and packaging (product preservation until consumption); distribution (consumer supply); and marketing (consumer awareness). Considering this value chain of beer production and the 'bottle neck' during production, the spotlight falls on fermentation, the age-old process where yeast transforms wort into beer.

  1. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Lyman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm−1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  2. The influence of different types of preparation (espresso and brew) on coffee aroma and main bioactive constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Cortese, Manuela; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular hot drinks in the world; it may be prepared by several methods, but the most common forms are boiled (brew) and pressurized (espresso). Analytical studies on the substances responsible for the pleasant aroma of roasted coffee have been carried out for more than 100 years. Brew coffee and espresso coffee (EC) have a different and peculiar aroma profile, demonstrating the importance of the brewing process on the final product sensorial quality. Concerning bioactive compounds, the extraction mechanism plays a crucial role. The differences in the composition of coffee brew in chlorogenic acids and caffeine content is the result of the different procedures of coffee preparation. The aim of the present review is to detail how the brewing process affects coffee aroma and composition.

  3. Decrease of aged beer aroma by the reducing activity of brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saison, Daan; De Schutter, David P; Vanbeneden, Nele; Daenen, Luk; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2010-03-10

    The flavor profile of beer is subject to changes during storage. Since, possibly, yeast has an influence on flavor stability, the aim of this study was to examine if there is a direct impact of brewing yeast on aged aroma. This was achieved by refermentation of aged beers. It was shown that several aged aroma notes, such as cardboard, ribes, Maillard and Madeira, were removed almost entirely by brewing yeast, independently of the yeast or the beer type. This was explained by the reduction of aldehydes, mainly (E)-2-nonenal, Strecker aldehydes, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and diacetyl, to their corresponding alcohols. Furthermore, it became evident that the reducing capacity of brewing yeast is high, but that yeast strain and compound specific residual concentrations remained in the refermented beer independently of the initial concentration. Finally, it appeared that aldehydes were not only reduced but also formed during refermentation.

  4. Disruption of ubiquitin-related genes in laboratory yeast strains enhances ethanol production during sake brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong; Watanabe, Tomoko; Araki, Yoshio; Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Akao, Takeshi; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2009-06-01

    Sake yeast can produce high levels of ethanol in concentrated rice mash. While both sake and laboratory yeast strains belong to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the laboratory strains produce much less ethanol. This disparity in fermentation activity may be due to the strains' different responses to environmental stresses, including ethanol accumulation. To obtain more insight into the stress response of yeast cells under sake brewing conditions, we carried out small-scale sake brewing tests using laboratory yeast strains disrupted in specific stress-related genes. Surprisingly, yeast strains with disrupted ubiquitin-related genes produced more ethanol than the parental strain during sake brewing. The elevated fermentation ability conferred by disruption of the ubiquitin-coding gene UBI4 was confined to laboratory strains, and the ubi4 disruptant of a sake yeast strain did not demonstrate a comparable increase in ethanol production. These findings suggest different roles for ubiquitin in sake and laboratory yeast strains.

  5. Brewing yeast genomes and genome-wide expression and proteome profiling during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Katherine A

    2007-11-01

    The genome structure, ancestry and instability of the brewing yeast strains have received considerable attention. The hybrid nature of brewing lager yeast strains provides adaptive potential but yields genome instability which can adversely affect fermentation performance. The requirement to differentiate between production strains and assess master cultures for genomic instability has led to significant adoption of specialized molecular tool kits by the industry. Furthermore, the development of genome-wide transcriptional and protein expression technologies has generated significant interest from brewers. The opportunity presented to explore, and the concurrent requirement to understand both, the constraints and potential of their strains to generate existing and new products during fermentation is discussed.

  6. BReW: Blackbox Resource Selection for e-Science Workflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmhan, Yogesh [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Soroush, Emad [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Van Ingen, Catharine [Microsoft Research, San Francisco, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deb [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-10-04

    Workflows are commonly used to model data intensive scientific analysis. As computational resource needs increase for eScience, emerging platforms like clouds present additional resource choices for scientists and policy makers. We introduce BReW, a tool enables users to make rapid, highlevel platform selection for their workflows using limited workflow knowledge. This helps make informed decisions on whether to port a workflow to a new platform. Our analysis of synthetic and real eScience workflows shows that using just total runtime length, maximum task fanout, and total data used and produced by the workflow, BReW can provide platform predictions comparable to whitebox models with detailed workflow knowledge.

  7. Brewing Beer in the Laboratory: Grain Amylases and Yeast's Sweet Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Blake; Deutschman, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Brewing beer provides a straightforward and robust laboratory counterpart to classroom discussions of fermentation, a staple of the biochemistry curriculum. An exercise is described that provides several connections between lecture and laboratory content. Students first extract fermentable carbohydrates from whole grains, then ferment these with…

  8. Pearling barley to alter the composition of the raw material before brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.; Noordman, T.R.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Partly replacing malt with unmalted barley is a trend in brewing. The use of unmalted barley, however, leads to issues such as haze and high mash viscosity, due to its higher content of undesired components. Pearling, an abrasive method to remove the outer layers of the barley kernels has been shown

  9. Use of high-ethanol-resistant yeast isolates from Nigerian palm wine in lager beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, R C; Anyanwu, T U; Onwumelu, A H

    1993-11-01

    High-ethanol-resistant yeasts, characterized as Saccharomyces sp., were isolated from Nigerian palm wine with added sucrose for high gravity brewing. The yeast isolates that survived the highest ethanol production were used to ferment brewery wort and produced 8.2 to 8.5% (v/v) ethanol; values almost double that of the control yeast from a local brewery.

  10. Efficient screening of environmental isolates for Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that are suitable for brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Hidehiko; Hino, Mika; Takashita, Hideharu; Kajiwara, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Keiko; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2014-01-01

    We developed an efficient screening method for Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from environmental isolates. MultiPlex PCR was performed targeting four brewing S. cerevisiae genes (SSU1, AWA1, BIO6, and FLO1). At least three genes among the four were amplified from all S. cerevisiae strains. The use of this method allowed us to successfully obtain S. cerevisiae strains.

  11. The Genome Sequence of Saccharomyces eubayanus and the Domestication of Lager-Brewing Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, EmilyClare; Wang, Bing; Bellora, Nicolas; Peris, David; Hulfachor, Amanda Beth; Koshalek, Justin A; Adams, Marie; Libkind, Diego; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2015-11-01

    The dramatic phenotypic changes that occur in organisms during domestication leave indelible imprints on their genomes. Although many domesticated plants and animals have been systematically compared with their wild genetic stocks, the molecular and genomic processes underlying fungal domestication have received less attention. Here, we present a nearly complete genome assembly for the recently described yeast species Saccharomyces eubayanus and compare it to the genomes of multiple domesticated alloploid hybrids of S. eubayanus × S. cerevisiae (S. pastorianus syn. S. carlsbergensis), which are used to brew lager-style beers. We find that the S. eubayanus subgenomes of lager-brewing yeasts have experienced increased rates of evolution since hybridization, and that certain genes involved in metabolism may have been particularly affected. Interestingly, the S. eubayanus subgenome underwent an especially strong shift in selection regimes, consistent with more extensive domestication of the S. cerevisiae parent prior to hybridization. In contrast to recent proposals that lager-brewing yeasts were domesticated following a single hybridization event, the radically different neutral site divergences between the subgenomes of the two major lager yeast lineages strongly favor at least two independent origins for the S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus hybrids that brew lager beers. Our findings demonstrate how this industrially important hybrid has been domesticated along similar evolutionary trajectories on multiple occasions.

  12. Brewing Science in the Chemistry Laboratory: A "Mashing" Investigation of Starch and Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelter, Michael W.; McQuade, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The experiments that mimic the actual brewing process to explain the science to the nonscience majors is performed using malted barley as the source for both the starch and the amylase enzyme. The experiment introduces the concept of monitoring the progress of chemical reaction and was able to show the chemical breakdown of the starch to simple…

  13. Water absorption characteristics and structural properties of rice for sake brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuma, Tomochika; Kiyokawa, Yoshifumi; Wakai, Yoshinori

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the water absorption curve characteristics and structural properties of rice used for sake brewing. The parameter values in the water absorption rate equation were calculated using experimental data. Differences between sample parameters for rice used for sake brewing and typical rice were confirmed. The water absorption curve for rice suitable for sake brewing showed a quantitatively sharper turn in the S-shaped water absorption curve than that of typical rice. Structural characteristics, including specific volume, grain density, and powdered density of polished rice, were measured by a liquid substitution method using a Gay-Lussac pycnometer. In addition, we calculated internal porosity from whole grain and powdered grain densities. These results showed that a decrease in internal porosity resulted from invasion of water into the rice grain, and that a decrease in the grain density affected expansion during the water absorption process. A characteristic S-shape water absorption curve for rice suitable for sake brewing was related to the existence of an invisible Shinpaku-like structure.

  14. Dynamical analysis of yeast protein interaction network during the sake brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzarezaee, Mitra; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Araabi, Babak N

    2011-12-01

    Proteins interact with each other for performing essential functions of an organism. They change partners to get involved in various processes at different times or locations. Studying variations of protein interactions within a specific process would help better understand the dynamic features of the protein interactions and their functions. We studied the protein interaction network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) during the brewing of Japanese sake. In this process, yeast cells are exposed to several stresses. Analysis of protein interaction networks of yeast during this process helps to understand how protein interactions of yeast change during the sake brewing process. We used gene expression profiles of yeast cells for this purpose. Results of our experiments revealed some characteristics and behaviors of yeast hubs and non-hubs and their dynamical changes during the brewing process. We found that just a small portion of the proteins (12.8 to 21.6%) is responsible for the functional changes of the proteins in the sake brewing process. The changes in the number of edges and hubs of the yeast protein interaction networks increase in the first stages of the process and it then decreases at the final stages.

  15. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one.

  16. Effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate content of loose-packed black teas and tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-02-01

    Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times.

  17. Application of multivariate analysis to the effects of additives on chemical and sensory quality of stored coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martínez, Mónica; Sopelana, Patricia; de Peña, M Paz; Cid, Concepción

    2008-12-24

    The aim of this work was to obtain a black coffee brew to be consumed hot by extension of its shelf life, by addition of additives. Four pH-regulator agents (sodium and potassium carbonates and bicarbonates), one pH regulator and antioxidant (sodium citrate), three antioxidants [sodium ascorbate, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA), and sodium sulfite], and lactoserum were tested by sensory analysis. Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate were selected for a study of the physicochemical (soluble and volatile compounds related to the sensory properties) and sensorial quality of coffee brew stored for 90 days at 4 degrees C. Although both additives extended the shelf life of the coffee brew up to 60 days, sodium carbonate was the chosen additive because it was the most useful in limiting the pH decrease and perception of sourness, which are some of the main factors involved in the rejection of stored coffee brews, and it better maintained the aroma and taste/flavor. Moreover, the application of multivariate analysis facilitated first the description of the global changes of the coffee brews with or without additives throughout the storage using principal component analysis and second the obtainment of a simple equation only with pH and caffeic acid parameters to discriminate the three types of coffee brews and simplify the analytical process, by means of the stepwise discriminant analysis.

  18. Microbiological and biochemical survey on the transition of fermentative processes in Fukuyama pot vinegar brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Sachiko; Furukawa, Soichi; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kawarai, Taketo; Kitada, Chika; Komenou, Akiko; Yamasaki, Makari

    2010-06-01

    Traditional brewing of Fukuyama pot vinegar is a process that has been continued in Fukuyama, Kagoshima, Japan, for almost 200 years. The entire process proceeds from raw materials, including steamed rice, rice koji (steamed rice grown with a fungus, Aspergillus oryzae) and water, to produce vinegar in roughly capped large pots laid in the open air. No special fermentative manipulation is required, except for scattering dried rice koji (called furi-koji) on the surface of the mash to form a cap-like mat on the surface at the start of brewing. As the biochemical mechanism of the natural transition of the fermentative processes during brewing has not been fully explained, we conducted a microbiological and biochemical study on the transition. First, a distinct biochemical change was observed in the brewing of spring preparation; that is, a sharp decline in pH from 6.5 to 3.5 within the first 5 days of brewing was observed due to lactic acid fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation also proceeded with a sharp increase to 4.5% ethanol within the first 5 days under the acidic conditions, suggesting that saccharification and both fermentations proceed in parallel. Acidic conditions and ethanol accumulation restricted the growth of most microorganisms in the mash, and in turn provided a favorable growth condition for acetic acid bacteria which are acid resistant and "ethanol-philic." Acetic acid was detected from day 16 and gradually increased in concentration, reaching a maximum of 7% at day 70 that was maintained thereafter. Empirically furi-koji naturally sinks into the mash after around day 40 by an unknown mechanism, allowing acetic acid bacteria to easily form pellicles on the mash surface and promoting efficient acetic acid fermentation. Dominant microbial species involved in the three fermentations were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis using PCR-amplified defined-regions of small rDNA from microorganisms in the brewing mash or colony

  19. Investigation in tea on fate of fenazaquin residue and its transfer in brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vipin; Tewary, Dhananjay Kumar; Ravindranath, Sringapuram Desikachar; Shanker, Adarsh

    2006-04-01

    Fenazaquin is a non-systemic acaricide/insecticide used widely in controlling mites and other related pests in fruits, vegetables and tea. The objective of this research was to investigate the disappearance trend in tea of fenazaquin residue level and its transfer in brew. Fenazaquin was applied on a tea crop at two rates, 125 and 250 g AI/ha in wet and dry seasons under field conditions. Samples (green shoots, made tea and its brew) were analyzed for fenazaquin and quantification was by high performance liquid chromatography using a UV detector. The residue dissipated faster in the wet season than in the dry season. Seven days after the treatment (normal round of plucking) the residues observed in the green shoots at the two rates were 2.17, 3.07 mg/kg and 2.04, 2.84 mg/kg in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. However, the degradation rale in both seasons followed first-order kinetics. Half-lives in green shoots were in range 1.43-1.70 and 2.10-2.21 days and in made tea 1.59-1.73 and 1.87-1.94 days for wet and dry seasons, respectively. During processing of green shoots to made tea considerable loss (42-70%) of residue was observed. The transfer of residue from made tea brew was in the range 3-22%. In brew residue were below 0.02 mg/l after 5 days of application at both the rates in either of the seasons. The estimated intake with brew (normal consumption of 10 cup/day/adult) thus would be below the acceptable daily intake for fenazaquin (0.005 mg/kg-body weight). To avoid health hazards due to the toxic effect of residues in brew, a waiting period for plucking the tea shoots after fenazaquin application of more than 5 days for both the seasons at recommended rate (125 g AI/ha) may be suggested and considered quite safe.

  20. Potential use ofGarcinia kola as hop substitute in lager beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniche, G N; Uwakwe, G U

    1990-09-01

    The chemical, brewing and anti-microbial properties of a tropical seed,Garcinia kola, were compared with traditional hops. Treatment ofGarcinia kola with methanolic lead acetate produced a yellow precipitate from which organic acids (alpha acids) were contirmed to be present by thin-layer chromatography. Hops, however, had a higher concentration of organic acids thanGarcinia kola. Laboratory brewing trials withGarcinia kola and hops gave beers with simillar chemical properties. Organoleptically,Garcinia kola beer was as acceptable to tasters as hopped beer except that it had an improved bitterness.Garcinia kola and hop extracts exerted similar anti-microbial effects on two beer spollage micro-organisms (Lactobacillus delbruckii andCandida vini).

  1. Hydrodynamic behavior of conical fermenters in brewing. Biru jozoyo konikaru hakkoso no ryudo kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Shimazu, T. (Kirin Brewery Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Nakamura, K. (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Tsutsumi, A.; Yoshida, K. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Kitahara, H. (Daikin Kogyo Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-11-10

    The hydrodynamic behavior of liquid in a fermenter has a great influence on the quality of beer. Therefore, temperature distribution, gas germination rate, bubble size, bubble rise velocity, gas holdup, and liquid flow rate in fermenters in brewing of beer are measured to investigate the hydrodynamic behavior experimentally. CO2 germination rate, local gas volume flux, and liquid flow rate are measured using a conical fermenter with 1m diameter and 3.5m height. A two-dimensional conical fermenter with 0.3m width and 1.3m height is used for the measurement of bubble behavior, bubble size distribution, bubble rise velocity, and gas holdup distribution. It is found that a circulating flow is produced in the fermenter due to density difference caused by gas holdup distribution, and hydrodynamic behavior of liquid in a conical fermenter for beer brewing can be explained quantitatively by circulation flow theory of the bubble tower. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Composition of beer by 1H NMR spectroscopy: effects of brewing site and date of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Cláudia; Duarte, Iola F; Barros, António; Rodrigues, João; Spraul, Manfred; Gil, Ana M

    2006-02-08

    A principal component analysis (PCA) of 1H NMR spectra of beers differing in production site (A, B, C) and date is described, to obtain information about composition variability. First, lactic and pyruvic acids contents were found to vary significantly between production sites, good reproducibility between dates being found for site A but not for sites B and C beers. Second, site B beers were clearly distinguished by the predominance of linear dextrins, while A and C beers were richer in branched dextrins. Carbohydrate reproducibility between dates is poorer for site C with dextrin branching degree varying significantly. Finally, all production sites were successfully distinguished by their contents in adenosine/inosine, uridine, tyrosine/tyrosol, and 2-phenylethanol, reproducibility between dates being again poorer for site C. Interpretation of the above compositional differences is discussed in terms of the biochemistry taking place during brewing, and possible applications of the method in brewing process control are envisaged.

  3. Selenium in commercial beer and losses in the brewing process from wheat to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, S; Young, S D; Cook, D; Wilkinson, S; Clegg, S; Bailey, E H; Mathers, A W; Broadley, M R

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing interest in enhancing the micronutrient composition of cereals through fertilization. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the Se concentration of commercial beers retailing in the UK, and (2) to test if the transfer of Se, from biofortified grain to final beer product, is beers was measured, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The selenium content of commercial beers varied 6.5-fold, with beers originating from America having higher Se concentrations than those from Europe. Laboratory-scale brewing trials with isotopically-enriched (77)Se wheat, sampled from UK field-sites, showed that most (77)Se losses in the brewing process occurred during mashing (54%), with fermented beer containing ∼ 10% of the (77)Se initially present in the wheat grain. Total N values in wort and malt were positively correlated with the (77)Se content of the wheat grain.

  4. Research progress on the brewing techniques of new-type rice wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Aiquan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-01-15

    As a traditional alcoholic beverage, Chinese rice wine (CRW) with high nutritional value and unique flavor has been popular in China for thousands of years. Although traditional production methods had been used without change for centuries, numerous technological innovations in the last decades have greatly impacted on the CRW industry. However, reviews related to the technology research progress in this field are relatively few. This article aimed at providing a brief summary of the recent developments in the new brewing technologies for making CRW. Based on the comparison between the conventional methods and the innovative technologies of CRW brewing, three principal aspects were summarized and sorted, including the innovation of raw material pretreatment, the optimization of fermentation and the reform of sterilization technology. Furthermore, by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of these methods, various issues are addressed related to the prospect of the CRW industry.

  5. Transfer of pesticides to the brew during mate drinking process and their relationship with physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Parada, Andrés; González, Joaquín; Pareja, Lucía; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Niell, Silvina; Besil, Natalia; González, Gabriel; Cesio, Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio

    2010-11-01

    In order to evaluate the extraction of pesticide residues that are transferred to the brew during mate drinking process of P.U.1 yerba mate leaves (Ilex paraguariensis), a special device to simulate the way in which mate is drunk in Uruguay was developed. The transfer to the brew of 12 organophosphates, 5 synthethic pyrethroids and one organochlorine pesticide from spiked samples was studied. The relationship between the transfer data thus obtained and physicochemical properties like water solubility (Ws), octanol-water coefficient (Kow) and Henry's constant (H) was evaluated. The extractability of the pesticide residues from yerba mate can be correlated with log Ws and log Kow. These transfer values allowed the calculation of ARLs (acceptable residue level) for the pesticides following Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Health Organizaion (WHO) guidelines. These results can help the future establishment of maximum residue levels (MRLs).

  6. The relationship between high gravity brewing, key performance indicators and yeast osmotic stress response

    OpenAIRE

    S. Zhuang

    2014-01-01

    High Gravity (HG) and Very High Gravity (VHG) fermentations are increasingly attractive within the brewing industry as a means of energy-saving and to optimise process efficiency. However, the use of highly concentrated worts is concomitant with a number of biological stress factors and in particular elevated osmotic pressure, which can impact on yeast quality and fermentation performance. In order to eliminate or reduce such negative effects, yeast cells often respond to their environment by...

  7. Comparing the impact of environmental factors during very high gravity brewing fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Luís; Brandão, Tiago; Lima, Nelson; Teixeira, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the initial dissolved oxygen, fermentation temperature, wort concentration and yeast pitching rate on the major fermentation process responses were evaluated by full factorial design and statistical analysis by JMP 5.01 (SAS software) software. Fermentation trials were carried out in 2L-EBC tall tubes using an industrial lager brewing yeast strain. The yeast viability, ethanol production, apparent extract and real degree of fermentation were monitored. The results obtained demon...

  8. Relationship between ethanol and oxidative stress in laboratory and brewing yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleoanca, Iulia; Silva, Ana Rita Courelas; Pimentel, Catarina; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Menezes, Regina de Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Ethanol is a chemical stress factor that inhibits cellular growth and determines metabolic changes leading to reduction of cell viability during fermentation and yeast storage. To determine the effect of time, temperature and ethanol during storage of brewing yeasts we have monitored viability of cells stored for 72 h, at 6 °C or 12 °C, in the presence of various ethanol concentrations. Under the conditions tested, 6 °C is the most favourable temperature to store brewing yeast creams emphasizing the importance of a tight temperature control in the storage vessels. Because W210 is less resistant to storage in the presence of ethanol than W34/70, the optimal storage parameters obtained under our laboratory conditions vary significantly. The ale strain is sensitive to storage under ethanol concentrations higher than 5% (v/v) for more than 48 h at 6 °C whereas at the same temperature the lager strain tolerates ethanol up to 7.5% (v/v) for 72 h. Also, the viability assays indicate that the antioxidant protein Yap1 is an important factor to storage resistance of BY4741 laboratory strain. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance of brewing yeast strains to ethanol, we have performed phenotypic analysis, localization studies and have monitored the activation of antioxidant and protection genes as well as the intracellular contents of glycogen and trehalose. Overall, our data suggest that the ale strain W210 has a defective antioxidant defence system and that ethanol may induce the antioxidant defences as well as glycogen and trehalose protection mechanisms in laboratory and brewing yeast strains.

  9. BREW实现机制深入分析%Detailed Analysis of Implementation of BREW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费宁

    2006-01-01

    BREW(binary runtime environment for wireless)是目前流行的CDMA手机开发环境.从分析CDMA手机的系统结构入手,详细分析了BREW的层次结构,并尝试从公开资料中剖析BREW实现机制,最后给出了PEK(porting evaluation kit)测试原理.

  10. Optimised quantification of the antiyeast activity of different barley malts towards a lager brewing yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nierop, Sandra N E; Axcell, Barry C; Cantrell, Ian C; Rautenbach, Marina

    2008-10-01

    The brewing of beer involves two major biological systems, namely malted barley (malt) and yeast. Both malt and yeast show natural variation and assessing the impact of differing malts on yeast performance is important in the optimisation of the brewing process. Currently, the brewing industry uses well-established tests to assess malt quality, but these frequently fail to predict malt-associated problem fermentations, such as incomplete fermentations, premature yeast flocculation (PYF) and gushing of the final beer product. Antimicrobial compounds, and in particular antiyeast compounds in malt, may be one of the unknown and unmeasured malt factors leading to problem fermentations. In this study, the adaptation of antimicrobial assays for the determination of antiyeast activity in malt is described. Our adapted assay was able to detect differing antiyeast activities in nine malt samples. For this sample set, malts associated with PYF during fermentation and gushing activity in beer showed high antiyeast activity. Both PYF and gushing are malt quality issues associated with fungal infection of barley in the field which may result in elevated antimicrobial activity in the barley grain. Also, two more malts that passed the normal quality control tests were also observed to have high antiyeast activity and such malts must be considered as suspect. Based on our results, this assay is a useful measure of malt quality as it quantifies the antiyeast activity in malt which may adversely impact on brewery fermentation.

  11. Innovation Chinese rice wine brewing technology by bi-acidification to exclude rice soaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao Lu; Liu, Shuang Ping; Yu, Jian Shen; Yu, Yong Jian; Zhu, Sheng Hu; Zhou, Zhi Lei; Hu, Jian; Mao, Jian

    2017-04-01

    As a traditional fermented alcoholic beverage of China, Chinese rice wine (CRW) had a long history of more than 5000 years. Rice soaking process was the most crucial step during CRW brewing process, because rice soaking quality directly determined the quality of CRW. However, rice soaking water would cause the eutrophication of water bodies and waste of water. The longer time of rice soaking, the higher the content of biogenic amine, and it would have a huge impact on human health. An innovation brewing technology was carried out to exclude the rice soaking process and the Lactobacillus was added to make up for the total acid. Compared to the traditional brewing technology, the new technology saved water resources and reduced environmental pollution. The concentration of biogenic amine was also decreased by 27.16%, which improving the security of the CRW. The esters increased led to more soft-tasted CRW and less aging time; the quality of CRW would be improved with less alcohol.

  12. Development of industrial brewing yeast with low acetaldehyde production and improved flavor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjing; Shen, Nan; Yin, Hua; Liu, Chunfeng; Li, Yongxian; Li, Qi

    2013-02-01

    Higher acetaldehyde concentration in beer is one of the main concerns of current beer industry in China. Acetaldehyde is always synthesized during beer brewing by the metabolism of yeast. Here, using ethanol as the sole carbon source and 4-methylpyrazole as the selection marker, we constructed a new mutant strain with lower acetaldehyde production and improved ethanol tolerance via traditional mutagenesis strategy. European Brewery Convention tube fermentation tests comparing the fermentation broths of mutant strain and industrial brewing strain showed that the acetaldehyde concentration of mutant strain was 81.67 % lower, whereas its resistant staling value was 1.0-fold higher. Owing to the mutation, the alcohol dehydrogenase activity of the mutant strain decreased to about 30 % of the wild-type strain. In the meantime, the fermentation performance of the newly screened strain has little difference compared with the wild-type strain, and there are no safety problems regarding the industrial usage of the mutant strain. Therefore, we suggest that the newly screened strain could be directly applied to brewing industry.

  13. Restoration of the Traditional Korean Nuruk and the Brewing Characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang-Eun; Lee, Ae Ran; Kim, HyeRyun; Lee, Eunjung; Kim, Tae Wan; Shin, Woo Chang; Kim, Jae Ho

    2017-02-24

    In this study, a total of 58 different kinds of traditional Nuruk were prepared, including 46 kinds of restored Nuruk from ancient documents. Each Nuruk was evaluated by analysis of saccharification power, and the enzyme activities of glucoamylase, α-amylase, β-amylase, protease, and β-glucanase. The range of saccharification power of the restored Nuruk ranged between was 85 and 565 sp. The diastatic enzymes, α-amylase, β-amylase and glucoamylase were significantly correlated to saccharification power value conversely β-glucanase and protease did not have a correlative relationship with saccarification power. In addition, their brewing properties on chemical and organoleptic aspects of traditional alcoholic beverage production were compared to each other. Each raw and supplementary material contained in Nuruk showed its own unique characteristics on Korean alcoholic beverages brewing. For the first time in this study the traditional Korean Nuruk mentioned in ancient documents were restored using modernized production methods, and also characterized based on their brewing properties. It could be utilized as a basis for further study of traditional alcoholic beverages and their valuable microorganisms.

  14. 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling for evaluating poppy seed rancidity and brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawień, Ewa; Ząbek, Adam; Deja, Stanisław; Łukaszewicz, Marcin; Młynarz, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Poppy seeds are widely used in household and commercial confectionery. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the application of metabolic profiling for industrial monitoring of the molecular changes which occur during minced poppy seed rancidity and brewing processes performed on raw seeds. Both forms of poppy seeds were obtained from a confectionery company. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) was applied as the analytical method of choice together with multivariate statistical data analysis. Metabolic fingerprinting was applied as a bioprocess control tool to monitor rancidity with the trajectory of change and brewing progressions. Low molecular weight compounds were found to be statistically significant biomarkers of these bioprocesses. Changes in concentrations of chemical compounds were explained relative to the biochemical processes and external conditions. The obtained results provide valuable and comprehensive information to gain a better understanding of the biology of rancidity and brewing processes, while demonstrating the potential for applying NMR spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis tools for quality control in food industries involved in the processing of oilseeds. This precious and versatile information gives a better understanding of the biology of these processes.

  15. Feasibility of brewing makgeolli using Pichia anomala Y197-13, a non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Ryun; Kim, Jae-Ho; Bai, Dong-Hoon; Ahn, ByungHak

    2012-12-01

    Makgeolli is a traditional rice wine favored by the general public in Korea. This study investigated the fermentation and sensory characteristics of using wild yeast strains for brewing makgeolli. A non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was isolated from nuruk and termed Y197-13. It showed 98% similarity to Pichia anomala and had an optimal growth temperature of 25 degrees C. Makgeolli was manufactured using koji, jinju nuruk, and improved nuruk as fermentation agents. Y197-13 makgeolli brewed with koji had alcohol and solids contents of 11.1% and 13.9%, respectively. Sweet sensory characteristics were attributed to residual sugars in makgeolli with 6% alcohol. The makgeolli had a fresh sour taste and carbonated taste. Volatile component analysis showed the isoamyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, isoamyl acetate, and fatty acid, including ethyl oleate and ethyl linoleate, relative peak area was higher in Y197-13 makgeolli than in makgeolli with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These results suggest the wild yeast, Y197-13, as a candidate for brewing makgeolli.

  16. Community influences on adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onya Hans

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol represents a major public health challenge in South Africa, however little is known about the correlates of alcohol use among rural adolescents. This article examines community influences on adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol in a rural region of South Africa. Method A total of 1600 high school adolescents between 11 and 16 years of age participated in this study. Seven hundred and forty (46.3% were female and 795 (49.7% were male. Data on gender were missing for 65 students (4.0% of the sample. The age range was 11–29 years (mean age 16.4 years; Standard deviation = 2.79. A survey questionnaire on adolescent risk behavior that examined adolescents’ use of alcohol and various potential community influences on alcohol use was administered. Factor analysis was used to group community-level variables into factors. Multiple logistic regression techniques were then used to examine associations between these community factors and adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol. Results The factor analysis yielded five community-level factors that accounted for almost two-thirds of the variance in home-brewed alcohol use. These factors related to subjective adult norms around substance use in the community, negative opinions about one’s neighborhood, perceived levels of adult antisocial behavior in the community, community affirmations of adolescents, and perceived levels of crime and violence in the community (derelict neighborhood. In the logistic regression model, community affirmation was negatively associated with the use of home-brew, whereas higher scores on “derelict neighborhood” and “adult antisocial behavior” were associated with greater odds of drinking home-brew. Conclusion Findings highlight community influences on alcohol use among rural adolescents in South Africa. Feeling affirmed and valued by the broader community appears to protect adolescents against early alcohol use. In

  17. Late-maturing cooking rice Sensyuraku has excellent properties, equivalent to sake rice, for high-quality sake brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzawa, Yoshihiko; Satoh, Kenji; Satoh, Yuko; Ohno, Satomi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Katsumata, Kazuaki; Kume, Kazunori; Watanabe, Ken-Ichi; Mizunuma, Masaki; Hirata, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Low protein content and sufficient grain rigidity are desired properties for the rice used in high-quality sake brewing such as Daiginjo-shu (polishing ratio of the rice, less than 50%). Two kinds of rice, sake rice (SR) and cooking rice (CR), have been used for sake brewing. Compared with those of SR, analyses of CR for high-quality sake brewing using highly polished rice have been limited. Here we described the original screening of late-maturing CR Sensyuraku (SEN) as rice with low protein content and characterization of its properties for high-quality sake brewing. The protein content of SEN was lower than those of SR Gohyakumangoku (GOM) and CR Yukinosei (YUK), and its grain rigidity was higher than that of GOM. The excellent properties of SEN with respect to both water-adsorption and enzyme digestibility were confirmed using a Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA). Further, we confirmed a clear taste of sake produced from SEN by sensory evaluation. Thus, SEN has excellent properties, equivalent to those of SR, for high-quality sake brewing.

  18. Stable radical content and anti-radical activity of roasted Arabica coffee: from in-tact bean to coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Gordon J; Navarini, Luciano; Suggi Liverani, Furio; Drew, Simon C

    2015-01-01

    The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO) capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD) melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (brew. While other non-AO functions of the roasting-induced radical and metal complexes may be possible in vivo, we confirm that the in vitro antiradical activity of brewed coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  19. Stable radical content and anti-radical activity of roasted Arabica coffee: from in-tact bean to coffee brew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon J Troup

    Full Text Available The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (< 3 kD fraction exhibited the highest AO capacity using DPPH as an oxidant. The AO activity was not mediated by the stable radicals or by metal complexes within the brew. While other non-AO functions of the roasting-induced radical and metal complexes may be possible in vivo, we confirm that the in vitro antiradical activity of brewed coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  20. Effects of the usage of dried brewing yeast in the diets on the performance, egg traits and blood parameters in quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçın, S; Erol, H; Ozsoy, B; Onbaşılar, I; Yalçın, S

    2008-12-01

    This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of the usage of dried brewing yeast in quail diets on laying performance, egg traits and blood parameters. A total of 240 Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) aged 10 weeks were randomly allocated into one control group and three treatment groups. Each group was divided into five replicates as subgroups, comprising 12 quails each. Dried brewing yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used at the levels of 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5% in the diets of the first, second and third treatment groups, respectively. Soyabean meal was replaced with dried brewing yeast. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. The experimental period lasted 18 weeks. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, daily feed intake, daily protein intake, egg production, egg weight, feed efficiency, mortality, egg shell thickness, egg albumen index, egg yolk index, egg Haugh unit, the percentages of egg shell, albumen and yolk, excreta moisture and small intestinal pH. Inclusion of 3% and 4.5% dried brewing yeast in diets reduced egg yolk cholesterol concentration as mg per yolk and mg per g yolk (P brewing yeast was significantly lower (P brewing yeast resulted in significant increases (P brewing yeast. It is concluded that dried brewing yeast can be used up to 4.5% in the diets of laying quails without adverse effects on the measured parameters.

  1. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm−1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples ...

  2. Brewing techniques of shanxi mature vinegar%山西老陈醋酿造技艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红娟

    2015-01-01

    山西老陈醋经过300多年的不断实践与发展,形成了独特的酿造工艺.从原料、发酵方法、陈酿等方面,简述了山西老陈醋的酿造特色,并对其营养成分保健功能进行了阐述.%After 300 years practice and development, Shanxi mature vinegar formed a unique brewing process. From raw materials, fermentation method, aging, etc., this paper expounds the brewing characteristic and the nutrition health care function of shanxi mature vinegar.

  3. Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Michael; Harris, Chad

    2015-10-15

    Brettanomyces yeasts are well-known as spoilage organisms in both the wine and beer industries, but also contribute important desirable characters to certain beer styles. These properties are mediated in large part by Brettanomyces' metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) present in beverage raw materials. Here we compare growth inhibition by, and metabolism of, HCAs among commercial brewing strains and spoilage strains of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus. These properties vary widely among the different strains tested and between the HCAs analyzed. Brewing strains showed more efficient metabolism of ferulic acid over p-coumaric acid, a trait not shared among the spoilage strains.

  4. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voeten Helene ACM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results Porn video shows and local brew dens were identified as popular events where unprotected multipartner, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents. Video halls - rooms with a TV and VCR - often show pornography at night for a very small fee, and minors are allowed. Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships characterised the sexual encounters of youth, frequently facilitated by the abuse of alcohol, which is available for minors at low cost in local brew dens. For many sexually active girls, their vulnerability to STI/HIV infection is enhanced due to financial inequality, gender-related power difference and cultural norms. The desire for love and sexual pleasure also contributed to their multiple concurrent partnerships. A substantial number of girls and young women engaged in transactional sex, often with much older working partners. These partners had a stronger socio-economic position than young women, enabling them to use money/gifts as leverage for sex. Condom use was irregular during all types of sexual encounters. Conclusions In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. These places should be regulated and monitored by the government. Our study strongly points to female vulnerabilities and the role of men in perpetuating the local epidemic. Young men should be targeted in prevention activities, to change their attitudes related to power and control in relationships. Girls

  5. Fast Moment Magnitude Determination from P-wave Trains for Bucharest Rapid Early Warning System (BREWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizurek, Grzegorz; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Wiszniowski, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Bucharest, with a population of approximately 2 million people, has suffered damage from earthquakes in the Vrancea seismic zone, which is located about 170 km from Bucharest, at a depth of 80-200 km. Consequently, an earthquake early warning system (Bucharest Rapid earthquake Early Warning System or BREWS) was constructed to provide some warning about impending shaking from large earthquakes in the Vrancea zone. In order to provide quick estimates of magnitude, seismic moment was first determined from P-waves and then a moment magnitude was determined from the moment. However, this magnitude may not be consistent with previous estimates of magnitude from the Romanian Seismic Network. This paper introduces the algorithm using P-wave spectral levels and compares them with catalog estimates. The testing procedure used waveforms from about 90 events with catalog magnitudes from 3.5 to 5.4. Corrections to the P-wave determined magnitudes according to dominant intermediate depth events mechanism were tested for November 22, 2014, M5.6 and October 17, M6 events. The corrections worked well, but unveiled overestimation of the average magnitude result of about 0.2 magnitude unit in the case of shallow depth event ( H < 60 km). The P-wave spectral approach allows for the relatively fast estimates of magnitude for use in BREWS. The average correction taking into account the most common focal mechanism for radiation pattern coefficient may lead to overestimation of the magnitude for shallow events of about 0.2 magnitude unit. However, in case of events of intermediate depth of M6 the resulting M w is underestimated at about 0.1-0.2. We conclude that our P-wave spectral approach is sufficiently robust for the needs of BREWS for both shallow and intermediate depth events.

  6. Use of non-saccharomyces Torulaspora delbrueckii yeast strains in winemaking and brewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tataridis Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Selected Saccharomyces yeast strains have been used for more than 150 years in brewing and for several decades in winemaking. They are necessary in brewing because of the boiling of the wort, which results in the death of all yeast cells, with the exception of some Belgian style beers (ex. Lambic, where the wort is left to be colonized by indigenous yeast and bacteria from the environment and ferment naturally. In winemaking their use is also pertinent because they provide regular and timely fermentations, inhibit the growth of indigenous spoilage microorganisms and contribute to the desired sensory characters. Even though the use of selected Saccharomyces strains provides better quality assurance in winemaking in comparison to the unknown microbial consortia in the must, it has been debated for a long time now whether the use of selected industrial Saccharomyces strains results in wines with less sensory complexity and “terroir” character. In previous decades, non-Saccharomyces yeasts were mainly considered as spoilage/problematic yeast, since they exhibited low fermentation ability and other negative traits. In the last decades experiments have shown that there are some non-Saccharomyces strains (Candida, Pichia, Kluyveromyces, Torulaspora, etc which, even though they are not able to complete the fermentation they can still be used in sequential inoculation-fermentation with Saccharomyces to increase sensory complexity of the wines. Through fermentation in a laboratory scale, we have observed that the overall effects of selected Torulaspora delbrueckii yeast strains, is highly positive, leading to products with pronounced sensory complexity and floral/fruity aroma in winemaking and brewing.

  7. Dissipation behavior of octachlorodipropyl ether residues during tea planting and brewing process

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Min; Shi, Yanhong; Cao, Haiqun; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Feng; Wu, Xiangwei; Tang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The dissipation behavior of octachlorodipropyl ether (OCDPE) residues in fresh tea shoots and in tea prepared under field conditions was investigated, and the transfer of residues from brewed tea to tea infusion was determined. OCDPE levels in tea shoots, prepared tea, tea infusion, and spent tea leaves were determined using a sensitive and simple method. The dissipation of OCDPE is fairly slow in tea shoots and prepared tea, with half-life values of 5.10 and 5.46 days, respectively. The degr...

  8. Proyecto de industria de cerveza artesanal con Brew Pub en Valladolid

    OpenAIRE

    Granado Sanz, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del proyecto es la construcción y puesta en marcha de una industria para la producción de cerveza artesanal en Valladolid. Además de la producción se incentivarán las ventas y publicidad de la marca mediante la instalación de un Brew Pub dentro de la misma, ofreciendo la cerveza producida en las mejores condiciones de calidad. La capacidad productiva para la que está diseñada la industria es de 225.000 litros de cerveza anuales. El envasado de la misma será en latas de aluminio...

  9. Fundamental studies on the application of enzymes when brewing with unmalted oats and sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    Schnitzenbaumer, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    The use of unmalted oats or sorghum in brewing has great potential for creating new beer types/flavors and saving costs. However, the substitution of barley malt with oat or sorghum adjunct is not only innovative but also challenging due to their specific grain characteristics. The overall objectives of this Ph.D. project were: 1) to investigate the impact of various types and levels of oats or sorghum on the quality/processability of mashes, worts, and beers; 2) to provide solutions as regar...

  10. High-Gravity Brewing: Effects of Nutrition on Yeast Composition, Fermentative Ability, and Alcohol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Gregory P.; Magnus, Carol A.; Ingledew, W M

    1984-01-01

    A number of economic and product quality advantages exist in brewing when high-gravity worts of 16 to 18% dissolved solids are fermented. Above this level, production problems such as slow or stuck fermentations and poor yeast viability occur. Ethanol toxicity has been cited as the main cause, as brewers' yeasts are reported to tolerate only 7 to 9% (vol/vol) ethanol. The inhibitory effect of high osmotic pressure has also been implicated. In this report, it is demonstrated that the factor li...

  11. Influence of temperature on continuous high gravity brewing with yeasts immobilized on spent grains

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone,Giuliano; Mussatto, Solange I.; Silva, João B. Almeida e

    2008-01-01

    Flavor compounds’ formation and fermentative parameters of continuous high gravity brewing with yeasts immobilized on spent grains were evaluated at three different temperatures (7, 10 and 15 °C). The assays were performed in a bubble column reactor at constant dilution rate (0.05 h−1) and total gas flow rate (240 ml/min of CO2 and 10 ml/min of air), with high-gravity all-malt wort (15°Plato). The results revealed that as the fermentation temperature was increased from 7 to 15 °C, the apparen...

  12. A new method for Espresso Coffee brewing: Caffè Firenze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Parenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Espresso coffee is the most popular choice for Italian coffee consumers. It has been estimated that every day, in the world, over of 50 million of Espresso cups are taken. As a consequence of this success, a large number of devices to make Espresso have been developed. In this scenario, a new device has been recently developed and patented (Eu. Patent 06 023 798.9; US 2010/0034942 A1. This brew method, named “Caffè Firenze”, uses a sealed extraction chamber, where water and gas provides pressure higher than the other extraction methods. Three main parts compose the apparatus: the gas source, the extraction chamber and the heat exchanger. The gas source provides the pressured gas required to raise the pressure of the system. The extraction chamber is made with chrome-brass and accessorized with two heating glow plugs. Many are the factors affecting Espresso quality: it is known that, coffee type, roasting conditions and degree, grinding and storage strongly affect the obtained brew. Also, several studies have been carried out on the effect of the setting parameters on quality, for example water pressure, water temperature, and brew time. Among the characteristics that determine Espresso quality, the main attribute for the visual analysis is, without doubts, the foam, also called “crema”. Indeed, height, aspect, and persistency of foam are features much appreciates by consumers. Two distinguish Espresso foam parameters are the persistency and foam index. Equipping a commercial bar machine with the new designed extraction chamber makes feasible the comparison between the traditional way to brew Espresso and the new device. The comparison was made holding the previous mentioned conditions, and differences were evaluated in terms of physical parameters and aromatic profiles. Caffè Firenze shows pronounced differences compared with traditional Espresso in term of foam-related parameters. Also, the new extraction device produces coffees with

  13. Drinking pattern and its relation to hemoglobin concentration in local brew consumers from the Kathmandu Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the hemoglobin concentration in alcohol consumers (home made brew-Chang) and compare it with non- alcohohcs healthy subjects. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was determined in 2053 alcoholic consumers (males: 1056; females: 997) and was compared with 1 027 (males: 623; females: 404) healthy non-alcoholic con-trol subjects. The Hb concentration in alcoholic male and female were 13.42 ± 2.14 g/dL and 12.19 ± 1.55 g/dL compared with control showing 14.43 ± 1.07 g/dL and 12.73 ± 1.41 g/dL in males and females respectively. The differences in Hb concentration between alcoholic and non- alcoholic consumers were highly significant in both genders with a P value of 0. 000 674 in males and 0.004 732 in females. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification test (AUDIT) scores was advocated to alcoholic consum-ers to test the severity of drunkenness and disorders related to it. A total of 887 males and 663 females crossed the cut-off limits of ≥8 AUDIT scores showing the addiction towards drinking habits of local brew.

  14. Influence of preserved brewing yeast strains on fermentation behavior and flocculation capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Chul; Wackerbauer, Karl; Beckmann, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Preservation methods on the physiological and brewing technical characters in bottom and top brewing yeast strains were investigated. The preserved yeasts were reactivated after 24 months storage and grown up to stationary phase. The samples of filter paper storage indicated a higher cell growth and viability during propagation than those of nitrogen and lyophilization storage independent on propagation temperature. In addition, the filter paper storage demonstrated a faster absorption of free amino nitrogen and a highest level of higher aliphatic alcohols production during propagation than other preservation methods, which can be attributed to intensive cell growth during propagation. Moreover, the filter paper storage showed a faster accumulation for glycogen and trehalose during propagation, whereas, in particular, lyophilization storage noted a longer adaptation time regarding synthesis of glycogen and trehalose with delayed cell growth. In beer analysis, the filter paper storage formed an increased higher aliphatic alcohols than control. In conclusion, the preservation of filter paper affected positively on yeast growth, viability and beer quality independent on propagation temperature. In addition, in this study, it was obtained that the HICF and Helm-test can be involved as rapid methods for determination of flocculation capacity. PMID:20368948

  15. Contribution of ethanol-tolerant xylanase G2 from Aspergillus oryzae on Japanese sake brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Hisashi; Zhou, Yan; Mikami, Shigeaki

    2010-12-01

    We purified three xylanase isozymes (XynF1, XynF3 and XynG2) from a solid-state Aspergillus oryzae RIB128 culture using chromatography. The results of our sake-brewing experiment, in which we used exogenously supplemented enzymes, revealed that only XynG2 improved the alcohol yield and the material utilization. The alcohol yield of the XynG2 batch displayed an increase of 4.4% in comparison to the control, and the amount of sake cake decreased by 4.6%. The contribution of XynG2 was further confirmed through our brewing experiment in which we used the yeast heterogeneously expressing fungal xylanase isozymes. Interestingly XynG1, an enzyme with a XynG2-like sequence that is more vulnerable to ethanol, did not improve the sake-mash fermentation. The stability of XynG2 in ethanol was prominent, and it retained most of its original activity after we exposed it to 80% ethanol for 30min, whereas the stability of the other isozymes in ethanol, including XynG1, was much lower (20-25% ethanol). We concluded, therefore, that the improvement of material utilization achieved with XynG2 is primarily attributable to its characteristically high stability in ethanol, thereby, effectively degrading rice endosperm cell walls under high-alcohol conditions such as a sake-mash environment.

  16. Modeling the effect of water activity and storage temperature on chemical stability of coffee brews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzocco, Lara; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2007-08-08

    This work was addressed to study the chemical stability of coffee brew derivatives as a function of water activity (aw) and storage temperature. To this purpose, coffee brew was freeze-dried, equilibrated at increasing aw values, and stored for up to 10 months at different temperatures from -30 to 60 degrees C. The chemical stability of the samples was assessed by measuring H3O+ formation during storage. Independently of storage temperature, the rate of H3O+ formation was considerably low only when aw was reduced below 0.5 (94% w/w). Beyond this critical boundary, the rate increased, reaching a maximum value at ca. 0.8 aw (78% w/w). Further hydration up to the aw of the freshly prepared beverage significantly increased chemical stability. It was suggested that mechanisms other than lactones' hydrolysis, probably related to nonenzymatic browning pathways, could contribute to the observed increase in acidity during coffee staling. The temperature dependence of H3O+ formation was well-described by the Arrhenius equation in the entire aw range considered. However, aw affected the apparent activation energy and frequency factor. These effects were described by simple equations that were used to set up a modified Arrhenius equation. This model was validated by comparing experimental values, not used to generate the model, with those estimated by the model itself. The model allowed efficient prediction of the chemical stability of coffee derivatives on the basis of only the aw value and storage temperature.

  17. [Effects of knockout ECM25/YJL201W gene in brewing yeast on beer flavor stability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixin; Li, Qi; Shen, Wei; Xie, Yan; Gu, Guoxian

    2008-08-01

    The ECM25 deletion mutant of industrial brewing yeast, G03/a, was constructed by replacing the ECM25 gene with the kanMX gene. The transformant was verified to be genetically stable. The PCR analysis showed that ECM25 gene in the G-03/a was deleted. Under aerobic conditions of ll degrees C and 28 degrees C, compared with the host strain G-03, the excretive glutathione concentration of G-03/a increased by 21.4% and 14.7%, respectively. Strains G-03 and G-03/a were inoculated in flasks and cultivated continuously for 4 generations. Compared with the host strain G-03, the glutathione concentration in the main fermentation broth and final beer of strain G-03/a increased by 32.1% and 13.8%, the stability index (SI) increased by 7.7% and 5.3%, respectively, and the flavor resistance staling value (RSV value) in final beer increased by 45.0%. During EBC fermentation, the glutathione concentration in the main fermentation broth of strain G-03/a increased by 34.0%, compared with the host strain G-03. Furthermore, no significant difference in routine fermentation parameters was found. The strain G-03/a is proved to be an excellent anti-staling brewing yeast to improve beer flavor stability.

  18. High-gravity brewing: effects of nutrition on yeast composition, fermentative ability, and alcohol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, G P; Magnus, C A; Ingledew, W M

    1984-09-01

    A number of economic and product quality advantages exist in brewing when high-gravity worts of 16 to 18% dissolved solids are fermented. Above this level, production problems such as slow or stuck fermentations and poor yeast viability occur. Ethanol toxicity has been cited as the main cause, as brewers' yeasts are reported to tolerate only 7 to 9% (vol/vol) ethanol. The inhibitory effect of high osmotic pressure has also been implicated. In this report, it is demonstrated that the factor limiting the production of high levels of ethanol by brewing yeasts is actually a nutritional deficiency. When a nitrogen source, ergosterol, and oleic acid are added to worts up to 31% dissolved solids, it is possible to produce beers up to 16.2% (vol/vol) ethanol. Yeast viability remains high, and the yeasts can be repitched at least five times. Supplementation does not increase the fermentative tolerance of the yeasts to ethanol but increases the length and level of new yeast cell mass synthesis over that seen in unsupplemented wort (and therefore the period of more rapid wort attenuation). Glycogen, protein, and sterol levels in yeasts were examined, as was the importance of pitching rate, temperature, and degree of anaerobiosis. The ethanol tolerance of brewers' yeast is suggested to be no different than that of sake or distillers' yeast.

  19. Population structure and reticulate evolution of Saccharomyces eubayanus and its lager-brewing hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, David; Sylvester, Kayla; Libkind, Diego; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo; Alexander, William G; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2014-04-01

    Reticulate evolution can be a major driver of diversification into new niches, especially in disturbed habitats and at the edges of ranges. Industrial fermentation strains of yeast provide a window into these processes, but progress has been hampered by a limited understanding of the natural diversity and distribution of Saccharomyces species and populations. For example, lager beer is brewed with Saccharomyces pastorianus, an alloploid hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus, a species only recently discovered in Patagonia, Argentina. Here, we report that genetically diverse strains of S. eubayanus are readily isolated from Patagonia, demonstrating that the species is well established there. Analyses of multilocus sequence data strongly suggest that there are two diverse and highly differentiated Patagonian populations. The low nucleotide diversity found in the S. eubayanus moiety of hybrid European brewing strains suggests that their alleles were drawn from a small subpopulation that is closely related to one of the Patagonian populations. For the first time, we also report the rare isolation of S. eubayanus outside Patagonia, in Wisconsin, USA. In contrast to the clear population differentiation in Patagonia, the North American strains represent a recent and possibly transient admixture of the two Patagonian populations. These complex and varied reticulation events are not adequately captured by conventional phylogenetic methods and required analyses of Bayesian concordance factors and phylogenetic networks to accurately summarize and interpret. These findings show how genetically diverse eukaryotic microbes can produce rare but economically important hybrids with low genetic diversity when they migrate from their natural ecological context.

  20. Effects of club soda and ginger brew on linguapalatal pressures in healthy swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krival, Kate; Bates, Crystal

    2012-06-01

    Oral chemesthesis is the detection of chemicals that activate temperature and pain receptors in the oral mucosa. Presentation of orally chemesthetic input has been theorized to stimulate a faster, stronger swallow. We measured differences in peak linguapalatal swallowing pressures, pressure durations, and pressure adjustments in response to two volumes of water and carbonation (in Schweppes® Club Soda) and carbonation + gingerol (in Reed's Extra Ginger Brew) in 20 young adult women. There was a main effect of stimulus on linguapalatal swallowing pressure, F(6,74) = 6.247, p = 0.000, hp(2) = 0.536 (Reed's Extra Ginger Brew > Schweppes Club Soda > water). Rising and releasing linguapalatal pressure durations were greater for carbonation + gingerol and carbonation than for water. Our results add to the evidence that orally chemesthetic beverages influence greater neuromotor activity compared to water during the oral stage of swallowing. Our findings also suggest that there may be some benefit to the cumulative addition of chemosensory agents in a beverage. Clinically, this provides a theoretical basis for considering the use of these or chemically similar beverages as facilitating stimuli in patients who aspirate thin liquids.

  1. Optimally accepted salt reduction across cultures. Naturally brewed soy sauce used in three countries with different food cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimojo, R.; Sato, T.; Imamura, M.; Leong, L.P.; Itohiya, Y.; Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.

    2014-01-01

    To explore the influence of food-culture on partial replacement of salt by naturally brewed soy sauce, the results of a procedure, based on equivalence of overall taste intensity and pleasantness, were compared in three countries. Per country, untrained consumers assessed pleasantness and some senso

  2. Technological steps and yeast biomass as factors affecting the lipid content of beer during the brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Perretti, Giuseppe; Buzzini, Pietro; Della Sera, Rolando; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2009-07-22

    Knowledge of lipid content and composition in the brewing process enables the quality control of the final product. Lipids have a beneficial effect on yeast growth during fermentation as well as deleterious effects on end-product quality. The lipid content of a beer affects its ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Lipid oxidation during wort production is of great interest because of its effect on beer quality: both lipids and their oxidation products are known to have adverse effects on beer flavor, whereas interactions between lipids and protein films stabilizing the gas bubbles are thought to cause the collapse of foam. In this background, the aim of this research was the characterization of the lipid content during a brewing process for evaluating the influence of both technological steps and yeast biomass in the lipid composition of beer. Lipid contents and their fatty acid profile were evaluated in brewing raw materials, wort, and beer. A high-resolution gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (HRGC-FID) system was used for fatty acid determination in lipid extracts. The results of the present study highlighted that the main technological steps influencing the lipid content in brewing byproduct and beer were clarification in a whirlpool and filtration. Moreover, the presence of metabolically active yeast cells (used as starter culture) were found to have a great influence on the fatty acids composition of lipids.

  3. Supporting Creativity in Craft Brewing: A Case Study of iPhone Use in the Transition from Novice towards Mastery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steve; Short, Ben; Parchoma, Gale

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case-study of an individual engaged in the practice of craft brewing and the ways in which his use of a mobile device has supported the informal learning underpinning his transition from novice towards mastery. Through participant observation, online ethnographic methods and interview data the authors present a description of…

  4. 设计模式在BREW UI系统中的应用%Design Patterns Application in BREW UI System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚福来; 王晓蔚

    2011-01-01

    MVC pattern and the Decorator pattern is a Graphic User Interface design and implementation of the common pattems.Qualcomm's BREW platform to provide its GUI system(BUIW),in order to facilitate the OEM manufacturers and software development company's expansion,its implementation in the extensive use of design patterns.This choice of which applications are more typical of the two MVC and the Decorator design pattern to describe and analyze.%MVC模式和Decorator模式是Graphic User Interface设计实现中的常用模式。高通在其BREW平台上提供的GUI系统(BUIW),为了便于OEM厂商和软件开发公司的扩展,在其实现中大量使用了设计模式。本文选择其中应用比较多,比较典型的两种设计模式MVC和Decorator进行描述和分析。

  5. Monitoring the influence of high-gravity brewing and fermentation temperature on flavour formation by analysis of gene expression levels in brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saerens, S M G; Verbelen, P J; Vanbeneden, N; Thevelein, J M; Delvaux, F R

    2008-10-01

    During fermentation, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces a broad range of aroma-active substances, which are vital for the complex flavour of beer. In order to obtain insight into the influence of high-gravity brewing and fermentation temperature on flavour formation, we analysed flavour production and the expression level of ten genes (ADH1, BAP2, BAT1, BAT2, ILV5, ATF1, ATF2, IAH1, EHT1 and EEB1) during fermentation of a lager and an ale yeast. Higher initial wort gravity increased acetate ester production, while the influence of higher fermentation temperature on aroma compound production was rather limited. In addition, there is a good correlation between flavour production and the expression level of specific genes involved in the biosynthesis of aroma compounds. We conclude that yeasts with desired amounts of esters and higher alcohols, in accordance with specific consumer preferences, may be identified based on the expression level of flavour biosynthesis genes. Moreover, these results demonstrate that the initial wort density can determine the final concentration of important volatile aroma compounds, thereby allowing beneficial adaptation of the flavour of beer.

  6. Procedure of brewing alcohol as a staple food: case study of the fermented cereal liquor “Parshot” as a staple food in Dirashe special woreda, southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sunano, Yui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From t...

  7. Behavior of myclobutanil, propiconazole, and nuarimol residues during lager beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Simón; Pérez, Gabriel; Vela, Nuria; Mena, Luis; Navarro, Ginés

    2005-11-01

    Over a 4 month brewing process, the fate of three fungicides, myclobutanil, propiconazole, and nuarimol, was studied in the spent grain, brewer wort, and final beer product. Only the residual level of myclobutanil after the mashing step was higher than its maximum residue limit (MRL) on barley. A substantial fraction was removed with the spent grain in all cases (26-42%). The half-life times obtained for the fungicides during storage of the spent grains ranged from 82 to 187 days. No significant influence of the boiling stage on the decrease of the fungicide residues was demonstrated. During fermentation, the content reduction varied from 20 to 47%. After the lagering and filtration steps, no significant decrease (<10%) was observed in any of the residues. Finally, during storage of the beer (3 months), the amounts of fungicides fell by 25-50% of their respective concentrations in the finished beer.

  8. Applying sustainable technology for saving primary energy in the brewhouse during beer brewing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willaert, Ronnie G. [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Ultrastructure, Brussel (Belgium); Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Brussel (Belgium); Baron, Gino V. [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Chemical Engineering, Brussel (Belgium)

    2004-12-01

    Wort boiling is the most energy intensive stage in the brewing process. For this reason considerable attention has been given to improve the efficiency of wort boiling systems. Alternative wort boiling technologies, such as low pressure boiling and high temperature wort boiling, have been studied in detail during the last decades, with a focus on the reduction of primary energy consumption. Recently, new boiling systems have been developed and commercialised. The new systems reduced the energy consumption still further and are all characterised by exerting a low thermal stress on the wort during boiling. In this review, an overview of wort boiling objectives, possibilities to reduce the thermal stress on wort and environmental aspects of wort boiling are discussed. Furthermore, recent wort boiling systems - i.e. dynamic low pressure boiling and boiling systems which are based on low thermal stress boiling in combination with volatile stripping (steam, film and vacuum stripping) - are given special attention. (orig.)

  9. The content of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn and antioxidant activity of green coffee brews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Pohl, Pawel; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2015-09-01

    A simple and fast method of the analysis of green coffee infusions was developed to measure total concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn by high resolution-continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The precision of the method was within 1-8%, while the accuracy was within -1% to 2%. The method was used to the analysis of infusions of twelve green coffees of different geographical origin. It was found that Ca and Mg were leached the easiest, i.e., on average 75% and 70%, respectively. As compared to the mug coffee preparation, the rate of the extraction of elements was increased when infusions were prepared using dripper or Turkish coffee preparation methods. Additionally, it was established that the antioxidant activity of green coffee infusions prepared using the mug coffee preparation was high, 75% on average, and positively correlated with the total content of phenolic compounds and the concentration of Ca in the brew.

  10. Monitoring of Glucose in Beer Brewing by a Carbon Nanotubes Based Nylon Nanofibrous Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, preparation, and characterization of a novel glucose electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX into a nylon nanofibrous membrane (NFM prepared by electrospinning and functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT. A disc of such GOX/CNT/NFM membrane (40 μm in thickness was used for coating the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, with ferrocene methanol as mediator. The binding of GOX around the CNT/NFM greatly enhances the electron transfer, which results in a biosensor with a current five times higher than without CNT. The potential usefulness of the proposed biosensor was demonstrated with the analysis of glucose in commercial beverages and along the monitoring of the brewing process for making beer, from the mashing to the fermentation steps.

  11. Dynamic changes in brewing yeast cells in culture revealed by statistical analyses of yeast morphological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Enomoto, Kenichi; Yoshimoto, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2014-03-01

    The vitality of brewing yeasts has been used to monitor their physiological state during fermentation. To investigate the fermentation process, we used the image processing software, CalMorph, which generates morphological data on yeast mother cells and bud shape, nuclear shape and location, and actin distribution. We found that 248 parameters changed significantly during fermentation. Successive use of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed several important features of yeast, providing insight into the dynamic changes in the yeast population. First, PCA indicated that much of the observed variability in the experiment was summarized in just two components: a change with a peak and a change over time. Second, PCA indicated the independent and important morphological features responsible for dynamic changes: budding ratio, nucleus position, neck position, and actin organization. Thus, the large amount of data provided by imaging analysis can be used to monitor the fermentation processes involved in beer and bioethanol production.

  12. Still Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tea culture and China are synonymous, but even old-style teahouses have to change with the times Xinquan Tea House is filled with old men who seemingly have known each other for years. They share unrestrained and far-ranging conversations on topics that range from tea ceremony culture to how to sort out all the world's troubles. Situated in De'nei Dajie street in downtown Beijing, this teahouse is known as a qingchaguan (teahouse serving tea without

  13. Strange Brew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard Christiansen, Lærke; Lounsbury, Michael

    2013-01-01

    How do organizations manage multiple logics in response to institutional complexity? In this paper, we explore how intraorganizational problems related to multiple logics may be addressed via the mechanism of institutional bricolage – where actors inside an organization act as “bricoleurs” to cre...

  14. Strange Brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterer, Irv

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project in which juniors and seniors in graphic design created their own label designs for a one liter plastic bottle of soft drinks. Discusses in detail how the students created their labels. States that the seniors also created a box. (CMK)

  15. 苏美尔啤酒及其酿造技术%Sumerian Beer and Its Brewing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌玉

    2012-01-01

    Sumerian is one of the earliest people who brewed and consumed the beer in the world.Sumerian beer played a very important role in the whole Sumerian society.Among Sumerian cuneiform documents and archaeological evidences,a considerable number of information concerning beer and beer brewing is available.%苏美尔人是世界上最早酿造啤酒、饮用啤酒的民族之一。根据苏美尔语文献中所记载的大量啤酒相关信息,对苏美尔啤酒及其酿造技术进行了简要介绍。

  16. Brewing effect on levels of biogenic amines in different coffee samples as determined by LC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, Donatella; Spizzirri, U Gianfranco; Parisi, Ortensia I; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Picci, Nevio

    2015-05-15

    Eight biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, cadaverine and serotonin) were determined by LC-UV after derivatization with dansyl-chloride in both ground coffee and coffee beverages obtained by different methods. In ground coffee, the most relevant amine was PUT, followed by SPD, HIS, TYR, CAD, SPM, PHE, and SER, with the total BAs content decreasing as the roasting degree increased. In coffee brews, the order was PUT, SPM, TYR, CAD, SPD, PHE, HIS, and SER, but at a very low level in comparison with the amount of BAs determined in roasted ground coffee. Beverages prepared by espresso, capsule, and pod machines had the lowest BAs contents, as a result of the thermal and physical stress imposed on ground coffee by these methods, while mocha contained the highest BAs amounts owing to lower pressure and longer brewing time.

  17. Chemical transformations of characteristic hop secondary metabolites in relation to beer properties and the brewing process: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenackers, Bart; De Cooman, Luc; De Vos, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The annual production of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) exceeds 100,000 mt and is almost exclusively consumed by the brewing industry. The value of hops is attributed to their characteristic secondary metabolites; these metabolites are precursors which are transformed during the brewing process into important bittering, aromatising and preservative components with rather low efficiency. By selectively transforming these components off-line, both their utilisation efficiency and functionality can be significantly improved. Therefore, the chemical transformations of these secondary metabolites will be considered with special attention to recent advances in the field. The considered components are the hop alpha-acids, hop beta-acids and xanthohumol, which are components unique to hops, and alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, sesquiterpenes which are highly characteristic of hops.

  18. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested.

  19. Cleanup of industrial effluents containing heavy metals: a new opportunity of valorising the biomass produced by brewing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Eduardo V.; Soares, Helena Maria

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a matter of concern in industrialised countries. Contrary to organic pollutants, heavy metals are not metabolically degraded. This fact has two main consequences: its bioremediation requires another strategy and heavy metals can be indefinitely recycled. Yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are produced at high amounts as a by-product of brewing industry constituting a cheap raw material. In the present work, the possibility of valorising this type of biomass in th...

  20. Survival of Salmonella on chamomile, peppermint, and green tea during storage and subsequent survival or growth following tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Stam, Christina N; Gradl, Dana R; Chen, Zhengzai; Larkin, Emily L; Pickens, Shannon R; Chirtel, Stuart J

    2015-04-01

    The survival of Salmonella on dried chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves, and green tea leaves stored under different conditions was examined. Survival and growth of Salmonella was also assessed after subsequent brewing using dried inoculated teas. A Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail was inoculated onto different dried tea leaves or flowers to give starting populations of approximately 10 log CFU/g. The inoculum was allowed to dry (at ambient temperature for 24 h) onto the dried leaves or flowers prior to storage under 25 and 35 °C at low (90% RH) humidity levels. Under the four storage conditions tested, survival followed the order 25 °C with low RH > 35 °C with low RH > 25 °C with high RH > 35 °C with high RH. Salmonella losses at 25 °C with low RH occurred primarily during drying, after which populations showed little decline over 6 months. In contrast, Salmonella decreased below detection after 45 days at 35 °C and high RH in all teas tested. The thermal resistance of Salmonella was assessed at 55 °C immediately after inoculation of tea leaves or flowers, after drying (24 h) onto tea leaves or flowers, and after 28 days of storage at 25 °C with low RH. All conditions resulted in similar D-values (2.78 ± 0.12, 3.04 ± 0.07, and 2.78 ± 0.56, at 0 h, 24 h, and 28 days, respectively), indicating thermal resistance of Salmonella in brewed tea did not change after desiccation and 28 days of storage. In addition, all brewed teas tested supported the growth of Salmonella. If Salmonella survives after storage, it may also survive and grow after a home brewing process.

  1. Complex Ancestries of Lager-Brewing Hybrids Were Shaped by Standing Variation in the Wild Yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, David; Langdon, Quinn K; Moriarty, Ryan V; Sylvester, Kayla; Bontrager, Martin; Charron, Guillaume; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Landry, Christian R; Libkind, Diego; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2016-07-01

    Lager-style beers constitute the vast majority of the beer market, and yet, the genetic origin of the yeast strains that brew them has been shrouded in mystery and controversy. Unlike ale-style beers, which are generally brewed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lagers are brewed at colder temperatures with allopolyploid hybrids of Saccharomyces eubayanus x S. cerevisiae. Since the discovery of S. eubayanus in 2011, additional strains have been isolated from South America, North America, Australasia, and Asia, but only interspecies hybrids have been isolated in Europe. Here, using genome sequence data, we examine the relationships of these wild S. eubayanus strains to each other and to domesticated lager strains. Our results support the existence of a relatively low-diversity (π = 0.00197) lineage of S. eubayanus whose distribution stretches across the Holarctic ecozone and includes wild isolates from Tibet, new wild isolates from North America, and the S. eubayanus parents of lager yeasts. This Holarctic lineage is closely related to a population with higher diversity (π = 0.00275) that has been found primarily in South America but includes some widely distributed isolates. A second diverse South American population (π = 0.00354) and two early-diverging Asian subspecies are more distantly related. We further show that no single wild strain from the Holarctic lineage is the sole closest relative of lager yeasts. Instead, different parts of the genome portray different phylogenetic signals and ancestry, likely due to outcrossing and incomplete lineage sorting. Indeed, standing genetic variation within this wild Holarctic lineage of S. eubayanus is responsible for genetic variation still segregating among modern lager-brewing hybrids. We conclude that the relationships among wild strains of S. eubayanus and their domesticated hybrids reflect complex biogeographical and genetic processes.

  2. 3-D TECATE/BREW: Thermal, stress, and birefringent ray-tracing codes for solid-state laser design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, R. J.; Doss, S. K.; Nelson, R. G.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the physics, code formulations, and numerics that are used in the TECATE (totally Eulerian code for anisotropic thermo-elasticity) and BREW (birefringent ray-tracing of electromagnetic waves) codes for laser design. These codes resolve thermal, stress, and birefringent optical effects in 3-D stationary solid-state systems. This suite of three constituent codes is a package referred to as LASRPAK.

  3. Degradation Dynamics and Dietary Risk Assessments of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides during Lonicera japonica Planting, Drying, and Tea Brewing Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qingkui; Shi, Yanhong; Cao, Haiqun; Tong, Zhou; Xiao, Jinjing; Liao, Min; Wu, Xiangwei; Hua, Rimao

    2017-03-01

    The degradation dynamics and dietary risk assessments of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid during Lonicera japonica planting, drying, and tea brewing processes were systematically investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The half-lives of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid were 1.0-4.1 d in the honeysuckle flowers and leaves, with degradation rate constants k ranging from -0.169 to -0.696. The safety interval time was 7 d. The sun- and oven-drying (70 °C) percent digestions were 59.4-81.0% for the residues, which were higher than the shade- and oven-drying percentages at lower temperatures (30, 40, 50, and 60 °C, which ranged from 37.7% to 57.0%). The percent transfers of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid were 0-48.4% and 0-25.2%, respectively, for the different tea brewing conditions. On the basis of the results of this study, abiding by the safety interval time is important, and using reasonable drying methods and tea brewing conditions can reduce the transfer of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid to humans.

  4. Estimating alcohol content of traditional brew in Western Kenya using culturally relevant methods: the case for cost over volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Rebecca K; Sidle, John E; Wamalwa, Emmanuel S; Okumu, Thomas O; Bryant, Kendall L; Goulet, Joseph L; Maisto, Stephen A; Braithwaite, R Scott; Justice, Amy C

    2010-08-01

    Traditional homemade brew is believed to represent the highest proportion of alcohol use in sub-Saharan Africa. In Eldoret, Kenya, two types of brew are common: chang'aa, spirits, and busaa, maize beer. Local residents refer to the amount of brew consumed by the amount of money spent, suggesting a culturally relevant estimation method. The purposes of this study were to analyze ethanol content of chang'aa and busaa; and to compare two methods of alcohol estimation: use by cost, and use by volume, the latter the current international standard. Laboratory results showed mean ethanol content was 34% (SD = 14%) for chang'aa and 4% (SD = 1%) for busaa. Standard drink unit equivalents for chang'aa and busaa, respectively, were 2 and 1.3 (US) and 3.5 and 2.3 (Great Britain). Using a computational approach, both methods demonstrated comparable results. We conclude that cost estimation of alcohol content is more culturally relevant and does not differ in accuracy from the international standard.

  5. Hop-Derived Prenylflavonoids and Their Importance in Brewing Technology – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mudura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Beer is one of the world’s most popular beverage products. Beer is all natural ingredients, so moderate consumption contributes to a healthy daily diet. Beer contains a large variety of phenolic compounds which are derived from the processed cereal (70% and hops (30% and which are responsible for the antioxidant activity of the beverage. Hops (Humulus lupulus L. are an essential ingredient of beer and are a source of polyphenols that contain the prenyl or geranyl group in the chemical structure, xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, 6-prenilnaringenin and 8-prenylnaringenin. The prenylflavonoid's compounds found in beer have different biological activities demonstrated in vitro as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and antiviral. Important quantities of prenylflavonoids are lost during wort production. The losses may be explained by the low solubility of these compounds and its insufficient extraction in wort. Using appropriate engineering strategies, improvements in the recovery of prenylflavonoids from hops into beer has involved increased hopping rate, improved brewing process, especially wort boiling, increased colored malt yields and management of beer fermentations.Beer is one of the world’s most popular beverage products. Beer is all natural ingredients, so moderate consumption contributes to a healthy daily diet. Beer contains a large variety of phenolic compounds which are derived from the processed cereal (70% and hops (30% and which are responsible for the antioxidant activity of the beverage. Hops (Humulus lupulus L. are an essential ingredient of beer and are a source of polyphenols that contain the prenyl or geranyl group in the chemical structure, xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, 6-prenilnaringenin and 8-prenylnaringenin. The prenylflavonoid's compounds found in beer have different biological activities demonstrated in vitro as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and antiviral. Important

  6. Production of a saccharifying rice malt for brewing using different rice varieties and malting parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Heidi; Marconi, Ombretta; Regnicoli, Gian Franco; Perretti, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2014-06-11

    This study was conducted to produce rice malt suitable for beer brewing. An all-rice beer would be particularly appealing to individuals with celiac disease because rice does not contain gluten proteins. Furthermore, rice malt could also contribute to new beer flavors and brands. A screening of 10 rice varieties was conducted. The varieties Balilla and Centauro were found to be suitable for the production of an all-rice malt beer without the need of exogenous enzymes. They were characterized by a low diastatic power but nevertheless they saccharified well, likely due to other endogenous amylolytic enzymes such as limit dextrinase and α-glucosidase. The addition of CaCl2 and lactic acid during mashing lowered the pH value and increased saccharification. However, the Balilla variety saccharified without the need of these additives. We also show that the soluble nitrogen and free amino nitrogen content of rice malt wort can be increased by the incorporation of the acrospires and rootlets during mashing.

  7. COBRA: A Computational Brewing Application for Predicting the Molecular Composition of Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fooshee, David R.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Baldi, Pierre

    2012-05-08

    Atmospheric organic aerosols (OA) represent a significant fraction of airborne particulate matter and can impact climate, visibility, and human health. These mixtures are difficult to characterize experimentally due to the enormous complexity and dynamic nature of their chemical composition. We introduce a novel Computational Brewing Application (COBRA) and apply it to modeling oligomerization chemistry stemming from condensation and addition reactions of monomers pertinent to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by photooxidation of isoprene. COBRA uses two lists as input: a list of chemical structures comprising the molecular starting pool, and a list of rules defining potential reactions between molecules. Reactions are performed iteratively, with products of all previous iterations serving as reactants for the next one. The simulation generated thousands of molecular structures in the mass range of 120-500 Da, and correctly predicted ~70% of the individual SOA constituents observed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Selected predicted structures were confirmed with tandem mass spectrometry. Esterification and hemiacetal formation reactions were shown to play the most significant role in oligomer formation, whereas aldol condensation was shown to be insignificant. COBRA is not limited to atmospheric aerosol chemistry, but is broadly applicable to the prediction of reaction products in other complex mixtures for which reasonable reaction mechanisms and seed molecules can be supplied by experimental or theoretical methods.

  8. An investigation of how the Australian brewing industry influence consumers on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgeir Aleti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop and test hypotheses around organisations’ behaviour on social media and its effect on consumers’ responses. We draw on the notion of the market maven to underpin the research and suggest that organisations on social media need to focus on acting in a maven-like manner in order to influence audiences in Twitter. We collected data from the Twitter accounts of the entire brewing industry in Australia, analysing organisational postings and their impact on influence (follower numbers, retweets of their respective Twitter accounts. In particular, we look at message formulation and language, native platform behaviour, reciprocity and persistency variables. Findings suggest that establishing a larger follower base requires an interactive, one-to-one and reciprocal approach. In order to influence audiences to retweet organisations need to speak the ‘native platform language’ and employ a soft-sell strategy. Maven-like behaviour tends to reside in the small independent craft breweries. We offer the conclusion that these craft breweries have realised that, on social media, a different approach to marketing is required: the organisations must act in a maven-like manner.

  9. Production of freeze-dried yeast culture for the brewing of traditional sorghum beer, tchapalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guessan, Florent K; Coulibaly, Hermann W; Alloue-Boraud, Mireille W A; Cot, Marlène; Djè, Koffi Marcellin

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a well-known dehydration method widely used to preserve microorganisms. In order to produce freeze-dried yeast starter culture for the brewing purpose of African sorghum beer, we tested protective agents (sucrose, glucose, glycerol) in combination with support materials (millet, maize, sorghum, and cassava flours) at 1:1 ratio (v/v). The yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae F 12-7 and Candida tropicalis C 0-7 previously isolated from sorghum beer were used in a mixed culture at a ratio of 2:1 (C. tropicalis/S. cerevisiae). After the freeze-drying, the residual water contents were between 0.78 -2.27%, 0.55 -4.09%, and 0.40-2.61%, respectively, with sucrose, glucose and glycerol. The dried yeasts viabilities were between 4.0% and 10.6%. Among the protective agents used, sucrose was found to be the best protectant giving cell viabilities of 8.4-10.6%. Considering the support materials, millet flour was the best support after drying. When the freeze-dried yeast powders were stored at 4°C and room temperature (25-28°C) for up to 3 months, the survival rates were the highest with cassava flour as the support material.

  10. New Process of Raspberry Wine Brewing%树莓酒酿造新工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪松; 张素敏; 隋韶奕; 隋洪涛; 李珂

    2014-01-01

    以树莓为原料生产果酒,在树莓果浆发酵过程中加入糯米糖化醪来弥补树莓果汁酸度过高、碳源不足的缺陷,通过正交试验确定出糯米糖化醪的最佳糖化条件和树莓酒的最佳发酵条件及生产工艺参数,并采用微孔膜精滤,无菌灌装等工艺酿制出风味纯正、酒体丰满、营养丰富的树莓果酒,为充分利用树莓资源开辟了一条新途径。%In this study, Rasp berries for raw materials developed wine. Using glutinous rice mush liquid as materialto provided carbon-source and reduce acid degree during the fermentation of Rasp berries , the best technique parameter and fermentation condition of Raspberries wine and saccharifincation condition of glutinous rice mush liquid were determined by orthogonal test,brew to Rasp berries wine by membrane filtration and sterile filling and so on, and the wine had pure flavour and poise round and full of nutrition, open up a new road forthe useof Rasp berries.

  11. A thermostable Gloeophyllum trabeum xylanase with potential for the brewing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Luo, Huiying; Yu, Wangning; Ma, Rui; You, Shuai; Liu, Weina; Hou, Lingyu; Zheng, Fei; Xie, Xiangming; Yao, Bin

    2016-05-15

    A xylanase gene of glycoside hydrolase family 10, GtXyn10, was cloned from Gloeophyllum trabeum CBS 900.73 and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. Purified recombinant GtXyn10 exhibited significant activities to xylan (100.0%), lichenan (11.2%), glucan (15.2%) and p-nitrophenol-β-cellobiose (18.6%), demonstrated the maximum xylanase and glucanase activities at pH 4.5-5.0 and 75°C, retained stability over the pH range of 2.0-7.5 and at 70°C, and was resistant to pepsin and trypsin, most metal ions and SDS. Multiple sequence alignment and modeled-structure analysis identified a unique Gly48 in GtXyn10, and site-directed mutagenesis of Gly48 to Lys improved the temperature optimum up to 80°C. Under simulated mashing conditions, GtXyn10 (80U) reduced the mash viscosity by 12.8% and improved the filtration rate by 31.3%. All these properties above make GtXyn10 attractive for potential applications in the feed and brewing industries.

  12. Screening for new brewing yeasts in the non-Saccharomyces sector with Torulaspora delbrueckii as model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Maximilian; Kopecká, Jana; Meier-Dörnberg, Tim; Zarnkow, Martin; Jacob, Fritz; Hutzler, Mathias

    2016-04-01

    This study describes a screening system for future brewing yeasts focusing on non-Saccharomyces yeasts. The aim was to find new yeast strains that can ferment beer wort into a respectable beer. Ten Torulaspora delbrueckii strains were put through the screening system, which included sugar utilization tests, hop resistance tests, ethanol resistance tests, polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting, propagation tests, amino acid catabolism and anabolism, phenolic off-flavour tests and trial fermentations. Trial fermentations were analysed for extract reduction, pH drop, yeast concentration in bulk fluid and fermentation by-products. All investigated strains were able to partly ferment wort sugars and showed high tolerance to hop compounds and ethanol. One of the investigated yeast strains fermented all the wort sugars and produced a respectable fruity flavour and a beer of average ethanol content with a high volatile flavour compound concentration. Two other strains could possibly be used for pre-fermentation as a bio-flavouring agent for beers that have been post-fermented by Saccharomyces strains as a consequence of their low sugar utilization but good flavour-forming properties.

  13. Influence of the brewing process on furfuryl ethyl ether formation during beer aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhaegen, Bart; Neven, Hedwig; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2004-11-03

    In beer, the development of a solvent-like stale flavor is associated with the formation of furfuryl ethyl ether. The synthesis rate of this important flavor compound is proportional to the concentration of furfuryl alcohol in beer. This study shows that furfuryl alcohol in beer is mainly formed by Maillard reactions initiated during wort boiling and malt production. A mechanism for its formation from alpha-(1,4)-oligoglucans and amino acids in wort and beer is proposed. During wort boiling, a quadratic relationship was found between the wort extract concentration, on the one hand, and the increase of furfuryl alcohol and furfural, on the other. The reduction of furfural by yeast during fermentation further increases the furfuryl alcohol content. In pale beers, the furfuryl alcohol concentration is essentially determined by the thermal load on wort during brewing operations. In dark beers, a considerable fraction of furfuryl alcohol may, however, come from the dark malts used. These results lead to important practical conclusions concerning the control over furfuryl ethyl ether in beer.

  14. 山西老陈醋传统酿造工艺写实记录%Factory record of Shanxi aged vinega's traditional brewing vinegar process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严蕊; 王晓云

    2015-01-01

    Brewing Shanxi aged vinegar by the traditional techology, process flows, technical points and parameters controlling were followed and record.At the same time,the change of chemical components were detected and analysed during the brewing process, on the basic of which threw out a suggestion for the research of aged vinegar brewing technology .%采用传统工艺酿造山西老陈醋,对其工艺流程、技术要点及参数控制进行跟踪记录,并对酿造过程中的成分变化进行了检测分析,在此基础上提出了对老陈醋酿造工艺研究的改进意见。

  15. Procedure of brewing alcohol as a staple food: case study of the fermented cereal liquor "Parshot" as a staple food in Dirashe special woreda, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunano, Yui

    2016-07-01

    For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From these alcoholic beverages, parshot is prepared by the addition of plant leaves for lactic fermentation and nech chaka by adding cereal powder for lactic fermentation before alcohol fermentation. People living in the Dirashe area partake of parshot as part of their staple diet. The brewing process used for parshot and a food culture with alcoholic beverages as parts of the staple diet are rare worldwide. This article discusses the significance of using lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation and focuses on lactic fermentation in the brewing methods used for the three kinds of alcoholic beverages consumed in the Dirashe area. We initially observed the brewing process and obtained information about the process from the people in that area. Next, we determined the pH and analyzed the lactic acid (g/100 g) and ethanol (g/100 g) content during lactic fermentation of parshot and nech chaka; the ethyl acetate (mg/100 g) and volatile base nitrogen (mg/100 g) content during this period was also analyzed. In addition, we compared the ethanol (g/100 g) content of all three kinds of alcoholic beverages after completion of brewing. The results showed that it was possible to consume large quantities of these alcoholic beverages because of the use of lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation, which improved the safety and preservation characteristics of the beverages by preventing the propagation of various microorganisms, improving flavor, and controlling the alcohol level.

  16. Flocculation in ale brewing strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: re-evaluation of the role of cell surface charge and hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holle, Ann Van; Machado, Manuela D; Soares, Eduardo V

    2012-02-01

    Flocculation is an eco-friendly process of cell separation, which has been traditionally exploited by the brewing industry. Cell surface charge (CSC), cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and the presence of active flocculins, during the growth of two (NCYC 1195 and NCYC 1214) ale brewing flocculent strains, belonging to the NewFlo phenotype, were examined. Ale strains, in exponential phase of growth, were not flocculent and did not present active flocculent lectins on the cell surface; in contrast, the same strains, in stationary phase of growth, were highly flocculent (>98%) and presented a hydrophobicity of approximately three to seven times higher than in exponential phase. No relationship between growth phase, flocculation and CSC was observed. For comparative purposes, a constitutively flocculent strain (S646-1B) and its isogenic non-flocculent strain (S646-8D) were also used. The treatment of ale brewing and S646-1B strains with pronase E originated a loss of flocculation and a strong reduction of CSH; S646-1B pronase E-treated cells displayed a similar CSH as the non-treated S646-8D cells. The treatment of the S646-8D strain with protease did not reduce CSH. In conclusion, the increase of CSH observed at the onset of flocculation of ale strains is a consequence of the presence of flocculins on the yeast cell surface and not the cause of yeast flocculation. CSH and CSC play a minor role in the auto-aggregation of the ale strains since the degree of flocculation is defined, primarily, by the presence of active flocculins on the yeast cell wall.

  17. Examples of the application of optical process and quality sensing (OPQS) to beer brewing and polyurethane foaming processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, Sonja; Kumke, Michael U; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2006-03-01

    Optical methods play an important role in process analytical technologies (PAT). Four examples of optical process and quality sensing (OPQS) are presented, which are based on three important experimental techniques: near-infrared absorption, luminescence quenching, and a novel method, photon density wave (PDW) spectroscopy. These are used to evaluate four process and quality parameters related to beer brewing and polyurethane (PU) foaming processes: the ethanol content and the oxygen (O2) content in beer, the biomass in a bioreactor, and the cellular structures of PU foam produced in a pilot production plant.

  18. Very high gravity (VHG) ethanolic brewing and fermentation: a research update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puligundla, Pradeep; Smogrovicova, Daniela; Obulam, Vijaya Sarathi Reddy; Ko, Sanghoon

    2011-09-01

    There have been numerous developments in ethanol fermentation technology since the beginning of the new millennium as ethanol has become an immediate viable alternative to fast-depleting crude reserves as well as increasing concerns over environmental pollution. Nowadays, although most research efforts are focused on the conversion of cheap cellulosic substrates to ethanol, methods that are cost-competitive with gasoline production are still lacking. At the same time, the ethanol industry has engaged in implementing potential energy-saving, productivity and efficiency-maximizing technologies in existing production methods to become more viable. Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation is an emerging, versatile one among such technologies offering great savings in process water and energy requirements through fermentation of higher concentrations of sugar substrate and, therefore, increased final ethanol concentration in the medium. The technology also allows increased fermentation efficiency, without major alterations to existing facilities, by efficient utilization of fermentor space and elimination of known losses. This comprehensive research update on VHG technology is presented in two main sections, namely VHG brewing, wherein the effects of nutrients supplementation, yeast pitching rate, flavour compound synthesis and foam stability under increased wort gravities are discussed; and VHG bioethanol fermentation studies. In the latter section, aspects related to the role of osmoprotectants and nutrients in yeast stress reduction, substrates utilized/tested so far, including saccharide (glucose, sucrose, molasses, etc.) and starchy materials (wheat, corn, barley, oats, etc.), and mash viscosity issues in VHG bioethanol production are detailed. Thereafter, topics common to both areas such as process optimization studies, mutants and gene level studies, immobilized yeast applications, temperature effect, reserve carbohydrates profile in yeast, and economic aspects are

  19. [Improvement of beer anti-staling capability by genetically modifying industrial brewing yeast with high glutathione content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Li, Qi; Gu, Guo-Xian

    2007-11-01

    Based on homologous recombination, recombinant plasmid pRKG was constructed by replacing the internal fragment of 18S rDNA of pRJ-5 with a copy of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene (GSH1) from the industrial brewing yeast strain G03 and a copy of G418 resistance gene (Kan) used as the dominant selection marker respectively. The fragment 18s rDNA::( Kan-GSH1) obtained through the PCR reaction was integrated to the chromosomal DNA of G03 strain, and recombinants were screened by G418 resistance. It was shown that the GSH content of beer fermented with the recombinant strain SG1 was 16.6% higher than that of G03, and no significant difference in routine fermentation parameters was found. To test the genetic stability, strains SG1 was inoculated into flasks and transfered continuously 5 times. The intracellular glutathione content of strain kept constant basically. It is an instructive attempt of genetically modifing industrial brewing yeast, as GSH1 was obtained from the host itself.

  20. Formation of Guaiacol by Spoilage Bacteria from Vanillic Acid, a Product of Rice Koji Cultivation, in Japanese Sake Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshihiko; Konno, Mahito; Shimura, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Seiei; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Hashizume, Katsumi

    2016-06-08

    The formation of guaiacol, a potent phenolic off-odor compound in the Japanese sake brewing process, was investigated. Eight rice koji samples were analyzed, and one contained guaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG) at extraordinarily high levels: 374 and 2433 μg/kg dry mass koji, respectively. All samples contained ferulic and vanillic acids at concentrations of mg/kg dry mass koji. Guaiacol forming microorganisms were isolated from four rice koji samples. They were identified as Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens/subtilis, and Staphylococcus gallinarum using 16S rRNA gene sequence. These spoilage bacteria convert vanillic acid to guaiacol and ferulic acid to 4-VG. However, they convert very little ferulic acid or 4-VG to guaiacol. Nine strains of koji fungi tested produced vanillic acid at the mg/kg dry mass koji level after cultivation. These results indicated that spoilage bacteria form guaiacol from vanillic acid, which is a product of koji cultivation in the sake brewing process.

  1. Reduction of Methane Emission during Slurry Storage by the Addition of Effective Microorganisms and Excessive Carbon Source from Brewing Sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Mohd Saufi B; Jones, Davey L; Chadwick, David R

    2016-11-01

    Storing livestock manure is the primary stage of manure management where microbial processes and chemical reactions result in the release of methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), ammonia (NH), and carbon dioxide (CO). This study examined the reduction of CH emissions from slurry storage under two temperatures (cool [10°C] and warm [30°C]) when a glucose-rich substrate (brewing sugar) and activated effective microorganisms were applied at 10% (w/w) and 5% (v/w), respectively. Brewing sugar addition influenced microbial anaerobic respiration, resulting in a reduction of slurry pH to <5.0, through "self-acidification" caused by lactic acid production. Subsequently, CH emissions were significantly reduced by 87 and 99% in the cool and warm environments, respectively. The effective microorganism treatment did not change the chemical characteristics of the slurry but reduced CH emissions by 17 and 27% ( < 0.05) in the cool and warm environments, respectively. These results suggest that self-acidification after addition of a carbon source may be a promising alternative to slurry acidification using concentrated acids.

  2. Stereoselective Behavior of the Chiral Herbicides Diclofop-Methyl and Diclofop During the Soy Sauce Brewing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuele; Zhang, Dong; Liao, Yahui; Diao, Jinling; Chen, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Chiral pesticides are now receiving more and more attention in the food-making process. This experiment studied the enantioselective behavior of diclofop-methyl (DM) and its main metabolite, diclofop (DC), during the soy sauce brewing process. Two kinds of commonly used strains, Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces rouxii, were investigated. However, they showed a different degradation ability to the enantiomers of DM and DC. It was observed that (-)-(S)-DM was degraded much faster than (+)-(R)-DM by Saccharomyces rouxii, while no stereoselective degradation was found by Aspergillus oryzae. DC represented a relatively long residue period in this fermentation process and both strains showed a weak degradation ability to DC, especially Saccharomyces rouxii. There was little DC detected in the final product, while most of the DC residues persisted in the lees, which were usually used as animal feeds or discarded into the environment directly as waste. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the soy sauce brewing process concerning pesticide residues both in the final product and byproducts.

  3. Cleanup of industrial effluents containing heavy metals: a new opportunity of valorising the biomass produced by brewing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Eduardo V; Soares, Helena M V M

    2013-08-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a matter of concern in industrialised countries. Contrary to organic pollutants, heavy metals are not metabolically degraded. This fact has two main consequences: its bioremediation requires another strategy and heavy metals can be indefinitely recycled. Yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are produced at high amounts as a by-product of brewing industry constituting a cheap raw material. In the present work, the possibility of valorising this type of biomass in the bioremediation of real industrial effluents containing heavy metals is reviewed. Given the auto-aggregation capacity (flocculation) of brewing yeast cells, a fast and off-cost yeast separation is achieved after the treatment of metal-laden effluent, which reduces the costs associated with the process. This is a critical issue when we are looking for an effective, eco-friendly, and low-cost technology. The possibility of the bioremediation of industrial effluents linked with the selective recovery of metals, in a strategy of simultaneous minimisation of environmental hazard of industrial wastes with financial benefits from reselling or recycling the metals, is discussed.

  4. Development of brewing science in (and since) the late 19th century: molecular profiles of 110-130 year old beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Andrea; Ravasio, Davide; Qin, Fen;

    2015-01-01

    and composition. The historic samples include the oldest samples brewed with pure Saccharomyces carlsbergensis yeast strains. While no detailed record of beer pasteurization at the time is available, historic samples indicate a gradual improvement of bottled beer handling from the 1880s to the 1900s...

  5. Impact of brewing process operations on phytate, phenolic compounds and in vitro solubility of iron and zinc in opaque sorghum beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beer is a significant component of the diet of millions of poor people in rural Africa. This study reports the effect of traditional brewing operations on its level of micronutrients, especially iron and zinc. The example of a West African sorghum beer, tchoukoutou, in Northern Benin

  6. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Studies on the Formation of Roasting-Induced Antioxidative Structures in Coffee Brews at Different Degrees of Roast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Schols, H.A.; Cämmerer, B.; Kroh, L.W.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidative properties of coffee brew fractions were studied using electron spin resonance spectroscopy using 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and Fremy¿s salt (nitrosodisulfonate) as stabilized radicals. TEMPO was scavenged by antioxidants formed during roasting and not by chlor

  7. 酿造醋和配置醋质量分析与鉴别%Quality Analysis and Distinction About Brewed Vinegar and Prepared Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李先端; 马志静; 张丽宏; 肖碧英; 戴明辉; 毛淑杰

    2011-01-01

    目的:对酿造醋和配置醋的质量进行分析并建立鉴别方法,为区别市场其成品的真伪优劣提供依据.方法:采用紫外光谱鉴别及国标规定方法,比较各样品变化情况.结果:酿造白米醋在270nm下有吸收,配置白醋则没有.酿造米醋灰分平均在2.00%左右,酿造白米醋灰分在0.29%左右,配置白醋灰分在0.02%左右.酿造米醋氨基态氮平均在0.121%左右,酿造白米醋氛基态氮在0.009%左右,配置白醋氛基态氮为0.结论:本试验方法操作简便、可靠、实用,可作为鉴别酿造醋和配置醋质量的真伪优劣指标.%[Objective]To analyze quality of brewed vinegar and prepared vinegar and establish identification methods. [Method]According to national standards and ultra-violet spectrograph, various samples were compared. [Result] The brewed rice vinegar had the absorption under 270nm, but the prepared white vinegar did not have. The ash of brewed rice vinegar was about 2.00% on average,brewed white rice vinegar was about 0.29%, and prepared white vinegar was about 0.02%. The amino nitrogen of brewed rice vinegar was about 0.121% on average, brewed white rice vinegar was about 0.009%, and the prepared white vinegar was 0. [Conclusion] This empirical approach is easy to operate, reliable, practical and can be used as a indicator to distinguish the quality between brewed vinegar and prepared vinegar.

  8. Liquid chromatographic determination of polyphenenols in czech beers during brewing proces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsriimyatav Ganbaatar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC/UV method was adapted for simultaneous determination of seven polyphenols, including derivatives of benzoic (gallic and vanillic acids and cinnamic acids (p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids, flavan-3-ols (catechin and flavonols (rutin in worts and beers at the various stages of the brewing process. Based on the semi-quantitative HPLC analysis, total polyphenols chromatographic index (TPCI was in the ranges of 5.18 - 19.4 mg/L and 7.37 - 20.7 mg/L for all worts and beers, respectively. The HPLC analyses showed that relatively high levels of (+-catechin and gallic acid were in all the worts and the beers, while the values were much lower for ferulic acid, rutin, vanillic acid, sinapic acid and p-coumaric acid. Polyphenols with relatively high concentrations, that were detected in all tested worts and beers, were gallic acid (1.29 - 4.75 mg/L resp. 2.59 - 4.97 mg/L, (+-catechin (1.66 - 7.95 mg/L resp. 4.70 - 10.0 mg/L and ferulic acid (0.41 - 4.53 mg/L resp. 1.05 - 2.87 mg/L. On the other side, the sinapic acid (0.72 - 1.59 mg/L resp. 0.72 - 2.5 mg/L, rutin (1.17 - 2.03 mg/L resp. 1.16 - 2.85 mg/L, p-coumaric acid (ND - 4.73 mg/L resp. ND - 1.44 mg/L and vanillic acid (ND - 1.52 mg/L resp. 0.75 - 1.81 mg/L were detected in lowest concentrations. In both, worts and beers investigated in this study, the changes in the contents of individual polyphenols were not uniform. In the case of some polyphenols, a decrease in the content was observed after boiling the worts with hops or after the main fermentation until maturation and filtration, but with some polyphenols, the concentrations were constant until the end of the process or even increased.

  9. Outbreak of Botulism After Consumption of Illicit Prison-Brewed Alcohol in a Maximum Security Prison--Arizona, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Seema; Adams, Laura; Briggs, Graham; Weiss, Joli; Bisgard, Kris; Anderson, Shoana; Tsang, Clarisse; Henke, Evan; Vasiq, Muhammad; Komatsu, Ken

    2015-10-01

    The authors investigated the second botulism outbreak to occur in a maximum security prison in Arizona within a 4-month period. Botulism was confirmed in eight men aged 20 to 35 years who reported sharing a single batch of pruno made with potatoes. Initial symptoms included blurred vision, slurred speech, muscle weakness, ptosis, and dysphagia. All patients received heptavalent botulinum antitoxin, seven required mechanical ventilation, and all survived. The median incubation period was 29 hours. Sera from all patients and leftover pruno tested positive for botulinum toxin type A. Botulism should be considered among prisoners with cranial nerve palsies and descending, symmetric flaccid paralysis. Prison-brewed alcohol, particularly when made with potatoes, can be a vehicle for botulism and is associated with outbreaks of botulism in prisons.

  10. 番木瓜果酒的酿制工艺%The Brewing Technology of Carica Papaya Fruit Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏杏洲; 彭球生; 庞李生; 彭克东

    2001-01-01

    介绍了以成熟番木瓜为原料,经打浆、成分调整及采用高活性干酵母进行发酵,酿造出风味独特、品质上乘的番木瓜果酒。确定了最适工艺条件,制定了产品的质量标准。%The brewing technology of carica papaya fruit wine with special flavour and high quality by using ripe carica papaya fruit as raw material, through mashing ingredient adjusting and fermenting by using high dry yeasts is introduced in this paper, the optimized processing technology and the quality standards are determined.

  11. 基于BREW平台的手机游戏开发%Mobile Game Development Based on the BREW Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚宇; 储妮晟

    2006-01-01

    BREW是在移动数据增值应用开发领域出现的新技术.介绍了BREW技术的特点和组成,以及在BREW平台下的程序开发过程.在BREW平台下,开发者使用VC++开发手机应用程序,然后通过BREW SDK开发工具包中的Emulator在计算机上进行手机仿真,最后通过编译器下载到手机上.结合实际开发工作,给出一个使用BREW平台开发手机游戏软件的实例.

  12. Chromosomal Copy Number Variation in Saccharomyces pastorianus Is Evidence for Extensive Genome Dynamics in Industrial Lager Brewing Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, M; Bolat, I; Nijkamp, J F; Ramos, E; Luttik, M A H; Koopman, F; Geertman, J M; de Ridder, D; Pronk, J T; Daran, J-M

    2015-09-01

    Lager brewing strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus are natural interspecific hybrids originating from the spontaneous hybridization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus. Over the past 500 years, S. pastorianus has been domesticated to become one of the most important industrial microorganisms. Production of lager-type beers requires a set of essential phenotypes, including the ability to ferment maltose and maltotriose at low temperature, the production of flavors and aromas, and the ability to flocculate. Understanding of the molecular basis of complex brewing-related phenotypic traits is a prerequisite for rational strain improvement. While genome sequences have been reported, the variability and dynamics of S. pastorianus genomes have not been investigated in detail. Here, using deep sequencing and chromosome copy number analysis, we showed that S. pastorianus strain CBS1483 exhibited extensive aneuploidy. This was confirmed by quantitative PCR and by flow cytometry. As a direct consequence of this aneuploidy, a massive number of sequence variants was identified, leading to at least 1,800 additional protein variants in S. pastorianus CBS1483. Analysis of eight additional S. pastorianus strains revealed that the previously defined group I strains showed comparable karyotypes, while group II strains showed large interstrain karyotypic variability. Comparison of three strains with nearly identical genome sequences revealed substantial chromosome copy number variation, which may contribute to strain-specific phenotypic traits. The observed variability of lager yeast genomes demonstrates that systematic linking of genotype to phenotype requires a three-dimensional genome analysis encompassing physical chromosomal structures, the copy number of individual chromosomes or chromosomal regions, and the allelic variation of copies of individual genes.

  13. 绿茶冲泡过程中咖啡碱的转移动态%On Transfer Dynamics of Caffeine in Green Tea brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈会娟; 童华荣

    2015-01-01

    采用均匀试验设计,模拟中国绿茶消费者的泡饮方式,研究在冲泡过程中液料比、茶汤剩余百分比、加水温度、冲泡时间以及冲泡次数这5个因素对咖啡碱溶出量的影响。结果表明,除冲泡次数外,加水温度对咖啡碱的溶出量影响最大,其次为液料比和茶汤剩余百分比,冲泡时间影响较小。当温度高于90℃,液料比和茶汤剩余百分比为55∶1和30%时,咖啡碱溶出量最多;但无论用哪种冲泡方法进行冲泡,当冲泡4次时,咖啡碱溶出量均达到最大值。%The effect of the factors on the caffeine transfer from dried (made) tea to tea infusion ,has been studied in this paper ,including liquid‐solid ratio ,tea infusion percentage remaining ,water temperature , brewing time and brewing times ,as green tea is subjected to an infusion process prior to the Chinese con‐sumers .It is further interesting to observe that the water temperature has a great influence on the dissolu‐tion of caffeine except brewing times ,followed by liquid‐solid ratio and tea infusion percentage remaining . However ,brewing for longer periods (extend brewing time) resulted in less impact on the transfer of caf‐feine .Moreover ,when the water temperature is higher than 90 ℃ and liquid‐solid ratio and tea infusion percentages remaining are respectively 55∶1 and 30% ,the caffeine amount is more ,no matter w hat brew‐ing method we use .Also ,the caffeine amount reaches the maximum ,when brewing times is 4 .

  14. Investigating the chemical changes of chlorogenic acids during coffee brewing: conjugate addition of water to the olefinic moiety of chlorogenic acids and their quinides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Marius Febi; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2012-12-12

    Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages in the world and is associated with a series of benefits for human health. In this study we focus on the reactivity of chlorogenic acids, the most abundant secondary metabolites in coffee, during the coffee brewing process. We report on the hydroxylation of the chlorogenic acid cinnamoyl substituent by conjugate addition of water to form 3-hydroxydihydrocaffeic acid derivatives using a series of model compounds including monocaffeoyl and dicaffeoylquinic acids and quinic acid lactones. The regiochemistry of conjugate addition was established based on targeted tandem MS experiments. Following conjugate addition of water a reversible water elimination yielding cis-cinnamoyl derivatives accompanied by acyl migration products was observed in model systems. We also report the formation of all of these derivatives during the coffee brewing process.

  15. A simplified determination of total concentrations of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in addition to their bioaccessible fraction in popular instant coffee brews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-04-15

    A direct analysis of instant coffee brews with HR-CS-FAAS spectrometry to determine the total Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn content has been developed and validated. The proposed method is simple and fast; it delivers good analytical performance; its accuracy being within -3% to 3%, its precision--2-3% and detection limits--0.03, 0.04, 0.004 and 0.01 mg l(-1) for Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn, respectively. In addition, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn bioaccessibility in instant coffee brews was measured by means of the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion with the use of simulated gastric and intestinal juice solutions. Absorption of metals in intestinal villi was simulated by means of ultrafiltration over semi-permeable membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 5 kDa. Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn concentrations in permeates of instant coffee gastrointestinal incubates were measured with HR-CS-FAA spectrometry.

  16. A new approach based on off-line coupling of high-performance liquid chromatography with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine acrylamide in coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Morales, Francisco José; Moreno, Fernando de la Peña; del Castillo, María Luisa Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    A new method based on off-line coupling of LC with GC in replacement of conventional sample preparation techniques is proposed to analyze acrylamide in coffee brews. The method involves the preseparation of the sample by LC, the collection of the selected fraction, its concentration under nitrogen, and subsequent analysis by GC coupled with MS. The composition of the LC mobile phase and the flow rate were studied to select those conditions that allowed separation of acrylamide without coeluting compounds. Under the conditions selected recoveries close to 100% were achieved while LODs and LOQs equal to 5 and 10 μg/L for acrylamide in brewed coffee were obtained. The method developed enabled the reliable detection of acrylamide in spiked coffee beverage samples without further clean-up steps or sample manipulation.

  17. Yeast: the soul of beer's aroma--a review of flavour-active esters and higher alcohols produced by the brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Brányik, Tomás; Vicente, António A

    2014-03-01

    Among the most important factors influencing beer quality is the presence of well-adjusted amounts of higher alcohols and esters. Thus, a heavy body of literature focuses on these substances and on the parameters influencing their production by the brewing yeast. Additionally, the complex metabolic pathways involved in their synthesis require special attention. More than a century of data, mainly in genetic and proteomic fields, has built up enough information to describe in detail each step in the pathway for the synthesis of higher alcohols and their esters, but there is still place for more. Higher alcohols are formed either by anabolism or catabolism (Ehrlich pathway) of amino acids. Esters are formed by enzymatic condensation of organic acids and alcohols. The current paper reviews the up-to-date knowledge in the pathways involving the synthesis of higher alcohols and esters by brewing yeasts. Fermentation parameters affecting yeast response during biosynthesis of these aromatic substances are also fully reviewed.

  18. Characterization of low-acetic-acid-producing yeast isolated from 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants and its application to high-gravity brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Akihiro; Tabei, Hideaki; Iwahuti, Masahumi

    2006-01-01

    We isolated a mutant with low acetic acid and high ethanol productivities from 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants of brewers' yeast NCYC1245 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). To determine the mechanism for these properties in the mutant (2DGR19) during fermentation, gene expression and enzyme activity related to acetic acid and ethanol production were investigated. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the transcriptional levels of many genes involved in glycolysis were higher in 2DGR19 than in NCYC1245. Among these transcriptional levels of 2DGR19 relative to NCYC1245, the expression level of ADH4 encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was highest, which corresponded to the high ADH activity in 2DGR19. Quantitative PCR analysis also revealed that the transcriptional level of ADH4 was the highest among ADH1 to ADH4. Although no significant differences in the transcriptional levels of ALD2 to ALD6 encoding acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD) between 2DGR19 and NCYC1245 were observed, ALD activity in 2DGR19 was lower. Using quantitative PCR analysis, ALD6 was found to be the most highly expressed among the ALD2 to ALD6 genes. These results indicate that ALD6 contributes to a low ALD activity, depending on post-transcriptional regulation. A high ADH activity appeared to be the major reason for the high ethanol productivity of 2DGR19. A low ALD activity was considered to be principally responsible for a low acetic acid productivity, although a high ADH activity also might have played a role. Beer brewed using 2DGR19 in pilot-scale high-gravity brewing contained about half as much acetic acid and 1.1% more ethanol compared with that brewed using NCYC1245. The use of 2DGR19 may overcome difficulties associated with high-gravity brewing.

  19. Levels of Antioxidant Activity and Fluoride Content in Coffee Infusions of Arabica, Robusta and Green Coffee Beans in According to their Brewing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, J; Janda, Katarzyna; Jakubczyk, K; Szymkowiak, M; Chlubek, D; Gutowska, I

    2017-02-22

    Coffee is a rich source of dietary antioxidants, and this property links with the fact that coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages. Moreover, it is a source of macro- and microelements, including fluoride. The aim of this work was to determine antioxidant activity of coffee beverages and fluoride content depending on different coffee species and conditions of brewing. Three species of coffee, arabica, robusta and green coffee beans obtained from retail stores in Szczecin (Poland) were analyzed. Five different techniques of preparing drink were used: simple infusion, french press, espresso maker, overflow espresso and Turkish coffee. Antioxidant potential of coffee beverages was investigated spectrophotometrically by DPPH method. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. Statistical analysis was performed using Stat Soft Statistica 12.5. Antioxidant activity of infusions was high (71.97-83.21% inhibition of DPPH) depending on coffee species and beverage preparing method. It has been shown that the method of brewing arabica coffee and green coffee significantly affects the antioxidant potential of infusions. The fluoride concentration in the coffee infusions changed depending, both, on the species and conditions of brewing, too (0.013-0.502 mg/L). Methods of brewing didn't make a difference to the antioxidant potential of robusta coffee, which had also the lowest level of fluoride among studied species. Except overflow espresso, the fluoride content was the highest in beverages from green coffee. The highest fluoride content was found in Turkish coffee from green coffee beans.

  20. Advance of chinese wine-brewing craft with colored rice%我国有色米酿酒工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志栋; 林波; 陈国; 陈惠云; 俞静芬; 黄康盛

    2012-01-01

    Special colored beer, yellow wine and health wine is a new alcoholic liquid which is made by brewing colored rice as raw material with natural color, flavor, taste and nutrition, health care and curative effect. This review detailed the colored brewing wine definition, classify and developing history, and beer, yellow wine, health wine and their brewing process recently in China. And the market prospect of colored brewing wine is analyzed and forecast so as to provide technical support and new method for the development of the colored wine and further exploitation and utilization of colored rice.%应用有色米为基本原辅料酿造特有的有色米啤酒、黄酒或保健酒,是一类集有色米天然的色、香、味及营养疗效于一体的新颖饮料酒.该文就以有色米酿造酒的定义、分类及发展简史,以及我国近年来以有色米为主副料开发的啤酒、黄酒、保健酒及其加工工艺等做了综述,并对其市场前景作了分析,旨在为有色米酿造酒的拓展以及有色米深层次开发利用提供技术依据和新的思路.

  1. Reduction of methanol in brewed wine by the use of atmospheric and room-temperature plasma method and the combination optimization of malt with different adjuncts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ming-Hua; Liang, Ying-Jie; Chai, Jiang-Yan; Zhou, Shi-Shui; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2014-11-01

    Methanol, often generated in brewed wine, is highly toxic for human health. To decrease the methanol content of the brewed wine, atmospheric and room-temperature plasma (ARTP) was used as a new mutagenesis tool to generate a mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with lower methanol content. Headspace gas chromatography was used to determine the identity and concentration of methanol with butyl acetate as internal standard in brewed wine. With 47.4% higher and 26.3% positive mutation rates were obtained, the ARTP jet exhibited a strong effect on mutation breeding of S. cerevisiae. The mutant S. cerevisiae S12 exhibited the lowest methanol content, which was decreased by 72.54% compared with that of the wild-type strain. Subsequently, the mutant S. cerevisiae S12 was used to ferment different combinations of malt and adjuncts for lower methanol content and higher alcoholic content. It was shown that the culture 6#, which was 60% malt, 20% wheat, and 20% corn, was the best combinations of malt and adjuncts, with the lowest methanol content (104.8 mg/L), and a relatively higher alcoholic content (15.3%, v/v). The optimal malt-adjunct culture 6#, treated with the glucoamylase dose of 0.04 U/mg of grain released the highest reducing sugars (201.6 mg/mL). It was indicated that the variation in reducing sugars among the combinations of malt and different adjuncts could be due to the dose of exogenous enzymes.

  2. The level of MXR1 gene expression in brewing yeast during beer fermentation is a major determinant for the concentration of dimethyl sulfide in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jørgen; Bruun, Susanne V; Bech, Lene M; Gjermansen, Claes

    2002-05-01

    DMS (dimethyl sulfide) is an important beer flavor compound which is derived either from the beer wort production process or via the brewing yeast metabolism. We investigated the contribution of yeast MXR1 gene activity to the final beer DMS content. The MXR1-CA gene from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (synonym of Saccharomyces pastorianus) lager brewing yeast was isolated and sequenced, and found to be 88% identical with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MXR1. Inactive deletion alleles of both genes were substituted for their functional counterparts in S. carlsbergensis. Such yeasts fermented well and did not form DMS from dimethyl sulfoxide. Overexpression in brewing yeast of MXR1 from non-native promoters with various strengths and transcription profiles resulted in an enhanced and correlated DMS production. The promoters of MXR1 and MXR1-CA contain conserved Met31p/Met32p binding sites, and in accordance with this were found to be co-regulated with the genes of the sulfur assimilation pathway. In addition, conserved YRE-like DNA sequences are present in these promoters, indicating that Yap1p may also take part in the control of these genes.

  3. 16度高浓啤酒酿造技术的研究与应用%Research and Application of 16º High Gravity Brewing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海明

    2013-01-01

      通过对16度高浓啤酒酿造技术的研究与生产实践,重点对16度高浓啤酒酿造技术的可行性进行了论证,在保证产品质量的前提下,实现了提升企业产能的目的。以生产实际情况为基础,通过实验提供的大量数据,总结了一些高浓啤酒酿造方面的有益经验,着重从研发思路确定、生产工艺参数控制以及实验数据统计等方面,对高浓啤酒生产过程进行了详细解析,以供同行参考。%Based on research and production practice, the feasibility of 16° high gravity brewing technology has been demonstrated. Under the premise of ensuring product quality, the goal of productivity enhancement was achieved. In this paper, some useful experience in high gravity brewing was summarized, according to a large number of data provided in the experiments on the actual situation of production. The detailed analysis of high gravity brewing process was carried out for peer references.

  4. Study on the Brewing of the Mechanical and Shanniang Rice Wine%机械化善酿酒酿制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪夏红; 夏杭锋; 施亚芳

    2016-01-01

    为了进一步开展机械化善酿酒酿制的研究,在机械化大罐中进行加酒母和不同量的加饭醪液酿制善酿酒试验研究。试验结果表明:机械化酿制的善酿酒理化检测和口味品尝非常接近原工艺,而且不需要增加设备投资,在保证质量的前提下,能打破产能和季节的制约降低生产成本。%In order to study the further development of mechanization of shanniang rice wine brewing, in the machinery of the tank with yeast and different amounts of rice mash brewing shanniang rice wine test research. The test results show that the brewed mechanization of shanniang rice wine, physical and chemical detection and taste taste very close to the original process, and do not need to increase investment in equipment, under the premise of quality assurance, breaking capacity and seasonal constraints reduce the production cost.

  5. 家庭葡萄酒的酿制工艺及其酒质检验%Home Wine Brewing Process and Wine Quality Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓萍; 韦寿莲

    2015-01-01

    The wine was brewed using different brewing process, and the alcohol content, total sugar, total acid, tannic acid, formaldehyde content, and wine taste flavor were measured. The results showed that the quality of the wine was good, and wine brewing process was that washing grape was under 15℃-28℃and the after-fermentation with sugar was after primary fermentation , under which the wine quality was best.%采用不同酿造工艺酿制葡萄酒,并检测其酒精度,总糖,总酸,单宁酸含量,甲醛含量,酒的口感风味.结果表明,所酿制的葡萄酒质量较好,葡萄酒酿造工艺为15℃~28℃条件下清洗葡萄,前发酵后加糖进行后发酵,酿出的葡萄酒酒质最好.

  6. Wei Zheng and the Spread of the Wine Brewing Technique%魏徵与葡萄酒酿造术的传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳东

    2012-01-01

    Wei Zheng was expert in brewing wine, in which hid a much - told story of the exchange of cul- tures between China and foreign countries. Since Han Dynasty, Sogdiana Settlers and monks of Central Asia intro- duced the technique of wine brewing to our Central Plains at the first time. Wei Zheng was a descendant of Gaoche Tribe, which was founded the state of Gaoche in Gaochang. The Gaoche people engaged in agricultural life gradual- ly and absorbed wine brewing techniques originated from Sogdiana. After the decline of the Gaoche Kingdom, its tribe dispersed and its population was subordinated to the Northern Wei Dynasty. In this condition, the technique of wine brewing was introduced into our Central Plains at the second time, whose achievement was the vintage wine brewed by Wei Zheng. After Tang Dynasty recaptured the Westem Regions, this technique was introduced into our Central Plains at the third time. From then on, it is all over popularized%魏徵擅长酿造葡萄酒,其中隐藏着一段中外文化交流的佳话。汉代以来,粟特聚落、中亚僧侣将葡萄酒酿造技术第一次传入中原。魏徵是内附高车部落的后裔,高车部落曾在高昌立国,逐渐接触农业生活,吸收了源自索格底亚那的葡萄酒酿造技术。高车王国衰落后,部落离散,人口内附北魏,葡萄酒酿造技术第二次传入中原,其硕果即魏徵造佳酿。唐朝收复西域后,葡萄酒酿造技术第三次传入中原,以后就普及开了。

  7. Mechanization of Brewing Liquor%我国白酒机械化酿造技术回顾与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪江波; 王炫; 黄达刚; 庄椿虎; 陈茂彬

    2011-01-01

    科技的进步推动了传统白酒酿造的机械化发展,然而中国大陆地区的白酒在酿造环节的机械化程度仍较低.从发酵方法和香型两方面,比较了不同类型白酒的机械化应用状况;对台湾地区白酒及日本烧酒的机械化酿造进行了分析.台湾地区的白酒在酿造各环节已实现连续性机械化操作,这对大陆地区白酒如何提高机械化酿造水平有良好的启示.汲取国内外白酒的机械化经验,三麦酒业对机械设备进行了自主创新,各设备间的衔接良好,使整个酿酒生产基本实现了机械化.我国白酒机械化发展前景广阔,应该继续加强科技研发和应用,使我国白酒生产最终实现机械化.%The different types of mechanical applications of liquor from both the fermentation and flavor of liquor are compared in this paper based on a review of the history of mechanization of brewing liquor in the mainland of China.Mechanized liquor-brewing methods of Taiwan liquor and Japan shochu were analysed as well.Taiwan liquor has been achieved continuous operation in various aspects of mechanization,which has a good inspiration for how to increase mechanization level of liquor-brewing in the mainland area.Hubei Three Grains Wine Industry Group has learned the experience in domestic and foreign mechanized liquor-brewing by making innovation in mechanized liquor-brewing on its own to achieve a good interface between the various devices so that the whole wine production mechanization has basically realized.

  8. Purification and characterization of a new metallo-neutral protease for beer brewing from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SYB-001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjing; Xu, Ailan; Wan, Yansong; Li, Qi

    2013-08-01

    The increased additive amount of adjuncts in the raw materials of Chinese beer requires the usage of protease to release more water-soluble proteins. Here, a metallo-neutral protease suited for brewing industry was purified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SYB-001. A 5.6-fold purification of the neutral protease was achieved with a 4-step procedure including ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and gel-filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 36.8 kDa. The protease was active and stable at a wide range of pH from 6.0-10.0 with an optimum at pH 7.0. The highest activity of the purified enzyme was found at 50 °C. The existence of manganese ion would specifically enhance the protease activity. Comparing with other commercial neutral proteases in China, adding the new neutral protease during mashing process would release more amino acids from wort such as aspartic acid, arginine, methione, and histidine, resulting in a better amino acid profile in wort. Moreover, the wort processed with the new neutral protease had a higher α-amino nitrogen concentration, which would ensure a vigorous yeast growth and better flavor. The study of the enzyme could lay a foundation for its industrial application and further research.

  9. Brewing technology of golden needle black rice wine%金针菇黑米酒的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班清

    2011-01-01

    Golden needle black rice wine was brewed of black rice, fresh golden needle mushroom, potato. The extraction of Lycium barbarum L., Radix Polygoni multiflori, Cordyceps sinensis, Chinese Yam and honey were added to produce a new type healthy wine. The health functions were: nourishing stomach, curing lung and spleen deficiency, anticancer, anti-fatigue and aging-delay.%金针菇黑米酒是以黑米、鲜金针菇、马铃薯、百合等为主料,采用传统发酵工艺酿造出低度酒后,再辅以枸杞子、何首乌、冬虫夏草、肉苁蓉,山药等多味中药的浸提汁以及蜂蜜,生产出的一种具有养肺虚、健脾养胃、抗癌、抗疲劳、延缓衰老等的新型保健酒。

  10. 脐橙果酒酿制工艺研究%Study on Wine Brewing Technology of Navel Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文侠; 赖特明; 米兰芳; 陈玉凤

    2011-01-01

    A navel orange fruit wine were prepared. Effects of the fermentation temperature, the amount of sugar in navel orange juice, addition of yeast and other factors on the sensory quality of the wine were investigated. The optimum parameters of the brewing process were determined by the orthogonal experimental and sensory evaluation. Furthermore, clarify method of tannic-gelatin and debittering method of activated carbon for the navel orange fruit wine were tried in experiments.%以脐橙为原料,研究发酵酿制干型脐橙果酒的技术.通过对发酵温度、橙汁加糖量、酵母添加量等因素进行正交试验设计,以感官评价为指标,确定最佳的酿造工艺参数.并针对脐橙原酒初步开展了单宁-明胶的澄清试验及活性炭脱苦试验,获得了较为理想的效果.

  11. Bioremediation of industrial effluents containing heavy metals using brewing cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a green technology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Eduardo V; Soares, Helena M V M

    2012-05-01

    The release of heavy metals into the environment, mainly as a consequence of anthropogenic activities, constitutes a worldwide environmental pollution problem. Unlike organic pollutants, heavy metals are not degraded and remain indefinitely in the ecosystem, which poses a different kind of challenge for remediation. It seems that the "best treatment technologies" available may not be completely effective for metal removal or can be expensive; therefore, new methodologies have been proposed for the detoxification of metal-bearing wastewaters. The present work reviews and discusses the advantages of using brewing yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the detoxification of effluents containing heavy metals. The current knowledge of the mechanisms of metal removal by yeast biomass is presented. The use of live or dead biomass and the influence of biomass inactivation on the metal accumulation characteristics are outlined. The role of chemical speciation for predicting and optimising the efficiency of metal removal is highlighted. The problem of biomass separation, after treatment of the effluents, and the use of flocculent characteristics, as an alternative process of cell-liquid separation, are also discussed. The use of yeast cells in the treatment of real effluents to bridge the gap between fundamental and applied studies is presented and updated. The convenient management of the contaminated biomass and the advantages of the selective recovery of heavy metals in the development of a closed cycle without residues (green technology) are critically reviewed.

  12. The Brewing Process of Wheat-poured Wine%“麦淋酒”的酿造工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王都留; 叶文斌; 杨建东; 何九军

    2012-01-01

    "麦淋酒"是礼县大潭人酿造的一种低度酒,属白酒中的一种小曲酒.该酒以小麦为主要原料以青稞、荞及高粱为次要原料酿造.其酒色透明,酒味独特,性地平和.麦淋酒在酿制过程中采用纯粮食酿造,不添加任何其它物质,特别是以"百草尖"自制独特的酒曲,使该酒口味独特,具有一定的保健作用.其酿造过程一般经过制曲、发酵、烤酒三个阶段.%"wheat-poured wine" is a low alcohol liquors distilled by local people of the datan in Lixian, and this spirits is belong to a yeast liquor. The main raw materials of the wine are wheat, buckwheat and sorghum as for secondary raw materials. Wheat-poured wine are transparent, unique flavor and moderate taste. Which is made of pure grain, not adding other substances, in brewing process, Yeast-making, fermenting and roasting are three major stages. Specially, if "Baieao tip" is as distiller's yeast, this spirits has a u- nique taste and a certain role in health care.

  13. Sweet Rice Wine Brewed with Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato%紫心甘薯酿制甜米酒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤瑾; 李金生

    2009-01-01

    紫心甘薯含有大量的花青素,有一定的保健作用.以紫心甘薯为原料与糯米混合糖化发酵酿制的紫薯甜米酒,色泽深红透亮,口味鲜甜,酒香浓郁,该种深红色米酒为米酒类产品增添了新品种,同时为紫心甘薯的综合利用提供了新途径.%Purple-fleshed sweet potato contains plenty of anthocyanin,which promotes health in a certain way.The purple sweet potato rice wine is brewed from the fermented mixture of saccharified purple-fleshed sweet potato and glutinous rice.As the wine has a crystal carmine color,a fresh taste and fragrant odor,the burgundy-colored rice wine has added a new variety to the rice wine family,which provides a new way for the comprehensive use of purple-fleshed sweet potato.

  14. Copy number variations of genes involved in stress responses reflect the redox state and DNA damage in brewing yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Deregowska, Anna; Skoneczny, Marek; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Natkanska, Urszula; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Rawska, Ewa; Potocki, Leszek; Kuna, Ewelina; Panek, Anita; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The yeast strains of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex involved in beer production are a heterogeneous group whose genetic and genomic features are not adequately determined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a genetic characterization of selected group of commercially available brewing yeasts both ale top-fermenting and lager bottom-fermenting strains. Molecular karyotyping revealed that the diversity of chromosome patterns and four strains with the most accented genetic variabilities were selected and subjected to genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis. The differences in the gene copy number were found in five functional gene categories: (1) maltose metabolism and transport, (2) response to toxin, (3) siderophore transport, (4) cellular aldehyde metabolic process, and (5) L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase activity (p < 0.05). In the Saflager W-34/70 strain (Fermentis) with the most affected array-CGH profile, loss of aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (AAD) gene dosage correlated with an imbalanced redox state, oxidative DNA damage and breaks, lower levels of nucleolar proteins Nop1 and Fob1, and diminished tolerance to fermentation-associated stress stimuli compared to other strains. We suggest that compromised stress response may not only promote oxidant-based changes in the nucleolus state that may affect fermentation performance but also provide novel directions for future strain improvement.

  15. Ayahuasca, psychedelic studies and health sciences: the politics of knowledge and inquiry into an Amazonian plant brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Kenneth W; Labate, Beatriz C

    2014-01-01

    This article offers critical sociological and philosophical reflections on ayahuasca and other psychedelics as objects of research in medicine, health and human sciences. It situates 21st century scientific inquiry on ayahuasca in the broader context of how early modern European social trends and intellectual pursuits translated into new forms of empiricism and experimental philosophy, but later evolved into a form of dogmatism that convenienced the political suppression of academic inquiry into psychedelics. Applying ideas from the field of science and technology studies, we consider how ayahuasca's myriad ontological representations in the 21st century--for example, plant teacher, traditional medicine, religious sacrament, material commodity, cognitive tool, illicit drug--influence our understanding of it as an object of inquiry. We then explore epistemological issues related to ayahuasca studies, including how the indigenous and mestizo concept of "plant teacher" or the more instrumental notion of psychedelics as "cognitive tools" may impact understanding of knowledge. This leads to questions about whether scientists engaged in ayahuasca research should be expected to have personal experiences with the brew, and how these may be perceived to help or hinder the objectivity of their pursuits. We conclude with some brief reflections on the politics of psychedelic research and impediments to academic knowledge production in the field of psychedelic studies.

  16. 冲泡条件对茶树花茶茶汤内主要滋味成分的影响%Influence of Brewing Conditions on Taste Components of Tea Made from Tea Flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵振军; 包彬; 邹万志

    2014-01-01

    The influences of different brewing conditions on the quality of tea made from Fuding tea plant flower were studied using orthogonal design test of three factors including different brewing temperature (80℃, 90℃, 100℃), different brewing time (3 min, 4 min, 5 min)and different ratio of tea and water (2g:150mL, 3g:150mL,4g:150mL). The results showed that leaching efficiency of water extract, tea polyphenols, catechins, caffeine and amino acids of Fuding tea plant flower increased with the increase of the ratio of tea and water, temperature and brewing time. The ratio of tea to water was the most influencing factor on the leaching yield of water extract, tea polyphenols, catechins, caffeine and amino acids, followed by brewing temperature and brewing time. Brewing temperature was the most influencing factor on the ratio of tea polyphenols, followed by the ratio of tea to water and the brewing time. Brewing temperature was the most influence factor on the ratio of polyphenols to amino acids, followed by the ratio of tea to water and the brewing time. With brewing temperature of 90℃ and brewing time of 4 min, ratio of tea to water 4 g/150 mL, the ratio of tea polyphenols to amino acids is suitable and tea liquor is tasty.%采用正交试验研究了冲泡水温(80、90、100℃)、冲泡时间(3、4、5 min)、茶水比(g:mL)(2:150、3:150、4:150)3个因素对福鼎大白茶茶树花茶茶汤品质的影响。结果表明,福鼎大白茶茶树花茶茶汤中水浸出物、茶多酚、儿茶素、咖啡碱、游离氨基酸的浸出量均随冲泡温度升高、冲泡时间延长、茶水比增大而增加。茶水比对水浸出物、咖啡碱、儿茶素和游离氨基酸浸出量的影响最大,其次是冲泡水温,冲泡时间的影响最小;冲泡水温对茶多酚浸出量的影响最大,其次是茶水比,冲泡时间的影响最小。对酚氨比的影响,冲泡水温影响最大,其次是茶水比,冲泡时间

  17. Influence of Brewing Method on Quality of Apple Vinegar%酿造方法对苹果醋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺江; 樊明涛

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to compare the quality of apple vinegars prepared by different methods and screen an optimum brewing method for apple vinegar production. [Methed] The quality of apple vinegar brewed by three traditional brewing methods and a new method developed by our previous work was analyzed. Three traditional methods were solid state fermentation (SSF), liquid state fermentation (LSF) and immobilized microorganism fermentation (IMF), and the new method was multi-microorganisms co-immobilization technology(MMCT), which used co-immobilized beads of ethanol-producing yeast, aroma-improving yeast and lactic acid bacteria (with a ratio of 6:3:1) for alcoholic fermentation and then used immobilized acetic acid bacteria for vinegar fermentation. [Result] The general quality of apple vinegar brewed by MMCT was superior to the others. Its total acidity reached to 3.845 g/100 ml, unvolatile acidity was about 0.600 g/100 ml, amino-nitrogen was higher than 0.510 g/100 ml, and the composing of flavor compounds was almost similar to that of SSF brewed apple vinegar. [Conclusion] The MMCT method was proven to be the optimum one for high quality apple vinegar brewing and might be widely used in the future.%[目的]比较不同酿造方法所得苹果醋的品种,筛选出最佳的苹果醋酿造方法。[方法]对三种传统酿造方法和一种本课题组前期新建酿造方法所得苹果醋的品质进行了分析。三种传统酿造方法分别为固态发酵法(SSF)、液态发酵法(LSF)和固定化发酵法(IMF);新建酿造方法为多菌种共固定法(MMCT),即采用酿酒酵母、产香酵母以及乳酸菌的共固定颗粒(比例为6:3:1)进行酒精发酵,再利用固定化醋酸菌进行醋酸发酵。[结果]采用多菌种共固定技术酿造所得苹果醋的总体品质最好,其总酸含量为3.845g/100ml,不挥发性酸含量为0.600g/100ml,氨基态氮含量高于O.510g

  18. Epimerization of green tea catechins during brewing does not affect the ability to poison human type II topoisomerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmel, M Anne; Byl, Jo Ann W; Osheroff, Neil

    2013-04-15

    (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant and biologically active polyphenol in green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves, and many of its cellular effects are consistent with its actions as a topoisomerase II poison. In contrast to genistein and several related bioflavonoids that act as interfacial poisons, EGCG was the first bioflavonoid shown to act as a covalent topoisomerase II poison. Although studies routinely examine the effects of dietary phytochemicals on enzyme and cellular systems, they often fail to consider that many compounds are altered during cooking or cellular metabolism. To this point, the majority of EGCG and related catechins in green tea leaves are epimerized during the brewing process. Epimerization inverts the stereochemistry of the bond that bridges the B- and C-rings and converts EGCG to (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG). Consequently, a significant proportion of EGCG that is ingested during the consumption of green tea is actually GCG. Therefore, the effects of GCG and related epimerized green tea catechins on human topoisomerase IIα and IIβ were characterized. GCG increased levels of DNA cleavage mediated by both enzyme isoforms with an activity that was similar to that of EGCG. GCG acted primarily by inhibiting the ability of topoisomerase IIα and IIβ to ligate cleaved DNA. Several lines of evidence indicate that GCG functions as a covalent topoisomerase II poison that adducts the enzyme. Finally, epimerization did not affect the reactivity of the chemical substituents (the three hydroxyl groups on the B-ring) that were required for enzyme poisoning. Thus, the activity of covalent topoisomerase II poisons appears to be less sensitive to stereochemical changes than interfacial poisons.

  19. Study on Brewing Technology of Jicama Fruit Vinegar%凉薯果醋酿造工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李自强

    2016-01-01

    以凉薯块茎为原料,采用半固态发酵法,研究了凉薯果醋生产的酒精发酵、醋酸发酵的优化工艺技术参数,结果表明:酒精发酵的温度为26℃,发酵果浆调整到可溶性固形物为12.5%、酸度0.3%,最佳酒精发酵时间5 d~6 d;醋酸发酵温度33℃、最佳发酵时间为7 d~8 d左右,酿制出色泽淡黄、风味柔和协调的凉薯果醋,果醋浓度达到5.35 g/100 mL。%The brewing technology of jicama fruit vinegar was studied by using jicama fruit puree as raw materi-al from alcohol fermentation to acetic fermentation. The optimal fermentation conditions were obtained as:The temperature of alcohol fermentation was 26℃, the initial contents of sugar and acid were 12.5%and 0.3%, fermentation period was 5 d-6 d;the best temperature and period of acetic fermentation were 33℃and 7 d-8 d. By applying the technology, quality jicama vinegar can be produced with special favorable taste and yellowish color, and acetic acid concentration reached of 5.35 g/100 mL.

  20. 酸浆果酒酿造工艺研究%Brewing technology of Physalis fruit wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉香; 冯志彬; 周元; 刘进杰; 刘金红; 汪亭

    2009-01-01

    以酸浆为原料了生产酸浆果酒工艺,考察果胶酶用量对酸浆出汁率的影响,以及SO2添加量、发酵温度、接种量对酸浆果酒品质的影响.结果表明:果胶酶用量为0.6g/kg时,可提高出汁率9%;酸浆酒的最佳发酵条件为:SO2添加量0.8mL/L ~1.0mL/L,发酵温度为18℃~22℃,接种量5%.酿制出的酸浆果酒色泽好,澄清透明,酒味浓郁,酒体丰满,具有酸浆的特殊清香.%Physalis was used as raw materials to study on Physalis wine production process, and to inspect the effect of the amount of pectinase on Physalis juice rate and the effect of SO2 added, the fermentation temperature and inoculum on quality of physalis fruit wine.The results showed that the rate of Physalis juice can increase by 9% when the add amount of pectinase is 0.6g/kg; the optimal fermentation conditions were as follow: SO2 concentration 0.8ml/L ~1.0ml/L, fermentation temperature 18℃~ 22℃, inoculum 5%.Physalis brewed wine was featured with good color, clarify transparent and rich taste, at the same time with the special scent.

  1. The lack of influence of food and local alcoholic brew on the blood level of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeida, Mamoun M; Malcolm, Stephen B; ElTayeb, A Z; Eversole, Rob R; Elassad, Asma S; Geary, Timothy G; Ali, Magdi M; Mackenzie, Charles D

    2013-08-01

    There is concern that extraneous factors, such as food and drink, may alter the pharmacodynamics of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin) in patients receiving this important anti-parasitic drug, and thus might put such individuals in danger of serious adverse events. The effects of a common local alcohol-containing beverage and a local food on plasma levels of ivermectin were studied in Sudanese volunteers after administration of the standard dose used in mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis and filariasis. Plasma levels of ivermectin at various time points (0-48h) after administration of ivermectin were ascertained by HPLC assay in ten volunteers given 150μgkg(-1) ivermectin together with either a local sorghum-based food ('assida'), or a locally brewed alcoholic beverage ('arangi' made from sorghum grain) or in those who were fasting. Maximum mean (±SD) plasma levels of ivermectin (67±49ngml(-1)) were reached within 2h in fasting patients, and had dropped to 26±20ngml(-1) after 30h. The coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause an increase in ivermectin plasma levels above those observed in people who were fasting. However, at 2h after ivermectin administration, patients given alcohol had significantly lower plasma ivermectin levels than fed patients or fasting patients. There were no significant differences among treatments for AUC0-30, Cmax, or tmax, and so the coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause any change in pharmacokinetic parameters of ivermectin in the plasma in comparison with fasting. None of the measured levels of plasma ivermectin were greater than those reported in previous studies with this compound. These findings do not support the hypothesis that acute intake of alcohol is an important factor in the development of the serious adverse reactions that can occur during the treatment of loaisis patients with ivermectin (Mectizan(®)).

  2. Detection and Quantification of Gluten during the Brewing and Fermentation of Beer Using Antibody-Based Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rakhi; Zoerb, Hans F; Cho, Chung Y; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-06-01

    In 2013 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defined the term ''gluten-free'' and identified a gap in the analytical methodology for detection and quantification of gluten in foods subjected to fermentation and hydrolysis. To ascertain the ability of current enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect and quantify gluten in fermented and hydrolyzed products, sorghum beer was spiked in the initial phases of production with 0, 20, and 200 μg/ml wheat gluten, and samples were collected throughout the beer production process. The samples were analyzed using five sandwich ELISAs and two competitive ELISAs and by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with Western analysis employing four antibodies (MIoBS, R5, G12, and Skerritt). The sensitivity of the MIoBS ELISA (0.25 ppm) enabled the reliable detection of gluten throughout the manufacturing process, including fermentation, when the initial concentration of 20 μg/ml dropped to 2 μg/ml. The R5 antibody-based and G12 antibody-based sandwich ELISAs were unable to reliably detect gluten, initially at 20 μg/ml, after the onset of production. The Skerritt antibody-based sandwich ELISA overestimated the gluten concentration in all samples. The R5 antibody-based and G12 antibody-based competitive ELISAs were less sensitive than the sandwich ELISAs and did not provide accurate results for quantifying gluten concentration. The Western analyses were able to detect gluten at less than 5 μg/ml in the samples and confirmed the results of the ELISAs. Although further research is necessary before all problems associated with detection and quantification of hydrolyzed and fermented gluten are resolved, the analytical methods recommended by the FDA for regulatory samples can detect ≥ 20 μg/ml gluten that has undergone brewing and fermentation processes associated with the manufacture of beer.

  3. Multi-volatile method for aroma analysis using sequential dynamic headspace sampling with an application to brewed coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Tsunokawa, Jun; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Hoffmann, Andreas

    2014-12-05

    A novel multi-volatile method (MVM) using sequential dynamic headspace (DHS) sampling for analysis of aroma compounds in aqueous sample was developed. The MVM consists of three different DHS method parameters sets including choice of the replaceable adsorbent trap. The first DHS sampling at 25 °C using a carbon-based adsorbent trap targets very volatile solutes with high vapor pressure (>20 kPa). The second DHS sampling at 25 °C using the same type of carbon-based adsorbent trap targets volatile solutes with moderate vapor pressure (1-20 kPa). The third DHS sampling using a Tenax TA trap at 80 °C targets solutes with low vapor pressure (aroma compounds for each DHS sampling and the combined MVM procedure were evaluated as a function of vapor pressure in the range of 0.000088-120 kPa. The MVM provided very good recoveries in the range of 91-111%. The method showed good linearity (r2>0.9910) and high sensitivity (limit of detection: 1.0-7.5 ng mL(-1)) even with MS scan mode. The feasibility and benefit of the method was demonstrated with analysis of a wide variety of aroma compounds in brewed coffee. Ten potent aroma compounds from top-note to base-note (acetaldehyde, 2,3-butanedione, 4-ethyl guaiacol, furaneol, guaiacol, 3-methyl butanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine, vanillin, and 4-vinyl guaiacol) could be identified together with an additional 72 aroma compounds. Thirty compounds including 9 potent aroma compounds were quantified in the range of 74-4300 ng mL(-1) (RSD<10%, n=5).

  4. Absence of fks1p in lager brewing yeast results in aberrant cell wall composition and improved beer flavor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-jing; Xu, Wei-na; Li, Xin'er; Li, Jia; Li, Qi

    2014-06-01

    The flavor stability during storage is very important to the freshness and shelf life of beer. However, beer fermented with a yeast strain which is prone to autolyze will significantly affect the flavor of product. In this study, the gene encoding β-1,3-glucan synthetase catalytic subunit (fks1) of the lager yeast was destroyed via self-clone strategy. β-1,3-glucan is the principle cell wall component, so fks1 disruption caused a decrease in β-1,3-glucan level and increase in chitin level in cell wall, resulting in the increased cell wall thickness. Comparing with wild-type strain, the mutant strain had 39.9 and 63.41 % less leakage of octanoic acid and decanoic acid which would significantly affect the flavor of beer during storage. Moreover, the results of European Brewery Convention tube fermentation test showed that the genetic manipulation to the industrial brewing yeast helped with the anti-staling ability, rather than affecting the fermentation ability. The thiobarbituric acid value reduced by 65.59 %, and the resistant staling value increased by 26.56 %. Moreover, the anti-staling index of the beer fermented with mutant strain increased by 2.64-fold than that from wild-type strain respectively. China has the most production and consumption of beer around the world, so the quality of beer has a significant impact on Chinese beer industry. The result of this study could help with the improvement of the quality of beer in China as well as around the world.

  5. Construction of an industrial brewing yeast strain to manufacture beer with low caloric content and improved flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Jing; Wang, Zhao-Yue; Liu, Xi-Feng; Guo, Xue-Na; He, Xiu-Ping; Wensel, Pierre Christian; Zhang, Bo-Run

    2010-04-01

    In this study, the problems of high caloric content, increased maturation time and off-flavors in commercial beer manufacture arising from residual sugar, diacetyl, and acetaldehyde levels were addressed. A recombinant industrial brewing yeast strain (TQ1) was generated from T1 [Lipomyces starkeyi dextranase gene (LSD1) introduced, alpha-acetohydroxyacid synthase gene (ILV2) disrupted] by introducing Saccharomyces cerevisiae glucoamylase (SGA1) and a strong promoter PGK1 while disrupting the genes coding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2). The highest glucoamylase activity for TQ1 was 93.26 U/ml compared with host strain T1 (12.36 U/ml) and wild-type industrial yeast strain YSF5 (10.39 U/ml), respectively. European Brewery Convention (EBC) tube fermentation tests comparing the fermentation broths of TQ1 with T1 and YSF5 showed that the real extract were reduced by 15.79% and 22.47%; the main residual maltotriose concentration were reduced by 13.75% and 18.82%; the caloric content were reduced by 27.18 and 35.39 calories per 12 oz. Due to the disruption of ADH2 gene in TQ1, the off-flavor acetaldehyde concentration in the fermentation broth were 9.43% and 13.28% respectively lower than that of T1 and YSF5. No heterologous DNA sequences or drug-resistance genes were introduced into TQ1. So, the gene manipulations in this work properly solved the addressed problems in commercial beer manufacture.

  6. Study on Fruit Wine Brewing of Aronia melanocarpa Elliot%黑果腺肋花楸汁酿造果酒的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳丽

    2012-01-01

    The results of the fruit wine brewing of Aronia melanocarpa showed that after pretreatment, the composition of adjustment, inoculation, fermentation, deacidification, clarification, sterilization and other processes to deal with can be processed into a soft texture, color and seductive wine. Aronia melanocarpa wine brewing technology to solve the problem of poor fruit edible, and had considerable development prospects.%对黑果腺肋花楸果酒进行研究的结果表明:经过预处理、成分调整、接种、发酵、降酸、澄清、除茵等工序处理后,黑果腺肋花楸果实可加工成口感柔和、色泽诱人的果酒,不仅很好地解决了果实可食性差的问题,且具有可观的开发前景。

  7. 大平顶枣保健果醋酿造工艺探究%Study on Brewing Process of Dapingding Jujube Health Fruit Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晓磊; 刘香军

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Dapingding jujubes were taken as raw material, and brewed to health vinegar through the deep liquid fermentation. We studied the effects of jujube vinegar fermentation conditions and determine the optimal brewing process. The results showed that the optimum fermentation conditions of Dapingding health vinegar are that:the fermentation temperature at 32℃, the amount of edible alcohol addotion 8%, fermentation period 3 days, and the inoculation amount 6%.%本文以大平顶枣为原料,经过深层液态发酵法酿造保健果醋,研究了影响大枣保健果醋的发酵条件,确定最佳酿造工艺。结果表明,大平顶枣最佳果醋发酵条件:发酵温度32℃,添加食用酒精量8%,发酵时间3d,接种量6%。

  8. 酿造酒工艺学课程的教学改革与实践%Teaching Reform and Practice of Brewing Wine Technology Curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张崇军

    2011-01-01

    根据高职教育的特点及其发展需要,结合该课程的特点和食品生物技术专业培养目标的要求,从优化整合教学内容、改革教学方法等方面进行了探讨.并期望该文对高职院校食品生物技术专业进一步搞好酿造酒工艺学教学,提高教学质量具有一定指导意义.%According to the characteristics and development needs of higher vocational education, combined with the characteristics of the course and the training goal of food biological technology specialty, the paper discussed the teaching reform of brewing wine technology from optimizing and integrating the teaching content, reforming the teaching methods, hoping to provide reference for advancing brewing wine technology teaching and improving teaching quality.

  9. Studies on the Simultaneous Formation of Aroma-Active and Toxicologically Relevant Vinyl Aromatics from Free Phenolic Acids during Wheat Beer Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-03-23

    During the brewing process of wheat beer, the desired aroma-active vinyl aromatics 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol as well as the undesired and toxicologically relevant styrene are formed from their respective precursors, free ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid, deriving from the malts. Analysis of eight commercial wheat beers revealed high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol always in parallel with high concentrations of styrene or low concentrations of the odorants in parallel with low styrene concentrations, suggesting a similar pathway. To better understand the formation of these vinyl aromatics, each process step of wheat beer brewing and the use of different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated. During wort boiling, only a moderate decarboxylation of free phenolic acids and formation of desired and undesired vinyl aromatics were monitored due to the thermal treatment. In contrast, this reaction mainly occurred enzymatically catalyzed during fermentation with S. cerevisiae strain W68 with normal Pof(+) activity (phenolic off-flavor) resulting in a wheat beer eliciting the typical aroma requested by consumers due to high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (1790 μg/L) and 4-vinylphenol (937 μg/L). Unfortunately, also a high concentration of undesired styrene (28.3 μg/L) was observed. Using a special S. cerevisiae strain without Pof(+) activity resulted in a significant styrene reduction (beer aroma.

  10. Technology and Attention Problems of Home-brewing Grape Wine%家酿葡萄酒工艺及应注意的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白杜娟

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the home-brewing grape wine quality, the operating technologies and attention problems at the operating processesof brewing grape wine from selecting materials to storing were outlined. In order to ensure the normal fermentation, sulphurous acid and yeastshould be added after grape had been crushed. In order to improve wine quality,the management of ambient temperature at pre-fermentation,postfermentation and wine storage stage should be strengthened. In order to make crystal clear,aroma,and mellow taste wine,artificial clarifying andblending should be carried out.%为了提高家酿葡萄酒的质量,简述了家酿葡萄酒从选料到贮存各部分的操作工艺及应注意的问题,提出葡萄破碎后应添加亚硫酸及酵母,以保证发酵的正常进行;应加强前期发酵、后期发酵和葡萄酒贮存期间的环境温度管理,以提高葡萄酒质量;开展人工澄清及勾兑,可使酒液清澈透明、香气浓郁、口味醇厚.

  11. 糯小麦的酿酒特性研究%Study on the Liquor-Brewing Properties of Waxy Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国君; 徐智斌; 冯波; 王迅; 兰秋霞; 项超; 黄田钫; 王涛

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究糯小麦在传统白酒酿造工艺中的表现和对白酒品质的影响,探索糯小麦应用于白酒酿造的方法和途径.[方法]分别以糯小麦、普通小麦、粳高梁为原料进行酿酒研究,分析糯小麦在传统工艺下的化学物质含量、发酵环境的动态变化,并比较糯小麦与普通小麦、粳高梁的白酒出酒率、酒质的变化.[结果]糯小麦与粳高梁、普通小麦相比,泡粮吸水速度快、糖化温度高.在实验室条件下,糯小麦比普通小麦、粳高梁出酒率高,其白酒总酸与总酯含量较高、杂醇油含量适中.在酒厂生产条件下,糯小麦白酒有相对较高的出酒率和杂醇类物质含量、适中的酸类和酯类物质含量、较低的醛类物质含量,经品酒专家评定糯小麦白酒在气味和口感方面优于其它试验组白酒.[结论]糯小麦具有优良的酿酒特性,能够提高出酒率和改善白酒品质,具有酿酒开发潜力.%[Objective] The objectives of this study were to reveal the performance of waxy wheat in Chinese liquor brewing process,assess the effects of appearance on liquor quality and explore the ways and methods to apply waxy wheat to liquor-brewing.[Method] Waxy wheat,common wheat and sorghum were used,respectively.The dynamic changes of main chemical compositions and brewing conditions were investigated.The liquor output and liquor quality by using different materials were analyzed.[Result] Waxy wheat has better water absorption capacity,higher absorption rate and higher saccharification temperature than common wheat and sorghum.Under laboratory conditions,the liquor yield and the contents of total acid and total esters in liquor from waxy wheat were superior compared with common wheat and sorghum,while the content of fusel oil was similar.The opposite observation was in the conditions of pilot tests in a winery that fusel oil content and the liquor yield from waxy wheat were higher,while total acid and total

  12. Wei Zheng and the Spread of the Wine Brewing Technique%非物质文化遗产保护与校园文化创新的多元融合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛晓红; 甘成英

    2012-01-01

    Wei Zheng was expert in brewing wine, in which hid a much - told story of the exchange o tures between China and foreign countries. Since Han Dynasty, Sogdiana Settlers and monks of Central Asia duced the technique of wine brewing to our Central Plains at the first time. Wei Zheng was a descendant of G f cul- intro- aoche Tribe, which was founded the state of Gaoche in Gaochang. The Gaoche people engaged in agricultural life gradual ly and absorbed wine brewing techniques originated from Sogdiana. After the decline of the Gaoche Kingdom, its tribe dispersed and its population was subordinated to the Northern Wei Dynasty. In this condition, the technique of wine brewing was introduced into our Central Plains at the second time, whose achievement was the vintage wine brewed by Wei Zheng. After Tang Dynasty recaptured the Western Regions, this technique was introduced into our Central Plains at the third time. From then on, it is all over popularized.%通过对西部非物质文化遗产保护与西部高校校园文化创新的多元融合,弘扬和传承中华民族优秀传统文化,促进文化遗产保护事业和文化产业发展,增强中华民族的凝聚力,推动西部高校校园文化大发展、大繁荣。

  13. Model construction for quality of beer and brewing process using FNN; FNN wo mochiita biru hinshitsu to jozo kotei no moderuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, H.; Hanai, T.; Takahashi, W.; Honda, H.; Kobayashi, T. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Biotechnology; Ichii, T.; Tanikawa, M.; Masuoka, S. [KIRIN Brewery Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory for New Product

    1999-09-10

    Models for sensory evaluation of beer and the beer brewing process were constructed using a fuzzy neural network (FNN). A new method for optimal model selection using a genetic algorithm and a SWEEP operator method was compared with a conventional method using the parameter increasing method. As the result, the new method was useful for the optimal model selection by simplifying the model structure, improving the reliability of fuzzy rules, and accelerating the calculation speed (about 10 times as fast as conventional method) for constructing the model with high accuracy. The percentage of correct answers of the sensory evaluation model is 92 %. The important variables are selected as the input variables, and the obtained fuzzy rules in modeling coincide well with knowledge data bases acquired by process operators, and it is proven that the obtained FNN models are adequate. (author)

  14. Development of brewing science in (and since) the late 19th century: molecular profiles of 110-130 year old beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Andrea; Ravasio, Davide; Qin, Fen;

    2015-01-01

    The 19th century witnessed many advances in scientific enzymology and microbiology that laid the foundations for modern biotechnological industries. In the current study, we analyze the content of original lager beer samples from the 1880s, 1890s and 1900s with emphasis on the carbohydrate content...... and composition. The historic samples include the oldest samples brewed with pure Saccharomyces carlsbergensis yeast strains. While no detailed record of beer pasteurization at the time is available, historic samples indicate a gradual improvement of bottled beer handling from the 1880s to the 1900s......, with decreasing contamination by enzymatic and microbial activities over this time span. Samples are sufficiently well preserved to allow comparisons to present-day references, thus yielding molecular signatures of the effects of 20th century science on beer production. Opposite to rather stable carbohydrate...

  15. Size characterization of barley starch granules by gravitational field-flow fractionation: a rapid, low-cost method to assess the brewing capability of different strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Zattoni, Andrea; Casolari, Sonia; Krumlova, Andrea; Budinska, Marcela; Chmelík, Josef

    2002-04-01

    Cereal starch occurs as two types of micrometer-sized granules, large and small. Large starch granules are more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. When cereal starch is used for fermentation processes, as in brewing of barley malt, the barley strains with the highest content of large starch granules should be preferred. Gravitational field-flow fractionation (GFFF) is a separation method able to fractionate starch samples at low cost and short analysis time. In this work, the search for the best GFFF conditions for the analytical separation of barley starch within an inter-laboratory approach is presented. For different barley strains cultivated under monitored conditions the size distributions of starch granules is here quickly monitored and characterized by GFFF. As a consequence, dimensional characterization of barley starch can allow for the selection of the most suitable strains with the lowest content of non-degradable starch.

  16. Study on Brewing Technology of Vinegar with High Amino Acid%高氨基酸食醋酿造技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春杰; 张茜; 李丽华; 宋春雪

    2014-01-01

    通过原料创新和工艺创新,融合国内知名食醋酿造工艺,靶向调控食醋中氨基酸含量,研制出鲜香浓郁的高氨基酸醋。该技术增加了中国醋类新品种,提升了食醋品质和营养保健价值。%With innovation of raw materials and process,the brewing process of famous vinegar is fused in the fermentation for target regulating the amino acids in vinegar and a kind of delicious full-bodied vinegar with high amino acid is developed.This technology has increased new varieties of Chi-nese vinegar and enhanced the quality and nutritional value of vinegar.

  17. 酿造细菌分解纤维素的初步研究%Cellulose decomposing capability of bacteria isolated from Luzhou-flavor liquor brewing environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怡; 何奉芹; 罗琳; 李龙彬; 游玲

    2011-01-01

    To detect the cellulose decomposing capability of bacteria isolated from Luzhou-flavor liquor brewing environment in Yibin region and explore grain cellulose decomposing caused by these bacteria, cellulose decomposing capability of 530 strains isolated from Luzhou-flavor liquor brewing environment in Yibin region were detected by plating method. The results showed that bacteria isolated from the koji room and fermentative grains had higher cellulose decomposing capability among all strains. The cellulose decomposing capability of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus methy-lotrophicus, Bacillus aryabhattai, Bacillus tequilensis, Bacillus thuringiensis were higher than other strains. The results indicated that the cellulose decomposing capability of bacteria were closely related to sources and species.%为了解宜宾浓香型白酒酿造环境中分离到的细菌对纤维素的分解能力,进而探讨其在固态发酵过程中对谷物纤维的分解情况,采用平板培养法,对分离自宜宾浓香型白酒产区的530株细菌分解纤维素的能力测试.结果表明分离自曲房、糟醅中的细菌可分解纤维素菌所占比例较高;Bacillus cereus、Bacillus methylotrophicus、Bacillus aryabhattai、Bacillus tequilensis、Bacillus thuringiensis5个种属的细菌分解纤维素能力较其他强.研究表明酿造细菌分解纤维素能力与来源和种属有密切的关系.

  18. Quantitative studies on the influence of the bean roasting parameters and hot water percolation on the concentrations of bitter compounds in coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Simone; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of roasting time and temperature on the degradation of the bitter precursors 3-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (1), 5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (2), and 4-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (3) as well as the formation of bitter tastants during coffee roasting, we prepared coffee brews from beans roasted either at 260 degrees C for 60-600 s or for 240 s at 190-280 degrees C. By means of HPLC-UV/vis and HPLC-MS/MS, bitter-tasting monocaffeoyl quinides (4-8), dicaffeoyl quinides (9-11), and 4-vinylcatechol oligomers (12-20) as well as the parent bitter precursors 1-3 were quantitatively analyzed in these brews. Quinides 4-11, exhibiting a coffee-typical bitter taste profile, were found to be preferentially formed under slight to medium roasting degrees and were observed to be degraded again to generate harsh bitter-tasting 4-vinylcatechol oligomers under more severe roasting conditions, thus matching the change in bitter taste quality observed by means of sensory studies. In addition, quantitative studies of the release profile of bitter compounds from ground coffee upon water percolation revealed that compounds 1-8 were rapidly extracted, dicaffeoyl quinides 9-11 were released rather slowly, and, in particular, compounds 12-17 were found to show strong retention to the ground coffee material. These data imply that the knowledge-based control of the roasting and/or the extraction conditions might be helpful in tailoring the bitter taste signature of coffee beverages.

  19. The Utilization of Refined Maize Starch in Brewing%玉米淀粉在啤酒酿造中的使用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海明

    2001-01-01

    玉米淀粉对于酿造师来说是一种最纯的淀粉原料,它没有得到广泛使用的原因主要是其价格比玉米粉或酿造大米昂贵,不过近几年来玉米淀粉的价格已接近大米的价格,为酿造师提供了良好的选择余地。玉米淀粉的蛋白质、脂肪、多酚含量很低,使用玉米淀粉作为辅料能延长啤酒的保质期、提高啤酒的风味稳定性、降低啤酒的色度。玉米淀粉可全部转化为可溶性物质,所以不会引起过滤问题。玉米淀粉应用的市场前景在很大程度上取决于其相对价格。%Refined maize starch is by far the purest starch available to the brewer. Its use has been limited because of its price is higher relative to those of corn grits and brewers' rice. Within the last few years, however, the price of refined maize starch has come close to that of rice and offers the brewer an attractive alternative. It contains very little nitrogenous material and lipid and polyphenol, so using of refined maize starch as a brewing adjunct could prolong beer shelf- life,improve beer flavour stability, and decrease beer color. Since starch is wholly coverted to soluble materials, it don' t cause run - off problems. The outlook of refined maize starch as a brewing adjunct will depend to a large extent on relative pricing.

  20. How does roasting affect the antioxidants of a coffee brew? Exploring the antioxidant capacity of coffee via on-line antioxidant assays coupled with size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrke, Samo; Opitz, Sebastian E W; Vovk, Irena; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2013-07-01

    During coffee roasting major changes occur in coffee bean composition. Among others dark coloured melanoidins are formed, which are high molecular weight Maillard reaction products. A new approach is presented here to monitor the influence of roasting conditions on the antioxidant capacity of melanoidins and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in a coffee brew. Validated Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) and ABTS assays were used as on-line antioxidant assays coupled (post-column) with high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). HPSEC enabled the separation of melanoidins from CGAs and the determination of the antioxidant capacity of each fraction, within a total elution time of 25 min. Besides the on-line assay measurements, both assays were also applied off-line with flow injection analysis (FIA). The maximum antioxidant capacity was determined to be at a light-to-medium roast degree, measured with both ABTS-FIA and FC-FIA assays as well as on-line ABTS assay. With FC on-line assay the maximum was found to be at a very light roast degree. Based on the peak areas obtained with the new coupled technique the roasting effects on the variability of melanoidin and CGA contents in coffee brews were studied. The majority of melanoidins are already formed in the early stage of the roasting process and the relative contribution of melanoidins to the total antioxidant capacity increases towards darker roasts, mainly because CGAs degrade during roasting. A new parameter, the ratio of melanoidin to CGA peak area, was introduced as a possible predictor of the roast degree.

  1. Freshly brewed continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, E.; Hayes, J. L.; Caddick, M. J.; Madrigal, P.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's crust is the life-sustaining interface between our planet's deep interior and surface. Basaltic crusts similar to Earth's oceanic crust characterize terrestrial planets in the solar system while the continental masses, areas of buoyant, thick silicic crust, are a unique characteristic of Earth. Therefore, understanding the processes responsible for the formation of continents is fundamental to reconstructing the evolution of our planet. We use geochemical and geophysical data to reconstruct the evolution of the Central American Land Bridge (Costa Rica and Panama) over the last 70 Ma. We also include new preliminary data from a key turning point (~12-6 Ma) from the evolution from an oceanic arc depleted in incompatible elements to a juvenile continental mass in order to evaluate current models of continental crust formation. We also discovered that seismic P-waves (body waves) travel through the crust at velocities closer to the ones observed in continental crust worldwide. Based on global statistical analyses of all magmas produced today in oceanic arcs compared to the global average composition of continental crust we developed a continental index. Our goal was to quantitatively correlate geochemical composition with the average P-wave velocity of arc crust. We suggest that although the formation and evolution of continents may involve many processes, melting enriched oceanic crust within a subduction zone, a process probably more common in the Achaean where most continental landmasses formed, can produce the starting material necessary for juvenile continental crust formation.

  2. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems support a high plant diversity where different plant types coexist. However, the mechanisms that support plant coexistence are not entirely clear. Savanna ecosystems that are nutrient and water limited are characterized by a unique ecological feature: the coexistence of trees

  3. The brewing storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Kaplan, DVM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An eclectic collection of papers by physicians, veterinarians and other allied health medical scientists on the ‘One Medicine - One Health’ concept has been assembled in this monograph. The contributions include thirteen individual ‘One Health’ papers by fifty-three participants from twelve countries. The authors joined to confront various global health threats. In addition to the participating countries, individuals from twenty-six other nations have united as supporters of the ‘One Health initiative’. Biomedical research, scientific knowledge, environmental health, public health, individual health and clinical health care will all be enhanced by implementing the ‘One Medicine - One Health’ concept which promotes co-equal, cross-disciplinary communication and collaboration. The scientific coalition that evolves through this collaborative effort will significantly enhance human and animal health for future generations.

  4. A Troublesome Brew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Sheldon

    1975-01-01

    Discussed is the environmental impact of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). Possible problems associated with the LMFBR are defined and the method of research being following is deplored. (MA)

  5. Research on the effect factors on final RDF of beer brewing syrup%影响啤酒糖浆极限发酵度的因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万振平; 李惠安; 黄玉新; 黄智钧; 杨曦宇

    2013-01-01

      研究了不同啤酒厂家的酵母对不同啤酒糖浆极限发酵度的影响。结果表明,不同啤酒厂家的酵母,啤酒糖浆中的麦芽糖、麦芽三糖、可发酵糖的含量都会对啤酒糖浆的极限发酵度造成不同程度的影响。%This article is mainly about the research on final RDF (real degree of fermentation)of syrup for beer brewing. We applied the same method to detect the samples with different components. According to the analysis of the results, we draw a conclusion that brewer's yeast, components of syrup for beer brewing such as maltose, maltotriose, and fermentable Sugar can affect the value of final RDF.

  6. Furanic compounds and furfural in different coffee products by headspace liquid-phase micro-extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: survey and effect of brewing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichi, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh-Mohammadi, Vahid; Hashemi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Abdorreza

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the levels of furan, 2-methylfuran, 2,5-dimethylfuran, vinyl furan, 2-methoxymethyl-furan and furfural in different coffee products were evaluated. Simultaneous determination of these six furanic compounds was performed by a head space liquid-phase micro-extraction (HS-LPME) method. A total of 67 coffee powder samples were analysed. The effects of boiling and espresso-making procedures on the levels of furanic compounds were investigated. The results showed that different types of coffee samples contained different concentrations of furanic compounds, due to the various processing conditions such as temperature, degree of roasting and fineness of grind. Among the different coffee samples, the highest level of furan (6320 µg kg⁻¹) was detected in ground coffee, while coffee-mix samples showed the lowest furan concentration (10 µg kg⁻¹). Levels in brewed coffees indicated that, except for furfural, brewing by an espresso machine caused significant loss of furanic compounds.

  7. Study On The Brewing Rice Koji Qing Shuang Type Chinese Rice Wine%用米曲酿制清爽型黄酒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛青钟

    2014-01-01

    Using orthogonal test trials of the three levels of the four factors of glutinous rice, water, yeast and koji dosage, The results show that:Koji brewed without wheat Qu taste and no enzyme preparations taste so refreshing, the taste good Semi qing shuang type chinese rice wine is feasible, Qing shuang type chinese rice wine instead of wheat koji koji system, Reduce the use of starter 10%, Improve liquor yield;Feeding glutinous rice 100%, The amount of water is 192.0%, Plus yeast starter 10.6%, The Garmisch Qu amount to 15.4%in the most appropriate; Koji traditional craft brewed Qing shuang type chinese rice wine while exploring the impact of its fermentation. Provide a scientific basis for the Qing shuang type chinese rice wine production process improvements.%运用正交试验法对糯米、水、酒母和米曲加量四个因子三个水平的试验研究。结果表明:用米曲酿制成无麦曲味和无酶制剂味等的清爽、口感好的半干清爽型黄酒是可行的,用米曲代替麦曲制清爽型黄酒,减少用曲量10%,提高出酒率;以投料糯米100%计,则加水量为192.0%,加酒母量为10.6%,加米曲量为15.4%最适宜;同时探索了用米曲传统工艺酿制清爽型黄酒对其发酵的影响规律,为清爽型黄酒生产工艺的改进提供科学依据。

  8. Studies on identification and fermentation characterization of yeasts isolated from Chongming rice wine brewing process%崇明老白酒酿造过程中酵母菌的鉴定及其特性初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁准梅; 徐毅菁; 柯芳芳; 李爽

    2015-01-01

    One white yeast strain and one red yeast strain were isolated from No. 82 starter and the brewing process of Chongming rice wine. Both strains were identified by morphological and molecular biological methods of ITS-rDNA gene sequence analysis and their effects on rice wine quality during brewing process were compared. The results showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the dominant strain in No. 82 strarter and Chongming rice wine brewing process;the red yeast strain isolated from the brewing process was Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The rice wine brewed with Rhodotorula mucilagi-nosa and Rhizopus oryzae,with alcohol 11. 9%vol,residual sugar 11. 2 g/100 mL,total acid 4. 59 g/L and total ester 4. 42 g/L. The rice wine brewed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhizopus oryzae had a fresh and full-bodied taste, indicated that the purified wine yeast helped to develop more refreshing sense of rice wine. The rice wine brewed with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa,Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhizopus oryzae tasted with typical Chongming rice wine flavor, indicated that with the participation of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa affecting the Chongming rice wine taste style formation to a certain extent.%从八二酒曲及酿造崇明老白酒过程中分离纯化得到1株白色酵母菌和1株红色酵母菌,采用分子生物学方法进行鉴定,并对其酿造老白酒的特性进行了分析。结果显示,八二酒曲及崇明老白酒酿造过程中的优势酵母菌为酿酒酵母(Saccaromyces cerevisiae),从酿酒过程中分离的红色酵母菌为粘红酵母(Rhodotorula mucilaginosa )。采用粘红酵母和米根霉曲酿造的酒液的酒精度为11.9%vol,残余还原糖含量为11.2 g/100 mL,总酸含量为4.59 g/L,总酯含量为4.42 g/L。纯化的酿酒酵母和米根霉曲酿成的酒液口味醇和爽口,酒曲的纯化有助于开发出口感更爽口的老白酒。混合酵母和米根霉曲酿造的酒液呈典型的崇明老

  9. On food safety control measures in beer brewing%论啤酒生产过程的食品安全控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱鑫

    2013-01-01

      啤酒于20世纪传入中国,在中国广受欢迎,诸多啤酒生产企业蓬勃发展。随着《食品安全法》的出台,啤酒生产过程中的食品安全控制引起了更高的重视,如何生产绿色、卫生的啤酒是相关从业人员的必修课。结合啤酒的生产特点,重点研究在生产过程当中如何控制啤酒的食品安全问题。%Beer was introduced to China in the early twentieth century. Beer had become very popular with the Chinese. Beer corporations developed rapidly. The control system of food safety has been focused at national level. Based on the analysis of beer brewing characters, we are trying to do some exploration on the control of quality and safety of beer in the production.

  10. Comprehensiw utilization of grape seed after wine brewing%酿酒后葡萄籽综合利用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹磊

    2012-01-01

    酿制葡萄酒时,会产生大量的废弃物,其中包括葡萄籽.该文对酿酒后的副产品-葡萄籽的综合利用进行了综述,介绍了葡萄籽中葡萄籽油、多酚物质和蛋白质的提取及其应用技术.将葡萄籽进行合理开发利用,不仅可以避免环境污染,而且将增加葡萄酒的附加值.%Tons of wastes were produced after wine brewing such as grape seed. The comprehensive utilization of grape seed was summarized. This paper introduced the extraction and application of many functional components in grape seed such as grape seed oil, polyphenols and protein. Utilization of grape seed can avoid environmental pollution and increase the additional value of wine.

  11. A xylanase with broad pH and temperature adaptability from Streptomyces megasporus DSM 41476, and its potential application in brewing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhenhua; Shi, Pengjun; Luo, Huiying; Bai, Yingguo; Yuan, Tiezheng; Yang, Peilong; Liu, Suchun; Yao, Bin

    2010-05-05

    A xylanase gene, xynAM6, was isolated from the genomic DNA library of Streptomyces megasporus DSM 41476 using colony PCR screening method. The 1440-bp full-length gene encodes a 479-amino acid peptide consisting of a putative signal peptide of 36 residues, a family 10 glycoside hydrolase domain and a family 2 carbohydrate-binding module. The mature peptide of xynAM6 was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The optimal pH and temperature were pH 5.5 and 70°C, respectively. The enzyme showed broad temperature adaptability (>60% of the maximum activity at 50-80°C), had good thermostability at 60°C and 70°C, remained stable at pH 4.0-11.0, and was resistant to most proteases. The Km and Vmax values for oat spelt xylan were 1.68mgml(-1) and 436.76μmolmin(-1)mg(-1), respectively, and 2.33mgml(-1) and 406.93μmolmin(-1)mg(-1) for birchwood xylan, respectively. The hydrolysis products of XYNAM6 were mainly xylose and xylobiose. Addition of XYNAM6 (80U) to the brewery mash significantly reduced the filtration rate and viscosity by 36.33% and 35.51%, respectively. These favorable properties probably make XYNAM6 a good candidate for application in brewing industry.

  12. Teff (Eragrostis tef) as a raw material for malting, brewing and manufacturing of gluten-free foods and beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Mekonnen Melaku; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The demand for gluten-free foods is certainly increasing. Interest in teff has increased noticeably due to its very attractive nutritional profile and gluten-free nature of the grain, making it a suitable substitute for wheat and other cereals in their food applications as well as foods for people with celiac disease. The main objective of this article is to review researches on teff, evaluate its suitability for different food applications, and give direction for further research on its applications for health food market. Teff is a tropical low risk cereal that grows in a wider ecology and can tolerate harsh environmental conditions where most other cereals are less viable. It has an excellent balance of amino acid composition (including all 8 essential amino acids for humans) making it an excellent material for malting and brewing. Because of its small size, teff is made into whole-grain flour (bran and germ included), resulting in a very high fiber content and high nutrient content in general. Teff is useful to improve the haemoglobin level in human body and helps to prevent malaria, incidence of anaemia and diabetes. The nutrient composition of teff grain indicates that it has a good potential to be used in foods and beverages worldwide. The high levels of simple sugars and α-amino acids as a result of breakdown of starch and protein, respectively, are essential for fermentation and beer making.

  13. 双孢蘑菇面酱酿制工艺研究%Study on the brewing processes of mushroom flour paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐明; 仇敏; 邵伟; 官文靖

    2012-01-01

    Using mushroom stem and inferior mushroom as materials, the mushroom flour paste was produced by traditional technology, and the optimum conditions were obtained by orthogonal tests. They are as follows: inoculation 0.3%, 12Be saline solution addition equal to the mass of flour cake, Temperature 45℃, time 40d, under these conditions, brewed mushroom flour paste has a nice quality and taste, its quality reached the wheat paste national standard.%以双孢蘑菇菇柄和残次菇为原料,通过传统酿制工艺生产双孢蘑菇面酱产品.并通过正交试验确定了双孢蘑菇面酱酿制的最佳工艺参数,即面酱酿制的种曲接种量为0.3%、发酵过程中12Bé盐水加量等于面糕的量,发酵温度45℃,发酵时间40d,在此条件下所酿制双孢蘑菇面酱感官品质良好,且各项理化指标达到国家标准.

  14. Producing high adjunct beer by high gravity brewing%高浓酿造法生产高辅料啤酒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪应应; 胡鹏刚

    2012-01-01

    该文通过试验研究,确定了75%高辅料的糖化工艺、麦汁16°P高浓度的发酵工艺、高浓稀释工艺.采用上述工艺不仅生产的产品质量达到GB4927标准,而且感官指标和风味都比较稳定.从而提高了现有设备的利用率,增加了产量,降低了成本,提高了企业的经济效益.%In this study, a beer brewing technology including saccharification with 75% rice (adjunct), fermentation with high-gravity worts (16°P) and a dilution technology of high gravity beer was determined by experiments. Using this technology, the quality of beer reached Chinese national standard GB4927 with stable sensory indexes and flavors. Thus, the utilization of existing equipments was improved, the yield was increased while the cost was decreased and the economic efficiency was improved.

  15. Construction of brewing-wine Aspergillus oryzae pyrG- mutant by pyrG gene deletion and its application in homology transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu; Xie, Guizhen; Yang, Chunfa; Fang, Baishan; Chen, Hongwen

    2014-06-01

    pyrG(-) host cells are indispensable for pyrG(-) based transformation system. Isolations of pyrG(-) host cells by random mutations are limited by time-consuming, unclear genetic background and potential interferences of homogenous recombination. The purpose of this study was to construct brewing-wine Aspergillus oryzae pyrG(-) mutant by site-directed mutation of pyrG gene deletion which would be used as a host for further transformation. pMD-pyrGAB, a vector carrying pyrG deletion cassette, was used to construct pyrG(-) mutant of A. oryzae. Three stable pyrG deletion mutants of A. oryzae were isolated by resistant to 5-fluoroorotic acid and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis, indicating that pyrG was completely excised. The ΔpyrG mutants were applied as pyrG(-) host cells to disrupt xdh gene encoding xylitol dehydrogenase, which involves in xylitol production of A. oryzae. The xdh disruption mutants were efficiently constructed by transforming a pMD-pyrG-xdh disruption plasmid carrying pyrG, and the produced xylitol concentration of the Δxdh mutant was three times as much as that of the ΔpyrG recipient. Site-directed pyrG gene deletion is thus an effective way for the isolation of pyrG(-) host cells, and the established host-vector system could be applied in further functional genomics analysis and molecular breeding of A. oryzae.

  16. Anti-allergic effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from seed mash used for brewing sake is not dependent on the total IgE levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Toshinari; Yoshida, Kazutoshi; Nishitani, Yosuke; Mizuno, Masashi; Mizoguchi, Haruhiko

    2012-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented foods have attracted considerable attention recently as treatment options for allergic diseases, the incidence of which has been increasing worldwide. Five strains of LAB isolated from kimoto, the traditional seed mash used for brewing sake, were screened for the ability to suppress IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction. Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus sakei, the normal microflora in kimoto, significantly suppressed the reaction, but the contaminant Lactobacillus curvatus did not. Next, we examined the effect of L. sakei LK-117 on atopic dermatitis in the NC/Nga mouse model. LK-117 supplementation significantly reduced the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in a manner independent of the IgE plasma levels. In the in vitro intestinal model constructed using the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 and murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7, treatment with L. sakei LK-117, but not L. curvatus, significantly upregulated TNF-α production from RAW264.7 cells. This result indicated that L. sakei on the apical side affected the macrophages on the basolateral side, and this organism may have the ability to improve allergy symptoms mediated by the intestinal immune system.

  17. A multi-model fusion strategy for multivariate calibration using near and mid-infrared spectra of samples from brewing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chao; Chen, Hui; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Wanping; Wu, Tong; Diao, Yuanbo

    2013-03-01

    Near and mid-infrared (NIR/MIR) spectroscopy techniques have gained great acceptance in the industry due to their multiple applications and versatility. However, a success of application often depends heavily on the construction of accurate and stable calibration models. For this purpose, a simple multi-model fusion strategy is proposed. It is actually the combination of Kohonen self-organizing map (KSOM), mutual information (MI) and partial least squares (PLSs) and therefore named as KMICPLS. It works as follows: First, the original training set is fed into a KSOM for unsupervised clustering of samples, on which a series of training subsets are constructed. Thereafter, on each of the training subsets, a MI spectrum is calculated and only the variables with higher MI values than the mean value are retained, based on which a candidate PLS model is constructed. Finally, a fixed number of PLS models are selected to produce a consensus model. Two NIR/MIR spectral datasets from brewing industry are used for experiments. The results confirms its superior performance to two reference algorithms, i.e., the conventional PLS and genetic algorithm-PLS (GAPLS). It can build more accurate and stable calibration models without increasing the complexity, and can be generalized to other NIR/MIR applications.

  18. Study on the application of monascus in sweet rice wine brewing%红曲霉在甜米酒酿造中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪梅; 陈巧珊; 黎英

    2011-01-01

    During the processing of growth, monascus can produce not only many natural monascus pigment but also a variety of enzymes such as amylase, glucoamylase, esterification enzymes. In order to look for appropriate technology of sweet rice wine,this paper used monascus as saccharification and flavouring and colouring agent in rice wine brewing by orthogonal experimental design. The result showed that the optimal parameters were the monascus inoculum 20% ,fermentation temperature 35℃,fermentation time 120h. Under the conditions,the product is of red color, transparent,and nutritious. It has a sweet taste and aromatic flavor and also contains some functional materials.%红曲霉在生长过程中能产生大量的天然红曲色素,同时产生多种酶类,如淀粉酶、糖化酶、酯化酶等,本实验以红曲霉为甜米酒酿造的糖化增香着色剂,采用正交实验寻找适宜的红曲甜米酒酿造工艺.结果表明:红曲霉接种量20%,发酵温度35℃,发酵时间120h,在此工艺条件下酿制的甜米酒色泽红亮,味甜醇厚,酒体协调,有红曲特有的醇香.

  19. Liquid chromatography with diode array detection combined with spectral deconvolution for the analysis of some diterpene esters in Arabica coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, Guillaume L; Moeenfard, Marzieh; Alves, Arminda

    2015-02-01

    In this manuscript, the separation of kahweol and cafestol esters from Arabica coffee brews was investigated using liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. When detected in conjunction, cafestol, and kahweol esters were eluted together, but, after optimization, the kahweol esters could be selectively detected by setting the wavelength at 290 nm to allow their quantification. Such an approach was not possible for the cafestol esters, and spectral deconvolution was used to obtain deconvoluted chromatograms. In each of those chromatograms, the four esters were baseline separated allowing for the quantification of the eight targeted compounds. Because kahweol esters could be quantified either using the chromatogram obtained by setting the wavelength at 290 nm or using the deconvoluted chromatogram, those compounds were used to compare the analytical performances. Slightly better limits of detection were obtained using the deconvoluted chromatogram. Identical concentrations were found in a real sample with both approaches. The peak areas in the deconvoluted chromatograms were repeatable (intraday repeatability of 0.8%, interday repeatability of 1.0%). This work demonstrates the accuracy of spectral deconvolution when using liquid chromatography to mathematically separate coeluting compounds using the full spectra recorded by a diode array detector.

  20. Identification of the odour-active cyclic diketone cis-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione in roasted Arabica coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazato, Hironari; Nakamura, Michiaki; Hashimoto, Seiji; Hayashi, Shuichi

    2013-06-15

    We investigated odour-active trace compounds in roasted Brazilian Arabica coffee. Aroma dilution extract analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile oil extracted from roasted coffee brew revealed 34 odour-active compounds. Among these, a pungent-smelling unknown odour-active compound was determined. The volatile oil was fractioned by silica gel column chromatography. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) of the fraction which contained a significant amount of the target unknown compound revealed the cyclic 1,4-diketone, cis-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione, which had a pungent odour, and was thus first identified in roasted coffee. Model experiments revealed that cis-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione was formed via thermal degradation of sugars, especially monosaccharides, under alkaline conditions. Further, we demonstrated that 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone and 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, thermal degradation products of monosaccharides, were closely related to the formation of cis-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione.

  1. Effect of processing and roasting on the antioxidant activity of coffee brews Efeito do processamento e da torração sobre a atividade antioxidante da bebida de café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris da Silveira Duarte

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing and roasting on the antioxidant activity of coffee brews. Brews prepared with light, medium and dark roasted coffees were analyzed. The pH, total solids content, polyphenols content, reducing substances and chlorogenic acids content were determined. The antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts, the guaicol decolorizing and the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation were also analyzed. The antioxidant activity of coffee brews were concentration-dependent. A progressive antioxidant activity and polyphenols content was observed decreasing with roasting. The light roasted coffee showed the highest antioxidant activity and dark roasted coffee showed the lowest antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the ingestion of coffee brews prepared with light and medium roasted coffees might protect cells from oxidative stress damages.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do processamento e grau de torração sobre a atividade antioxidante da bebida de café. Foram analisadas bebidas preparadas com café nos graus de torração claro, médio e escuro. Foram determinados o pH, o conteúdo de sólidos totais, o conteúdo de polifenóis, o conteúdo de substâncias redutoras e o conteúdo de ácidos clorogênicos. Além disto, foram analisadas a atividade antioxidante dos extratos aquosos, a descoloração do guaiacol e a capacidade de inibição da formação de peróxidos lipídicos. A atividade antioxidante mostrou ser dependente da concentração da bebida de café. Foi observada redução progressiva da atividade antioxidante e de compostos fenólicos com o grau de torração. O café submetido à torra clara apresentou atividade antioxidante máxima e o café com maior grau de torra apresentou a menor atividade antioxidante. Os resultados indicam que a ingestão de bebidas preparadas com cafés de torras clara e média pode proteger a célula contra os efeitos do estresse

  2. Change of Antioxidant Activity in Persimmon Vinegar during Brewing Process%柿果醋酿造过程中抗氧化性能的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙璐宏; 鲁周民; 包蓉; 赵楠; 白卫东

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To reveal the change regularity of antioxidant activity and material basis in persimmon vinegar during brewing process.Methods: One-step fermentation method was applied for brew vinegar from persimmon pulp.The major change in antioxidant contents and antioxidant activity as well as their correlation were explored.Results: The content change of total polyphenols,total flavonoids and vitamin C exhibited an initial increase and a final decrease during the fermentation process and a slow ascending trend during the aging stage.An obviously positive correlation among the three components was observed(P0.01).The total antioxidant activity of persimmon vinegar revealed a rapid increase during fermentation process.Meanwhile,a significantly positive correlation between total antioxidant activity and total acid was also observed(P0.01).Moreover,a remarkable positive correlation was also observed between the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of persimmon vinegar and the contents of total flavonoids,total acid or vitamin C(P0.05) and between the hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity and the content of total polyphenols(P0.01).Conclusion: Persimmon vinegar has significant antioxidant activity and its antioxidant activity is attributed to many kinds of components.%目的:揭示柿果醋生产过程中抗氧化性能变化规律及其物质基础。方法:以水柿为原料、采用一步发酵方法,对柿果醋生产过程中主要抗氧化物质含量和抗氧化性能的变化以及它们之间的相关性进行研究。结果:总酚、总黄酮和VC含量在发酵阶段都呈先升高后降低趋势,在陈酿过程中呈缓慢上升趋势,三者含量相互间存在极显著正相关关系(P〈0.01);柿果醋的总抗氧化能力在发酵过程快速上升,在陈酿中呈缓慢上升趋势,与总酸含量呈极显著正相关关系(P〈0.01);柿果醋对DPPH自由基的清除能力与总黄酮、总酸和VC含量

  3. Method to Improve Enzymatic Activity during Beer Brewing%改善啤酒酿造过程酶活力方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乃侨; 孙丽华

    2011-01-01

    以国外大麦Gairdner为原料,分别用麦芽厂所用的空白水、pH值4.0盐酸溶液、pH值4.0硫酸溶液、100 mg/L钙离子溶液、1μg/L赤霉素溶液使大麦浸渍、发芽来达到降低绿麦芽内部pH值的目的,实验结果表明,虽然硫酸、盐酸2种强酸物质具备降低大麦发芽内部pH值的能力,但其食品安全性差、对设备腐蚀大,而用钙离子和赤霉素溶液培养大麦发芽,虽然在大麦发芽过程中对pH值的变化影响不是很稳定,但均能使大麦发芽结束点即绿麦芽的pH值降低,所以对于后期啤酒的酿造均能够使淀粉酶、蛋白酶等活力近于最适pH值状态,为在啤酒酿造过程中减少外源添加酸的使用量,或为温和型弱酸或酸性中草药等物质的添加提供条件.%The aim of the experiment was to reduce pH value inside green malt during barley germination using Gaird-ner barley as raw material, soaking respectively with fresh water used in the malt factory, pH 4. 0 hydrochloric acid solution, pH 4.0 sulphuric acid solution, 100 mg/L calcium ion solution, and 1 u.g/L gibberellin solution. The results showed that although strong acids of sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid possesses the capabilities to reduce pH value inside the barley during the germination, yet the food security is poor, and they corrode the facilities greatly, though while using calcium ion and/or gibberellin solution to cultivate barley to germinate had unstable pH changes during the barley germination, but they all could reduce pH value when reaching the end of barley germination I. E. Green malt. Therefore, at the late stage of beer brewing it could reach closely to the most suitable pH value for the activities of amylase and protease, to reduce the adding amount of acid during the beer brewing process, or provide conditions of adding mild weak acids and/or acidic Chinese medical herbs, and other materials.

  4. Screening of Triticale Varieties for Beer Brewing%适合用于酿造啤酒的小黑麦品种初步筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 刘伟鹏; 杜修桥

    2013-01-01

    为探讨用小黑麦麦芽代替大麦麦芽酿造小黑麦啤酒的可能性,以小黑麦6个品种(系)为材料,研究小黑麦酿造啤酒的主要理化指标、水敏感性以及两种焙燥工艺下麦芽质量.结果表明,小黑麦品种东农95-6654、北联7号的理化指标符合二棱大麦优级标准;焙燥工艺为45℃6h→55℃5h→65℃3h→76℃3h时小黑麦麦芽的α-氨基氮含量、麦芽糖化力、麦芽浸出率等指标与啤酒生产上用大麦芽相似.%In order to explore the possibility of subsituting raw materials of beer brewing process,six triticale varieties (lines) were used to study their physical and chemical properties,water sensitivity,and two baking processes.The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of Dongnong 95-6654 and Beilian 7 reached superior grade standard of two-rowed barley.The α-amino nitrogen content,diastatic power,and extraction rate were similar to malt when baking process was 45℃ 6h→55℃ 5h →65℃ 3h→76℃ 3h.

  5. Brewing Technology of Apple-Kiwifruit Vinegar%苹果猕猴桃混合型果醋酿造工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪; 程圣恩; 孙浩; 郭攀峰; 严景恩; 史亚歌

    2011-01-01

    以苹果、猕猴桃为原料,对苹果猕猴桃混合果醋的酿造工艺进行研究.获得原料配比、酒精发酵和醋酸发酵的最佳工艺参数.原料配比为m(苹果汁)∶m(猕猴桃汁)=2∶1.酒精发酵的最佳参数为酵母菌接种量0.25%、发酵温度28 ℃、发酵时间7 d.醋酸发酵的最佳参数为酒精体积分数6%、醋酸菌接种量7%、发酵时间10 d.按以上工艺参数所得产品每100 mL总酸含量≥5.50 g,色泽鲜亮呈浅黄色,具有苹果果香,酸味柔和.%Using apple and kiwifruit as raw material, the brewing technology of vinegar was studied. The optimum ratio of apple to kiwifruit was 2:1 and conditions for alcoholic fermentation were started with inoculum of yeast by 0. 25% , fermented under 28℃ for 7days. The optimum acetic acid fermentation conditions were 6% initial alcohol concentration , 7% inoculum of acetobacter and 10 days fermentation. The appLe-kiwifruit vinegar looks pale yellow, and tastes soft with apple aroma.

  6. 利用微山湖水产品酿造米酒%Rice wine brewing using by aquatic product of Weishanhu lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文霞; 韩小龙; 石文祥; 李彤阳; 李桂芝

    2012-01-01

    以微山湖水产品莲藕、莲子为原料,用米酒酿造的传统方法,使用实验室筛选出的具有较优糖化力和发酵性能的根霉菌和酿酒酵母,进行纯种发酵,考察了原料配比、发酵温度及时间对品质的影响.实验得出,糯米:莲藕为1∶1,莲子为二者总量的4%,发酵温度28℃,发酵时间为5d.不仅为微山湖生物资源大规模被利用提供理论依据,而且还丰富了米酒市场.%This research was a kind of functional rice wine fermented in a traditional way used by lotus root and lotus seed from Weishanhu lake and inoculated Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae into the mixture. The main results were as follows:The optimal ration of sticky rice: lotus root is 1:1 and the lotus seed is 4% of the total amount, The best rice wine can be brewed at 28℃ in 5d. The research not only provides theory about biology resource of Weishanhu Lake,but also riches market of rice wine.

  7. 香蕉与山楂复合果醋酿造工艺的研究%Study on Brewing Technology of Banana and Hawthorn Composite Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦利

    2015-01-01

    以香蕉、山楂为主要原料,对香蕉山楂复合果醋酿造工艺进行优化,最终确定了香蕉山楂复合果醋酒精发酵工艺最佳条件:香蕉汁∶山楂汁(V/V)为2∶1,酵母接种量为3%,温度控制为30℃,发酵时间为4天。醋酸发酵工艺最佳条件:初始酒精度为8%,醋酸菌接种量为8%,发酵温度为32℃,发酵时间为8天。经过二次发酵得到的香蕉山楂复合果醋营养丰富,口感纯正,风味独特。%Using banana and hawthorn as the main raw materials,the brewing technology of banana and hawthorn composite vinegar is optimized,the optimum alcoholic fermentation technology is as follows:ratio of banana juice and hawthorn juice (V/V)of 2 ∶ 1,yeast inoculation amount of 3%, temperature of 30 ℃,and fermentation time of 4 days.The optimum acetic acid fermentation technology is as follows:initial ethanol content of 8%,acetic acid bacteria inoculation amount of 8%, fermentation temperature of 32 ℃,fermentation time of 8 days.After two times of fermentation,the product has rich nutrition,and the flavor is pure and unique.

  8. Purification, gene cloning and characterization of an acidic β-1,4-glucanase from Phialophora sp. G5 with potential applications in the brewing and feed industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junqi; Shi, Pengjun; Yuan, Tiezheng; Huang, Huoqing; Li, Zhongyuan; Meng, Kun; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2012-10-01

    An extracellular β-1,4-glucanase (CelG5, ∼55.0 kDa) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Phialophora sp. G5, and its encoding gene was cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence of CelG5 was at most 73.6% and 44.0%, respectively, identical with a hypothetical protein from Sordaria macrospora and an experimentally verified GH 7 endo-β-1,4-glucanase of Neurospora tetrasperma FGSC 2508. Native CelG5 had pH and temperature optima of pH 4.5-5.0 and 55-60°C. The enzyme showed some properties superior than most fungal β-1,4-glucanases, such as high activity over a wide pH range (exhibiting >50% of the maximum activity at pH 2.0-7.0), excellent stability in extreme acidic to alkaline conditions (pH 2.0-9.0), and strong resistance against pepsin and trypsin (retaining 89% and 94% activity, respectively). Recombinant CelG5 produced in Pichia pastoris had a molecular mass and a pH optimum similar to native CelG5, but with maximal activity at 65°C. Application tests showed that native CelG5 was stable under simulated gastric conditions (retaining >70% activity), and had capacity to decrease the viscosity of barley-bean feed (8.9% by 200 U CelG5) and mash (6.1% by 50 U CelG5) and increase the filtration rate of mash (18.4% by 50 U CelG5). These properties make CelG5 a good candidate for utilization in the animal feed and brewing industries.

  9. A novel family 9 beta-1,3(4)-glucanase from thermoacidophilic Alicyclobacillus sp. A4 with potential applications in the brewing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yingguo; Wang, Jianshe; Zhang, Zhifang; Shi, Pengjun; Luo, Huiying; Huang, Huoqing; Luo, Chunliang; Yao, Bin

    2010-06-01

    An endo-beta-1,3(4)-glucanase gene, Agl9A, was cloned from Alicyclobacillus sp. A4 and expressed in Pichia pastoris. Its deduced amino acid sequence shared the highest identity (48%) with an endo-beta-1,4-glucansae from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius that belongs to family 9 of the glycoside hydrolases. The purified recombinant Agl9A exhibited relatively wide substrate specificity, including lichenan (109%), barley beta-glucan (100%), CMC-Na (15.02%), and laminarin (6.19%). The optimal conditions for Agl9A activity were pH 5.8 and 55 degrees C. The enzyme was stable over a broad pH range (>60% activity retained after 1-h incubation at pH 3.8-11.2) and at 60 degrees C (>70% activity retained after 1-h incubation). Agl9A was highly resistant to various neutral proteases (e.g., trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, and collagenase) and Neutrase 0.8L (Novozymes), a protease widely added to the mash. Under simulated mashing conditions, addition of Agl9A (20 U/ml) or a commercial xylanase (200 U/ml) reduced the filtration rate (26.71% and 20.21%, respectively) and viscosity (6.12% and 4.78%, respectively); furthermore, combined use of Agl9A (10 U/ml) and the xylanase (100 U/ml) even more effectively reduced the filtration rate (31.73%) and viscosity (8.79%). These characteristics indicate that Agl9A is a good candidate to improve glucan degradation in the malting and brewing industry.

  10. Comparison of wild-type and UV-mutant beta-glucanase-producing strains of Talaromyces emersonii with potential in brewing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Tracey C; Lalor, Eoin; Hanniffy, Orla; Savage, Angela V; Tuohy, Maria G

    2005-04-01

    A screen of 46 UV-mutant strains of the moderately thermophilic fungus Talaromyces emersonii yielded two mutants (TC2, TC5) that displayed gross morphological differences to the parent strain and enhanced activity against mixed linkage cereal beta-glucans. Activity against beta-(1, 3)(1, 4)-D: -glucan from barley (BBGase) was measured during growth of the mutant and wild-type strains on a variety of carbon sources, ranging from solka floc to crude cereal fractions. In liquid culture, TC2 and TC5 secreted 1.2- to 8.6-fold more BBGase than the parent strain and markedly less beta-glucosidase (exo-activity); enzyme levels were dependent on the carbon source. Cellulose induced high BBGase. However, beet pulp, wheat bran, carob and tea-leaves were cheap and effective inducers. T. emersonii wild-type, TC2 and TC5 crude enzyme preparations achieved similar end-points during the hydrolysis of commercial barley beta-glucan (13.0-16.9%), but were more active against crude beta-glucan from barley (16.0-24.2% hydrolysis). The products of hydrolysis were quantified by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Mash trials indicated that enzyme preparations from all three organisms effected a significant reduction in wort viscosity and residual mash beta-glucan. Finally, TC2 and TC5 produce more efficient beta-glucan-depolymerizing enzymes; and wheat bran and solka floc can be used to provide inexpensive and potent enzyme cocktails with potential in brewing applications.

  11. 热浸提法酿造树莓干酒工艺研究%The Research on Calorzation Technique of Raspberry Wine Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋韶奕; 张素敏; 王雪松; 陈雪

    2014-01-01

    采用热浸提技术发酵酿造树莓干型酒,通过工艺参数优选试验得到了热浸提最佳工艺参数:浸提温度为65℃,浸提时间为20 min。通过正交试验得到了树莓干酒发酵的最佳工艺参数:酵母接种量0.08%、发酵温度22℃、发酵初始pH3.2。通过单因素试验确定了树莓干酒的最佳澄清剂为壳聚糖,最佳添加量为0.06%。所得树莓干酒为红宝石色,澄清透明有光泽,带有典型的树莓果香及和谐的醇香。%By calorzation technique brewing raspberry wine ,we concluded the technological parameter preference methods:extracting temperature was 65 ℃,extracting time was 20 minutes. We reached the conclusion to the optimal technical fermentation parameter of raspberry dry wine by the orthogonal test. The amount of inoculum yeast was 0.08%,the fermentation temperature was 22℃,the fermentation initial pH was 3.2. We determined that chitosan was the best fining agent of raspberry dry wine by single factor trial;the optimal addition dosage was 0.06%. Product quality index of raspberry wine was as follow:its colour was ruby,clear,transparent,with a typical aromas of raspberries and harmonious flavour.

  12. Study on Brewing Technology of Yunnan Red Pear Vinegar%云南红梨醋酿造工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李自强

    2012-01-01

    According to the studies with different fermentation conditions and material blending ration, the optical technological condition of brewing Yunnan red pear vinegar was obtained, alcohol concentration was 5.67 g/100 mL, the temperature of acetic acid fermentation was 33 ℃, inoculation amaunt of acetic acid was 7% , fermentation time was 288 h, acetic acid concentration could reach to 5.86 g/100 mL. The product showed light staphylococcus color, had specific aroma of Yunnan red pear, mellow flavor, clear and transparent appearance, no sediment and suspension, the soluble solids content was not less than 8%, acidity was not less than 4% (acetic acid), reducing sugar content was higher than 0.85%(glacose), microbiological index met the requirements of national hygienic standard of vinegar.%通过不同发酵条件及原料配比的试验研究,得到以云南红梨为原料酿制果醋的最佳工艺条件为:酒精浓度5.67 g/100 mL,醋酸发酵温度33 ℃,醋母接种量为7%,发酵时间288 h,醋酸浓度达到5.86 g/100 mL.按此工艺制得的云南红梨果醋外观呈淡金黄色,具有云南红梨特有的香味,口味醇香柔和,外观澄清透明,无沉淀,无悬浮,可溶性固形物含量不低于8%酸度(以醋酸计)不低于4.0%,还原糖(以葡萄糖计)不低于0.85%,微生物指标符合国家食醋卫生标准.

  13. Construction of amylolytic industrial brewing yeast strain with high glutathione content for manufacturing beer with improved anti-staling capability and flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjing; Wang, Zhao-Yue; He, Xiu-Ping; Zhang, Bo-Run

    2010-11-01

    Glutathione in beer works as the main antioxidant compounds which correlates with beer flavor stability. High residual sugars in beer contribute to major non-volatile components which correlate to high caloric content. In this work, Saccharomyces cerevisiae GSH1 gene encoding glutamylcysteine synthetase and Scharomycopsis fibuligera ALP1 gene encoding alpha-amylase were co-expressed in industrial brewing yeast strain Y31 targeting at alpha-acetolactate synthase (AHAS) gene (ILV2) and alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH2), and new recombinant strain TY3 was constructed. The glutathione content from the fermentation broth of TY3 increased to 43.83 mg/l compared to 33.34 mg/l from Y31. The recombinant strain showed high alpha-amylase activity and utilized more than 46% of starch after 5 days growing on starch as sole carbon source. European Brewery Convention tube fermentation tests comparing the fermentation broth of TY3 and Y31 showed that the flavor stability index increased to 1.3 fold and residual sugar concentration were reduced by 76.8%, respectively. Due to the interruption of ILV2 gene and ADH2 gene, the amounts of off-flavor compounds diacetyl and acetaldehyde were reduced by 56.93% and 31.25%, comparing with the amounts of these from Y31 fermentation broth. In addition, as no drug-resistance genes were introduced to new recombinant strain, consequently, it should be more suitable for use in beer industry because of its better flavor stability and other beneficial characteristics.

  14. Secretion expression of SOD1 and its overlapping function with GSH in brewing yeast strain for better flavor and anti-aging ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyue; Bai, Xuejing; He, Xiuping; Zhang, Borun

    2014-09-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a significant antioxidant, but unlike glutathione (GSH), SOD cannot be secreted into beer by yeast cells during fermentation, this directly leads to the limited application of SOD in beer anti-aging. In this investigation, we constructed the SOD1 secretion cassette in which strong promoter PGK1p and the sequence of secreting signal factor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were both harbored to the upstream of coding sequence of SOD1 gene, as a result, the obtained strains carrying this cassette successfully realized the secretion of SOD1. In order to overcome the limitation of previous genetic modification on yeast strains, one new comprehensive strategy was adopted targeting the suitable homologous sites by gene deletion and SOD1 + GSH1 co-overexpression, and the new strain ST31 (Δadh2::SOD1 + Δilv2::GSH1) was constructed. The results of the pilot-scale fermentation showed that the diacetyl content of ST31 was lower by 42 % than that of the host, and the acetaldehyde content decreased by 29 %, the GSH content in the fermenting liquor of ST31 increased by 29 % compared with the host. Both SOD activity test and the positive and negative staining assay after native PAGE indicated that the secreted active SOD in the fermenting liquor of ST31 was mainly a dimer with the size of 32,500 Da. The anti-aging indexes such as the thiobarbituric acid and the resistance staling value further proved that the flavor stability of the beer brewed with strain ST31 was not only better than that of the original strain, but also better than that of the previous engineering strains. The multi-modification and comprehensive improvement of the beer yeast strain would greatly enhance beer quality than ever, and the self-cloning strain would be attractive to the public due to its bio-safety.

  15. 啤酒高浓度发酵酵母的扩培方式%The method of yeast propagation for beer high gravity brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭玉; 孙玉梅; 曹方

    2013-01-01

    Yeast activity and fermentation performance were studied to obtain the best method of yeast propagation and yeasts culture with high vitality used for high gravity brewing. During 20 °P wort fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae propagated in various gravity of wort, cell density, cramino nitrogen concentration, reducing sugar concentration and attenuation degree were determined. The results demonstrated that the fermentation performances were different when yeasts were propagated in various gravity of wort. The yeast propagated in 12 °P wort at the first level and in 16 °P wort at the second level had stable fermentation performance, high vitality and attenuation degree, which was suitable for 20 °P wort fermentation.%为获得适合高浓度啤酒发酵的扩培方式和性能优良的酵母培养液,研究了种子扩培方式对酵母活力和发酵性能的影响.采用不同扩培的种子液进行20°P麦汁发酵,测定了发酵过程中细胞密度、a-氨基氮质量浓度、还原糖质量浓度、CO2失重量、酵母存活率及发酵度等指标.结果表明,扩培方式对酵母的发酵性能和存活率影响较大,其中经12°P麦汁进行一级种子扩培、16°P麦汁进行二级种子扩培的酵母在发酵过程中性能稳定,细胞存活率和发酵度高,这种扩培方式较适合20°P麦汁发酵.

  16. Growth model and metabolic activity of brewing yeast biofilm on the surface of spent grains: a biocatalyst for continuous beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brányik, Tomás; Vicente, António A; Kuncová, Gabriela; Podrazký, Ondrej; Dostálek, Pavel; Teixeira, José A

    2004-01-01

    In the continuous systems, such as continuous beer fermentation, immobilized cells are kept inside the bioreactor for long periods of time. Thus an important factor in the design and performance of the immobilized yeast reactor is immobilized cell viability and physiology. Both the decreasing specific glucose consumption rate (q(im)) and intracellular redox potential of the cells immobilized to spent grains during continuous cultivation in bubble-column reactor implied alterations in cell physiology. It was hypothesized that the changes of the physiological state of the immobilized brewing yeast were due to the aging process to which the immobilized yeast are exposed in the continuous reactor. The amount of an actively growing fraction (X(im)act) of the total immobilized biomass (X(im)) was subsequently estimated at approximately X(im)act = 0.12 g(IB) g(C)(-1) (IB = dry immobilized biomass, C = dry carrier). A mathematical model of the immobilized yeast biofilm growth on the surface of spent grain particles based on cell deposition (cell-to-carrier adhesion and cell-to-cell attachment), immobilized cell growth, and immobilized biomass detachment (cell outgrowth, biofilm abrasion) was formulated. The concept of the active fraction of immobilized biomass (X(im)act) and the maximum attainable biomass load (X(im)max) was included into the model. Since the average biofilm thickness was estimated at ca. 10 microm, the limitation of the diffusion of substrates inside the yeast biofilm could be neglected. The model successfully predicted the dynamics of the immobilized cell growth, maximum biomass load, free cell growth, and glucose consumption under constant hydrodynamic conditions in a bubble-column reactor. Good agreement between model simulations and experimental data was achieved.

  17. Influence of harmful bacteria on diacetyl content during beer brewing%啤酒发酵过程中有害菌对双乙酰含量影响的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周生民; 焦健; 葛新霞; 王如如; 冯文红; 周广田

    2011-01-01

    双乙酰是影响啤酒风味的重要因素.啤酒发酵过程中双乙酰含量先升高后下降.该文通过对啤酒发酵过程中有害菌对啤酒中双乙酰的影响,深入了解双乙酰含量的变化趋势.从生产的各个环节入手进行微生物的管理和控制,以保证啤酒的微生物安全,进而稳定啤酒的质量和风味.%Diacetyl is an important factor which affects beer flavoring. Contents of diacetyl increases firstly and deceases followed during beer brewing. The changing trend of diacetyl was deeply studied by study on harmful bacteria during beer brewing. The producing of beer should establish mi-crobial control monitoring system to keep the safety of microbial in beer and the quality and flavor of beer.

  18. 基于BP神经网络的酿造企业物流成本分析模型构建研究%Cost analysis of brew logistics enterprises based on ABC and neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海平

    2016-01-01

    The use of activity-based costing as the analysis tool, based on BP neural network model to analyze the logistics cost of brewing enterprises, and analyses the empirical calculation, obtained the satisfactory result. The network input is the actual project brewing enterprise logistics cost, output in accordance with the needs of different customers can be in different areas, etc. This study solves the many to many mapping relationship between enterprise logistics cost accounting object and the project cost, according to the different methods of cost provides an effective tool.%利用作业成本法作为分析工具,建立了对酿造企业物流成本分析的BP神经网络模型,并进行了实证分析计算,取得了比较满意的分析结果。网路的输入是酿造企业物流成本的各个实际项目,输出按照需要可以是不同地区,不同客户等。本研究成功解决了企业物流费用项目与各核算对象成本的多对多的非线性映射关系,为按照不同方法研究成本费用提供了有效的工具。

  19. Screening and Identification of a Lactic Acid Bacterium from Sichuan Bran Vinegar Brewing Mass%四川麸醋醋醅中一株乳酸菌的筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明烨; 刘军; 王洋; 郇阿梅; 韩志双

    2016-01-01

    从四川传统固态酿造工艺麸醋的醋醅中筛选出15株疑似乳酸菌菌株。通过对其抑菌性、产双乙酰能力、产酸速率和对不同酸度、培养温度、初始酒精度的耐受性能等指标的考察,最终得到了一株产乳酸多,并且具有抑菌性的乳酸菌E9。经微生物细胞和菌落形态、生理生化特征和分子生物学鉴定,确定此株乳酸菌E9为发酵乳杆菌(Lactobacillus fermentum)。%Select 1 5 strains of suspected lactic acid bacteria from Sichuan bran vinegar brewing mass by traditional solid-state brewing process. By investigation of their antimicrobial activity, diacetyl production ability,acid production rates and the tolerance to different acidity,culture temperature, initial alcoho,finally,a strain of lactic acid bacterium E9 producing more lactic acid and with antimicrobial acitivity is gotten. By microbial cells and colony morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular biology identification,this strain of lactic acid bacterium E9 is determined as Lactobacillus fermentum.

  20. The processing technology eliminating turbidity and deposition in solid brewing vinegar%去除固态发酵食醋中浑浊沉淀的生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋智猛

    2012-01-01

    具体分析了引起固态发酵食醋浑浊沉淀的工艺方面原因,一是原料中的大分子如淀粉、多糖、蛋白质等分解不彻底,后经过生化反应形成沉淀物;二是由于杀菌不彻底引起的生物性返浑.针对这些原因,对固态发酵食醋生产工艺进行改进,采取多种措施去除杂质,取得了较好的澄清效果.%This paper discussed the reasons of turbidity and deposition in solid brewing vinegar. The macromolecules, which were from raw material such as starch, polysaccharides and proteins decomposed incompletely in the process, formed deposition through biochemical reaction. Some bacteria were not killed totally after sterilizing, which caused bacterial deposition. The processing technology of solid brewing vinegar was reformed by taking several measures to eliminate impurity, and the method got obvious effect.

  1. Brewing Technology of Persimmon plus Hawthorn Fruit Wine%柿子、山楂复合果酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫海珍; 张天英; 曾辉; 杨宁; 张浩

    2013-01-01

    In this study, water persimmon from Huixian of Henan province and red hawthorn from northern Henan province were used as the raw materials to optimize the brewing technology of persimmon +hawthorn complex fruit wine.Water persimmon was used as the foundation, and the pH-value of fruit pulp was adjusted respectively to 3.2, 3.6, 4.0 and 5.0 by hawthorn with higher organic acid content .The change rule of the main compositions in the fermentation process as well as the flavor of the finished product wine were studied.The results showed that:when the pH-value of fruit pulp was adjusted to 3.6 by hawthorn, the taste of the complex fruit wine was delicious , sweet and scented, and its aroma components mainly included some esters , such as ethyl ace-tate and ethyl caproate.The products had good biological stability with clear and transparent appearance .%  利用河南辉县水柿和豫北红山楂作为原料酿制柿子山楂酒,以水柿为基础,采用有机酸含量较高的山楂调节果浆pH值分别至3.2、3.6、4.0和5.0,研究发酵过程中主要成分的变化规律以及成品酒的风味,结果显示:采用山楂果浆调节pH值至3.6的柿子山楂酒的口感圆润、香气浓郁,香气组分主要以乙酸乙酯和己酸乙酯等酯类为主,产品生物稳定性好、澄清透明。

  2. Efeito da bebida de café descascado sobre a atividade antioxidante, os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos em ratos Peeled coffee brew effect in the antioxidant activity hematological and biochemical parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris da Silveira Duarte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o efeito da bebida filtrada, preparada com café-arábica descascado, sobre a peroxidação de lipídios, os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos in vivo. Para isso foram utilizados ratos que ingeriram 280 mg/kg/dia da bebida de café por 7 dias (tratamento agudo e 30 dias (tratamento crônico. A fim de determinar se a bebida de café é capaz de reduzir o estresse oxidativo, foi analisada a peroxidação de lipídios isolados de cérebro de rato analisando-se as substâncias reativas do ácido tiobarbitúrico. A ingestão da bebida por 7 e 30 dias inibiu significativamente a peroxidação lipídica (p The aim of this study was to verify the effect of filtered coffee brew prepared with peeled Coffea arabica on the lipid peroxidation and on hematological and biochemical parameters in vivo. Rats were ingested 280 mg/kg/day of coffee brew for 7 days (acute treatment and 30 days (chronic treatment. In order to determine whether coffee can reduce the oxidative stress, the rats brain isolated lipid peroxidation was accessed evaluating the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs.The ingestion of coffee brew for 7 and 30 days inhibited, significantly, the malondialdehyde concentration (p 0.05 between the percentage of peroxidation inhibition when the acute (48.6% and chronic (53.4% treatments were compared. The chronic ingestion of moderate doses of filtered coffee brew did not modify the plasma level of the hematological and biochemical parameters analyzed. The results indicate the beneficial health effect of moderated filtered coffee brew ingestion since it inhibited lipid peroxidation, but did not change the rats cholesterol and triacylglycerol plasma levels.

  3. 山西老陈醋酿造过程中总黄酮的分析测定%The Determination and AnaIysis of TotaI FIavonoids in Brewing Process of Shanxi Mature Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林娥; 李婷; 张磊; 韩建欣; 彭晓光

    2015-01-01

    跟踪山西老陈醋生产线,采集酒精发酵、醋酸发酵、熏醅、淋醋、陈酿等各酿造阶段样品,对其总黄酮含量、酒精含量、总酸含量等指标进行了测定,分析了各指标在山西老陈醋酿造过程中的变化趋势。结果表明:总黄酮在酒精发酵初期即有,但其含量相对较低,随后从醋酸发酵开始,其含量急剧上升,醋酸发酵结束时增加至233.30 mg/100 g,较酒精发酵初期的36.39 mg/100 g增加近7倍,陈酿9个月后其含量增加至874.12 mg/100 g;酒精在酒精发酵第2天即大量生成,酒精发酵结束时含量达到7.0%;总黄酮、总酸在山西老陈醋整个酿造过程中上升趋势显著。%Track the production line of Shanxi mature vinegar,collect samples of each brewing stage, including alcohol fermentation,acetic fermentation,smoking solid-substrate,pouring vinegar and ageing,etc.Determine the total flavones content,alcohol content,total acid content and other indexes,analyze the change trends in the brewing process of Shanxi mature vinegar.The results show that the total flavonoids exist at the beginning of alcoholic fermentation,but the content is relatively low with only 36.39 mg/100 g,and then it has a sharp rise from acetic fermentation.At the end of acetic fermentation,the content of total flavonoids increases to 233.30 mg/100 g,increased nearly seven times,after ageing for nine months,its content increases to 874.12 mg/100 g.On the second day of alcohol fermentation,there is a large amount of alcohol generate,at the end of alcoholic fermentation,the content of alcohol reaches 7 .0%.All over the brewing process of Shanxi mature vinegar,the content of total flavones and total acid rise significantly.

  4. Study on the Brewing Behavior of Two Kinds of Different Solubility Pesticide from Made Tea to Tea Infusion%两种不同溶解度农药残留在茶汤中的浸出规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芬; 张新忠; 陈宗懋; 罗逢健; 楼正云; 孙威江

    2013-01-01

    建立了茶汤中两种不同溶解度农药噻虫嗪和高效氯氟氰菊酯残留分析方法,并利用该方法研究了浸泡时间、温度、次数、茶叶形状和茶叶中残留量对两种农药浸出规律的影响。结果表明:恒定水温100℃时,浸泡不同时间,15 min时,整叶茶和碎茶中噻虫嗪浸出率达最大值分别为81.2%和88.6%;25 min时碎茶中高效氯氟氰菊酯的浸出率达到最大为5.5%,此时整叶茶中为0.41%。不同水温下冲泡15 min时,噻虫嗪和高效氯氟氰菊酯在茶汤中的浸出率均随着浸泡温度的升高而增加,当水温100℃时,整叶茶和碎茶中噻虫嗪的浸出率达到最大,分别为83.9%和89.1%;高效氯氟氰菊酯的浸出率也达到最大,分别为0.55%和4.1%。恒定水温100℃,冲泡15 min 3次,整叶茶实际样品中噻虫嗪和高效氯氟氰菊酯的浸出率随浸泡次数增加而逐次减小,总浸出率最大分别为93.25%和1.94%。茶汤中噻虫嗪总浸出浓度与它在成茶中的残留量呈线性关系 Y=0.9267X-0.0336,R2=0.9954;高效氯氟氰菊酯总浸出浓度与它在成茶中的残留量呈二次函数关系 Y=0.0026X2-0.0023X+0.0096,R2=0.9765。在此基础上对茶叶中噻虫嗪和高效氯氟氰菊酯残留量进行风险评估,结果表明饮茶摄入两种农药残留对人体健康影响的风险很小。%A residue analysis method for thiamethoxam and lambda-cyhalothrin in tea infusion was established, and the influence of brewing time, brewing temperature, tea shape and residue concentration in made tea to the brewing behavior from made tea to tea infusion were investigated by this method. The results showed that: when constant temperature of 100℃ for different brewing time (5~30 min), the brewing rate of thiamethoxam were maximum at 15 min, which were 81.2% in whole leaf tea and 88.6% in broken tea, the brewing rate of lambda-cyhalothrin reached the maximum of 5.5% at 25 min in broken tea, and

  5. Excavation of the Wine-brewing Workshop Site at Lidu in Jinxian County, Jiangxi%江西进贤县李渡烧酒作坊遗址的发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江西省文物考古研究所

    2003-01-01

    In July-November 2002, the Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology carried out a rescuing excavation of the wine-brewing workshop site at Lidu Town in Jinxian County, Jiangxi Province. They revealed the vestiges of wells, kitchen ranges, airing houses, wine cellars, distillers, wall-foundations, drainage ditches, pavements, ash-pits and brick pillars. The unearthed objects include stone articles, pottery, porcelain, bamboo and wooden wares, irons and bronzes, mostly wine vessels. The workshop began production in the Yuan period and continued to function in Ming and Qing times. It is early in date, long in duration, rich in remains and distinct in local character among the sites of this type. The discovery provides valuable data for studying the origin and development of ancient Chinese wine-distilling techniques.

  6. 啤酒高浓酿造对酵母代谢影响的研究进展%Research Development on Effection of Beer High Gravity Brewing on Metabolism of Saccharomyces cereviseae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞志敏; 赵谋明; 赵海锋; 陈文芬

    2009-01-01

    In the process of beer high gravity brewing, the increase of osmotic pressure, enhance of alcohol concentration and change of nutritional balance can bring adverse effect on metabolism of Saccharomyces cereviseae.This paper mainly summarized the effects of beer high gravity on metabolism of Saccharomyces cereviseae, specifically, the metabolism of carbon source material, nitrogen source material, flavor and energy material.%啤酒高浓酿造过程中,渗透压增加、乙醇含量升高及营养平衡改变都会给啤酒酵母胞内代谢带来不利的影响.文中综述了高浓酿造技术对啤酒酵母胞内代谢(碳源物质代谢、氮源物质代谢、风味物质代谢和能源物质代谢)的影响.

  7. Determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using polymeric ionic liquid-based sorbent coatings in solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliero, Cecilia; Ho, Tien D; Zhang, Cheng; Bicchi, Carlo; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-06-03

    This study describes a simple and rapid sampling method employing a polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coating in direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the trace-level analysis of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder. The crosslinked PIL sorbent coating demonstrated superior sensitivity in the extraction of acrylamide compared to all commercially available SPME coatings. A spin coating method was developed to evenly distribute the PIL coating on the SPME support and reproducibly produce fibers with a large film thickness. Ninhydrin was employed as a quenching reagent during extraction to inhibit the production of interfering acrylamide. The PIL fiber produced a limit of quantitation for acrylamide of 10μgL(-1) and achieved comparable results to the ISO method in the analysis of six coffee powder samples.

  8. 酸性蛋白酶在山西老陈醋酿造中的应用%Appl ication of Acid Protease in Brewing of Shanxi Mature Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘佩平; 王慕华; 苏槟楠; 蔡颖慧; 赵玉明; 李海涛

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of acid protease activity of Daqu on the brewing of Shanxi mature vinegar,the brewing process of Shanxi mature vinegar is simulated in laboratory.Acid protease is added to improve Daqu enzyme activity.The results show that acid protease promotes the utilization of raw material during alcohol fermentation period and increases alcohol and amino acid nitrogen yield. The optimal acid protease activity is 501.5 U/g,while the alcohol production rate increases by 20.9%, reaching its highest value,and amino acid nitrogen content increases by 232.7%.The mature vinegar applied acid protease has higher total acid content with good clarity and stable quality.%为探明大曲中酸性蛋白酶酶活对山西老陈醋酿造的影响,在实验室内模拟山西老陈醋酿造工艺,以额外添加酸性蛋白酶来提高大曲酶活。结果发现:酸性蛋白酶可以在酒精发酵阶段促进原料的利用,提高酒精及氨基酸态氮含量,酒精度达到最高值的最适酸性蛋白酶酶活为501.5 U/g,此时,酒精产率提高20.9%,氨基酸态氮含量提高232.7%。通过醋酸发酵制得的老陈醋总酸含量高、澄清度好、品质稳定。

  9. Matrix-compatible sorbent coatings based on structurally-tuned polymeric ionic liquids for the determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliero, Cecilia; Nan, He; Bicchi, Carlo; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-08-12

    Nine crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based SPME sorbent coatings were designed and screened in this study for the trace level determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The structure of the ionic liquid (IL) monomer was tailored by introducing different functional groups to the cation and the nature of the IL crosslinker was designed by altering both the structure of the cation as well as counteranions. The extraction efficiency of the new PIL coatings towards acrylamide was investigated and compared to a previously reported PIL sorbent coating. All PIL fibers exhibited excellent analytical precision and linearity. The PIL fiber coating consisting of 50% 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylbenzimidazolium)dodecane dibis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide as IL crosslinker in 1-vinyl-3-(10-hydroxydecyl)imidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide IL monomer resulted in a limit of quantitation of 0.5μgL(-1) with in-solution SPME sampling. The hydroxyl moiety appended to the IL cation was observed to significantly increase the sensitivity of the PIL coating toward acrylamide. The quantitation of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder was performed using the different PIL-based fibers by the method of standard addition after a quenching reaction using ninhydrin to inhibit the formation of interfering acrylamide in the GC inlet, mainly by asparagine thermal degradation. Excellent repeatability with relative standard deviations below 10% were obtained on the real coffee samples and the structure of the coatings appeared intact by scanning electron microscopy after coffee sampling proving the matrix-compatibility of the PIL sorbent coatings.

  10. Characterization of a β-glucanase produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus, and its potential for application in the brewing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestino, Klecius R Silveira; Cunha, Ricardo B; Felix, Carlos R

    2006-01-01

    . microsporus. was determined to be consistently lower. Conclusion The zygomycete microfungus R. microsporus var. microsporus produced a 1,3-1,4-β-D-glucan 4-glucanhydrolase (EC 3.2.1.73) which is able to hydrolyze β-D-glucan that contains both the 1,3- and 1,4-bonds (barley β-glucans). Its molecular mass was 33.7 kDa. Maximum activity was detected at pH values in the range of 4–5, and temperatures in the range of 50–60°C. The enzyme was able to reduce both the viscosity of the brewer mash and the filtration time, indicating its potential value for the brewing industry. PMID:17147821

  11. Characterization of a β-glucanase produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus, and its potential for application in the brewing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Carlos R

    2006-12-01

    -glucanase produced by R. microsporus var. microsporus. was determined to be consistently lower. Conclusion The zygomycete microfungus R. microsporus var. microsporus produced a 1,3-1,4-β-D-glucan 4-glucanhydrolase (EC 3.2.1.73 which is able to hydrolyze β-D-glucan that contains both the 1,3- and 1,4-bonds (barley β-glucans. Its molecular mass was 33.7 kDa. Maximum activity was detected at pH values in the range of 4–5, and temperatures in the range of 50–60°C. The enzyme was able to reduce both the viscosity of the brewer mash and the filtration time, indicating its potential value for the brewing industry.

  12. Chip architecture - A revolution brewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterl, F.

    1983-07-01

    Techniques being explored by microchip designers and manufacturers to both speed up memory access and instruction execution while protecting memory are discussed. Attention is given to hardwiring control logic, pipelining for parallel processing, devising orthogonal instruction sets for interchangeable instruction fields, and the development of hardware for implementation of virtual memory and multiuser systems to provide memory management and protection. The inclusion of microcode in mainframes eliminated logic circuits that control timing and gating of the CPU. However, improvements in memory architecture have reduced access time to below that needed for instruction execution. Hardwiring the functions as a virtual memory enhances memory protection. Parallelism involves a redundant architecture, which allows identical operations to be performed simultaneously, and can be directed with microcode to avoid abortion of intermediate instructions once on set of instructions has been completed.

  13. Policy Fight Brews over Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    A new report finding that black and Hispanic students are far more likely to be kicked out of school when they break the rules adds to a growing chorus of concern over the discipline policies being used in K-12 schools. Over the past two years, an increasing number of reports and initiatives have pointed out problems with 'zero tolerance"…

  14. Application of response surface methodology in optimization of brewing technology of Fructus Cannabis steeping wine%响应面分析法在优化火麻仁酒酿造工艺中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翾; 李红良; 谢嘉雯

    2012-01-01

    研究了以大米为原料发酵得到的米酒为酒基,浸泡火麻仁制作火麻仁酒的工艺条件。首先通过单因素试验分别考察了火麻仁的颗粒度、火麻仁的添加量、浸泡时间、浸泡温度对火麻仁酒感官评价的影响,然后采用Design-Expert软件中心组合设计法设计正交试验,通过响应面分析法获得了火麻仁酒酿制的最佳工艺条件为:火麻仁的颗粒度25目、火麻仁的添加量32%、浸泡时间5.5d、浸泡温度23℃。利用本工艺制作的火麻仁酒色泽亮黄、诸香和谐纯正、火麻仁甘味与米酒甜味协调适中、1:7感良好、风格独特。%This research mainly studied the brewing technology the Fructus cannabis steeping wine, which took the rice wine as the liquor base. The effects of the granularity of Fructus cannabis, the addition of Fructus cannabis, the soaking time, the soaking temperature on the sensory evaluation of the Fructus cannabis steeping wine were determined respectively by the single factor experiments, on which the orthogonal experiments were designed by the central composite design of Design-Expert soft. And the optimum brewing conditions of the Fructus cannabis steeping wine were obtained as follows: 1.25 mm for the granularity of Fructus cannabis, 32% for the addition of Fructus cannabis, 5.5 days for the soaking time and 23℃for the soaking temperature. The Fructus cannabis steeping wine obtained under the condition was bright yellow, good for taste, aroma harmonious and has a particular flavor of fructus cannabis.

  15. Breeding Process and Traits of Gankenpi 7,a Special Barley Variety for Beer Brewing%酿造专用大麦品种甘垦啤7号的选育与品种特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张想平; 李润喜; 牛小霞

    2016-01-01

    Gankenpi 7 is a special barley variety for beer brewing with the traits of short plant height,compact plant type,high resist-ance to lodging,high yielding,high quality,and high resistance to stripe disease.This variety has shown good agronomic traits for many years in multi-site tests,including high and stable yielding,strong adaptability,and good quality.Hence,it is suitable for cul-tivation in spring-barley planting zones in North China,such as the Hexi Corridor in Gansu Province,Hami and Qitai in Xinjiang, Hailar in Inner Mongolia,and Shuangyashan in Heilongjiang Province.%甘垦啤7号矮秆、紧凑、高抗倒伏,高产、优质、高抗条纹病。多年多点试验表明该品种具有丰产性好、稳产性优、适应性强、品质优良等特点,适宜甘肃河西走廊、新疆哈密、新疆奇台、内蒙古海拉尔、黑龙江双鸭山等我国北方春大麦区种植。

  16. 小麦β-淀粉酶生产啤酒用糖浆糖化工艺条件的优化%Optimization of Saccharification Conditions of Syrup for Brewing Produced by Wheat β-Amylase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春海

    2012-01-01

    本文以新型淀粉酶(小麦β-淀粉酶)替代传统工艺使用的大麦β-淀粉酶糖化淀粉液化液生产啤酒用糖浆,同时,探讨了小麦β-淀粉酶的添加量、糖化温度、pH值、时间等因素对麦芽糖含量的影响.试验结果结合经济效益,得出最适合的工艺条件为:小麦β-淀粉酶添加0.010%(m/m),糖化温度61℃,pH值5.5、糖化24h.%This paper studied the use of a starch enzyme (wheat β-starch enzyme) instead of the traditional technology using of barley β-starch enzyme in saccharification of starch liquefaction liquid to produce syrup for brewing. Meanwhile, effects of some factors on maltose content, such as added amount of wheat P-starch enzyme, saccharification temperature, pH value, and saccharification hours, were discussed. These studies concluded the optimum conditions combined with economic benefit which wheat β-starch enzyme added 0.010% (m/m), saccharification temperature at 60 °C, pH value 5.5, and saccharificate for 24 hours.

  17. Application of Aspergillus batatae AS3.324 in Vinegar Brewing%甘薯曲霉AS3.324在食醋酿造中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红云; 王兰天; 王拥军; 郭富华; 刘德海

    2013-01-01

      采用甘薯曲霉AS3.324固态制麸曲、固态酒精发酵和固态醋酸发酵生产工艺,对在甘薯曲霉AS3.324食醋酿造中的应用进行了研究.结果表明:小试(曲盘曲)糖化酶活力达到897.1 u/g,生产用麸曲(发酵架曲)平均糖化力达到1035.55 u/g,多批次食醋发酵结果其主料出醋率平均达到7.9 kg/kg(HAC 3.5%).%The study was introduced on the application of Aspergillus batatae AS3.324 in vinegar brewing by means of solid-state koji making,solid-state alcohol and acetic acid fermentation. The result showed that the glucoamylase activity reached 897.1 u/g by koji tray in laboratory test and 1 035.55 u/g by fermentation tank in production test. The output of vinegar was 7.9 kg/kg for the main material(HAC 3.5%).

  18. Research on Brewing Vinegar with Burnt Malt Distilling Residue%利用焦香麦芽蒸馏酒余液酿造食醋的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段元良; 董永胜; 王孔斌; 王君高

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of vinegar with unique taste can be brewed by acetic acid liquid fermentation, using burnt malt distilling residue and edible alcohol as main raw materials. The optimum technological conditions of three factors in the process of acetic acid fermentation are determined by the orthogonal experiment, and the final experimental results show that the initial alcohol concentration is 3%,the remained liquid concentration is 11% and the inoculum size is 10%.%利用实验室焦香麦芽蒸馏酒余液、食用酒精为原料,进行醋酸液态发酵,获得具有独特风味的食醋。通过正交实验确定了醋酸发酵过程中三个因素的最佳工艺条件,即初始酒精浓度为3%,蒸馏酒余液浓度为11%,接种量为10%。

  19. A Novel GH7 Endo-β-1,4-Glucanase from Neosartorya fischeri P1 with Good Thermostability, Broad Substrate Specificity and Potential Application in the Brewing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Dun, Baoqing; Shi, Pengjun; Ma, Rui; Luo, Huiying; Bai, Yingguo; Xie, Xiangming; Yao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    An endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene, cel7A, was cloned from the thermophilic cellulase-producing fungus Neosartorya fischeri P1 and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The 1,410-bp full-length gene encodes a polypeptide of 469 amino acids consisting of a putative signal peptide at residues 1-20, a catalytic domain of glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GH7), a short Thr/Ser-rich linker and a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM 1). The purified recombinant Cel7A had pH and temperature optima of pH 5.0 and 60°C, respectively, and showed broad pH adaptability (pH 3.0-6.0) and excellent stability at pH3.0-8.0 and 60°C. Belonging to the group of nonspecific endoglucanases, Cel7A exhibited the highest activity on barley β-glucan (2020 ± 9 U mg-1), moderate on lichenan and CMC-Na, and weak on laminarin, locust bean galactomannan, Avicel, and filter paper. Under simulated mashing conditions, addition of Cel7A (99 μg) reduced the mash viscosity by 9.1% and filtration time by 24.6%. These favorable enzymatic properties make Cel7A as a good candidate for applications in the brewing industry.

  20. A Novel GH7 Endo-β-1,4-Glucanase from Neosartorya fischeri P1 with Good Thermostability, Broad Substrate Specificity and Potential Application in the Brewing Industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liu

    Full Text Available An endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene, cel7A, was cloned from the thermophilic cellulase-producing fungus Neosartorya fischeri P1 and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The 1,410-bp full-length gene encodes a polypeptide of 469 amino acids consisting of a putative signal peptide at residues 1-20, a catalytic domain of glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GH7, a short Thr/Ser-rich linker and a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM 1. The purified recombinant Cel7A had pH and temperature optima of pH 5.0 and 60°C, respectively, and showed broad pH adaptability (pH 3.0-6.0 and excellent stability at pH3.0-8.0 and 60°C. Belonging to the group of nonspecific endoglucanases, Cel7A exhibited the highest activity on barley β-glucan (2020 ± 9 U mg-1, moderate on lichenan and CMC-Na, and weak on laminarin, locust bean galactomannan, Avicel, and filter paper. Under simulated mashing conditions, addition of Cel7A (99 μg reduced the mash viscosity by 9.1% and filtration time by 24.6%. These favorable enzymatic properties make Cel7A as a good candidate for applications in the brewing industry.

  1. 生物淀粉酶系对β-淀粉的水解和无蒸煮黄酒酿造释疑%Disabusing of Biological Amylases Hydrolyzing of β-starch and Un-cooking Rice Wine Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佩仁; 陈江萍; 王林秋; 王友崇; 符汉君

    2016-01-01

    以大米(糯、粳、籼米)为主要原料酿造各类黄酒培养黄曲霉、红曲霉、黑曲霉(俗称乌衣)及根霉菌所获得分别以α-淀粉酶(液化型淀粉酶或称糊精化酶)和葡萄糖淀粉酶(淀粉-1,4-葡萄糖苷酶)为主体的淀粉酶系,经恰当的组合,利用其高度专一性之特征,在适宜的条件下催化完成淀粉水解糖化和酵母菌的酒精发酵。淀粉酶系不但能水解糖化经蒸煮糊化后处于常态发酵醪中的α-淀粉(熟淀粉),在经适当改良的无蒸煮发酵醪中亦能水解糖化β-淀粉(生淀粉);于室温等相同的环境下,仅是水解速率有所差异之别。似不存在能水解糖化α-淀粉的淀粉酶系,不能水解糖化β-淀粉的专有之属性。在酒类酿造中对淀粉酶系作用机理的认识,是有必要继续进行深入研究和探讨的。%Using rice (glutinous rice, japonica rice, indica rice ) as main raw materials to brew all kinds of rice wine is catalyzing the hydrolysis and saccharification of the appropriate combination of amylase obtained by cultivation of aspergillus flavus, monascus and aspergillus niger (commonly known as Wu Yi) and rhizopus, mainly respectivelyα-amylase (amylase or dextrinised enzyme) and glucose amylase (starch-1,4-glucosidase), and alcohol fermentation of yeast, under suitable conditions and using its characteristics of high specificity. Amylases not only can hydrolyze and saccharify the cooked and gelatinizedα-starch (cooked starch) in normal fermentation mash, but also can hydrolyze and saccharify the uncookedβ-starch (uncooked starch) in the proper modified fermentation mass. The only difference is the hydrolysis speed in the same environment at room temperature. It seems that there is no specific property of the amylases which could hydrolyze and saccharifyα-starch while couldn't hydrolyze and saccharifyβ-starch, It is necessary to continue research and discussion on the

  2. Use Issatchenkia Terricola Brewing Technique of Raspberry Wine by Biological Acid-degradation%陆生伊萨酵母生物降酸酿造树莓干型酒工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋韶奕; 张素敏; 连奎; 王雪松

    2014-01-01

    Research using the red raspberry as material and Issatchenkia Terricola as de-acidification yeast during brewing of pure juice wine, the following results were achieved or recorded. We came to a conclusion of the optimum acid-degradation condition by the single factor trial and orthogonal test: Issatchenkia Terricola inoculum size was 3 %, the Brewers yeast inoculum size was 0.08 %, the temperature of de-acidification was 28℃, and de-acidification time was 5 d. Product quality index of raspberry wine is as follow:its colour was ruby, with no obvious suspensions, The palate stable, with a typical aromas of raspberries and harmonious flavour.%以红树莓为原料,利用陆生伊萨酵母(Issatchenkia Terricola)进行生物降酸酿造全汁树莓干型酒。通过正交试验得到了最佳生物降酸条件:陆生伊萨酵母接种量3%、酿酒酵母接种量0.08%、降酸温度为28℃、降酸时间为5 d。经发酵所得树莓干酒色泽为红宝石色,无明显悬浮物,口感圆润淳厚,带有典型的树莓果香及和谐的醇香,无异味。

  3. 酿酒葡萄新品种左优红在哈尔滨地区引种试验%Introduced Trial of New Variety Zuoyouhong for Brewing Vitis amurensis Rupr .Wine in Harbin Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In order to select wine grape varieties which have the cold resistance ,high yield ,good quality and are suitable for soil and climatic conditions in Heilongjiang province ,Introduced trial of new variety Zuoyouhong were studied in Harbin areas from 2006 to 2011 .The results showed that :the shape of fruit cluster was long circular ,the average weight of fruit cluster was 144 .8 g ,the shape of fruit grain was round and average weight of fruit grain was 1 .36 g ,Zuoyouhong have dark color ,thicker fruit powder ;Compared with Gongniang 1 ,fruit branch rate ,fruiting coefficient and soluble solid were higher in Zuoyouhong ,at the same time the quality of dry red wine brewed from it was good ;Zuoyouhong was suitable for wide development as a new variety in Harbin area .%  为了筛选出适宜黑龙江省当地土壤和气候条件的抗寒、高产、果实酿酒酒质好的葡萄品种,2006~2012年进行酿酒葡萄新品种左优红的引种试验。结果表明:在哈尔滨地区栽培,其果穗长圆锥形,平均穗重144.8 g ;果粒圆形,平均粒重1.36 g ,色泽深,果粉厚;与对照品种公酿1号相比,左优红品种表现为果枝率、结果系数、可溶性固形物高,霜霉病害轻,酿制的干红葡萄酒质量好;左优红是适宜在哈尔滨地区大面积发展的新品种。

  4. Effect of neutrase on quality of wort in beer brewing%中性蛋白酶对啤酒酿造中麦汁质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田红荀; 王家林

    2011-01-01

    . With development of beer industry, application of enzymes in beer brewing becomes more and more widely. Application and effect of neutrase in saccharification of wort was mainly studied. The results showed that when addition of neutrase was lower than 250g/(t malt, contents of alpha amino nitrogen of wort could increase by 25%, while higher addition of neutrase may inhibit effect of enzyme. Addition of neutrase could decrease turbidity of wort and content of sensitive protein to a certain extent. For further improved wort stability, corresponding control methods is necessary at the same time for control ofpolyphenols.%随着啤酒工业的发展,酶制剂在啤酒酿造中的应用越来越广泛.文中主要对中性蛋白酶在糖化过程的应用及对麦汁的影响进行了研究.研究表明,中性蛋白酶添加量在250mg/(kg麦芽)以下,可以使麦汁中α-氨基酸态氮含量提高25%以上,高于250mg/(kg麦芽)反而不利于酶的作用.添加中性蛋白酶只能在一定程度上降低麦汁浊度和敏感蛋白含量,若要进一步提高麦汁稳定性,需要同时采取相应措施,控制麦汁中多酚物质的含量.

  5. The Determination Methods of Sugar Degree in Fruit Vinegar Brewing and the Effect of Alcohol Degree and Acidity on Sugar Degree%果醋酿造中糖度测定方法及酒精度、酸度对糖度测定的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑平; 王在谦; 李秀萍; 吴幼茹; 李楠

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol degree,acidity and sugar degree are important indicators in fruit vinegar brewing, the effect of sugar degree in the alcoholic fermentation stage and acetic fermentation stage of fruit vinegar brewing is very important.Commonly use Baume scale to test brix,and refractometer to test refractive index,these methods are used to measure the sugar degree,they are simple and quick.It is found that alcohol degree and acidity have effect on the measurement of sugar degree.The results show that both measurements are pure within a certain error,need to correct two measurement results.%酒精度、酸度、糖度是果醋酿造的重要指标,糖度对果醋酿造过程中酒精发酵、醋酸发酵阶段影响至关重要。常用波美比重计测锤度、手持糖度计测折光率来测量糖度,简单快捷。经过实验发现酒精度和醋酸度对糖度测定有影响,结果发现两种测量均存在一定误差,需要对两种测量结果进行校正。

  6. A new "brew" of MALT1 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ryan M; Staudt, Louis M

    2012-12-11

    The activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive lymphoma that is addicted to NF-κB signaling through the CARD11-BCL10-MALT1 complex. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Nagel and colleagues and Fontan and colleagues describe MALT1 inhibitors suitable for clinical use that are selectively toxic to this malignancy.

  7. Advertising and concentration in the brewing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market and the world market, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based......The opening of the markets in East Asia and Eastern Europe in the 1990s changed the structure of the beer markets and in the following years a large wave of mergers and acquisitions took place. The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012, discusses some of the main...

  8. Innovations in the brewing industry: light beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos A; Caballero, Isabel; Barrios, Rosa; Rojas, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The demand for light beers has led brewers to innovate by developing light beer. However, these products are not widely accepted in Europe compared to North America and Australasia because of their lack of fullness in the taste and low bitterness compared with conventional beer. The lower levels of some important compounds, present in light beer, can explain these features since they are responsible for the characteristics of the beer. These include alcohol soluble proteins, oligosaccharides, glycerol, polyphenols, iso-α-acids, fusel alcohols and trihydroxy fatty acids. Light beer is produced by several methods, the most commonly used is the addition of glucoamylase to the wort before or during fermentation. This enzyme metabolizes residual carbohydrates (mainly dextrins) transforming them into fermentable sugars and reducing the caloric and alcohol content in this type of beer. Recently pilot studies have been carried out with genetically engineered yeast strains in which amylolytic genes are introduced into the yeast genome in order to metabolize carbohydrate residues. When introducing amylolytic genes, a better fermentability occurs although the fullness of flavor still becomes reduced.

  9. Advertising and concentration in the brewing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market and the world market, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based...

  10. Advertising and Concentration in the Brewing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012, discusses some of the main drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market and the wo......The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012, discusses some of the main drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market...

  11. High-gravity brewing utilizing factorial design

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,R. B.; J. B. Almeida e Silva; Lima,U. A.; Assis,A. N.

    2000-01-01

    A number of factors can influence the behavior of yeast during fermentation. Some of these factors (initial wort concentration, initial pH and percentage of corn syrup in the composition of the wort) were studied in order to determine their influence on the productivity of fermentation. Fermentations were carried out at 25ºC utilizing a 2³ factorial design of these factors. The results showed that the percentage of corn syrup had no influence on process productivity, whereas initial pH and es...

  12. "Scientific Creationism"--A New Inquisition Brewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Preston

    1977-01-01

    In light of the recent revival of the creationism versus evolution issue, the author briefly summarizes both positions, defends evolution on the basis of fossils and rock ages, and refutes six creationist arguments against evolution. For journal availability, see SO 505 260. (AV)

  13. Trouble Brewing in Los Angeles. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    The city of Los Angeles will face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Los Angeles faces a total $152.6 billion liability for pensions that are underfunded--including $49.1 billion for the city pension systems, $2.4 billion for…

  14. Battle Brewing Over Arkansas Creationism Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rudy

    1981-01-01

    Reports recent proceedings regarding a new law enacted in early 1981 in Arkansas which requires schools that teach evolution to teach what the law calls "creation-science." Opposition to the law by the American Civil Liberties Union is discussed. (CS)

  15. Bootlegging Literacy Sponsorship, Brewing up Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Tracey Hammler

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers how community literacy programs factor into broader economies of literacy development. The author analyzes two Appalachian community literacy projects, Shirley Brice Heath's ethnographic project in the Carolina Piedmont and Highlander Research and Education Center's organizing efforts with the Appalachian People's Movement, to…

  16. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  17. Trouble Brewing in San Francisco. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    The city of San Francisco will face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that San Francisco faces an aggregate $22.4 billion liability for pensions and retiree health benefits that are underfunded--including $14.1 billion for the city…

  18. Trouble Brewing in San Diego. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    The city of San Diego will face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that San Diego faces total of $45.4 billion, including $7.95 billion for the county pension system, $5.4 billion for the city pension system, and an estimated $30.7…

  19. High-gravity brewing utilizing factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Almeida

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of factors can influence the behavior of yeast during fermentation. Some of these factors (initial wort concentration, initial pH and percentage of corn syrup in the composition of the wort were studied in order to determine their influence on the productivity of fermentation. Fermentations were carried out at 25ºC utilizing a 2³ factorial design of these factors. The results showed that the percentage of corn syrup had no influence on process productivity, whereas initial pH and especially initial wort concentration did. It can be concluded that using pH and initial wort concentration values higher than those utilized in this work (5.5 and 20ºP, respectively will result in a higher productivity.

  20. Marine biogeochemistry: Phytoplankton in a witch's brew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrenfeld, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Natural seafloor hydrocarbon seeps are responsible for roughly half of the oil released into the ocean. As these oils and gases rise to the surface, they transport nutrients upwards, benefiting phytoplankton in the upper sunlit layer.

  1. Strange Brew: "New" History and Old Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Deborah Kuhn; McGregor, Robert Kuhn

    1988-01-01

    Describes the nature of the "new" social history and a summer institute which introduced it to high school teachers in Illinois. Describes the institute, examines difficulties in "new" history implementation, and identifies future directions for "new" historians. (GEA)

  2. A Data Analysis Problem That Brews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, P. Michael; Lutz, L. Mark; Bobay, Keith

    This paper is designed to show how graphics display calculators can be used to analyze data. The paper describes a classroom activity, where students calculate a linear regression on a data set and answer questions related to the regression. Teaching notes, a full solution, and calculator instructions are included as are blackline masters. (MM)

  3. High Molecular Weight Melanoidins from Coffee Brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van T.; Smit, G.

    2006-01-01

    The composition of high molecular weight (HMw) coffee melanoidin populations, obtained after ethanol precipitation, was studied. The specific extinction coefficient (Kmix) at 280, 325, 405 nm, sugar composition, phenolic group content, nitrogen content, amino acid composition, and non-protein nitrog

  4. 北京自来水冲泡绿茶汤颜色及抗氧化性变化因素%Factors Affecting the Photochromism and Anti-oxidant Activity of Green Tea Infusion Brewed with Tap Water in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈然; 张季艾; 范志红

    2012-01-01

    Water quality was measured on Beijing tap water with and without reverse osmosis membrane filtration and deionized water. In addition, the effect of selected ions showing a considerable difference on color parameters and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion was discovered. Our results indicated that Beijing tap water was slightly alkaline, remarkably darkened the color of tea infusion compared with deionized water, and resulted in a distinct decrease in DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Calcium (70 mg/L), magnesium (30 mg/L) and sodium (18 mg/L) ions in Beijing tap water could reduce the color of tea infusion and its DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This suggests that the main reason for the darker color and decreased DPPH free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion brewed with tap water is that tea infusion is kept in a weakly alkaline environment during brewing due to the presence of HCO~ in tap water, thus causing oxidative degradation of tea phenols.%分别对北京地区弱碱性自来水及去离子水进行水质分析,并探究其中差别较大的几种离子对茶汤颜色及DPPH自由基清除能力的影响。结果表明:用北京地区弱碱性自来水冲泡绿茶得到茶汤的颜色较去离子水绿茶茶汤显著加深,DPPH自由基清除能力显著下降。Ca^2+(70mg/L)、Mg^2+(30mg/L)和Na^+(18mg/L)能够使茶汤颜色变浅,DPPH自由基清除能力上升。提示自来水中的HCO^-3在冲泡过程中将绿茶茶汤体系稳定在弱碱性环境,从而导致茶多酚的氧化降解,这是自来水绿茶茶汤颜色变深、DPPH自由基清除能力降低的主要因素。

  5. Application of “SP-3” and “SP-2” in the whole wheat beer brewing%“SP-3”与“SP-2”在全小麦啤酒酿造中应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁仲; 杨继远

    2011-01-01

    " SP-3 " was a new beer yeast strain, while " SP-02 " was the normal strain used in the production of malt beer. Comparison experiments of the application of" SP-3 " and " SP-2 " in production of wheat beer were conducted. The results showed that strains " SP-3 " is more adaptable in the whole wheat beer brewing than that of strain " SP-2 ". The parameters of beer by strain "SP-3 " were superior to that of" SP-2 ", which has pure taste, clean and soft, could meet for the current consumer's requirements.%“SP-3”是新选育的啤酒酵母菌株,而“SP-2”为通常生产大麦芽啤酒使用的啤酒酵母菌株,“SP-3”与“SP-2”啤酒酵母菌株在全小麦啤酒生产中应用对比试验结果表明,“SP-3”啤酒酵母菌株在全小麦芽啤酒的酿造中适用性较强,各项指标均优于“SP-2”啤酒酵母菌株,用其酿制的啤酒口感纯正、清爽、柔和,能够较好地适应当前消费者的口感需求.

  6. Clinical Observation on Yiguan Brew Combined with Western Medication for 40 Cases of Diabetic Gastroparesis with Stomach Yin Deficiency Syndrome%一贯煎联合西药治疗胃阴亏虚型糖尿病胃轻瘫患者40例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐学林; 杨亚锋; 黄晓红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of Yiguan Brew (All-the-Way-Through Brew) combined with western medication on diabetic gastroparesis with stomach yin deficiency syndrome. Methods Eighty diabetic gastroparesis patients with stomach yin deficiency syndrome were randomized into treatment group and control group, with 40 in each. Both groups were given repaglinide and metformin hydrochloride tablets to control blood sugar. The treatment group was added with Yiguan Brew, one dose daily. The control group was added with Mosapride dispersible tablets, 10mg per time, 3 times daily. One treatment course lasted for 2 weeks. Scores of clinical symptoms, gastric half emptying time (GET1/2) and lag phase time (Tlag) were observed before and after treatment. Results After treatment, GET1/2 and Tlag improved significantly in both groups (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01) , especially in the treatment group (P<0. 01). The total effective rate of the treatment group and the control group was 75. 00% and 62. 50% respectively. The treatment group was superior (PBrew could obviously relieve symptoms and promote gastric emptying for diabetic gasrop-aresis with stomach yin deficiency syndrome

  7. The suitability of the simplified method of the analysis of coffee infusions on the content of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn and the study of the effect of preparation conditions on the leachability of elements into the coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Pohl, Pawel; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2013-12-01

    A fast and straightforward method of the analysis of coffee infusions was developed for measurements of total concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Its validity was proved by the analysis of spiked samples; recoveries of added metals were found to be within 98-104% while the precision was better than 4%. The method devised was used for the analysis of re-distilled water infusions of six popular ground coffees available in the Polish market. Using the mud coffee preparation it was established that percentages of metals leached in these conditions varied a lot among analysed coffees, especially for Ca (14-42%), Mg (6-25%) and Zn (1-24%). For remaining metals, the highest extractabilities were assessed for Mn (30-52%) while the lowest for Fe (4-16%) and Cu (2-12%). In addition, it was found that the water type and the coffee brewing preparation method influence the concentration of studied metals in coffee infusions the most.

  8. Aproveitamento da água de umidificação de malte da moagem úmida como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja Utilization of the wet milling malt steep water as raw material on brewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar G. VENTURINI FILHO

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A água de umidificação de malte, resultante da moagem úmida, pode ser usada como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja. Há, entretanto, cervejarias que descartam esse subproduto, e conseqüentemente, o extrato nele contido. Em função disso, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a possibilidade de ganho de rendimento na mosturação e alterações nas características químicas e sensoriais da bebida, em virtude do uso dessa água. Cervejas do tipo Pilsen foram produzidas de duas formas: com e sem água de umidificação de malte. Utilizou-se como matéria prima malte, lúpulo, xarope de maltose, água destilada e água de umidificação de malte. O mosto foi produzido pelo processo de infusão, separado do bagaço de malte por filtração convencional e fervido durante 60 minutos. Após seu resfriamento e clarificação o mosto foi inoculado com levedura de baixa fermentação (1,3g/l, ps e colocado para fermentar a 10°C. A fermentação foi encerrada com 90% da atenuação limite. Em seguida, a cerveja foi engarrafada e maturada a 0°C por 14 dias. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento do rendimento de mosturação, em função do uso da água de umidificação de malte, foi estatisticamente não significativo. A utilização dessa água praticamente não alterou as características químicas e sensoriais da cerveja, havendo apenas um leve aumento na intensidade de cor da bebida (7,1 x 8,0 EBC. Considerando, no entanto, que a água de umidificação de malte obtida em nível industrial apresenta maior concentração de extrato em relação àquela produzida em laboratório, espera-se que o uso da primeira traga ganho de rendimento industrial sem alterações significativas nas características da cerveja.The wet milling malt steep water can be used as raw material on brewing. However, some breweries discard this water containing a certain amount of extract. Based on this fact, the aim of this work was to evaluate possible

  9. Utilização de mostos concentrados na produção de cervejas pelo processo contínuo: novas tendências para o aumento da produtividade Use of concentrated worts for high gravity brewing by continuous process: new tendencies for the productivity increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Dragone

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a produtividade volumétrica em etanol durante a fermentação de mostos com elevadas concentrações de extrato original, para a produção de cerveja pelo processo contínuo, utilizando as leveduras imobilizadas em bagaço de malte. Os mostos com diferentes concentrações de extrato original (14,3 ºP, 15,2 ºP e 19,6 ºP foram preparados a partir de um mosto de 22 ºP elaborado com malte e adjunto de alta maltose em uma relação adjunto: malte de 1:2,8. As fermentações foram conduzidas em um reator de coluna de bolhas, a 15 ºC, empregando uma taxa de diluição de 0,04 h-1 e um fluxo constante de gases de 250 mL/min (200 mL/min de CO2 e 50 mL/min de ar. De acordo com os resultados, a produtividade volumétrica em etanol aumentou quando a concentração de extrato original do mosto foi aumentada, sendo o valor máximo (2,09 g.L-1.h-1 obtido para o mosto de 19,6 ºP. Esse valor representa um aumento de 345% quando comparado com a produtividade (0,47 g.L-1.h-1 da fermentação descontínua de um mosto de 20 ºP. Conclui-se, então, que o processo contínuo de fermentação de mostos com elevadas concentrações de extrato para a produção de cerveja permite obter expressivos ganhos na produtividade em etanol quando comparado ao processo descontínuo.The present work evaluated the ethanol volumetric productivity during fermentation of worts with elevated original extract, for high gravity brewing by continuous process using yeasts immobilized on brewer's spent grain. Worts with different original extract (14.3 ºP, 15.2 ºP and 19.6 ºP were prepared from a wort of 22 ºP elaborated with malt and high maltose adjunct in an adjunct:malt ratio of 1:2.8. The fermentations were performed in a bubble column reactor, at 15 ºC, using a dilution rate of 0.04 h-1 and a constant gas flow of 250 mL/min (200 mL/min CO2 and 50 mL/min air. According to the results, the ethanol volumetric productivity increased when the

  10. Trouble brewing: pregaming among high school and incoming college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L; Tomaso, Cara C; Haas, Amie L; Olthuis, Janine V; Borish, Sarah; Borsari, Brian

    2013-10-01

    Pregaming (a.k.a., "prepartying," "pre-funking," or "predrinking") consists of drinking before going to a social function or gathering where alcohol may or may not be served. Existing research suggests that pregaming in high school and pre-college (i.e., the period between high school graduation and the start of college) is widespread. Moreover, pregaming prevalence appears to rapidly increase after students graduate from high school and transition into college. Thus, the purpose of this brief review is threefold: (a) to summarize the existing (albeit limited) research on pregaming among high school students and incoming college freshmen, (b) to present an overview of the risk factors that have been identified for participation in pregaming, and (c) to discuss the implications for practice that may be particularly relevant for school-employed/affiliated nurses as well as health practitioners who work in college settings.

  11. Brewing an Assortment of Responses to Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard Christiansen, Lærke

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a case study on the responses of the five organizational units of Danish brewery company Carlsberg A/S to alcohol-related harm. It examines the interpretations of each unit on the issue and the factors for their varied response to the issue. The four models of response to ins...

  12. Salt Reduction in Foods Using Naturally Brewed Soy Sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.; Shimojo, R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, health concerns related to salt/sodium chloride consumption have caused an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, sodium chloride (NaCl) reduction in foods has become an important challenge. The more so, since a decrease in NaCl content is often reported to be associ

  13. Mold and mycotoxin problems encountered during malting and brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Hall, Charlene E

    2007-10-20

    Fusarium infections in grains can have severe effects on malt and beer. While some degree of Fusarium mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol, present in infected barley may be lost during steeping, the Fusarium mold is still capable of growth and mycotoxin production during steeping, germination and kilning. Therefore, detoxification of grain before malting may not be practical unless further growth of the mold is also prevented. Methods to reduce the amount of mold growth during malting are needed. Physical, chemical and biological methods are reviewed. Irradiation looks very promising as a means to prevent Fusarium growth during malting, but the effect on the surviving mold to produce mycotoxins and the effect on malt quality needs further study. Chemical treatments such as ozonation, which would not leave residual chemical in the beer also appear to be promising. Although biological control methods may be desirable, due to the use of "natural" inhibition, the effects of these inhibitors on malt and beer quality requires further investigation. It may also be possible to incorporate detoxifying genes into fermentation yeasts, which would result in detoxification of the wort when mold growth is no longer a problem. Development of these types of technological interventions should help improve the safety of products, such as beer, made from Fusarium infected grain.

  14. Home Brew Salinity Measuring Devices: Their Construction and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper discusses several inexpensive methods of evaluating the salinity of seawater. One method is presented in some detail. This method has several attractive features. First, it can be used to provide instruction, not only in marine chemistry, but also in studying the mathematics of the point slope formula, and as an aid in teaching students…

  15. Brewing Bachelors: The History of the University of Newark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Harold S.

    2010-01-01

    Locating denominational colleges and state and land grant universities away from major American cities created a growing need for urban higher education institutions in the early twentieth century. Religious denominations, municipal authorities, and entrepreneurs opened colleges and professional schools in many US cities to meet the demand. The…

  16. "Crisis Brewing?" Paraprofessionals and the No Child Left Behind Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban Institute (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), enacted in January 2002, includes among its provisions new requirements for all employees providing instructional support (paraprofessionals, teacher aides, tutors, etc.) in programs/schools supported with Title I, Part A funds. The law stipulates that paraprofessionals or teacher aides must meet one of the…

  17. Trouble Brewing: The Disaster of California State Pensions. State Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    California has promised its public employees lavish pensions and retiree health benefits without setting aside nearly enough money to pay for those benefits. As a result, California already admits to a $75.5 billion shortfall in paying for these promises to public employees--$40.5 billion for the teachers' retirement plan (California State…

  18. Strange Brew: Minnesota's Motley Mix of School Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlstein, Mitchell B.

    Minnesota has been the first state to embrace many education reforms, but it is also characterized by low state standards and problematic desegregation and diversity proposals. This report examines why Minnesota is good on some education policies and bad on others. It also draws the lessons with the greatest importance for other states. The…

  19. Java: A New Brew for Educators, Administrators and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    Java is an object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems; its benefits include platform independence, security, and interactivity. Within the college community, Java is being used in programming courses, collaborative technology research projects, computer graphics instruction, and distance education. (AEF)

  20. New Yorker Melange: Interactive Brew of Personalized Venue Recommendation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahálka, J.; Rudinac, S.; Worring, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose New Yorker Melange, an interactive city explorer, which navigates New York venues through the eyes of New Yorkers having a similar taste to the interacting user. To gain insight into New Yorkers' preferences and properties of the venues, a dataset of more than a million venu

  1. The Library Blend: One Media Center's Alluring Brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ken W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the library media center programs at Blue Valley High School (Kansas), the proactive stance it takes in the curriculum, and how it maintains an active role in the school community. Topics include developing a comfortable atmosphere for teachers and students, financial and moral administrative support, and the use of technology. (LRW)

  2. 酿造单宁在啤酒生产中的使用效果%The Effect of Brewing Tannin on the Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安建略; 朱汉权

    2006-01-01

    本实验研究了酿造单宁在啤酒生产中的使用效果,结果显示酿造单宁选择性地沉淀蛋白,但不影响泡沫,明显延长啤酒保质期和保鲜期,是提高啤酒非生物稳定的好材料.

  3. 酿造水中的锌离子对啤酒酿造的影响%Effect of Zinc Ion in Brewing Water On Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景晓莉; 李红; 张永茂

    2006-01-01

    啤酒中的锌离子来源于麦芽、大米、酿造用水、酒花.实验表明在啤酒酿造过程中,锌离子可激活酶的活性、提高酶的催化作用,促进糖化、发酵;提高麦汁中糖、氨基酸的含量;促进双乙酰的还原,降低双乙酰的含量;激活乙醇脱氢酶,降低乙醛,提高酵母活力,降低酵母死亡率;提高发酵度,缩短发酵时间.

  4. Application of High Gravity Brewing in the Brewing Industry%高浓酿造技术在啤酒工业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊伟; 余俊红

    2003-01-01

    高浓酿造技术在啤酒工业中的应用越来越广泛,其主要特点是在不增加设备的基础上能大幅度提高产量.对高浓酿造技术在啤酒工业中的应用进行了较为详细的论述,总结了高浓酿造的特点、高浓麦汁的制备、啤酒酿造糖浆的选择等.最后,讨论了高浓酿造技术对酿造工艺过程、啤酒酵母及最终产品的影响.

  5. Metabolic flux and nodes control analysis of brewer's yeasts under different fermentation temperature during beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhimin; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhao, Mouming; Lei, Hongjie; Li, Huiping

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to further investigate the glycolysis performance of lager and ale brewer's yeasts under different fermentation temperature using a combined analysis of metabolic flux, glycolytic enzyme activities, and flux control. The results indicated that the fluxes through glycolytic pathway decreased with the change of the fermentation temperature from 15 °C to 10 °C, which resulted in the prolonged fermentation times. The maximum activities (V (max)) of hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) at key nodes of glycolytic pathway decreased with decreasing fermentation temperature, which was estimated to have different control extent (22-84 %) on the glycolytic fluxes in exponential or flocculent phase. Moreover, the decrease of V (max) of PFK or PK displayed the crucial role in down-regulation of flux in flocculent phase. In addition, the metabolic state of ale strain was more sensitive to the variation of temperature than that of lager strain. The results of the metabolic flux and nodes control analysis in brewer's yeasts under different fermentation temperature may provide an alternative approach to regulate glycolytic flux by changing V (max) and improve the production efficiency and beer quality.

  6. The Renewal of Mature Industries: An Examination of the Revival of the Dutch Beer Brewing Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Kroezen (Jochem J.)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Many mature industries have recently experienced a remarkable revival. Yet, other important industries appear to remain impervious to change. While the evolution of industries is an important topic in the industrial organization and organizational sociology literature,

  7. [Stress on the lumbar spine in workers in the beer brewing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitar-Srebocan, V; Hursidić Radulović, A; Mustajbegović, J

    1995-03-01

    The appearance of lumbal syndrome was analysed in two groups of workers in the "Zagrebacka pivovara" brewery. In a group of 23 workers whose mean age was 34 years and mean length of service 12 years, nine (39.1%) suffered from lumbal syndrome. In another group of 33 workers, with the mean age of 31 years and the mean length of service of nine years there were 24 (72.7%) suffering from the syndrome. According to Student's t-test the differences in age and length of service between the two groups were not significant (P > 0.05), but the difference in the number of ill was significant (P < 0.05). Analysis of the workplace showed that a heavy burden of the lumbal spine was involved, especially with the workers from the second group, and that ergonomic solutions were necessary.

  8. The cocoyam, Xanthosoma sagittifollium, as a potential raw material source for beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuka, N D; Eneh, C O

    1996-06-01

    A widely cultivated cocoyam variety, Xanthosoma sagittifollium, was assessed for its suitability for lager beer production, using malted Sorghum vulgare (white variety) for saccharification of the substrate. The three-mash decoction method was used. Results showed that the cocoyam was superior to barley and sorghum as a substrate because of its potentially higher carbohydrate content (71-78%) compared to barley (65%) and sorghum (70-73%). The percentage wort extract was 13.3-14.5 degrees plato compared to 7-12 for barley and 13 degrees for the tuber crop, cassava. The kiln dried Xanthosoma sagittifollium gave a dark bager beer with good aroma (68%) and very good flavour (73%) when compared with a commercial lager beer (Monarch) as standard (100%). The alcohol content (4.16% w/v) and the specific gravity (1013) were within the range (4.0-6.4%) and (1011-1019), respectively, specified by the Standard Organization of Nigeria. Although the bitterness value 40 EBU, was higher than the typical range 16-30 EBU, the taste panel indicated this was acceptable. The pH was 4.68 compared with the standard 4.36, while the acidity (as % lactic acid) was 0.36 compared to 0.24 for some commercial products.

  9. 野生酵母与啤酒酿造%Wild Barm and Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海明

    2003-01-01

    野生酵母污染会造成啤酒质量问题.要选择适当的方法进行野生酵母的检查,了解污染的来源和程度;对症下药,对设备、管道和阀门等要进行彻底的清洁、灭菌工作,不能有死角.对与啤酒接触的气源、水、助滤剂、添加剂等要保证达到一定的无菌度,从而控制野生酵母的浓度不至于损害啤酒的质量.

  10. 海棠果醋的酿造研究%Brewing technology of crab apple vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常启龙; 卢晓霆; 王迎辉

    2009-01-01

    以海棠果为原料,通过果胶酶酶解海棠果胶得到优质海棠果汁后接入0.3%的酵母菌进行8d的酒精发酵酿制出海棠果酒;在发酵温度30℃,酒精度6%,醋酸菌接种量10%条件下经醋酸发酵酿制海棠果醋;选择75℃~80℃灭菌15min较为合理.

  11. Glues, Brews, and Goos: Recipes and Formulas for Almost Any Classroom Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Diana F.

    This book emphasizes children's learning and is filled with recipes and formulas. The goal of this book is to connect students to the past, provide links to nature, show the importance of science in everyday life, and help students see themselves as part of a global community. Many of the recipes and formulas in this book have multicultural…

  12. Effect of cellular inositol content on ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in sake brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Keiji; Kitano, Hideyuki; Mizoguchi, Haruhiko; Hara, Shodo

    2004-01-01

    The effect of cellular inositol content on the ethanol tolerance of sake yeast was investigated. In a static culture of strain K901 in a synthetic medium, when cells were grown in the presence of inositol in limited amount (L-cells), the inositol content of cells decreased by one-third that of cells grown in the presence of inositol in sufficient amount (H-cells). L-cells exhibited a higher death rate constant than H-cells in the presence of 12-20% ethanol, while no difference in specific ethanol production rate in the presence of 0-18% ethanol between the two cell types was observed. L-cells leaked more intracellular components, such as nucleotides, phosphate and potassium, in the presence of ethanol than H-cells. L-cells exhibited a lower intracellular pH value than H-cells, which represented the lowering of cell vitality by the decrease in H(+) extrusion activity. Furthermore, the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity of L-cells was approximately one-half of that of H-cells. Therefore, it was considered that the decrease in viability in the presence of ethanol due to inositol limitation results from the lowering of H(+)-ATPase activity, which maintains the permeability barrier of the yeast membrane, ensuring the homeostasis of ions in the cytoplasm of yeast cells. It is assumed that the lowering of H(+)-ATPase activity due to inositol limitation is caused by the change in lipid environment of the enzyme, which is affected by inositol-containing glycerophospholipids such as phosphatidylinositol (PI), because in the PI-saturated mixed micellar assay system, the difference in H(+)-ATPase activity between L- and H-cells disappeared. In the early stage of sake mash, inositol limitation lowers the ethanol tolerance due to the decrease in H(+)-ATPase activity as in static culture. In the final stage of sake mash, the disruption of the ino1 gene responsible for inositol synthesis, resulted in a decrease in cell density. Furthermore, the ino1 disruptant, which was not capable of increasing the cellular inositol level in the final stage, exhibited a significantly higher methylene blue-staining ratio than the parental strain. It was suggested that the yeast cellular inositol level is one of the important factors which contribute to the high ethanol tolerance implied by the increased cell viability in the presence of ethanol.

  13. Factors affecting phenolic acid liberation from rice grains in the sake brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Nobukazu; Nakayama, Airi; Ito, Masaya; Hashizume, Katsumi

    2014-12-01

    Phenolic acid (ferulic and p-coumaric acid) liberation from rice grains was examined using rice samples containing phenolic acid at different levels, using two sake mash simulated digestion tests to elucidate influencing factors. Phenolic acid levels in a digest made from steamed rice using dialyzed rice koji enzymes were smaller than levels in a rice koji self-digest. Differences in phenolic acid levels among rice samples in the rice koji self-digest were larger than levels in a digest of steamed rice. In the rice koji self-digest, phenolic acid levels in the ingredient rice grains or in the formed digest related to feruloylesterase (FE) activity in the rice koji. Addition of exogenous FE to rice koji self-digestion increased phenolic acid levels, while addition of xylanase (Xyl) showed weak effects. A concerted effect of FE and Xyl was not clearly observed. Addition of ferulic acid to koji made from α-rice grains raised FE activity, but it did not increase the activity of other enzymes. A similar phenomenon was observed in an agar plate culture of koji mold. These results indicated that ferulic acid levels in ingredient rice grains correlate with FE activities of koji, as a resulut, they affect the phenolic acid levels in sake mash.

  14. Antioxidant and Antitumor Activity of a Bioactive Polyphenolic Fraction Isolated from the Brewing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatullo, Marco; Simone, Grazia Maria; Tarullo, Franco; Irlandese, Gianfranco; Vito, Danila De; Marrelli, Massimo; Santacroce, Luigi; Cocco, Tiziana; Ballini, Andrea; Scacco, Salvatore

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in identifying natural bioactive compounds that can improve mitochondrial functionality and regulate apoptosis. The brewery industry generates wastewater that could yield a natural extract containing bioactive phenolic compounds. Polyphenols act as antioxidants and have been documented to protect the human body from degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases or cancer. The main aims of our research were to determine the phenolic profile of a crude extract obtained (at pilot scale) from a brewery waste stream and to evaluate the biochemical activity of this extract on the mitochondrial function of a cancer cell line (SH-SY5Y). This work is a basic translational pilot study. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay, which revealed that 2.30% of the extract consisted of phenolic compounds. The polyphenols, identified and quantified by reverse-phase-high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/MS), were mainly flavonoids. After cell culture, the tumoral cells treated with the polyphenolic extract showed enhanced mitochondrial oxidative function, which is likely related to a decrease in oxidative stress and an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. This type of brewery waste stream, properly treated, may be a promising source of natural antioxidants to replace the synthetic antioxidants currently used in the food industry.

  15. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.W. Njue (Carolyne); H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène); P. Remes (Pieter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya. Met

  16. [Body thermal status under low-temperature conditions in brewing production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva-Todorova, L; Dimitrova-Toneva, I

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to trace the thermal state of workers exposed to low temperatures in brewery production, establishing the heat loss and the stress of thermoregulation. The investigations are performed in the departments for fermentation, deposit, cask washing and filling of 3 brewery plants. In order to characterize the microclimate methods of thermometry, psychometry and catathermometry are used. The heat state is controlled by methods of subjective heat perception, skin temperature, average skin temperature, temperature gradients, oral, rectal and average body temperature and the thermal content. The results of the physiological examinations point out to significant loss, which affects not only the periphery but also the deep tissues. There is an expressed risk of supercooling of the organism. The data of the heat deficit impose a correction of the working clothes and limitation of the exposure.

  17. Characteristics of African traditional beers brewed with sorghum malt: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyumugabe, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sorghum beers are produced in several countries of Africa, but variations in the manufacturing process may occur depending on the geographic localization. These beers are very rich in calories, B-group vitamins including thiamine, folic acid, riboflavin and nicotinic acid, and essential amino acids such as lysine. However, the traditional sorghum beer is less attractive than Western beers because of its poorer hygienic quality, organoleptic variations and shorter shelf life. Research into the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional sorghum beers as well as their technologies have been performed and documented in several African countries. This review aims to summarize the production processes and compositional characteristics of African traditional sorghum beers (ikigage, merissa, doro, dolo, pito, amgba and tchoukoutou. It also highlights the major differences between these traditional beers and barley malt beer, consumed worldwide, and suggests adaptations that could be made to improve the production process of traditional sorghum beer.

  18. The Draft Genome of Hop (Humulus lupulus), an Essence for Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Satoshi; Takagi, Hiroki; Shiraishi, Akira; Murata, Jun; Toyonaga, Hiromi; Patzak, Josef; Takagi, Motoshige; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Uemura, Aiko; Mitsuoka, Chikako; Yoshida, Kentaro; Krofta, Karel; Satake, Honoo; Terauchi, Ryohei; Ono, Eiichiro

    2015-03-01

    The female flower of hop (Humulus lupulus var. lupulus) is an essential ingredient that gives characteristic aroma, bitterness and durability/stability to beer. However, the molecular genetic basis for identifying DNA markers in hop for breeding and to study its domestication has been poorly established. Here, we provide draft genomes for two hop cultivars [cv. Saazer (SZ) and cv. Shinshu Wase (SW)] and a Japanese wild hop [H. lupulus var. cordifolius; also known as Karahanasou (KR)]. Sequencing and de novo assembly of genomic DNA from heterozygous SW plants generated scaffolds with a total size of 2.05 Gb, corresponding to approximately 80% of the estimated genome size of hop (2.57 Gb). The scaffolds contained 41,228 putative protein-encoding genes. The genome sequences for SZ and KR were constructed by aligning their short sequence reads to the SW reference genome and then replacing the nucleotides at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. De novo RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of SW revealed the developmental regulation of genes involved in specialized metabolic processes that impact taste and flavor in beer. Application of a novel bioinformatics tool, phylogenetic comparative RNA-Seq (PCP-Seq), which is based on read depth of genomic DNAs and RNAs, enabled the identification of genes related to the biosynthesis of aromas and flavors that are enriched in SW compared to KR. Our results not only suggest the significance of historical human selection process for enhancing aroma and bitterness biosyntheses in hop cultivars, but also serve as crucial information for breeding varieties with high quality and yield.

  19. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines.

  20. 21家海外协会支持9月北京China Brew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪惟民

    2008-01-01

    9月北京ChinaBrew展得到了海外21家协会支持,他们是:印度食品加工协会(All India Food Processors’Association)、阿拉伯食品工业协会(Arab Federation for Food Industries)、亚洲及中东瓶装水协会(Asia & Middle East Bottled Water Association)、

  1. Nanolaser Spectroscopy of Genetically Engineered Yeast: New Tool for a Better Brew?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Paul L.; Hendricks, Judy K.; Naviaux, Robert K.; Yaffe, Michael P.

    2006-03-01

    A basic function of the cell membrane is to selectively uptake ions or molecules from its environment to concentrate them into the interior. This concentration difference results in an osmostic pressure difference across the membrane. Ultimately, this pressure and its fluctuation from cell to cell will be limited by the availability and fluctuations of the solute concentrations in solution, the extent of inter-cell communication, and the state of respiring intracellular mitochondria that fuel the process. To measure these fluctuations, we have employed a high-speed nanolaser technique that samples the osmotic pressure in individual yeast cells and isolated mitochondria. We analyzed 2 yeast cell strains, normal baker’s yeast and a genetically-altered version, that differ only by the presence of mitochondrial DNA. The absence of mitochondrial DNA results in the complete loss of all the mtDNA-encoded proteins and RNAs, and loss of the pigmented, heme-containing cytochromes. These cells have mitochondria, but the mitochondria lack most normal respiratory chain complexes. The frequency distributions in the nanolaser spectra produced by wild-type and modified cells and mitochondria show a striking shift from Gaussian to Poissonian distributions, revealing a powerful novel method for studying statistical physics of yeast.

  2. Oxidative reactions during early stages of beer brewing studied by electron spin resonance and spin trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Anne M; Festersen, Rikke M; Andersen, Mogens L

    2008-09-24

    An electron spin resonance (ESR)-based method was used for evaluating the levels of radical formation during mashing and in sweet wort. The method included the addition of 5% (v/v) ethanol together with the spin trap alpha-4-pyridyl(1-oxide)- N- tert-butylnitrone (POBN) to wort, followed by monitoring the rate of formation of POBN spin adducts during aerobic heating of the wort. The presence of ethanol makes the spin trapping method more selective and sensitive for the detection of highly reactive radicals such as hydroxyl and alkoxyl radicals. Samples of wort that were collected during the early stages of the mashing process gave higher rates of spin adduct formation than wort samples collected during the later stages. The lower oxidative stability of the early wort samples was confirmed by measuring the rate of oxygen consumption during heating of the wort. The addition of Fe(II) to the wort samples increased the rate of spin adduct formation, whereas the addition of Fe(II) during the mashing had no effect on the oxidative stability of the wort samples. Analysis of the iron content in the sweet wort samples demonstrated that iron added during the mashing had no effect on the iron level in the wort. The moderate temperatures during the early steps of mashing allow the endogenous malt enzymes to be active. The potential antioxidative effects of different redox-active enzymes during mashing were tested by measuring the rate of spin adduct formation in samples of wort. Surprisingly, a high catalase dosage caused a significant, 20% reduction of the initial rate of radical formation, whereas superoxide dismutase had no effect on the oxidation rates. This suggests that hydrogen peroxide and superoxide are not the only intermediates that play a role in the oxidative reactions occurring during aerobic oxidation of sweet wort.

  3. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Njue, C.; Voeten, H.A.C.M.; Remes, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya\\ud \\ud Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time.\\ud \\ud Results: Porn video...

  4. Research Regarding High Gravity Brewing in the Pilot Station USAMV Cluj-Napoca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Borsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present preliminary research results obtained while developing and implementing a high gravity beer fermentation process. Production trials were performed in brewery pilot plant from University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Food Science and Technology. The tehnological parameters were adapted and monitored during the making.

  5. Research Regarding High Gravity Brewing in the Pilot Station USAMV Cluj-Napoca

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Borsa; Elena Mudura; Vlad Vasile Hadarean Munteanu; Sevastita Muste; Andruta Cerbu (Muresan); Romina Vlaic

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to present preliminary research results obtained while developing and implementing a high gravity beer fermentation process. Production trials were performed in brewery pilot plant from University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Food Science and Technology. The tehnological parameters were adapted and monitored during the making.

  6. Maltotriose utilization of lager yeast strains in high-gravity brewing

    OpenAIRE

    Dietvorst, Judith

    2006-01-01

    Een nieuwe ontwikkeling in de bierbrouwerij is het gebruik van hogere wortconcentraties in een proces dat ‘high-gravity brewing’ wordt genoemd. Dit proces heeft als voordeel dat het de produktiviteit van de brouwerij verhoogt. Een nadeel is echter dat door de hogere suikerconcentraties de capaciteit van gist om deze suikers om te zetten in alcohol afneemt. In het bijzonder maltotriose, na maltose de meest voorkomende fermenteerbare suiker in wort, wordt als gevolg van de afgenomen capaciteit ...

  7. Maltotriose utilization of lager yeast strains in high-gravity brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietvorst, Judith

    2006-01-01

    Een nieuwe ontwikkeling in de bierbrouwerij is het gebruik van hogere wortconcentraties in een proces dat ‘high-gravity brewing’ wordt genoemd. Dit proces heeft als voordeel dat het de produktiviteit van de brouwerij verhoogt. Een nadeel is echter dat door de hogere suikerconcentraties de capaciteit

  8. Improvement of the ethanol productivity in a high gravity brewing at pilot plant scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragone, Giuliano; Silva, Daniel P; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista; de Almeida Lima, Urgel

    2003-07-01

    A 23 full factorial design was used to study the influence of different experimental variables, namely wort gravity, fermentation temperature and nutrient supplementation, on ethanol productivity from high gravity wort fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lager strain), under pilot plant conditions. The highest ethanol productivity (0.69 g l(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at 20 degrees P [degrees P is the weight of extract (sugar) equivalent to the weight of sucrose in a 100 g solution at 20 degrees C], 15 degrees C, with the addition of 0.8% (w/v) yeast extract, 24 mg l(-1) ergosterol and 0.24% (v/v) Tween 80.

  9. Computer epistemology a treatise on the feasibility of the unfeasible or old ideas brewed new

    CERN Document Server

    Vámos, Tibor

    1991-01-01

    This book is an essay on relevant problems of epistemology (the theory of knowledge) related to computer science. It draws a continuous line between the earliest scientific approaches of epistemology, starting with the Greek Classics and the recent practical and theoretical problems of computer modelling, and by that the appropriate application of computers to our present problems. Uncertainty, logic and language are the key issues of this road leading to some new aspects of cognitive psychology and unification of the different results for a modelling procedure. The book is not a textbook but

  10. Trouble Brewing: Using Observations of Invariant Behavior to Detect Malicious Agency in Distributed Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Thomas Richard; Wolthusen, Stephen D.

    Recent research on intrusion detection in supervisory data acquisition and control (SCADA) and DCS systems has focused on anomaly detection at protocol level based on the well-defined nature of traffic on such networks. Here, we consider attacks which compromise sensors or actuators (including physical manipulation), where intrusion may not be readily apparent as data and computational states can be controlled to give an appearance of normality, and sensor and control systems have limited accuracy. To counter these, we propose to consider indirect relations between sensor readings to detect such attacks through concurrent observations as determined by control laws and constraints.

  11. Discipline Issues: Is There a Tempest Brewing in B.C. Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Educational policy in British Columbia does not distinguish between special needs and regular class students in relation to discipline practices. Although Canadian courts have generally upheld the rights of school boards rather than the unspecified rights of special needs children, a recent court case suggests the possibility of change. (JW)

  12. Brewing Service Quality in Higher Education: Characteristics of Ingredients that Make up the Recipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Roland K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to explore the influences of service quality in higher education and the perceptions associated with the implementation of a Singapore tertiary institution. It draws on the underpinnings of SERVQUAL, and discusses the dichotomy and interrelation between customer perception and expectation. Design/methodology/approach:…

  13. "Betwixt Brewings": A History of College Students and Alcohol, 1820-1933

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevel, Michael Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation offers a history of white college students' relationship with alcohol between 1820 and 1933. The years that frame this study represent a long crisis regarding alcohol in the United States. A dramatic rise in alcohol consumption began around 1800, the negative consequences of which led growing numbers of Americans, for the first…

  14. Effect of induced lodging on grain yield and quality of brewing barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lodging is one of the main factors of constraint to grain yield stability in barley. The objective of this study wasto evaluate the effects of lodging on agronomic and qualitative traits, when induced at different stages of the crop development.The trial was carried out in Victor Graeff, RS, using a randomized complete block design with four replications and 3 factors:year, lodging date and lodging intensity. The analyzed parameters were grain yield (GY, kernel plumpness (KP, germination(G, and score of lodging at harvest (SLH. No significant interaction was observed for GY and G. The effects of inducedlodging at the booting and physiologic maturity stages were distinct for GY, KP and G. Unlike G, the variables GY and KPwere not significantly affected by lodging intensity. Quantitative and qualitative losses in barley can be predicted based onlodging.

  15. Brewing Bokashi: Strengthening Student Skills in Dilution Theory through Fermentation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Zdor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic microbiological techniques that students should master is that of using dilution theory to calculate the levels of bacteria in a fluid. This tip reports on using a rice water-milk fermentation mixture termed Bokashi as an easily implemented exercise in the basic microbiological lab to give students multiple opportunities to use dilution theory. Due to the shifts in bacterial community composition over time, a variety of microbes can be cultured using selective and nonselective media. Microscopic observation and the use of GEN III microplates to determine the collective phenotypic pattern of the mixture both give additional opportunities for students to hone their skills in bacterial analysis. Due to the decrease in the pH of the mixture over time, the notion of acid tolerance in bacteria can be explored and assessed using the microplate. By performing multiple rounds of serial dilutions and spread plating, students can practice their skill at using dilution theory several times over the course of the exercise.

  16. Brewing Business vs Brewers' Identities (Culture - Equilibrium Factor between European Identity and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Frosin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available If ever rough or severe, this title got right to the bottom of the question of the cultural diversity and the world nation’s identity, it points at the very truth: the businessmen and the financial oligarchy think they can get away with anything! They don’t give a damn about culture of the European or every other identity… We choose an example about how they make fun of these very serious questions, and we gave our commentary on this difficult (or tricky? problem. A text enacted by UNESCO contradicts itself because of a blunder, that we shall reveal in our report. Finally, they betray themselves, since they speak of (just for a laugh… cultural goods, cultural industry or cultural products and so on… Naturally, a question arises: do they have anything to do with the Culture?!

  17. The Science of Solubility: Using Reverse Engineering to Brew a Perfect Cup of Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Andrew B.; Sickel, Aaron J.; Cribbs, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards call for the integration of science and engineering. Often, the introduction of engineering activities occurs after instruction in the science content. That is, engineering is used as a way for students to elaborate on science ideas that have already been explored. However, using only this sequence of…

  18. Interactions between major chlorogenic acid isomers and chemical changes in coffee brew that affect antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Xue, Wei; Kennepohl, Pierre; Kitts, David D

    2016-12-15

    Coffee bean source and roasting conditions significantly (pcoffee. CGA isomer content was positively correlated (pcoffee to reduce nitric oxide and scavenge Frémy's salt. Indices of browning in roasted coffee were positively correlated (pcoffee corresponded to intracellular antioxidant capacity measured in Caco-2 intestinal cells. This study concluded that the intracellular antioxidant capacity that best describes potential health benefits of coffee positively corresponds best with CGA content.

  19. The effect of dewaxing of green coffee on the coffee brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegen, G.H.D. van der

    1979-01-01

    The two commercially most important mild treatments for green coffee are the steam treatment and the dewaxing process. In the former treatment the green coffee is just steamed. In the dewaxing process the waxy layer is extracted from the green coffee with an organic solvent, after which this coffee

  20. Does the Pot Melt, Boil, or Brew? Black Children and White Assessment Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Geneva; Abrahams, Roger D.

    1973-01-01

    The performance of black youths in educational and psychological testing situations cannot be assessed adequately without consideration of their particular attitudes, perceptions, and behavioral patterns. The authors discuss Blacks' attitudes toward whites, systems of time allocations, expressions of identity, attitudes toward learning,…

  1. Stepping out of the Academic Brew: Using Critical Research to Break Down Hierarchies of Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Tricia M.

    2011-01-01

    Critical theory and critical research are undeniably useful for revealing oppressive social structures and challenging the status quo in the realm of grand theory; yet, they are also useful for creating knowledge structures when academics deploy them on the ground. This article explores how critical theory and critical research can be used to…

  2. What's Inside That Seed We Brew? A New Approach To Mining the Coffee Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Michael Joe; Mitchell, Thomas; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B

    2015-10-01

    Coffee is a critically important agricultural commodity for many tropical states and is a beverage enjoyed by millions of people worldwide. Recent concerns over the sustainability of coffee production have prompted investigations of the coffee microbiome as a tool to improve crop health and bean quality. This review synthesizes literature informing our knowledge of the coffee microbiome, with an emphasis on applications of fruit- and seed-associated microbes in coffee production and processing. A comprehensive inventory of microbial species cited in association with coffee fruits and seeds is presented as reference tool for researchers investigating coffee-microbe associations. It concludes with a discussion of the approaches and techniques that provide a path forward to improve our understanding of the coffee microbiome and its utility, as a whole and as individual components, to help ensure the future sustainability of coffee production.

  3. XAS spectroscopy, sulfur, and the brew within blood cells from Ascidia ceratodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Patrick; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O

    2014-02-01

    We report the first use of K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as a direct spectroscopic probe of pH and cytosolic emf within living cells. A new accuracy metric of model-based fits to K-edge spectra is further developed. Sulfur functional groups in three collections of living blood cells and one sample of cleared blood plasma from the tunicate Ascidia ceratodes were speciated using K-edge XAS. Cysteine and cystine, the preferred thiol-disulfide model, averaged about 12% of total sulfur. Sulfate monoesters and cyclic diesters unexpectedly constituted 36% of blood cell sulfur. Soluble sulfate averaged about 25% across the three blood cell samples, while the ratio of SO4(2-) to HSO4(-) implied average signet ring vacuolar pH values of 0.85, 1.4, or 3.1. Intracellular (VSO4)(+) was unobserved, while [V(RSO3)n]((3-n)+) was detected in the two lowest pH blood cell samples. About 5% of sulfur was distributed as mono- or dibenzothiophene or ethylene-epi-sulfide, or as a thiadiazole reminiscent of the polycarpathiamines. Blood plasma was dominated by sulfate (83%), but with 15% of an alkylsulfate ester and about 2% of low-valent sulfur. Gravimetric analysis of soluble sulfate yielded average concentrations of blood cell sulfur. Average [cysteine] and [cystine] (ranging ~10-30 mM and ~20-90 mM, respectively) implied blood-cell cytosolic emf values of approximately -0.20 V. High cellular [cysteine] is consistent with the proposed model for enzymatic reduction of vanadate by endogenous thiol, wherein the trajectory of metal site-symmetry is controlled and directed through to a thermodynamically favored 7-coordinate V(III) product.

  4. Influence of coffee brew in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, Sheila Andrade; Pereira, Rosemary Gualberto Fonseca Alvarenga; de Sousa, Raimundo Vicente; Lima, Adriene Ribeiro; Crema, Gabriela Previatti; Barros, Bianca Sacramento

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of coffee drinking on clinical markers of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in Zucker rats. Diabetic Zucker rats with metabolic syndrome and control Zucker rats were used for in vivo tests. The animals received daily doses of coffee drink by gavage for 30 days. After the treatment, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions, creatinine, uric acid, activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were evaluated. Urea and creatinine levels were also analyzed in urine. By collaborating in the modulation of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus type 2, coffee drink helped in reducing serum glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. The results demonstrate that treatment with roasted coffee drink, because of its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect, is efficient in the protection of animals with metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus type 2.

  5. 酿造水对低度啤酒质量的影响——诠释红石梁的酿造用水%Effect of Brewing Water on Low Gravity Beer: Brewing Water of Red Shiliang Beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱保方

    2006-01-01

    近来低浓度啤酒在中国较受欢迎,尤其在南方地区更为突出.但是随着原麦汁浓度的降低,啤酒的各种异杂味易露头,因此酿造用水的质量对低度啤酒的口感起着非常重要的作用.通过对酿造水的改良,可以解决低度啤酒质量中遇到的口感酸涩、非生物稳定性差等一些技术难题,提高啤酒质量.

  6. Selection of brewing yeast with glucose repression resistance under the very high gravity brewing%超高浓酿造下抗葡萄糖阻遏啤酒酵母的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚欣; 孙军勇; 陆健

    2012-01-01

    According to real fermentation degree of high gravity brewing(16°P),yeast C12 was chosen as original strain.Yeast CM23 which was resistant to glucose repression was indentified through the steps of domestication with 2-deoxy-D-glucose(2-DOG),isolation of%根据高浓发酵下(16°P)发酵度的高低,挑选下面啤酒酵母C12作为出发菌株。经过2-去氧-D-葡萄糖的定向驯养、抗性平板分离初筛以及复筛验证等步骤,筛选出一株抗葡萄糖阻遏效应的菌株CM23。将该菌株在18°P麦汁15℃条件下进行3L的EBC小型啤酒发酵实验并测定发酵指标。结果表明:与出发菌株相比,CM23的降糖速度提高了37%,达到1.8°P/d,真正发酵度达到66%,且双乙酰还原能力以及啤酒中主要风味物质含量基本不变。CM23是一株具有工业应用前景的啤酒超高浓酿造酵母菌株。

  7. Selection of brewing yeast with glucose repression resistance under the very high gravity brewing (18°P)%18°P高浓酿造抗葡萄糖阻遏效应啤酒酵母的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭立芸

    2015-01-01

    首先通过在18°P超高浓麦汁中对燕京酵母YJ0002进行定向驯化,确定适应该浓度生长的出发菌株,经过2-脱氧-D-葡萄糖梯度培养、抗性平板分离初筛以及复筛,采用高通量法筛选出2株抗葡萄糖阻遏效应的适于高浓酿造的啤酒酵母,并进行100 L微酿啤酒发酵实验,测定其发酵性能指标.实验结果表明:驯化代数为C8的菌株对数期酵母数和酵母细胞活性良好,确定其为出发菌株;与初始菌株YJ002相比,驯化菌株菌落大,且细胞形态饱满,经高通量筛选后优良菌株G2和G9可耐受高达13%的酒精浓度,在18°P 100 L微酿发酵中,发酵初期酒精含量提高10.52%和14.24%,发酵速率提高10.96%和15.11%,分别缩短发酵时间42 h和50 h,发酵度提高了6%和7%,且驯化菌株G2和G9生产的啤酒表现出较低浓度的乙酸乙酯和适宜浓度的高级醇,啤酒的口感较YJ0002有了显著的改善.

  8. Study on Brewing Technique of Onion Vinegar%洋葱醋的酿造工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建华

    2014-01-01

    This experiment takes the onion juice as the main raw material,using the grape wine yeast 1450 and acetic acid bacteria As1.41 to carry out the liquid-state alcohol fermentation and the acetic fermentation.The result shows that the optimum condition of alcohol fermentation is the initial sugar concentration of 1 1%,the fermentation temperature of 26 ℃,the yeast vaccination quantity of 5%;the optimum condition of acetic acid fermentation is the initial alcoholicity of 6% (V/V ), the fermentation temperature of 30 ℃,the acetic acid bacteria vaccination quantity of 10%.%以洋葱汁为主要原料,分别采用葡萄酒酵母1450和醋酸菌 As1.41进行液态酒精发酵和醋酸发酵。试验结果表明:酒精发酵的最佳条件为起始糖浓度11%,发酵温度26℃,酵母接种量5%;醋酸发酵起始酒精度6%(V/V),发酵温度30℃,醋酸菌培养液接种量10%。

  9. 麦芽酚在啤酒生产中的应用%Application of Maltol in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董红伟; 武春梅; 李艺频

    2001-01-01

    麦芽酚和乙基麦芽酚作为提香剂和口味改良剂广泛应用于食品工业中,介绍了麦芽酚和乙基麦芽酚的结构和性质,及它们在黑啤酒生产和果啤生产中的应用,探讨其对改善黑啤酒及果啤风味及抑制苦味和异味的作用.

  10. 黑啤酒酿制方法的改进%A Study on Black Beer Brew Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左永泉

    2002-01-01

    为适应啤酒市场竞争和变化的需要,对传统的黑啤酒生产工艺进行改进,采用浅色麦芽、焦香麦芽和大米等为主要原料,经一次煮出糖化和低温发酵,结合后修饰技术,可酿制出具有焦香浓郁、口味醇厚、风味独特的黑啤酒.本文对黑啤酒酿制中原料配比和有关工艺要点进行了探讨.

  11. 啤酒生产过程中双乙酰的控制%Management of Biacetyl in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绒

    2002-01-01

    在发酵过程中,筛选分离提高双乙酰的酵母变异菌株,提高其对双乙酰的还原速率;提高发酵温度,增加通风搅拌,降低麦汁的pH值,以加速α-乙酰乳酸的分解速度;在主酵中添加α-乙酰乳酸脱羧酶、利用CO2洗涤、添加抗坏血酸(Vc)等控制双乙酰.(庞晓)

  12. 高纯食品鞣酸在啤酒中的应用%Application of Tannin in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡鹏刚; 刘强

    2004-01-01

    在啤酒的生产过程中添加高纯食品鞣酸可除去啤酒中的敏感蛋白、金属离子和多酚物质,可降低啤酒的浊度,提高啤酒的胶体稳定性,延长啤酒的保质期.实验表明,在过滤时加入鞣酸最好,最佳添加量为20mg/L.鞣酸为提高啤酒非生物和风味稳定性最好的稳定剂.(孙悟)

  13. 酶制剂在啤酒酿造中的应用%Application of Enzyme Preparation in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余有贵; 杨再云

    2004-01-01

    从啤酒酿造中外加酶制剂的主要种类及其作用机理、作用、影响因素、使用原则和应用趋势等方面着手,阐述了酶制剂给啤酒工业的快速发展提供了崭新的平台.啤酒酿造中采用提高辅料比和外加酶制剂相结合的生产新工艺,正日益受到世界各国啤酒行业的重视.

  14. Technical Equilibrium in Beer Brewing Control%啤酒生产控制中的工艺平衡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇

    2008-01-01

    通过对啤酒胶体稳定性、风味稳定性、泡沫、风味特点以及成本和质量之间的一些相互矛盾分析,提出在啤酒生产控制中应根据原料质量、成本目标、风味特点或消费者需求,品质及品质侧重需要等因素,采取工艺平衡的措施.

  15. Application of Carrageenin in Beer Brewing%卡拉胶在啤酒生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲玲

    2005-01-01

    引起啤酒非生物混浊的成分包括:蛋白质、多酚物质、无机盐、碳水化合物以及某些金属离子等.卡拉胶是啤酒酿造过程中比较理想的澄清剂.在麦汁煮沸结束前10min添加卡拉胶,能改善麦汁外观质量;加快麦汁过滤速度;吨酒耗硅藻土量可节省20%左右;水耗、电耗下降5%左右.酿制出的啤酒各项理化指标均符合国家或企业标准.(孙悟)

  16. Health Food Spiral Alga and Beer Brewing%保健食品螺旋藻与啤酒酿造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任永新; 崔进梅

    2004-01-01

    螺旋藻含有丰富的蛋白质、叶绿素、γ-亚麻酸、β-胡萝卜素和维生素,并富含锌、铁、钾、钙、镁、硒、碘、磷等微量元素及矿物质和人体必需的8种氨基酸.螺旋藻对人体生理和免疫具有重要的保健作用.在啤酒生产中,螺旋藻的加入方式有煮沸时添加、麦汁冷却过程加入、在清酒中加入.螺旋藻的添加量为:酵母啤酒的添加量为0.4%~0.5%;过滤啤酒的添加量为0.2%~0.3%.(孙悟)

  17. 现代啤酒酿造用酶%Recent trend of enzyme preparation in beer brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余有贵; 杨再云

    2004-01-01

    啤酒是我国发展最快的酒类,随着啤酒工业迅猛发展,啤酒生产所用麦芽的价格不断上涨,造成生产成本大大提高;同时,啤酒生产也受到麦芽的糖化力、麦汁的粘度和发酵度等因素不同程度的制约。为了降低生产成本、提高产量和稳定品质,在啤酒酿造中采用提高辅料比和外加酶制剂相结合的生产新工艺,正日益受到世界各国啤酒行业的重视。

  18. The Brewed Rice Vinegar Kurozu Increases HSPA1A Expression and Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction in Aged P8 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kanouchi

    Full Text Available Kurozu is a traditional Japanese rice vinegar. During fermentation and aging of the Kurozu liquid in an earthenware jar over 1 year, a solid residue called Kurozu Moromi is produced. In the present study, we evaluated whether concentrated Kurozu or Kurozu Moromi could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in the senescence-accelerated P8 mouse. Senescence-accelerated P8 mice were fed 0.25% (w/w concentrated Kurozu or 0.5% (w/w Kurozu Moromi for 4 or 25 weeks. Kurozu suppressed cognitive dysfunction and amyloid accumulation in the brain, while Kurozu Moromi showed a tendency to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, but the effect was not significant. We hypothesize that concentrated Kurozu has an antioxidant effect; however, the level of lipid peroxidation in the brain did not differ in senescence-accelerated P8 mice. DNA microarray analysis indicated that concentrated Kurozu increased HSPA1A mRNA expression, a protein that prevents protein misfolding and aggregation. The increase in HSPA1A expression by Kurozu was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting methods. The suppression of amyloid accumulation by concentrated Kurozu may be associated with HSPA1A induction. However, concentrated Kurozu could not increase HSPA1A expression in mouse primary neurons, suggesting it may not directly affect neurons.

  19. Selection of Brewing Yeasts for Mead%蜂蜜酒酿造酵母的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 艾遥琴; 李从发; 陈文学

    2014-01-01

    蜂蜜酒是通过酵母菌在稀释的蜂蜜液中发酵而成的一种传统酒。对4种活性干酵母EC1118、安琪、DV10、 D254的发酵特性进行研究,比较4种干酵母在蜂蜜稀释液中的产气能力、产酒精能力、产香能力,并对其酒精耐受性、酸耐受性、SO2耐受性等3个方面进行综合比较,筛选出酿造蜂蜜酒的优良菌种。结果表明,EC1118发酵能力、产香能力强,耐受性强,适合用于蜂蜜发酵。%Mead is a traditional drink, which results from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey carried out by yeasts. Four active dry yeasts, namely EC1118, Angel Yeast, DV10, D254 were studied. The gas producing, flavor producing and ethanol production ability were determined to compare their differences. These yeasts were also evaluated in terms of their fermentation performance under ethanol, sulfur dioxide and acidity. The results obtained in this work show that EC1118, are appropriate for mead production. This strain exhibited powerful gas producing, good flavor and better fermentation capabilities.

  20. Study on the Brewing Technologies of Jujube with Honey Wine%枣蜜酒酿制工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑶; 曾丽丽; 廖春燕; 廖兰

    2012-01-01

    研究了以无核干红枣为原料发酵生产枣酒的工艺条件。试验结果表明加水量为枣质量的6倍时,浸提水温80℃处理1 h,微波炉800 W功率热处理12 min可得优质红枣汁。红枣汁用白砂糖调整至可溶性固体物(SSC)为20%,灭菌后冷却加入NaHSO3 60 mg/L,接入体积分数为2.5%的酒精酵母菌液,28℃发酵4d,过滤澄清后加入蜂蜜调制,冷藏处理后可得风格独特的枣蜜酒。%The fermentation technologies of jujube wine were studied.The results showed that adding water as 6 times as the weight of dried red dates,immersing for 1 h at 80 ℃ then dealing for 12 min in the cooker fire of 800 W,got red dates juice.Adjusting the juice with sugar to 20% SSC,cooling and adding NaHSO3 60 mg/L after sterilization,inoculating yeast concentration in 2.5%(V/V),fermenting at 28 ℃ for 4 d,blending honey after filtering and clarify processing,so that got jujube with honey wine of specific style.

  1. Critical trace elements in brewing technology. Pt. 2. Occurrence of arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury and selenium in beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donhauser, S.; Wagner, D.; Jacob, F.

    1987-01-01

    A study of 100 beer samples gave a representative cross-section of the amount of critical trace elements in beers. The following average values were obtained. Arsenic 6,4 ..mu..g/l, chromium 7,5 ..mu..g/l, lead 1,6 ..mu..g/l, mercury < 0,5 ..mu..g/l, cadmium 0,2 ..mu..g/l, selenium 1,2 ..mu..g/l. The drinking water limit value was just exceeded with two beers and by more than two-fold with one beer. The concentration of elements in the other beers were mostly well below the legal norm of the drinking water regulations. Separation of the samples according to beer container showed no significant difference with respect to trace element content between glass bottles and cans. Only 3 piece tinplate cans with a soldered body seam, which must have been damaged, contained beer with higher lead values. The trace element content of individual beer types did not differ from one another. An evaluation of the weakly intake of thee critical elements in beer, using these measured values, shows no cause for concern about health. (orig.)

  2. Encapsulation of brewing yeast in alginate/chitosan matrix: lab-scale optimization of lager beer fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenova, Vessela; Badova, Mariyana; Vassilev, Stoyan; Iliev, Vasil; Kaneva, Maria; Kostov, Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Two mathematical models were developed for studying the effect of main fermentation temperature (T MF), immobilized cell mass (M IC) and original wort extract (OE) on beer fermentation with alginate-chitosan microcapsules with a liquid core. During the experiments, the investigated parameters were varied in order to find the optimal conditions for beer fermentation with immobilized cells. The basic beer characteristics, i.e. extract, ethanol, biomass concentration, pH and colour, as well as the concentration of aldehydes and vicinal diketones, were measured. The results suggested that the process parameters represented a powerful tool in controlling the fermentation time. Subsequently, the optimized process parameters were used to produce beer in laboratory batch fermentation. The system productivity was also investigated and the data were used for the development of another mathematical model. PMID:26019512

  3. Study on Brewing Technique of Taro Vinegar%芋头醋酿造工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华东; 丁宏武; 余兆硕; 吕雯姣; 黄宏伟; 麻成金

    2016-01-01

    Taro of West Hunan was used as raw material to develop new vinegar, its fermentation conditions were explored and optimized.By single factor and orthogonal experiments, the table speed, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and acetic acid bacteria inoculation quantity of taro vinegar acetic acid fermentation were studied.The effects of taro vinegar fermentation optimization of process conditions were determined as follows: table speed of 140 r/min, fermentation time of 7 d, fermentation temperature of 32 ℃, with 0.8% acetic acid bacteria inoculation quantity.Under the conditions of the optimization, yellow and nutrient-rich taro vinegar was produced with acid production of 3.96 g /100 mL and strong fragrance.%以湖南西部芋头为原料开发新型醋,通过单因素试验探讨摇床转速、发酵时间、发酵温度以及醋酸菌接种量对芋头醋醋酸发酵的影响,并采用正交试验法优化芋头醋酿造工艺参数。实验表明,芋头醋发酵的最佳工艺条件为:摇床转速140 r/min,发酵时间为7 d,发酵温度32℃,醋酸菌接种量0.8%。在此条件下得到产酸量为3.96 g/100 mL,淡黄色,香气浓郁,营养丰富的芋头酿造醋。

  4. Study on Brewing Technology of Pomegranate Fruit Vinegar%石榴果醋酿造工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛海燕; 陈祥贵; 陈玲琳; 黄明亚; 张良

    2013-01-01

    以新鲜石榴汁为原料,通过单因素试验和正交试验探讨了石榴果醋酿造的最佳工艺条件.结果表明:酒精发酵最佳工艺条件为发酵温度30℃,酵母菌接种量0.07%,发酵时间5天.醋酸发酵的优化工艺条件为醋酸菌接种量10%,发酵温度28℃,初始酒精度7%.配制的石榴果醋饮料色泽棕红,无沉淀物,酸味柔和,具有石榴果醋特有的醋香气.%Using fresh pomegranate juice as material,the optimal fermentation conditions are studied by single-factor and orthogonal experiments.The results show that the optimal conditions for alcohol fermentation are at 30 ℃ for 5 days with 0.07 % inoculation volume of yeast.The optimal conditions for acetic fermentation are at 28 ℃ with the initial alcoholic concentration of 7% and 10% inoculation volume of acetic acid bacteria.The flavored pomegranate fruit vinegar with brown color,gentle sour taste and unique aroma but no precipitate is obtained under the optimum conditions.

  5. Research on brewing technique of purple potato vinegar%紫薯醋酿造工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林顺; 熊汉国; 涂艳华

    2015-01-01

    Purple potato as raw material was used to produce purple potato vinegar by submerged fermentation after enzymol‐ysis .The results showed that :at 30℃ ,the optimal conditions of alcoholic fermentation was as:initial pH5 ,initial sugar 14% , yeast amount 0 .2 g/(100 ml);the optimal conditions of acetic fermentation was as :initial alcohol content 6% ,acetobacter addi‐tion amount 18% ,volume‐loading 50% .The results had a certain guiding significance for the industrialization of vinegar pro‐duction with potato starch material .%以紫薯为原料,进行酶解处理,再利用液态深层发酵的方法生产紫薯醋,研究了紫薯醋酿造的最佳发酵工艺,结果显示,在温度30℃下,酒精发酵最佳条件为:初始pH5、初始糖度14%、酵母添加量0.2 g/(100 ml);醋酸发酵最佳条件为:初始酒精度为6%、菌种添加量18%、装瓶量50%,对以薯类等淀粉基原料进行醋的工业化生产具有一定指导意义。

  6. Study on Brewing Procession of Tomato Vinegar%番茄果醋酿制工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雁; 谢晶; 金晨钟; 高晴晴; 高芬

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes were used as the main raw material,the production technology of tomato vinegar were studied.The conditions of acetic fermentation of tomato vinegar were optimized.The optimal conditions were as followsinoculums of 8%,temperature of 34℃,initial pH value of 3,after ageing and cleaning,the tomato fruit vinegar drink of admirable quality could be obtained.%以番茄为主原料,对番茄果醋的酿制工艺进行研究。对番茄果醋醋酸发酵最适条件进行了优化,确定适宜的条件为接种量8%,温度34℃,初始pH值为3,经过澄清调配最后得到品质优良的番茄果醋饮料。

  7. Screening of brewing yeasts for blueberry wine%蓝莓酒酿造酵母的筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖禹含; 张东升; 李亚东; 辛秀兰; 王彦辉

    2010-01-01

    研究了3株酵母菌在蓝莓酒发酵过程中的生长速率、总糖、总酸和酒精度等理化指标的变化规律,并对蓝莓酒进行感官评定,筛选出酿造蓝莓酒的优良菌株.结果表明,酿酒酵母1203生长繁殖快,酸度小,降糖和产酒精能力强.其果汁发酵结束后总糖为5.6 g/L,总酸8.37g/L,酒精度12.2%vol,感官评分得分93分.确定酿酒酵母1203为蓝莓酒酿造的优良菌株.

  8. 西番莲酿酒工艺初探%Study on Passion Fruit and Orange Brewing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔丹琪

    2016-01-01

    本文研究西番莲的酿酒工艺,通过不同配方比的组合,测定其理化指标,最后采用感官评定及单因素的方差分析确定产品的最佳制作方案.通过各种理化指标,感官评定及单因素方差分析表明,西番莲果汁的独立酿酒中,15%的西番莲果汁酿成的酒相对比较理想.而加入甜橙汁后,果汁含量为30%,甜橙占75%的时候,酿出的酒评价更高.通过前人的试验,已确定了发酵温度,混合果汁的pH值,糖质量浓度以及亚硫酸的添加量.因此,本实验是通过调整果汁比例,由经过基本专业培训的评定人员对产品进行感官评分,并对其结果进行单因素方差分析,最后得出方案.而最终结果显示产品最优方案为果汁比为30%,其中西番莲汁25%,甜橙汁占75%,发酵温度为20℃,发酵前混合果汁的pH值为3.8,可溶性固形物为22%,亚硫酸的添加量为80 mg/L.

  9. The Microbiological Contamination in Beer Brewing%啤酒酿造中的微生物污染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树庆

    2008-01-01

    由于啤酒酿造的环境条件,如营养丰富的麦芽汁、发酵过程中酵母产生的生长因子以及较长的发酵时间等非常适宜于微生物的生长,所以在啤酒酿造中许多环节都存在微生物污染的可能性.啤酒酿造过程中的微生物污染不仅会影响产品的质量,严重时还会给啤酒生产厂家造成一定的经济损失.介绍了啤酒酿造过程中的污染微生物的种类、来源以及对啤酒质量的影响.通过了解啤酒酿造中微生物的污染情况,可以有助于我们生产高质量的啤酒产品.

  10. Recent Developments in High Gravity Brewing%高浓酿造技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万永泉; 于世敏

    2002-01-01

    高浓酿造技术的主要优点是通过有效降低糖化用水,仅利用现有糖化、发酵和储存设备即可大幅度提高啤酒产量.缺点包括:降低糖化锅原料及煮沸锅酒花利用率、泡沫稳定性下降、酸洗效应、降低酵母存活率、酵母回用代数下降以及需要及时调整麦汁中二价离子的浓度.

  11. A Study on High Gravity Brewing of Beer%啤酒高浓酿造的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙向军; 姚晓敏

    2001-01-01

    探讨了高麦汁浓度对酵母生长发酵的影响,研究了麦汁溶氧对酵母生长发酵的促进作用.实验结果表明:随着麦汁浓度的增加,酵母糖降速率明显降低;相同浓度的麦汁,α-氨基酸含量低,酵母糖降速率下降;α-氨基氮含量高,酵母增殖密度明显增加,但单位α-氨基氮生成酵母细胞干重降低,即增加的α-氨基氮未被充分用于生成酵母细胞;充入纯氧能显著提高麦汁的饱和溶氧量,采用二次充氧比一次充氧能够显著提高啤酒发酵度,并缩短发酵时间.

  12. Next-generation sequencing analysis of lager brewing yeast strains reveals the evolutionary history of interspecies hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Miki; Kajitani, Rei; Ryusui, Rie; Morimoto, Hiroya; Kodama, Yukiko; Itoh, Takehiko

    2016-02-01

    The lager beer yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus is considered an allopolyploid hybrid species between S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus. Many S. pastorianus strains have been isolated and classified into two groups according to geographical origin, but this classification remains controversial. Hybridization analyses and partial PCR-based sequence data have indicated a separate origin of these two groups, whereas a recent intertranslocation analysis suggested a single origin. To clarify the evolutionary history of this species, we analysed 10 S. pastorianus strains and the S. eubayanus type strain as a likely parent by Illumina next-generation sequencing. In addition to assembling the genomes of five of the strains, we obtained information on interchromosomal translocation, ploidy, and single-nucleotide variants (SNVs). Collectively, these results indicated that the two groups of strains share S. cerevisiae haploid chromosomes. We therefore conclude that both groups of S. pastorianus strains share at least one interspecific hybridization event and originated from a common parental species and that differences in ploidy and SNVs between the groups can be explained by chromosomal deletion or loss of heterozygosity.

  13. Torulaspora delbrueckii in the brewing process: A new approach to enhance bioflavour and to reduce ethanol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Laura; Agarbati, Alice; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, consumers require fermented alcoholic beverages with particular and enhanced flavour profiles while avoiding the health concerns due to high ethanol content. Here, the use of Torulaspora delbrueckii was evaluated for beer production, in both pure and in mixed cultures with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter strain (US-05). The yeast interactions were also evaluated. In mixed fermentations with S. cerevisiae, the main analytical characters from T. delbrueckii were comparable with those of the S. cerevisiae starter strain, but the beers were characterized by a distinctive overall analytical and aromatic profile. Indeed, there were interactions between S. cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii, with enhanced ethyl hexanoate (0.048 mg l(-1)) and ethyl octaonate (0.014 mg l(-1)) levels at the 1:20 and 1:10 inoculation ratios, respectively; while phenyl ethyl acetate increased in all mix combinations. The presence of T. delbrueckii resulted in reduced β-phenyl ethanol and isoamyl acetate levels, which are responsible for floral and fruity aromas, respectively. Beer produced with T. delbrueckii pure cultures had a low alcohol content (2.66%; v/v), while also showing a particularly analytical and aromatic profile.

  14. A brewing understanding of the regulation of Bax function by Bcl-xL and Bcl-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Thibaud T; Dejean, Laurent M; Manon, Stéphen

    2017-01-01

    Bcl-2 family members form a network of protein-protein interactions that regulate apoptosis through permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Deciphering this intricate network requires streamlined experimental models, including the heterologous expression in yeast. This approach had previously enabled researchers to identify domains and residues that underlie the conformational changes driving the translocation, the insertion and the oligomerization of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax at the level of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Recent studies that combine experiments in yeast and in mammalian cells have shown the unexpected effect of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL on the priming of Bax. As demonstrated with the BH3-mimetic molecule ABT-737, this property of Bcl-xL, and of Bcl-2, is crucial to elaborate about how apoptosis could be reactivated in tumoral cells.

  15. BREW-based Wireless Monitor and Control System%基于BREW的无线图像监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷凌; 王志良

    2005-01-01

    利用BREW技术,把传统的有线监控系统跟CDMA网络、移动终端设备融合为一体,构成一个新的无线监控系统.本文主要介绍了这种基于BREW技术的无线图像监控系统的功能、结构和设计方法.重点研究了系统的硬件构成和BREW软件开发.

  16. 酿酒后的葡萄渣的综合利用%Comprehensive utilization of pomace after grape brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀玲; 祝义伟; 孙佳平

    2008-01-01

    对酿酒后的副产物--葡萄渣的综合利用进行了综述.一方面可从中提取多酚类化合物(包括红色素、单宁、白藜芦醇及其它酚类等)、酒石酸、葡萄籽油、蛋白质、食用纤维等有益成分;另一方面可以用于酿醋、制作饮料等.

  17. A home-brew real-time PCR assay for reliable detection and quantification of mature miR-122.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Mahmood; Abdul Tehrani, Hossein; Soleimani, Masoud; Shabani, Iman; Hashemi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    miR-122 is a liver-specific miRNA that has significant gene expression alterations in response to specific pathophysiological circumstances of liver such as drug-induced liver injury, hepatocellular carcinoma, and hepatitis B and C virus infections. Therefore, accurate and precise quantification of miR-122 is very important for clinical diagnostics. However, because of the lack of in vitro diagnostics assays for miR-122 detection and quantification of the existence of an open-source assay could inevitably provide external evaluation by other researchers and the chance of promoting the assay when required. The aim of this study was to develop a Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, which is capable of robust and reliable quantification of miR-122 in different sample types. We used stem loop methodology to design a specific Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for miR-122. This technique enabled us to reliably and reproducibly quantify short-length oligonucleotides such as miR-122. The specificity, sensitivity, interassay and intra-assay, and the dynamic range of the assay were experimentally determined by their respective methodology. The assay had a linear dynamic range of 3E to 4.8E miR-122 copies/reaction and the limit of detection was determined to be between 960 and 192 copies/reaction with 95% confidence interval. The assay gave a coefficient of variation for the Ct values of 50,000 copies per hepatocyte, this assay is able to suffice the need for reliable detection and quantification of this miRNA. Therefore, this study can be considered as a start point for standardizing miR-122 quantification.

  18. Occurrence and Residue Pattern of Phthalate Esters in Fresh Tea Leaves and during Tea Manufacturing and Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pingxiang; Chen, Hongping; Gao, Guanwei; Hao, Zhenxia; Wang, Chen; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Xin

    2016-11-23

    The residues of 16 phthalate esters (PAEs) in fresh tea leaves and made tea were determined via gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their distribution and degradation characteristics during tea planting and processing. Five PAEs were detected in all fresh tea leaves, and higher concentrations were detected in mature leaves. The distribution of PAEs in fresh tea leaves ranged from 69.7 to 2244.0 μg/kg. The degradative percentages of ∑5PAEs during green tea manufacturing ranged from 61 to 63% and were significantly influenced by the drying process. The transfer rates of PAEs-D4 ranged from 5.2 to 100.6%. PAEs with a high water solubility showed the highest transfer coefficient in the range of 91.8-100.6%, whereas PAEs with a high log Kow showed a low leaching efficiency below 11.9%. These results benefit the risk evaluation and establishment of a maximum residue limit for PAEs in tea.

  19. 40 CFR 63.2192 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... at which the yeast has begun being emptied from the fermenter. Brew means the mixture of yeast and additives in the fermenter. Brew ethanol means the ethanol in fermenter liquid. Brew ethanol monitor means the monitoring system that you use to measure brew ethanol to demonstrate compliance with this...

  20. 平菇醋酿造D 艺的研究%Study on the Brewing Technique of Pleurotus ostreatus Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云

    2016-01-01

    With Pleurotus ostreatus as raw material,the extraction technology of Pleurotus ostreatus polysaccharide,alcohol fermentation and acetic fermentation is studied by orthogonal test,and the best conditions are confirmed. The study shows that the optimal technological conditions for Pleurotus ostreatus polysaccharide extraction are obtained as extraction temperature of 90 ℃,ratio of raw material to extractant of 1 ∶ 15,extraction for 5 h and 2 times.The optimal fermentation technology of alcohol fermentation is fermentation temperature of 26 ℃,yeast inoculum amount of 0.08%,sugar concentration of 16%.The optimal fermentation technology of acetic fermentation is alcohol content of 7%,yeast inoculum amount of 5%,fermentation temperature of 28 ℃.%通过正交试验,以平菇为原料,确定提取平菇多糖、酒精发酵及醋酸发酵的最佳工艺。提取平菇多糖的最佳工艺条件:提取温度90℃、料液比1∶15、提取时间5 h、提取2次。酒精发酵最佳工艺条件:发酵温度26℃、接种量0.08%、糖度16%;醋酸发酵最佳工艺条件:初始酒度7%、菌种接种量5%、温度28℃。

  1. Phenotypic and genetic diversity of Saccharomyces contaminants isolated from lager breweries and their phylogenetic relationship with brewing yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lene; Kühle, Alis Van der Aa; Petersen, Kamilla M.

    2000-01-01

    identified as S. cerevisiae, 26% as S. pastorianus and 3% as S. bayanus. The remaining isolates (13%) could not be identified to the species level based on their phenotypic characteristics. However, some of these isolates were identified as S. cerevisiae by HaeIII restriction digest of PCR...

  2. Collective Beer Brand Identity: A Semiotic Analysis of the Websites Representing Small and Medium Enterprises in the Brewing Industry of Western PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    This research studies how brand identities, individually and communally, as read through websites are created among small and medium-sized enterprise breweries in western Pennsylvania. Content analysis through the frame of Kress and van Leeuwen was used as the basis for the codebook that reads each brand identity for the researcher. The…

  3. Energy-saving methods in beer brewing industry%啤酒生产企业节能措施综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪亮

    2013-01-01

    该文借鉴国内外啤酒企业的先进节能工艺和技术,提出了低压动态煮沸和二次蒸汽回收、高浓糖化、啤酒激冷、电机系统变频改造、凝水回收等节能措施,供我国众多中小型啤酒企业参考.

  4. Research and application of antioxidant system in beer brewing%抗氧化系统在啤酒酿造中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解洪博; 李红; 王异静

    2011-01-01

    介绍了氧、氧自由基在啤酒酿造中的作用,从自由基的角度对啤酒氧化的本质进行了诠释,并探讨了啤酒抗氧化物质及其作用机制,总结了国内外关于啤酒风味老化的各种评价指标及方法.

  5. 异构酒花颗粒在啤酒酿造中的应用研究%Studies of Isomerized Hop Pellets on Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程殿林

    2001-01-01

    对异构酒花颗粒和普通酒花颗粒进行了对比研究.结果表明,添加异构酒花颗粒可减少苦味物质的损失,酿造出的啤酒优于只采用普通酒花颗粒酿造出的啤酒,特别是酒花香突出,泡持性好.

  6. 麦芽缺陷对啤酒酿造的影响%Effects of Malt Quality Defect on Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓岩

    2010-01-01

    劣质麦芽可降低麦汁质量,削弱啤酒的抗氧化能力,从而降低啤酒质量.麦芽的质量缺陷既降低麦汁的收率,又使糖化、过滤时间的延长,导致生产效率下降和生产成本的增高.降低麦芽质量缺陷对产品啤酒生产的影响,必须严格控制从大麦采购到成品麦芽每个环节的工艺管理.

  7. Application of Wort Clarificant in Beer- brewing%麦汁澄清剂在啤酒生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶和国

    2000-01-01

    研究了应用麦汁澄清剂对麦汁的澄清作用,对其用量、除浊效果进行测试对比.分别取麦汁(11度)200ml加入6只250ml量筒,添加麦汁澄清剂0.2ml、0.4ml、0.6ml、0.8ml和1.0ml,混匀后于10℃静置18h.结果表明,最佳使用量为0.5ml,麦汁清亮透明,澄清效果好,保质期可延长50~60天,啤酒泡持性不受影响,可应用于生产.(一平)

  8. 玉米淀粉辅料在啤酒生产中的应用%Application of Cornstarch as Auxiliary Materials in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世敏; 宋安东; 高玉千; 闫德冉

    2005-01-01

    以玉米淀粉为辅料进行啤酒生产的研究结果表明,用量适当,不仅啤酒的成本降低,而且啤酒的发酵度、色度、总酸和非生物稳定性都较原工艺有一定的提高,泡持性有所降低,有利于生产淡爽型啤酒.

  9. Investigation on the Factors Affecting Beer Foam in Beer Brewing%浅析生产中影响啤酒泡沫的几个因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晶心; 李学国

    2002-01-01

    啤酒的泡沫性能包括起泡能力、泡沫外观、泡沫持久性和泡沫挂杯4个方面.影响啤酒泡沫形成的因素主要有原料的质量、制麦工艺、糖化工艺、发酵工艺、贮酒时间长短、过滤与灌装的温度争压力以及杀菌时间.实现啤酒较好的泡沫性能,首先控制原料及生产过程中蛋白质的分解;其次是保证生产后期泡沫质量稳定.(孙悟)

  10. α-乙酰乳酸脱羧酶在啤酒酿造中的应用%The Application of α- Acetolactate Decarboxylase During Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传荣; 张安宁; 徐大好

    2003-01-01

    @@ 连二酮(VDK)是双乙酰和2,3-戊二酮的总称,但对啤酒风味起主要作用的是双乙酰.在影响啤酒风味成熟的众多物质中,双乙酰是关键的影响因素,其含量高低是啤酒质量优劣的重要标志,被认为是衡量啤酒成熟与否的决定性指标.

  11. OVERALL ASSESSMENT ON BIOCHEMICAL TREATMENT PROCESS OF BEER-BREWING WASTEWATER%啤酒废水生物治理工艺的综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇; 易军; 郭军松; 梁琨

    2002-01-01

    在深入探索、研究我国啤酒废水的各种处理工艺和技术的基础上,对5种常见的具代表性、相对较为成熟的生物处理工艺进行了分析和比较;并用模糊数学的方法进行综合评价和废水治理工艺设施筛选,提出评价因素集和制定评价标准集及权重集的具体方法,通过实例的具体计算,取的较为满意的结果.

  12. Applications of Molecular Biotechnology in Beer Brewing%分子生物技术在啤酒酿造中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方维明; 杨振泉; 虞华芳

    2004-01-01

    现代分子生物技术的运用为传统啤酒酿造业注入了新的活力.本文对分子生物学技术在啤酒原料鉴定与改良,啤酒酵母的鉴定和育种以及啤酒发酵中污染杂菌的检测和鉴定等方面的应用进展进行了综述.

  13. 去除啤酒酿造水中氯味的研究%Research on the Approaches to Eliminate Chlorine Aroma in Beer-brewing Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成红; 周志娟; 董贵智; 黄淑霞

    2008-01-01

    氯是强氧化剂,会破坏酶的活性,抑制酵母生长,并和麦芽中酚类结合,产生不愉快的口味,啤酒酿造水中应避免有多余氯的存在.因此,用城市自来水或自供水做酿造用水时必须经过活性炭过滤脱氯.本研究中建立了TTHM的分析方法,确定了水处理操作标准及工艺原则.

  14. Recent research on application of wheat malt in beer brewing%小麦应用于啤酒酿造的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹立民; 何国庆

    2002-01-01

    主要介绍了小麦应用于啤酒酿造的起源,以及近年来对于啤酒用小麦品质特征、化学组成、品种选育、发芽生理、酿造工艺等方面的国内外研究成果,并对今后小麦在啤酒工业中的应用前景作了展望.

  15. 啤酒生产中酵母自溶及其预防措施%Autolyse of Yeast in Beer Brewing and Its Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建中; 赵文忠

    2001-01-01

    啤酒酵母自溶,影响啤酒质量.酵母自溶的原因有:①啤酒酵母品种和不正当地使用酵母;②糖化发酵不当;③过滤不好;④环境卫生不好.预防措施及解决办法有:①选用健壮、性能优良的菌种;②加强管理,调整糖化工艺;③搞好发酵环境卫生.(孙悟)

  16. 啤酒生产中腐败微生物鉴定新技术%New Identification Techniques of Spoilage Microorganism in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔庆新; 张惟广

    2003-01-01

    啤酒生产过程中的污染微生物主要有野生酵母、细菌、放线菌和霉菌四大类.新的快速检测技术有聚合酶链式反应(PCR)技术、伏安型生物传感嚣、自动微生物检测系统(AMS)、改良MRS培养基和三磷酸腺苷(ATP)法等,较传统方法迅速、准确.(小雨)

  17. 啤酒中生物胺的产生与控制%Biogenic Amines Produced and Controled in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴延东

    2003-01-01

    发酵食品中普遍存在有生物胺,适量的生物胺有助于人体正常的生理功能,但过量吸收会引起不良的生理反应.针对啤酒酿造过程中生物胺的产生途径,提出了相应的解决办法.

  18. 小黑麦啤酒的开发与研制%Research and development on the beer brewed with little rye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧; 包怡红

    2000-01-01

    以小黑麦作为酿造啤酒的原料,对其制麦与糖化、发酵工艺进行了探索发酵产品具有风味独特、口味协调、酒体醇厚的特点.其各项理化指标符合部颁啤酒酿造标准.

  19. Engineering example of beer brewing wastewater treatmetat in plateau region%高原地区啤酒废水处理工程实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娇

    2010-01-01

    针对啤酒生产废水特点,采用UASB-接触氧化工艺对高浓度有机废水和低浓度有机废水进行分流治理.针对高原气候条件,采取特殊的供氧和构筑物保温措施.运行结果表明,在设计进水水质、水量范围内,CODCr、BOD5、氧氮和SS都得到较好的去除,出水各项指标均达到GB 8978-1996<污水综合排放标准中的一级排放标准.系统运行费用为0.58元/m3.

  20. White Beer Brewing with a Mixed Culture of Yeast and Lactic Bacteria%酵母和乳酸菌发酵生产白啤酒研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖永红; 周晓宏

    2000-01-01

    以60%大麦芽和40%小麦芽为原料,经上面酵母和乳酸菌L4混合发酵,研制生产出白啤酒.从4株乳酸菌中筛选出适合白啤酒生产的L4菌,通过对发酵方式的选择,确定了酵母BLS-1和乳酸菌L4混合发酵方式,同时对酒花添加量、接种量及发酵温度和时间进行了讨论,制定出工艺路线,所得白啤酒质量符合标准.

  1. Using wheat malt substituting part of barley malt in beer brewing%小麦芽替代部分大麦芽酿制啤酒探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志坚

    2002-01-01

    @@ 长期以来,大麦芽以其优越的特性而成为酿造啤酒的主要原料.随着消费市场需求的多样化及生物技术不断进步和发展,开发新的啤酒原料及新的啤酒品种成为可能.小麦芽被重点开发利用并相继生产出多品种小麦啤酒.以小麦芽为原料酿制的啤酒以其独特风味受到消费者欢迎和喜爱.

  2. Application of ceramic membrane in the draft beer brewing%陶瓷膜在生啤酒酿造过程中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范广璞; 陆正清

    2005-01-01

    对陶瓷膜在生啤酒澄清、酵母回收及罐底沉积物中啤酒回收等方面的应用进行了探讨,讨论了膜孔径、主流体流动方式、温度及澄清剂等因素对生啤酒过滤的影响.

  3. 啤酒酿造过程中硫化氢的变化规律%The Evolution of H2s During Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段飞; 李红; 卫军

    2008-01-01

    讲述了硫化氢的来源、产生机理及其对啤酒风味的影响.并着重探讨了在发酵过程中,硫化氢在每个时期的演变规律,以及硫化氢的形成与酵母出芽率之间的关系.

  4. 啤酒生产中双乙酰调控的研究%Regulation and Control of Diacetyl in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茉; 宋刚

    2010-01-01

    双乙酰是啤酒中重要的风味物质,也是啤酒成熟的重要标志.控制啤酒发酵液中双乙酰的含量可以缩短发酵周期,提高啤酒品质.综述了啤酒生产过程中双乙酰的形成机制和调控方法的研究进展.

  5. 啤酒生产中双乙酰的代谢调控研究%Study on the metabolic control of diacetyl in beer brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建奇; 马歌丽

    2006-01-01

    双乙酰是啤酒生产过程中由酵母在合成氨基酸的途径中产生的重要风味物质,其含量是衡量啤酒成熟的重要标志.本文简要综述了啤酒生产中双乙酰的形成机制和代谢调控研究进展.

  6. Study On the Technology of gelatinization in Beer Brewing%啤酒酿造糊化工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广丰; 常宗明; 陆健

    2010-01-01

    随着啤酒酿造中辅料大米比例的增加,糊化质量对啤酒酿造的影响增大.本文利用Brabender糊化仪研究了大米糊化过程淀粉酶添加量等工艺参数对DE值的影响,通过正交试验确定了最佳大米糊化工艺,即糊化升温速率1.0℃/min、耐高温α-淀粉酶添加量10u/g大米、维持温度90℃.采用该糊化工艺生产得到的成品酒,其各项指标均达到优质啤酒的要求.

  7. Application of Shearzyme 500L in Wheat beer Brewing%真菌木聚糖酶在小麦啤酒酿造中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨观中

    2007-01-01

    阿拉伯木聚糖是谷物细胞壁多糖的重要组成部分,对啤酒的过滤有着重要的影响.通过介绍真菌木聚糖酶在小麦啤酒酿造中应用,从而较好地解决了小麦啤酒生产中存在的过滤难题,生产出了风味独特的小麦啤酒.

  8. 不同品种苹果液态酿醋适应性%Adaptability of different breed apple liquid brewing vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义伦; 陈伟; 施安辉; 束怀瑞

    2001-01-01

    试验以五种苹果汁为原料,采用液态发酵法酿醋,分析了五个试样醋酸发酵前后的主要理化指标及色泽变化,结果认为以国光、陆奥、金帅为原料可酿出具有苹果风味及色泽特征的果醋,国光最有利于良好酸味及色泽品质的形成,富士及浓缩汁不适于良好色泽果醋的酿造.

  9. 利用苹果渣生产苹果醋的工艺研究%Study on vinegar-brewing with apple sqeezing risdue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张居尚; 张文隽; 雷萍; 孙悦迎; 杨新文; 张慧

    2009-01-01

    以苹果渣为主要原料,经过酒精发酵和醋酸发酵生产苹果醋饮料.探讨了酵母菌种、醋酸菌种的驯化培养;研究了发酵过程中糖度、酒度和酸度的变化,确定了果渣生产苹果醋的工艺流程和最佳工艺参数.

  10. Brew apple vinegar with the method of the liquid deep - seated zymolysis%液体深层发酵法酿制苹果醋

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭铎

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1 工艺流程 苹果原料→浸泡→洗涤→检果修割→破碎→榨汁→筛滤→酶解→硅藻土过滤→高温瞬时灭菌→贮存醋酸发酵工艺流程: 三角瓶醋酸种子 一、二级醋酸种子 苹果原汁→酒精发酵→醋酸发酵→板框过滤→调配→↑二级酒母种子←一级酒母种子←三角瓶酒母种子高温瞬时灭菌→无菌贮存→无菌灌装

  11. Brewing techniques and health care effect of homemade wines%自制葡萄酒的酿造技术及其保健功效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪粉英

    2012-01-01

    @@%以新鲜葡萄为主要原料,对自制葡萄酒的酿造技术及其保健功效进行了综合阐述.自酿葡萄酒的技术重点:一是用于酿酒的葡萄要洗净、晾干;二是在发酵过程中要进行搅拌、放气、过滤、沉淀.经过自然发酵酿造出来的葡萄酒,营养价值高,且具有抗菌、抗炎、抗癌、抗血栓、抗高血脂症等保健功效,对调节人体的生理机能等能起到良好的作用.

  12. Analysis of the components of hard resin in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and structural elucidation of their transformation products formed during the brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Taniguchi, Harumi; Yamada, Makiko; Matsukura, Yasuko; Koizumi, Hideki; Furihata, Kazuo; Shindo, Kazutoshi

    2014-11-26

    The resins from hops (Humulus lupulus L.), which add the bitter taste to beer, are classified into two main sub-fractions, namely, soft and hard resins. α- and β-Acids in soft resin and their transformation during the wort boiling process are well-studied; however, other constituents in resins, especially hard resin, have been unidentified. In this study, we identified humulinones and hulupones as soft-resin components, in addition to 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones and tricyclooxyisohumulones A and B as hard-resin components. These compounds are all oxidation products derived from α- or β-acids. We also investigated compositional changes in the hard resin during the wort boiling process, which has a significant effect on the taste of the beer, by using model boiling experiments. The major changes were identified to be isomerization of 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones into 4'-hydroxyallo-cis-humulinones, followed by decomposition into cis-oxyhumulinic acids. These findings will be helpful in systematically evaluating and optimizing the effect of the hard resin on beer quality.

  13. Application of wine residual wastes to brew white vinegar%利用葡萄酒下脚料酿造白醋

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文龙; 王君高; 王乐; 钱娟娟

    2009-01-01

    以食用酒精、葡萄酒蒸馏白兰地后的余液为原料,采用液态发酵法生产食醋,经后期脱色过滤处理,得到了无色澄清、酸味柔和、口感绵醇的葡萄酒风味酿造白醋.

  14. 槐花蜂蜜酒酿造工艺最佳条件的探讨%Discussion on the Optimal Technological Condition for Acacia Honey Wine Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅国城

    2015-01-01

    Using acacia honey as raw material, through single factor and orthogonal experimental design, the optimal fermentation parameters for acacia honey wine were as follows:Angel's highly active dry yeast BV818 was used as fermentation strain;the initial sugar concentration was 23%;the inoculum size was 0.24%;the initial pH was 4.0;the fermentation temperature was 28℃. Under this optimized condition, the alcoholic degree of the product was 12.4%vol;sensory evaluation score was 96 points;quaternary chitosan dosage was 0.3g/L;the light transmittance of wine was 98.65%allowed to stand at room temperature for 36h. Honey pure and good flavor were emerged.%以槐花蜜为原料,通过单因素及正交实验设计,确定槐花蜂蜜酒的最佳发酵工艺参数:发酵菌种为安琪高活性干酵母BV818、起始糖度23%、接种量0.25%、起始pH4.00、发酵温度28℃,在此工艺条件下,产品酒精度为12.4%vol,感官评分达96分;壳聚糖季铵盐用量为0.3g/L,室温条件下静置36h时,酒体透光率达98.65%。蜂蜜酒蜜香纯正,风味良好。

  15. Study on the Brewing Technology of Wolfberry and Honey Wine%枸杞蜜酒的酿造工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建方; 冯天霞

    2012-01-01

    Wolfberry and honey were used as raw materials,sugar added to adjust sugar content of fermented mash,citric acid added to adjust the acidity of fermented mash,and the most suitable active dry yeast was used to produce wolfberry and honey wine.The optimum technical conditions were determined as follows through orthogonal test: the ratio of wolfberry extracting juice and honey was 19∶1,the initial sugar content of fermented mash was 240 g/L,pH value adjusted to 3.8 by citric acid,fermentation operated at 24±2 ℃,80 g/L sugar added at the 4th day of the fermentation,and 0.15 g/L gelatin and 2 g/L swelling bentonite were used for wine clarification and wine stabilization.The produced wine was golden brown in color with special aroma of honey and wolfberry,and mellow and harmonious taste.%以枸杞和蜂蜜为原料,用白砂糖调整发酵醪液的糖度,柠檬酸调整发酵醪液的酸度,筛选最适的酿酒活性干酵母,对枸杞蜜酒的酿造工艺进行研究。通过正交试验确定发酵的最佳工艺条件为枸杞浸提汁与蜂蜜配比为19∶1,发酵醪液的起始糖度240 g/L,柠檬酸调pH值至3.8,在温度为24℃±2℃条件下进行发酵,发酵至第4天时补加白砂糖80 g/L,用0.15 g/L的明胶和2.0 g/L的膨润土配合使用对枸杞蜜酒进行澄清稳定化处理,得到的枸杞蜜酒呈金黄色,具有枸杞和蜂蜜特殊的香气且酒体醇厚、酸甜协调。

  16. 保健型枸杞葡萄酒的酿造工艺研究%Study on Brewing Technology of Health Wolfberry Grape Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 陈利梅; 王会; 曾庆华

    2011-01-01

    以枸杞、葡萄为主要原料,并以蜂蜜取代部分蔗糖来调整混合汁中的含糖量,接种葡萄酒酵母发酵生产出具有保健功能的枸杞葡萄酒,通过试验和感官评定的方法得出最佳工艺条件为:枸杞添加量15%,蜂蜜添加量8%,酵母接种量0.08%.%Using wolfberry and grape as the main material and honey partly instead of sucrose to adjust sugar content of the mixed juice, the health wolfberry grape wine was produced with the yeast special for grape wine. The best craft was obtained by the orthogonal experiment and sensory evaluation. wolfherry adding amount 15%, honey adding amount 8% and yeast adding amount 0.08%.

  17. CaCl2对苹果酒酿造的影响%Effects of Adding CaCl2 Treatment on Cider Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱传合; 张开利; 杜金华

    2003-01-01

    对以红富士苹果为原料,分别添加0.3、0.4、0.5*#g/L CaCl2的澄清苹果汁进行了研究.清汁中接种酿酒酵母Aw(Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aw),于20℃控温发酵,陈酿、澄清后进行理化、感官分析与风味物质测定.研究显示,添加CaCl2显著地提高了果汁的澄清度、加快了果汁澄清速度.果汁处理时间低于12*#h时,CaCl2加量以0.4*#g/L为宜;处理时间在18~22*#h,CaCl2加量为0.3~0.5*#g/L.经CaCl2增加酸度(1.49~1.57*#g/L)、降低pH值(0.19~0.24)、对酵母酒精发酵、发酵过程中滴定酸和pH的变化趋势无显著影响.CaCl2处理的果汁发酵的苹果酒滴定酸度高、残糖低,总浸出物低,酒精浓度与未处理苹果酒接近;口味纯正、爽口,色泽好,果香味突出.

  18. Characterization of a β-glucanase produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus, and its potential for application in the brewing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Carlos R; Cunha Ricardo B; Celestino Klecius

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In the barley malting process, partial hydrolysis of β-glucans begins with seed germination. However, the endogenous 1,3-1,4-β-glucanases are heat inactivated, and the remaining high molecular weight β-glucans may cause severe problems such as increased brewer mash viscosity and turbidity. Increased viscosity impairs pumping and filtration, resulting in lower efficiency, reduced yields of extracts, and lower filtration rates, as well as the appearance of gelatinous precipi...

  19. Application of Grape Wine Yeast in the Brewing of Yellow Rice Wine%应用葡萄酒酵母酿制黄酒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵秀华; 何建瑛

    2009-01-01

    在不改变现有黄酒工艺和设备的情况下,将葡萄酒酵母应用到黄酒酿造中,研究表明,葡萄酒酵母酿制的黄酒,芳香物质含量明显大于黄酒酵母生产的黄酒.所酿制的黄酒呈浅黄色,口感醇和、鲜爽,具有明显的水果香气,香气浓郁,令人愉悦,具有特殊的风格.葡萄酒酵母可酿造具有果味特色的特种黄酒.(陶然)

  20. Coffee brews a future in China%焙烤食品专题漫长而又令人期待的咖啡本土化之路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧睿信息咨询(上海)有限公司

    2006-01-01

    @@ 据欧睿信息咨询的Hope Lee分析,咖啡商们正在致力于把茶的故乡-中国,转变成一个喝咖啡的国家.虽然中国的咖啡消耗量增长迅速,但其在中国仍然是一种时尚的象征.

  1. Medium and Long-term Opportunities and Risks of the Biotechnological Production of Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Resources. The Potential of White Biotechnology. The BREW Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, M.; Crank, M.; Dornburg, V.; Hermann, B.; Roes, L. [Department of Science, Technology and Society NWS, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Huesing, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research FhG-ISl, Karlsruhe (Germany); Overbeek, L. [Plant Research International PRI, Wageningen (Netherlands); Terragni, F.; Recchia, E. [CERISS, Centro per I' Educazione, la Ricerca, I' lnformazione su Scienza e Society, Milan (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    This study investigates the medium and long-term opportunities and risks of the biotechnological production of organic chemicals. The objective is to gain better understanding of the techno-economic and the societal viability of White Biotechnology in the coming decades. The key research questions are which products could be made with White Biotechnology, whether these products can contribute to savings of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, under which conditions the products become economically viable, which risks may originate from the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in fermentation and what the public perception is. The main purpose of Chapter 2 is to provide an overview of emerging key White Biotechnology products and to explain which chemicals could be produced on their basis. For a selection of these products, detailed environmental and economic assessments are conducted in Chapter 3 (in specific terms, i.e. per tonne of product). Chapter 3 discusses also the so-called Generic Approach which is the methodology we developed and applied to assess future processes and processes, for which very little information is available. In Chapter 4, three scenario projections are developed for Europe (EU-25), thereby assuming benign, moderate and disadvantageous conditions for bio-based chemicals. The purpose of this chapter is hence to understand to which extent restructuring of the chemical sector might occur under which conditions. In Chapter 5, the risks related to the use of White Biotechnology are addressed. The main purpose of this chapter is to give insight into the main risk components influencing the overall risk and of the knowledge gaps. Both conventional risks (e.g., human toxicity and accidents) and risks related to generic modification (e.g., horizontal gene transfer) are analyzed. Since the public perception may play an important role for the implementation of White Biotechnology on a large scale, these issues are discussed in Chapter 6, thereby drawing conclusions from the literature and presenting the outcome of a survey. Finally, the findings are summarized and conclusions are drawn in Chapter 7.

  2. The Progress of Apple Cider in Brewing and the Composition%苹果酒酿造工艺及成分研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓敏; 李擎; 王耀; 郭敬

    2015-01-01

    苹果酒为低度酒,具有营养丰富、适量饮用、有益健康等特点,因此具有较高的研究价值.通过综述国内外学者关于苹果酒酿酒工艺、酚类物质、有机酸及其他成分的研究进展,为苹果酒的研究工作提供参考依据.

  3. Research Progress of Lactic Acid Bacteria Application to Cider Brewing%乳酸菌在苹果酒中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕兆林; 姚永红; 林西; 任美玲; 张柏林

    2012-01-01

    通过添加乳酸茵,苹果酒在主发酵后能继续进行二次发酵,即苹果酸-乳酸发酵,该过程具有增加苹果酒风味多样性的作用.论述在苹果酒中添加乳酸茵的菌种要求、发酵条件对乳酸茵诱导苹果酸-乳酸发酵的影响,及乳酸茵与苹果酒感官和风味的关系.%The secondary fermentation, i. e. , malolactic fermentation (MLF) could take place in the cider after the primary fermentation if lactic acid bacteria were added, which could improve the flavor diversity of the cider , making the taste softer and weakening the influence of styphnic acid. The requirements for the lactic acid bacteria which could be added to cider, the influence of different fermentation conditions on induction of the lactic acid bacteria to motivate malolactic fermentation and the correlations between the lactic acid bacteria and the flavor and other properties of cider were discussed in the paper.

  4. 二氧化碳浸渍法在蓝莓酒酿造中的应用%Application of carbonic maceration method in blueberry wine brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴皓玥; 董莹璨; 刘雪平; 战吉宬

    2015-01-01

    利用二氧化碳浸渍法酿造蓝莓酒,对比二氧化碳浸渍法和传统酿造法酿造的蓝莓酒在各理化指标方面的不同,探究该方法对蓝莓酒品质的影响.同时利用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定CO2不同浸渍时间对于蓝莓酒中10种有机酸酸、9种酚酸含量的影响.结果表明,蓝莓酒中含量最高的有机酸是柠檬酸,最主要的酚酸是绿原酸;二氧化碳浸渍法相比于传统酿造法能够降低蓝莓酒的酸度(P<0.05),但浸渍时间越长,有机酸含量越高;二氧化碳浸渍法蓝莓酒总酚含量低于传统法(P<0.05),但能提高总黄酮和酚酸类物质的浸出.

  5. Study on the Brewing Process of Blueberry Dry Red Wine%蓝莓干红酒酿制工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱平; 吉平; 张文雅; 柯常毅; 李涛; 谭祥

    2013-01-01

    According to the blueberry juice initial sugar content, from 12° red blueberry wine will fill sugar is adjusted to 21%, the amount of SO2 was adjusted to 40mg/L. meanwhile, adding active dry yeast powder, the inoculation was 0.20%, at 25℃ temperature fermentation for 6 days, the main fermentation onto the end of low temperature aging, can make the residual sugar is low, moderate acidity, the wine body coordination, mellow taste, fruit suitable, deep ruby red in color, with blueberry special typical style of dry red wine.%根据蓝莓汁初始糖度,酿制12°干红蓝莓酒时将补糖量调整至21%,SO2添加量调整为40mg/L。同时,添加活性干酵母粉,其接种量为0.20%,在25℃条件下控温发酵6d,主发酵结束转入低温陈酿,能够酿制残糖较低、酸度适中、酒体协调、口感醇厚、果香适宜,色泽为深宝石红,具有蓝莓特有典型风格的蓝莓干红酒。

  6. 不同蓝莓品种酿造果酒适性的比较研究%APPROPRIATE COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF BLUEBERRIES BREWING WINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 姜雯翔; 袁晔; 彭常安; 韩永斌

    2014-01-01

    果酒品质与新鲜果品原料质量密切相关.本文分析了Tifblue、Premier、Brightwell、Garden blue、Powder Blue5个蓝莓品种的营养组分及果酒发酵过程中酒精度、花色苷含量、总酚指数和颜色变化的差异,旨在寻找适宜于酿酒的蓝莓品种.结果表明:Garden blue中的碳水化合物、还原糖、可溶性蛋白含量均显著高于其他4个品种.不同蓝莓品种其酚类物质及花色苷含量差异显著,Garden blue花色苷和酚类物质含量分别是其他4个蓝莓品种的1.17~1.97倍和1.15 ~1.89倍.酒精发酵过程中果酒中总酚指数均显著上升,而花色苷含量均显著下降,其中Gardenblue花色苷含量下降最少,且其酚类物质含量上升最多.经稀释3倍的蓝莓汁调味发酵,发酵结束后Garden blue总酚指数含量最高达79.9,是其他4个品种的1.30~2.08倍,花色苷含量为25.27 mg/L,比其他品种高出1.25~8.1倍.结论:综合蓝莓营养成分及发酵前后酚类物质含量等因素,发现Garden blue更适于酿造高品质蓝莓果酒.

  7. Effect of Brewing Duration on the Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Abilities of Tea Phenolic and Alkaloid Compounds in a t-BHP Oxidative Stress-Induced Rat Hepatocyte Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Braud

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tea is an interesting source of antioxidants capable of counteracting the oxidative stress implicated in liver diseases. We investigated the impact of antioxidant molecules provided by a mixture of teas’ leaves (green, oolong, pu-erh after different infusion durations in the prevention of oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes, by comparison with pure epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the main representative of tea catechins. Dried aqueous tea extracts (ATE obtained after 5, 15 and 30 min infusion time were characterized for total polyphenols (gallic acid equivalent, catechins, gallic acid and caffeine (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS contents, and for scavenging ability against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical. Hepatoprotection was evaluated through hepatocyte viability tests using tert-butyl hydroperoxide as a stress inducer, (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, neutral red uptake, real-time cellular impedance and mitochondrial function tests. We showed that a 5-min incubation time is sufficient for an optimal bioaccessibility of tea compounds with the highest antioxidative ability, which decreases for longer durations. A 4-h pretreatment of cells with ATE significantly prevented cell death by regulating reactive oxygen species production and maintaining mitochondrial integrity. Pure EGCG, at doses similar in ATE (5–12 µM, was inefficient, suggesting a plausible synergy of several water-soluble tea compounds to explain the ATE beneficial effects.

  8. 胡萝卜苹果复合果醋的研究%Study on Brewing Technology of Apple and Carrot Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武运; 李承艳; 库米拉; 古丽娜孜; 胡丽红; 梁晓丽; 杨海燕

    2011-01-01

    以苹果、胡萝卜为原料经过酒精发酵和醋酸发酵,制得了胡萝卜、苹果复合果醋.通过对影响酒精发酵的接种量、温度、时间进行研究,结果表明酒精发酵最佳工艺条件为接种量为5%,温度为30℃,发酵时间6d;对醋酸发酵的初始酒精度、接种量、温度、pH研究表明,醋酸发酵最佳工艺条件为初始酒精度为8(%,体积分数),接种量为10%,温度在30℃,pH为3.5,发酵时间14d.

  9. Method of Changing the Content of Zinc in Beer Brewing Process%改变啤酒酿造中锌离子含量的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖莲; 朱汉明; 万莉

    2009-01-01

    麦芽是啤酒生产的主要原料,麦汁中的锌主要来源于麦芽.测定了5种大小麦麦芽及不同大小麦麦芽配比的麦汁中的锌离子含量.本试验在80kg大麦麦芽中加入10 kg小麦麦芽即可使麦汁中锌离子含量达到0.200mg·L~(-1)的正常范围.表明小麦麦芽中的锌离子含量比大麦麦芽高.因此在糖化时加入-定比例的小麦麦芽可提高麦汁中的锌离子含量.%Malt is the main raw material for beer production. The zinc in wort comes mainly from malt. As the wheat malt is rich in phytase which can decompose phytic acid into phosphoric acid and vitamin,reduce the coordination of phytic acid with zinc and improve the stability of zinc. The content of zinc in wheat malt is higher than that of barley malt. Therefore,adding a certain percentage wheat malt could increase the content of zinc in the saccharification process.

  10. 啤酒生产过程产品TBA稳定性研究%Study on TBA Stability in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申文波; 孟艳丽; 周国芹; 刘传玲

    2010-01-01

    分析了啤酒TBA与感官评价的相关性,确定了两者的线性关系.针对啤酒风味变化较大的问题,跟踪生产过程中TBA的变化,发现生产过程存在诸多的不稳定性因素,通过单因素分析,使用现有生产工艺,采用新鲜大米,适当控制酵母活性,将酵母使用代数控制在2代以内,可有效稳定成品的TBA,延长啤酒保鲜期,改善啤酒风味稳定性.

  11. 啤洒酿造过程中微生物污染的控制%Control of microbiological contamination in beer brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树庆; 赵萍

    2008-01-01

    尽管啤酒是一个微生物稳定的产品,但是在啤酒酿造过程中容易受到一些有害微生物的污染.这些微生物的污染不但会影响到啤酒的质量,如产生异味、混浊等,而且严重时还会给啤酒厂家造成经济损失.因此,在啤酒酿造过程中防止有害微生物的生长具有特别重要的意叉.本文介绍了啤酒酿造过程中污染微生物种类、控制要求及控制策略.

  12. Research Progress in High-gravity Brewing%啤酒高浓酿造技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙燕; 林剑; 徐世艾

    2013-01-01

    概述了啤酒高浓酿造技术的特点及存在的问题,对啤酒高浓酿造中涉及到的菌种选育、麦汁制备过程、啤酒发酵过程及啤酒风味、泡沫稳定性等方面的研究进展进行了详细阐述.

  13. 高浓发酵和酸洗对酿造酵母的影响%Effects of High- gravity Brewing and Acid Washing on Brewer's Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许瑶; 刘义刚

    2000-01-01

    用磷酸类杀菌物质来洗涤接种酵母,以避免细菌污染是许多啤酒厂通用的方法,使用不正确的方法洗涤酵母将使其发酵特性下降并产生不良影响.酵母酸洗后接种于12'P麦汁,发酵特性没有明显下降;而接种于20'P麦汁,在发酵的第一个24小时,酵母的活力就有所下降,但酵母的发酵特性没有变化.通过检测20'P麦汁的糖,发现葡萄糖的利用率下降,导致麦芽糖的利用滞后,在12'P麦汁中,葡萄糖和麦芽糖的利用没有这种现象.

  14. 酵母抽提物在高浓酿造中的应用研究%Application of yeast extract in high gravity brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄淑霞; 尹卓容

    2005-01-01

    酵母抽提物中含有丰富的营养物质,如氮源、维生素、矿物元素等,针对高浓酿造中酵母营养物质的缺乏,本实验将抽提物作为酵母营养盐添加到高浓麦汁中,添加量主要以麦汁中α-氨基氮(α-N)水平作为衡量指标,以未添加营养盐的空白作对照,分析发酵液指标.

  15. 航天酱油酿造过程中微生物学研究%Microbiological analysis in space soy sauce brewing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志梅; 张宗舟; 薛林贵; 石小霞; 褚可成

    2011-01-01

    该文测定了以航天诱变黑曲霉、毛霉和米曲霉混合制曲,天然晒露,自然共酵,高盐稀态酿造生抽的微生物区系变化情况.试验证明了细菌、放线菌、酵母菌都有一定的耐盐性,细菌在食盐含量12%、14%、16%的情况下,分别增加了32.4倍、25倍和20倍,放线菌分别增加了5倍、4.6倍和1.8倍,酵母菌分别增加了1001倍、658倍和4.78倍.这3类微生物是生抽酱酯突出,香味协调,个性明显的生物基础.而霉菌类不耐盐,数量都有所下降,却是提高生抽转化率的生物基础.%Space mutant Aspergillus niger, Mucor, and Aspergillus oryzae were used for mixed koji, which was used soy sauce making with high salt concentration liquid-state natural fermentation under solar thermal. Changes of microbe species and quantity in soy sauce were investigated. The results indicated that all bacteria, actinomycetes and yeasts were salt tolerance to some extent. Under the salt concentration of 12%, 14% and 16%, they were increased by 32.4 times, 25 times and 20 times; 5 times, 4.6 times and 1.8 times, and 1001 times, 658 times and 478 times respectively for bacteria, actinomycetes and yeasts. The three types of microbes were biological basis of outstanding flavor coordination. Mold was not salt tolerance and the it had been decreased, which was the biological basis of improves conversion rate of soy sauce.

  16. DISTRIBUTION OF THE EFFECTS OF BREWING INDUSTRY CONCENTRATION AMONG LARGE AND SMALL COMPANIES OPERATING ON THE POLISH MARKET IN 2004-2011 PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Łobos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polish beer market is characterised by a high degree of concentration. The market share of Kompania Piwowarska, Grupa Żywiec and Carlsberg Polska is 90%. Many authors stress concentration as an important factor when explaining why various industries are more or less effective or more or less profitable. Firms from concentrated industries report, on average, higher profitability than those in non-concentrated industries. The aim of this paper is to analyse the differences of economic efficiency of large (group I and small (group II entities involved in the production of beer. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the test group of companies was based on selected financial ratios (return on assets, return on sales, inventory turnover, total debt ratio.

  17. MN 716: nova cultivar de cevada com estabilidade de produção e qualidade cervejeira Production stability and brewing quality of Barley MN 716

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A cevada MN 716, lançada em 2004, é uma das cultivares recomendadas para cultivo com maior estabilidade de produção. Nos anos em que participou do ensaio para determinação de seu valor de cultivo e uso, apresentou excelente produtividade de grãos, com média superior a 3.000 kg ha-1, e desempenho equilibrado quanto à qualidade, com destaque para seu teor de beta-glucanas e índice enzimático. A cultivar constitui um avanço do melhoramento desse cereal no Brasil, aliando características de interesse do produtor e da indústria.Barley cultivar MN 716, released in 2004, is one of the most recomended cultivars, for its high stability. In the years that it was included in the agronomic and use value trial, the cultivar MN 716 showed high yield average, exceeding 3,000 kg ha-1, as well as excellent qualitative performance, mainly in relation to beta-glucans and enzyme index. The cultivar is a breeding achievement for this cereal in Brazil, and serves the interests of both producers and industrial sector.

  18. 基于BREW的移动CRM系统的设计与实现%DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MOBILE CRM SYSTEM BASED ON BREW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑霞; 高福祥; 王峰

    2006-01-01

    BREW技术的应用是当前无线应用领域的热点.在简要介绍相关技术的基础上详细描述了应用于保险行业的基于BREW的移动CRM系统的设计,包括系统的体系结构、功能、性能以及数据库设计.系统的终端应用已经成功实现并移植到LG8188和LG8380两款BREW手机上,取得了满意的运行效果.

  19. Growth model and metabolic activity of brewing yeast biofilm on the surface of spent grains : a biocatalyst for continuous beer fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Brányik, Tomáš; A.A. Vicente; Kuncová, Gabriela; Podrazký, Ondřej; Dostálek, Pavel; Teixeira, J. A

    2004-01-01

    In the continuous systems, such as continuous beer fermentation, immobilized cells are kept inside the bioreactor for long periods of time. Thus an important factor in the design and performance of the immobilized yeast reactor is immobilized cell viability and physiology. Both the decreasing specific glucose consumption rate (Q_im) and intracellular redox potential of the cells immobilized to spent grains during continuous cultivation in bubble-column reactor implied alteratio...

  20. Study on the brewing technology of Monascus lichi wine%红曲荔枝果酒的开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗威; 罗立新

    2010-01-01

    研究红曲荔枝果酒的酿制工艺.通过正交实验优化,确定了最优发酵工艺条件:糖度为25°Brix,红曲霉接种量为10%,酵母接种量为8%,发酵温度为25 ℃,pH值为3.5.优化工艺条件下进行10 L中试发酵,制得色泽鲜艳、品质上乘的荔枝保健果酒,产品各项检测指标均较好.

  1. Keeping It Simple: Can We Estimate Malting Quality Potential Using an Isothermal Mashing Protocol and Common Laboratory Instrumentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current methods for generating malting quality metrics have been developed largely to support commercial malting and brewing operations, providing accurate, reproducible analytical data to guide malting and brewing production. Infrastructure to support these analytical operations often involves sub...

  2. Sequence Classification: 891376 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l acetyltransferase, may play a role in steroid detoxification; forms volatile esters during fermentation, which is important in brew...ing; Atf2p || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/6321616 ...

  3. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccc of... - Requirements for Performance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stated in § 63.2161, if you demonstrate compliance by monitoring brew ethanol, you must comply with the... determined by monitoring brew ethanol concentration and calculating VOC concentration in the...

  4. 40 CFR 63.2162 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring brew ethanol concentration and calculating VOC concentration in the fermenter exhaust according to..., performance test and establish a brew-to-exhaust correlation according to the procedures in Table 2 to...

  5. アグリビジネスにおける環境価値と戦略的アライアンス : VRIOのフレームワークによる分析を中心に

    OpenAIRE

    松原, 茂仁

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the activities of long-established brewing firm which is working on a strategic alliance with rural community and to clarify that environmental value is always considered as an important factor to sustain this strategic alliance. In this examination, the alliance of long-established brewing firm with rural community is focused and the relationship between environmental value and management strategy of the longestablished brewing firm is analysed using the VRIO frame...

  6. Physiology of yeasts in alcoholic fermentation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Pedro M. R.

    2008-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica This thesis is focused on physiological aspects of the yeasts used in two alcoholic fermentation processes: primary brewing fermentation and fermentation of lactose (particularly lactose derived from cheese whey) to ethanol by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae flocculent strains. The brewing fermentation is probably the most extensively studied alcoholic fermentation process. Nevertheless, developments in brewing tech...

  7. Industrial Brewing Yeast with High-glutathione Production and Low-ADH Ⅱ Enzyme Activity%乙醇脱氢酶Ⅱ活性低谷胱甘肽含量高的啤酒酵母工程菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱并生

    2008-01-01

    微生物代谢工程是当前国内外研究的热点。在食品、能源、环境等领域,通过遗传修饰改变微生物的物质和能量代谢流向以获得期望产物的研究已广泛地开展。乙醛是啤酒中重要的风味物质之一,过高的乙醛含量已成为国内啤酒风味改良的瓶颈,一直难有突破。

  8. Effects of Added Enzymes on Wort Yield in Beer Brewing with Extruded Rice as Auxilliary Materials%外加酶对膨化大米辅料麦汁收得率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏军; 申德超

    2008-01-01

    以复合酶、糖化酶和淀粉酶用量3因素进行5水平2次旋转正交组合试验设计,研究膨化大米辅料酿造啤酒的外加酶对麦汁收得率的影响.结果表明,最佳酶添加量为:复合酶用量为1.95~2.24 mL;糖化酶用量为2.04~2.30 mL;淀粉酶用量为2.16~2.67 mL.

  9. The Beer Brewing Technology Using Only Syrup as Auxiliary Material%浅谈辅料不使用大米,全部使用糖浆的啤酒生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩国涛

    2009-01-01

    研究探讨辅料不使用大米,全部使用糖浆的啤酒生产工艺.对大米、小麦芽和糖浆作了重点分析,制定了试验工艺,并得出结论:糖浆完全可以代替大米作为啤酒生产辅料,生产出的啤酒是合格的.对全部使用糖浆产生的节约价值作了重点介绍,对啤酒企业来说又找到了一条降低生产成本、提高盈利空间道路.

  10. 挤压膨化大米作啤酒辅料外加酶糖化工艺研究%Study on the saccharification technology of beer brewing by using extruded rice and enzyme agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐颖; 申德超

    2005-01-01

    研究以挤压膨化大米为辅料,啤酒糖化的外加酶糖化工艺参数对麦汁浸出物收得率的影响规律.寻求最佳的工艺参数,为以后的生产和科研提供依据.同时和传统工艺对比研究,其麦汁的主要技术指标良好,且麦汁收得率比传统工艺高4.22%.

  11. Lehui Fermentation Cylinder and BREWTECH Control System Play an Important Part in Beer Brewing%啤酒酿造中的法宝:乐惠发酵罐和BREWTECH控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文忍; 申林

    2009-01-01

    现代啤酒企业产能越来越大,对质量的要求越来越高,同时对成本的控制更加严格。对酿造系统来说,必须不断追求更先进、节能的技术,不断推陈出新。配置更高、功能更好、维护费用低的设备必将受到广大啤酒厂家的青睐。

  12. 厌氧UASB-新型生物接触氧化工艺处理啤酒废水%Anaerobic UASB Biological Contact Process to Treat Beer Brewing Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌建宇; 刘晓文

    2000-01-01

    分析、总结了应用常温厌氧UASB-(均负荷)新型生物接触氧化工艺处理啤酒废水的设计、调试和工程实际运行情况,实践证明:该工艺是一种技术先进、高效低耗、投资省、运行稳定、出水水质好的新处理工艺.

  13. 腾冲县啤饲大麦新品种适应性鉴定研究%Study on Adaptability Identification of New Barley Variety for Both Feeding and Beer Brewing in Tengchong County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷方正; 张彦昌

    2011-01-01

    对2007-2008年在腾冲县实施的保山市啤饲大麦区域试验6个新品种进行适应性鉴定试验,结果表明:云大麦2号早熟、高产、稳产、抗病性及抗倒性好,比对照品种显著增产,可在腾冲县适宜区域进行大面积示范推广;保大麦9号早熟、高产、稳产、抗病性好,但抗倒性一般,可在腾冲县适宜区域扩大示范.

  14. 优质啤用大麦华大麦2号特征特性及栽培要点%Characteristics and cultural main points of top quality beer brewing barley Huadamai No.2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙东发

    2002-01-01

    华大麦2号是湖北省2001年8月审定命名的优质啤用大麦新品种,其各项品质指标均达到或超过国家优质啤用大麦标准,且表现为早熟、高产、多抗.报道了该品种的选育经过、特征特性及栽培要点,讨论了应用该品种的模式与前景.

  15. Factors and Control Strategy of Harmful Microbes Pollution During Beer Brewing Process%啤酒酿造过程中有害微生物污染因素及防治策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶子豪

    2011-01-01

    介绍了啤酒酿造过程中常见的有害微生物及其危害,分析了有害微生物的污染因素,并根据微生物的种类与特点介绍了啤酒厂在酿造过程中微生物的管理和微生物污染的防治策略.

  16. 西门子啤酒酿造专业解决方案BRAUMAT V5.3再释与青啤酒之缘%Siemens Beer Brewing Professional Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    青岛啤酒厂始建于1903年,由英、德商人投资兴建,糖化工艺设备由著名的法国凯姆内茨史德日耳曼机械厂即德国西门子公司的前身提供(Maschinenfabrik Germaniain Chemnitz)。这种友谊历百年尔不殆,不能不说是奇缘,而这种缘又通过这次青岛啤酒二厂糖化车间由西门子公司原过程自动化S5控制系统升级为西门子成熟的最新技术BRAUMATV5.3控制系统得以延续。

  17. 膨化大米辅料酿造啤酒中糖化工艺参数对双乙酰还原的影响%Effects of Saccharification Parameters on Diacetyl Reduction during Beer Brewing by Extruded Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏军; 申德超

    2006-01-01

    通过5因素5水平二次旋转正交组合试验设计,膨化大米辅料酿造啤酒中糖化工艺参数对双乙酰还原的影响.结果表明,最佳糖化工艺参数为:辅料含量为46.88%~47.12%,料水比为1:4.85~1:4.94,50℃蛋白质休止时间为50.75~51.60 min,63℃糖化时间为40.50~41.15 min,70℃糖化时间为29.20~30.00 min;各因素对啤酒中双乙酰还原时间的影响程度按从大到小的顺序依次为:X1,X5,X3,X2,X4.(孙悟)

  18. Management of Biacetyl from the point of view of Metabolic Way during Beer Brewing%从代谢途径上看啤酒生产中双乙酰的调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海兵

    2004-01-01

    啤酒中双乙酰的含量是国家质量重要标准之一.当啤酒中双乙酰含量过高时,会产生不正常的口味,严重影响啤酒的质量.从双乙酰的代谢途径出发,探讨了双乙酰的形成和代谢机制,并阐述了在啤酒酿造过程中双乙酰含量的控制措施.

  19. Research on the Application of Enzymatic Technology to Produce Maltose Syrup for Beer Brewing%酶法模拟生产啤酒玉米糖浆的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣海龙; 郭德军

    2008-01-01

    啤酒玉米糖浆在国内外逐渐受到重视,具有广阔的发展空间.对啤酒玉米糖浆的应用情况及生产技术进行了综合分析,同时对啤酒糖浆未来的应用作出了展望.

  20. Effect of Higher Alcohols on Beer Flavors and Content Control during Beer Brewing%高级醇对啤酒风味的影响及其在啤酒生产中的控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海兵

    2005-01-01

    高级醇是构成啤酒酒体的重要物质,是啤酒酿造过程中不可避免的副产物.高级醇赋予啤酒醇厚感、泡沫细腻,使啤酒丰满,但含量太高会破坏啤酒酒体及风味.影响和控制啤酒酿造过程中高级醇含量的因素有啤酒酵母、麦芽质量、麦汁成分和发酵工艺(如发酵温度、发酵方法、发酵度)等.