WorldWideScience

Sample records for brewing

  1. Brewing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelter, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Following the brewing process from grain to glass, this course uses the biological and chemical principles of brewing to teach science to the nonscience major. Discussion of the scientific aspects of malting, mashing, fermentation, and the making of different beer styles is complemented by laboratory exercises that use scientific methods to…

  2. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  3. Fate of Mycotoxins during Beer Brewing and Fermentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    INOUE, Tomonori; NAGATOMI, Yasushi; UYAMA, Atsuo; MOCHIZUKI, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    ...) during beer brewing was investigated in this study. Malt artificially spiked with each mycotoxin was put through the mashing, filtration, boiling and fermentation processes involved in brewing...

  4. Progress in Brewing Science and Beer Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamforth, C W

    2017-06-07

    The brewing of beer is an ancient biotechnology, the unit processes of which have not changed in hundreds of years. Equally, scientific study within the brewing industry not only has ensured that modern beer making is highly controlled, leading to highly consistent, high-quality, healthful beverages, but also has informed many other fermentation-based industries.

  5. The use of enzymes for beer brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Mostert, Joost; Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    The exergetic performance of beer produced by the conventional malting and brewing process is compared with that of beer produced using an enzyme-assisted process. The aim is to estimate if the use of an exogenous enzyme formulation reduces the environmental impact of the overall brewing process.

  6. Silicon in beer and brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Troy R; Bamforth, Charles W

    2010-04-15

    It has been claimed that beer is one of the richest sources of silicon in the diet; however, little is known of the relationship between silicon content and beer style and the manner in which beer is produced. The purpose of this study was to measure silicon in a diversity of beers and ascertain the grist selection and brewing factors that impact the level of silicon obtained in beer. Commercial beers ranged from 6.4 to 56.5 mg L(-1) in silicon. Products derived from a grist of barley tended to contain more silicon than did those from a wheat-based grist, likely because of the high levels of silica in the retained husk layer of barley. Hops contain substantially more silicon than does grain, but quantitatively hops make a much smaller contribution than malt to the production of beer and therefore relatively less silicon in beer derives from them. During brewing the vast majority of the silicon remains with the spent grains; however, aggressive treatment during wort production in the brewhouse leads to increased extraction of silicon into wort and much of this survives into beer. It is confirmed that beer is a very rich source of silicon. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The Microbiology of Malting and Brewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Brewing beer involves microbial activity at every stage, from raw material production and malting to stability in the package. Most of these activities are desirable, as beer is the result of a traditional food fermentation, but others represent threats to the quality of the final product and must be controlled actively through careful management, the daily task of maltsters and brewers globally. This review collates current knowledge relevant to the biology of brewing yeast, fermentation management, and the microbial ecology of beer and brewing. PMID:23699253

  8. The use of enzymes for beer brewing

    OpenAIRE

    Donkelaar, van, Laura H.G.; Mostert, Joost; Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der, Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    The exergetic performance of beer produced by the conventional malting and brewing process is compared with that of beer produced using an enzyme-assisted process. The aim is to estimate if the use of an exogenous enzyme formulation reduces the environmental impact of the overall brewing process. The exergy efficiency of malting was 77%. The main exergy losses stem from the use of natural gas for kilning and from starch loss during germination. The exergy efficiency of the enzyme production p...

  9. Development of a Vermi Tea Brewing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnalyn C. Cabaces

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost, a product of the composting system that utilizes earthworms for the decomposition of the biosolids and/or solid wastes is now considered in organic farming. But since it is applied in solid form, it is difficult for some plants to take up the nutrient contents. The liquid form is the vermi tea which facilitates the plants for fast absorption of the nutrients. The main objective of this study is to develop a vermi tea brewing machine taking into consideration system components and material specifications. Specifically, it aimed to establish the operating time of the machine and to evaluate its performance in terms of brewing efficiency and percent yield. The properties of the produced vermi tea were also evaluated. This is a developmental type of study which consists of development stage, preliminary testing stage and the performance testing stage. The vermi tea brewing machine comprised mainly of the cylindrical container, copper tubings, air pump, vermicompost container and support frame. During preliminary testing, the established machine’s operating time was 24 hours. Performance testing of the machine resulted to 99.58% yield and the brewing efficiency was acceptable in terms of the dissolved oxygen after the process. Properties of the produced vermi tea were tested by accredited laboratories and resulted to ph of 4.23, total NPK of 0.033%, dissolved oxygen of 5.62 mg/L, total coliform of 4,500,000 CFU/ml, mold of 3,000 CFU/ml and yeast of 3,000 CFU/ml. These are acceptable values which indicated that it can be used to improve farming activities.

  10. Performance factors of Czech brewing industry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Chmelíková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify and subsequently quantify the intensity of relation between selected value drivers of Czech brewing industry companies and thus answer the question of what the significance level of partial indicators influencing the economic value added in the Czech brewing industry is. The aim was achieved by construction and application of multifactorial model for value generators explanation, which represents a synthesis of the INFA model and performance system Balanced Scorecard. The features typical for the first part of the model are algorithmized relations and financial character of the elements, while in the second with non-financial elements the ability of algorithmization is lost and the connection are defined solely on the basis of causality. This inconsistency also implied the difference in the character of analysis results. The proposed model made it possible to identify the most significant generators of value in the Czech brewing industry and it thus became an important guideline for brewery management. The results of the analysis offer a comprehensive overview of the most important value generators and thus enable the company managers to attain the goals of the owners more effectively.

  11. Effect of Brewing Time and Temperature on the release of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    The result shows that the rate of release of manganese and oxalate in brewed tea increase with increase in brewing temperature and time. @JASEM ... of the stomach and bowel. They are also effective in reducing nausea ... belong to a group of molecules called organic acids, and are routinely made by plants, animals, and.

  12. Roasting Effects on Formation Mechanisms of Coffee Brew Melanoidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Loots, M.J.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the roasting degree on coffee brew melanoidin properties and formation mechanisms was studied. Coffee brew fractions differing in molecular weight (Mw) were isolated from green and light-, medium-, and dark-roasted coffee beans. Isolated fractions were characterized for their

  13. Incorporation of Chlorogenic Acids in Coffee Brew Melanoidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van T.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    The incorporation of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and their subunits quinic and caffeic acids (QA and CA) in coffee brew melanoidins was studied. Fractions with different molecular weights, ionic charges, and ethanol solubilities were isolated from coffee brew. Fractions were saponified, and the

  14. Analysis of the hybrid genomes of brewing yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolat, I.

    2016-01-01

    One of the best guarded secrets of brewers is represented by the brewing yeast employed in beer fermentation, due to its profound impact upon the specific flavour profile of the final product. The current research tackles the genome diversity of lager brewing strains as well as their impact on

  15. Globalization of Brewing and Economies of Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    The globalization of the brewing industry after the turn of the century through a large wave of mergers and acquisitions has changed the structure of the world beer markets. The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012 and points to high transportation costs...... for beers and economies of scale in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based on information...

  16. Marketing and Globalization of the Brewing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    The globalization of the brewing industry after the turn of the century through a large wave of mergers and acquisitions has changed the structure of the world beer markets. The chapter tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012 and points to high transportation costs...... for beers and economies of scale at the firm level in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale at the firm level in marketing...

  17. Energy-Saving in Brew-Rectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Ulyanau

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates dynamics of rectification process on one plate of a column. The basic channels controlling brew-rectification process are described in the paper.The paper also considers problems pertaining to synthesis of an adaptive system that controls non-stationary objects with delay. Synthesis of adaptive systems that automatically control product quality and saving on power resources and productivity with the help of the second method of Lyapunov has been carried out in the paper.Industrial introduction of the given automatic control system of technological process shall permit to increase productivity of a rectification (10–15 %, to decrease specific power consumption by (5–10 % while preserving the specified quality of rectified ethyl alcohol and decrease alcohol losses with luting water and malt-residue.

  18. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were assambled in order to increase the brewing yeast fermentation performance. The primary fermentation was 14 days, followed by another 14 days of secondary fermentation (maturation. The must fermentation monitoring was done by the automatic FermentoStar analyzer. The whole fermentation process was monitorized (temperature, pH, alcohol concentration, apparent and total wort extract.

  19. Brewing for Students: An Inquiry-Based Microbiology Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Brian K. Sato; Usman Alam; Samantha J. Dacanay; Amanda K. Lee; Justin F. Shaffer

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to improve and assess student learning, there has been a push to increase the incorporation of discovery-driven modules and those that contain real-world relevance into laboratory curricula. To further this effort, we have developed, implemented, and assessed an undergraduate microbiology laboratory experiment that requires students to use the scientific method while brewing beer. The experiment allows students to brew their own beer and characterize it based on taste, alcohol co...

  20. A comparison between brewing beer and making wine

    OpenAIRE

    Alemany Bonastre, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    This project tries to explain the brewing process with the purpose to brew a small quantity of beer, at the same time analyses different characteristics of the beer and raw materials to determine the quality of the beer. These characteristics are: carbon dioxide, nitrogen, phosphates, alcohol and diacetyl content, bitterness, calcium, color, pH, and real extract. The characteristics of the beer are compared among a normal commercial beer, our beer and the values in the bibliography. The...

  1. Genome Sequence of the Lager Brewing Yeast, an Interspecies Hybrid

    OpenAIRE

    Nakao, Yoshihiro; Kanamori, Takeshi; Itoh, Takehiko; Kodama, Yukiko; Rainieri, Sandra; Nakamura, Norihisa; Shimonaga, Tomoko; Hattori, Masahira; Ashikari, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the genome sequencing of the lager brewing yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) Weihenstephan 34/70, a strain widely used in lager beer brewing. The 25 Mb genome comprises two nuclear sub-genomes originating from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus and one circular mitochondrial genome originating from S. bayanus. Thirty-six different types of chromosomes were found including eight chromosomes with translocations between the two sub-genomes, whose breakpoints ar...

  2. Genome sequence of the lager brewing yeast, an interspecies hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Yoshihiro; Kanamori, Takeshi; Itoh, Takehiko; Kodama, Yukiko; Rainieri, Sandra; Nakamura, Norihisa; Shimonaga, Tomoko; Hattori, Masahira; Ashikari, Toshihiko

    2009-04-01

    This work presents the genome sequencing of the lager brewing yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) Weihenstephan 34/70, a strain widely used in lager beer brewing. The 25 Mb genome comprises two nuclear sub-genomes originating from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus and one circular mitochondrial genome originating from S. bayanus. Thirty-six different types of chromosomes were found including eight chromosomes with translocations between the two sub-genomes, whose breakpoints are within the orthologous open reading frames. Several gene loci responsible for typical lager brewing yeast characteristics such as maltotriose uptake and sulfite production have been increased in number by chromosomal rearrangements. Despite an overall high degree of conservation of the synteny with S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus, the syntenies were not well conserved in the sub-telomeric regions that contain lager brewing yeast characteristic and specific genes. Deletion of larger chromosomal regions, a massive unilateral decrease of the ribosomal DNA cluster and bilateral truncations of over 60 genes reflect a post-hybridization evolution process. Truncations and deletions of less efficient maltose and maltotriose uptake genes may indicate the result of adaptation to brewing. The genome sequence of this interspecies hybrid yeast provides a new tool for better understanding of lager brewing yeast behavior in industrial beer production.

  3. Changes in headspace volatile concentrations of coffee brews caused by the roasting process and the brewing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Galilea, Isabel; Fournier, Nicole; Cid, Concepción; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2006-11-01

    Headspace-solid-phase microextraction technique (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) were used to characterize the aroma compounds of coffee brews from commercial conventional and torrefacto roasted coffee prepared by filter coffeemaker and espresso machine. A total of 47 volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to differentiate coffee brew samples by volatile compounds. Conventional and torrefacto roasted coffee brews were separated successfully by principal component 1 (68.5% of variance), and filter and espresso ones were separated by principal component 2 (19.5% of variance). By GC olfactometry, a total of 34 aroma compounds have been perceived at least in half of the coffee extracts and among them 28 were identified, among which octanal was identified for the first time as a contributor to coffee brew aroma.

  4. The use of home brew in Pacific Islands countries and territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosa, Vili; Duffy, Shavonne; Singh, Debbie; Lavelio, Save; Amber, Uma; Homasi-Paelate, Avanoa; Alfred, Julia

    2018-01-01

    This review examines what is known about the production and use of home brew in the Pacific Islands countries and territories. Data collection involved interviews of 78 men and women from the Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Toga, and Tuvalu. The interviews were conducted in 2013 by local interviewers. The questions fell into four key areas: people's history of home-brew consumption, the reasons for home-brew use, the effects of home brew, and people's perceptions about home brew. An open ethnographic approach revealed that males are the main consumers of home brew, that home brew is consumed in private venues by those with low socioeconomic status, and that there are positive and negative outcomes associated with the use of home brew. Finally, policy implications of the findings are included in this article.

  5. Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat......, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions...... barley, oat, rye or wheat using exogenously added enzymes. It also helps to understand the process ability by revealing specific needs when manufacturing different type of beers from unmalted grains, potentially paving the way to process optimisation and development of future products....

  6. Fate of mycotoxins during beer brewing and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are frequent contaminants of grains, and breweries need, therefore, to pay close attention to the risk of contamination in beer made from such grains as barley and corn. The fate of 14 types of mycotoxin (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone) during beer brewing was investigated in this study. Malt artificially spiked with each mycotoxin was put through the mashing, filtration, boiling and fermentation processes involved in brewing. After brewing, the levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, and zearalenone were found to have decreased to less than 20% of their initial concentration. They had been adsorbed mainly to the spent grain and removed from the unhopped wort. Additionally, as zearalenone was known, patulin was metabolized to the less toxic compound during the fermentation process. The risk of carry-over to beer was therefore reduced for half of the mycotoxins studied. However, attention still needs to be paid to the risk of trichothecene contamination.

  7. Mutagenizing brewing yeast strain for improving fermentation property of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zengran; Zhang, Guangyi; Sun, Yunping

    2008-07-01

    A brewing yeast mutant with perfect sugar fermentation capacity was isolated by mutagenizing the Saccharomyces pastorianus transformant, which carries an integrated glucoamylase gene and has one copy of non-functional alpha-acetolactate synthase gene. The mutant was able to utilize maltotriose efficiently, and the maltotriose fermentability in YNB-2% maltotriose medium increased from 32.4% to 72.0% after 5 d in shaking culture. The wort fermentation test confirmed that the sugar fermentation property of the mutant was greatly improved, while its brewing performances were analogous to that of the wild-type strain and the characteristic trait of shortened beer maturation period was retained. Therefore, we believe that the brewing yeast mutant would benefit the beer industry and would be useful for low caloric beer production.

  8. Arduino-Based Small Scale Electric Brewing System

    OpenAIRE

    Farineau, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this project is to create a small-scale, low cost, electric home brewing system that allows a user to more easily brew large (5 gallon) batches of beer in an enclosed space. This is accomplished by using an Arduino microcontroller in conjunction with a Yun WiFi shield to host a local website which allows a user to enter a temperature into the system via their phone, tablet, or computer. This data is then passed from a website running on the Yun shield to the Arduino sketch which r...

  9. Biological remediation of the petropolluted soil by a brewing waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Rudenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibility of application of one of the basic waste of brewing manufacture – spent grains and fulfilled diatomite – for clearing of the petropolluted soils are studied. Results of field researches of influence of a waste of brewing on degree of removal of hydrocarbons from a chernozem soil having various degree of pollution by oil are resulted. It is shown, that the spent grains and fulfilled diatomite stimulate process of removal of hydrocarbons and can be applied to remediation of the petropolluted soil.

  10. 40 CFR 63.2161 - What performance tests and other procedures must I use if I monitor brew ethanol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures must I use if I monitor brew ethanol? 63.2161 Section 63.2161 Protection of Environment... and other procedures must I use if I monitor brew ethanol? (a) You must conduct each performance test... performance test simultaneously with brew ethanol monitoring to establish a brew-to-exhaust correlation...

  11. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.; Ostertag, K.; Radgen, P.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of five case studies of energy management in German breweries. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the brewing sector may be improved. The results of the study for the brewing sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the brewing sector - Case studies of energy management in the German brewing sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German brewing sector; - The role of energy service companies in the brewing sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  12. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.; Ostertag, K.; Radgen, P.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of five case studies of energy management in German breweries. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the brewing sector may be improved. The results of the study for the brewing sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the brewing sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German brewing sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German brewing sector; - The role of energy service companies in the brewing sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  13. Brewing as a Comprehensive Learning Platform in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rudi P.; Sørensen, Jens L.; Simonsen, Morten E.; Madsen, Henrik T.; Muff, Jens; Strandgaard, Morten; Søgaard, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical engineering is mostly taught using traditional classroom teaching and laboratory experiments when possible. Being a wide discipline encompassing topics such as analytical chemistry, process design, and microbiology, it may be argued that brewing of beer has many relations to chemical engineering topic-wise. This work illustrates how…

  14. Technology, production paradigm and operation: Transformation of Brazilian brewing sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Rodrigues Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available echnology is one of the most relevant conditions for progress and development in society. Industrial technology generated a new development curve in several productive sectors, such as the alcoholic beverages. Beer is produced since 8000 BC, but its global popularization took place after the Second World War. Yet, brewing technology has been recently writing a new chapter: a paradigmatic transformation not only on instrumental principles, but also in terms of its economic and symbolic impact inside and outside organizations. This article aims to explore the new brewing paradigm and its pragmatic implications in terms of main concepts, management and operations in Brazil. Secondly, as a theoretical approach, it seeks to demystify technology and its social relationship. Technology, considering its material aspect, does not provide a broad understanding of field transformation. Therefore, the nuances of brewinng technology were captured by qualitative research. Secondary data and interviews with key elements were used as the main data collection strategy. Results indicate a brewing revolution, materialized by the offer of creative new products to mainstream markets, specialty beer shops and pubs. It is technological transformation in its essence, creating a new path from the craftman to the technique and demanding innovative management and operations forms. New brewing technologic paradigm rescues traditional techniques that in essence are concerned with producing “good” beer.

  15. Brewing for Students: An Inquiry-Based Microbiology Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Sato

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to improve and assess student learning, there has been a push to increase the incorporation of discovery-driven modules and those that contain real-world relevance into laboratory curricula. To further this effort, we have developed, implemented, and assessed an undergraduate microbiology laboratory experiment that requires students to use the scientific method while brewing beer. The experiment allows students to brew their own beer and characterize it based on taste, alcohol content, calorie content, pH, and standard reference method. In addition, we assessed whether students were capable of achieving the module learning objectives through a pre-/posttest, student self-evaluation, exam-embedded questions, and an associated worksheet. These objectives included describing the role of the brewing ingredients and predicting how altering the ingredients would affect the characteristics of the beer, amongst others. By completing this experimental module, students accomplished the module objectives, had greater interest in brewing, and were more likely to view beer in scientific terms. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the Guidelines for Biosafety in Teaching Laboratories, available at www.asm.org. The Editors of JMBE recommend that adopters of the protocols included in this article follow a minimum of Biosafety Level 1 practices.

  16. Brewing and consumptions practices of indigenous traditional beer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is based on a study that aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, behaviour and practices regarding the food safety and brewing methods applicable to the manufacturing of traditional beer as well as consumer perceptions. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 30 informal brewers and 90 traditional ...

  17. Effect of Brewing Time and Temperature on the release of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the oxalate content and manganese released in three plant material (Moringa oleifera leaves, Phyllanthus amarus leaves, Neem leaves) used as tea and compared with the conventional Lipton tea. The manganese and oxalate test was determined by varying brewing temperature at 29oC, 50oC, 100oC ...

  18. Consumption of unfiltered coffee brews in elderly Europeans. SENECA Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgert, R; de Groot, C P

    1996-07-01

    To quantify the consumption of unfiltered coffee brews, which contain the cholesterol-raising diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, in elderly subjects. Interviews of randomly selected elderly in the 1993 SENECA Study on Nutrition and the Elderly in Europe. Nine towns in eight European countries (Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Switzerland, Poland, and Northern Ireland/United Kingdom). 962 relatively healthy elderly persons (460 men, 502 women) born between 1913 and 1918. Daily coffee consumption, classified by brewing technique. About 90 percent of the examinees were daily coffee users in Roskilde/Denmark (population means; men 530 ml/d, women 425 ml/d) and Culemborg/the Netherlands (men 513 ml/d, women 285 ml/d), against only 12% in Marki/Poland (population means; men 14 ml/d, women 36 ml/d) and 7% in Coimbra/Portugal (men 8 ml/d, women 0 ml/d). Drip-filtered and instant coffee, which are poor in diterpenes, were the prevalent types in most survey towns. Espresso and mocha coffee, which contain intermediate amounts of diterpenes, were consumed daily by 31% of the coffee drinkers in Switzerland and by all coffee drinkers in Italy, but intake was too low to substantially affect serum cholesterol levels. Consumption of brews that are rich in diterpenes, such as cafetiere, boiled, or Turkish/Greek coffee, was negligible in all survey towns. Coffee drinking is common among elderly people in some European countries, but intake of cafestol and kahweol with unfiltered coffee brews is low.

  19. Energy efficiency opportunities in the Canadian brewing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This guide is one of several that will be issued over time as part of the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC). The objective in this instance is to describe data related to industrial energy use in the Canadian brewing industry and the opportunities for energy efficiency within the industry. The various industry task forces within CIPEC act as the focal point for identifying energy efficiency potential and improvement opportunities, establish energy efficiency targets for their respective sectors, reviewing and addressing barriers, and developing and implementing strategies for the achievement of targets. This guide, compiled on behalf of the brewing industry task force of CIPEC, is designed to demonstrate practical support for federal government objectives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, help in the development of the industry`s energy efficiency targets and draw up an action plan to realize this target. Accordingly, the guide provides brief descriptions of energy efficiency opportunities, and describes proven and tested energy and money-saving methods. These methods include procedural changes, employee involvement, common-sense good housekeeping tips, energy audits, improvements in maintenance practices, changes in the operational and control functions, capital investments, and improvements through monitoring and targeting. Integrating energy efficiency improvement efforts with an environmental management system is also described as part of demonstrating good corporate citizenship. Various energy efficiency case histories taken from brewing industry experiences are described as examples of the kind of energy efficiency measures that breweries could profitably undertake. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Evaluation of Biofunctional Compounds Content from Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca C. Fărcaş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee, one of the most popular beverages worldwide, is an infusion of ground, roasted coffee beans. Today, coffee is considered a functional food, especially due to its high content of compounds that exert antioxidant and other beneficial biological properties. The annual consumption exceeds 5 billion kilograms of coffee, which corresponds to 500 billion cups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, caffeine as well as the antioxidant activity of three brewed coffee samples in order to assess the amount of these bioactive compounds in a cup of coffee. The quantification of total phenolic compounds was achieved by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoids content was determined using a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based spectrophotometric method. The caffeine was extracted from brewed coffee samples with dichlormethane and then was quantified by measuring the absorbance of the extract at 260 nm. The antioxidant capacity of each coffee sample was assessed by evaluating their radical scavenging activity on DPPH radical. Even though Arabica coffee variety is appreciated for its fine aroma profile, Robusta variety has proved to be richer in phenolic compounds, flavonoids and caffeine. The larger amount of compounds with antioxidant properties found in Robusta brewed coffee was also confirmed by the obtained antioxidant capacity values.

  1. Influence of brewing conditions on taste components in Fuding white tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihua; Li, Yulin; Lv, Yangjun; Jiang, Yulan; Pan, Junxian; Duan, Yuwei; Zhu, Yuejin; Zhang, Shikang

    2017-07-01

    White tea has received increasing attention of late as a result of its sweet taste and health benefits. During the brewing of white tea, many factors may affect the nutritional and sensory quality of the resulting infusions. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of various infusion conditions on the taste components of Fuding white tea, including infusion time, ratio of tea and water, number of brewing steps, and temperature. Brewing conditions had a strong effect on the taste compound profile and sensory characteristics. The catechin, caffeine, theanine and free amino acid contents generally increased with increasing infusion time and temperature. Conditions comprising an infusion time of 7 min, a brewing temperature of 100 °C, a tea and water ratio of 1:30 or 1:40, and a second brewing step, respectively, were shown to obtain the highest contents of most compounds. Regarding tea sensory evaluation, conditions comprising an infusion time of 3 min, a brewing temperature of 100 °C, a tea and water ratio of 1:50, and a first brewing step, resulted in the highest sensory score for comprehensive behavior of color, aroma and taste. The results of the present study reveal differences in the contents of various taste compounds, including catechins, caffeine, theanine and free amino acids, with respect to different brewing conditions, and sensory scores also varied with brewing conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Manganese in brewing raw materials, disposition during the brewing process, and impact on the flavor instability of beer

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, JR; Bamforth, CW

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 American Society of Brewing Chemists, Inc. Like iron and copper, manganese promotes the staling of beer, by converting ground state oxygen to reactive oxygen species. Manganese was detected in beers at levels that are likely to impact the aging of beer. Manganese originates in the grist materials but is present at even higher levels in hops. Although there is substantially more iron in those hops than manganese, the delivery into beer of these ions is much greater for manganese. Leachi...

  3. Quantification of protein-derived thiols during atmosphere-controlled brewing in laboratory scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murmann, Anne Nordmark; Andersen, Preben; Mauch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    An atmosphere-controlled brewing system was built to study thiol oxidation during brewing in laboratory scale under conditions with limited oxygen exposure. Quantification of free and total thiols and protein showed that thiols were lost during wort boiling possibly owing to protein precipitation...

  4. LABOUR PROTECTION AND SAFETY IN THE BREWING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Melnik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the quantification of the level of safety in the brewing industry, which allows determining the contribution of each employee to ensure healthy and safe working conditions. Factors have also been shown to affect the safety of each of the employees. Knowledge of the characteristics and limits of each of the factors makes it possible to secure workflow and solve potential problems early. Previously considered a comprehensive approach that allows full control of the security protecting the entire brewing industry. Efficient and safe work is possible only if the working environment at the workplace to meet all the requirements of international standards in the field of occupational safety and health. Therefore, each category from a number of activities, which can significantly reduce the level of injury, and ending with the characteristics of each of the factors for drawing up a plan to ensure the maximum protection of the company's employees, was discussed. Chemical, physical, biological and psychophysical factors may exist alone or in combination with each other. It is therefore important to identify in advance all of them and to take all measures relating to ensure safe working conditions in each of the processes. Separately considered optimal and allowable values of temperature, relative humidity and air velocity in the working area of industrial premises. The parameters were established for the purpose of continuous monitoring in order to ensure comfortable and safe work environment for each employee. In some cases it is necessary to consult with technicians to get the full picture of the possible threats posed by each type of equipment. Especially dangerous in terms of occupational safety and health in the brewing industry is a cooking workshop, where the air temperature in the working area is significantly increased, as well as the bottling plant (noisy.

  5. Salt reduction in foods using naturally brewed soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Stefanie; Mojet, Jozina; Shimojo, Ryo

    2009-08-01

    In recent years, health concerns related to salt/sodium chloride consumption have caused an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, sodium chloride (NaCl) reduction in foods has become an important challenge. The more so, since a decrease in NaCl content is often reported to be associated with a decrease in consumer acceptance. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether or not it would be possible to reduce the NaCl content in standard Western European foods by replacing it with naturally brewed soy sauce. Three types of foods were investigated: salad dressing (n = 56), soup (n = 52), and stir-fried pork (n = 57). In the 1st step, an exchange rate (ER) by which NaCl can be replaced with soy sauce without a significant change in the overall taste intensity was established per product type, by means of alternative forced choice tests. In the 2nd step, the same consumers evaluated 5 samples per product type with varying NaCl and/or soy sauce content on pleasantness and several sensory attributes. The results showed that it was possible to achieve a NaCl reduction in the tested foods of, respectively, 50%, 17%, and 29% without leading to significant losses in either overall taste intensity or product pleasantness. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with naturally brewed soy sauce without lowering the overall taste intensity and to reduce the total NaCl content in these foods without decreasing their consumer acceptance. Health concerns related to salt consumption cause an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, the development of foods with reduced salt content without decreasing the consumer acceptance is an important challenge for the food industry. A new possible salt reduction approach is described in the present article: The replacement of salt with naturally brewed soy sauce.

  6. A novel brewing process via controlled hydrodynamic cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Albanese, Lorenzo; Meneguzzo, Francesco; Pagliaro, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a completely new brewing equipment and process based upon controlled hydrodynamic cavitation, providing significant advantages in terms of lowered capital cost, reduced production time, enhanced energy and production efficiency, food safety, while preserving beer organoleptic qualities. Experiments carried out on real microbrewery volume scale using the new and conventional technology unquestionably confirm the relevance of the new findings. Impacts of these discoveries are potentially far reaching, as beer is the worldwide most widely consumed alcoholic beverage, therefore highly relevant to health, environment the economy and even to local identities.

  7. Overview of craft brewing specificities and potentially associated microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, Lindsey; Carbonero, Franck

    2017-09-14

    The brewing process differs slightly in craft breweries as compared to industrial breweries, as there are fewer control points. This affects the microbiota of the final product. Beer contains several antimicrobial properties that protect it from pathogens, such as low pH, low oxygen and high carbon dioxide content, and the addition of hops. However, these hurdles have limited power controlling spoilage organisms. Contamination by these organisms can originate in the raw materials, persist in the environment, and be introduced by using flavoring ingredients later in the process. Spoilage is a prominent issue in brewing, and can cause quality degradation resulting in consumer rejection and product waste. For example, lactic acid bacteria are predominately associated with producing a ropy texture and haze, along with producing diacetyl which gives the beer butter flavor notes. Other microorganisms may not affect flavor or aroma, but can retard fermentation by consuming nutrients needed by fermentation yeast. Quality control in craft breweries today relies on culturing methods to detect specific spoilage organisms. Using media can be beneficial for detecting the most common beer spoilers, such as Lactobacillus and Pediococci. However, these methods are time consuming with long incubation periods. Molecular methods such as community profiling or high throughput sequencing are better used for identifying entire populations of beer. These methods allow for detection, differentiation, and identification of taxa.

  8. Brewing properties of clotrimazole-resistant mutants isolated from sake yeast.

    OpenAIRE

    広畑, 修二; 渡辺, 睦; 西村, 顕; 近藤, 恭一; SHUJI, HIROHATA; MUTSUMI, WATANABE; AKIRA, NISHIMURA; KYOICHI, KONDO; 白鶴酒造(株)研究室; 白鶴酒造(株)研究室; 白鶴酒造(株)研究室; 白鶴酒造(株)研究室; Research Laboratory, Hakutsuru Sake Brewing Co., Ltd.,; Research Laboratory, Hakutsuru Sake Brewing Co., Ltd.,; Research Laboratory, Hakutsuru Sake Brewing Co., Ltd.,

    1994-01-01

    High fermentative activity mutants were selected from among sake yeast mutants resistant to clotrimazole(CTZ)by means of small-scale sake brewing tests. CTZ239 had the highest fermentative activity among these mutants, and the sake brewed with it was of good quality. Industrial-scale brewing tests were conducted with CTZ239 and the parent strain K1001. With CTZ239 the decrease in specific gravity and production of alcohol were so rapid that the fermentation of the sake mash was accomplished i...

  9. Sensory and Instrumental Flavor Changes in Green Tea Brewed Multiple Times

    OpenAIRE

    Jeehyun Lee; Delores Chambers; Edgar Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Green teas in leaf form are brewed multiple times, a common selling point. However, the flavor changes, both sensory and volatile compounds, of green teas that have been brewed multiple times are unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine how the aroma and flavor of green teas change as they are brewed multiple times, to determine if a relationship exists between green tea flavors and green tea volatile compounds, and to suggest the number of times that green tea leaves can be br...

  10. Immobilized cell technology in beer brewing: Current experience and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leskošek-Čukalov Ida J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized cell technology (ICT has been attracting continual attention in the brewing industry over the past 30 years. Some of the reasons are: faster fermentation rates and increased volumetric productivity, compared to those of traditional beer production based on freely suspended cells, as well as the possibility of continuous operation. Nowadays, ICT technology is well established in secondary fermentation and alcohol- free and low-alcohol beer production. In main fermentation, the situation is more complex and this process is still under scrutiny on both the lab and pilot levels. The paper outlines the most important ICT processes developed for beer brewing and provides an overview of carrier materials, bioreactor design and examples of their industrial applications, as well as some recent results obtained by our research group. We investigated the possible applications of polyvinyl alcohol in the form of LentiKats®, as a potential porous matrices carrier for beer fermentation. Given are the results of growth studies of immobilized brewer's yeast Saccharomyces uvarum and the kinetic parameters obtained by using alginate microbeads with immobilized yeast cells and suspension of yeast cells as controls. The results indicate that the immobilization procedure in LentiKat® carriers has a negligible effect on cell viability and growth. The apparent specific growth rate of cells released in medium was comparable to that of freely suspended cells, implying preserved cell vitality. A series of batch fermentations performed in shaken flasks and an air-lift bioreactor indicated that the immobilized cells retained high fermentation activity. The full attenuation in green beer was reached after 48 hours in shaken flasks and less than 24 hours of fermentation in gas-lift bioreactors.

  11. Coffee brew melanoidins Structural and Functional Properties of Brown-Colored Coffee Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis was the identification of structural and functional properties of coffee brew melanoidins, and their formation mechanisms, that are formed upon roasting of coffee beans.

  12. Progress Report Natsurv 1 K5_2285/3 The Malt Brewing Industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, Fhumulani R

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation includes an overview of the malt brewing industry, and uses a literature survey to gain an understanding of production processes, process inputs, waste streams, technologies evolution and the legislative framework. It concludes...

  13. Comparison of analytical parameters of beer brewed in two different technological ways at two pub breweries

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Kryl; Gregor, T; Los, J.

    2012-01-01

    This publication deals with brewing beer by infusion and decoction technologies of mash production in microbreweries. Samples of two microbrewery beers are compared, namely Richard beer (Brno-Žebětín) produced in a double mash manner appropriate for the Czech brewing type, and beer samples taken at the laboratory microbrewery of Mendel University in Brno (MENDELU), where beer is produced in a simpler and less energy – demanding infusion method. At all the beer samples the basic analytical par...

  14. Technological Development of Brewing in Domestic Refrigerator Using Freeze-Dried Raw Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gialleli, Angelika-Ioanna; Ganatsios, Vassilios; Terpou, Antonia; Kanellaki, Maria; Bekatorou, Argyro; Koutinas, Athanasios A.; Dimitrellou, Dimitra

    2017-01-01

    Development of a novel directly marketable beer brewed at low temperature in a domestic refrigerator combined with yeast immobilization technology is presented in this study. Separately, freeze-dried wort and immobilized cells of the cryotolerant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 on tubular cellulose were used in low-temperature fermentation (2, 5 and 7 °C). The positive eff ect of tubular cellulose during low-temperature brewing was examined, revealing that freeze-dried immobilize...

  15. Technological Development of Brewing in Domestic Refrigerator Using Freeze-Dried Raw Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gialleli, Angelika-Ioanna; Ganatsios, Vassilios; Terpou, Antonia; Kanellaki, Maria; Bekatorou, Argyro; Koutinas, Athanasios A.; Dimitrellou, Dimitra

    2017-01-01

    Summary Development of a novel directly marketable beer brewed at low temperature in a domestic refrigerator combined with yeast immobilization technology is presented in this study. Separately, freeze-dried wort and immobilized cells of the cryotolerant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 on tubular cellulose were used in low-temperature fermentation (2, 5 and 7 °C). The positive effect of tubular cellulose during low-temperature brewing was examined, revealing that freeze-dried imm...

  16. Effects of the M&A Wave in the Global Brewing Industry 2000-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewing groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. Industry consolidation has taken the shape of merger...... and acquisition activity more than organic growth or international joint ventures. Based on a major data base the paper traces some causes and assesses the effects of M&A strategies in the global beer industry....

  17. Comparison of beer quality attributes between beers brewed with 100% barley malt and 100% barley raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Elisabeth; Auer, Andrea; Becker, Thomas; Gastl, Martina

    2012-03-15

    Brewing with 100% barley using the Ondea® Pro exogenous brewing enzyme product was compared to brewing with 100% barley. The use of barley, rather than malt, in the brewing process and the consequences for selected beer quality attributes (foam formation, colloidal stability and filterability, sensory differences, protein content and composition) was considered. The quality attributes of barley, malt, kettle-full-wort, cold wort, unfiltered beer and filtered beer were assessed. A particular focus was given to monitoring changes in the barley protein composition during the brewing process and how the exogenous OndeaPro® enzymes influenced wort protein composition. All analyses were based on standard brewing methods described in ASBC, EBC or MEBAK. To monitor the protein changes two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used. It was shown that by brewing beer with 100% barley and an appropriate addition of exogenous Ondea® Pro enzymes it was possible to efficiently brew beer of a satisfactory quality. The production of beers brewed with 100% barley resulted in good process efficiency (lautering and filtration) and to a final product whose sensory quality was described as light, with little body and mouthfeel, very good foam stability and similar organoleptic qualities compared to conventional malt beer. In spite of the sensory evaluation differences could still be seen in protein content and composition. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Complexity and accountability: the witches' brew of psychiatric genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-Ayllon, Michael; Bartlett, Andrew; Featherstone, Katie

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the role of complexity in descriptions of the aetiology of common psychiatric disorders. While scientists attest to the discovery of an underlying reality of complex inheritance--the so-called 'witches' brew' of genetic and non-genetic factors--we argue that 'complexity' also performs rhetorical work. In our analysis of scientific review papers (1999-2008), we find a relatively stable genre of accountability in which descriptions of complexity appear to neutralize past failures by incorporating different and sometimes competing methodological perspectives. We identify two temporal strategies: retrospective accounting, which reconstructs a history of psychiatric genetics that deals with the recent failures, citing earlier twin studies as proof of the heritability of common psychiatric disorders; and prospective accounting, which engages in the careful reconstruction of expectations by balancing methodological limitations with moderated optimism. Together, these strategies produce a simple-to-complex narrative that belies the ambivalent nature of complexity. We show that the rhetorical construction of complexity in scientific review papers is oriented to bridging disciplinary boundaries, marshalling new resources and reconstructing expectations that justify delays in gene discovery and risk prediction.

  19. Screening and evaluation of the glucoside hydrolase activity in Saccharomyces and Brettanomyces brewing yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenen, L; Saison, D; Sterckx, F; Delvaux, F R; Verachtert, H; Derdelinckx, G

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to select and examine Saccharomyces and Brettanomyces brewing yeasts for hydrolase activity towards glycosidically bound volatile compounds. A screening for glucoside hydrolase activity of 58 brewing yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces and Brettanomyces was performed. The studied Saccharomyces brewing yeasts did not show 1,4-beta-glucosidase activity, but a strain dependent beta-glucanase activity was observed. Some Brettanomyces species did show 1,4-beta-glucosidase activity. The highest constitutive activity was found in Brettanomyces custersii. For the most interesting strains the substrate specificity was studied and their activity was evaluated in fermentation experiments with added hop glycosides. Fermentations with Br. custersii led to the highest release of aglycones. Pronounced exo-beta-glucanase activity in Saccharomyces brewing yeasts leads to a higher release of certain aglycones. Certain Brettanomyces brewing yeasts, however, are more interesting for hydrolysis of glycosidically bound volatiles of hops. The release of flavour active compounds from hop glycosides opens perspectives for the bioflavouring and product diversification of beverages like beer. The release can be enhanced by using Saccharomyces strains with high exo-beta-glucanase activity. Higher activities can be found in Brettanomyces species with beta-glucosidase activity.

  20. Trace element content in tea brewed in traditional metallic and stainless steel teapots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, D; El Houari, W; Jacobs, K; Baeyens, W; Leermakers, M

    2013-11-01

    The migration of metals in tea brewed in metallic teapots was investigated. The teapots were obtained from North Africa stores in Brussels in 2005-2006 and in 2011. Chinese gunpowder green tea, the most commonly used tea in the Moroccan community, was used to prepare the tea. Tea brewed in metallic teapots was compared to tea brewed in a glass vessel in order to evaluate the contribution of the tea and the teapots to the metal concentrations in the brewed tea. Tea samples were also collected in Moroccan households and in tearooms in Brussels. The elements As, Cd, Pb, Sn, Mn, Fe, Cr, Co, Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Al were analyzed by high-resolution sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The relationship between the metal composition of the alloy of the teapot and the metal concentration in tea was also investigated. Migration of Pb and to a lesser amount Ni, Cu, and Zn was observed in brass teapots and migration of Cd from a number of stainless steel teapots was observed. The soldering connecting the sprout to the teapot was shown to be an important source of Pb to the tea. High levels of Mn and Al were also observed in the brewed tea and these elements where shown to originate from the tea itself. Metal exposure from tea drinking was calculated for different tea consumption levels and different metal concentration levels and compared to toxicological reference values.

  1. 40 CFR 63.2166 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations if I monitor brew ethanol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations if I monitor brew ethanol? 63.2166 Section 63.2166 Protection of... demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations if I monitor brew ethanol? (a) You must...

  2. 40 CFR 63.2164 - If I monitor brew ethanol, what are my monitoring installation, operation, and maintenance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true If I monitor brew ethanol, what are my monitoring installation, operation, and maintenance requirements? 63.2164 Section 63.2164 Protection of... monitor brew ethanol, what are my monitoring installation, operation, and maintenance requirements? (a...

  3. Incidence of SUC-RTM telomeric repeated genes in brewing and wild wine strains of Saccharomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denayrolles, M; de Villechenon, E P; Lonvaud-Funel, A; Aigle, M

    1997-06-01

    When over-expressed, RTM yeast genes confer resistance to the toxicity of molasses. They are found in distiller's and baker's industrial yeasts in multiple copies, scattered on the telomeres and physically linked to the telomeric SUC genes. Because these genes are absent from some laboratory strains, we explored the genomes of other industrial yeasts (brewing strains) and wine wild strains. A collection of 47 wine yeast strains (S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus) and 15 brewing strains, lager, ale and possible ancestors (S. monacensis, S. paradoxus and S. carlsbergensis) were screened for the presence of RTM genes. Only three wine strains and all brewing strains proved to contain RTM sequences in different copy numbers. PCR and chromosome blotting confirm the presence of SUC sequences in tandem with RTM. Moreover, analysis of the entire S. cerevisiae genome sequence shows that three other, non-telomeric, genes related to RTM are scattered on different chromosomes.

  4. M&A as a driver of global competition in the brewing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewer groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. The paper describes the development and puts it into an ......The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewer groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. The paper describes the development and puts...... it into an industrial economics framework. Based on a major data base the paper further assesses the effects of M&A strategies in the global beer industry....

  5. BReW: Blackbox Resource Selection for e-Science Workflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmhan, Yogesh [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Soroush, Emad [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Van Ingen, Catharine [Microsoft Research, San Francisco, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deb [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-10-04

    Workflows are commonly used to model data intensive scientific analysis. As computational resource needs increase for eScience, emerging platforms like clouds present additional resource choices for scientists and policy makers. We introduce BReW, a tool enables users to make rapid, highlevel platform selection for their workflows using limited workflow knowledge. This helps make informed decisions on whether to port a workflow to a new platform. Our analysis of synthetic and real eScience workflows shows that using just total runtime length, maximum task fanout, and total data used and produced by the workflow, BReW can provide platform predictions comparable to whitebox models with detailed workflow knowledge.

  6. Occurrence of furan in coffee from Spanish market: Contribution of brewing and roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaki, M S; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2011-06-15

    In this work, we evaluated the occurrence of furan in brews obtained from regular, decaffeinated, and instant coffee and commercial packed capsules. For this purpose, a previously developed automated headspace solid-phase microextraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used. Initially, the influence of HS-SPME conditions on furan formation was evaluated. In addition, the effect of roasting conditions (temperature and time) used for coffee beans on furan formation was also studied. We found that low temperature and long roasting time (140°C and 20min) decreases the final furan content. Furan concentrations in regular ground coffee brews from an espresso coffee machine were higher (43-146ng/ml) than those obtained from a home drip coffee maker (20 and 78ng/ml), while decaffeinated coffee brews from a home drip coffee maker (14-65ng/ml) showed a furan concentration similar to that obtained from regular coffee. Relatively low concentrations of this compound (12-35ng/ml) were found in instant coffee brews, while commercial packed coffee capsules showed the highest concentrations (117-244ng/ml). Finally, the daily intake of furan through coffee consumption in Barcelona (Spain) (0.03-0.38μg/kg of body weight) was estimated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of analytical parameters of beer brewed in two different technological ways at two pub breweries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kryl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This publication deals with brewing beer by infusion and decoction technologies of mash production in microbreweries. Samples of two microbrewery beers are compared, namely Richard beer (Brno-Žebětín produced in a double mash manner appropriate for the Czech brewing type, and beer samples taken at the laboratory microbrewery of Mendel University in Brno (MENDELU, where beer is produced in a simpler and less energy – demanding infusion method. At all the beer samples the basic analytical parameters of real extract, ethanol content, degree of fermentation and the extract of original hopped wort were measured using an automatic beer analyzer. The results coming out of the automatic beer analyzer are compared with the results of the beer samples analysis performed by liquid chromatography, by which the contents of oligosaccharides, maltose, glycerol and ethanol were measured. Both methods provide a number of analytical results for the comparison of decoction and infusion techniques, and analytical characteristics of both the brewing procedures. Emphasis is placed on statistical data processing and comparison of different types of beer and particular brews between each other, both in terms of production technology as well as beer sampling throughout the year.

  8. Brewing Beer in the Laboratory: Grain Amylases and Yeast's Sweet Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Blake; Deutschman, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Brewing beer provides a straightforward and robust laboratory counterpart to classroom discussions of fermentation, a staple of the biochemistry curriculum. An exercise is described that provides several connections between lecture and laboratory content. Students first extract fermentable carbohydrates from whole grains, then ferment these with…

  9. Learning by Brewing: Beer Production Experiments in the Chemical Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerretani, Colin; Kelkile, Esayas; Landry, Alexandra

    We discuss the successful creation and implementation of a biotechnology track within the chemical engineering unit operations course. The track focuses on engineering principles relevant to brewing. Following laboratory modules investigating heat transfer processes and yeast fermentation kinetics, student groups design and implement a project to…

  10. Evolutionary engineering in chemostat cultures for improved maltotriose fermentation kinetics in saccharomyces pastorianus lager brewing yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brickwedde, A.; van den Broek, M.A.; Geertman, Jan Maarten A.; Magalhães, Frederico; Kuijpers, Niels G.A.; Gibson, Brian; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    The lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecies hybrid of S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae, ferments maltotriose, maltose, sucrose, glucose and fructose in wort to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Complete and timely conversion ("attenuation") of maltotriose by industrial S.

  11. Cultural Factors And Home – Brewed Alcohol Use In A Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural Factors And Home – Brewed Alcohol Use In A Rural Community In South Africa. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... tended to be preferred to traditional South African music, while in others the reverse was true i.e. Radio ...

  12. Effect of storage on the brewing properties of tropical hop substitutes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical hop substitute from utazi (UTZ) Gongronema latifolium, bitter cola (BTC), Garcinia kola, bitter leaf (BTL), Vernonia amygdalina and a blend (1:1.41:2.89) of the three (HSB) respectively, were produced. Stability studies were carried out to predict their suitability for brewing after one to six months storage at 5 ± 1oC ...

  13. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one.

  14. Low-Frequency Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy as a Monitoring Tool for Yeast Growth in Industrial Brewing Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christoph Slouka; Georg Christoph Brunauer; Julian Kopp; Michael Strahammer; Jens Fricke; Jürgen Fleig; Christoph Herwig

    2017-01-01

    Today’s yeast total biomass and viability measurements during the brewing process are dependent on offline methods such as methylene blue or florescence dye-based staining, and/or the usage of flow cytometric measurements...

  15. Research progress on the brewing techniques of new-type rice wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Aiquan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-01-15

    As a traditional alcoholic beverage, Chinese rice wine (CRW) with high nutritional value and unique flavor has been popular in China for thousands of years. Although traditional production methods had been used without change for centuries, numerous technological innovations in the last decades have greatly impacted on the CRW industry. However, reviews related to the technology research progress in this field are relatively few. This article aimed at providing a brief summary of the recent developments in the new brewing technologies for making CRW. Based on the comparison between the conventional methods and the innovative technologies of CRW brewing, three principal aspects were summarized and sorted, including the innovation of raw material pretreatment, the optimization of fermentation and the reform of sterilization technology. Furthermore, by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of these methods, various issues are addressed related to the prospect of the CRW industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sustainable operations management and benchmarking in brewing: A factor weighting approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Bumblauskas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The brewing industry has been moving towards more efficient use of energy, water reuse and stewardship, and the tracking of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions to better manage environmental and social responsibility. Commercial breweries use a great deal of water and energy to convert one gallon (liter of water into one gallon (liter of beer. An analysis was conducted on sustainable operations and supply chain management at various United States and international breweries, specifically Europe, to benchmark brewery performance and establish common metrics for sustainability in the beer supply chain. The primary research questions explored in this article are whether water reclamation and GHG emissions can be properly monitored and measured and if processes can be created to help control waste (lean and emissions. Additional questions include how we can use operations management strategies and techniques such as the Factor-Weighted Method (FWM in industries such as brewing to develop sustainability scorecards.

  17. Kombucha brewing under the Food and Drug Administration model Food Code: risk analysis and processing guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummer, Brian A

    2013-11-01

    Kombucha is a fermented beverage made from brewed tea and sugar. The taste is slightly sweet and acidic and it may have residual carbon dioxide. Kombucha is consumed in many countries as a health beverage and it is gaining in popularity in the U.S. Consequently, many retailers and food service operators are seeking to brew this beverage on site. As a fermented beverage, kombucha would be categorized in the Food and Drug Administration model Food Code as a specialized process and would require a variance with submission of a food safety plan. This special report was created to assist both operators and regulators in preparing or reviewing a kombucha food safety plan.

  18. Lead poisoning from drinking Kombucha tea brewed in a ceramic pot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, T G; Estell, J; Duggin, G; Beer, I; Smith, D; Ferson, M J

    Kombucha tea is an alternative therapy that is gaining popularity as a remedy for a diverse range of ailments. We report two cases of symptomatic lead poisoning requiring chelation therapy in a married couple who had been drinking Kombucha tea for six months, brewing the tea in a ceramic pot. We postulate that acids in the tea eluted lead from the glaze pigment used in the ceramic pot, in a manner analogous to elution of lead from crystal decanters by wine and spirits.

  19. Cultural factors and home-brewed alcohol use in a rural community in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onya, H E; Flisher, A J; Mashamba, J T

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the relationship between cultural orientation and home- brewed alcohol use among adolescents in a rural setting. The study involved 1263 students from 30 high schools in Mankweng District in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Boys formed 48% of the sample. Means ages were 16.7 and 16.0 years for boys and girls respectively. A 16 item scale focusing on language, mass media and music preferences was constructed to measure cultural orientations. There was an integration of western and traditional/local activities by respondents who reported having used home-brewed alcohol in the past 12 months. In some respects the sample had western tendencies i.e. English newspapers were read more than no-English newspapers and funky music tended to be preferred to traditional South African music, while in others the reverse was true i.e. Radio Thobela (a radio station that uses vernacular languages) was listened to more than Radio Metro (a radio station that uses English language only). There were significant differences between boys and girls in the use of western media. Older adolescents (18 years or older) used more home brewed alcohol than the younger ones. The concept of culture and its associations with alcohol use invites a critical view on cultural values among adolescents. The positive association with home-brewed alcohol use among secondary school students in our sample has been demonstrated for an orientation towards external cultural influence. Educators and learners need to increase their consciousness on the problematic side of cultural import.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhizopus chinensis CCTCCM201021, Used for Brewing Traditional Chinese Alcoholic Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dong; Wu, Rong; Xu, Yan; Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous fungus genus Rhizopus has traditionally been used for brewing alcoholic beverages and fermented foods in China. The 45,666,236-bp draft genome sequence of R.?chinensis CCTCCM201021, isolated from the leaven Daqu, was determined, annotated, and analyzed. Analysis of the sequence might provide insight into the properties of this fungus and lead to its further development for industrial applications.

  1. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coffee brew using solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houessou, Justin Koffi; Benac, Claire; Delteil, Corine; Camel, Valérie

    2005-02-23

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coffee has been reported and is suspected to be due to the degradation of coffee compounds during the roasting step. Due to the high toxicity of these compounds, among which benzo[a]pyrene is known to be the most carcinogenic, their presence in the coffee, especially the coffee brew that is directly ingested by the consumer, is of prime importance. However, due to the low solubility of these compounds, their concentrations are expected to be rather low. As a consequence, reliable and sensitive analytical methods are required. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable and fast analytical procedure to determine these organic micropollutants in coffee brew samples. PAHs were retained on a 0.5 g polystyrene-divinylbenzene cartridge before being eluted by a mixture of methanol/tetrahydrofuran (10:90 v/v), concentrated, and directly analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescence detector. Application to the determination of PAHs in several coffee brew samples is also given, with mean estimated concentrations in the range of 0-100 ng L(-1) for suspected benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene, whereas no fluoranthene could be detected. Tentative identification was made on the basis of UV spectra. However, identification of the suspected traces of PAHs could not be achieved due to matrix effects, so that the presence of coeluting compounds may not be excluded.

  2. Innovation Chinese rice wine brewing technology by bi-acidification to exclude rice soaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao Lu; Liu, Shuang Ping; Yu, Jian Shen; Yu, Yong Jian; Zhu, Sheng Hu; Zhou, Zhi Lei; Hu, Jian; Mao, Jian

    2017-04-01

    As a traditional fermented alcoholic beverage of China, Chinese rice wine (CRW) had a long history of more than 5000 years. Rice soaking process was the most crucial step during CRW brewing process, because rice soaking quality directly determined the quality of CRW. However, rice soaking water would cause the eutrophication of water bodies and waste of water. The longer time of rice soaking, the higher the content of biogenic amine, and it would have a huge impact on human health. An innovation brewing technology was carried out to exclude the rice soaking process and the Lactobacillus was added to make up for the total acid. Compared to the traditional brewing technology, the new technology saved water resources and reduced environmental pollution. The concentration of biogenic amine was also decreased by 27.16%, which improving the security of the CRW. The esters increased led to more soft-tasted CRW and less aging time; the quality of CRW would be improved with less alcohol. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Technological Development of Brewing in Domestic Refrigerator Using Freeze-Dried Raw Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gialleli, Angelika-Ioanna; Ganatsios, Vassilios; Terpou, Antonia; Kanellaki, Maria; Bekatorou, Argyro; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Dimitrellou, Dimitra

    2017-09-01

    Development of a novel directly marketable beer brewed at low temperature in a domestic refrigerator combined with yeast immobilization technology is presented in this study. Separately, freeze-dried wort and immobilized cells of the cryotolerant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 on tubular cellulose were used in low-temperature fermentation (2, 5 and 7 °C). The positive effect of tubular cellulose during low-temperature brewing was examined, revealing that freeze-dried immobilized yeast cells on tubular cellulose significantly reduced the fermentation rates in contrast to freeze-dried free cells, although they are recommended for home-made beer production. Immobilization also enhanced the yeast resistance at low-temperature fermentation, reducing the minimum brewing temperature value from 5 to 2 °C. In the case of high-quality beer production, the effect of temperature and initial sugar concentration on the fermentation kinetics were assessed. Sensory enrichment of the produced beer was confirmed by the analysis of the final products, revealing a low diacetyl concentration, together with improved polyphenol content, aroma profile and clarity. The proposed process for beer production in a domestic refrigerator can easily be commercialized and applied by dissolving the content of two separate packages in tap water; one package containing dried wort and the other dried immobilized cells on tubular cellulose suspended in tap water.

  4. Technological Development of Brewing in Domestic Refrigerator Using Freeze-Dried Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Summary Development of a novel directly marketable beer brewed at low temperature in a domestic refrigerator combined with yeast immobilization technology is presented in this study. Separately, freeze-dried wort and immobilized cells of the cryotolerant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 on tubular cellulose were used in low-temperature fermentation (2, 5 and 7 °C). The positive effect of tubular cellulose during low-temperature brewing was examined, revealing that freeze-dried immobilized yeast cells on tubular cellulose significantly reduced the fermentation rates in contrast to freeze-dried free cells, although they are recommended for home-made beer production. Immobilization also enhanced the yeast resistance at low-temperature fermentation, reducing the minimum brewing temperature value from 5 to 2 °C. In the case of high-quality beer production, the effect of temperature and initial sugar concentration on the fermentation kinetics were assessed. Sensory enrichment of the produced beer was confirmed by the analysis of the final products, revealing a low diacetyl concentration, together with improved polyphenol content, aroma profile and clarity. The proposed process for beer production in a domestic refrigerator can easily be commercialized and applied by dissolving the content of two separate packages in tap water; one package containing dried wort and the other dried immobilized cells on tubular cellulose suspended in tap water. PMID:29089847

  5. Technological Development of Brewing in Domestic Refrigerator Using Freeze-Dried Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika-Ioanna Gialleli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a novel directly marketable beer brewed at low temperature in a domestic refrigerator combined with yeast immobilization technology is presented in this study. Separately, freeze-dried wort and immobilized cells of the cryotolerant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 on tubular cellulose were used in low-temperature fermentation (2, 5 and 7 °C. The positive eff ect of tubular cellulose during low-temperature brewing was examined, revealing that freeze-dried immobilized yeast cells on tubular cellulose signifi cantly reduced the fermentation rates in contrast to freeze-dried free cells, although they are recommended for home-made beer production. Immobilization also enhanced the yeast resistance at low-temperature fermentation, reducing the minimum brewing temperature value from 5 to 2 °C. In the case of high-quality beer production, the eff ect of temperature and initial sugar concentration on the fermentation kinetics were assessed. Sensory enrichment of the produced beer was confi rmed by the analysis of the fi nal products, revealing a low diacetyl concentration, together with improved polyphenol content, aroma profi le and clarity. The proposed process for beer production in a domestic refrigerator can easily be commercialized and applied by dissolving the content of two separate packages in tap water; one package containing dried wort and the other dried immobilized cells on tubular cellulose suspended in tap water.

  6. Microbe domestication and the identification of the wild genetic stock of lager-brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libkind, Diego; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Valério, Elisabete; Gonçalves, Carla; Dover, Jim; Johnston, Mark; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2011-08-30

    Domestication of plants and animals promoted humanity's transition from nomadic to sedentary lifestyles, demographic expansion, and the emergence of civilizations. In contrast to the well-documented successes of crop and livestock breeding, processes of microbe domestication remain obscure, despite the importance of microbes to the production of food, beverages, and biofuels. Lager-beer, first brewed in the 15th century, employs an allotetraploid hybrid yeast, Saccharomyces pastorianus (syn. Saccharomyces carlsbergensis), a domesticated species created by the fusion of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale-yeast with an unknown cryotolerant Saccharomyces species. We report the isolation of that species and designate it Saccharomyces eubayanus sp. nov. because of its resemblance to Saccharomyces bayanus (a complex hybrid of S. eubayanus, Saccharomyces uvarum, and S. cerevisiae found only in the brewing environment). Individuals from populations of S. eubayanus and its sister species, S. uvarum, exist in apparent sympatry in Nothofagus (Southern beech) forests in Patagonia, but are isolated genetically through intrinsic postzygotic barriers, and ecologically through host-preference. The draft genome sequence of S. eubayanus is 99.5% identical to the non-S. cerevisiae portion of the S. pastorianus genome sequence and suggests specific changes in sugar and sulfite metabolism that were crucial for domestication in the lager-brewing environment. This study shows that combining microbial ecology with comparative genomics facilitates the discovery and preservation of wild genetic stocks of domesticated microbes to trace their history, identify genetic changes, and suggest paths to further industrial improvement.

  7. Community influences on adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onya Hans

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol represents a major public health challenge in South Africa, however little is known about the correlates of alcohol use among rural adolescents. This article examines community influences on adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol in a rural region of South Africa. Method A total of 1600 high school adolescents between 11 and 16 years of age participated in this study. Seven hundred and forty (46.3% were female and 795 (49.7% were male. Data on gender were missing for 65 students (4.0% of the sample. The age range was 11–29 years (mean age 16.4 years; Standard deviation = 2.79. A survey questionnaire on adolescent risk behavior that examined adolescents’ use of alcohol and various potential community influences on alcohol use was administered. Factor analysis was used to group community-level variables into factors. Multiple logistic regression techniques were then used to examine associations between these community factors and adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol. Results The factor analysis yielded five community-level factors that accounted for almost two-thirds of the variance in home-brewed alcohol use. These factors related to subjective adult norms around substance use in the community, negative opinions about one’s neighborhood, perceived levels of adult antisocial behavior in the community, community affirmations of adolescents, and perceived levels of crime and violence in the community (derelict neighborhood. In the logistic regression model, community affirmation was negatively associated with the use of home-brew, whereas higher scores on “derelict neighborhood” and “adult antisocial behavior” were associated with greater odds of drinking home-brew. Conclusion Findings highlight community influences on alcohol use among rural adolescents in South Africa. Feeling affirmed and valued by the broader community appears to protect adolescents against early alcohol use. In

  8. Community influences on adolescents' use of home-brewed alcohol in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onya, Hans; Tessera, Abebe; Myers, Bronwyn; Flisher, Alan

    2012-08-11

    Alcohol represents a major public health challenge in South Africa, however little is known about the correlates of alcohol use among rural adolescents. This article examines community influences on adolescents' use of home-brewed alcohol in a rural region of South Africa. A total of 1600 high school adolescents between 11 and 16 years of age participated in this study. Seven hundred and forty (46.3%) were female and 795 (49.7%) were male. Data on gender were missing for 65 students (4.0% of the sample). The age range was 11-29 years (mean age 16.4 years; Standard deviation = 2.79). A survey questionnaire on adolescent risk behavior that examined adolescents' use of alcohol and various potential community influences on alcohol use was administered. Factor analysis was used to group community-level variables into factors. Multiple logistic regression techniques were then used to examine associations between these community factors and adolescents' use of home-brewed alcohol. The factor analysis yielded five community-level factors that accounted for almost two-thirds of the variance in home-brewed alcohol use. These factors related to subjective adult norms around substance use in the community, negative opinions about one's neighborhood, perceived levels of adult antisocial behavior in the community, community affirmations of adolescents, and perceived levels of crime and violence in the community (derelict neighborhood). In the logistic regression model, community affirmation was negatively associated with the use of home-brew, whereas higher scores on "derelict neighborhood" and "adult antisocial behavior" were associated with greater odds of drinking home-brew. Findings highlight community influences on alcohol use among rural adolescents in South Africa. Feeling affirmed and valued by the broader community appears to protect adolescents against early alcohol use. In contrast, perceptions of high levels of adult anti-social behavior and crime and

  9. MALDI-TOF MS typing enables the classification of brewing yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces to major beer styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Alexander; Usbeck, Julia C; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2017-01-01

    Brewing yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces are either available from yeast distributor centers or from breweries employing their own "in-house strains". During the last years, the classification and characterization of yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces was achieved by using biochemical and DNA-based methods. The current lack of fast, cost-effective and simple methods to classify brewing yeasts to a beer type, may be closed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) upon establishment of a database based on sub-proteome spectra from reference strains of brewing yeasts. In this study an extendable "brewing yeast" spectra database was established including 52 brewing yeast strains of the most important types of bottom- and top-fermenting strains as well as beer-spoiling S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus strains. 1560 single spectra, prepared with a standardized sample preparation method, were finally compared against the established database and investigated by bioinformatic analyses for similarities and distinctions. A 100% separation between bottom-, top-fermenting and S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus strains was achieved. Differentiation between Alt and Kölsch strains was not achieved because of the high similarity of their protein patterns. Whereas the Ale strains show a high degree of dissimilarity with regard to their sub-proteome. These results were supported by MDS and DAPC analysis of all recorded spectra. Within five clusters of beer types that were distinguished, and the wheat beer (WB) cluster has a clear separation from other groups. With the establishment of this MALDI-TOF MS spectra database proof of concept is provided of the discriminatory power of this technique to classify brewing yeasts into different major beer types in a rapid, easy way, and focus brewing trails accordingly. It can be extended to yeasts for specialty beer types and other applications including wine making or baking.

  10. Stable radical content and anti-radical activity of roasted Arabica coffee: from in-tact bean to coffee brew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon J Troup

    Full Text Available The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (< 3 kD fraction exhibited the highest AO capacity using DPPH as an oxidant. The AO activity was not mediated by the stable radicals or by metal complexes within the brew. While other non-AO functions of the roasting-induced radical and metal complexes may be possible in vivo, we confirm that the in vitro antiradical activity of brewed coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  11. Use of non-saccharomyces Torulaspora delbrueckii yeast strains in winemaking and brewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tataridis Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Selected Saccharomyces yeast strains have been used for more than 150 years in brewing and for several decades in winemaking. They are necessary in brewing because of the boiling of the wort, which results in the death of all yeast cells, with the exception of some Belgian style beers (ex. Lambic, where the wort is left to be colonized by indigenous yeast and bacteria from the environment and ferment naturally. In winemaking their use is also pertinent because they provide regular and timely fermentations, inhibit the growth of indigenous spoilage microorganisms and contribute to the desired sensory characters. Even though the use of selected Saccharomyces strains provides better quality assurance in winemaking in comparison to the unknown microbial consortia in the must, it has been debated for a long time now whether the use of selected industrial Saccharomyces strains results in wines with less sensory complexity and “terroir” character. In previous decades, non-Saccharomyces yeasts were mainly considered as spoilage/problematic yeast, since they exhibited low fermentation ability and other negative traits. In the last decades experiments have shown that there are some non-Saccharomyces strains (Candida, Pichia, Kluyveromyces, Torulaspora, etc which, even though they are not able to complete the fermentation they can still be used in sequential inoculation-fermentation with Saccharomyces to increase sensory complexity of the wines. Through fermentation in a laboratory scale, we have observed that the overall effects of selected Torulaspora delbrueckii yeast strains, is highly positive, leading to products with pronounced sensory complexity and floral/fruity aroma in winemaking and brewing.

  12. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results Porn video shows and local brew dens were identified as popular events where unprotected multipartner, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents. Video halls - rooms with a TV and VCR - often show pornography at night for a very small fee, and minors are allowed. Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships characterised the sexual encounters of youth, frequently facilitated by the abuse of alcohol, which is available for minors at low cost in local brew dens. For many sexually active girls, their vulnerability to STI/HIV infection is enhanced due to financial inequality, gender-related power difference and cultural norms. The desire for love and sexual pleasure also contributed to their multiple concurrent partnerships. A substantial number of girls and young women engaged in transactional sex, often with much older working partners. These partners had a stronger socio-economic position than young women, enabling them to use money/gifts as leverage for sex. Condom use was irregular during all types of sexual encounters. Conclusions In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. These places should be regulated and monitored by the government. Our study strongly points to female vulnerabilities and the role of men in perpetuating the local epidemic. Young men should be targeted in prevention activities, to change their attitudes related to power and control in relationships. Girls should be empowered how to

  13. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njue, Carolyne; Voeten, Helene A C M; Remes, Pieter

    2011-08-08

    Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Porn video shows and local brew dens were identified as popular events where unprotected multipartner, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents. Video halls - rooms with a TV and VCR - often show pornography at night for a very small fee, and minors are allowed. Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships characterised the sexual encounters of youth, frequently facilitated by the abuse of alcohol, which is available for minors at low cost in local brew dens. For many sexually active girls, their vulnerability to STI/HIV infection is enhanced due to financial inequality, gender-related power difference and cultural norms. The desire for love and sexual pleasure also contributed to their multiple concurrent partnerships. A substantial number of girls and young women engaged in transactional sex, often with much older working partners. These partners had a stronger socio-economic position than young women, enabling them to use money/gifts as leverage for sex. Condom use was irregular during all types of sexual encounters. In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. These places should be regulated and monitored by the government. Our study strongly points to female vulnerabilities and the role of men in perpetuating the local epidemic. Young men should be targeted in prevention activities, to change their attitudes related to power and control in relationships. Girls should be empowered how to negotiate safe sex, and their poverty should

  14. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voeten Helene ACM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results Porn video shows and local brew dens were identified as popular events where unprotected multipartner, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents. Video halls - rooms with a TV and VCR - often show pornography at night for a very small fee, and minors are allowed. Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships characterised the sexual encounters of youth, frequently facilitated by the abuse of alcohol, which is available for minors at low cost in local brew dens. For many sexually active girls, their vulnerability to STI/HIV infection is enhanced due to financial inequality, gender-related power difference and cultural norms. The desire for love and sexual pleasure also contributed to their multiple concurrent partnerships. A substantial number of girls and young women engaged in transactional sex, often with much older working partners. These partners had a stronger socio-economic position than young women, enabling them to use money/gifts as leverage for sex. Condom use was irregular during all types of sexual encounters. Conclusions In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. These places should be regulated and monitored by the government. Our study strongly points to female vulnerabilities and the role of men in perpetuating the local epidemic. Young men should be targeted in prevention activities, to change their attitudes related to power and control in relationships. Girls

  15. The use of chitooligosaccharide in beer brewing for protection against beer-spoilage bacteria and its influence on beer performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Yu, Zhimin; Wang, Ting; Guo, Xuan; Luan, Jing; Sun, Yumei; Li, Xianzhen

    2016-04-01

    To identify a biological preservative that can protect beer from microbial contamination, which often results in the production of turbidity and off-flavor. The antimicrobial activity of a chitooligosaccharide against beer-spoilage bacteria and its effect on the fermentation performance of brewer's yeast was studied. Chitooligosaccharide with an average 2 kDa molecular weight was the best at inhibiting all tested beer-spoilage bacteria. The application of chitooligosaccharide in the brewing process did not influence the fermentation of brewer's yeast. The change in beer performance induced by the contamination of Lactobacillus brevis could be effectively controlled by application of chitooligosaccharide in the beer brewing process. The experimental data suggested that chitooligosaccharide should be an excellent preservative to inhibit beer-spoilage bacteria in the brewing process and in the end product.

  16. Stable Radical Content and Anti-Radical Activity of Roasted Arabica Coffee: From In-Tact Bean to Coffee Brew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Gordon J.; Navarini, Luciano; Liverani, Furio Suggi; Drew, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO) capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD) melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds. PMID:25856192

  17. Effect of the type of brewing water on the chemical composition, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of Chinese teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Zou, Chun; Gao, Ying; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Chen, Gen-Sheng; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2017-12-01

    The physicochemical characteristics, sensory quality, and antioxidant activity of tea infusions prepared with purified water (PW), mineral water (MW), mountain spring water (MSW), and tap water (TW) from Hangzhou were investigated. The results showed that the taste quality, catechin concentration, and antioxidant capacity of green, oolong, and black tea infusions prepared using MW and TW were significantly lower than those prepared using PW. Extraction of catechins and caffeine was reduced with high-conductivity water, while high pH influenced the stability of catechins. PW and MSW were more suitable for brewing green and oolong teas, while MSW, with low pH and moderate ion concentration, was the most suitable water for brewing black tea. Lowering the pH of mineral water partially improved the taste quality and increased the concentration of catechins in the infusions. These results aid selection of the most appropriate water for brewing Chinese teas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Wastes from the Brewing Industry in Lightweight Aggregates Manufactured with Clay for Green Roofs

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    Romina D. Farías

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of sieved wastes generated from the brewing industry on lightweight aggregates manufactured with clay. Sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, bagasse and diatomaceous earth were used to obtain the samples. These wastes are usually dumped in landfills, but the current increase in restrictions on dumping and interest in improving the environment make our proposal for gaining value from these wastes a significant contribution. Laboratory tests show that the new aggregate has low bulk density and increased water absorption and porosity. The thermographic camera results provide evidence that new aggregates have significant insulating properties and are suitable for use on green roofs.

  19. A new method for Espresso Coffee brewing: Caffè Firenze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Parenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Espresso coffee is the most popular choice for Italian coffee consumers. It has been estimated that every day, in the world, over of 50 million of Espresso cups are taken. As a consequence of this success, a large number of devices to make Espresso have been developed. In this scenario, a new device has been recently developed and patented (Eu. Patent 06 023 798.9; US 2010/0034942 A1. This brew method, named “Caffè Firenze”, uses a sealed extraction chamber, where water and gas provides pressure higher than the other extraction methods. Three main parts compose the apparatus: the gas source, the extraction chamber and the heat exchanger. The gas source provides the pressured gas required to raise the pressure of the system. The extraction chamber is made with chrome-brass and accessorized with two heating glow plugs. Many are the factors affecting Espresso quality: it is known that, coffee type, roasting conditions and degree, grinding and storage strongly affect the obtained brew. Also, several studies have been carried out on the effect of the setting parameters on quality, for example water pressure, water temperature, and brew time. Among the characteristics that determine Espresso quality, the main attribute for the visual analysis is, without doubts, the foam, also called “crema”. Indeed, height, aspect, and persistency of foam are features much appreciates by consumers. Two distinguish Espresso foam parameters are the persistency and foam index. Equipping a commercial bar machine with the new designed extraction chamber makes feasible the comparison between the traditional way to brew Espresso and the new device. The comparison was made holding the previous mentioned conditions, and differences were evaluated in terms of physical parameters and aromatic profiles. Caffè Firenze shows pronounced differences compared with traditional Espresso in term of foam-related parameters. Also, the new extraction device produces coffees with

  20. Comparison of DNA-based techniques for differentiation of production strains of ale and lager brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecká, J; Němec, M; Matoulková, D

    2016-06-01

    Brewing yeasts are classified into two species-Saccharomyces pastorianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most of the brewing yeast strains are natural interspecies hybrids typically polyploids and their identification is thus often difficult giving heterogenous results according to the method used. We performed genetic characterization of a set of the brewing yeast strains coming from several yeast culture collections by combination of various DNA-based techniques. The aim of this study was to select a method for species-specific identification of yeast and discrimination of yeast strains according to their technological classification. A group of 40 yeast strains were characterized using PCR-RFLP analysis of ITS-5·8S, NTS, HIS4 and COX2 genes, multiplex PCR, RAPD-PCR of genomic DNA, mtDNA-RFLP and electrophoretic karyotyping. Reliable differentiation of yeast to the species level was achieved by PCR-RFLP of HIS4 gene. Numerical analysis of the obtained RAPD-fingerprints and karyotype revealed species-specific clustering corresponding with the technological classification of the strains. Taxonomic position and partial hybrid nature of strains were verified by multiplex PCR. Differentiation among species using the PCR-RFLP of ITS-5·8S and NTS region was shown to be unreliable. Karyotyping and RFLP of mitochondrial DNA evinced small inaccuracies in strain categorization. PCR-RFLP of HIS4 gene and RAPD-PCR of genomic DNA are reliable and suitable methods for fast identification of yeast strains. RAPD-PCR with primer 21 is a fast and reliable method applicable for differentiation of brewing yeasts with only 35% similarity of fingerprint profile between the two main technological groups (ale and lager) of brewing strains. It was proved that PCR-RFLP method of HIS4 gene enables precise discrimination among three technologically important Saccharomyces species. Differentiation of brewing yeast to the strain level can be achieved using the RAPD-PCR technique. © 2016 The

  1. Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lentz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brettanomyces yeasts are well-known as spoilage organisms in both the wine and beer industries, but also contribute important desirable characters to certain beer styles. These properties are mediated in large part by Brettanomyces’ metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs present in beverage raw materials. Here we compare growth inhibition by, and metabolism of, HCAs among commercial brewing strains and spoilage strains of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus. These properties vary widely among the different strains tested and between the HCAs analyzed. Brewing strains showed more efficient metabolism of ferulic acid over p-coumaric acid, a trait not shared among the spoilage strains.

  2. Evolutionary Engineering in Chemostat Cultures for Improved Maltotriose Fermentation Kinetics in Saccharomyces pastorianus Lager Brewing Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickwedde, Anja; van den Broek, Marcel; Geertman, Jan-Maarten A; Magalhães, Frederico; Kuijpers, Niels G A; Gibson, Brian; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc G

    2017-01-01

    The lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecies hybrid of S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae, ferments maltotriose, maltose, sucrose, glucose and fructose in wort to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Complete and timely conversion ("attenuation") of maltotriose by industrial S. pastorianus strains is a key requirement for process intensification. This study explores a new evolutionary engineering strategy for improving maltotriose fermentation kinetics. Prolonged carbon-limited, anaerobic chemostat cultivation of the reference strain S. pastorianus CBS1483 on a maltotriose-enriched sugar mixture was used to select for spontaneous mutants with improved affinity for maltotriose. Evolved populations exhibited an up to 5-fold lower residual maltotriose concentration and a higher ethanol concentration than the parental strain. Uptake studies with 14C-labeled sugars revealed an up to 4.75-fold higher transport capacity for maltotriose in evolved strains. In laboratory batch cultures on wort, evolved strains showed improved attenuation and higher ethanol concentrations. These improvements were also observed in pilot fermentations at 1,000-L scale with high-gravity wort. Although the evolved strain exhibited multiple chromosomal copy number changes, analysis of beer made from pilot fermentations showed no negative effects on flavor compound profiles. These results demonstrate the potential of evolutionary engineering for strain improvement of hybrid, alloploid brewing strains.

  3. Effect of roasting on properties of the zinc-chelating substance in coffee brews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xu; Enokizo, Akiko; Hattori, Harumi; Kobayashi, Satiko; Murata, Masatsune; Homma, Seiichi

    2005-04-06

    ApV is a brownish polymer with zinc-chelating activity in brewed coffee. We investigated in this study the effects of roasting on the zinc-chelating, reducing, and antioxidative activities of ApV from light-, medium-, and dark-roasted coffee. We also discuss the effect on the zinc-chelating activity of adding milk to the brewed coffee. The chelating activities of ApVs were evaluated by the tetramethyl murexide method. As the intensity of roasting increased, the yield of ApV increased, and the brown color and molecular weight of ApV respectively became darker and higher. Increasing the degree of roasting also decreased the zinc-chelating activity of ApV. The reducing activities of ApVs estimated by the indophenol method were stronger than those of ascorbic acid. Both the antioxidative activity estimated by the ABTS assay and the reducing activity of ApV increased with roasting. When milk was added to instant coffee and its ApV was prepared, the zinc-chelating activity of ApV was not changed.

  4. Studies on acrylamide levels in roasting, storage and brewing of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Ingo; Ternité, Ruediger; Wilkens, Jochen; Hoenicke, Katrin; Guenther, Helmut; van der Stegen, Gerrit H D

    2006-11-01

    The content of acrylamide in coffee reaches a peak early in the roasting process, reflecting occurrence of both formation and destruction of acrylamide during roasting. Levels of acrylamide in the fully roasted product are a small fraction of the peak reached earlier. Glucose and moisture in green coffee do not show a significant correlation with acrylamide in roasted coffee. Pre-roasting levels of asparagine show a correlation only in Arabica coffee. The main factors affecting the level of acrylamide in roasted coffee appear to be the Arabica/Robusta ratio, with Robusta giving higher levels; time and degree of roast, with both shorter and lighter roasting at the edges of the normal roasting range giving higher levels; storage condition and time, with clear reduction at ambient storage. This storage reduction of acrylamide followed second order reaction kinetics with an activation energy of 73 KJ/mole. The acrylamide in roasted coffee is largely extracted into the brew and stable within usual time of consumption. As these four main factors also substantially affect the sensorial characteristics of the brew, and as modifications of the process have to comply with the consumer-accepted boundaries of taste profiles, only small effects on the acrylamide level are expected to be achievable.

  5. [Effects of knockout ECM25/YJL201W gene in brewing yeast on beer flavor stability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixin; Li, Qi; Shen, Wei; Xie, Yan; Gu, Guoxian

    2008-08-01

    The ECM25 deletion mutant of industrial brewing yeast, G03/a, was constructed by replacing the ECM25 gene with the kanMX gene. The transformant was verified to be genetically stable. The PCR analysis showed that ECM25 gene in the G-03/a was deleted. Under aerobic conditions of ll degrees C and 28 degrees C, compared with the host strain G-03, the excretive glutathione concentration of G-03/a increased by 21.4% and 14.7%, respectively. Strains G-03 and G-03/a were inoculated in flasks and cultivated continuously for 4 generations. Compared with the host strain G-03, the glutathione concentration in the main fermentation broth and final beer of strain G-03/a increased by 32.1% and 13.8%, the stability index (SI) increased by 7.7% and 5.3%, respectively, and the flavor resistance staling value (RSV value) in final beer increased by 45.0%. During EBC fermentation, the glutathione concentration in the main fermentation broth of strain G-03/a increased by 34.0%, compared with the host strain G-03. Furthermore, no significant difference in routine fermentation parameters was found. The strain G-03/a is proved to be an excellent anti-staling brewing yeast to improve beer flavor stability.

  6. Selenium in commercial beer and losses in the brewing process from wheat to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, S; Young, S D; Cook, D; Wilkinson, S; Clegg, S; Bailey, E H; Mathers, A W; Broadley, M R

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing interest in enhancing the micronutrient composition of cereals through fertilization. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the Se concentration of commercial beers retailing in the UK, and (2) to test if the transfer of Se, from biofortified grain to final beer product, is <10% under UK cultivation conditions, as seen previously under Mediterranean conditions. The Se concentration of 128 commercial beers was measured, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The selenium content of commercial beers varied 6.5-fold, with beers originating from America having higher Se concentrations than those from Europe. Laboratory-scale brewing trials with isotopically-enriched (77)Se wheat, sampled from UK field-sites, showed that most (77)Se losses in the brewing process occurred during mashing (54%), with fermented beer containing ∼ 10% of the (77)Se initially present in the wheat grain. Total N values in wort and malt were positively correlated with the (77)Se content of the wheat grain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolutionary Engineering in Chemostat Cultures for Improved Maltotriose Fermentation Kinetics in Saccharomyces pastorianus Lager Brewing Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Brickwedde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecies hybrid of S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae, ferments maltotriose, maltose, sucrose, glucose and fructose in wort to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Complete and timely conversion (“attenuation” of maltotriose by industrial S. pastorianus strains is a key requirement for process intensification. This study explores a new evolutionary engineering strategy for improving maltotriose fermentation kinetics. Prolonged carbon-limited, anaerobic chemostat cultivation of the reference strain S. pastorianus CBS1483 on a maltotriose-enriched sugar mixture was used to select for spontaneous mutants with improved affinity for maltotriose. Evolved populations exhibited an up to 5-fold lower residual maltotriose concentration and a higher ethanol concentration than the parental strain. Uptake studies with 14C-labeled sugars revealed an up to 4.75-fold higher transport capacity for maltotriose in evolved strains. In laboratory batch cultures on wort, evolved strains showed improved attenuation and higher ethanol concentrations. These improvements were also observed in pilot fermentations at 1,000-L scale with high-gravity wort. Although the evolved strain exhibited multiple chromosomal copy number changes, analysis of beer made from pilot fermentations showed no negative effects on flavor compound profiles. These results demonstrate the potential of evolutionary engineering for strain improvement of hybrid, alloploid brewing strains.

  8. Modeling the effect of water activity and storage temperature on chemical stability of coffee brews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzocco, Lara; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2007-08-08

    This work was addressed to study the chemical stability of coffee brew derivatives as a function of water activity (aw) and storage temperature. To this purpose, coffee brew was freeze-dried, equilibrated at increasing aw values, and stored for up to 10 months at different temperatures from -30 to 60 degrees C. The chemical stability of the samples was assessed by measuring H3O+ formation during storage. Independently of storage temperature, the rate of H3O+ formation was considerably low only when aw was reduced below 0.5 (94% w/w). Beyond this critical boundary, the rate increased, reaching a maximum value at ca. 0.8 aw (78% w/w). Further hydration up to the aw of the freshly prepared beverage significantly increased chemical stability. It was suggested that mechanisms other than lactones' hydrolysis, probably related to nonenzymatic browning pathways, could contribute to the observed increase in acidity during coffee staling. The temperature dependence of H3O+ formation was well-described by the Arrhenius equation in the entire aw range considered. However, aw affected the apparent activation energy and frequency factor. These effects were described by simple equations that were used to set up a modified Arrhenius equation. This model was validated by comparing experimental values, not used to generate the model, with those estimated by the model itself. The model allowed efficient prediction of the chemical stability of coffee derivatives on the basis of only the aw value and storage temperature.

  9. Optimally accepted salt reduction across cultures. Naturally brewed soy sauce used in three countries with different food cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimojo, R.; Sato, T.; Imamura, M.; Leong, L.P.; Itohiya, Y.; Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.

    2014-01-01

    To explore the influence of food-culture on partial replacement of salt by naturally brewed soy sauce, the results of a procedure, based on equivalence of overall taste intensity and pleasantness, were compared in three countries. Per country, untrained consumers assessed pleasantness and some

  10. Stable radical content and anti-radical activity of roasted Arabica coffee: from in-tact bean to coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Gordon J; Navarini, Luciano; Suggi Liverani, Furio; Drew, Simon C

    2015-01-01

    The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO) capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD) melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (roasting-induced radical and metal complexes may be possible in vivo, we confirm that the in vitro antiradical activity of brewed coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  11. Technological steps and yeast biomass as factors affecting the lipid content of beer during the brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Perretti, Giuseppe; Buzzini, Pietro; Della Sera, Rolando; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2009-07-22

    Knowledge of lipid content and composition in the brewing process enables the quality control of the final product. Lipids have a beneficial effect on yeast growth during fermentation as well as deleterious effects on end-product quality. The lipid content of a beer affects its ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Lipid oxidation during wort production is of great interest because of its effect on beer quality: both lipids and their oxidation products are known to have adverse effects on beer flavor, whereas interactions between lipids and protein films stabilizing the gas bubbles are thought to cause the collapse of foam. In this background, the aim of this research was the characterization of the lipid content during a brewing process for evaluating the influence of both technological steps and yeast biomass in the lipid composition of beer. Lipid contents and their fatty acid profile were evaluated in brewing raw materials, wort, and beer. A high-resolution gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (HRGC-FID) system was used for fatty acid determination in lipid extracts. The results of the present study highlighted that the main technological steps influencing the lipid content in brewing byproduct and beer were clarification in a whirlpool and filtration. Moreover, the presence of metabolically active yeast cells (used as starter culture) were found to have a great influence on the fatty acids composition of lipids.

  12. Strange Brew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard Christiansen, Lærke; Lounsbury, Michael

    2013-01-01

    ” to creatively combine elements from different logics into newly designed artifacts. An illustrative case study of a global brewery group’s development of such an artifact – a Responsible Drinking Guide Book – is outlined. We argue that intraorganizational institutional bricolage first requires......How do organizations manage multiple logics in response to institutional complexity? In this paper, we explore how intraorganizational problems related to multiple logics may be addressed via the mechanism of institutional bricolage – where actors inside an organization act as “bricoleurs...

  13. Effect of germination moisture and time on pearl millet malt quality - with respect to its opaque and lager beer brewing potential

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pelembe, LAM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info pelembe_2004.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 27677 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name pelembe_2004.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 320 JOURNAL... OF THE INSTITUTE OF BREWING Effect of Germination Moisture and Time on Pearl Millet Malt Quality ? With Respect to Its Opaque and Lager Beer Brewing Potential L.A.M. Pelembe1,4, J. Dewar2,3 and J.R.N. Taylor4,5 ABSTRACT J. Inst. Brew. 110(4), 320?325, 2004...

  14. Chemical Characterization of Potentially Prebiotic Oligosaccharides in Brewed Coffee and Spent Coffee Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Freeman, Samara; Corey, Mark; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela

    2017-04-05

    Oligosaccharides are indigestible carbohydrates widely present in mammalian milk and in some plants. Milk oligosaccharides are associated with positive health outcomes; however, oligosaccharides in coffee have not been extensively studied. We investigated the oligosaccharides and their monomeric composition in dark roasted coffee beans, brewed coffee, and spent coffee grounds. Oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization ranging from 3 to 15, and their constituent monosaccharides, were characterized and quantified. The oligosaccharides identified were mainly hexoses (potentially galacto-oligosaccharides and manno-oligosaccharides) containing a heterogeneous mixture of glucose, arabinose, xylose, and rhamnose. The diversity of oligosaccharides composition found in these coffee samples suggests that they could have selective prebiotic activity toward specific bacterial strains able to deconstruct the glycosidic bonds and utilize them as a carbon source.

  15. Monitoring of Glucose in Beer Brewing by a Carbon Nanotubes Based Nylon Nanofibrous Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, preparation, and characterization of a novel glucose electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX into a nylon nanofibrous membrane (NFM prepared by electrospinning and functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT. A disc of such GOX/CNT/NFM membrane (40 μm in thickness was used for coating the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, with ferrocene methanol as mediator. The binding of GOX around the CNT/NFM greatly enhances the electron transfer, which results in a biosensor with a current five times higher than without CNT. The potential usefulness of the proposed biosensor was demonstrated with the analysis of glucose in commercial beverages and along the monitoring of the brewing process for making beer, from the mashing to the fermentation steps.

  16. Determination of chlorogenic acids and caffeine in homemade brewed coffee prepared under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Sup; Kim, Han-Taek; Jeong, Il-Hyung; Hong, Se-Ra; Oh, Moon-Seog; Park, Kwang-Hee; Shim, Jae-Han; Abd El-Aty, A M

    2017-10-01

    Coffee, a complex mixture of more than 800 volatile compounds, is one of the most valuable commodity in the world, whereas caffeine and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are the most common compounds. CGAs are mainly composed of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs), and feruloylquinic acids (FQAs). The major CGAs in coffee are neochlorogenic acid (3-CQA), cryptochlorogenic acid (4-CQA), and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA). Many studies have shown that it is possible to separate the isomers of FQAs by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, some authors have shown that it is not possible to separate 4-feruloylquinic acid (4-FQA) and 5-feruloylquinic acid (5-FQA) by HPLC. Therefore, the present study was designated to investigate the chromatographic problems in the determination of CGAs (seven isomers) and caffeine using HPLC-DAD. The values of determination coefficient (R 2 ) calculated from external-standard calibration curves were >0.998. The recovery rates conducted at 3 spiking levels ranged from 99.4% to 106.5% for the CGAs and from 98.8% to 107.1% for the caffeine. The precision values (expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs)) were coffee bean, coffee-ground size, and numbers of boiling-water pours, on the concentration of CGAs and caffeine in homemade brewed coffee, using nine green coffee bean samples of different origins. It was reported that medium-roasted, fine-ground coffees brewed using three pours of boiling water were the healthiest coffee with fluent CGAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The importance of surface charge and hydrophobicity for the flocculation of chain-forming brewing yeast strains and resistance of these parameters to acid washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcocks, K L; Smart, K A

    1995-12-15

    The cell surface charge and hydrophobicity of the brewing yeast cell surface influences flocculation. Physiological stress, such as starvation, affects the capacity of some strains to flocculate due to the reorganisation of the cell wall and the modification of the surface physical properties. On completion of a brewery fermentation, yeast is removed from the beer, stored and inoculated (repitched) into a subsequent fermentation. Prior to repitching, brewing yeast slurries may be acid washed to remove any contaminating bacteria. This treatment has been shown to cause yeast cell surface "blistering". Acid washing treatment was used to examine the susceptibility of the physical properties of two chain-forming brewing yeast strains to stress. Although acid-washing affected the cell surface charge and hydrophobicity in both strains, the flocculation response was strain dependant. It is suggested that surface charge and the non-separation of progeny from mother cells rather than hydrophobicity influences the flocculation of chain-forming brewing yeast.

  18. Natural Products Organic Chemistry Experiment for the University Student. III. The Brewing of the Low-alcohol Beer from Malt or Seed of the Beer Barley

    OpenAIRE

    戸谷, 義明

    2000-01-01

    As no experiments concerned with biochemistry have recently been scheduled for juniors of the Aichi University of Education who specialize in chemistry, a brewing experiment making the low-alcohol beer was developed. This method was applicable to chemical laboratory courses. The beer is so much familiar to the students as one of the luxurious alcoholic beverages which are seriously related with adult's diseases, obesity, and alcoholism, that the laboratory experiment of beer brewing would aro...

  19. Procedure of brewing alcohol as a staple food: case study of the fermented cereal liquor ?Parshot? as a staple food in Dirashe special woreda, southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sunano, Yui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From t...

  20. Brewing effect on levels of biogenic amines in different coffee samples as determined by LC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, Donatella; Spizzirri, U Gianfranco; Parisi, Ortensia I; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Picci, Nevio

    2015-05-15

    Eight biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, cadaverine and serotonin) were determined by LC-UV after derivatization with dansyl-chloride in both ground coffee and coffee beverages obtained by different methods. In ground coffee, the most relevant amine was PUT, followed by SPD, HIS, TYR, CAD, SPM, PHE, and SER, with the total BAs content decreasing as the roasting degree increased. In coffee brews, the order was PUT, SPM, TYR, CAD, SPD, PHE, HIS, and SER, but at a very low level in comparison with the amount of BAs determined in roasted ground coffee. Beverages prepared by espresso, capsule, and pod machines had the lowest BAs contents, as a result of the thermal and physical stress imposed on ground coffee by these methods, while mocha contained the highest BAs amounts owing to lower pressure and longer brewing time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Survival of Salmonella on chamomile, peppermint, and green tea during storage and subsequent survival or growth following tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Stam, Christina N; Gradl, Dana R; Chen, Zhengzai; Larkin, Emily L; Pickens, Shannon R; Chirtel, Stuart J

    2015-04-01

    The survival of Salmonella on dried chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves, and green tea leaves stored under different conditions was examined. Survival and growth of Salmonella was also assessed after subsequent brewing using dried inoculated teas. A Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail was inoculated onto different dried tea leaves or flowers to give starting populations of approximately 10 log CFU/g. The inoculum was allowed to dry (at ambient temperature for 24 h) onto the dried leaves or flowers prior to storage under 25 and 35 °C at low (90% RH) humidity levels. Under the four storage conditions tested, survival followed the order 25 °C with low RH > 35 °C with low RH > 25 °C with high RH > 35 °C with high RH. Salmonella losses at 25 °C with low RH occurred primarily during drying, after which populations showed little decline over 6 months. In contrast, Salmonella decreased below detection after 45 days at 35 °C and high RH in all teas tested. The thermal resistance of Salmonella was assessed at 55 °C immediately after inoculation of tea leaves or flowers, after drying (24 h) onto tea leaves or flowers, and after 28 days of storage at 25 °C with low RH. All conditions resulted in similar D-values (2.78 ± 0.12, 3.04 ± 0.07, and 2.78 ± 0.56, at 0 h, 24 h, and 28 days, respectively), indicating thermal resistance of Salmonella in brewed tea did not change after desiccation and 28 days of storage. In addition, all brewed teas tested supported the growth of Salmonella. If Salmonella survives after storage, it may also survive and grow after a home brewing process.

  2. Complex Ancestries of Lager-Brewing Hybrids Were Shaped by Standing Variation in the Wild Yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, David; Langdon, Quinn K; Moriarty, Ryan V; Sylvester, Kayla; Bontrager, Martin; Charron, Guillaume; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Landry, Christian R; Libkind, Diego; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2016-07-01

    Lager-style beers constitute the vast majority of the beer market, and yet, the genetic origin of the yeast strains that brew them has been shrouded in mystery and controversy. Unlike ale-style beers, which are generally brewed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lagers are brewed at colder temperatures with allopolyploid hybrids of Saccharomyces eubayanus x S. cerevisiae. Since the discovery of S. eubayanus in 2011, additional strains have been isolated from South America, North America, Australasia, and Asia, but only interspecies hybrids have been isolated in Europe. Here, using genome sequence data, we examine the relationships of these wild S. eubayanus strains to each other and to domesticated lager strains. Our results support the existence of a relatively low-diversity (π = 0.00197) lineage of S. eubayanus whose distribution stretches across the Holarctic ecozone and includes wild isolates from Tibet, new wild isolates from North America, and the S. eubayanus parents of lager yeasts. This Holarctic lineage is closely related to a population with higher diversity (π = 0.00275) that has been found primarily in South America but includes some widely distributed isolates. A second diverse South American population (π = 0.00354) and two early-diverging Asian subspecies are more distantly related. We further show that no single wild strain from the Holarctic lineage is the sole closest relative of lager yeasts. Instead, different parts of the genome portray different phylogenetic signals and ancestry, likely due to outcrossing and incomplete lineage sorting. Indeed, standing genetic variation within this wild Holarctic lineage of S. eubayanus is responsible for genetic variation still segregating among modern lager-brewing hybrids. We conclude that the relationships among wild strains of S. eubayanus and their domesticated hybrids reflect complex biogeographical and genetic processes.

  3. Complex Ancestries of Lager-Brewing Hybrids Were Shaped by Standing Variation in the Wild Yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peris

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lager-style beers constitute the vast majority of the beer market, and yet, the genetic origin of the yeast strains that brew them has been shrouded in mystery and controversy. Unlike ale-style beers, which are generally brewed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lagers are brewed at colder temperatures with allopolyploid hybrids of Saccharomyces eubayanus x S. cerevisiae. Since the discovery of S. eubayanus in 2011, additional strains have been isolated from South America, North America, Australasia, and Asia, but only interspecies hybrids have been isolated in Europe. Here, using genome sequence data, we examine the relationships of these wild S. eubayanus strains to each other and to domesticated lager strains. Our results support the existence of a relatively low-diversity (π = 0.00197 lineage of S. eubayanus whose distribution stretches across the Holarctic ecozone and includes wild isolates from Tibet, new wild isolates from North America, and the S. eubayanus parents of lager yeasts. This Holarctic lineage is closely related to a population with higher diversity (π = 0.00275 that has been found primarily in South America but includes some widely distributed isolates. A second diverse South American population (π = 0.00354 and two early-diverging Asian subspecies are more distantly related. We further show that no single wild strain from the Holarctic lineage is the sole closest relative of lager yeasts. Instead, different parts of the genome portray different phylogenetic signals and ancestry, likely due to outcrossing and incomplete lineage sorting. Indeed, standing genetic variation within this wild Holarctic lineage of S. eubayanus is responsible for genetic variation still segregating among modern lager-brewing hybrids. We conclude that the relationships among wild strains of S. eubayanus and their domesticated hybrids reflect complex biogeographical and genetic processes.

  4. Traditional home-brewed beer consumption and iron status in patients with esophageal cancer and healthy control subjects from Transkei, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsha, Tandi; Brink, Lucy; van Rensburg, Susan; Hon, Dinie; Lombard, Carl; Erasmus, Rajiv

    2006-01-01

    Consumption of home-brewed beer is associated with dietary iron excess and a high incidence of esophageal cancer in Transkei, South Africa. We examined the relationship between home-brewed beer consumption and body iron status in 234 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and 595 control subjects residing in Transkei. Subjects were screened for iron overload using transferrin saturation >45%, and/or serum ferritin >200 microg/l for women and >300 microg/l for men. A questionnaire was administered to all subjects, and iron content of randomly selected home-brewed beer samples was determined. The iron content of home-brewed beer was 258-fold higher than the commercial Castle Lager beer produced by South African Breweries. The prevalence of home-brewed beer consumption was 30.1% in esophageal cancer patients and 15.5% in control subjects and was found not to be a risk factor for esophageal cancer after adjustment for age, sex, and tobacco consumption (male subjects, odds ratio= 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7-4.5); female subjects, odds ratio=1.7 (95% CI: 0.7-4.5). Iron overload as determined by transferrin saturation and elevated serum ferritin was observed in 4.3% of patients with esophageal cancer and 0.7% of control subjects and was not associated with the consumption of home-brewed beer. Consumption of home-brewed beer is not a risk factor for esophageal cancer and is not linked with iron overload in either cancer patients or control subjects; however, iron overload is likely to result from a combination of dietary intake and a genetic component.

  5. Dynamic changes in brewing yeast cells in culture revealed by statistical analyses of yeast morphological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Enomoto, Kenichi; Yoshimoto, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2014-03-01

    The vitality of brewing yeasts has been used to monitor their physiological state during fermentation. To investigate the fermentation process, we used the image processing software, CalMorph, which generates morphological data on yeast mother cells and bud shape, nuclear shape and location, and actin distribution. We found that 248 parameters changed significantly during fermentation. Successive use of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed several important features of yeast, providing insight into the dynamic changes in the yeast population. First, PCA indicated that much of the observed variability in the experiment was summarized in just two components: a change with a peak and a change over time. Second, PCA indicated the independent and important morphological features responsible for dynamic changes: budding ratio, nucleus position, neck position, and actin organization. Thus, the large amount of data provided by imaging analysis can be used to monitor the fermentation processes involved in beer and bioethanol production. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of freeze-dried yeast culture for the brewing of traditional sorghum beer, tchapalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guessan, Florent K; Coulibaly, Hermann W; Alloue-Boraud, Mireille W A; Cot, Marlène; Djè, Koffi Marcellin

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a well-known dehydration method widely used to preserve microorganisms. In order to produce freeze-dried yeast starter culture for the brewing purpose of African sorghum beer, we tested protective agents (sucrose, glucose, glycerol) in combination with support materials (millet, maize, sorghum, and cassava flours) at 1:1 ratio (v/v). The yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae F 12-7 and Candida tropicalis C 0-7 previously isolated from sorghum beer were used in a mixed culture at a ratio of 2:1 (C. tropicalis/S. cerevisiae). After the freeze-drying, the residual water contents were between 0.78 -2.27%, 0.55 -4.09%, and 0.40-2.61%, respectively, with sucrose, glucose and glycerol. The dried yeasts viabilities were between 4.0% and 10.6%. Among the protective agents used, sucrose was found to be the best protectant giving cell viabilities of 8.4-10.6%. Considering the support materials, millet flour was the best support after drying. When the freeze-dried yeast powders were stored at 4°C and room temperature (25-28°C) for up to 3 months, the survival rates were the highest with cassava flour as the support material.

  7. An investigation of how the Australian brewing industry influence consumers on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgeir Aleti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop and test hypotheses around organisations’ behaviour on social media and its effect on consumers’ responses. We draw on the notion of the market maven to underpin the research and suggest that organisations on social media need to focus on acting in a maven-like manner in order to influence audiences in Twitter. We collected data from the Twitter accounts of the entire brewing industry in Australia, analysing organisational postings and their impact on influence (follower numbers, retweets of their respective Twitter accounts. In particular, we look at message formulation and language, native platform behaviour, reciprocity and persistency variables. Findings suggest that establishing a larger follower base requires an interactive, one-to-one and reciprocal approach. In order to influence audiences to retweet organisations need to speak the ‘native platform language’ and employ a soft-sell strategy. Maven-like behaviour tends to reside in the small independent craft breweries. We offer the conclusion that these craft breweries have realised that, on social media, a different approach to marketing is required: the organisations must act in a maven-like manner.

  8. The Survey of Microbial Quality of the Dry Sample, Extract and Brewing of some Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh VALIASILL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants may be exposed to a wide range of microbial contamination during pre- and post- harvest stages and they can present high microbial counts. In this study, the microbial quality of 44 samples of dry herbs namely: mint (Menthaspp., lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, summer savory (Satureja hortensis, zataria (Zataria multiflora, Indian valerian (Valeriana wallichii, their brewing and extracts were analyzed. Total count using plate count agar medium (PCA, coliform count by Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBL, Enterobacteriacea by Violet Red Bile Glucose (VRBG were evaluated. Medium Baird-Parker agar (BP medium and Tryptone Bile X-Gluc (TBX medium were used for the isolation and enumeration of Staphylococcus aurous and E. coli spp. respectively. Furthermore, Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar medium (XLD and Bismuth Sulfite Agar medium(BSA were used for detection of Salmonella spp. Fungal and mold contamination was assessed using yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol agar. The results showed that the contamination of the samples with total count (100% and Enterobacteriaceae (85%, total coliform (83%, mold and yeast (98% and E. coli ssp. (2.27 were detected, including in the study samples the absence of pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aurous, Salmonella spp. Moreover, the extract had a lower microbial load in comparison to dry herb samples. Also, the lowest and the highest of contamination rates were observed for Indian valerian and zataria, respectively. According to the results, there is a need to control the environmental conditions and improve hygiene in the production process; even more, it is recommended to choose a suitable decontamination method for disinfection during packing medicinal plants and during post-packing manipulation and transport.

  9. Breeding of Aspergillus oryzae Producing Bacillus licheniformis Thermophilic α-Amylase and Its Application to Liquefied Brewing

    OpenAIRE

    尾関, 健二; 幸田, 明生; 峰時, 俊貴; 浜地, 正昭; 熊谷, 知栄子; KENJI, OZEKI; AKIO, KODA; TOSHITAKA, MINETOKI; MASAAKI, HAMACHI; CHIEKO, KUMAGAI; 大関(株)総合研究所; 大関(株)総合研究所; 大関(株)総合研究所; 大関(株)総合研究所; 大関(株)総合研究所

    1998-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae transformants which produced Bacillus licheniformis thermophilic α-amylase (optimum temperature, 76℃ ; optimum pH, 9) were bred using Aspergillus niger No.8AN promoter. When an A.oryzae transformant was grown on rice koji and wheat bran koji, 150g total rice was liquefied by koji representing 13% of the total rice and by extraction of 10g wheat bran koji, respectively. When small-scale brewing tests with liquefied rice and the transformant koji or extraction of wheat bran k...

  10. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC–MS analysis. The PCA of GC–MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB...

  11. [Improvement of beer anti-staling capability by genetically modifying industrial brewing yeast with high glutathione content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Li, Qi; Gu, Guo-Xian

    2007-11-01

    Based on homologous recombination, recombinant plasmid pRKG was constructed by replacing the internal fragment of 18S rDNA of pRJ-5 with a copy of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene (GSH1) from the industrial brewing yeast strain G03 and a copy of G418 resistance gene (Kan) used as the dominant selection marker respectively. The fragment 18s rDNA::( Kan-GSH1) obtained through the PCR reaction was integrated to the chromosomal DNA of G03 strain, and recombinants were screened by G418 resistance. It was shown that the GSH content of beer fermented with the recombinant strain SG1 was 16.6% higher than that of G03, and no significant difference in routine fermentation parameters was found. To test the genetic stability, strains SG1 was inoculated into flasks and transfered continuously 5 times. The intracellular glutathione content of strain kept constant basically. It is an instructive attempt of genetically modifing industrial brewing yeast, as GSH1 was obtained from the host itself.

  12. Stereoselective Behavior of the Chiral Herbicides Diclofop-Methyl and Diclofop During the Soy Sauce Brewing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuele; Zhang, Dong; Liao, Yahui; Diao, Jinling; Chen, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Chiral pesticides are now receiving more and more attention in the food-making process. This experiment studied the enantioselective behavior of diclofop-methyl (DM) and its main metabolite, diclofop (DC), during the soy sauce brewing process. Two kinds of commonly used strains, Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces rouxii, were investigated. However, they showed a different degradation ability to the enantiomers of DM and DC. It was observed that (-)-(S)-DM was degraded much faster than (+)-(R)-DM by Saccharomyces rouxii, while no stereoselective degradation was found by Aspergillus oryzae. DC represented a relatively long residue period in this fermentation process and both strains showed a weak degradation ability to DC, especially Saccharomyces rouxii. There was little DC detected in the final product, while most of the DC residues persisted in the lees, which were usually used as animal feeds or discarded into the environment directly as waste. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the soy sauce brewing process concerning pesticide residues both in the final product and byproducts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cleanup of industrial effluents containing heavy metals: a new opportunity of valorising the biomass produced by brewing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Eduardo V; Soares, Helena M V M

    2013-08-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a matter of concern in industrialised countries. Contrary to organic pollutants, heavy metals are not metabolically degraded. This fact has two main consequences: its bioremediation requires another strategy and heavy metals can be indefinitely recycled. Yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are produced at high amounts as a by-product of brewing industry constituting a cheap raw material. In the present work, the possibility of valorising this type of biomass in the bioremediation of real industrial effluents containing heavy metals is reviewed. Given the auto-aggregation capacity (flocculation) of brewing yeast cells, a fast and off-cost yeast separation is achieved after the treatment of metal-laden effluent, which reduces the costs associated with the process. This is a critical issue when we are looking for an effective, eco-friendly, and low-cost technology. The possibility of the bioremediation of industrial effluents linked with the selective recovery of metals, in a strategy of simultaneous minimisation of environmental hazard of industrial wastes with financial benefits from reselling or recycling the metals, is discussed.

  14. Pure and mixed genetic lines of Saccharomyces bayanus and Saccharomyces pastorianus and their contribution to the lager brewing strain genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainieri, Sandra; Kodama, Yukiko; Kaneko, Yoshinobu; Mikata, Kozaburo; Nakao, Yoshihiro; Ashikari, Toshihiko

    2006-06-01

    The yeast species Saccharomyces bayanus and Saccharomyces pastorianus are of industrial importance since they are involved in the production process of common beverages such as wine and lager beer; however, they contain strains whose variability has been neither fully investigated nor exploited in genetic improvement programs. We evaluated this variability by using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 48 genes and partial sequences of 16. Within these two species, we identified "pure" strains containing a single type of genome and "hybrid" strains that contained portions of the genomes from the "pure" lines, as well as alleles termed "Lager" that represent a third genome commonly associated with lager brewing strains. The two pure lines represent S. uvarum and S. bayanus, the latter a novel group of strains that may be of use in strain improvement programs. Hybrid lines identified include (i) S. cerevisiae/S. bayanus/Lager, (ii) S. bayanus/S. uvarum/Lager, and (iii) S. cerevisiae/S. bayanus/S. uvarum/Lager. The genome of the lager strains may have resulted from chromosomal loss, replacement, or rearrangement within the hybrid genetic lines. This study identifies brewing strains that could be used as novel genetic sources in strain improvement programs and provides data that can be used to generate a model of how naturally occurring and industrial hybrid strains may have evolved.

  15. Formation of Guaiacol by Spoilage Bacteria from Vanillic Acid, a Product of Rice Koji Cultivation, in Japanese Sake Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshihiko; Konno, Mahito; Shimura, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Seiei; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Hashizume, Katsumi

    2016-06-08

    The formation of guaiacol, a potent phenolic off-odor compound in the Japanese sake brewing process, was investigated. Eight rice koji samples were analyzed, and one contained guaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG) at extraordinarily high levels: 374 and 2433 μg/kg dry mass koji, respectively. All samples contained ferulic and vanillic acids at concentrations of mg/kg dry mass koji. Guaiacol forming microorganisms were isolated from four rice koji samples. They were identified as Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens/subtilis, and Staphylococcus gallinarum using 16S rRNA gene sequence. These spoilage bacteria convert vanillic acid to guaiacol and ferulic acid to 4-VG. However, they convert very little ferulic acid or 4-VG to guaiacol. Nine strains of koji fungi tested produced vanillic acid at the mg/kg dry mass koji level after cultivation. These results indicated that spoilage bacteria form guaiacol from vanillic acid, which is a product of koji cultivation in the sake brewing process.

  16. High coffee consumption and different brewing methods in relation to postmenopausal endometrial cancer risk in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study: a population-based prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Coffee and its compounds have been proposed to inhibit endometrial carcinogenesis. Studies in the Norwegian population can be especially interesting due to the high coffee consumption and increasing incidence of endometrial cancer in the country. Methods A total of 97 926 postmenopausal Norwegian women from the population-based prospective Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study, were included in the present analysis. We evaluated the general association between total coffee consumption and endometrial cancer risk as well as the possible impact of brewing method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to estimate risks, and heterogeneity tests were performed to compare brewing methods. Results During an average of 10.9 years of follow-up, 462 incident endometrial cancer cases were identified. After multivariate adjustment, significant risk reduction was found among participants who drank ≥8 cups/day of coffee with a hazard ratio of 0.52 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.34-0.79). However, we did not observe a significant dose-response relationship. No significant heterogeneity in risk was found when comparing filtered and boiled coffee brewing methods. A reduction in endometrial cancer risk was observed in subgroup analyses among participants who drank ≥8 cups/day and had a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, and in current smokers. Conclusions These data suggest that in this population with high coffee consumption, endometrial cancer risk decreases in women consuming ≥8 cups/day, independent of brewing method. PMID:24666820

  17. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Studies on the Formation of Roasting-Induced Antioxidative Structures in Coffee Brews at Different Degrees of Roast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Schols, H.A.; Cämmerer, B.; Kroh, L.W.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidative properties of coffee brew fractions were studied using electron spin resonance spectroscopy using 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and Fremy¿s salt (nitrosodisulfonate) as stabilized radicals. TEMPO was scavenged by antioxidants formed during roasting and not by

  18. Impact of brewing process operations on phytate, phenolic compounds and in vitro solubility of iron and zinc in opaque sorghum beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beer is a significant component of the diet of millions of poor people in rural Africa. This study reports the effect of traditional brewing operations on its level of micronutrients, especially iron and zinc. The example of a West African sorghum beer, tchoukoutou, in Northern Benin

  19. Inheritance of brewing-relevant phenotypes in constructed Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Castillo, Sandra; Gibson, Brian

    2017-04-21

    Interspecific hybridization has proven to be a potentially valuable technique for generating de novo lager yeast strains that possess diverse and improved traits compared to their parent strains. To further enhance the value of hybridization for strain development, it would be desirable to combine phenotypic traits from more than two parent strains, as well as remove unwanted traits from hybrids. One such trait, that has limited the industrial use of de novo lager yeast hybrids, is their inherent tendency to produce phenolic off-flavours; an undesirable trait inherited from the Saccharomyces eubayanus parent. Trait removal and the addition of traits from a third strain could be achieved through sporulation and meiotic recombination or further mating. However, interspecies hybrids tend to be sterile, which impedes this opportunity. Here we generated a set of five hybrids from three different parent strains, two of which contained DNA from all three parent strains. These hybrids were constructed with fertile allotetraploid intermediates, which were capable of efficient sporulation. We used these eight brewing strains to examine two brewing-relevant phenotypes: stress tolerance and phenolic off-flavour formation. Lipidomics and multivariate analysis revealed links between several lipid species and the ability to ferment in low temperatures and high ethanol concentrations. Unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid, and ergosterol were shown to positively influence growth at high ethanol concentrations. The ability to produce phenolic off-flavours was also successfully removed from one of the hybrids, Hybrid T2, through meiotic segregation. The potential application of these strains in industrial fermentations was demonstrated in wort fermentations, which revealed that the meiotic segregant Hybrid T2 not only didn't produce any phenolic off-flavours, but also reached the highest ethanol concentration and consumed the most maltotriose. Our study demonstrates the

  20. Interventional pain management at crossroads: the perfect storm brewing for a new decade of challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Boswell, Mark V

    2010-01-01

    The health care industry in general and care of chronic pain in particular are described as recession-proof. However, a perfect storm with a confluence of many factors and events -none of which alone is particularly devastating - is brewing and may create a catastrophic force, even in a small specialty such as interventional pain management. Multiple challenges related to interventional pain management in the current decade will include individual and group physicians, office practices, ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs), and hospital outpatient departments (HOPD). Rising health care costs are discussed on a daily basis in the United States. The critics have claimed that health outcomes are the same as or worse than those in other countries, but others have presented the evidence that the United States has the best health care system. All agree it is essential to reduce costs. Numerous factors contribute to increasing health care costs. They include administrative costs, waste, abuse, and fraud. It has been claimed the U.S. health care system wastes up to $800 billion a year. Of this, fraud accounts for approximately $200 billion a year, involving fraudulent Medicare claims, kickbacks for referrals for unnecessary services, and other scams. Administrative inefficiency and redundant paperwork accounts for 18% of health care waste, whereas medical mistakes account for $50 billion to $100 billion in unnecessary spending each year, or 11% of the total. Further, American physicians spend nearly 8 hours per week on paperwork and employ 1.66 clerical workers per doctor, more than any other country. It has been illustrated that it takes $60,000 to $88,000 per physician per year, equal to one-third of a family practitioner's gross income, and $23 to $31 billion each year in total to interact with health insurance plans. The studies have illustrated that an average physician spends $68,274 per year communicating with insurance companies and performing other non

  1. Yeast: the soul of beer's aroma--a review of flavour-active esters and higher alcohols produced by the brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Brányik, Tomás; Vicente, António A

    2014-03-01

    Among the most important factors influencing beer quality is the presence of well-adjusted amounts of higher alcohols and esters. Thus, a heavy body of literature focuses on these substances and on the parameters influencing their production by the brewing yeast. Additionally, the complex metabolic pathways involved in their synthesis require special attention. More than a century of data, mainly in genetic and proteomic fields, has built up enough information to describe in detail each step in the pathway for the synthesis of higher alcohols and their esters, but there is still place for more. Higher alcohols are formed either by anabolism or catabolism (Ehrlich pathway) of amino acids. Esters are formed by enzymatic condensation of organic acids and alcohols. The current paper reviews the up-to-date knowledge in the pathways involving the synthesis of higher alcohols and esters by brewing yeasts. Fermentation parameters affecting yeast response during biosynthesis of these aromatic substances are also fully reviewed.

  2. Investigating the chemical changes of chlorogenic acids during coffee brewing: conjugate addition of water to the olefinic moiety of chlorogenic acids and their quinides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Marius Febi; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2012-12-12

    Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages in the world and is associated with a series of benefits for human health. In this study we focus on the reactivity of chlorogenic acids, the most abundant secondary metabolites in coffee, during the coffee brewing process. We report on the hydroxylation of the chlorogenic acid cinnamoyl substituent by conjugate addition of water to form 3-hydroxydihydrocaffeic acid derivatives using a series of model compounds including monocaffeoyl and dicaffeoylquinic acids and quinic acid lactones. The regiochemistry of conjugate addition was established based on targeted tandem MS experiments. Following conjugate addition of water a reversible water elimination yielding cis-cinnamoyl derivatives accompanied by acyl migration products was observed in model systems. We also report the formation of all of these derivatives during the coffee brewing process.

  3. Influence of coffee roasting on the incorporation of phenolic compounds into melanoidins and their relationship with antioxidant activity of the brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Daniel; Farah, Adriana; Donangelo, Carmen M

    2012-05-02

    In the present study, the influence of coffee roasting on free and melanoidin-bound phenolic compounds and their relationship with the brews' antioxidant activity (AA), evaluated by TRAP, TEAC, and TRAP, were investigated. Changes in the relative content of free chlorogenic acids (CGA), free lactones, and melanoidin-bound phenolic acids during roasting indicate that phenolic compounds were incorporated into melanoidins mainly at early stages of the process, being thereafter partly oxidized to dihydrocaffeic acid, and degraded. Although less than 1% of CGA in green coffee was incorporated into melanoidins during roasting, the relative content of melanoidin-bound phenolic acids increased significantly during this process, reaching up to 29% of total phenolic compounds in brews from dark roasted coffees. Regardless of the AA assay used and considering all roasting degrees, the overall contribution of CGA to the AA of the whole brews was higher than that of melanoidin-bound phenolic compounds. It was estimated that the latter compounds contributed to 25-47% of the AA, depending on the assay used.

  4. Difference of microbial community stressed in artificial pit muds for Luzhou-flavour liquor brewing revealed by multiphase culture-independent technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Zhou, R; Niu, M; Zheng, J; Wu, C

    2015-11-01

    Artificial pit muds (APMs) is produced by peats, aged pit muds, yellow and black clays etc. and is one of essential factors for Luzhou-flavour liquor production. The microbial community of APMs significantly influence the quality of Luzhou-flavour liquor. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in bacterial, archaeal and fungal community of APMs, starters and materials. Multiphase culture-independent technology were employed in this study, including nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (nested PCR-DGGE), phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), phospholipid ether lipids (PLEL) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results suggested that the microbial diversity significantly changed under environmental stress and different culture patterns during APMs cultivation. The dominant bacteria in APMs mainly fell into Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, Bacteroidales and Rhizobiales, Archaea affiliated with Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, and fungi belonged to Saccharomycetales and Eurotiales. Furthermore, the microbial community structures of APMs cultured by ground pile pattern were more similar with that of aged pit muds, meanwhile, the relative bands intensities of microbes, which are the main contributors for liquor brewing, increased with the culture times. Not only the niche selection and biogeochemical properties of APMs, but also the mutual collaboration and constraint between different microbes may result in enriching different liquor-brewing microbes into APMs. APM cultivation technology was necessary to promote enriching functional liquor-brewing microbes into APMs. These results may facilitate understanding the microbial succession during APMs manufacture. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Bioremediation of industrial effluents containing heavy metals using brewing cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a green technology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Eduardo V; Soares, Helena M V M

    2012-05-01

    The release of heavy metals into the environment, mainly as a consequence of anthropogenic activities, constitutes a worldwide environmental pollution problem. Unlike organic pollutants, heavy metals are not degraded and remain indefinitely in the ecosystem, which poses a different kind of challenge for remediation. It seems that the "best treatment technologies" available may not be completely effective for metal removal or can be expensive; therefore, new methodologies have been proposed for the detoxification of metal-bearing wastewaters. The present work reviews and discusses the advantages of using brewing yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the detoxification of effluents containing heavy metals. The current knowledge of the mechanisms of metal removal by yeast biomass is presented. The use of live or dead biomass and the influence of biomass inactivation on the metal accumulation characteristics are outlined. The role of chemical speciation for predicting and optimising the efficiency of metal removal is highlighted. The problem of biomass separation, after treatment of the effluents, and the use of flocculent characteristics, as an alternative process of cell-liquid separation, are also discussed. The use of yeast cells in the treatment of real effluents to bridge the gap between fundamental and applied studies is presented and updated. The convenient management of the contaminated biomass and the advantages of the selective recovery of heavy metals in the development of a closed cycle without residues (green technology) are critically reviewed.

  6. Effect of roasting conditions on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in ground Arabica coffee and coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houessou, Justin Koffi; Maloug, Saber; Leveque, Anne-Sophie; Delteil, Corine; Heyd, Bertrand; Camel, Valérie

    2007-11-14

    Roasting is a critical process in coffee production as it enables the development of flavor and aroma. At the same time, roasting may lead to the formation of nondesirable compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, Arabica green coffee beans from Cuba were roasted under controlled conditions to monitor PAH formation during the roasting process. Roasting was performed in a pilot spouted bed roaster, with the inlet air temperature varying from 180 to 260 degrees C, using both dark (20 min) and light (5 min) roasting conditions. Several PAHs were determined in both roasted coffee samples and green coffee samples. Also, coffee brews, obtained using an electric coffee maker, were analyzed for final estimation of PAH transfer coefficients to the infusion. Formation of phenanthrene, anthracene, and benzo[a]anthracene in coffee beans was observed at temperatures above 220 degrees C, whereas formation of pyrene and chrysene required 260 degrees C. Low levels of benzo[g,h,i]perylene were also noted for dark roasting under 260 degrees C, with simultaneous partial degradation of three-cycle PAHs, suggesting that transformation of low molecular PAHs to high molecular PAHs occurs as the roasting degree is increased. The PAH transfer to the infusion was quite moderate (roasted coffee as compared to light-roasted coffee.

  7. Ayahuasca, psychedelic studies and health sciences: the politics of knowledge and inquiry into an Amazonian plant brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Kenneth W; Labate, Beatriz C

    2014-01-01

    This article offers critical sociological and philosophical reflections on ayahuasca and other psychedelics as objects of research in medicine, health and human sciences. It situates 21st century scientific inquiry on ayahuasca in the broader context of how early modern European social trends and intellectual pursuits translated into new forms of empiricism and experimental philosophy, but later evolved into a form of dogmatism that convenienced the political suppression of academic inquiry into psychedelics. Applying ideas from the field of science and technology studies, we consider how ayahuasca's myriad ontological representations in the 21st century--for example, plant teacher, traditional medicine, religious sacrament, material commodity, cognitive tool, illicit drug--influence our understanding of it as an object of inquiry. We then explore epistemological issues related to ayahuasca studies, including how the indigenous and mestizo concept of "plant teacher" or the more instrumental notion of psychedelics as "cognitive tools" may impact understanding of knowledge. This leads to questions about whether scientists engaged in ayahuasca research should be expected to have personal experiences with the brew, and how these may be perceived to help or hinder the objectivity of their pursuits. We conclude with some brief reflections on the politics of psychedelic research and impediments to academic knowledge production in the field of psychedelic studies.

  8. Tea brewed in traditional metallic teapots as a significant source of lead, nickel and other chemical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, F; Brian, W; Petit, D; Boutakhrit, K; Feraille, G; Van Loco, J

    2011-09-01

    An environmental inquiry conducted by the Brussels Inter-communal Laboratory of Chemistry and Bacteriology (BILCB) has revealed that in 2000a traditional metallic teapot caused in Brussels lead intoxication among a family of Morocco origin. Following this case study of lead poisoning and subsequent preliminary results carried out by the BILCB, which confirmed the dangerousness of this kind of item, samples of traditional metallic teapots were collected from North African groceries in Brussels by the Institute of Public Health (IPH) in collaboration with the BILCB and the Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC). Aluminium, copper, iron, nickel, lead and zinc were analysed to identify metals with a potential to migrate into tea solutions. Simulants (natural tea, tea acidified with citric acid and citric acid) were brewed in those teapots in order to identify the leaching potential of migration at boiling point temperature for different contact periods. Multi-elementary analysis was carried out by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). It was concluded that the concentrations of those leached metals depend on the nature of the migration liquids, the type of teapots and the contact periods. Most teapots showed a high level of toxic metals in leachates for lead and to a less extent for nickel, which can contribute significantly to the risk of serious poisoning. A comparison of the results with the toxicological reference values was done. The teapots were withdrawn from the market by the FASFC. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  9. Epimerization of Green Tea Catechins During Brewing Does Not Affect the Ability to Poison Human Type II Topoisomerases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmel, M. Anne; Byl, Jo Ann W.; Osheroff, Neil

    2013-01-01

    (−)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant and biologically active polyphenol in green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves and many of its cellular effects are consistent with its actions as a topoisomerase II poison. In contrast to genistein and several other related bioflavonoids that act as interfacial poisons, EGCG was the first bioflavonoid shown to act as a covalent topoisomerase II poison. Although studies routinely examine the effects of dietary phytochemicals on enzyme and cellular systems, they often fail to consider that many compounds are altered during cooking or cellular metabolism. To this point, the majority of EGCG (and related catechins) in green tea leaves is epimerized during the brewing process. Epimerization reverses the stereochemistry of the bond that bridges the B- and C-rings, and converts EGCG to (−)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG). Consequently, a significant proportion of EGCG that is ingested during the consumption of green tea is actually GCG. Therefore, the effects of GCG and related epimerized green tea catechins on human topoisomerase IIα and IIβ were characterized. GCG increased levels of DNA cleavage mediated by both enzyme isoforms with an activity that was similar to that of EGCG. GCG acted primarily by inhibiting the ability of topoisomerase IIα and IIβ to ligate cleaved DNA. Several lines of evidence indicate that GCG functions as a covalent topoisomerase II poison that adducts the enzyme. Finally, epimerization did not affect the reactivity of the chemical substituents (the three hydroxyl groups on the Bring) that were required for enzyme poisoning. Thus, the activity of covalent topoisomerase II poisons appears to be less sensitive to stereochemical changes than interfacial poisons. PMID:23514406

  10. The lack of influence of food and local alcoholic brew on the blood level of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeida, Mamoun M; Malcolm, Stephen B; ElTayeb, A Z; Eversole, Rob R; Elassad, Asma S; Geary, Timothy G; Ali, Magdi M; Mackenzie, Charles D

    2013-08-01

    There is concern that extraneous factors, such as food and drink, may alter the pharmacodynamics of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin) in patients receiving this important anti-parasitic drug, and thus might put such individuals in danger of serious adverse events. The effects of a common local alcohol-containing beverage and a local food on plasma levels of ivermectin were studied in Sudanese volunteers after administration of the standard dose used in mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis and filariasis. Plasma levels of ivermectin at various time points (0-48h) after administration of ivermectin were ascertained by HPLC assay in ten volunteers given 150μgkg(-1) ivermectin together with either a local sorghum-based food ('assida'), or a locally brewed alcoholic beverage ('arangi' made from sorghum grain) or in those who were fasting. Maximum mean (±SD) plasma levels of ivermectin (67±49ngml(-1)) were reached within 2h in fasting patients, and had dropped to 26±20ngml(-1) after 30h. The coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause an increase in ivermectin plasma levels above those observed in people who were fasting. However, at 2h after ivermectin administration, patients given alcohol had significantly lower plasma ivermectin levels than fed patients or fasting patients. There were no significant differences among treatments for AUC0-30, Cmax, or tmax, and so the coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause any change in pharmacokinetic parameters of ivermectin in the plasma in comparison with fasting. None of the measured levels of plasma ivermectin were greater than those reported in previous studies with this compound. These findings do not support the hypothesis that acute intake of alcohol is an important factor in the development of the serious adverse reactions that can occur during the treatment of loaisis patients with ivermectin (Mectizan(®)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification and characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from fermentation starters for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xu-Cong; Huang, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Ping-Fan; Ni, Li

    2012-01-01

    Hong Qu glutinous rice wine is one of the most popular traditional rice wines in China. Traditionally, this wine is brewed from glutinous rice with the addition of wine fermentation starters (Hong Qu (also called red yeast rice) and White Qu). The objective of this study was to investigate the variability of filamentous fungi associated with traditional fermentation starters through a traditional culture-dependent method and a molecular identification approach. In this study, forty-three filamentous fungi were separated by traditional culture-dependent means (macro- and microscopic characteristics) from 10 fermentation starters and classified into 16 different species based on morphological examination and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences analysis. It was observed that the genus Aspergillus had the highest number (14 isolates) of isolates followed by Rhizopus (11 isolates), Monascus (5 isolates) and Penicillium (4 isolates). The species R. oryzae, A. niger, A. flavus and M. purpureus were frequently found in wine starter samples, among which R. oryzae was the most frequent species. The enzyme-producing properties (glucoamylase, α-amylase and protease) of all fungal isolates from different starters were also evaluated. A. flavus, R. oryzae and M. purpureus were found to be better glucoamylase producers. A. flavus, R. oryzae and A.oryzae exhibited higher activity of α-amylase. A. flavus and A. oryzae had higher protease activity. However, some fungal isolates of the same species exhibited a significant variability in the production levels for all determined enzyme activity. This study is the first to identify filamentous fungi associated with the starter of Hong Qu glutinous rice wine using both traditional and molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of liquor-related micro-organisms, and can be used to promote the development of the traditional fermentation technology.

  12. Absence of fks1p in lager brewing yeast results in aberrant cell wall composition and improved beer flavor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-jing; Xu, Wei-na; Li, Xin'er; Li, Jia; Li, Qi

    2014-06-01

    The flavor stability during storage is very important to the freshness and shelf life of beer. However, beer fermented with a yeast strain which is prone to autolyze will significantly affect the flavor of product. In this study, the gene encoding β-1,3-glucan synthetase catalytic subunit (fks1) of the lager yeast was destroyed via self-clone strategy. β-1,3-glucan is the principle cell wall component, so fks1 disruption caused a decrease in β-1,3-glucan level and increase in chitin level in cell wall, resulting in the increased cell wall thickness. Comparing with wild-type strain, the mutant strain had 39.9 and 63.41 % less leakage of octanoic acid and decanoic acid which would significantly affect the flavor of beer during storage. Moreover, the results of European Brewery Convention tube fermentation test showed that the genetic manipulation to the industrial brewing yeast helped with the anti-staling ability, rather than affecting the fermentation ability. The thiobarbituric acid value reduced by 65.59 %, and the resistant staling value increased by 26.56 %. Moreover, the anti-staling index of the beer fermented with mutant strain increased by 2.64-fold than that from wild-type strain respectively. China has the most production and consumption of beer around the world, so the quality of beer has a significant impact on Chinese beer industry. The result of this study could help with the improvement of the quality of beer in China as well as around the world.

  13. Detection and Quantification of Gluten during the Brewing and Fermentation of Beer Using Antibody-Based Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rakhi; Zoerb, Hans F; Cho, Chung Y; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-06-01

    In 2013 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defined the term ''gluten-free'' and identified a gap in the analytical methodology for detection and quantification of gluten in foods subjected to fermentation and hydrolysis. To ascertain the ability of current enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect and quantify gluten in fermented and hydrolyzed products, sorghum beer was spiked in the initial phases of production with 0, 20, and 200 μg/ml wheat gluten, and samples were collected throughout the beer production process. The samples were analyzed using five sandwich ELISAs and two competitive ELISAs and by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with Western analysis employing four antibodies (MIoBS, R5, G12, and Skerritt). The sensitivity of the MIoBS ELISA (0.25 ppm) enabled the reliable detection of gluten throughout the manufacturing process, including fermentation, when the initial concentration of 20 μg/ml dropped to 2 μg/ml. The R5 antibody-based and G12 antibody-based sandwich ELISAs were unable to reliably detect gluten, initially at 20 μg/ml, after the onset of production. The Skerritt antibody-based sandwich ELISA overestimated the gluten concentration in all samples. The R5 antibody-based and G12 antibody-based competitive ELISAs were less sensitive than the sandwich ELISAs and did not provide accurate results for quantifying gluten concentration. The Western analyses were able to detect gluten at less than 5 μg/ml in the samples and confirmed the results of the ELISAs. Although further research is necessary before all problems associated with detection and quantification of hydrolyzed and fermented gluten are resolved, the analytical methods recommended by the FDA for regulatory samples can detect ≥ 20 μg/ml gluten that has undergone brewing and fermentation processes associated with the manufacture of beer.

  14. Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies on the formation of roasting-induced antioxidative structures in coffee brews at different degrees of roast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekedam, E Koen; Schols, Henk A; Cämmerer, Bettina; Kroh, Lothar W; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Smit, Gerrit

    2008-06-25

    The antioxidative properties of coffee brew fractions were studied using electron spin resonance spectroscopy using 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and Fremy's salt (nitrosodisulfonate) as stabilized radicals. TEMPO was scavenged by antioxidants formed during roasting and not by chlorogenic acid, whereas Fremy's salt was scavenged by all antioxidants tested including chlorogenic acid. The stabilized radical TEMPO allowed the exclusive measurement of roasting-induced antioxidants. The roasting-induced antioxidant activity of coffee brews increased with increasing degree of roast, and most of these antioxidants were formed during the initial roasting stage. The majority of these roasting-induced antioxidants were present in the high molecular weight fractions, indicating that the formation of these antioxidants preferably occurs at specific high molecular weight structures, likely being arabinogalactan and/or protein moieties which might be part of the melanoidin complex. It was found that chlorogenic acids most probably do not lose their antioxidant activity and phenolic characteristics upon incorporation in coffee melanoidins. The parameter fast reacting antioxidants (FRA) was introduced as an alternative for the antioxidative potential. FRA levels showed that coffee fractions rich in roasting-induced antioxidants exposed their antioxidant activity relatively slowly, which must be a consequence of its complex structure. Finally, the melanoidin content and the roasting-induced antioxidant activity showed a positive and linear correlation for the coffee brew fractions, showing that roasting-induced antioxidants are present within melanoidins. This is the first time that the formation of roasting-induced antioxidants could be directly correlated with the extent of Maillard reaction and melanoidin formation in a complex product such as coffee.

  15. Evaluation of microbial diversity in the pilot-scale beer brewing process by culture-dependent and culture-independent method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M; Kita, Y; Kusaka, K; Mizuno, A; Goto-Yamamoto, N

    2015-02-01

    In the brewing industry, microbial management is very important for stabilizing the quality of the product. We investigated the detailed microbial community of beer during fermentation and maturation, to manage beer microbiology in more detail. We brewed a beer (all-malt) and two beerlike beverages (half- and low-malt) in pilot-scale fermentation and investigated the microbial community of them using a next-generation sequencer (454 GS FLX titanium), quantitative PCR, flow cytometry and a culture-dependent method. From 28 to 88 genera of bacteria and from 9 to 38 genera of eukaryotic micro-organisms were detected in each sample. Almost all micro-organisms died out during the boiling process. However, bacteria belonging to the genera Acidovorax, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Caulobacter, Chryseobacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacillus, Polaromonas, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Tepidimonas and Tissierella were detected at the early and middle stage of fermentation, even though their cell densities were low (below approx. 10(3) cells ml(-1) ) and they were not almost detected at the end of fermentation. We revealed that the microbial community of beer during fermentation and maturation is very diverse and several bacteria possibly survive during fermentation. In this study, we revealed the detailed microbial communities of beer using next-generation sequencing. Some of the micro-organisms detected in this study were found in beer brewing process for the first time. Additionally, the possibility of growth of several bacteria at the early and middle stage of fermentation was suggested. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Reduction of methanol in brewed wine by the use of atmospheric and room-temperature plasma method and the combination optimization of malt with different adjuncts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ming-Hua; Liang, Ying-Jie; Chai, Jiang-Yan; Zhou, Shi-Shui; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2014-11-01

    Methanol, often generated in brewed wine, is highly toxic for human health. To decrease the methanol content of the brewed wine, atmospheric and room-temperature plasma (ARTP) was used as a new mutagenesis tool to generate a mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with lower methanol content. Headspace gas chromatography was used to determine the identity and concentration of methanol with butyl acetate as internal standard in brewed wine. With 47.4% higher and 26.3% positive mutation rates were obtained, the ARTP jet exhibited a strong effect on mutation breeding of S. cerevisiae. The mutant S. cerevisiae S12 exhibited the lowest methanol content, which was decreased by 72.54% compared with that of the wild-type strain. Subsequently, the mutant S. cerevisiae S12 was used to ferment different combinations of malt and adjuncts for lower methanol content and higher alcoholic content. It was shown that the culture 6#, which was 60% malt, 20% wheat, and 20% corn, was the best combinations of malt and adjuncts, with the lowest methanol content (104.8 mg/L), and a relatively higher alcoholic content (15.3%, v/v). The optimal malt-adjunct culture 6#, treated with the glucoamylase dose of 0.04 U/mg of grain released the highest reducing sugars (201.6 mg/mL). It was indicated that the variation in reducing sugars among the combinations of malt and different adjuncts could be due to the dose of exogenous enzymes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Protein hydrolysate from canned sardine and brewing by-products improves TNF-α-induced inflammation in an intestinal-endothelial co-culture cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Elsa F; Van Camp, John; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Grootaert, Charlotte

    2017-07-17

    The anti-inflammatory activity of sardine protein hydrolysates (SPH) obtained by hydrolysis with proteases from brewing yeast surplus was ascertained. For this purpose, a digested and desalted SPH fraction with molecular weight lower than 10 kDa was investigated using an endothelial cell line (EA.hy926) as such and in a co-culture model with an intestinal cell line (Caco-2). Effects of SPH SPH SPH SPH SPH to be used as a functional food with anti-inflammatory properties.

  18. Influence of roasting and different brewing processes on the ochratoxin A content in coffee determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Pera, L; Avellone, G; Lo Turco, V; Di Bella, G; Agozzino, P; Dugo, G

    2008-10-01

    A rapid and reliable procedure has been developed for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in green and roasted coffee. The method consists of extraction of the sample with methanol-5% aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate/1% PEG8000 (20:80), followed by immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up and, finally, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination with fluorimetric detection. Mean recoveries for green and roasted coffee spiked at different levels ranging from 94 and 105% were obtained. The limit of determination (S/N = 3) was 0.032 ng g(-1) and the precision (within-laboratory relative standard deviation) was 6%. The method described has been used to assess the influence of roasting and different brewing processes on OTA content in commercial lots of green and roasted coffee. The results provided evidence that roasting led to a significant drop on OTA levels (65-100%). Also, the way coffee is prepared affects the OTA content: brewing using a Moka Express (Italian coffee) led to a significant reduction of OTA concentration (50-75%) since hot water stays in contact with coffee for a short time. On the contrary, Turkish coffee-making (infusion for about 10 min) cause poor reduction in OTA.

  19. Studies on the Simultaneous Formation of Aroma-Active and Toxicologically Relevant Vinyl Aromatics from Free Phenolic Acids during Wheat Beer Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-03-23

    During the brewing process of wheat beer, the desired aroma-active vinyl aromatics 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol as well as the undesired and toxicologically relevant styrene are formed from their respective precursors, free ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid, deriving from the malts. Analysis of eight commercial wheat beers revealed high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol always in parallel with high concentrations of styrene or low concentrations of the odorants in parallel with low styrene concentrations, suggesting a similar pathway. To better understand the formation of these vinyl aromatics, each process step of wheat beer brewing and the use of different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated. During wort boiling, only a moderate decarboxylation of free phenolic acids and formation of desired and undesired vinyl aromatics were monitored due to the thermal treatment. In contrast, this reaction mainly occurred enzymatically catalyzed during fermentation with S. cerevisiae strain W68 with normal Pof(+) activity (phenolic off-flavor) resulting in a wheat beer eliciting the typical aroma requested by consumers due to high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (1790 μg/L) and 4-vinylphenol (937 μg/L). Unfortunately, also a high concentration of undesired styrene (28.3 μg/L) was observed. Using a special S. cerevisiae strain without Pof(+) activity resulted in a significant styrene reduction (beer aroma.

  20. The brewing storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Kaplan, DVM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An eclectic collection of papers by physicians, veterinarians and other allied health medical scientists on the ‘One Medicine - One Health’ concept has been assembled in this monograph. The contributions include thirteen individual ‘One Health’ papers by fifty-three participants from twelve countries. The authors joined to confront various global health threats. In addition to the participating countries, individuals from twenty-six other nations have united as supporters of the ‘One Health initiative’. Biomedical research, scientific knowledge, environmental health, public health, individual health and clinical health care will all be enhanced by implementing the ‘One Medicine - One Health’ concept which promotes co-equal, cross-disciplinary communication and collaboration. The scientific coalition that evolves through this collaborative effort will significantly enhance human and animal health for future generations.

  1. Freshly brewed continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, E.; Hayes, J. L.; Caddick, M. J.; Madrigal, P.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's crust is the life-sustaining interface between our planet's deep interior and surface. Basaltic crusts similar to Earth's oceanic crust characterize terrestrial planets in the solar system while the continental masses, areas of buoyant, thick silicic crust, are a unique characteristic of Earth. Therefore, understanding the processes responsible for the formation of continents is fundamental to reconstructing the evolution of our planet. We use geochemical and geophysical data to reconstruct the evolution of the Central American Land Bridge (Costa Rica and Panama) over the last 70 Ma. We also include new preliminary data from a key turning point (~12-6 Ma) from the evolution from an oceanic arc depleted in incompatible elements to a juvenile continental mass in order to evaluate current models of continental crust formation. We also discovered that seismic P-waves (body waves) travel through the crust at velocities closer to the ones observed in continental crust worldwide. Based on global statistical analyses of all magmas produced today in oceanic arcs compared to the global average composition of continental crust we developed a continental index. Our goal was to quantitatively correlate geochemical composition with the average P-wave velocity of arc crust. We suggest that although the formation and evolution of continents may involve many processes, melting enriched oceanic crust within a subduction zone, a process probably more common in the Achaean where most continental landmasses formed, can produce the starting material necessary for juvenile continental crust formation.

  2. WINES BREWED IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    period reveals that levels of monoamines-histamine and tryptamine increased, while diamines- putrescine and cadaverine decreased. No significant differences were observed between wine types and amine concentration. Analysis of covariance at or = 0.05 showed that formation of biogenic amines in wines is depended ...

  3. How does roasting affect the antioxidants of a coffee brew? Exploring the antioxidant capacity of coffee via on-line antioxidant assays coupled with size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrke, Samo; Opitz, Sebastian E W; Vovk, Irena; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2013-07-01

    During coffee roasting major changes occur in coffee bean composition. Among others dark coloured melanoidins are formed, which are high molecular weight Maillard reaction products. A new approach is presented here to monitor the influence of roasting conditions on the antioxidant capacity of melanoidins and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in a coffee brew. Validated Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) and ABTS assays were used as on-line antioxidant assays coupled (post-column) with high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). HPSEC enabled the separation of melanoidins from CGAs and the determination of the antioxidant capacity of each fraction, within a total elution time of 25 min. Besides the on-line assay measurements, both assays were also applied off-line with flow injection analysis (FIA). The maximum antioxidant capacity was determined to be at a light-to-medium roast degree, measured with both ABTS-FIA and FC-FIA assays as well as on-line ABTS assay. With FC on-line assay the maximum was found to be at a very light roast degree. Based on the peak areas obtained with the new coupled technique the roasting effects on the variability of melanoidin and CGA contents in coffee brews were studied. The majority of melanoidins are already formed in the early stage of the roasting process and the relative contribution of melanoidins to the total antioxidant capacity increases towards darker roasts, mainly because CGAs degrade during roasting. A new parameter, the ratio of melanoidin to CGA peak area, was introduced as a possible predictor of the roast degree.

  4. Quantitative studies on the influence of the bean roasting parameters and hot water percolation on the concentrations of bitter compounds in coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Simone; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of roasting time and temperature on the degradation of the bitter precursors 3-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (1), 5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (2), and 4-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (3) as well as the formation of bitter tastants during coffee roasting, we prepared coffee brews from beans roasted either at 260 degrees C for 60-600 s or for 240 s at 190-280 degrees C. By means of HPLC-UV/vis and HPLC-MS/MS, bitter-tasting monocaffeoyl quinides (4-8), dicaffeoyl quinides (9-11), and 4-vinylcatechol oligomers (12-20) as well as the parent bitter precursors 1-3 were quantitatively analyzed in these brews. Quinides 4-11, exhibiting a coffee-typical bitter taste profile, were found to be preferentially formed under slight to medium roasting degrees and were observed to be degraded again to generate harsh bitter-tasting 4-vinylcatechol oligomers under more severe roasting conditions, thus matching the change in bitter taste quality observed by means of sensory studies. In addition, quantitative studies of the release profile of bitter compounds from ground coffee upon water percolation revealed that compounds 1-8 were rapidly extracted, dicaffeoyl quinides 9-11 were released rather slowly, and, in particular, compounds 12-17 were found to show strong retention to the ground coffee material. These data imply that the knowledge-based control of the roasting and/or the extraction conditions might be helpful in tailoring the bitter taste signature of coffee beverages.

  5. Furanic compounds and furfural in different coffee products by headspace liquid-phase micro-extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: survey and effect of brewing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichi, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh-Mohammadi, Vahid; Hashemi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Abdorreza

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the levels of furan, 2-methylfuran, 2,5-dimethylfuran, vinyl furan, 2-methoxymethyl-furan and furfural in different coffee products were evaluated. Simultaneous determination of these six furanic compounds was performed by a head space liquid-phase micro-extraction (HS-LPME) method. A total of 67 coffee powder samples were analysed. The effects of boiling and espresso-making procedures on the levels of furanic compounds were investigated. The results showed that different types of coffee samples contained different concentrations of furanic compounds, due to the various processing conditions such as temperature, degree of roasting and fineness of grind. Among the different coffee samples, the highest level of furan (6320 µg kg⁻¹) was detected in ground coffee, while coffee-mix samples showed the lowest furan concentration (10 µg kg⁻¹). Levels in brewed coffees indicated that, except for furfural, brewing by an espresso machine caused significant loss of furanic compounds.

  6. Stability of barley and malt lipid transfer protein 1 (LTP1) toward heating and reducing agents: relationships with the brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrocheau, Ludivine; Bakan, Benedicte; Boivin, Patrick; Marion, Didier

    2006-04-19

    Barley lipid transfer protein (LTP1) is a heat-stable and protease-resistant albumin that concentrates in beer, where it participates in the formation and stability of beer foam. Whereas the barley LTP1 does not display any foaming properties, the corresponding beer protein is surface-active. Such an improvement is related to glycation by Maillard reactions on malting, acylation on mashing, and structural unfolding on brewing. The structural stability of purified barley and glycated malt LTP1 toward heating has been analyzed. Whatever the modification, lipid adduction or glycation, barley LTP1s are highly stable proteins that resisted temperatures up to 100 degrees C. Unfolding of LTP1 occurred only when heating was conducted in the presence of a reducing agent. In the presence of sodium sulfite, the lipid-adducted barley and malt LTP1 displayed higher heat stability than the nonadducted protein. Glycation had no or weak effect on heat-induced unfolding. Finally, it was shown that unfolding occurred on wort boiling before fermentation and that the reducing conditions are provided by malt extract.

  7. Adaptive evolution of the lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus for improved growth under hyperosmotic conditions and its influence on fermentation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Jukka; Rautio, Jari; Mattinen, Laura; Vidgren, Virve; Londesborough, John; Gibson, Brian R

    2013-05-01

    An adaptive evolution method to obtain stable Saccharomyces pastorianus brewing yeast variants with improved fermentation capacity is described. The procedure involved selection for rapid growth resumption at high osmotic strength. It was applied to a lager strain and to a previously isolated ethanol-tolerant strain. Fermentation performance of strains was compared at 15 °P wort strength. A selected osmotolerant variant of the ethanol-tolerant strain showed significantly shorter fermentation time than the parent strain, producing 6.45% alcohol by volume beer in 4-5 days with mostly similar organoleptic properties to the original strain. Diacetyl and pentanedione contents were 50-75% and 3-methylbutyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate 50% higher than with the original strain, leading to a small flavour change. The variant contained significantly less intracellular trehalose and glycogen than the parent. Transcriptional analysis of selected genes at 24 h revealed reduced transcription of hexose transport genes and increased transcription of the MALx1 and MALx2 genes, responsible for α-glucoside uptake and metabolism. It is suggested that an attenuated stress response contributes to the improved fermentation performance. Results show that sequential selection for both ethanol tolerance and rapid growth at high osmotic strength can provide strains with enhanced fermentation speed with acceptable product quality. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A xylanase with broad pH and temperature adaptability from Streptomyces megasporus DSM 41476, and its potential application in brewing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhenhua; Shi, Pengjun; Luo, Huiying; Bai, Yingguo; Yuan, Tiezheng; Yang, Peilong; Liu, Suchun; Yao, Bin

    2010-05-05

    A xylanase gene, xynAM6, was isolated from the genomic DNA library of Streptomyces megasporus DSM 41476 using colony PCR screening method. The 1440-bp full-length gene encodes a 479-amino acid peptide consisting of a putative signal peptide of 36 residues, a family 10 glycoside hydrolase domain and a family 2 carbohydrate-binding module. The mature peptide of xynAM6 was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The optimal pH and temperature were pH 5.5 and 70°C, respectively. The enzyme showed broad temperature adaptability (>60% of the maximum activity at 50-80°C), had good thermostability at 60°C and 70°C, remained stable at pH 4.0-11.0, and was resistant to most proteases. The Km and Vmax values for oat spelt xylan were 1.68mgml(-1) and 436.76μmolmin(-1)mg(-1), respectively, and 2.33mgml(-1) and 406.93μmolmin(-1)mg(-1) for birchwood xylan, respectively. The hydrolysis products of XYNAM6 were mainly xylose and xylobiose. Addition of XYNAM6 (80U) to the brewery mash significantly reduced the filtration rate and viscosity by 36.33% and 35.51%, respectively. These favorable properties probably make XYNAM6 a good candidate for application in brewing industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High-level production of β-1,3-1,4-glucanase by Rhizomucor miehei under solid-state fermentation and its potential application in the brewing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S Q; Xiong, H; Yang, H Y; Yan, Q J; Jiang, Z Q

    2015-01-01

    To improve the β-1,3-1,4-glucanase production by Rhizomucor miehei under solid-state fermentation (SSF) for industrial application. The fermentation conditions for β-1,3-1,4-glucanase production by R. miehei CAU432 under SSF were optimized using a 'one-factor-at-a-time' method. Under the optimized fermentation conditions, viz. oatmeal (0·45-0·9 mm) as sole carbon source, 5% (w/w) peptone as sole nitrogen source, initial moisture of 80% (w/w), initial culture pH of 5·0, incubation temperature of 50°C and incubation time of 6 days, the highest β-1,3-1,4-glucanase activity of 20,025 U g(-1) dry substrate was achieved, which represents the highest yield for β-1,3-1,4-glucanase production ever reported. The crude enzyme was extracted and purified to homogeneity with a purification fold of 4·6 and a recovery yield of 9·0%. The addition of the purified β-1,3-1,4-glucanase in mash obviously reduced its filtration time (24·6%) and viscosity (2·61%). The optimal fermentation conditions for maximal β-1,3-1,4-glucanase production under SSF was obtained, and the enzyme was suitable for application in the malting process. The high production yield and excellent capability of the enzyme may enable it great potential in industries, especially in brewing industry. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Teff (Eragrostis tef) as a raw material for malting, brewing and manufacturing of gluten-free foods and beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Mekonnen Melaku; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The demand for gluten-free foods is certainly increasing. Interest in teff has increased noticeably due to its very attractive nutritional profile and gluten-free nature of the grain, making it a suitable substitute for wheat and other cereals in their food applications as well as foods for people with celiac disease. The main objective of this article is to review researches on teff, evaluate its suitability for different food applications, and give direction for further research on its applications for health food market. Teff is a tropical low risk cereal that grows in a wider ecology and can tolerate harsh environmental conditions where most other cereals are less viable. It has an excellent balance of amino acid composition (including all 8 essential amino acids for humans) making it an excellent material for malting and brewing. Because of its small size, teff is made into whole-grain flour (bran and germ included), resulting in a very high fiber content and high nutrient content in general. Teff is useful to improve the haemoglobin level in human body and helps to prevent malaria, incidence of anaemia and diabetes. The nutrient composition of teff grain indicates that it has a good potential to be used in foods and beverages worldwide. The high levels of simple sugars and α-amino acids as a result of breakdown of starch and protein, respectively, are essential for fermentation and beer making.

  11. Construction of brewing-wine Aspergillus oryzae pyrG- mutant by pyrG gene deletion and its application in homology transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu; Xie, Guizhen; Yang, Chunfa; Fang, Baishan; Chen, Hongwen

    2014-06-01

    pyrG(-) host cells are indispensable for pyrG(-) based transformation system. Isolations of pyrG(-) host cells by random mutations are limited by time-consuming, unclear genetic background and potential interferences of homogenous recombination. The purpose of this study was to construct brewing-wine Aspergillus oryzae pyrG(-) mutant by site-directed mutation of pyrG gene deletion which would be used as a host for further transformation. pMD-pyrGAB, a vector carrying pyrG deletion cassette, was used to construct pyrG(-) mutant of A. oryzae. Three stable pyrG deletion mutants of A. oryzae were isolated by resistant to 5-fluoroorotic acid and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis, indicating that pyrG was completely excised. The ΔpyrG mutants were applied as pyrG(-) host cells to disrupt xdh gene encoding xylitol dehydrogenase, which involves in xylitol production of A. oryzae. The xdh disruption mutants were efficiently constructed by transforming a pMD-pyrG-xdh disruption plasmid carrying pyrG, and the produced xylitol concentration of the Δxdh mutant was three times as much as that of the ΔpyrG recipient. Site-directed pyrG gene deletion is thus an effective way for the isolation of pyrG(-) host cells, and the established host-vector system could be applied in further functional genomics analysis and molecular breeding of A. oryzae. © The Author 2014. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Understanding the Effects of Roasting on Antioxidant Components of Coffee Brews by Coupling On‐line ABTS Assay to High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Sebastian E.W.; Goodman, Bernard A.; Keller, Marco; Smrke, Samo; Wellinger, Marco; Schenker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Coffee is a widely consumed beverage containing antioxidant active compounds. During roasting the phytochemical composition of the coffee bean changes dramatically and highly polymeric substances are produced. Besides chlorogenic acids that are already present in green coffee beans, melanoidins show antioxidant capacity as well. Objective To employ post‐column derivatisation by coupling high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) to an antioxidant assay to investigate the effect of roasting on the properties of antioxidant active compounds in coffee brews. Methodology We have investigated the antioxidant capacity of Coffea arabica (Arabica) and C. canephora (Robusta) beans that were roasted over the full spectrum of roast conditions (four roasting speeds to three roast degrees) by comparing the results from HPSEC coupled on‐line to the ABTS assay with those from two batch assays, Folin Ciocalteu (FC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Results The antioxidant capacity showed a general decrease towards slower and darker roasted coffee for all three assays, indicative of heat degradation of active compounds. Hence, low molecular weight (LMW) compounds such as chlorogenic acids (CGAs) decreased progressively already from relatively mild roasting conditions. In contrast, high molecular weight (HMW) compounds (e.g. melanoidins) increased from light to dark roast degrees with lowering magnitude towards slower roasting profiles. Conclusion By coupling HPSEC on‐line to the ABTS assay we were able to separately quantify the contribution of HMW and LMW compounds to the total antioxidant capacity, increasing our understanding of the roast process. © 2016 The Authors. Phytochemical Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28008674

  13. Understanding the Effects of Roasting on Antioxidant Components of Coffee Brews by Coupling On-line ABTS Assay to High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Sebastian E W; Goodman, Bernard A; Keller, Marco; Smrke, Samo; Wellinger, Marco; Schenker, Stefan; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2017-03-01

    Coffee is a widely consumed beverage containing antioxidant active compounds. During roasting the phytochemical composition of the coffee bean changes dramatically and highly polymeric substances are produced. Besides chlorogenic acids that are already present in green coffee beans, melanoidins show antioxidant capacity as well. To employ post-column derivatisation by coupling high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) to an antioxidant assay to investigate the effect of roasting on the properties of antioxidant active compounds in coffee brews. We have investigated the antioxidant capacity of Coffea arabica (Arabica) and C. canephora (Robusta) beans that were roasted over the full spectrum of roast conditions (four roasting speeds to three roast degrees) by comparing the results from HPSEC coupled on-line to the ABTS assay with those from two batch assays, Folin Ciocalteu (FC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The antioxidant capacity showed a general decrease towards slower and darker roasted coffee for all three assays, indicative of heat degradation of active compounds. Hence, low molecular weight (LMW) compounds such as chlorogenic acids (CGAs) decreased progressively already from relatively mild roasting conditions. In contrast, high molecular weight (HMW) compounds (e.g. melanoidins) increased from light to dark roast degrees with lowering magnitude towards slower roasting profiles. By coupling HPSEC on-line to the ABTS assay we were able to separately quantify the contribution of HMW and LMW compounds to the total antioxidant capacity, increasing our understanding of the roast process. © 2016 The Authors. Phytochemical Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Phytochemical Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Construction of amylolytic industrial brewing yeast strain with high glutathione content for manufacturing beer with improved anti-staling capability and flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjing; Wang, Zhao-Yue; He, Xiu-Ping; Zhang, Bo-Run

    2010-11-01

    Glutathione in beer works as the main antioxidant compounds which correlates with beer flavor stability. High residual sugars in beer contribute to major non-volatile components which correlate to high caloric content. In this work, Saccharomyces cerevisiae GSH1 gene encoding glutamylcysteine synthetase and Scharomycopsis fibuligera ALP1 gene encoding alpha-amylase were co-expressed in industrial brewing yeast strain Y31 targeting at alpha-acetolactate synthase (AHAS) gene (ILV2) and alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH2), and new recombinant strain TY3 was constructed. The glutathione content from the fermentation broth of TY3 increased to 43.83 mg/l compared to 33.34 mg/l from Y31. The recombinant strain showed high alpha-amylase activity and utilized more than 46% of starch after 5 days growing on starch as sole carbon source. European Brewery Convention tube fermentation tests comparing the fermentation broth of TY3 and Y31 showed that the flavor stability index increased to 1.3 fold and residual sugar concentration were reduced by 76.8%, respectively. Due to the interruption of ILV2 gene and ADH2 gene, the amounts of off-flavor compounds diacetyl and acetaldehyde were reduced by 56.93% and 31.25%, comparing with the amounts of these from Y31 fermentation broth. In addition, as no drug-resistance genes were introduced to new recombinant strain, consequently, it should be more suitable for use in beer industry because of its better flavor stability and other beneficial characteristics.

  15. Effect of processing and roasting on the antioxidant activity of coffee brews Efeito do processamento e da torração sobre a atividade antioxidante da bebida de café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris da Silveira Duarte

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing and roasting on the antioxidant activity of coffee brews. Brews prepared with light, medium and dark roasted coffees were analyzed. The pH, total solids content, polyphenols content, reducing substances and chlorogenic acids content were determined. The antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts, the guaicol decolorizing and the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation were also analyzed. The antioxidant activity of coffee brews were concentration-dependent. A progressive antioxidant activity and polyphenols content was observed decreasing with roasting. The light roasted coffee showed the highest antioxidant activity and dark roasted coffee showed the lowest antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the ingestion of coffee brews prepared with light and medium roasted coffees might protect cells from oxidative stress damages.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do processamento e grau de torração sobre a atividade antioxidante da bebida de café. Foram analisadas bebidas preparadas com café nos graus de torração claro, médio e escuro. Foram determinados o pH, o conteúdo de sólidos totais, o conteúdo de polifenóis, o conteúdo de substâncias redutoras e o conteúdo de ácidos clorogênicos. Além disto, foram analisadas a atividade antioxidante dos extratos aquosos, a descoloração do guaiacol e a capacidade de inibição da formação de peróxidos lipídicos. A atividade antioxidante mostrou ser dependente da concentração da bebida de café. Foi observada redução progressiva da atividade antioxidante e de compostos fenólicos com o grau de torração. O café submetido à torra clara apresentou atividade antioxidante máxima e o café com maior grau de torra apresentou a menor atividade antioxidante. Os resultados indicam que a ingestão de bebidas preparadas com cafés de torras clara e média pode proteger a célula contra os efeitos do estresse

  16. Efeito da bebida de café descascado sobre a atividade antioxidante, os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos em ratos Peeled coffee brew effect in the antioxidant activity hematological and biochemical parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris da Silveira Duarte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o efeito da bebida filtrada, preparada com café-arábica descascado, sobre a peroxidação de lipídios, os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos in vivo. Para isso foram utilizados ratos que ingeriram 280 mg/kg/dia da bebida de café por 7 dias (tratamento agudo e 30 dias (tratamento crônico. A fim de determinar se a bebida de café é capaz de reduzir o estresse oxidativo, foi analisada a peroxidação de lipídios isolados de cérebro de rato analisando-se as substâncias reativas do ácido tiobarbitúrico. A ingestão da bebida por 7 e 30 dias inibiu significativamente a peroxidação lipídica (p The aim of this study was to verify the effect of filtered coffee brew prepared with peeled Coffea arabica on the lipid peroxidation and on hematological and biochemical parameters in vivo. Rats were ingested 280 mg/kg/day of coffee brew for 7 days (acute treatment and 30 days (chronic treatment. In order to determine whether coffee can reduce the oxidative stress, the rats brain isolated lipid peroxidation was accessed evaluating the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs.The ingestion of coffee brew for 7 and 30 days inhibited, significantly, the malondialdehyde concentration (p 0.05 between the percentage of peroxidation inhibition when the acute (48.6% and chronic (53.4% treatments were compared. The chronic ingestion of moderate doses of filtered coffee brew did not modify the plasma level of the hematological and biochemical parameters analyzed. The results indicate the beneficial health effect of moderated filtered coffee brew ingestion since it inhibited lipid peroxidation, but did not change the rats cholesterol and triacylglycerol plasma levels.

  17. Chip architecture - A revolution brewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterl, F.

    1983-07-01

    Techniques being explored by microchip designers and manufacturers to both speed up memory access and instruction execution while protecting memory are discussed. Attention is given to hardwiring control logic, pipelining for parallel processing, devising orthogonal instruction sets for interchangeable instruction fields, and the development of hardware for implementation of virtual memory and multiuser systems to provide memory management and protection. The inclusion of microcode in mainframes eliminated logic circuits that control timing and gating of the CPU. However, improvements in memory architecture have reduced access time to below that needed for instruction execution. Hardwiring the functions as a virtual memory enhances memory protection. Parallelism involves a redundant architecture, which allows identical operations to be performed simultaneously, and can be directed with microcode to avoid abortion of intermediate instructions once on set of instructions has been completed.

  18. Characterization of a β-glucanase produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus, and its potential for application in the brewing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Carlos R

    2006-12-01

    -glucanase produced by R. microsporus var. microsporus. was determined to be consistently lower. Conclusion The zygomycete microfungus R. microsporus var. microsporus produced a 1,3-1,4-β-D-glucan 4-glucanhydrolase (EC 3.2.1.73 which is able to hydrolyze β-D-glucan that contains both the 1,3- and 1,4-bonds (barley β-glucans. Its molecular mass was 33.7 kDa. Maximum activity was detected at pH values in the range of 4–5, and temperatures in the range of 50–60°C. The enzyme was able to reduce both the viscosity of the brewer mash and the filtration time, indicating its potential value for the brewing industry.

  19. Determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using polymeric ionic liquid-based sorbent coatings in solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliero, Cecilia; Ho, Tien D; Zhang, Cheng; Bicchi, Carlo; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-06-03

    This study describes a simple and rapid sampling method employing a polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coating in direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the trace-level analysis of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder. The crosslinked PIL sorbent coating demonstrated superior sensitivity in the extraction of acrylamide compared to all commercially available SPME coatings. A spin coating method was developed to evenly distribute the PIL coating on the SPME support and reproducibly produce fibers with a large film thickness. Ninhydrin was employed as a quenching reagent during extraction to inhibit the production of interfering acrylamide. The PIL fiber produced a limit of quantitation for acrylamide of 10μgL(-1) and achieved comparable results to the ISO method in the analysis of six coffee powder samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An analysis on flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids contents in brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact fermentation techniques of Mao Luang ripe fruits (Antidesma bunius) harvested from Phupan Valley in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samappito, S; Butkhup, L

    2008-07-01

    The experiment was carried out at the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand during the 2006. The study aimed to determine amounts of flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids in ripe fruits and brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact winemaking techniques where Mao Luang ripe fruits of both Fapratan and Sangkrow2 cultivars were used. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with four replications. The results showed that mean values of primary data of fresh Mao Luang ripe fruits on weight of 100 berries (g) and mean values of juice:solids, pH, total soluble solid (TSS, 0brix), total organic acids (TOA, mg L(-1)), TSS:TOA (%), total flavonoids contents (TFC, mg L(-l)), total phenolic acids (TPA, mg L(-1)), total procyanidins contents (TPC, mg L(-1)) and reducing sugar (g L(-1)) were 65.62, 3.28, 3.51, 16.50, 49.36, 28.10, 397.90, 76.04, 156.21 and 184.32, respectively. Skin contact Mao Luang red wine gave higher amounts of flavonoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins of procyanidin B1 and procyanidin B2, organic acids than non-skin contact red wine. The differences were highly significant. Furthermore, ethanol (%) and total acidity (g L(-1) citric acid) were much higher for skin contact wine than non-skin contact wine but a reverse was found with total soluble solids (0brix), pH where non-skin contact wine gave higher mean values than skin contact wine.

  1. Comparative study of phenolic compounds, vitamin E, and fatty acids compositional profiles in black seed-coated soybeans (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill) depending on pickling period in brewed vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Oh, Jin-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2017-07-18

    Pickled soybeans or vinegar beans have long been used as a folk remedy and also a supplemental nutritional source in Korea. In general the pickling process in vinegar improves the digestibility of soybeans as well as increases the availability of various (non-)nutrients in soybeans. However, detailed information about the changes in functional substances such as (poly)phenolic compounds, vitamin E, and fatty acids (FAs) in soybeans during the pickling process is quite limited. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the changes in the selected phenolic compounds, vitamin E, and FAs in soybeans as a function of the pickling time. The sum of the total phenolics in both the pickled soybeans and the pickling solutions increased by as much as 47% after pickling. Naringenin, vanillin, and catechin were the major phenolics observed in the pickled soybeans and pickling solutions. The total vitamin E content in the pickled soybeans decreased by 23% after pickling, although no vitamin E molecules were found in the pickling solution. γ-Tocopherol was abundant in the untreated soybeans, but decreased by ~29% after pickling. Both the total and major FA contents varied by less than 1% during the pickling period. In this study, a 10-20 day pickling period may be considered suitable in terms of retention of functional substances in the pickled soybeans, such as selected phenolics, vitamin E, and FAs. Our findings provide basic information and insight into the production of functional compounds in soybeans upon immersing in brewed vinegar, and also may be helpful toward improving the health-functionality of soybean-based foods in the food industry. Graphical abstract How to change bioactive compounds during the pickling process?

  2. The Survey of Microbial Quality of the Dry Sample, Extract and Brewing of some Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh VALIASILL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants may be exposed to a wide range of microbial contamination during pre- and post- harvest stages and they can present high microbial counts. In this study, the microbial quality of 44 samples of dry herbs namely: mint (Menthaspp., lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, summer savory (Satureja hortensis, zataria (Zataria multiflora, Indian valerian (Valeriana wallichii, their brewing and extracts were analyzed. Total count using plate count agar medium (PCA, coliform count by Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBL, Enterobacteriacea by Violet Red Bile Glucose (VRBG were evaluated. Medium Baird-Parker agar (BP medium and Tryptone Bile X-Gluc (TBX medium were used for the isolation and enumeration of Staphylococcus aurous and E. coli spp. respectively. Furthermore, Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar medium (XLD and Bismuth Sulfite Agar medium(BSA were used for detection of Salmonella spp. Fungal and mold contamination was assessed using yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol agar. The results showed that the contamination of the samples with total count (100% and Enterobacteriaceae (85%, total coliform (83%, mold and yeast (98% and E. coli ssp. (2.27 were detected, including in the study samples the absence of pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aurous, Salmonella spp. Moreover, the extract had a lower microbial load in comparison to dry herb samples. Also, the lowest and the highest of contamination rates were observed for Indian valerian and zataria, respectively. According to the results, there is a need to control the environmental conditions and improve hygiene in the production process; even more, it is recommended to choose a suitable decontamination method for disinfection during packing medicinal plants and during post-packing manipulation and transport.

  3. High Molecular Weight Melanoidins from Coffee Brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van T.; Smit, G.

    2006-01-01

    The composition of high molecular weight (HMw) coffee melanoidin populations, obtained after ethanol precipitation, was studied. The specific extinction coefficient (Kmix) at 280, 325, 405 nm, sugar composition, phenolic group content, nitrogen content, amino acid composition, and non-protein

  4. Innovations in the brewing industry: light beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos A; Caballero, Isabel; Barrios, Rosa; Rojas, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The demand for light beers has led brewers to innovate by developing light beer. However, these products are not widely accepted in Europe compared to North America and Australasia because of their lack of fullness in the taste and low bitterness compared with conventional beer. The lower levels of some important compounds, present in light beer, can explain these features since they are responsible for the characteristics of the beer. These include alcohol soluble proteins, oligosaccharides, glycerol, polyphenols, iso-α-acids, fusel alcohols and trihydroxy fatty acids. Light beer is produced by several methods, the most commonly used is the addition of glucoamylase to the wort before or during fermentation. This enzyme metabolizes residual carbohydrates (mainly dextrins) transforming them into fermentable sugars and reducing the caloric and alcohol content in this type of beer. Recently pilot studies have been carried out with genetically engineered yeast strains in which amylolytic genes are introduced into the yeast genome in order to metabolize carbohydrate residues. When introducing amylolytic genes, a better fermentability occurs although the fullness of flavor still becomes reduced.

  5. Brewing the Recipe for Beer Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Calvo Porral; Normand Bourgault; Domingo Calvo Dopico

    2013-01-01

    This research study aims to analyze the sources and consequences of beverages’ Brand Equity, and more specifically, the beer Brand Equity in a Sothern European mature market. For this purpose, based on the customer-based Aaker’s Brand Equity model, we developed an empirical study, using structural equation modeling (SEM) in order to assess how beer Brand Equity stems from in the brewery industry and to analyze its consequences in consumer behavior. Our findings suggest that the beer brand ima...

  6. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora Coldea; Elena Mudura; Călin Şibotean; Emil Comşa

    2014-01-01

    Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were as...

  7. High-gravity brewing utilizing factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Almeida

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of factors can influence the behavior of yeast during fermentation. Some of these factors (initial wort concentration, initial pH and percentage of corn syrup in the composition of the wort were studied in order to determine their influence on the productivity of fermentation. Fermentations were carried out at 25ºC utilizing a 2³ factorial design of these factors. The results showed that the percentage of corn syrup had no influence on process productivity, whereas initial pH and especially initial wort concentration did. It can be concluded that using pH and initial wort concentration values higher than those utilized in this work (5.5 and 20ºP, respectively will result in a higher productivity.

  8. Advertising and concentration in the brewing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    The opening of the markets in East Asia and Eastern Europe in the 1990s changed the structure of the beer markets and in the following years a large wave of mergers and acquisitions took place. The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012, discusses some of the main...... drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market and the world market, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based...

  9. Advertising and Concentration in the Brewing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012, discusses some of the main drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market...

  10. Advertising and concentration in the brewing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market and the world market, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based......The opening of the markets in East Asia and Eastern Europe in the 1990s changed the structure of the beer markets and in the following years a large wave of mergers and acquisitions took place. The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012, discusses some of the main...

  11. Aproveitamento da água de umidificação de malte da moagem úmida como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja Utilization of the wet milling malt steep water as raw material on brewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar G. VENTURINI FILHO

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A água de umidificação de malte, resultante da moagem úmida, pode ser usada como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja. Há, entretanto, cervejarias que descartam esse subproduto, e conseqüentemente, o extrato nele contido. Em função disso, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a possibilidade de ganho de rendimento na mosturação e alterações nas características químicas e sensoriais da bebida, em virtude do uso dessa água. Cervejas do tipo Pilsen foram produzidas de duas formas: com e sem água de umidificação de malte. Utilizou-se como matéria prima malte, lúpulo, xarope de maltose, água destilada e água de umidificação de malte. O mosto foi produzido pelo processo de infusão, separado do bagaço de malte por filtração convencional e fervido durante 60 minutos. Após seu resfriamento e clarificação o mosto foi inoculado com levedura de baixa fermentação (1,3g/l, ps e colocado para fermentar a 10°C. A fermentação foi encerrada com 90% da atenuação limite. Em seguida, a cerveja foi engarrafada e maturada a 0°C por 14 dias. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento do rendimento de mosturação, em função do uso da água de umidificação de malte, foi estatisticamente não significativo. A utilização dessa água praticamente não alterou as características químicas e sensoriais da cerveja, havendo apenas um leve aumento na intensidade de cor da bebida (7,1 x 8,0 EBC. Considerando, no entanto, que a água de umidificação de malte obtida em nível industrial apresenta maior concentração de extrato em relação àquela produzida em laboratório, espera-se que o uso da primeira traga ganho de rendimento industrial sem alterações significativas nas características da cerveja.The wet milling malt steep water can be used as raw material on brewing. However, some breweries discard this water containing a certain amount of extract. Based on this fact, the aim of this work was to evaluate possible

  12. Salt Reduction in Foods Using Naturally Brewed Soy Sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.; Shimojo, R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, health concerns related to salt/sodium chloride consumption have caused an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, sodium chloride (NaCl) reduction in foods has become an important challenge. The more so, since a decrease in NaCl content is often reported to be

  13. Potential African Substitutes for Hops in Tropical Beer Brewing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate analysis showed that these vegetables had protein and crude fibre values comparable to those of commercial hops. Fat content values were however much higher than those for hops with Grongonema latifolium having the highest values of 19.10%. Garcinia cola with a total resin value of 8.24% and an essential ...

  14. A better brew: Toward a sustainable coffee industry | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... At the consumer end of the supply chain, coffee devotees pay a premium for their favourite morning pick-me-up to compensate growers for adopting sustainable farming practices. That premium presently stands at more than double the conventional market price. In the mainstream coffee market, price is ...

  15. Optimum size distribution of sorghum grist for brewing purposes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of particle size distribution of malted sorghum grist on extract yield and lautering performance was assessed. Sorghum grist particle size evaluation was carried out by sieve analysis after milling. The malted sorghum grist with proportions of coarse, fine, and flour particles in the ratio of 0.36: 0.25: 0.39 respectively ...

  16. The Western Pacific Theater of Operations: A Brewing Showdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Pacific include the agreement between the US, Australia and New Zealand , which was signed on September 1, 1951. The agreement stated that any armed... Geography . (accessed May 22, 2016). 28 Office of Naval Intelligence, The PLA Navy New Capabilities and Missions for the 21st Century, 2015 ONI Report. 29...of the human race and the 24-hour news cycle, nothing happens in one part of the globe without the other side knowing about it almost

  17. Home Brew Salinity Measuring Devices: Their Construction and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper discusses several inexpensive methods of evaluating the salinity of seawater. One method is presented in some detail. This method has several attractive features. First, it can be used to provide instruction, not only in marine chemistry, but also in studying the mathematics of the point slope formula, and as an aid in teaching students…

  18. Potential African Substitutes for Hops in Tropical Beer Brewing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1' Department of Food Science and Nutrition, E.N.S.A.I.. P. O. Box. 455, University ofNgaoundere, Cameroon. 2' Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. "Corresponding author. Abstract. The potential ... Industry (Hough er dl., 1982, Grant,. 1977). Hops contribute to foam stability.

  19. Battle brewing over the BRCA1/2 gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agovic, Amina

    2010-01-01

    The revolutionary discovery of the DNA and the successful mapping of the human genome have allowed scientists worldwide to engage in an unprecedented research on the cutting-edge biomedical technology such as the genetic engineering (gene-splicing or recombinant DNA). However, as is often the case with modern bio-technologies, genes related innovation is heavily dependent on strong patent protection primarily due to high costs of research and commercialisation in this area. The aim of this paper is to provide a description of the District Court Ruling in the case of Association for Molecular Pathology et al v United States Patent and Trademark Office et al (ACLU v Myriad). In doing so, the article provides information on the relevant background at issues, including a brief introduction to general patentability requirements in relation to genes and the controversy surrounding the patentability of genetic material. The analysis of the complaint filed in the ACLU v Myriad case and the details of the District Court Ruling follows. The paper concludes with an outlook of the future legal actions involving Myriad's BRCA1/2 and the assessment of the potential impact that the BRCA1/2 District Court Ruling and subsequent appeal(s) may have on the American patent law.

  20. Assessment of waste management in a brewing industry in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quest by man to satisfy his domestic and industrial needs has usually resulted in the generation of offensive by – products in terms of industrial wastes in our environment. The hazards caused by these wastes in our environment have been of great concern to the individuals and the federal government.

  1. Brewing an Assortment of Responses to Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard Christiansen, Lærke

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a case study on the responses of the five organizational units of Danish brewery company Carlsberg A/S to alcohol-related harm. It examines the interpretations of each unit on the issue and the factors for their varied response to the issue. The four models of response to ins...... to institutional complexity derived from separation, co-existence, industry bricolage and organizational bricolage are discussed....

  2. Malting and Brewing Properties of Selected Cereals Cultivated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To promote the industrial use of local cereals in Ghana, studies were carried out on the suitability of malts from rice (WITA 1), sorghum (Kapala) and local late millet for the production of beer. The values obtained for mean diastatic power at the end of the malting period were rice (129.1oWK), millet (102.1oWK) and sorghum ...

  3. New Yorker Melange: Interactive Brew of Personalized Venue Recommendation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahálka, J.; Rudinac, S.; Worring, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose New Yorker Melange, an interactive city explorer, which navigates New York venues through the eyes of New Yorkers having a similar taste to the interacting user. To gain insight into New Yorkers' preferences and properties of the venues, a dataset of more than a million

  4. Java: A New Brew for Educators, Administrators and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    Java is an object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems; its benefits include platform independence, security, and interactivity. Within the college community, Java is being used in programming courses, collaborative technology research projects, computer graphics instruction, and distance education. (AEF)

  5. Utilização de mostos concentrados na produção de cervejas pelo processo contínuo: novas tendências para o aumento da produtividade Use of concentrated worts for high gravity brewing by continuous process: new tendencies for the productivity increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Dragone

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a produtividade volumétrica em etanol durante a fermentação de mostos com elevadas concentrações de extrato original, para a produção de cerveja pelo processo contínuo, utilizando as leveduras imobilizadas em bagaço de malte. Os mostos com diferentes concentrações de extrato original (14,3 ºP, 15,2 ºP e 19,6 ºP foram preparados a partir de um mosto de 22 ºP elaborado com malte e adjunto de alta maltose em uma relação adjunto: malte de 1:2,8. As fermentações foram conduzidas em um reator de coluna de bolhas, a 15 ºC, empregando uma taxa de diluição de 0,04 h-1 e um fluxo constante de gases de 250 mL/min (200 mL/min de CO2 e 50 mL/min de ar. De acordo com os resultados, a produtividade volumétrica em etanol aumentou quando a concentração de extrato original do mosto foi aumentada, sendo o valor máximo (2,09 g.L-1.h-1 obtido para o mosto de 19,6 ºP. Esse valor representa um aumento de 345% quando comparado com a produtividade (0,47 g.L-1.h-1 da fermentação descontínua de um mosto de 20 ºP. Conclui-se, então, que o processo contínuo de fermentação de mostos com elevadas concentrações de extrato para a produção de cerveja permite obter expressivos ganhos na produtividade em etanol quando comparado ao processo descontínuo.The present work evaluated the ethanol volumetric productivity during fermentation of worts with elevated original extract, for high gravity brewing by continuous process using yeasts immobilized on brewer's spent grain. Worts with different original extract (14.3 ºP, 15.2 ºP and 19.6 ºP were prepared from a wort of 22 ºP elaborated with malt and high maltose adjunct in an adjunct:malt ratio of 1:2.8. The fermentations were performed in a bubble column reactor, at 15 ºC, using a dilution rate of 0.04 h-1 and a constant gas flow of 250 mL/min (200 mL/min CO2 and 50 mL/min air. According to the results, the ethanol volumetric productivity increased when the

  6. Brewing Bokashi: Strengthening Student Skills in Dilution Theory through Fermentation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Zdor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic microbiological techniques that students should master is that of using dilution theory to calculate the levels of bacteria in a fluid. This tip reports on using a rice water-milk fermentation mixture termed Bokashi as an easily implemented exercise in the basic microbiological lab to give students multiple opportunities to use dilution theory. Due to the shifts in bacterial community composition over time, a variety of microbes can be cultured using selective and nonselective media. Microscopic observation and the use of GEN III microplates to determine the collective phenotypic pattern of the mixture both give additional opportunities for students to hone their skills in bacterial analysis. Due to the decrease in the pH of the mixture over time, the notion of acid tolerance in bacteria can be explored and assessed using the microplate. By performing multiple rounds of serial dilutions and spread plating, students can practice their skill at using dilution theory several times over the course of the exercise.

  7. What's Inside That Seed We Brew? A New Approach To Mining the Coffee Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Michael Joe; Mitchell, Thomas; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B

    2015-10-01

    Coffee is a critically important agricultural commodity for many tropical states and is a beverage enjoyed by millions of people worldwide. Recent concerns over the sustainability of coffee production have prompted investigations of the coffee microbiome as a tool to improve crop health and bean quality. This review synthesizes literature informing our knowledge of the coffee microbiome, with an emphasis on applications of fruit- and seed-associated microbes in coffee production and processing. A comprehensive inventory of microbial species cited in association with coffee fruits and seeds is presented as reference tool for researchers investigating coffee-microbe associations. It concludes with a discussion of the approaches and techniques that provide a path forward to improve our understanding of the coffee microbiome and its utility, as a whole and as individual components, to help ensure the future sustainability of coffee production. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. The effect of dewaxing of green coffee on the coffee brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegen, G.H.D. van der

    1979-01-01

    The two commercially most important mild treatments for green coffee are the steam treatment and the dewaxing process. In the former treatment the green coffee is just steamed. In the dewaxing process the waxy layer is extracted from the green coffee with an organic solvent, after which this coffee

  9. The Science of Solubility: Using Reverse Engineering to Brew a Perfect Cup of Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Andrew B.; Sickel, Aaron J.; Cribbs, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards call for the integration of science and engineering. Often, the introduction of engineering activities occurs after instruction in the science content. That is, engineering is used as a way for students to elaborate on science ideas that have already been explored. However, using only this sequence of…

  10. What's Inside That Seed We Brew? A New Approach To Mining the Coffee Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Thomas; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is a critically important agricultural commodity for many tropical states and is a beverage enjoyed by millions of people worldwide. Recent concerns over the sustainability of coffee production have prompted investigations of the coffee microbiome as a tool to improve crop health and bean quality. This review synthesizes literature informing our knowledge of the coffee microbiome, with an emphasis on applications of fruit- and seed-associated microbes in coffee production and processing. A comprehensive inventory of microbial species cited in association with coffee fruits and seeds is presented as reference tool for researchers investigating coffee-microbe associations. It concludes with a discussion of the approaches and techniques that provide a path forward to improve our understanding of the coffee microbiome and its utility, as a whole and as individual components, to help ensure the future sustainability of coffee production. PMID:26162877

  11. The Renewal of Mature Industries: An Examination of the Revival of the Dutch Beer Brewing Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Kroezen (Jochem J.)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractMany mature industries have recently experienced a remarkable revival. Yet, other important industries appear to remain impervious to change. While the evolution of industries is an important topic in the industrial organization and organizational sociology literature, theorists

  12. Computer epistemology a treatise on the feasibility of the unfeasible or old ideas brewed new

    CERN Document Server

    Vámos, Tibor

    1991-01-01

    This book is an essay on relevant problems of epistemology (the theory of knowledge) related to computer science. It draws a continuous line between the earliest scientific approaches of epistemology, starting with the Greek Classics and the recent practical and theoretical problems of computer modelling, and by that the appropriate application of computers to our present problems. Uncertainty, logic and language are the key issues of this road leading to some new aspects of cognitive psychology and unification of the different results for a modelling procedure. The book is not a textbook but

  13. Nanolaser Spectroscopy of Genetically Engineered Yeast: New Tool for a Better Brew?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Paul L.; Hendricks, Judy K.; Naviaux, Robert K.; Yaffe, Michael P.

    2006-03-01

    A basic function of the cell membrane is to selectively uptake ions or molecules from its environment to concentrate them into the interior. This concentration difference results in an osmostic pressure difference across the membrane. Ultimately, this pressure and its fluctuation from cell to cell will be limited by the availability and fluctuations of the solute concentrations in solution, the extent of inter-cell communication, and the state of respiring intracellular mitochondria that fuel the process. To measure these fluctuations, we have employed a high-speed nanolaser technique that samples the osmotic pressure in individual yeast cells and isolated mitochondria. We analyzed 2 yeast cell strains, normal baker’s yeast and a genetically-altered version, that differ only by the presence of mitochondrial DNA. The absence of mitochondrial DNA results in the complete loss of all the mtDNA-encoded proteins and RNAs, and loss of the pigmented, heme-containing cytochromes. These cells have mitochondria, but the mitochondria lack most normal respiratory chain complexes. The frequency distributions in the nanolaser spectra produced by wild-type and modified cells and mitochondria show a striking shift from Gaussian to Poissonian distributions, revealing a powerful novel method for studying statistical physics of yeast.

  14. Maltotriose utilization of lager yeast strains in high-gravity brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietvorst, Judith

    2006-01-01

    Een nieuwe ontwikkeling in de bierbrouwerij is het gebruik van hogere wortconcentraties in een proces dat ‘high-gravity brewing’ wordt genoemd. Dit proces heeft als voordeel dat het de produktiviteit van de brouwerij verhoogt. Een nadeel is echter dat door de hogere suikerconcentraties de capaciteit

  15. Brewing Service Quality in Higher Education: Characteristics of Ingredients that Make up the Recipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Roland K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to explore the influences of service quality in higher education and the perceptions associated with the implementation of a Singapore tertiary institution. It draws on the underpinnings of SERVQUAL, and discusses the dichotomy and interrelation between customer perception and expectation. Design/methodology/approach:…

  16. Effect of storage on the brewing properties of tropical hop substitutes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... conventional hops stored at 25oC for 30 weeks (12-17%) by Marr (1985) and Laws (1983). The reduction in the soft resin content of hops is a common phenomenon which is associated with the oxidative depreciation of the soft resins to hard resins with storage, Hough (1980). However, the low percentage ...

  17. The flagellin gene and protein from the brewing spoilage bacteria Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus and Pectinatus frisingensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Bonnie; Deneer, Harry; Dowgiert, Teri; Hymers, Jillian; Ziola, Barry

    2005-10-01

    Flagellin genes from the anaerobic Gram-negative beer-spoilage bacteria Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus and Pectinatus frisingensis were sequenced and the flagellin proteins initially characterized. Protein microsequencing led to the design of two degenerate PCR primers that allowed the P. cerevisiiphilus flagellin gene to be partially sequenced. A combination of PCR and Bubble PCR was then used to sequence the flagellin genes of three isolates from each species. Cloning and gene expression, followed by immunoblotting, confirmed the gene identities as flagellin. Analysis of the gene sequences revealed proteins similar to other bacterial flagellins, including lengths of 446 or 448 amino acids, putative sigma 28 promoters, and a termination loop. Antibody binding studies with isolated flagella correlated with gene sequence comparisons, with both indicating that the P. cerevisiiphilus isolates studied are very similar but that the P. frisingensis isolates show greater variation. Purified flagellins were found to be glycosylated, probably through an O linkage. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater diversity within the flagellin sequences than within the 16S rRNA genes. Despite the Gram-negative morphology of Pectinatus, this genus proved most closely related to Gram-positive Firmicutes.

  18. Technological Development of Brewing in Domestic Refrigerator Using Freeze-Dried Raw Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angelika-Ioanna Gialleli; Vassilios Ganatsios; Antonia Terpou; Maria Kanellaki; Argyro Bekatorou; Athanasios A Koutinas; Dimitra Dimitrellou

    2017-01-01

    .... Separately, freeze-dried wort and immobilized cells of the cryotolerant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 on tubular cellulose were used in low-temperature fermentation (2, 5 and 7 °C...

  19. 'Something's brewing': The changing trends in alcohol coverage in Australian newspapers 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Denise; White, Victoria; Bland, Stephanie; Livingston, Michael; Room, Robin; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Durkin, Sarah; Gilmore, William; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The portrayal of alcohol in the news media, including newspapers, plays an important role in influencing societal norms and setting public agendas. We present the first large-scale examination of news coverage of alcohol-related issues in Australian newspapers. Content analysis was performed on a sample of alcohol-related newspaper articles (n = 4217) published across Australia from 2000 to 2011. Articles were coded for type, theme, prominence, topic slant, opinion slant and sources/spokesperson. Across the period, the most common themes were promotion (21%), drink-driving (16%) and restrictions/policy (16%). Themes of restrictions/policy and responsible beverage services became more common over time. Promotion and business-related articles significantly declined over time. Overall, the topic slant of the majority of news related articles disapproved of alcohol use. Disapproval increased over time while approval of alcohol use decreased. While the slant of opinion pieces was predominantly approving of alcohol, this decreased over time. Presence of an alcohol industry representative in articles declined over time. The presentation of alcohol use in Australian newspapers became more disapproving over time, which may suggest that harmful alcohol use has become less acceptable among the broader Australian community.

  20. Comparison of analytical parameters of beer brewed in two different technological ways at two pub breweries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kryl, Pavel; Gregor, T; Los, J

    ... – demanding infusion method. At all the beer samples the basic analytical parameters of real extract, ethanol content, degree of fermentation and the extract of original hopped wort were measured using an automatic beer analyzer...

  1. Antioxidant and Antitumor Activity of a Bioactive Polyphenolic Fraction Isolated from the Brewing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatullo, Marco; Simone, Grazia Maria; Tarullo, Franco; Irlandese, Gianfranco; Vito, Danila De; Marrelli, Massimo; Santacroce, Luigi; Cocco, Tiziana; Ballini, Andrea; Scacco, Salvatore

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in identifying natural bioactive compounds that can improve mitochondrial functionality and regulate apoptosis. The brewery industry generates wastewater that could yield a natural extract containing bioactive phenolic compounds. Polyphenols act as antioxidants and have been documented to protect the human body from degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases or cancer. The main aims of our research were to determine the phenolic profile of a crude extract obtained (at pilot scale) from a brewery waste stream and to evaluate the biochemical activity of this extract on the mitochondrial function of a cancer cell line (SH-SY5Y). This work is a basic translational pilot study. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, which revealed that 2.30% of the extract consisted of phenolic compounds. The polyphenols, identified and quantified by reverse-phase-high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/MS), were mainly flavonoids. After cell culture, the tumoral cells treated with the polyphenolic extract showed enhanced mitochondrial oxidative function, which is likely related to a decrease in oxidative stress and an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. This type of brewery waste stream, properly treated, may be a promising source of natural antioxidants to replace the synthetic antioxidants currently used in the food industry.

  2. Characteristics of African traditional beers brewed with sorghum malt: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyumugabe, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sorghum beers are produced in several countries of Africa, but variations in the manufacturing process may occur depending on the geographic localization. These beers are very rich in calories, B-group vitamins including thiamine, folic acid, riboflavin and nicotinic acid, and essential amino acids such as lysine. However, the traditional sorghum beer is less attractive than Western beers because of its poorer hygienic quality, organoleptic variations and shorter shelf life. Research into the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional sorghum beers as well as their technologies have been performed and documented in several African countries. This review aims to summarize the production processes and compositional characteristics of African traditional sorghum beers (ikigage, merissa, doro, dolo, pito, amgba and tchoukoutou. It also highlights the major differences between these traditional beers and barley malt beer, consumed worldwide, and suggests adaptations that could be made to improve the production process of traditional sorghum beer.

  3. Does alteration in biodiversity really affect disease outcome? - A debate is brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, U R; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz; Rather, M I

    2015-01-01

    How changes in biodiversity alter the transmission of infectious diseases is presently under debate. Epidemiologists and ecologists have put a lot of effort to understand the mechanism behind biodiversity-disease relationship. Two important mechanisms, i.e. dilution and amplification theories have in some manner made it clear that biodiversity and disease outcome have an intimate relationship. The dilution effect theory seems to answer some overarching questions, but paucity of information about many disease systems is a real obstacle for its acceptance. Also, there is hardly any agreement on host population threshold and critical community size vis-à-vis wild life diseases. We suggest a multidimensional approach whereby the same disease system needs to be studied in different ecological zones and then the effect of biodiversity on disease outcome needs to be ascertained. Nonetheless, caution is to be taken while jumping to any conclusion as biodiversity-disease relationship is a multifactorial process.

  4. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.W. Njue (Carolyne); H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène); P. Remes (Pieter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya.

  5. Research Regarding High Gravity Brewing in the Pilot Station USAMV Cluj-Napoca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Borsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present preliminary research results obtained while developing and implementing a high gravity beer fermentation process. Production trials were performed in brewery pilot plant from University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Food Science and Technology. The tehnological parameters were adapted and monitored during the making.

  6. Metabolic flux and nodes control analysis of brewer's yeasts under different fermentation temperature during beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhimin; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhao, Mouming; Lei, Hongjie; Li, Huiping

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to further investigate the glycolysis performance of lager and ale brewer's yeasts under different fermentation temperature using a combined analysis of metabolic flux, glycolytic enzyme activities, and flux control. The results indicated that the fluxes through glycolytic pathway decreased with the change of the fermentation temperature from 15 °C to 10 °C, which resulted in the prolonged fermentation times. The maximum activities (V (max)) of hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) at key nodes of glycolytic pathway decreased with decreasing fermentation temperature, which was estimated to have different control extent (22-84 %) on the glycolytic fluxes in exponential or flocculent phase. Moreover, the decrease of V (max) of PFK or PK displayed the crucial role in down-regulation of flux in flocculent phase. In addition, the metabolic state of ale strain was more sensitive to the variation of temperature than that of lager strain. The results of the metabolic flux and nodes control analysis in brewer's yeasts under different fermentation temperature may provide an alternative approach to regulate glycolytic flux by changing V (max) and improve the production efficiency and beer quality.

  7. Interactions between major chlorogenic acid isomers and chemical changes in coffee brew that affect antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Xue, Wei; Kennepohl, Pierre; Kitts, David D

    2016-12-15

    Coffee bean source and roasting conditions significantly (pcoffee. CGA isomer content was positively correlated (pcoffee to reduce nitric oxide and scavenge Frémy's salt. Indices of browning in roasted coffee were positively correlated (pcoffee corresponded to intracellular antioxidant capacity measured in Caco-2 intestinal cells. This study concluded that the intracellular antioxidant capacity that best describes potential health benefits of coffee positively corresponds best with CGA content. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. "Betwixt Brewings": A History of College Students and Alcohol, 1820-1933

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevel, Michael Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation offers a history of white college students' relationship with alcohol between 1820 and 1933. The years that frame this study represent a long crisis regarding alcohol in the United States. A dramatic rise in alcohol consumption began around 1800, the negative consequences of which led growing numbers of Americans, for the first…

  9. Effect of Growth Conditions on Flocculation and Cell Surface Hydrophobicity of Brewing Yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecká, J.; Němec, M.; Matoulková, D.; Čejka, P.; Jelínková, Markéta; Felsberg, Jürgen; Sigler, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 2 (2015), s. 143-150 ISSN 0361-0470 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Ale and lager yeast * Cell surface hydrophobicity * FLO genes Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.492, year: 2015

  10. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  11. Transplanters drive CARs to the clinic by brewing ICE-T: the Moffitt roadmap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Frederick L; Anasetti, Claudio

    2017-07-18

    Recent single institution clinical trial successes with anti-CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for B cell malignancies attracted significant attention from industry. Our center sought to rapidly and safely bring industry sponsored pivotal trials to our patients and to prepare for additional cell therapy trials in solid and liquid tumors from both industry and our own investigators. We implemented a collaborative cross departmental program to provide clinical care and trial coordination for immune cell therapies. The Moffitt Immune Cell Therapy (ICE-T) program oversees and administers not only CAR T cell therapy for hematologic malignancies, but TIL and TCR therapy for solid tumor patients. Disease specific experts maintain oversight as principal investigators of these key trials yet the coordination and clinical care is centralized to leverage the expertise and infrastructure of our already robust Blood and Marrow Transplantation program.

  12. Accounting for taste:conversation, categorisation and certification in the sensory assessment of craft brewing

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The recent rapid growth of “craft beer” has led to a search for definitions and categorisation of that sector with “beer style” used as one criterion. This thesis explores the origins of these style definitions and how they act as a technology of classification which affects how sensory judgments are formed and expressed in practice, and how judges are examined and certified. The investigation draws on actor-network theory and ethnomethodology to trace how taste descriptions are assembled and...

  13. Encapsulation of brewing yeast in alginate/chitosan matrix: lab-scale optimization of lager beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenova, Vessela; Badova, Mariyana; Vassilev, Stoyan; Iliev, Vasil; Kaneva, Maria; Kostov, Georgi

    2014-03-04

    Two mathematical models were developed for studying the effect of main fermentation temperature (TMF), immobilized cell mass (MIC) and original wort extract (OE) on beer fermentation with alginate-chitosan microcapsules with a liquid core. During the experiments, the investigated parameters were varied in order to find the optimal conditions for beer fermentation with immobilized cells. The basic beer characteristics, i.e. extract, ethanol, biomass concentration, pH and colour, as well as the concentration of aldehydes and vicinal diketones, were measured. The results suggested that the process parameters represented a powerful tool in controlling the fermentation time. Subsequently, the optimized process parameters were used to produce beer in laboratory batch fermentation. The system productivity was also investigated and the data were used for the development of another mathematical model.

  14. Encapsulation of brewing yeast in alginate/chitosan matrix: lab-scale optimization of lager beer fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Naydenova, Vessela; Badova, Mariyana; Vassilev, Stoyan; Iliev, Vasil; Kaneva, Maria; Kostov, Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Two mathematical models were developed for studying the effect of main fermentation temperature (T MF), immobilized cell mass (M IC) and original wort extract (OE) on beer fermentation with alginate-chitosan microcapsules with a liquid core. During the experiments, the investigated parameters were varied in order to find the optimal conditions for beer fermentation with immobilized cells. The basic beer characteristics, i.e. extract, ethanol, biomass concentration, pH and colour, as well as t...

  15. Encapsulation of brewing yeast in alginate/chitosan matrix: lab-scale optimization of lager beer fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenova, Vessela; Badova, Mariyana; Vassilev, Stoyan; Iliev, Vasil; Kaneva, Maria; Kostov, Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Two mathematical models were developed for studying the effect of main fermentation temperature (T MF), immobilized cell mass (M IC) and original wort extract (OE) on beer fermentation with alginate-chitosan microcapsules with a liquid core. During the experiments, the investigated parameters were varied in order to find the optimal conditions for beer fermentation with immobilized cells. The basic beer characteristics, i.e. extract, ethanol, biomass concentration, pH and colour, as well as the concentration of aldehydes and vicinal diketones, were measured. The results suggested that the process parameters represented a powerful tool in controlling the fermentation time. Subsequently, the optimized process parameters were used to produce beer in laboratory batch fermentation. The system productivity was also investigated and the data were used for the development of another mathematical model. PMID:26019512

  16. Determination of D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone from brewed kombucha broth by high-performance capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kan; Gan, Xuhua; Tang, Xinyun; Wang, Shuo; Tan, Huarong

    2010-02-01

    Kombucha is a health tonic. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone (DSL), a component of kombucha, inhibits the activity of glucuronidase, an enzyme indirectly related with cancers. To date, there is no efficient method to determine the content of DSL in kombucha samples. In this paper, we report a rapid and simple method for the separation and determination of DSL in kombucha samples, using the high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) method with diode array detection (DAD). With optimized conditions, DSL can be separated in a 50 cm length capillary at a separation voltage of 20 kV in 40 mmol/L borax buffer (pH 6.5) containing 30 mmol/L SDS and 15% methanol (v/v). Quantitative evaluation of DSL was determined by ultraviolet absorption at lambda=190 nm. The relationship between the peak areas and the DSL concentrations, in a specified working range with linear response, was determined by first-order polynomial regression over the range 50-1500 microg/mL with a detection limit of 17.5 microg/mL. Our method demonstrated excellent reproducibility and accuracy with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 5% DSL content (n=5). This is the first report to determine DSL by HPCE. We have successfully applied this method to determine DSL in kombucha samples in various fermented conditions. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Residue pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during green tea manufacturing and their transfer rates during tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guanwei; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Pingxiang; Hao, Zhenxia; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Wang, Chen; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-06-01

    Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in green tea and tea infusion were determined using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their dissipation pattern during green tea processing and infusion. Concentration and evaporation of PAHs during tea processing were the key factors affecting PAH residue content in product intermediates and in green tea. PAH residues in tea leaves increased by 2.4-3.1 times during the manufacture of green tea using the electric heating model. After correction to dry weight, PAH residue concentrations decreased by 33.5-48.4% during green tea processing because of PAH evaporation. Moreover, spreading and drying reduced PAH concentrations. The transfer rates of PAH residues from green tea to infusion varied from 4.6% to 7.2%, and PAH leaching was higher in the first infusion than in the second infusion. These results are useful for assessing exposure to PAHs from green tea and in formulating controls for the maximum residue level of PAHs in green tea.

  18. The Brewed Rice Vinegar Kurozu Increases HSPA1A Expression and Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction in Aged P8 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kanouchi

    Full Text Available Kurozu is a traditional Japanese rice vinegar. During fermentation and aging of the Kurozu liquid in an earthenware jar over 1 year, a solid residue called Kurozu Moromi is produced. In the present study, we evaluated whether concentrated Kurozu or Kurozu Moromi could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in the senescence-accelerated P8 mouse. Senescence-accelerated P8 mice were fed 0.25% (w/w concentrated Kurozu or 0.5% (w/w Kurozu Moromi for 4 or 25 weeks. Kurozu suppressed cognitive dysfunction and amyloid accumulation in the brain, while Kurozu Moromi showed a tendency to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, but the effect was not significant. We hypothesize that concentrated Kurozu has an antioxidant effect; however, the level of lipid peroxidation in the brain did not differ in senescence-accelerated P8 mice. DNA microarray analysis indicated that concentrated Kurozu increased HSPA1A mRNA expression, a protein that prevents protein misfolding and aggregation. The increase in HSPA1A expression by Kurozu was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting methods. The suppression of amyloid accumulation by concentrated Kurozu may be associated with HSPA1A induction. However, concentrated Kurozu could not increase HSPA1A expression in mouse primary neurons, suggesting it may not directly affect neurons.

  19. Pure and Mixed Genetic Lines of Saccharomyces bayanus and Saccharomyces pastorianus and Their Contribution to the Lager Brewing Strain Genome†

    OpenAIRE

    Rainieri, Sandra; Kodama, Yukiko; Kaneko, Yoshinobu; Mikata, Kozaburo; Nakao, Yoshihiro; Ashikari, Toshihiko

    2006-01-01

    The yeast species Saccharomyces bayanus and Saccharomyces pastorianus are of industrial importance since they are involved in the production process of common beverages such as wine and lager beer; however, they contain strains whose variability has been neither fully investigated nor exploited in genetic improvement programs. We evaluated this variability by using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 48 genes and partial sequences of 16. Within these two species, we ident...

  20. Occurrence and Residue Pattern of Phthalate Esters in Fresh Tea Leaves and during Tea Manufacturing and Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pingxiang; Chen, Hongping; Gao, Guanwei; Hao, Zhenxia; Wang, Chen; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Xin

    2016-11-23

    The residues of 16 phthalate esters (PAEs) in fresh tea leaves and made tea were determined via gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their distribution and degradation characteristics during tea planting and processing. Five PAEs were detected in all fresh tea leaves, and higher concentrations were detected in mature leaves. The distribution of PAEs in fresh tea leaves ranged from 69.7 to 2244.0 μg/kg. The degradative percentages of ∑5PAEs during green tea manufacturing ranged from 61 to 63% and were significantly influenced by the drying process. The transfer rates of PAEs-D4 ranged from 5.2 to 100.6%. PAEs with a high water solubility showed the highest transfer coefficient in the range of 91.8-100.6%, whereas PAEs with a high log Kow showed a low leaching efficiency below 11.9%. These results benefit the risk evaluation and establishment of a maximum residue limit for PAEs in tea.

  1. Brewing with Distinction: The Implications of a Quality Symbol for the Craft Beer Industry of British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Oppenheimer, Leonardo Manuel

    2008-01-01

    A growing segment of the Canadian beer market is the microbrew/craft beer segment. For the palates of many beer connoisseurs, craft beer has a taste that distinguishes it from other beers, thus setting it apart from the mass-marketed products of the giant commercial breweries. However, a large proportion of beer consumers in Canada remain oblivious to the virtues and properties that make craft beer unique. This study examines the feasibility of creating a quality symbol of distinction as a me...

  2. Alcohol consumption, sinus tachycardia, and cardiac arrhythmias at the Munich Octoberfest: results from the Munich Beer Related Electrocardiogram Workup Study (MunichBREW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Stefan; Herbel, Rebecca; Drobesch, Cathrine; Peters, Annette; Massberg, Steffen; Kääb, Stefan; Sinner, Moritz F

    2017-07-14

    Alcohol is a risk factor for cardiac arrhythmias. Retrospective analyses suggest supraventricular arrhythmias consecutive to acute alcohol consumption, but prospective data are limited. We intended to prospectively associate acute alcohol consumption with cardiac arrhythmias. At the 2015 Munich Octoberfest, we enrolled 3028 voluntary participants who received a smartphone-based ECG and breath alcohol concentration (BAC) measurements. ECGs were analysed for cardiac arrhythmias (sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, premature atrial/ventricular complexes, atrial fibrillation/flutter) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. By multivariable adjusted logistic regression we associated BACs with cardiac arrhythmias. Similarly, we analysed 4131 participants of the community-based KORA S4 Study (Co-operative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) and associated cardiac arrhythmias with chronic alcohol consumption. In our acute alcohol cohort (mean age 34.4 ± 13.3 years, 29% women), mean BAC was 0.85 ± 0.54 g/kg. Cardiac arrhythmias occurred in 30.5% (sinus tachycardia 25.9%; other arrhythmia subtypes 5.4%). Breath alcohol concentration was significantly associated with cardiac arrhythmias overall (odds ratio (OR) per 1-unit change 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50-2.05; P cardiac arrhythmias and sinus tachycardia in particular. This partly reflects autonomic imbalance as assessed by significantly reduced respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Such imbalance might lead to sympathetically triggered atrial fibrillation resembling the holiday heart syndrome. NCT02550340.

  3. Collective Beer Brand Identity: A Semiotic Analysis of the Websites Representing Small and Medium Enterprises in the Brewing Industry of Western PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    This research studies how brand identities, individually and communally, as read through websites are created among small and medium-sized enterprise breweries in western Pennsylvania. Content analysis through the frame of Kress and van Leeuwen was used as the basis for the codebook that reads each brand identity for the researcher. The…

  4. Phenotypic and genetic diversity of Saccharomyces contaminants isolated from lager breweries and their phylogenetic relationship with brewing yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lene; Kühle, Alis Van der Aa; Petersen, Kamilla M.

    2000-01-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out for isolates of Saccharomyces spp. identified as contaminants ("wild yeast") in 24 different lager breweries. With reference to the current taxonomy all isolates were found to belong to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex and 58% of the isolates were further ...

  5. The impact of solvent relative permittivity on the dimerisation of organic molecules well below their solubility limits: examples from brewed coffee and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Ellen S; Hendon, Christopher H

    2017-03-22

    The formation of aqueous intermolecular dimers is governed by both the nature and strength of the intermolecular interactions and the entropy of dissolution. The former interaction energies are determined by the polarity of the solvent and the functionality of the solute. Using quantum chemical methods, we probe the energetics of dimer formation of representative compounds found in coffee well below their solubility limits. We find that with the exclusion of entropy, the dimer formation is thermodynamically unfavorable with negligible dependence on the dielectric medium.

  6. Analysis of the components of hard resin in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and structural elucidation of their transformation products formed during the brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Taniguchi, Harumi; Yamada, Makiko; Matsukura, Yasuko; Koizumi, Hideki; Furihata, Kazuo; Shindo, Kazutoshi

    2014-11-26

    The resins from hops (Humulus lupulus L.), which add the bitter taste to beer, are classified into two main sub-fractions, namely, soft and hard resins. α- and β-Acids in soft resin and their transformation during the wort boiling process are well-studied; however, other constituents in resins, especially hard resin, have been unidentified. In this study, we identified humulinones and hulupones as soft-resin components, in addition to 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones and tricyclooxyisohumulones A and B as hard-resin components. These compounds are all oxidation products derived from α- or β-acids. We also investigated compositional changes in the hard resin during the wort boiling process, which has a significant effect on the taste of the beer, by using model boiling experiments. The major changes were identified to be isomerization of 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones into 4'-hydroxyallo-cis-humulinones, followed by decomposition into cis-oxyhumulinic acids. These findings will be helpful in systematically evaluating and optimizing the effect of the hard resin on beer quality.

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF THE EFFECTS OF BREWING INDUSTRY CONCENTRATION AMONG LARGE AND SMALL COMPANIES OPERATING ON THE POLISH MARKET IN 2004-2011 PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Łobos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polish beer market is characterised by a high degree of concentration. The market share of Kompania Piwowarska, Grupa Żywiec and Carlsberg Polska is 90%. Many authors stress concentration as an important factor when explaining why various industries are more or less effective or more or less profitable. Firms from concentrated industries report, on average, higher profitability than those in non-concentrated industries. The aim of this paper is to analyse the differences of economic efficiency of large (group I and small (group II entities involved in the production of beer. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the test group of companies was based on selected financial ratios (return on assets, return on sales, inventory turnover, total debt ratio.

  8. Effect of Brewing Duration on the Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Abilities of Tea Phenolic and Alkaloid Compounds in a t-BHP Oxidative Stress-Induced Rat Hepatocyte Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Braud

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tea is an interesting source of antioxidants capable of counteracting the oxidative stress implicated in liver diseases. We investigated the impact of antioxidant molecules provided by a mixture of teas’ leaves (green, oolong, pu-erh after different infusion durations in the prevention of oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes, by comparison with pure epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the main representative of tea catechins. Dried aqueous tea extracts (ATE obtained after 5, 15 and 30 min infusion time were characterized for total polyphenols (gallic acid equivalent, catechins, gallic acid and caffeine (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS contents, and for scavenging ability against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical. Hepatoprotection was evaluated through hepatocyte viability tests using tert-butyl hydroperoxide as a stress inducer, (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, neutral red uptake, real-time cellular impedance and mitochondrial function tests. We showed that a 5-min incubation time is sufficient for an optimal bioaccessibility of tea compounds with the highest antioxidative ability, which decreases for longer durations. A 4-h pretreatment of cells with ATE significantly prevented cell death by regulating reactive oxygen species production and maintaining mitochondrial integrity. Pure EGCG, at doses similar in ATE (5–12 µM, was inefficient, suggesting a plausible synergy of several water-soluble tea compounds to explain the ATE beneficial effects.

  9. Development of brewing science in (and since) the late 19th century: molecular profiles of 110-130 year old beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Andrea; Ravasio, Davide; Qin, Fen

    2015-01-01

    , with decreasing contamination by enzymatic and microbial activities over this time span. Samples are sufficiently well preserved to allow comparisons to present-day references, thus yielding molecular signatures of the effects of 20th century science on beer production. Opposite to rather stable carbohydrate...

  10. Keeping It Simple: Can We Estimate Malting Quality Potential Using an Isothermal Mashing Protocol and Common Laboratory Instrumentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current methods for generating malting quality metrics have been developed largely to support commercial malting and brewing operations, providing accurate, reproducible analytical data to guide malting and brewing production. Infrastructure to support these analytical operations often involves sub...

  11. Enological characterization of Spanish Saccharomyces kudriavzevii strains, one of the closest relatives to parental strains of winemaking and brewing Saccharomyces cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, D; Pérez-Través, L; Belloch, C; Querol, A

    2016-02-01

    Wine fermentation and innovation have focused mostly on Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. However, recent studies have shown that other Saccharomyces species can also be involved in wine fermentation or are useful for wine bouquet, such as Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces paradoxus. Many interspecies hybrids have also been isolated from wine fermentation, such as S. cerevisiae × Saccharomyces kudriavzevii hybrids. In this study, we explored the genetic diversity and fermentation performance of Spanish S. kudriavzevii strains, which we compared to other S. kudriavzevii strains. Fermentations of red and white grape musts were performed, and the phenotypic differences between Spanish S. kudriavzevii strains under different temperature conditions were examined. An ANOVA analysis suggested striking similarity between strains for glycerol and ethanol production, although a high diversity of aromatic profiles among fermentations was found. The sources of these phenotypic differences are not well understood and require further investigation. Although the Spanish S. kudriavzevii strains showed desirable properties, particularly must fermentations, the quality of their wines was no better than those produced with a commercial S. cerevisiae. We suggest hybridization or directed evolution as methods to improve and innovate wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimalizace logistických toků v pivovarnictví

    OpenAIRE

    Langerová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Langerová, M. Optimization of logistic flows in the brewing industry. Diploma the-sis, Brno. Mendel University, 2014. The diploma thesis deals with logistic flows in the brewing industry. The main aim of this thesis is to determine problem fields of logistic processes and evaluation commonly used optimization methods. Then the best method is chosen for optimization in fields warehousing and distribution in brewing companies. Different parts of the logistic flows are described in this thesis -...

  13. Biotechnology and the Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jenny; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Traditional and novel uses of enzymes and microbes in the baking, brewing, and dairy industries are described. Cheese, yogurt, baking, brewing, vinegar, soy sauce, single-cell proteins, enzymes, food modification, vanilla, citric acid, monosodium glutamate, xanthan gum, aspartame, and cochineal are discussed. Industrial links with firms involved…

  14. Publications | Page 269 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A better brew: Toward a sustainable coffee industry. Money may make the world go round, but coffee kickstarts it. In 2003, some 6 million tonnes of the beans were picked, roasted, and consumed globally. But despite a robust coffee market, trouble has been brewing in the industry for years.

  15. Publications | Page 268 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A better brew: Toward a sustainable coffee industry. Money may make the world go round, but coffee kickstarts it. In 2003, some 6 million tonnes of the beans were picked, roasted, and consumed globally. But despite a robust coffee market, trouble has been brewing in the industry for years.

  16. The Amateur Scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jearl

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the construction of lenses made out of ice, including the arrangement for mounting an ice lens on a camera. Also discusses brewing coffee in an ibrik (long-handled container tapering slightly toward the top), focusing on the physics of the brewing. (JN)

  17. 100 Years Jubilee for the discovery of the enzymes in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1997-01-01

    The work by Prof. E. Buchner 100 years ago which led to the discovery of the enzymes in yeast for brewing beer is reviewed.......The work by Prof. E. Buchner 100 years ago which led to the discovery of the enzymes in yeast for brewing beer is reviewed....

  18. The Chemistry of Beer Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Graham G.

    2004-01-01

    Brewing of beer, one of the oldest biotechnology industries was one of the earliest processes to be undertaken on commercial basis. Biological instability involves contamination of bacteria, yeast, or mycelia fungi and there is always a risk in brewing that beer can become contaminated by micro-organisms.

  19. Effects of Natural Fermentation on the Nutrient Composition of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    which happen to be part of the staple food of Nigerians. ... ingredients. One of such by-products is brewer's grain, a by-product from the brewing industry. The brewing industry is among the leaders in the Nigerian industrial sector and possibly the largest ..... cheap synthetic essential amino acids is recommended. Animal ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypotensive Activity of Residue From “Gebto Arekei”, Locally Distilled Medicinal Spirit From a Brew Containing Lupinus Albus Seeds in Normotensive Guinea pigs. Abstract PDF · Vol 12, No 1 (2002) - Articles Antihypertensive Activity of Residue From “Gebto Arekei”. Locally Distilled Medicinal Spirit From a Brew Containing ...

  1. Selection of protease for increased solubilization of protein-derived thiols during mashing with limited release of free amino acids in beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murmann, Anne Nordmark; Lunde, Christina; Lund, Marianne Nissen

    2016-01-01

    stability during storage could not be evaluated. Overall, similar brewing and sensory characteristics were obtained compared with a control beer brewed without addition of protease. Foam stability was decreased by protease treatment, and formation of haze was reduced by protease treatment....

  2. Authors: CG Kilian and E Snyman van Deventer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    Black, Wright and Davies In Search of Shareholder Value. Black A, Wright P and Davies J In Search of Shareholder Value: Managing the. Drivers of Performance 2nd ed (Prentice Hall New York 2001). Brews 1987 S Afr J Bus Manag. Brews PJ "Corporate Growth through Mergers and Acquisitions: Viable. Strategy or Road ...

  3. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    either filtered to yield what is popularly known as Filter-relic or diluted with water and drank as a regular Teller [2. 3]. Although it is ... brewing process is emerging only very slowly. The first scientific report on R. prinoides is ... the brew is directly related to the amount of Gesho added. Recently. efforts have been made.

  4. 40 CFR 63.2192 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Manufacturing of Nutritional Yeast Other... monitoring period means the period that begins at the later of either the start of aeration or the addition... additives in the fermenter. Brew ethanol means the ethanol in fermenter liquid. Brew ethanol monitor means...

  5. Effects of processing methods on sorghum wort filtration | Igyor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brewing parameters measured were filtration rate, specific gravity, viscosity, reducing sugars, hot water extract, soluble extract level, fermentable extract level, and fermentability level. Results revealed that though the sorghum worts had faster filtration rate than barley in infusion at 65°C, other brewing parameters were all ...

  6. Publications | Page 268 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A better brew: Toward a sustainable coffee industry. Money may make the world go round, but coffee kickstarts it. In 2003, some 6 million tonnes of the beans were picked, roasted, and consumed globally. But despite a robust coffee market, trouble has been brewing in the industry for years... Rural women in the wired world.

  7. Vers une intégration du sorgho comme matière première pour la brasserie moderne (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bwanganga Tawaba, JC.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Towards the integration of sorghum as an adjunct in the modern brewery industry. A review. Despite the relatively recent use of sorghum in brewing, the accumulated information from studies on the use of this cereal in malting and brewing is far from basic; the biochemistry of sorghum malting consolidates this knowledge. Despite the interest accorded to demonstrating the use of sorghum in brewing, the possibilities and limitations of using this cereal in the modern malting and brewing industries have not yet been fully elucidated. Furthermore, all the transformations involved in these processes are far from being completely understood. This review provides a wealth of knowledge on the properties of sorghum, which is of interest to both the maltster and the brewer, such as: grain composition, malted grain biochemistry and physiology, brewing and fermentation of sorghum, etc. The progress and difficulties encountered during sorghum malting are presented in a way that will be helpful to the brewer.

  8. I. 'Street of twins': multiple births in Cuba II. The Cuban twin registry: an update / twin research reports: cord entanglement; heritability of clubfoot; school separation / twins and twin researchers in the news: reunited at seventy-eight; basketball duo dissolved; delivered holding hands; the better brew; award winners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Segal, Nancy L; Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    .... Among the many highlights of that adventure were an informal meeting with Dr Beatriz Marcheco-Teruel, from Cuba's National Center for Medical Genetics, and a visit to the famous 'Street of Twins...

  9. I. 'Street of twins': multiple births in Cuba II. The Cuban twin registry: an update / twin research reports: cord entanglement; heritability of clubfoot; school separation / twins and twin researchers in the news: reunited at seventy-eight; basketball duo dissolved; delivered holding hands; the better brew; award winners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L; Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    I was part of a people-to-people tour of Havana, Cuba during the first week in April 2014. Among the many highlights of that adventure were an informal meeting with Dr Beatriz Marcheco-Teruel, from Cuba's National Center for Medical Genetics, and a visit to the famous 'Street of Twins'. A fortuitous meeting with parents of twins in the fishing town of Jaimanitas was also an extraordinary event. The Cuban experience is followed by summaries of recent twin research, covering umbilical cord entanglement, the heritability of clubfoot and school separation policies for twins. Media reports include twins reunited at age 78, the future of UCLA's twin basketball players, MZ twins born holding hands, a twin conflict over beer and a pair of American Psychological Association honors for Drs Nancy L. Segal and Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr.

  10. El comercio exterior del sector cervecero espa??ol. La internacionalizaci??n como proceso estrat??gico, el caso de Mahou ??? San Miguel en India = Foreign trade of the Spanish brewing industry. Internationalization as a strategy process, the case of Mahou ??? San Miguel in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mar??a D??ez, Lidia

    2017-01-01

    La cerveza es un producto universal; una bebida alcoh??lica con ciertas caracter??sticas especiales. Su producci??n y consumo se remonta a miles de a??os atr??s, pero su expansi??n en Espa??a no se produjo hasta la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Actualmente, es un sector clave, debido a la aportaci??n a la econom??a nacional, al nivel de producci??n, consumo y ventas, o a la creaci??n de empleo. Con un sector maduro y la reciente crisis econ??mica, la cerveza espa??ola se ha co...

  11. Towards an Integrative Framework of Conflict-handling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin; Worm, Verner; Xie, Peihong

    2018-01-01

    in its coverage of conflict-handling styles than the integrative model developed by Brew in 2007, and more symmetric in its treatment of the Western and Chinese perspectives than the integrative model jointly developed by Leung and Brew in 2009. In developing our alternative integrative model, we try......Following in the footsteps of Frances Brew and the late Kwok Leung (1958–2015), we attempt to further integrate the Western dual-concern model of conflict and the Chinese dual-motive model of harmony. Our integrative framework of conflict-handling behaviour is designed to be more comprehensive...

  12. Biochemical Benefits, Diagnosis, and Clinical Risks Evaluation of Kratom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dimy Fluyau; Neelambika Revadigar

    2017-01-01

    .... Kratom is also known as Thom, Thang, and Biak. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to manage pain and opioid withdrawal and to stave off fatigue...

  13. Beer in health and disease prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preedy, Victor R

    2009-01-01

    ...: From Its Origins to Our Current Knowledge Sandra Rainieri Flocculation in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Eduardo V. Soares Use of Amylolytic Enzymes in Brewing N.P. Guerra, A. Torrado-Agrasar, C. Lóp...

  14. Effect of Coffea canephora aqueous extract on microbial counts in ex vivo oral biofilms: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Andréa Gonçalves; Iorio, Natália Lopes Pontes; Farah, Adriana; Netto dos Santos, Kátia Regina; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, the ex vivo antimicrobial effect of brewed coffee was tested on oral biofilms. For this, unsweetened and sweetened (10 % sucrose) brewed light-roasted Coffea canephora at 20 % was used in biofilms formed by non-stimulated saliva from three volunteers. After 30 min contact with unsweetened and sweetened brews, the average microorganism count in the biofilms reduced by 15.2 % and 12.4 %, respectively, with no statistical difference among them. We also observed a drop of microorganisms in the biofilms after treatment with sucrose solution at 5 % compared to control (saline) and to sucrose at 1 % and 3 %. In conclusion, Coffea canephora extract reduces the microbial count in oral biofilm, and our data suggest that sucrose concentration in coffee brew can influence its antimicrobial property against the referred biofilm. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Winemaking, brewing and baking are some of the oldest biotechnological processes. In all of them, alcoholic fermentation is the main biotransformation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae the primary microorganism. Although a wide variety of microbial species may participate in alcoholic fermentation and...

  16. Journal of Food Technology in Africa - Vol 9, No 1 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effects of Technological Modifications on the Fermentation of Borde, ... Potential African Substitutes for Hops in Tropical Beer Brewing · EMAIL FREE FULL ... Lantana camara L. and Tephrosia vogelii Hook, on the Quality Parameters of ...

  17. Natural and modified promoters for tailored metabolic engineering of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubmann, Georg; Thevelein, Johan M; Nevoigt, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The ease of highly sophisticated genetic manipulations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has initiated numerous initiatives towards development of metabolically engineered strains for novel applications beyond its traditional use in brewing, baking, and wine making. In fact, baker's yeast has

  18. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    2003-01-01

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and

  19. 27 CFR 25.276 - Operations and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... receipt, production, and disposition of all beer received or produced on the premises, and the receipt..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Pilot Brewing Plants § 25.276 Operations and records. (a...

  20. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages, especially in beer or wine, can cause intolerance reactions. These include: Sulfites or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some cases, reactions can be ...

  1. Monitoring of metabolites and by-products in a down-scaled industrial lager beer fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöström, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The sugar composition of the wort and how these sugars are utilised by the yeast affects the organoleptic properties of the beer. To monitor the saccharides in the wort before inoculation and during fermentation is important in modern brewing industry. Reducing the duration of the brewing process is valuable and can be achieved by reducing the fermentation time by an increase in temperature. However, this must be done without changing the quality and characteristics of the end product, anothe...

  2. Deet's Place awarded prestigious Golden Cup award

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Brandi

    2007-01-01

    Virginia Tech's premier coffee, ice cream, and pastry shop--Deet's Place--has been recognized with it's second Golden Cup award, presented by the Specialty Coffee Association of America, which recognizes excellence in brewed coffee. The award is presented each year to retailers and restaurants whose specialty coffee is properly ground and brewed. Deet's Place has submitted entries for this award twice, and has received the honor both times, with the previous win in 2000.

  3. Comment: 235 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 水谷治(東北大学(現 酒類総研)) Photo: Osamu Mizutani (Tohoku University (currently National Research Institute of Brewing)) bando 2010/08/04 09:28:07 2010/08/04 11:18:35 ... ...u University (currently National Research Institute of Brewing)) licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan 撮影: ...koji mold Aspergillus oryzae Aspergillus_oryzae_L.png 235.png Osamu Mizutani (Tohok

  4. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    De Keukeleire, Denis

    2000-01-01

    Beer brewing is an intricate process encompassing mixing and further elaboration of four essential raw materials, including barley malt, brewing water, hops and yeast. Particularly hops determine to a great extent typical beer qualities such as bitter taste, hoppy flavour, and foam stability. Conversely, hop-derived bitter acids account for an offending lightstruck flavour, which is formed on exposure of beer to light. These various processes are presented in detail, while due emphasis is pla...

  5. Analysis of anions in beer using ion chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The majority of anions found in beer are a consequence of impurities derived from the water used during the brewing process. The process of beer manufacture consists of malting, brewing and fermentation followed by maturation before filtration and finally storage. Strict quality control is required because the presence of certain anions outside strictly defined tolerance limits can affect the flavour characteristics of the finished product. The anions present were quantified using the techniq...

  6. Influences on the Consumption of Australian Ration Packs: Review of a Contextual Model and Application to Australian Defence Force Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    items were cheese, sweet biscuits, confectionery , fruit items (canned fruit and dried fruit) and rice (but only in older surveys—rice has not been...casserole style meals with meat, casserole style meals without meat, brew items, condiments, confectionery , dried fruit, wet fruit, drinks, soup...consumption for many individual item types (casserole style meals without meat, brew items, condiments, confectionery , dried fruit, wet fruit and soup

  7. STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF FREE AMINO NITROGEN DURING SORGHUM MALTING

    OpenAIRE

    Yanet Boffill Rodríguez; Irenia Gallardo Aguilar; João de Almeida e Silva

    2017-01-01

    In the brewing process, barley malt is used as main raw material. Sorghum is one of the most suitable cereals to replace barley because of its high nutritional value. However, the sorghum beer supply is still insufficient in the global market due to the low quality of its malt. The aim of this research was to study the development of free amino nitrogen (FAN) during sorghum malting for brewing process by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCD) was...

  8. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of fermented Centella asiatica herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Fazilah; Heong Chew, Shio; Bhupinder, Kaur; Karim, Alias A; Huda, Nurul

    2011-12-01

    C. asiatica was exposed to various fermentations: no fermentation (0 min), partial fermentation (120 min) and full fermentation (24 h). Total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of C. asiatica infusions were studied as a function of water temperature (60, 80 or 100 °C), the brewing stage (one, two or three) and the brewing time (1, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 20 min). The optimum brewing procedure was adopted to study the antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds in C. asiatica infusions. The optimum extraction efficiency of C. asiatica infusions was achieved at 100 °C after a 10 min brewing time, and decreased substantially after applying multiple brewing steeps. However, no significant different was found between the second and third infusions. The non-fermented C. asiatica (CANF) infusion had the highest antioxidant activity. Gallic acid, naringin, chlorogenic acid, catechin, rutin, rosmarinic acid and quercetin were identified to present. Luteolin and kaempferol were only found in 80% methanol extraction method. C. asiatica herbal teas should be prepared at 100 °C for 10 min to obtain the optimum antioxidant capacity. Multiple brewing steps in C. asiatica herbal tea are encouraged due to the certain amount of antioxidant obtained. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effect of decaffeination of green and roasted coffees on the in vivo antioxidant activity and prevention of liver injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriene R. Lima

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Decaffeination and roasting affects the composition of the chlorogenic acids in coffee, which have antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of coffee decaffeination on the in vivo antioxidant activity and the prevention of liver damage. The Wistar rats received intraperitoneal doses of carbon tetrachloride and daily doses of Arabica coffee brews (whole and decaffeinated, both green and roasted by gavage for fifteen days. The activity of liver marker enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and serum albumin were measured as well as the quantification of the thiobarbituric acid reactive species and the content of liver total lipids. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase are good indicators of liver damage: the results showed that all studied coffee brews decreased the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and liver levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species and total lipids. The compounds presents in coffee brews are able to decrease the hepatic lipid peroxidation induced by carbon tetrachloride, making a significant hepatoprotective effect, in accordance with the liver function tests. The coffee brews are hepatoprotective regardless of the decaffeination process and our results suggest a better protection against liver damage for the roasted coffee brews compared with green coffee brews.

  10. Effects of different cooking methods of oatmeal on preventing the diet-induced increase of cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yandong; Qiu, Ju; Ren, Changzhong; Li, Zaigui

    2015-10-24

    The aim of present study is to investigate the influences of brewing and boiling on hypocholesterolemic effect of oatmeal in rats fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet. Fifty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups of 8 rats each with similar mean body weights and serum cholesterol concentrations. Rats were fed with the experimental diets containing 10% of oatmeal from two Chinese oat varieties which were brewed or boiled for 30 days. The lipids levels in serum, liver, and faeces were determined. The effects of feeding boiled oatmeal on lowering lipid concentrations in plasma and liver were more significant than that of brewed oatmeal (P oatmeal was also more efficient in increasing fecal total lipids, cholesterol and bile acids as compared to feeding brewed oatmeal (P oatmeal had higher apparent viscosity and soluble β-glucan content than the brewed oatmeal did (P oatmeal in improving cholesterol metabolism is better than that of brewed oatmeal, which is mainly attributed to its higher soluble β-glucan content and apparent viscosity.

  11. Mitochondrial-morphology-targeted breeding of industrial yeast strains for alcohol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2009-05-29

    Since mitochondrial genes are repressed under high glucose and low O2, and these conditions correspond to the conditions in which yeast cells are exposed during alcohol fermentation, the existence and structure of yeast mitochondria during alcohol fermentation have not been elucidated. Yeast mitochondria can be observed throughout brewing of sake (Japanese rice wine) and fragment during brewing. Furthermore, it has been revealed that Fis1 [fission 1 (mitochondrial outer membrane) homologue (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)], which is a transmembrane protein with its C-terminal anchor embedded in the outer membrane of mitochondria, is required for fragmentation of yeast mitochondria during sake brewing. By utilizing this knowledge, a fis1 disruptant of a sake yeast strain has been generated that has a networked mitochondrial structure throughout sake brewing. It transpired that this strain produces a high content of malate, which imparts a crisp acidic taste, during sake brewing. This strategy is a useful and a completely novel strategy towards developing a new yeast strain which produces a high content of malate in sake, and mitochondrial morphology has now emerged as a promising target for the breeding of practical industrial strains.

  12. Influência do processamento e da torrefação sobre a atividade antioxidante do café (Coffea arabica Influence of processing and roasting on the antioxidant activity of cofee (Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique dos Santos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of processing (semi-dry and dry and roasting (light, medium and dark on the antioxidant activity of coffee brews, using tests to determine the reducing power and the DPPH scavenging, Fe+2 chelating and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities. All of the coffee brews presented concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. The light coffee samples presented the higher reducing power and DPPH scavenging activity. Its ion chelating capacity was similar to the medium samples, but was less than the green coffee chelating capacity. The semi-dry processing was more efficient than the dry processing only for the reducing power. All of the samples presented high lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. Based on the results the degree of coffee roasting seems to be more important than the processing to determine the antioxidant activity of brews.

  13. The role of lager beer yeast in oxidative stability of model beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berner, Torben Sune; Arneborg, Nils

    2012-01-01

    ageing experiments. Interestingly, the strain with the lowest oxidative stress resistance and lowest secretion of thioredoxin, as measured by Western blotting, resulted in the highest uptake of iron, as measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the slowest formation of radicals......AIMS: In this study, we investigated the relationship between the ability of lager brewing yeast strains to tolerate oxidative stress and their ability to produce oxidative stable model beer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Screening of 21 lager brewing yeast strains against diamide and paraquat showed...... that the oxidative stress resistance was strain dependent. Fermentation of model wort in European Brewing Convention tubes using three yeast strains with varying oxidative stress resistances resulted in three model beers with different rates of radical formation as measured by electron spin resonance in forced...

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos CP 62580 (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Tranferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM, Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, Morelos CP 62760 (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this. (author)

  15. Simplified Mashing Efficiency. Novel Method for Optimization of Food Industry Wort Production with the Use of Adjuncts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwed Łukasz P.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Malt extracts and malt concentrates have a broad range of application in food industry. Those products are obtained by methods similar to brewing worts. The possible reduction of cost can be achieved by application of malt substitutes likewise in brewing industry. As the malt concentrates for food industry do not have to fulfill strict norms for beer production it is possible to produce much cheaper products. It was proved that by means of mathematic optimization it is possible to determine the optimal share of unmalted material for cheap yet effective production of wort.

  16. Economic Viability of Brewery Spent Grain as a Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the technical feasibility and economic viability of use grain wastes from the beer brewing process as fuel to generate the heat needed in subsequent brewing process. The study finds that while use of spent grain as a biofuel is technically feasible, the economics are not attractive. Economic viability is limited by the underuse of capital equipment. The investment in heating equipment requires a higher utilization that the client brewer currently anticipates. It may be possible in the future that changing factors may swing the decision to a more positive one.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Psychotrophic Leuconostoc citreum Isolated from Rice Koji

    OpenAIRE

    黒瀬, 直孝; 浅野, 忠男; 川北, 貞夫; 垂水, 彰二; NAOTAKA, KUROSE; TADAO, ASANO; SADAO, KAWAKITA; SHOJI, TARUMI; 宝酒造株式会社; 宝酒造株式会社; 宝酒造株式会社; 宝酒造株式会社; Takara Shuzo Co., Ltd.; Takara Shuzo Co., Ltd.; Takara Shuzo Co., Ltd.

    2004-01-01

    Three strains of lactic acid bacteria able to cause fermentation at a low temperature were isolated from rice koji for sake brewing. The one producing the most lactic acid at 4℃, NL7-3, was identified as Leuconostoc citreum by means of ribopatterns and the homology of 16S rDNA. This strain produced D(+)-lactic acid from citric acid as well as glucose, and showed alcohol sensitivity as well as antibacterial activity, inhibiting the growth of similar lactic acid bacteria. In sake mash brewed wi...

  18. Heat integration in multipurpose batch plants using a robust scheduling framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seid, ER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available in pro- duction makespan. Morrison et al. [17] developed a user-friendly software package known as Optimal Batch Integration (OBI). Chen and Chang [18] integrated the task scheduling and heat recovery problems into a unified framework for multipurpose... performed. The Green Brew- ery concept has shown a saving potential of over 5000 ton/y fossil CO2 emissions from thermal energy supply for the three brew- eries that were closely considered. Becker [39] applied time average energy integration approach to a...

  19. Retrospective value analysis of decision support benefits from a production planning system for a brewery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.W. Ittmann

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A decision support system for production planning in a brewing company was developed to assist with the planning of brewing, packaging and distribution of beer and to minimise production costs. Having been in operation for some time, the system has changed and adapted in a very dynamic environment. The system's present form and current use are discussed. Initial management approval for system development was based on faith rather than proper cost-benefit and value analyses. This paper aims at retrospectively highlighting these values and benefits with regard to supporting decision-making in the company.

  20. Technologie výroby nealkoholických piv

    OpenAIRE

    MÁCHALOVÁ, Hana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Bachelor thesis is a literature review talking about the Technology of non-alcoholic beer. The first part of this work is dedicated to the general conditions of beer production. Talking about processes such as malting, brewing and some general information about malting and brewing raw materials are included to this first part. The second part is devoted to non-alcoholic beer. It talks about the history of non-alcoholic beer and its development, nonalcoholic beer as it is, ways ...

  1. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis De Keukeleire

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Beer brewing is an intricate process encompassing mixing and further elaboration of four essential raw materials, including barley malt, brewing water, hops and yeast. Particularly hops determine to a great extent typical beer qualities such as bitter taste, hoppy flavour, and foam stability. Conversely, hop-derived bitter acids account for an offending lightstruck flavour, which is formed on exposure of beer to light. These various processes are presented in detail, while due emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art hop technology, which provides brewers with efficient means to control bitterness, foam, and light-stability thereby allowing for the production of beers with consistent quality.

  2. Copperhead Alternate Manufacturing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    micrometer ; GF Dwg. .07-CIP 6" vernier caliper; Balance 407-30 Sinter compact Brew or NRC Vacuum LJ 8851-30 - furnace, recorder JS 4203-30 407-35 Inspect...6" vernier 406-30 Sinter compact Brew or NRC vacuum U or 8851-30 furnace; recorder JS 4203-30 406-35 Inspect Bench, 0-1, micrometer , LJ Owg. 406-S 6...34 vernier caliper, balance ൎ-40 HIP HIP unit JA 4203-40 8851-40 406-45 Inspect Bench U 0-1" micrometer ; 6" Dwg. 406-MP vernier caliper C-1 : c

  3. Clinical Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates cannot cross the epithelial barrier in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Llopis, Silvia; Jespersen, Lene

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is generally considered to be a safe organism and is essential to produce many different kinds of foods as well as being widely used as a dietary supplement. However, several isolates, which are genetically related to brewing and baking yeasts, have shown virulent traits,...

  4. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans, cafestol, as an agonist ligand for the farnesoid and pregnane X receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Kreeft, Arja J.; Hooiveld, Guido J. E. J.; Moen, Corina J. A.; Mueller, Michael; Frants, Rune R.; Kasanmoentalib, Soemini; Post, Sabine M.; Princen, Hans M. G.; Porter, J. Gordon; Katan, Martijn B.; Hofker, Marten H.; Moore, David D.

    Cafestol, a diterpene present in unfiltered coffee brews such as Scandinavian boiled, Turkish, and cafetiere coffee, is the most potent cholesterol-elevating compound-knownin the human diet. Several genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis have previously been shown to be targets of cafestol,

  5. CONCERNING THE HYGIENIC STUDY OF ENZYME PREPARATIONS PRODUCED BY MICROFUNGI AND THEIR POSSIBLE USE IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conclusions: (1) Large doses of enzyme preparations of the fungi Trichothecium roseum, Aspergillus oryzae strain No. 476I, and Aspergillus awamori...extensive industrial testing in the brewing industry, as well as enzyme preparations of the fungi Aspergillus oryzae strain No. 476I and Aspergillus

  6. Mortality and morbidity among HIV type-1-infected patients during the first 5 years of a multicountry HIV workplace programme in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borght, Stefaan F.; Clevenbergh, Philippe; Rijckborst, Henk; Nsalou, Paul; Onyia, Ngozi; Lange, Joep M.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an HIV workplace programme in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The international brewing company, Heineken, introduced an HIV workplace programme in its African subsidiaries in 2001. Beneficiaries from 16 sites in 5 countries were eligible.

  7. Enzyme Technology for Shipboard Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    APPLICATIONS OF ENZYMES Ezm Type I Applications Soluble Enzymes Amylase Starch degradation; conversion of starch to glucose; liquefac- tion of grain...manufac- turing; chillproofing beer in brewing. Cellulase Clarification of fruit juices. Oxidase Removal of glucose or oxygen. Immobilized Enzymes

  8. Enzyme-aided Fractionation of Brewer’s Spent Grains in Pilot Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forssell, P.; Treimo, J.; Eijsink, V.G.H.; Faulds, C.B.; Collins, S.; Schols, H.A.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Myllymaki, O.; Tamminen, T.; Zoldners, J.; Viljanen, K.; Waldron, K.W.; Buchert, J.

    2011-01-01

    Brewer’s spent grain (BSG) is an important coproduct of the brewing industry and is generally used in animal feed. Recently, there has been considerable research into the use of enzymes to convert BSG into more value-added products. In this study, the efficiency of enzymatic fractionation of freshly

  9. Bio-assisted synthesis of mesoporous Li3V2(PO4)3 for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, W.; Zhang, X.D.; Du, X.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The mesoporous biocarbon coated Li3V2(PO4)3(MBC-LVP) cathode material is synthesized by abiotemplate-assisted sol–gel reaction process using low-cost beer waste brewing yeasts (BWBYs) as bothstructural template and biocarbon source. The structure and electrochemical performances of MBC-LVPwere in...

  10. Polygalacturonase isozymes in Lygus hesperus Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feeding strategy of mirids has been referred to as “lacerate or macerate and flush feeding” which supports high rates of food intake. In other words, plant bugs digest the plant tissue extra-orally, producing a liquefied brew rich in simple nutrient molecules. The insect's salivary polygalacturo...

  11. the mobile film van as a communications medium in environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Towards the end of 1981, the South African Brew- eries donated a combi to the Communications Sec- tion of the Pilanesberg National Park. The vehicle was equipped as a mobile film van by the Employment. Bureau of Africa (TEBA). It is completely self- co~tai n ed with its own generator, 16mm projector,.

  12. Brewer's spent grain: A review of its potentials and applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brewer's spent grain: A review of its potentials and applications. S Aliyu, M Bala. Abstract. Most developing nations continuously produce abundant agro-industrial residues such as brewer's spent grain (BSG), which are underexploited. BSG as the main by-product of brewing industry, representing approximately 85% of ...

  13. Pharmacological profile of Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Flavonoid from Hops (Humulus lupulus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Hansen, Poul Erik; Wang, Genzhu

    2015-01-01

    The female inflorescences of hops (Humulus lupulus L.), a well-known bittering agent used in the brewing industry, have long been used in traditional medicines. Xanthohumol (XN) is one of the bioactive substances contributing to its medical applications. Among foodstuffs XN is found primarily in ...

  14. Hermann Emil Fischer: Life and Achievements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    famous organic chemist Adolf von Baeyer and joined him to do. Fischer had great interest to continue his studies. But his father wanted him to take up the family business. Fischer joined his father in business and assisted him in solving chemistry- related problems in brewing and dye making. Bur Emil's interest to pursue.

  15. Pivovarské kvasinky a reakce na stres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigler, Karel; Matoulková, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, 7-8 (2011), s. 277-284 ISSN 0023-5830 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : laboratory yeast * brewing yeast * stresses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  16. ROLE OF BEEKEEPING IN THE CONSERVATION OF FORESTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and taxes, improved biodiversity conservation and enhancing environmental resilience (Kihwele et, al.,. 1999 ..... substitute for sugar. In Kinyope village, honey is used mainly as the raw material for brewing. Less honey is sold compared with the other two uses of honey. This is probably due to poor market promotion and ...

  17. Publications | Page 268 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Just say the words and a stereotype comes to mind — a system of education that is “second best.” Many who have only experienced face-to-face education in an institutional setting believe that the quality of... A better brew: Toward a sustainable coffee industry. Money may make the world go round, but coffee kickstarts it.

  18. Determination of the Reliability of Product Quality Loss and Control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inconsistency in quality control is a major problem which plagues many indigenous firms in Nigeria. When product quality fluctuates, it negatively impacts on brand status, customer loyalty and confidence. The study was carried out to evaluate the best quality control practices for a brewing plant. Control charts were created ...

  19. PLS2 regression as a tool for selection of optimal analytical modality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Esbensen, Kim

    , analytical modalities. We here present results from a feasibility study, where Fourier Transform Near InfraRed (FT-NIR), Fourier Transform Mid InfraRed (FT-MIR), and Raman laser spectroscopy were applied on the same set of samples obtained from a pilot-scale beer brewing process. Quantitative PLS1 models...

  20. Effect of malt milling for wort extract content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Géczi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Beer manufacturing is one of the most ancient procedures of food manufacturing. The four (in many cases much more ingredients, the great numbers of technological steps and variations of technological parameters (temperature, time, pressure etc. have a major influence on both type and quality of the final product. As a result of this, studying beer brewing may offer a great deal of possibilities for numerous researches, scientific examinations, and can provide useful informations for the manufacturing companies as well. At the „Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra" we examined an entire beer brewing process in October 2013, utilising the Ahlborn sensors, which were integrated in the instruments. Simultaneously, in Gödöllő at the Szent István University, we analysed the effect of malt milling on extract yield and the filterability of wort. We used the brewing parameters (temperature, time, volume ratios, which were experienced in the microbrewery and published in professional literature. Our results verify the conclusions drawn in the professional literature, however they point out the importance of grinding. Results performed on the yields with different grain-constitution might directly be utilised for the specialists of recently in Slovakia and Hungary spreading small-scale, handicraft, and homemade beer brewing.

  1. Communities of Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    households are exposed to smoke for an average of at least 4 hours a day cooking, brewing or ..... only one. Etwo. & three more than three. Fig.1. Number of rooms a house possesses in rural communities of Jimma Zone, Oct.1999 Feb. 2000. The means of ventilation used are .... as much as 5 hours cooking one meal.

  2. Antihypertensive Activity of Residue From “Gebto Arekei",

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antihypertensive Activity of Residue From “Gebto Arekei",. Lay Distilled Medicinal Spirit From a Brew Containing. Lupinus albus Seeds in Renovascular Hypertensive Guinea-. Pigs cerinet Ambaye", B. Pharm, Tesfaye Tolessa", MSc, Abebe Abera", vo, vise, Hassen Taha Sherief", MD, PHD, Dawit Abebe", PHD,. Kelbessa ...

  3. Studies of iso-alpha-acids : analysis, purification, and stability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, Alfi

    2006-01-01

    The female cones of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) are added to beer, providing taste and flavour and contributing to the stability of foam. The main constituents of hop related to these properties are generically known as alpha-acids. During the brewing process, these acids are isomerized, resulting in

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antihypertensive Activity of Residue From “Gebto Arekei”. Locally Distilled Medicinal Spirit From a Brew Containing Lupinus albus Seeds in Renovascular Hypertensive Guines-Pigs Abstract PDF · Vol 12, No 1 (2002) - Articles Investigation of The Antibacterial Effects of Papaya (Carica papaya) Seeds on Three Pneumonia ...

  5. A review of the biochemical, biotechnological and other applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... creatine kinase (CK), an enzyme that occurs in the brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Appearance of the brain type .... inhibitory effect on LDH. Lactate dehydrogenase has isoenzymes. LDH can be ..... wheat α-amylase, is of importance in the brewing industry. The traditional use of yeasts (e.g. Saccharo-.

  6. Case note: ECJ (case C-28/08 P, European Commission v. The Bavarian Lager Co. Ltd, not yet reported: privacy of EU government data)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Bavarian Lager Company challenged the Commission's refusal to grant it full access tot the minutes of a meeting in Brussels with national and European civil servants as well as representatives of the European Beer Brewing Federation, including the names of all those who attended. The Court of

  7. Afghan Peace Talks: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    available from www.rand.org as a public service of the RAND Corporation. CHILDREN AND FAMILIES EDUCATION AND THE ARTS ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT HEALTH AND... witches ’ brew of Islamic extremism, Pashtun national- ism, and banditry. Any of these groups under the nominal banner of the Pakistani Taliban could

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-01

    Dec 1, 2011 ... mental disorder after delivery and generally begins within 4 - 6 weeks after childbirth.1 ... This cross-sectional study was carried out on 607 HIV-positive postnatal women in 48 primary health care clinics and community .... drink alcohol (beer, wine, home-brewed beer or spirits) in the past month?' Response ...

  9. Massive Haemorrhagic Ascites and Pleural effusion: An Unusual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association between endometriosis and haemorrhagic (bloody) ascites is rare.Since its first description by Brews in 1954,only a few sporadic cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of massive haemorrhagic ascites associated with right-sided pleural effussion.Therapeutic paracentesis of eight litres ...

  10. Abdominal wall tumour: An unusual presentation of endometriosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association between endometriosis and abdominal wall lesion is rare. Since its first description by Brew in 1954 only a few sporadic cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of extensive painfall abdominal wall tumours that occur possibly as a consequence of a previous caesarian section.

  11. Review and perspective on the composition and safety of green tea extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growing body of evidence regarding the putative health benefits of green tea (Camellia sinensis), including reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease, has led to an increase in the consumption of brewed green tea and the formulation of green tea extracts (GTE) into a variety of food and ...

  12. Oral administration of Rauwolfia vomitoria extract has no untoward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    ). Decoctions of the leaves of. R. vomitoria have a powerful emetic effect and chopped leaves stewed with animal fat are applied to swellings. (Burkill, 1994). The root is also brewed as tea and used in humans to treat snakebite ...

  13. progress in the chemistry of marketed traditional-ly used

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wisdom of making this an ingredient during baking [11]- The oil is predominantly made up of carvacrol (3) and ... precise understanding of the scientific role of this plant in the brewing process is emerging only veryzttlowly. Coady in ..... which fits the rejected alternative structure described above (55) in addition to other pigml.

  14. Fate of 14C-acrylamide in roasted and ground coffee during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Matthias; Böhm, Nadine; Görlitz, Jessica; Lantz, Ingo; Merz, Karl Heinz; Ternité, Rüdiger; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2008-05-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is formed during heating of carbohydrate rich foods in the course of the Maillard reaction. AA has been classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. Storage experiments with roasted coffee have shown that AA levels decrease depending on storage time and temperature. In the present study the fate of AA lost during storage of roasted and ground (R&G) coffee was studied, using 14C-labeled AA as radiotracer. Radiolabel was measured in coffee brew, filter residue, and volatiles. In the brew, total (14)C-label decreased during storage of R&G coffee, while activity in the filter residue built up concomitantly. [2,3-14C]-AA (14C-AA) was the only 14C-related water extractable low molecular compound in the brew detected by radio-HPLC. No formation of volatile 14C-AA-related compounds was detected during storage and coffee brewing. Close to 90% of the radiolabel in the filter residue (spent R&G coffee, spent grounds) remained firmly bound to the matrix, largely resisting extraction by aqueous ammonia, ethyl acetate, chloroform, hexane, and sequential polyenzymatic digest. Furanthiols, which are abundant as aroma components in roasted coffee, have not been found to be involved in the formation of covalent AA adducts and thus do not contribute substantially to the decrease of AA during storage.

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tolessa, Tesfaye. Vol 12, No 1 (2002) - Articles Antihypertensive Activity of Residue From “Gebto Arekei”. Locally Distilled Medicinal Spirit From a Brew Containing Lupinus albus Seeds in Renovascular Hypertensive Guines-Pigs Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1029-1857. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 618 ... Locally Distilled Medicinal Spirit From a Brew Containing Lupinus albus Seeds in Renovascular Hypertensive Guines-Pigs, Abstract PDF. Cherinet Ambaye, Tesfaye Tolessa, Abebe Abera, Hassen Taha Sherief, Dawit Abebe, Kelbessa Urga. Vol 18, No 3 (2008), ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TOPICAL ...

  17. Cauldrons: An Abstraction for Concurrent Problems Solving. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    accompanied by examples of their application to various domains. MASSACI I USEIIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOIOGY ARIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE; IABORATORY A.I... vision of an actively changing "brew" of rules and assertions interacting and combining to form new conclusions and results. |ilUSC - ( auldrOll A frame is

  18. 77 FR 72939 - Small Brewers Bond Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... U.S.C. 5051) imposes a Federal excise tax on all beer brewed or produced for consumption or sale... under section 5051 shall be determined at the time the beer is removed for consumption or sale, and... email at Beer[email protected] . For questions concerning tax payment procedures and quarterly filing...

  19. 27 CFR 25.151 - Rate of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Liability for Tax § 25.151 Rate of tax. All beer, brewed or produced, and removed for consumption or sale, is subject to the tax prescribed by 26 U.S.C. 5051, for...

  20. Dietary iron rural blacks overload In southern African

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-15

    Sep 15, 1990 ... This finding was ascribed to the fact that traditional brews are not only associated with alcohol- induced hepatic damage but are also a very rich source of ... liver/,J glucose intolerance;4 scurvy and osteoporosis;5 and possibly oesophageal carcinoma.6. There is also evidence to suggest that iron overload ...

  1. From Mothers' Pensions to Aid to Dependent Children in the Great Plains: The Course from Charity to Entitlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. Alton

    2012-01-01

    The most important third-party movement in American history emerged out of the social and economic chaos brewing in the Great Plains in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. The maelstrom, labeled Populism, contained a powerful, indeed a truly revolutionary message--that man was his brother's keeper. This concept proved to have…

  2. 75 FR 23697 - Order Finding That the AECO Financial Basis Contract Traded on the IntercontinentalExchange, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ..., fertilizer, insulation, steel, glass, industrial gases, pharmaceutical, aluminum and brewing.'' WGCEF..., regulates the interstate transmission of natural gas, oil and electricity. FIEG describes itself as an... Pipe Line, LLC, serves as a juncture for 13 different pipelines. These pipelines bring in natural gas...

  3. Total aflatoxin, fumonisin and deoxynivalenol contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although traditional brews are not directly included in the European law on mycotoxins, it is important to consider their mycotoxin levels. In this study, busaa is a mainly a maize product and also the European Union (EU) guidelines on mycotoxins in maize were used as reference. It was found out that 65.6% of busaa had ...

  4. Characterization of Fen-Daqu Through Multivariate Statistical Analysis of H-1 NMR Spectroscopic Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van-Diep, L.; Zheng, X.; Ma, K.; Chen, J.Y.; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    J. Inst. Brew. 117(4), 516-522, 2011 Fen liquor is typical of Chinese light-flavour liquor (alcoholic spirit), which is fermented from sorghum with Fen-Daqu powder. Fen-Daqu is a saccharifying agent and fermentation starter in this fermentation process and in Fen traditional vinegar. To investigate

  5. How does roasting process influence the retention of coffee aroma compounds by lyophilized coffee extract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Galilea, I; Andriot, I; de Peña, M P; Cid, C; Guichard, E

    2008-04-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to study the effect of lyophilized coffee extract on the retention of aroma compounds and (2) to study if aroma compounds selected are differently affected by the lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from conventional and Torrefacto coffee brews prepared by filter coffeemaker and by espresso coffee machine. Variable amounts of lyophilized coffee extracts, relative to coffee powder, containing different percentages of high molecular weight compounds, mainly melanoidins (value given in parentheses), were obtained: 20.9% (14.8) and 24.9% (23.3), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by filter coffeemaker and 18.1% (18.8) and 20.7% (57.5), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by espresso coffee machine. The retention of aroma compounds increased by increasing the lyophilized coffee extract concentration and was found to be dependent on the aroma compounds. The retention of aroma compounds was found to be slightly different depending on the brewing procedure employed, showing lyophilized coffee extracts obtained with espresso coffee machine had higher retention values that those extracted by filter coffeemaker. Retention capacity of lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from the conventional and the Torrefacto roasted coffee did not show differences except in the case of ethyl nonanoate.

  6. Identification of Ethyl Formate as a Quality Marker of the Fermented Off-note in Coffee by a Nontargeted Chemometric Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindinger, C.; Pollien, P.; Vos, de C.H.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Hageman, J.A.; Lambot, C.; Fumeaux, R.; Voirol-Baliguet, E.; Blank, I.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of coffee is influenced by many factors such as coffee variety, agricultural and postharvest conditions, roasting parameters, and brewing. The pleasure of drinking coffee may be affected by off-notes such as burnt, green, earthy, or fermented. Their presence is related to the variety,

  7. Indigenous knowledge associated with the production of starters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous knowledge associated with the production of starters culture used to produce Beninese opaque sorghum beers. ... Many other factors such as the sorghum variety, the brewing technique can also affect the beer quality. It is reported by 70% (63/90) of producers that the storage duration reduces the fermentative

  8. Trace Elements Profile among Alcohol Abusers in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol abuse has been associated with Trace elements deficiencies which have been known to cause Neuro Psychiatric Disorders. The focus of this study being on locally brewed alcohol is to establish the pattern if any of trace elements derangements. The trace element profile among alcohol abusers in a Nigerian ...

  9. in South Africa in 2000

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    through a regular supply of crude wine as part of their wages. Alcohol has also been used to exert control over labour ... an integral part of the South African economy, and the wine and brewing industries have made South Africa an ..... marketing and increased alcohol counter~advertising. August 2007, Vol. 97, No. 8 SAM].

  10. 75 FR 24612 - Order Finding That the Zone 6-NY Financial Basis Contract Traded on the IntercontinentalExchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... statistical analysis to measure the effect that the prices of the subject contract potentially may have on... activity that would render it of potential importance and no additional statistical analysis is warranted..., fertilizer, insulation, steel, glass, industrial gases, pharmaceutical, aluminum and brewing.'' WGCEF...

  11. 75 FR 24606 - Order Finding That the TCO Financial Basis Contract Traded on the IntercontinentalExchange, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... potential importance, the Commission will then perform a statistical analysis to measure the effect that the..., fertilizer, insulation, steel, glass, industrial gases, pharmaceutical, aluminum and brewing.'' WGCEF... threshold of trading activity that ] would render it of potential importance and no additional statistical...

  12. 75 FR 24586 - Order Finding That the San Juan Financial Basis Contract Traded on the IntercontinentalExchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... potential importance, the Commission will then perform a statistical analysis to measure the effect that the..., fertilizer, insulation, steel, glass, industrial gases, pharmaceutical, aluminum and brewing.'' WGCEF... threshold of trading activity that would render it of potential importance and no additional statistical...

  13. 75 FR 24619 - Order Finding That the Permian Financial Basis Contract Traded on the IntercontinentalExchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... then perform a statistical analysis to measure the effect that the prices of the subject contract... would render it of potential importance and no additional statistical analysis is warranted.\\31\\ \\30..., fertilizer, insulation, steel, glass, industrial gases, pharmaceutical, aluminum and brewing.'' WGCEF...

  14. 75 FR 24592 - Order Finding that the TETCO-M3 Financial Basis Contract Traded on the IntercontinentalExchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... potential importance, the Commission will then perform a statistical analysis to measure the effect that the... ordinarily merit a statistical analysis to measure the effect that the prices of the subject contract..., fertilizer, insulation, steel, glass, industrial gases, pharmaceutical, aluminum and brewing.'' WGCEF...

  15. 75 FR 23690 - Order Finding That the NGPL TxOk Financial Basis Contract Traded on the IntercontinentalExchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... a statistical analysis to measure the effect that the prices of the subject contract potentially may... activity that would render it of potential importance and no additional statistical analysis is warranted..., fertilizer, insulation, steel, glass, industrial gases, pharmaceutical, aluminum and brewing.'' WGCEF...

  16. 75 FR 24626 - Order Finding That the TETCO-M3 Financial Basis Contract Traded on the IntercontinentalExchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... potential importance, the Commission will then perform a statistical analysis to measure the effect that the... ordinarily merit a statistical analysis to measure the effect that the prices of the subject contract..., fertilizer, insulation, steel, glass, industrial gases, pharmaceutical, aluminum and brewing.'' WGCEF...

  17. Future perspective for diagnosis in autoimmune diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Luis E. C.

    2009-01-01

    Human beings have taken successive approaches for the understanding and management of diseases. Initially brewed in supernatural concepts and mystical procedures, a vigorous scientific approach has emerged on the grounds of fundamental disciplines such as anatomy, microbiology, biochemistry, physiology, immunology, pathology, and pharmacology. The resulting integrated knowledge contributed to the current classification of diseases and the way Medicine is carried out today. Despite considerabl...

  18. 27 CFR 25.15 - Materials for the production of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production of beer. 25.15 Section 25.15 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Definitions Standards for Beer § 25.15 Materials for the production of beer. (a) Beer must be brewed from malt or from substitutes for malt. Only rice...

  19. Household production of sorghum beer in Benin: technological and socio-economic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.; Niehof, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the sorghum brewing microenterprises in Benin with emphasis on the beer quality, the social significance of the product as well as the income generated. Tchoukoutou, the Benin opaque sorghum beer, has important social functions as it fosters the cooperative spirit and remains an

  20. 27 CFR 25.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... malt. Standards for the production of beer appear in § 25.15. Bottle. A bottle, can or similar..., where beer is to be produced and packaged. Brewing. The production of beer for sale. Business day. The... considered authorized processes in the production of beer. Director of the service center. A Director of an...

  1. Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddocke, Maya P; Kreisz, Stefan; Heldt-Hansen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2009-09-01

    High-gravity brewing, which can decrease production costs by increasing brewery yields, has become an attractive alternative to traditional brewing methods. However, as higher sugar concentration is required, the yeast is exposed to various stresses during fermentation. We evaluated the influence of high-gravity brewing on the fermentation performance of the brewer's yeast under model brewing conditions. The lager brewer's strain Weihenstephan 34/70 strain was characterized at three different gravities by adding either glucose or maltose syrups to the basic wort. We observed that increased gravity resulted in a lower specific growth rate, a longer lag phase before initiation of ethanol production, incomplete sugar utilization, and an increase in the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in the final beer. Increasing the gravity by adding maltose syrup as opposed to glucose syrup resulted in more balanced fermentation performance in terms of higher cell numbers, respectively, higher wort fermentability and a more favorable flavor profile of the final beer. Our study underlines the effects of the various stress factors on brewer's yeast metabolism and the influence of the type of sugar syrups on the fermentation performance and the flavor profile of the final beer.

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aguzue, OC. Vol 15, No 1 (2011) - Articles Effect of Brewing Time and Temperature on the release of Manganese and Oxalate from Lipton Tea and Azadirachta Indica (Neem), Phyllanthus Amarus and Moringa Oleifera blended Leaves Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-8362. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 1247 ... Vol 15, No 1 (2011), Effect of Brewing Time and Temperature on the release of Manganese and Oxalate from Lipton Tea and Azadirachta Indica (Neem), Phyllanthus Amarus and Moringa Oleifera blended Leaves, Abstract PDF. CO Ezeike, OC Aguzue, SA Thomas. Vol 6, No 1 (2002), Effect of ...

  4. Consumer acceptance of salt-reduced 'soy sauce' foods over rapidly repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Shimojo, R.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Köster, E.P.; Mojet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of the liking for salt reduced products was tested in a rapidly repeated exposure study using soup and bread (with ham). Salt was partially replaced by naturally brewed soy sauce. First, 44 consumers performed 5 two-alternative forced choice tests to establish the exchange rate (ER) at

  5. Consumer acceptance of salt-reduced 'soy sauce' bread over repeated in home consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Shimojo, R.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Koester, E.P.; Mojet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of liking for salt reduced/re-formulated bread was tested in a home use test for three weeks. Salt was partially replaced by naturally brewed soy sauce. 56 Consumers were provided with regular bread (variant A) and another 59 were provided with salt-reduced soy sauce bread (variant B).

  6. The role of lager beer yeast in oxidative stability of model beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, T S; Arneborg, N

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between the ability of lager brewing yeast strains to tolerate oxidative stress and their ability to produce oxidative stable model beer. Screening of 21 lager brewing yeast strains against diamide and paraquat showed that the oxidative stress resistance was strain dependent. Fermentation of model wort in European Brewing Convention tubes using three yeast strains with varying oxidative stress resistances resulted in three model beers with different rates of radical formation as measured by electron spin resonance in forced ageing experiments. Interestingly, the strain with the lowest oxidative stress resistance and lowest secretion of thioredoxin, as measured by Western blotting, resulted in the highest uptake of iron, as measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the slowest formation of radicals in the model beers. A more oxidative stable beer is not obtained by a more-oxidative-stress-tolerant lager brewing yeast strain, exhibiting a higher secretion of thioredoxin, but rather by a less-oxidative-stress-tolerant strain, exhibiting a higher iron uptake. To obtain lager beers with enhanced oxidative stability, yeast strains should be screened for their low oxidative stress tolerance and/or high ability to take up iron rather than for their high oxidative stress tolerance and/or high ability to secrete thioredoxin. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Shotgun proteomics of the barley seed proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley seed proteins are of prime importance to the brewing industry, human and animal nutrition and in plant breeding for cultivar identification. To obtain comprehensive proteomic data from barley seeds, acetone precipitated proteins were in-solution digested and the resulting peptides were analyz...

  8. Shelf life improvement of sorghum beer (pito) through the addition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-11-16

    Nov 16, 2016 ... Pito is a traditional alcoholic beverage that is mostly brewed in the three northern regions of Ghana. Although widely consumed and used in many festivities, poor storability limits its economic potential as an income-generating venture for most women. This study was carried out to improve the shelf-life.

  9. Effect of temperature and pH on ethanol production by a putative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ojes PC2

    2013-02-06

    Feb 6, 2013 ... weevil larva were studied. Peptone water was used as the growth medium and granulated sugar ... temperature of the fermenting medium are, therefore, necessary for maximum ethanol production by the organism. Key words: .... Saccharomyces cerevisiae by different mechanisms. J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem.

  10. Research on the effect of culture time on the kombucha tea beverage's antiradical capacity and sensory value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Kulczyński, Bartosz; Xindi, Yuan; Gumienna, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Recent consumption trends shows high consumer acceptability and growing medicinal interest in the biological value of kombucha tea. This tea is a sweetened tea leaf brew fermented with a layer containing mainly acetic acid bacteria, yeast and lactic acid bacteria. The main antioxidants in tea leaves are polyphenols, the consumption of which is proven to be beneficial for human health, e.g. protecting from reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present research was to evaluate antiradical activity, total polyphenol content (TPC) and sensory value of kombucha tea brews. In the present study, Kombucha tea beverages were analyzed for TPC content, DPPH radical scavenging method and sensory value. The highest TPC content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity values were evaluated in yellow tea samples, both unfermented and kombucha, which did not differ within the storage time. The results of sensory evaluations of kombucha tea brews depend on the tea leaf variety used for preparing the drink. Research indicates that the fermentation process of tea brews with kombucha microbiota does not affect significantly its polyphenol content and antiradical capacity, and retains its components' biological activity.

  11. Carcinogenic nitrosamines in traditional beer as the cause of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the 1930s the annual frequency rose. A dietary cause was sought, the staple diet of black people having changed from sorghum to maize. (corn), with traditional beer being brewed from maize. Carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in traditional beer were suggested as a cause of SCC of the oesophagus, with Fusarium moniliforme, ...

  12. 77 FR 10545 - Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana-Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... infusion or by a brewing process or concoction of barley or other grain, malt, sugars, and hops in water, including among other things, ale, beer, stout, porter, and the like. Malt beverages are exclusive of all..., including malt, vinous, spirituous, alcoholic or intoxicating liquors, beer, porter, ale, stout fruit juices...

  13. AJDAS vol 8 No 2.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    country to reduce the problem of alcohol dependence, and that it should be government funded. KEY WORDS: Alcohol .... the alternative livelihoods other than brewing beer. They were also being informed about the social problems associated with abuse of drugs and alcohol. .... they did not have dams to draw water so that.

  14. Liver Iron Contents in Rats after Administration of Certain Iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    e.g. home-brewed beer may contain iron lactate. We have ... foods (e.g. mahewll and home-made beer) under conditions causing ... De-ionised water was offered ad lib. At the end of a 21-day experimental period the rats were killed with ether and the livers excised for deter- mination of the non-haemoglobin iron content.

  15. Effect of population and level of industrialization on underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... For example, influent seepage of urine and leachate from polluted surroundings, a pit latrine or soak- away, sited upstream and near a borehole, could enrich the underground water with phosphate and nitrate. (Okoye and Adeleke, 1991). Improper disposal of by- products of beer brewing, soap making and ...

  16. The effect of unfiltered coffee on potential biomarkers for colonic cancer risk in healthy volunteers : a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M.J.A.L.; Braak, van den C.C.; Broekhuizen, R.; Jong, de R.; Rijt, van L.; Ruijter, de E.; Peters, W.H.; Katan, M.B.; Nagengast, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies suggest that coffee use might protect against colorectal cancer. Inconsistencies as to the effect of coffee use and colorectal cancer between epidemiologic studies might be related to the type of coffee brew. Objective: We studied the effect of unfiltered coffee

  17. Separate effects of the coffee diterpenes cafestol and kahweol on serum lipids and liver transaminases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urgert, R.; Essed, N.; Weg, van der G.; Kosmeijer-Schuil, T.G.; Katan, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The coffee diterpene cafestol occurs in both robusta and arabica beans. It is present in unfiltered coffee brews and raises serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and alanine aminotransferase in humans. The effects are linear with the cafestol dose. Unfiltered coffee also contains

  18. The effect of unfiltered coffee on potential biomarkers for colonic cancer risk in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M. J.; van den Braak, C. C.; Broekhuizen, R.; de Jong, R.; van Rijt, L.; de Ruijter, E.; Peters, W. H.; Katan, M. B.; Nagengast, F. M.

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that coffee use might protect against colorectal cancer. Inconsistencies as to the effect of coffee use and colorectal cancer between epidemiologic studies might be related to the type of coffee brew. We studied the effect of unfiltered coffee consumption on putative

  19. 77 FR 20718 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... foot race scheduled for April 15, 2012. This deviation allows the bridge to remain in the closed... event. The Bridge to Brews event is an annual 8-10K footrace held in Portland, OR. The race course... 117.35. Dated: March 19, 2012. Randall D. Overton, Bridge Administrator. BILLING CODE 9110-04-P ...

  20. Optimisation of wort production from rice malt using enzymes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercially, rice malt has never been successfully used in brewing because of its low free α-amino nitrogen (FAN) content. This study was designed to optimise rice malt replacement for barley malt in wort production and to improve FAN by adding α-amylase and protease. The response surface methodology (RSM) ...

  1. Jabulani c. Makhubele Department of Social Work University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the internet. Such research work is important because in low-resourced areas, manufac- tures of home-made alcohol utilise unortho- dox and poisonous ingredients to make their brews more intoxicating. Basically in under- ..... to socialize, to enhance confidence, as a sexual stimulant and addiction and this corroborate.

  2. Optimization of extraction parameters for trehalose from beer waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... be 103.15 μg/s; it was 15.96 times higher than microwave and 34.08 times higher than ultrasound. This demonstrated that the PEF could be regarded as a promising technique for bio-material extraction. Key words: High-intensity pulsed electric field (PEF), Beer waste brewing yeast (BWBY), Trehalose, Regression model.

  3. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MacDonald J. R. Lynn KG, Boie RA and Robbins MF 1978 Nucl. Instrum. & Methods 153 189. MacKenzie IK, Khoo TL, McDonald AB and McKee BTA 1967 Phys. Rev. Lett. 19946. Nicollian E H and Brews 1982 Metal oxide superconductor, in Physics and Technology (New York: Wiley). Nielsen B, Lynn KG, Yen C Chen and ...

  4. DNA Microarray as Part of a Genomic-Assisted Breeding Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Bowra, Steve

    2010-01-01

    quality made crop breeding more challenging and required a combination of new tools. We illustrate these concepts by taking examples from barley, one of the most ancient of domesticated grains with a diverse profile of utilisation (feed, brewing, new nutritional uses). Genomic-assisted breeding (GAB...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adamafio, NA. Vol 9, No 2 (2007): - Articles Malting and Brewing Properties of Selected Cereals Cultivated in Ghana Abstract · Vol 10, No 2 (2008): - Articles ERRATA:Selected Ghanaian Cassava and Sweet Potato Cultivars: Evaluation of Flour and Wort Quality Abstract. ISSN: 0855-3823. AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. Beer, wood, and welfare - The impact of improved stove use among dolo-beer breweries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Grimm (Michael); J. Peters (Jörg)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLocal beer breweries in Burkina Faso absorb a considerable amount of urban woodfuel demand. We assess the woodfuel savings caused by the adoption of improved brewing stoves by these micro-breweries and estimate the implied welfare effects through the woodfuel market on private households

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yin, Y. Vol 10, No 40 (2011) - Articles Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into osteoblasts, neuron-like cells and adipocytes. Abstract PDF · Vol 10, No 82 (2011) - Articles Optimization of extraction parameters for trehalose from beer waste brewing yeast treated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields ...

  8. Effects of malting conditions on the amino acid compositions of final ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To increase brewing fermentability and efficiency, malts with high levels of free amino nitrogen and amino acids are essential. However, the barley variety and malting conditions affecting this supply of nutrients are not well understood. The aims of this study were to determine the amino acid and malt quality parameters of ...

  9. Insect assemblage and the pollination system in cocoa ecosystems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... 2 Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources, College of Agriculture and Renewable Natural Resources, KNUST,. Kumasi, Ghana. ... Cocoa therefore has a specialized pollination system. .... plates battery (Brew, 1984) was employed in further ..... Energy costs of flowering, fruiting and cherelle wilt in cacao.

  10. Characterization of a thermostable Bacillus subtilis β-amylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    β-Amylase (á-1, 4 glucan maltohydrolase; E.C:3.2.1.2) is used in the food processing, brewing and distilling industries due to its capacity to produce maltose syrup from starch. Here, we report the purification and characterization of â-amylase from Bacillus subtilis isolated from cassava peel waste obtained from a ...

  11. Effects of spent craft brewers’ yeast on fermentation and methane production by rumen microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key component of beer brewing and a major by-product. The leftover, spent brewers’ yeast, from large breweries has been used for some time as a protein supplement in cattle, however the possible advantages of spent yeast from smaller craft breweries, containing much hig...

  12. ERRATA:Selected Ghanaian Cassava and Sweet Potato Cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of cassava worts. Wort from Afisiafi had the highest extract content suggesting that it might be a suitable brewing adjunct for lager beer. Gblemoduade produced a more alkaline (pH 6.27) wort than all other samples. The rate of filtration of cassava wort samples was unacceptably slow, indicating a high beta glucan content.

  13. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  14. Optimizing culture conditions for the production of endo-β-1,4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... reducing end of cellulose chain. Then, cellobiose is hydrolyzed by β-glucosidase to yield two glucose units. (Coughlan et al., 1985). Cellulases have a broad variety of applications in food, animal feed (Ramamurthy et al., 1987), brewing, paper pulp, and detergent (Bhat and Bhat, 1997), textile (Belghiht.

  15. Production and optimization of cellulase from Trichodrma isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pure cellulose was used as sole carbon source for the production of cellulase by Trichoderma isolates under liquid state fermentation (lsf). ... in food industries, animal feed industries, brewing and wine making, agriculture biomass refining, pulp and paper industries, textile and laundry industries and ethanol production.

  16. Religious terrorism, Boko Haram, and the dynamics of state response

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intelligence gathering equipment and experts on transnational crime in. West Africa. Thus, the Nigerian state should organise an effective means of cooperating with INTERPOL in order to benefit from its operations, training, and equipment. (4) Since Boko Haram is infusing religion into a long-churning brew of grievances.

  17. Underage Drinking and the Drinking Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Carla T.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of underage drinking on college campuses has been brewing for many years to the continued vexation of higher education administrators. In 2008, John McCardell, president emeritus of Middlebury College, began to circulate for signature a public statement among colleagues titled "The Amethyst Initiative," which calls for elected…

  18. Extraction of espresso coffee by using gradient of temperature. Effect on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of espresso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, C Alejandra; Fiol, Núria; González, Carlos; Saez, Marc; Villaescusa, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Espresso extraction is generally carried out at a fixed temperature within the range 85-95°C. In this work the extraction of the espressos was made in a new generation coffee machine that enables temperature profiling of the brewing water. The effect of using gradient of temperature to brew espressos on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the beverage has been investigated. Three different extraction temperature profiles were tested: updrawn gradient (88-93°C), downdrawn gradient (93-88°C) and fixed temperature (90°C). The coffee species investigated were Robusta, Arabica natural and Washed Arabica. Results proved that the use of gradient temperature for brewing espressos allows increasing or decreasing the extraction of some chemical compounds from coffee grounds. Moreover an appropriate gradient of temperature can highlight or hide some sensorial attributes. In conclusion, the possibility of programming gradient of temperature in the coffee machines recently introduced in the market opens new expectations in the field of espresso brewing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of Thermostab Streptomyc ction of Thermostable Alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewi. Agban. (Received: 28:0. Abstract. Bacterial extracellular ... Microbiology and Brewing, Enugu State University of Science and Technolog. Agbani, Enugu State. (Received: 28:04:2016; ... in culture medium which is generally regard as safe with food and drug administration (P.

  20. Solar energy resource assessment for Ghana | Forson | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FK Forson, EA Agbeko, IA Edwin, A Sunnu, FO Akuffo, A Brew-Hammond. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of the Ghana Institution of Engineers Vol. 2 (1) 2004: pp. 31-34. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  1. Cloning and heterologous expression of the plasmidencoded shsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the cloning and expression of the shsp genes from a thermophilic microorganism in the mesophilic LAB or yeast and for further development of stress-resistant microorganism strains used in dairy fermentation and brewing wine. Key words: Streptococcus thermophilus, plasmid, small heat shock protein gene (shsp gene), ...

  2. Effects of Added Enzymes on Sorted, Unsorted and Sorted-Out Barley: A Model Study on Realtime Viscosity and Process Potentials Using Rapid Visco Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Zhuang, Shiwen; Olsen, Rasmus Lyngsø

    2017-01-01

    Barley sorting is an important step for selecting grain of required quality for malting prior to brewing. However, brewing with unmalted barley with added enzymes has been thoroughly proven, raising the question of whether traditional sorting for high quality malting-barley is still necessary....... To gain more insight on this, we examine realtime viscosity of sorted-out and unsorted barley during downscaled mashing with added enzymes in comparison with malting quality sorted barley. A rapid visco analyser was used to simulate brewery mashing process at lab scale together with two commercial enzymes...... (Ondea®-Pro and Cellic®-CTec2). During downscaled mashing, viscosity profile of sorted-out barley was markedly different from others, irrespective of enzyme type, whereas a small difference was observed between the sorted and un-sorted barley. Furthermore, whilst sorted-out barley generated lowest sugar...

  3. Amber ale beer enriched with goji berries - The effect on bioactive compound content and sensorial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducruet, Julien; Rébénaque, Pierrick; Diserens, Serge; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Héritier, Isabelle; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2017-07-01

    Goji berries, traditionally used in Chinese medicine, are nowadays gaining popularity in the Western world. Efforts are made to enlarge the offer of goji containing foods. In this study, goji berries were added to ale type beer at different stages of the production process in order to develop a beverage with desirable sensory characteristic and high antioxidant capacity. The obtained beers differed significantly in terms of appearance, taste and antioxidant activity. Consumers preferred beers to which goji berries were added at the beginning of the brewing process. These beers were also characterized by lower turbidity, high color intensity, caramel- and coffee-like taste, high antioxidant activity and high content of bioactives such as rutin and 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid. To conclude, an addition of goji berries to traditional brewing process creates a perspective to enlarge the range of goji containing foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Caffeine content of common beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, M L; McWilliams, M

    1979-01-01

    Tea, coffee, carbonated and chocolate beverages were analyzed for caffeine, and results compared in terms of usual serving sizes. Significant differences in caffeine levels were found to result from the preparation method of coffee or brewing time of tea. It is possible for a cup of tea, instant coffee, or can of cola beverage to have similar caffeine content (55 to 65 mg.); however, the mean values per cup of black tea (28 to 46 mg.) are considerably lower than for brewed coffee (107 to 151 mg.). Caffeine is readily absorbed and can have pharmacologic effects on adults or on children who consume quantities of cola beverages or chocolate. Both preparation method and quantity of beverage consumed should be considered in taking dietary histories or estimating caffeine intake.

  5. Estudio de factibilidad técnica y económica orientado a la utilización de residuos de tierra diatomacea y lodo de cal resultantes de la industria cervecera en la fabricación de bloques de gres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sánchez-Molina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades industrial production has caused an increase in waste generation, commonly available in natural sources without any treatment and without taking into account the limited capacity of these sources, significantly affecting the natural balance of the environment. Aware of this problem, a study was carried out in the laboratory and industry with a view to the use of waste of the brewing process, such as lime and diatomaceous earth. The project seeks to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing ceramic blocks with lime and / or diatomaceous earth, as an alternative solution focused on the problem of waste. Acceptance of using the residue of lime or diatomaceous earth of the brewing industry, is subject to different aspects within which is: the improvement of the technical specifications of the blocks, the production cost, the required investment and contribution environmental conservation as one of the most important aspects of the project.

  6. Microbial innovations in the world of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hisashi; Ueda, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Technological developments in Japan based on the results of microbial research were a major pillar supporting the postwar industrial revolution. The wellspring of these advancements was the sophisticated technology used in traditional brewing, a foundation of the characteristic Japanese food culture. In this manuscript, we will describe the fermentative production of amino acids and nucleic acids following the discovery of the umami component so distinct in Japanese cuisine, which finally revealed the true power of microbial production. Thereafter, we will describe acetic acid production stemming from brewed vinegar production and the fermentative production of some other organic acids. Finally, we will delve into the massive scale of innovations achieved by the discovery of valuable micro-organisms and how they have affected the field of food.

  7. Review: the dominant flocculation genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae constitute a new subtelomeric gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, A W; Steensma, H Y

    1995-09-15

    The quality of brewing strains is, in large part, determined by their flocculation properties. By classical genetics, several dominant, semidominant and recessive flocculation genes have been recognized. Recent results of experiments to localize the flocculation genes FLO5 and FLO8, combined with the in silicio analysis of the available sequence data of the yeast genome, have revealed that the flocculation genes belong to a family which comprises at least four genes and three pseudogenes. All members of this gene family are located near the end of chromosomes, just like the SUC, MEL and MAL genes, which are also important for good quality baking or brewing strains. Transcription of the flocculation genes is repressed by several regulatory genes. In addition, a number of genes have been found which cause cell aggregation upon disruption or overexpression in an as yet unknown manner. In total, 33 genes have been reported that are involved in flocculation or cell aggregation.

  8. Processing of a novel powdered herbal coffee (Pistacia Terebinthus L. Fruits Coffee) and its sensorial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secilmis, S S; Yanık, D Kocak; Gogus, F

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effects of roasting method, grinding and reduction in oil content on the characteristics of Pistacia terebinthus fruit coffee were investigated. Pistacia terebinthus fruit was roasted by microwave, pan and combined (microwave and convection) methods. The degree of roasting was determined by L*, a*, b* color values. The roasting times were 1,500, 1,900 and 1,620 s for microwave, pan and combined roasting methods, respectively. Cold press was used to reduce the oil content both prior to roasting and after the roasting. The oil content was reduced to around 21.5 % in all roasting methods to approach to that of coffee beans. Powdered Pistacia terebinthus fruit coffee brews were compared with each other and Turkish coffee in terms of aroma, flavor, acidity aftertaste, and overall acceptability. Sensorial analysis results showed that coffee brews prepared by pressing after the roasting process were better than those pressing prior to roasting.

  9. Fermentation Process Modeling with Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm and Runge-Kutta Method on Ethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The core of the Chinese rice wine making is a typical simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process. In order to control and optimize the SSF process of Chinese rice wine brewing, it is necessary to construct kinetic model and study the influence of temperature on the Chinese rice wine brewing process. An unstructured kinetic model containing 12 kinetics parameters was developed and used to describe the changing of kinetic parameters in Chinese rice wine fermentation at 22, 26, and 30°C. The effects of substrate and product inhibitions were included in the model, and four variable, including biomass, ethanol, sugar and substrate were considered. The R-square values for the model are all above 0.95 revealing that the model prediction values could match experimental data very well. Our model conceivably contributes significantly to the improvement of the industrial process for the production of Chinese rice wine.

  10. Mitigating health risks associated with alcoholic beverages through metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Lahiru N; Lane, Stephan; Kim, Heejin; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive relationship between the occurrence of cancer and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Metabolic engineering of brewing yeast to reduce potential carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverage is technically feasible as well as economically promising. This review presents the mechanisms of formation of potentially carcinogenic components in alcoholic beverages, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethyl carbamate, acrylamide, and heavy metals, and introduces effective genetic perturbations to minimize the concentrations of these harmful components. As precise and effective genome editing tools for polyploid yeast are now available, we envision that yeast metabolic engineering might open up new research directions for improving brewing yeast in order to ensure product safety as well as to increase overall quality of alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Purification and structural characterization of LTP1 polypeptides from beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégou, S; Douliez, J P; Mollé, D; Boivin, P; Marion, D

    2000-10-01

    We report on the purification of lipid transfer proteins (LTP) from barley seeds and beer with the aim of investigating the chemical modifications that occur during the brewing process. In seeds, the well-known LTP of 9 kDa (LTP1) has been found together with a second form named LTPb that displays comparable amino acid composition but was not fully sequenced. These two forms have been recovered in beer with marked chemical modifications including disulfide bond reduction and rearrangement and especially glycation by Maillard reaction. The glycation is heterogeneous with variable amounts of hexose units bound to LTPs. Circular dichroism shows that glycated LTP1 having all their disulfide bridges reduced are totally unfolded. These results provide a first basis for understanding how barley LTPs become foam-promoting agents during the malting and brewing process.

  12. MODERN PROCESSES AND EQUIPMENT FOR BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Sidorov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern progress trends of processes of brewing and fermenters for their realization are considered. It is rotined that the today most widespread method of production are speed-up processes on the method of Nathan in one technological stage in one vehicle –cylinder-conical tank — CCT. The next stage of development must be passing to the continuous methods, however these, known enough methods, so far did not find realization. The second directions of development of brewing is distribution of minibrewerys, including restaurant complexes. The basic stimulus of development of this direction is possibility of receipt of the so-called «living» beer — the high-quality unfiltered product, however today large competition make mass productions which mastered the technique of production of «living» beer at industrial level.

  13. Beer, Wood, and Welfare--The Impact of Improved Stove Use Among Dolo-Beer Breweries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Michael; Peters, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Local beer breweries in Burkina Faso absorb a considerable amount of urban woodfuel demand. We assess the woodfuel savings caused by the adoption of improved brewing stoves by these micro-breweries and estimate the implied welfare effects through the woodfuel market on private households as well as the environmental effect. We find substantial wood savings among the breweries, 36% to 38% if they fully switch to an improved stove. In absolute amounts, they save about 0.176 kg of fuelwood per litre of dolo brewed. These savings imply huge reductions in CO2-emissions and reduce the overall demand for woodfuel, which is predominantly used by the poorer strata for cooking purposes. We provide estimates for the price decrease that might result from this and show that the urban poor are likely to benefit. Thus, the intervention under study is an example for a green growth intervention with pro-poor welfare gains--something green growth strategies should look for.

  14. Effect of coffee drinking on cell proliferation in rat urinary bladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, B A; Rutten, A A; Woutersen, R A

    1993-12-01

    A possible effect of freshly brewed drip coffee on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was investigated in male Wistar rats using cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium as the indicator of tumour promotion. Male rats were given either undiluted coffee brew (100% coffee), coffee diluted 10 times (10% coffee) or tap water (controls), as their only source of drinking fluid for 2 or 6 wk. Uracil, known to induce cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium, was included in the study as a positive control. In rats receiving 100% coffee, body weights, liquid intake and urinary volume were decreased. Neither histopathological examination of urinary bladder tissue nor the bromodeoxyuridine labelling index revealed biologically significant differences between rats receiving coffee and the tap water controls. Uracil increased the labelling index and induced hyperplasia of the urinary bladder epithelium, as expected. It was concluded that these results produced no evidence that drinking coffee predisposes to tumour development in the urinary bladder.

  15. Next Generation 9-1-1: Policy Implications of Incident Related Imagery on the Public Safety Answering Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    communications center administrators and trainers have done little to prepare their personnel for the arrival of these technologies...Trident), football at Peter B’s, Texas Hold ‘Em mid-IR, countless cups of Starbucks coffee, and of course, Manny’s Cuban brew. Each of you made this...911- issues/standards.html. 2 PSAP, and educates and makes recommendations to communications center management, administration , and training center

  16. Effect of malt milling for wort extract content

    OpenAIRE

    Gábor Géczi; Márk Horváth; Štefan Dráb; Žigmund Tóth; László Bense

    2014-01-01

    Beer manufacturing is one of the most ancient procedures of food manufacturing. The four (in many cases much more) ingredients, the great numbers of technological steps and variations of technological parameters (temperature, time, pressure etc.) have a major influence on both type and quality of the final product. As a result of this, studying beer brewing may offer a great deal of possibilities for numerous researches, scientific examinations, and can provide useful informations for the man...

  17. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE PROCESS OF BEER PRIMARY FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Solgajová; Helena Frančáková; Štefan Dráb; Žigmund Tóth

    2013-01-01

    Beer is a very popular and widespread drink worldwide. Beer may be defined as a foamy alcoholic drink aerated by carbon dioxide that is formed during fermentation. Sensorial and analytical character of beer is mainly formed during process of primary fermentation. Our work has monitored the influence of temperature of fermentation substrate on the process of primary fermentation during beer production. Obtained values of temperature and apparent extract out of four brews of 10% light hopped wo...

  18. Dynamic simulation and visualisation of fermentation: Effect of process conditions on beer quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rodman, Alistair; Gerogiorgis, DI

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation is the central, most important unit operation in alcoholic beverage manufacturing and has already been studied by means of first-principles dynamic models which explicitly consider  temperature effects and employ parameterisations obtained using industrial beer brewing campaign data. Nevertheless, the precise effect of initial conditions on beer quality and flavour has not been documented. Multi-objective optimization encompasses ethyl alcohol maximization and batch duration mini...

  19. Multi-objective process optimisation of beer fermentation via dynamic simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodman, Alistair; Gerogiorgis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation is an essential step in beer brewing: when yeast is added to hopped wort, sugars released from the grain during germination are fermented into ethanol and higher alcohols. To study, simulate and optimise the beer fermentation process, accurate models of the chemical system are required for dynamic simulation of key component concentrations. Since the entire beer production process is a highly complex series of chemical reactions with the presence of over 600 species, many of the ...

  20. Mortality and morbidity among HIV type-1-infected patients during the first 5 years of a multicountry HIV workplace programme in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Borght, Stefaan F; Clevenbergh, Philippe; Rijckborst, Henk; Nsalou, Paul; Onyia, Ngozi; Lange, Joep M; de Wit, Tobias F Rinke; Van der Loeff, Maarten F Schim

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an HIV workplace programme in sub-Saharan Africa. The international brewing company, Heineken, introduced an HIV workplace programme in its African subsidiaries in 2001. Beneficiaries from 16 sites in 5 countries were eligible. HIV type-1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals were assessed clinically and immunologically, and started highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) if they had AIDS or had a CD4+ T-cell count long-term high survival was achieved.

  1. Caffeine in teas: levels, transference to infusion and estimated intake

    OpenAIRE

    TFOUNI, Silvia Amelia Verdiani; CAMARA, Maíra Marcuci; KAMIKATA, Kamille; GOMES, Fernanda Moralez Leme; FURLANI, Regina Prado Zanes

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Caffeine is naturally present in several foods, being one of the most consumed dietary ingredients in the world; however, excessive intake may cause health concerns. This study evaluated caffeine levels in teas and their infusions, the transference rate during brewing, and estimated caffeine intake from tea infusion. Brands and batches of 4 types of teas were analyzed for caffeine content by high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. Mate tea was the one that...

  2. Řízení výkonnosti společnosti VÚPS, a.s.

    OpenAIRE

    Maňáková, Hana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the performance management of the Research Institute of Brewing and Malting. Prior to the evaluating of company performance the financial status of the company will be assessed by the analysis of financial statements and ratio indicators. Subsequently will be determined the company performance by economic value added indicator and compared to entire branch by benchmarking diagnostic system of financial indicators INFA. For identification of the key variables, which are ...

  3. In vitro Antiglycation and Cross-Link Breaking Activities of Sri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antiglycation and cross-link breaking activities of Sri Lankan low-grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L) Methods: Five concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 or 100.0 ìg/ml) of Black tea brew (BTB) were made using Sri Lankan low-grown Orange Pekoe (O.P.) grade ...

  4. Long-term Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) uptake dynamics in a multi-country HIV Workplace Program in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Borght, Stefaan; Schim Van Der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus; Clevenbergh, Philippe; Kabarega, Jean Pierre; Kamo, Emmanuel; Van Cranenburgh, Katinka; Rijckborst, Henk; Lange, Joep M; Rinke De Wit, Tobias Floris

    2010-01-01

    International audience; High uptake of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services is important for the success of HIV workplace programs in sub-Saharan Africa. From 2001 onwards Heineken, a multinational brewing company, implemented a comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment program for employees and their dependents of its African subsidiaries. Confidential in-house VCT is part of this program. VCT uptake dynamics over time, and factors associated with early uptake were studied. ...

  5. Long-term Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) uptake dynamics in a multi-country HIV Workplace Program in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract High uptake of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services is important for the success of HIV workplace programs in sub-Saharan Africa. From 2001 onwards Heineken, a multinational brewing company, implemented a comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment program for employees and their dependents of its African subsidiaries. Confidential in-house VCT is part of this program. VCT uptake dynamics over time, and factors associated with early uptake were studied. Be...

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schalk Cloete

    Devine, C.E., Lowe, T.E., Wells, R.W., Edwards, N.J., Hocking Edwards, J.E., Starbuck, T.J. & Speck, P.,. 2006. Preslaughter stress arising from on-farm handling and its interactions with electrical stimulation on tenderness of sheep. Meat Sci. 73, 304-312. Hector, D.A., Brew-Graves, C., Hassen, N. & Ledward, D.A., 1992.

  7. Relating the Biogeochemistries of Zinc, Cobalt, and Phosphorus to Phytoplankton Activities in the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    getting serenaded by alpha delts, D-league hockey, windsurfing, beer brewing, canoeing through the rain, riding ATVs on Maui, dancing the tango...CHARETTE, P. CROOT, K. DOWNING, R. FREW, M. GALL, M. HADFIELD, J. HALL, M. HARVEY, G. JAMESON, J. LAROCHE, M. LIDDI- COAT, R. LING, M. T. MALDONADO , R. M...Limnology and Oceanogra- phy. 45: 930-939. GALL, M. P., R. STRZEPEK, M. MALDONADO , and P. W. BOYD. 2001. Phytoplankton processes. part 2: Rates of primary

  8. Well-being, problematic alcohol consumption and acute subjective drug effects in past-year ayahuasca users: a large, international, self-selecting online survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lawn, W.; Hallak, J. E.; Crippa, J. A.; Dos Santos, R.; Porffy, L.; Barratt, M. J.; Ferris, J. A.; Winstock, A. R.; Morgan, C. J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a natural psychedelic brew, which contains dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Its potential as a psychiatric medicine has recently been demonstrated and its non-medical use around the world appears to be growing. We aimed to investigate well-being and problematic alcohol use in ayahuasca users, and ayahuasca's subjective effects. An online, self-selecting, global survey examining patterns of drug use was conducted in 2015 and 2016 (n = 96,901). Questions were asked about: use of ayahuasca...

  9. Effects of fermentation temperature on the composition of beer volatile compounds, organoleptic quality and spent yeast density

    OpenAIRE

    Olaniran, Ademola O.; Maharaj,Yushir R; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2011-01-01

    Production of good quality beer is dependent largely on the fermentation temperature and yeast strains employed during the brewing process, among others. In this study, effects of fermentation temperatures and yeast strain type on beer quality and spent yeast density produced after wort fermentation by two commercial yeast strains were investigated. Beer samples were assessed for colour, clarity and foam head stability using standard methods, whilst the compositions and concentration of Beer ...

  10. Ethyl ester production during brewery fermentation, a review

    OpenAIRE

    Saerens, Sofie; Thevelein, Johan; Delvaux, Freddy

    2008-01-01

    The production of volatile esters by yeast is of major industrial interest because the presence of these compounds determines the fruity aroma of fermented beverages, like beer and wine. The need to understand and control ester synthesis is driven by the fact that esters play a key role in the sensorial quality of these fermented alcoholic beverages. Especially in the brewery, problems with ester production have been encountered by the introduction of modern brewing practices, such as high-gr...

  11. Expression Levels of the Yeast Alcohol Acetyltransferase Genes ATF1, Lg-ATF1, and ATF2 Control the Formation of a Broad Range of Volatile Esters

    OpenAIRE

    Verstrepen, Kevin J; Van Laere, Stijn D. M.; Vanderhaegen, Bart M. P.; Derdelinckx, Guy; Dufour, Jean-Pierre; Pretorius, Isak S.; Winderickx, Joris; Thevelein, Johan?M.; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2003-01-01

    Volatile aroma-active esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine. Esters are produced by fermenting yeast cells in an enzyme-catalyzed intracellular reaction. In order to investigate and compare the roles of the known Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol acetyltransferases, Atf1p, Atf2p and Lg-Atf1p, in volatile ester production, the respective genes were either deleted or overexpressed in a laboratory strain and a commercial brewing str...

  12. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment.

  13. Posouzení kvality piva v minipivovarech

    OpenAIRE

    Jiráková, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate quality of beer in microbreweries. The theoretical part deals with the characteristics of microbreweries, their history, brewing beer in a microbrewery and used materials. This part ends with an overview of methods by which it is possible to analyze beer. In the practical part we are evaluating the quality of beer from the microbreweries on the base of sensory and instrumental analysis. In the work we processed survey which focuses on the production and ...

  14. Optimalizace varného procesu piva s přídavkem netradičních surovin

    OpenAIRE

    Hájek, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis called "Optimization of beer brewing process with the addition of unconvential materials" focuses on the possibilities of using nopal powder for beer production. Introductory part of the literature review focuses on the standart and unconvential materials for beer production including characteristics of nopal (Opuncia ficus-indica). Another part of the review describes the process of beer production. Last part of the literature review focuses on non-starch polysaccharides ...

  15. Problematika výroby piva technikou vysoce koncentrovaných mladin ve vztahu k Českému pivu

    OpenAIRE

    Němeček, Radoslav

    2014-01-01

    The aim of my bachelor's composition was to determine the suitability of beer production by technology of highly concentrated wort for the production of Czech beer. In bachelor's composition is described the beer production by this method, hereafter is the issue of Czech beer production and its parameters. To evaluate the suitability of this method of production was breewed experimental tribal brew of beer, which was used in the subsequent production of the finished beer. The beer was evaluat...

  16. Využití membránových procesů při výrobě piva

    OpenAIRE

    KAMENÍKOVÁ, Magdaléna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the Bachelor thesis is a literature review talking about the use of membrane technology in brewing. The first part is dedicated to the production process of beer primarily on the use of filtering processes and the history of their use. The second part presents a list of all membrane processes, types of membranes and membrane technologies including examples used in the production of beer or other food production of beverages. It describes their fundamental physical and chemical attr...

  17. MORINGA TEA BLOCKS ACUTE LUNG INFLAMMATION INDUCED BY SWINE CONFINEMENT DUST THROUGH A MECHANISM INVOLVING TNF-α EXPRESSION, C-JUN N-TERMINAL KINASE ACTIVATION AND NEUTROPHIL REGULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mykea Mcknight; Jabria Allen; Jenora T. Waterman; Steven Hurley; Joshua Idassi; Radiah C. Minor

    2014-01-01

    Plant based products represent a promising alternative to conventional treatments for inflammation. Moringa oleifera Lam is a tree rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals and a variety of phytochemcals with health benefits. Among the reported health benefits are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether tea brewed from dried Moringa leaves would abrogate inflammation in a mouse model of acute lung inflammation induced by...

  18. Die stoommeule en bierbrouery op die terrein van Fort Drury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It worked with water from the fountain and served as a flour mill, saw mill, turning lathe and wool press until a few years before the Anglo Boer War. In c 1896 the mill was turned into a brewery where beer was brewed until 1920. SA Journal of Cultural History Vol.15(2) 2001: 1-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajch.v15i2.6330.

  19. Immature Flavor of Beer by Hydrogen Sulfide and its Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 俊明; タカハシ, トシアキ; TOSHIAKI, TAKAHASHI

    1993-01-01

    In the brewing industry, bottom fermeting brewer's yeast has produced hydrogen sulfide during the primary fermentation process. Hydrogen sulfide has given the unpleasant immature flavor such as rotten egg into the primary or secondary fermenting liquor. However, in the normaly produced final beer the immature flavor has disappeared in general. In spite of the above mentioned fact, sometimes the immature flavor based on the hydrogen sulfide have found in final beer during the imperfect control...

  20. A hyper-thermostable ?-amylase from Pyrococcus furiosus accumulates in Nicotiana tabacum as functional aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hong; Reynolds, L. Bruce; Menassa, Rima

    2017-01-01

    Background Alpha amylase hydrolyzes ?-bonds of polysaccharides such as starch and produces malto-oligosaccharides. Its starch saccharification applications make it an essential enzyme in the textile, food and brewing industries. Commercially available ?-amylase is mostly produced from Bacillus or Aspergillus. A hyper-thermostable and Ca 2++ independent ?-amylase from Pyrococcus furiosus (PFA) expressed in E.coli forms insoluble inclusion bodies and thus is not feasible for industrial applicat...

  1. Porovnání tradiční výroby piva s moderními technologiemi

    OpenAIRE

    FLOSOVÁ, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Presented Bachelor thesis was focused on comparison of traditional beer production with modern technologies. From comprehensive theory of beer brewing technology was the main point of the work devoted to brewer´s yeast and beer fermentation process, which has made the greatest progress during the development of beer production technology. Chapter about brewer´s yeast is dealing with their taxonomy, morfology and cytology, structure, reproduction and types of yeast, bottom and top fermenting y...

  2. Enhanced metabolite generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Devicharan [Middle Island, NY

    2012-03-27

    The present invention relates to the enhanced production of metabolites by a process whereby a carbon source is oxidized with a fermentative microbe in a compartment having a portal. An electron acceptor is added to the compartment to assist the microbe in the removal of excess electrons. The electron acceptor accepts electrons from the microbe after oxidation of the carbon source. Other transfers of electrons can take place to enhance the production of the metabolite, such as acids, biofuels or brewed beverages.

  3. An Investigation into Spent Coffee Waste as a Renewable Source of Bioactive Compounds and Industrially Important Sugars

    OpenAIRE

    Damhan S. Scully; Jaiswal, Amit K.; Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

    2016-01-01

    Conventional coffee brewing techniques generate vast quantities of spent espresso grounds (SEGs) rich in lignocellulose and valuable bioactives. These bioactive compounds can be exploited as a nutraceutical or used in a range of food products, while breakdown of lignocellulose generates metabolizable sugars that can be used for the production of various high-value products such as biofuels, amino acids and enzymes. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the enzymatic sacchari...

  4. Výroba piva s CHZO "České pivo" a piva vyráběného v EU

    OpenAIRE

    Dolníčková, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of my bachelor thesis is to describe issues regarding the process of beer production in the Czech Republic - starting with the characteristics of individual raw materials that are needed for brewing (barley and malt associated therewith, hops, water and yeast), then further characterize the all operations that take place in the brewery (mashing, wort boiling, fermentation, filtration and pasteurization of beer), describe and define the protected geographical indication "Czech beer", t...

  5. Military Review: The Professional Journal of the U.S. Army. January-February 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    of education, the need to dominate, and finally the efforts to keep impurities such as pork, alcohol , Christian bibles, and crosses out of the country...confiscated my roller skates because they offended his sensibilities.] Many foreigners get around alcohol prohibitions by brew- ing their own beverages...including moonshine called Siddequi (my friend). Mackey ably highlights the busi- ness elite, including the Al-Rajhi, Al- Kaki Bin Mahfouz, and Bin Laden

  6. A Virtual Company for Educational Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of a proposed project with the goal to develop an educational system to be used for education of industrial engineer students at European universities. The system is based on Internet and multimedia applications and constists of following elements: A virtual company...... producing beer brewing automates, a Modelbank with an operational industrial engineer knowwledge base, 'a company history book' and several hybrid simulation games....

  7. Revaluation of Waste Yeast from Beer Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Suruceanu; Sonia Socaci; Teodora Coldea; Elena Mudura

    2013-01-01

    Brewing yeast is an important waste product from beer production. The valorification of slurry yeast mainly consists of separation of vitamins and important nitrogen compounds. The hops compounds, one of the most important raw materials in beer technology are removed beforehand valorification. The prenylflavonoids compounds from hops are important bioactive compounds that can be revaluation with proper technology. Revaluation of prenylflavonoids from waste yeast into dietary supplement, ident...

  8. Deciphering the Hybridisation History Leading to the Lager Lineage Based on the Mosaic Genomes of Saccharomyces bayanus Strains NBRC1948 and CBS380T

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Huu-Vang; Legras, Jean-Luc; Neuv?glise, C?cile; Gaillardin, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Saccharomyces bayanus is a yeast species described as one of the two parents of the hybrid brewing yeast S. pastorianus. Strains CBS380(T) and NBRC1948 have been retained successively as pure-line representatives of S. bayanus. In the present study, sequence analyses confirmed and upgraded our previous finding: S. bayanus type strain CBS380(T) harbours a mosaic genome. The genome of strain NBRC1948 was also revealed to be mosaic. Both genomes were characterized by amplification and sequencing...

  9. Cerveza tropical: de pequeño negocio familiar a empresa multinacional 1924-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago de Luxán Meléndez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se enuncia, a grandes rasgos, la evolución de una empresa industrial del subsector bebidas, en Canarias (7924-1993, primando los aspectos relacionados con las estrategias comerciales.This article discurses, from a general point of view, the evolution of an industrial brewing firm in the Canary Islands, making special considerations on its commercial srategic plans.

  10. Coffee research using optical methods of physical and chemical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tikhonov B.; Kuznetsov V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses aspects of application of optical methods of physical and chemical analysis to determine the identity of the functional groups of substances extraction at different ways of making coffee. Infrared spectroscopy, diffusion reflectance spectrophotometry and refractometry methods were used for the researches. A comparison of coffee preparation methods was conducted in cupping and aeropresse Aerobie Aeropress Coffee Maker. Temperature of the water used to brew, and the punc...

  11. Tea polyphenols for health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2007-01-01

    People have been consuming brewed tea from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant for almost 50 centuries. Although health benefits have been attributed to tea, especially green tea consumption since the beginning of its history, scientific investigations of this beverage and its constituents have been underway for less than three decades. Currently, tea, in the form of green or black tea, next to water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. In vitro and animal studies provide...

  12. Study of features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Oganesyants Lev; Panasyuk Alexander; Kuzmina Helen

    2015-01-01

    One of the fields of processing industries’ activities is the use of secondary resources. The use the vegetative parts of grape plants may become an important component in solving this task. Such vegetative parts, first of all, include red grape leaves, which provide a large reserve of antioxidants and other biologically useful substances. The Russian Research Institute of Brewing and Wine Industry has carried out the detailed study of the features of the biochemical composition of red vine l...

  13. Determination of improved steeping conditions for sorghum malting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dewar, J

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available distinct operations, i.e. steeping, germination and drying.In Africa, the cereal sorghum is malted widely to Steeping (the soaking of grain in water) is widelyprovide an important raw material in brewing. In acknowledged as the most critical stage... of thesouthern Africa, approximately 200 000 tonnes malting process3,4. This is a consequence of theper annum of malted sorghum are used in the importance of initiating germination such thatproduction of traditional (opaque) sorghum beer1. modi...

  14. Fermentation of Apple Juice with a Selected Yeast Strain Isolated from the Fermented Foods of Himalayan Regions and Its Organoleptic Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Kanwar, S.S.; Keshani,

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, sugg...

  15. Jsou spotřebitelé ochotní zaplatit za CHZO výrobek?

    OpenAIRE

    Závorová, Miroslava

    2011-01-01

    In 1992 the European geographical indication system was established. Through the years more than thousand of foodstuffs were registered to the system. Czech Republic joined the system through access to EU in 2004. In this paper the consumer's willingness to pay for selected product that carries geographical indication is analysed. For analysis the panel data from brewing industry are used. The results of the work are that the presence of a protected geographical indication in the interaction ...

  16. Craft Beer Marketing. Do You Have to be First, Best, or Unique to Succeed?

    OpenAIRE

    Lahnalampi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the interplay of marketing and design in the craft brewing industry in Finland. The goal was to figure out what craft brewers do to successfully market their products. The thesis first explains that craft beer is different from generic beer in that it is uncompromising in its ingredients, special flavours, and sole focus on the beer rather than stock prices. Craft breweries use grassroots and guerrilla marketing tactics. They are heavily involved in social media marketi...

  17. Can Niche Agriculturalists Take Notes from the Craft Beer Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Woolverton, Andrea E.; Parcell, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    This industry-level case study focuses on the growth cycles of craft brewing, a niche industry. The research case is defined as the craft beer industry evolution including the surrounding institutional and consumer environments. The research goal is to provide insight for niche agriculturalists by examining the case of the successful niche craft beer industry. First, the environment surrounding craft beer reemergence is analyzed. We examine the current state of the craft beer industry with a ...

  18. Metabolite Profiling during Fermentation of Makgeolli by the Wild Yeast Strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y98-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Ho; Ahn, Byung Hak; Bai, Dong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Makgeolli is a traditional Korean alcoholic beverage. The flavor of makgeolli is primarily determined by metabolic products such as free sugars, amino acids, organic acids, and aromatic compounds, which are produced during the fermentation of raw materials by molds and yeasts present in nuruk, a Korean fermentation starter. In this study, makgeolli was brewed using the wild yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y98-5, and temporal changes in the metabolites during fermentation were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The resultant data were analyzed by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Various metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, sugar alcohols, small peptides, and nucleosides, were obviously altered by increasing the fermentation period. Changes in these metabolites allowed us to distinguish among makgeolli samples with different fermentation periods (1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 days) on a PLS-DA score plot. In the makgeolli brewed in this study, the amounts of tyrosine (463.13 µg/mL) and leucine (362.77 µg/mL) were high. Therefore, our results indicate that monitoring the changes in metabolites during makgeolli fermentation might be important for brewing makgeolli with good nutritional quality. PMID:25606007

  19. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J. Groessl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample (N=83,778 women was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0–<4 cups, and high (4+ cups. Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53% new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02–1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93–1.38. Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05–1.36 and high nondrip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01–2.02 were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research.

  20. Static and dynamic headspace analysis of instant coffee blends by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Andrea; Gaysinsky, Sylvia; Czepa, Andreas; Del Pulgar, José Sanchez; Cappellin, Luca; Biasioli, Franco

    2015-09-01

    Instant coffee is a widespread product, generally related to a high consumer acceptability, also because of its ease of preparation. The present work addresses the characterization of the headspace of freshly brewed instant coffees resulting from different blends, during and immediately after preparation. The sample set consisted of 10 coffees, obtained by mixing three different blends in different proportions. The employment of Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) allowed for direct and real-time sampling from the headspace, under conditions that mimic those that are encountered above the cup during and right after brewing. Different coffee brews were separated on the basis of the respective volatile profiles, and data showed good consistency with the respective blend compositions. When the headspace evolution was monitored during preparation, similar results were obtained in terms of blend separation; moreover, different blends displayed different and reproducible 'signatures' in terms of time evolution. A straightforward method for the prediction of headspace composition is proposed, allowing to predict the volatile profiles of two-component and three-component blends on the basis of the respective parent components. Overall, the results constitute a successful example of the applicability of PTR-MS as a tool for product development in food science. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of non-volatile metabolites in beer stored at high temperature and utility as an accelerated method to predict flavour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Adam L; Broeckling, Corey D; Sedin, Dana; Holbrook, Christian; Barr, Lindsay; Kirkpatrick, Kaylyn; Prenni, Jessica E

    2016-06-01

    Flavour stability is vital to the brewing industry as beer is often stored for an extended time under variable conditions. Developing an accelerated model to evaluate brewing techniques that affect flavour stability is an important area of research. Here, we performed metabolomics on non-volatile compounds in beer stored at 37 °C between 1 and 14 days for two beer types: an amber ale and an India pale ale. The experiment determined high temperature to influence non-volatile metabolites, including the purine 5-methylthioadenosine (5-MTA). In a second experiment, three brewing techniques were evaluated for improved flavour stability: use of antioxidant crowns, chelation of pro-oxidants, and varying plant content in hops. Sensory analysis determined the hop method was associated with improved flavour stability, and this was consistent with reduced 5-MTA at both regular and high temperature storage. Future studies are warranted to understand the influence of 5-MTA on flavour and aging within different beer types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF FIRST WORT PART AND AFTERWORTS ON SACCHARIFICATION OF WORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Líšková

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Wort is a basic product of mashing, which forms the first intermediate in beer production and constitute the base of its final value. For qualitative value wort has the greatest impact grist per brew, which is a description of materials, they bring to brew extract and determine its the volume and concentration. The main component grist per brew for light and dark beers is stored pale malt and possibly a smaller proportion of adjuncts. The aim of our work was to assess the qualitative parameters of malt in terms of content extract and its impact on the amount of produced the first wort part and afterwort and their qualitative values expressed in % saccharification and volumes. We measured 3 types of malts with the content of the extract 75.2%, 76.1%, 77.2% in the original sample, which determined mainly reached saccharification of first part wort and other afterwort parts one and two. In terms attained of saccharification it was necessary to use on sparge of spent grains at afterwort number two only the amount of water, which would be not affect the total saccharification of wort and its qualitative parameters.doi:10.5219/114 

  3. Effect of Household Coffee Processing on Pesticide Residues as a Means of Ensuring Consumers' Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-09-30

    Coffee is a highly consumed and popular beverage all over the world; however, coffee beans used for daily consumption may contain pesticide residues that may cause adverse health effects to consumers. In this monitoring study, the effect of household coffee processing on pesticide residues in coffee beans was investigated. Twelve pesticides, including metabolites and isomers (endosulfan α, endosulfan β, cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT, and p'p-DDT) were spiked in coffee beans collected from a local market in southwestern Ethiopia. The subsequent household coffee processing conditions (washing, roasting, and brewing) were established as closely as possible to the traditional household coffee processing in Ethiopia. Washing of coffee beans showed 14.63-57.69 percent reduction, while the roasting process reduced up to 99.8 percent. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, permethrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan α and β in roasting and all of the 12 pesticides in the coffee brewing processes were not detected. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the reduction of pesticide residues by washing is significantly different from roasting and brewing (P 0.05). The processing factor (PF) was less than one (PF < 1), which indicates reduction of pesticides under study during processing of the coffee beans. The cumulative effect of the three processing methods has a paramount importance in evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of pesticide residues, particularly in coffee beans.

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Lehman, Bryan

    2003-09-01

    Annually, breweries in the United States spend over $200 million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 38 percent of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that given available technology, there are still opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the brewing industry. Brewers value highly the quality, taste and drinkability of their beer. Brewing companies have and are expected to continue to spend capital on cost-effective energy conservation measures that meet these quality, taste and drinkability requirements. For individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies.

  5. Using Preferred Attribute Elicitation to Determine How Males and Females Evaluate Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggah, Elizabeth M; McSweeney, Matthew B

    2017-08-01

    The variety of beers available for consumption has increased due to the recent emergence of many craft brewing operations and it has been suggested that this is affecting how consumers evaluate beer. Currently, beer consumers are mostly male and only 20% of women are primarily beer drinkers. The main objective of this project is to compare and contrast descriptions of beer products created by males and females. The preferred attribute elicitation (PAE) method was used to create a description of 4 beers common to residents of Nova Scotia, Canada. Four PAE sessions were held: 2 sessions consisted of females (n = 16 and 15) and 2 sessions of males (n = 11 and 17). Four beer samples were chosen from locally available commercial beers, 2 of these samples were considered to be craft-brewed beer and the other samples were nationally available brands (macrobrewed). Both the males and females generated descriptions that included 5 identical terms; however, they differed in the importance they assigned to each attribute. Notably, bitterness was perceived to be of more importance to female panelists. Throughout all PAE sessions, the craft-brewed beers were associated with considerably more sensory attributes than the macrobrewed beers. It can be concluded that both the female and male groups found discernible differences between the craft and macrobrewed beers; however, they place importance on different sensory attributes. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Access to Confidential Alcohol Industry Documents: From ‘Big Tobacco’ to ‘Big Booze’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms Laura Bond

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND:Internal tobacco industry document searches have led to the discovery of hitherto unpublisheddocuments that provide insights into the drinks industry. The documents uncover key concerns andstrategies for the drinks industry with focus on the Miller Brewing Company and the Beer Institute.METHODS:The identification of the Philip Morris 1996 CEO Issues Book from the tobacco document archives led to asystematic search for alcohol-related documents. The search was conducted by entering alcohol-relatedterms into search fields of tobacco document archive sites available on the World Wide WebRESULTS:Key areas of concern for the Miller Brewing Company, the Beer Institute, and more broadly, the alcoholindustry include developments of legislative and regulatory controls such as tax increases, advertisingrestrictions and blood alcohol content lowering and public perceptions of harms relating to drunk driving,binge drinking and underage alcohol consumption. Strategies proposed by the Miller Brewing Companyand the Beer Institute to combat these concerns include ally development and maintenance and thepromotion of personal responsibility.CONCLUSIONS:These once confidential internal documents provide new evidence on the drinks industry’s concernsabout possible alcohol control measures and the strategies used to help overcome these concerns. The document findings justify the public health community’s cynicism about the alcohol industry whileproviding a new source of information to assist development in the regulation and control of the drinksindustry.

  7. Malt-induced premature yeast flocculation: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteloglou, Apostolos G; Smart, Katherine A; Cook, David J

    2012-06-01

    Premature yeast flocculation (PYF) is a sporadic problem for the malting and brewing industries which can have significant financial and logistical implications. The condition is characterised by abnormally heavy (and sometimes early) flocculation of yeast during brewery fermentations. The resulting low suspended yeast cell counts towards the end of the fermentation can result in flavour defects and incomplete attenuation (fermentation of sugars to alcohol). Despite several decades of research into the phenomenon, its precise nature and mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In part this is because the term PYF has become a 'catch-all' syndrome which can have multiple origins. Furthermore, there are complex interactions in the malting and brewing processes which together mean that the PYF status of a malt sample is hard to predict at a generic level. Whether or not PYF is observed depends not only on barley quality, but on process factors in the maltings and to a substantial extent on the brewing yeast strain concerned. This article highlights the significance of PYF, and reviews current knowledge relating to the origins of this complex phenomenon.

  8. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time. PMID:25379551

  9. The construction and application of diploid sake yeast with a homozygous mutation in the FAS2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaka, Atsushi; Sahara, Hiroshi; Hata, Yoji

    2010-12-01

    In Japanese sake brewing, cerulenin-resistant sake yeasts produce elevated levels of ethyl caproate, an important flavor component. The FAS2 mutation FAS2-1250S of Saccharomyces cerevisiae generates a cerulenin-resistant phenotype. This mutation is dominant, and, in general, cerulenin-resistant diploid sake yeast strains carry this mutation heterozygously. Here we constructed diploid sake yeast with a homozygous mutation of FAS2 using the high-efficiency loss of heterozygosity method. The homozygous mutants grew more slowly in YPD medium than did the wild-type and heterozygous mutants, and they produced more ethyl caproate during sake brewing. In addition, although both the wild-type and heterozygous mutant were sensitive to 4 mg/l cerulenin, the homozygous mutant was resistant to more than 4 mg/l cerulenin. Next, we obtained a homozygous mutant of FAS2 without inducing genetic modification. After cultivating the heterozygous FAS2 mutant K-1801 in YPD, homozygous mutants were selected on medium containing high concentrations of cerulenin. Non-genetically modified yeast with a homozygous mutation of FAS2 produced 2.2-fold more ethyl caproate than did heterozygous yeast. Moreover, high-quality Japanese sake with a very rich flavor could be brewed using yeast containing a homozygous mutation in the FAS2 gene. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Fluoride levels in various black tea, herbal and fruit infusions consumed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emekli-Alturfan, Ebru; Yarat, Aysen; Akyuz, Serap

    2009-07-01

    The fluoride contents were determined by ion-selective electrode in 26 black tea samples originally produced in Turkey, Sri Lanka, India and Kenya, and in 14 herbal and seven fruit infusions originated from Turkey. Fluoride content in black tea infusions ranged from 0.57 to 3.72 mg/L after 5 min of brewing. Higher fluoride levels were found in black teas originated from Turkey when compared with teas originated from Sri Lanka. Moreover higher fluoride levels were determined in black tea bags compared with granular and stick-shaped black teas. However, herbal and fruit infusions were characterized by low values of fluoride (0.02-0.04 mg/L) after 5 min of brewing and increasing brewing time to 10 min caused only slight increases in some infusions. As a result, consuming tea infusions prepared from some black tea available in Turkish market, especially black tea bags, in large quantities may lead to exposion to a high amount of fluoride which may cause dental fluorosis. Although fruit and herbal infusions are safer to consume their fluoride contents are too low for caries prevention. In countries such as Turkey where tea is traditionally consumed, the fluoride concentration and daily safety precautions should be indicated on tea products.

  11. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Zioła-Frankowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  12. Comparison of the level of boron concentrations in black teas with fruit teas available on the Polish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  13. Effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and herbal medicines (Salvia, Chamomile, Calendula) on human fibroblast in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Paulina; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna; Jankun, Jerzy; Kotwicka, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Antiseptic rinses have been successfully used in inflammatory states of the gums and oral cavity mucosa. Antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and some herbs are well documented. Reaction of host tissue to these substances has much poorer documentation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX), essential oil (EO: thymol, 0.064%; eucalyptol, 0.092%; methyl salicylate, 0.060%; menthol, 0.042%) mouth rinses and salvia, chamomile and calendula brews on fibroblast biology in vitro. The human fibroblast CCD16 line cells were cultured in incubation media which contained the examined substances. After 24 and 48 hours, the cell morphology, relative growth and apoptosis were evaluated. Exposure of fibroblasts to CHX, EO or salvia caused various changes in cell morphology. Cells cultured for 48 hours with CHX revealed a noticeably elongated shape of while cells cultured in high EO concentration or with salvia were considerably smaller and contracted with fewer projections. Chlorhexidine, EO and salvia reduced the fibroblast proliferation rate and stimulated cell death. Both reactions to EO were dose dependent. Cells exposure to chamomile or calendula brews did not change morphology or proliferation of fibroblasts. The results of this in vitro study showed that in contrast to chamomile and calendula, the brews of EO, CHX or salvia had a negative influence on fibroblast biology. PMID:27536196

  14. Proteomics, peptidomics, and immunogenic potential of wheat beer (Weissbier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Mamone, Gianfranco; Cutignano, Adele; Fontana, Angelo; Zurlo, Lucia; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2015-04-08

    Wheat beer is a traditional light-colored top-fermenting beer brewed with at least 50% malted (e.g., German Weissbier) or unmalted (e.g., Belgian Witbier) wheat (Triticum aestivum) as an adjunct to barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt. For the first time, we explored the proteome of three Weissbier samples, using both 2D electrophoresis (2DE)-based and 2DE-free strategies. Overall, 58 different gene products arising from barley, wheat, and yeast (Saccharomyces spp.) were identified in the protein fraction of a representative Weissbier sample analyzed in detail. Analogous to all-barley-malt beers (BMB), barley and wheat Z-type serpins and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins dominated the proteome of Weissbier. Several α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors also survived the harsh brewing conditions. During brewing, hundreds of peptides are released into beer. By liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) analysis, we characterized 167 peptides belonging to 44 proteins, including gliadins, hordeins, and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Because of the interference from the overabundant yeast-derived peptides, we identified only a limited number of epitopes potentially triggering celiac disease. However, Weissbier samples contained 374, 372, and 382 ppm gliadin-equivalent peptides, as determined with the competitive G12 ELISA, which is roughly 10-fold higher than a lager BMB (41 ppm), thereby confirming that Weissbier is unsuited for celiacs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that Weissbier also contained large-sized prolamins immunoresponsive to antigliadin IgA antibodies from the pooled sera of celiac patients (n = 4).

  15. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward D. Kerr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers’ yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers’ yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer’s yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers’ yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers’ yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed “Vegemite Beer” would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings.

  16. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Edward D; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers' yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers' yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer's yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers' yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers' yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed "Vegemite Beer" would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings.

  17. Occurrence of chloropropanols in soy sauce and other foods in China between 2002 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wu Sheng; Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhang, Gong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jing Guang; Tang, Chang Dong; Miao, Hong; Ma, Jin Bo; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Yong Ning

    2007-08-01

    A survey of chloropropanols in soy sauce and some selected foods in China is reported. Thirty-seven traditionally brewed soy sauce samples contained 3-MCPD below the EC maximum limit (ML) of 0.02 mg kg(-1). All soy sauce samples (629) from retailers contained levels of 3-MCPD ranging between instant noodle spices and health foods, ranging from 0.029 to 13.64 mg kg(-1). It is concluded that abnormal levels of 3-MCPD in soy sauce or other foods produced in China may result from acid hydrolysis or the addition of the contaminated acid HVP.

  18. Development of aromatic hop compounds and bitterness in beer during room temperature- and cold storage based on three different hopping methods

    OpenAIRE

    Torgals, Ann Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine whether storage temperature or hopping method had influence on the aroma and bitterness in beer. The focus was set on the aroma that comes from hops, and not from yeast. The secondary objective to this study was to explore the development of the alcohol, CO2 and bitterness in the beer after priming and bottling. The thesis’ main perspective is that of home brewers, and to some extent that of microbreweries. Beer was brewed with 100 % pilsn...

  19. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  20. Fermentation characteristics in hay from Cynodon and crop stubble treated with exogenous enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Yânez André Gomes; Vasconcelos, Vânia Rodrigues; Alves, Arnaud Azevêdo; Silva, Suzana Coimbra de Moura Lustosa e; Garcez, Bruno Spindola

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of treatment with xylanase and β-glucanase was evaluated for gas production and the ruminal degradation of nutrients from the hay of Tifton 85 grass and the stubble of maize, sorghum, peanut, sunflower and sesame crops. Two commercial fibrolytic enzymes were used (Dyadic xylanase PLUS - Xylanase; BrewZyme LP-β-glucanase), added to the hay at doses of 7.5 units of endoglucanase and 0.46 units of xylanase per 500 mg/gDM, for the cellulase and xylanase products respectively. ...

  1. Chemical-analytical and sensory characterisation of kettle hoppy aroma of beer

    OpenAIRE

    Praet, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Hops constitute an indispensable raw material for beer production. The hop essential oil (-derived) volatiles are at the origin of the highly desired hoppy aroma of beer. (Bio)chemical transformations and losses during the brewing process alter the hop oil volatile fingerprint, resulting in hoppy aroma in beer that is clearly different from the aroma of the hops. Nevertheless, the nature of hoppy aroma is up-to-date far from understood. Especially ‘noble kettle hop’ aroma, which is a typical ...

  2. Maximisation of fuel ethanol from pawpaw fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V.C.; Ayanru, D.K.G.; Ogbeide, O.N.; Okiy, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Fermentation of slurry from pawpaw fruits (Carica papaya L.) was carried out under conditions of non-sterilization, sterilization, pasteurization, and varying concentrations of yeast cells (Saccharomyces carlsbergensis), incubation times and temperatures. For a slurry pH of 3.5, a maximum of 6.84% of ethanol was produced at yeast cell concentration of 4.3 X 10/sup 8/ cells/ml and for incubation time of ca. 24 hr at 25/sup 0/C. This value of ethanol compares well with 8-10% ethanol produced by the brewing and distilling industries by using conventional raw materials and fermentation techniques.

  3. Maximisation of fuel ethanol from pawpaw fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V.C.; Ayarnu, D.K.G.; Ogbeide, O.N.; Okiy, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Fermentation of slurry from pawpaw fruits (Carica papaya L.) was carried out under conditions of non-sterilization, sterilization, pasteurization, and varying concentrations of yeast cells (Saccharomyces carlsbergensis), incubation times and temperatures. For a slurry pH of 3.5, a maximum of 6.84% of ethanol was produced at yeast cell concentration of 4.3 x 10 to the power of 8 cells/ml and for incubation time of ca. 24 hours at 25 degrees C. This value of ethanol compares well with 8-10% ethanol produced by the brewing and distilling industries by using conventional raw materials and fermentation techniques. (Refs. 18).

  4. Biochemical Benefits, Diagnosis, and Clinical Risks Evaluation of Kratom

    OpenAIRE

    Dimy Fluyau; Neelambika Revadigar

    2017-01-01

    Background Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. Kratom is also known as Thom, Thang, and Biak. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to manage pain and opioid withdrawal and to stave off fatigue. Kratom is actually consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (in form of tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules). ...

  5. Selective-Differential Medium for Isolation and Differentiation of Pectinatus from Other Brewery Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sun Y.; Moore, Sharon E.; Mabee, Michael S.

    1981-01-01

    An agar medium, LL-agar (lactate-lead acetate) was designed to selectively differentiate members of the genus Pectinatus (S. Y. Lee, M. S. Mabee, and N. O. Jangaard, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 28:582-594, 1978; S. Y. Lee, M. S. Mabee, N. O. Jangaard, and E. K. Horiuchi, J. Inst. Brew. 86:28-30, 1980) from other brewery microorganisms. Selectivity was achieved by the use of sodium lactate as the sole source of carbon and phenylethyl alcohol as an inhibitor for aerobic gram-negative bacteria and ...

  6. Well-being, problematic alcohol consumption and acute subjective drug effects in past-year ayahuasca users: a large, international, self-selecting online survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lawn, Will; Hallak, Jaime E.; Crippa, Jose A.; Dos Santos, Rafael; Porffy, Lilla; Barratt, Monica J.; Ferris, Jason A.; Winstock, Adam R.; Morgan, Celia J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a natural psychedelic brew, which contains dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Its potential as a psychiatric medicine has recently been demonstrated and its non-medical use around the world appears to be growing. We aimed to investigate well-being and problematic alcohol use in ayahuasca users, and ayahuasca’s subjective effects. An online, self-selecting, global survey examining patterns of drug use was conducted in 2015 and 2016 (n = 96,901). Questions were asked about: use of ayahuasca...

  7. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinová Lenka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  8. How did Saccharomyces evolve to become a good brewer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskur, Jure; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Polakova, Silvia; Merico, Annamaria; Compagno, Concetta

    2006-04-01

    Brewing and wine production are among the oldest technologies and their products are almost indispensable in our lives. The central biological agents of beer and wine fermentation are yeasts belonging to the genus Saccharomyces, which can accumulate ethanol. Recent advances in comparative genomics and bioinformatics have made it possible to elucidate when and why yeasts produce ethanol in high concentrations, and how this remarkable trait originated and developed during their evolutionary history. Two research groups have shed light on the origin of the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase and the process of ethanol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  9. New trends in beer flavour compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio; Sancho, Daniel; Blanco, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    As the beer market is steadily expanding, it is important for the brewing industry to offer consumers a product with the best organoleptic characteristics, flavour being one of the key characteristics of beer. New trends in instrumental methods of beer flavour analysis are described. In addition to successfully applied methods in beer analysis such as chromatography, spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry or electronic nose and tongue techniques, among others, sample extraction and preparation such as derivatization or microextraction methods are also reviewed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Smashing CoffeeScript

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Brew the perfect code with CoffeeScript If you're familiar with JavaScript and the often-frustrating process of creating complex applications, a nice cup of CoffeeScript can help. CoffeeScript is a programming language that compiles into JavaScript and simplifies the entire development process. Now you can tap the full power of CoffeeScript with Smashing CoffeeScript. This full-color, practical book explains CoffeeScript language, syntax, and processes, and will soon have you producing concise and quality code. Ultimately, you'll create RIAs and mobile apps faster, with less

  11. Benefícios do café na saúde: mito ou realidade? Health benefits of coffee: myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is widely consumed and appreciated all over the world, both for their stimulating effect and organoleptic characteristics. Due to its complex chemical composition and the factors involving brews preparation, the consumer is exposed to a wide range of chemical compounds. Several investigations aimed to clarify and understand coffee health effects. There is no evidence that moderate consumption could be harmful. On the contrary, some benefits and possible protective effects against several pathologies have been suggested. This review compiles the main conclusions related with the "coffee and health" topic, reporting, when possible, the chemicals involved.

  12. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during malting and beer manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Nigel B.; Costigan, Gavin T.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Woodfield, Michael J.

    Estimates have been made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during different stages of beer manufacture. The estimates are based on recent measurements and plant specification data supplied by manufacturers. Data were obtained for three main manufacturing processes (malting, wort processing and fermentation) for three commercial beer types. Some data on the speciation of emitted compounds have been obtained. Based on these measurements, an estimate of the total unabated VOC emission. from the U.K. brewing industry was calculated as 3.5 kta -1, over 95% of which was generated during barley malting. This value does not include any correction for air pollution control.

  13. Phytochemical screening of Diplazium esculentum as medicinal plant from Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannah, Fathul; Amin, Mohammad; Suwono, Hadi; Lukiati, Betty

    2017-05-01

    Diplazium esculentum is one of the ferns used by the Dayak's people in Central Kalimantan as a traditional medicine to treat tumors, asthma, and acne. This study aims to determine the content of bioactive compounds in Diplazium esculentum in Central Kalimantan. This research is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Qualitative phytochemical screening detected the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, terpenoids and saponins in aqueous extracts with the boiled and brewed method, while in ethanol extract this detected polyphenols, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. The results show that the use of water as a solvent can be an alternative in plant extracts.

  14. Oral Historical, Documentary, and Archaeological Investigations of Barton and Vinton, Mississippi: An Interim Report on Phase II of the Tombigbee Historic Townsites Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    income with the proceeds of his home brew beer and illicit whiskey. But apart from these economic activities, Dr. Uithoven is pri- marily known as a...to be the sluggish process of trying to dry screen the water -laden soil. It was apparent that in order to avoid a further setback in field work prog...as- sisted in this process by Vicky Od’Neal and Jean Carpenter. Winston Way and Kim McBride of the Archival Research Program spent -many hours in

  15. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on xylanase from a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae (strain NZYM-FB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Hallas-Møller, Torben

    . The xylanase is intended to be used in a number of food manufacturing processes, such as starch processing, beverage alcohol (distilling), brewing, baking and other cereal based processes. The dietary exposure was assessed according to the Budget method. The food enzyme did not induce gene mutations...... in bacteria nor chromosome aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Therefore, there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity. The systemic toxicity was assessed by means of a 90-day subchronic oral toxicity study in rodents. A No Observed Adverse Effect Level was derived, which compared...

  16. Investigating flavour characteristics of British ale yeasts: techniques, resources and opportunities for innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Neva; James, Steve; Dicks, Jo; Bond, Chris; Nueno-Palop, Carmen; White, Chris; Roberts, Ian N

    2015-01-01

    Five British ale yeast strains were subjected to flavour profiling under brewery fermentation conditions in which all other brewing parameters were kept constant. Significant variation was observed in the timing and quantity of flavour-related chemicals produced. Genetic tests showed no evidence of hybrid origins in any of the strains, including one strain previously reported as a possible hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. bayanus. Variation maintained in historical S. cerevisiae ale yeast collections is highlighted as a potential source of novelty in innovative strain improvement for bioflavour production. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Genetic relationship and biological status of the industrially important yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus Sampaio et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, G I

    2017-03-01

    The genomes of the recently discovered yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus and traditional S. cerevisiae are known to be found in the yeast S. pastorianus (syn. S. carlsbergensis), which are essential for brewing. The cryotolerant yeast S. bayanus var. uvarum is of great importance for production of some wines. Based on ascospore viability and meiotic recombination of the control parental markers in hybrids, we have shown that there is no complete interspecies post-zygotic isolation between the yeasts S. eubayanus, S. bayanus var. bayanus and S. bayanus var. uvarum. The genetic data presented indicate that all of the three taxa belong to the same species.

  18. Immigrants and the diffusion of skills in early modern London : the case of silk weaving

    OpenAIRE

    Luu, Lien

    2010-01-01

    London in the 16th and 17th centuries was a place of phenomenal change and growth. This paper argues that immigration from Europe played a pivotal role in this economic change, as the arrival of merchants and artisans prompted rapid technological development in many trades and crafts, particularly silk weaving and beer brewing. The process of technological transfer in these crafts spanned over a long period of time and did not take place in a linear step. It was reliant on migrants to develop...

  19. An evaluation of instant and regular coffee in the Ames mutagenicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschbacher, H U; Würzner, H P

    1980-02-01

    High concentrations of "home brew" and instant coffe induced revertants 2--3-fold the spontaneous level with the Ames Salmonella tester strain TA 100 but not with the strains TA 98, TA 1535, TA 1537 and TA 1538. This borderline effect, which may also have been due to non-mutagenic interactions (false positives) occurred only at bacterial levels of coffees and was completely abolished in the presence of the microsomal "metabolic activation system". Negative results were obtained in host-mediated assays when mice received up to 6 g instant coffee/kg body weight. An extrapolation in respect of possible carcinogenic risks is dubious.

  20. Effect of Environmental Stress Factors and Recycling on the Lipid Composition of Brewer’s Yeast Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Čanadi Jurešić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in the content and composition of mitochondrial lipids of brewer’s yeast, which occur during brewing and repetitive recycling. The bottom-fermenting brewer’s yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae species obtained from industrial beer production was used throughout the study. The first three generations of recycled yeast were analysed. Differences between the generations were more pronounced in the phospholipid and neutral lipid composition than in fatty acid composition. Squalene was present in all generations in high concentrations. The results give insight into the response of yeast cells to stress factors and recycling.