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Sample records for brewing

  1. The use of enzymes for beer brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Mostert, Joost; Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    The exergetic performance of beer produced by the conventional malting and brewing process is compared with that of beer produced using an enzyme-assisted process. The aim is to estimate if the use of an exogenous enzyme formulation reduces the environmental impact of the overall brewing process. Th

  2. Fate of pesticides during beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Suga, Keiko; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-04-27

    The fates of more than 300 pesticide residues were investigated in the course of beer brewing. Ground malt artificially contaminated with pesticides was brewed via steps such as mashing, boiling, and fermentation. Analytical samples were taken from wort, spent grain, and beer produced at certain key points in the brewing process. The samples were extracted and purified with the QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe) method and were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a multiresidue method. In the results, a majority of pesticides showed a reduction in the unhopped wort and were adsorbed onto the spent grain after mashing. In addition, some pesticides diminished during the boiling and fermentation. This suggests that the reduction was caused mainly by adsorption, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. After the entire process of brewing, the risks of contaminating beer with pesticides were reduced remarkably, and only a few pesticides remained without being removed or resolved.

  3. Market structure and competition in the Italian brewing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Garavaglia Christian

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper consists in the analysis of market structure and the degree of competition in the Italian brewing industry. Many works include the brewing industry in the broader food industry. These analyses obviously present aggregated results that turn out to be poor and not clear. In this paper we analyse the brewing industry separately, investigating its characteristics related to the process of competition, and thus showing how the brewing industry presents different features com...

  4. Rural brewing, exclusion, and development policy-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, M

    1996-10-01

    This article highlights the economic role of women in the brewing industry in rural and periurban areas of sub-Saharan African countries. Local beer drinking is a form of social exchange and a reward for time-intensive work. Modern beer brewing in rural areas is a family operation. Beer is produced for subsistence and for sale. Locally brewed beer has a lower alcohol content than commercial brews. The author refers to Pradervand's (1990) study of local brewing in five east and west African countries. Pradervand found that men spent an estimated CFAF 18 billion per year on local brews compared to the value of total national exports of CFAF 21 billion per year in 1996. The male Kitui in rural Kenya were found to spend 60% of their weekly income on beer. Women dominate brewing in eastern and southern Africa. Rural beers are grain based (maize, millet, or sorghum), but may also be made from bananas, bamboo, sugar cane, or coconut. An estimated 25% of women in a village survey in Tanzania reported that beer was brewed one to four times a month. Another survey in the 1980s found that 73% of women brewed beer at some time. Beer brewing is a very significant economic activity for rural women. It provides higher levels of income and employment. Urban brewing by women has a negative image that rural women's beer brewing does not have. Grain for brewing comes from family farms or markets. Women's clubs are used as income generation groups for loans and as support groups. Women's beer brewing is not supported by development interventions or recognized by UN agencies. There are resource implications due to an estimated 5%-30% of annual wood consumption used for beer brewing. If women's role in beer brewing is ignored, male-dominated commercial interests will further marginalize rural women.

  5. On beer, brewing and better thermal insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Herder, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    The art of brewing goes back to very ancient times. Though little has changed in the actual brewing process, the technical equipment has been improved considerably. Cooling the brew, gives also a need for thermal insulation. In the beginning cork has been used as an thermal insulation material, followed by cellular plastic foam and fibrous insulants in the past 30 years. All these materials gradually absorb water, caused by the phenomena that water vapour in the air tends to go into the direction of the cold pipe surface. In practice it appeared to be impossible to make the above insulation materials vapourtight. Water vapour will condensate in the insulation material into water. Water being the greatest enemy of insulation material. Cellular glass insulation, well-known in the petro-chemical industry, has proven to be 100% vapourtight, so an excellent choice for cold piping and equipment. 5 figs.

  6. Globalization of Brewing and Economies of Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    for beers and economies of scale in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based on information...... from the Annual Reports of the eight largest breweries in the world, the estimation proved a reduction in these costs of more than ten percent when doubling the size of the brewing group. This finding verifies that the restructuring of the brewing industry creates significant scale benefits...

  7. Enrichment of xanthohumol in the brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Sascha; Zürcher, Achim; Back, Werner

    2005-09-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), a component of hops, is lost in significant quantities in the conventional brewing process. In commercial beers less than 0.2 mg XN/L are found. In order to increase the yield of XN in the brewing process, the parameters of XN recovery were studied. During wort boiling, XN is largely isomerised to isoxanthohumol. Further losses are owing to the precipitation and absorption of XN to yeast cells and haze particles and by filtration. The use of XN-enriched hop products combined with a late hop dosage during wort boiling proved to be effective in increasing the XN content in beer. The yield was further raised by a low-pitching rate and the abnegation of beer stabilisation. The use of dark malts had a positive effect on the XN recovery. Investigations of roasted malt extracts revealed several high-molecular substances that are able to form complexes with XN. These complexes proved to be stable in the brewing process. Depending on the addition of roasted malt or special XN-enriched roasted malt extracts, dark beers with more than 10 mg XN/L were achieved. Results obtained led to a brewing technology that produced on an industrial scale pale wheat beer with more than 1 mg XN/L. PMID:16097021

  8. Mycotoxins in South African traditionally brewed beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhav, B; Naicker, V

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally brewed alcoholic beverages are regularly consumed by most ethnic black South Africans. Maize and barley, both of which are used for producing locally brewed alcoholic beer, are frequently contaminated by mycotoxin-producing moulds. The study was undertaken to investigate whether these toxins are present in raw grains and the traditional beers imbibed by the local black African population. It was established that the raw ingredients (sorghum, sorghum malt grains, maize grits), commercially produced traditional beers (Utshwala and Utshwala special) and home-brewed beers (Umqombotha, Isiqatha, Imfulamfula) were contaminated by bacteria and fungi (both yeasts and moulds). The contaminating moulds were isolated and identified. The contaminated samples were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, zearalenone, citrinin, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin A using a multi-mycotoxin thin-layer chromatography screening method and the toxins were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Grain samples were infected by. Aspergillus flavus, A. alliaceus, A. clavatus, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp. and Mucor spp. Sorghum malt grain samples contained the toxin zear alenone. No mycotoxin-producing fungi were present in the fermented beers but two of six commercial beer samples contained aflatoxins (200 and 400 microg l(-1) and 45% (13 of 29) of the home-brewed beers had zear alenone (range 2.6-426 microg l(-1) and/or ochratoxin A (3-2340 microg l(-1). PMID:11811766

  9. Development of a Vermi Tea Brewing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnalyn C. Cabaces

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost, a product of the composting system that utilizes earthworms for the decomposition of the biosolids and/or solid wastes is now considered in organic farming. But since it is applied in solid form, it is difficult for some plants to take up the nutrient contents. The liquid form is the vermi tea which facilitates the plants for fast absorption of the nutrients. The main objective of this study is to develop a vermi tea brewing machine taking into consideration system components and material specifications. Specifically, it aimed to establish the operating time of the machine and to evaluate its performance in terms of brewing efficiency and percent yield. The properties of the produced vermi tea were also evaluated. This is a developmental type of study which consists of development stage, preliminary testing stage and the performance testing stage. The vermi tea brewing machine comprised mainly of the cylindrical container, copper tubings, air pump, vermicompost container and support frame. During preliminary testing, the established machine’s operating time was 24 hours. Performance testing of the machine resulted to 99.58% yield and the brewing efficiency was acceptable in terms of the dissolved oxygen after the process. Properties of the produced vermi tea were tested by accredited laboratories and resulted to ph of 4.23, total NPK of 0.033%, dissolved oxygen of 5.62 mg/L, total coliform of 4,500,000 CFU/ml, mold of 3,000 CFU/ml and yeast of 3,000 CFU/ml. These are acceptable values which indicated that it can be used to improve farming activities.

  10. Analysis of the hybrid genomes of brewing yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolat, I.

    2016-01-01

    One of the best guarded secrets of brewers is represented by the brewing yeast employed in beer fermentation, due to its profound impact upon the specific flavour profile of the final product. The current research tackles the genome diversity of lager brewing strains as well as their impact on impor

  11. Changes of protein profile during the brewing process

    OpenAIRE

    Benkovská, D. (Dagmar); Flodrová, D. (Dana); Bobálová, J. (Janette)

    2012-01-01

    Our work was focused on the protein identification in individual stages of brewing process. The greatest attention was paid to the proteins that resist the harsh conditions applied during brewing and therefore may influence various beer properties. These proteins (nsLTPs, protein Z and group of protease/alpha-amylase inhibitors) belong to the group of PRs.

  12. Advertising and Concentration in the Brewing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012, discusses some of the main drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market...... and the world market, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based on information from the Annual Reports of the eight largest breweries, the estimation proved a reduction in these costs of ten percent when doubling the size of the brewing groups....

  13. Development of a Vermi Tea Brewing Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Donnalyn C. Cabaces; Maria Anna C. Medrano; Aileen P. Mauro; Joemel A. Landicho

    2015-01-01

    Vermicompost, a product of the composting system that utilizes earthworms for the decomposition of the biosolids and/or solid wastes is now considered in organic farming. But since it is applied in solid form, it is difficult for some plants to take up the nutrient contents. The liquid form is the vermi tea which facilitates the plants for fast absorption of the nutrients. The main objective of this study is to develop a vermi tea brewing machine taking into consideration system components an...

  14. Energy-Saving in Brew-Rectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Ulyanau

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates dynamics of rectification process on one plate of a column. The basic channels controlling brew-rectification process are described in the paper.The paper also considers problems pertaining to synthesis of an adaptive system that controls non-stationary objects with delay. Synthesis of adaptive systems that automatically control product quality and saving on power resources and productivity with the help of the second method of Lyapunov has been carried out in the paper.Industrial introduction of the given automatic control system of technological process shall permit to increase productivity of a rectification (10–15 %, to decrease specific power consumption by (5–10 % while preserving the specified quality of rectified ethyl alcohol and decrease alcohol losses with luting water and malt-residue.

  15. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were assambled in order to increase the brewing yeast fermentation performance. The primary fermentation was 14 days, followed by another 14 days of secondary fermentation (maturation. The must fermentation monitoring was done by the automatic FermentoStar analyzer. The whole fermentation process was monitorized (temperature, pH, alcohol concentration, apparent and total wort extract.

  16. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  17. Genome sequence of the lager brewing yeast, an interspecies hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Yoshihiro; Kanamori, Takeshi; Itoh, Takehiko; Kodama, Yukiko; Rainieri, Sandra; Nakamura, Norihisa; Shimonaga, Tomoko; Hattori, Masahira; Ashikari, Toshihiko

    2009-04-01

    This work presents the genome sequencing of the lager brewing yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) Weihenstephan 34/70, a strain widely used in lager beer brewing. The 25 Mb genome comprises two nuclear sub-genomes originating from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus and one circular mitochondrial genome originating from S. bayanus. Thirty-six different types of chromosomes were found including eight chromosomes with translocations between the two sub-genomes, whose breakpoints are within the orthologous open reading frames. Several gene loci responsible for typical lager brewing yeast characteristics such as maltotriose uptake and sulfite production have been increased in number by chromosomal rearrangements. Despite an overall high degree of conservation of the synteny with S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus, the syntenies were not well conserved in the sub-telomeric regions that contain lager brewing yeast characteristic and specific genes. Deletion of larger chromosomal regions, a massive unilateral decrease of the ribosomal DNA cluster and bilateral truncations of over 60 genes reflect a post-hybridization evolution process. Truncations and deletions of less efficient maltose and maltotriose uptake genes may indicate the result of adaptation to brewing. The genome sequence of this interspecies hybrid yeast provides a new tool for better understanding of lager brewing yeast behavior in industrial beer production.

  18. Effects of the M&A Wave in the Global Brewing Industry 2000-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewing groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. Industry consolidation has taken the shape of merger...

  19. Design and development of mobile Email system based on brew and IMAP4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to achieve IMAP4 support agreement in the mobile e-mail client application on the smart phone, using the Qualcomm introduced wireless devices designed for the BREW platform. Research on the BREW platform mobile and IMAP4 protocol, design and implement the 3G technology standard smart phone e-mail client based on the BREW platform. (authors)

  20. Fate of mycotoxins during beer brewing and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are frequent contaminants of grains, and breweries need, therefore, to pay close attention to the risk of contamination in beer made from such grains as barley and corn. The fate of 14 types of mycotoxin (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone) during beer brewing was investigated in this study. Malt artificially spiked with each mycotoxin was put through the mashing, filtration, boiling and fermentation processes involved in brewing. After brewing, the levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, and zearalenone were found to have decreased to less than 20% of their initial concentration. They had been adsorbed mainly to the spent grain and removed from the unhopped wort. Additionally, as zearalenone was known, patulin was metabolized to the less toxic compound during the fermentation process. The risk of carry-over to beer was therefore reduced for half of the mycotoxins studied. However, attention still needs to be paid to the risk of trichothecene contamination.

  1. Near-infrared Spectroscopy in the Brewing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileoni, Valeria; Marconi, Ombretta; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an exhaustive description of the use of Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy in the brewing industry. This technique is widely used for quality control testing of raw materials, intermediates, and finished products, as well as process monitoring during malting and brewing. In particular, most of the reviewed works focus on the assessment of barley properties, aimed at quickly selecting the best barley varieties in order to produce a high-quality malt leading to high-quality beer. Various works concerning the use of NIR in the evaluation of raw materials, such as barley, malt, hop, and yeast, are also summarized here. The implementation of NIR sensors for the control of malting and brewing processes is also highlighted, as well as the use of NIR for quality assessment of the final product. PMID:24915307

  2. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.; Ostertag, K.; Radgen, P.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of five case studies of energy management in German breweries. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the brewing sector may be improved. The results of the study for the brewing sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the brewing sector - Case studies of energy management in the German brewing sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German brewing sector; - The role of energy service companies in the brewing sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  3. Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    and higher viscosity than malt wort. Furthermore, the use of 100 % unmalted grains resulted in a decrease in the levels of colour and brightness, as well as higher alcohols and esters in the final beers. Consequently, the study provides valuable information for exploring beer brewing with 100 % unmalted...

  4. Brewing for Students: An Inquiry-Based Microbiology Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Sato

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to improve and assess student learning, there has been a push to increase the incorporation of discovery-driven modules and those that contain real-world relevance into laboratory curricula. To further this effort, we have developed, implemented, and assessed an undergraduate microbiology laboratory experiment that requires students to use the scientific method while brewing beer. The experiment allows students to brew their own beer and characterize it based on taste, alcohol content, calorie content, pH, and standard reference method. In addition, we assessed whether students were capable of achieving the module learning objectives through a pre-/posttest, student self-evaluation, exam-embedded questions, and an associated worksheet. These objectives included describing the role of the brewing ingredients and predicting how altering the ingredients would affect the characteristics of the beer, amongst others. By completing this experimental module, students accomplished the module objectives, had greater interest in brewing, and were more likely to view beer in scientific terms. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the Guidelines for Biosafety in Teaching Laboratories, available at www.asm.org. The Editors of JMBE recommend that adopters of the protocols included in this article follow a minimum of Biosafety Level 1 practices.

  5. Brewing as a Comprehensive Learning Platform in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rudi P.; Sørensen, Jens L.; Simonsen, Morten E.; Madsen, Henrik T.; Muff, Jens; Strandgaard, Morten; Søgaard, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical engineering is mostly taught using traditional classroom teaching and laboratory experiments when possible. Being a wide discipline encompassing topics such as analytical chemistry, process design, and microbiology, it may be argued that brewing of beer has many relations to chemical engineering topic-wise. This work illustrates how…

  6. Effects of the M&A Wave in the Global Brewing Industry 2000-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Erik S.; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewing groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. Based on a major data base the paper traces some causes and assesses the main effects of the M&A strategies in the global beer industry. The results verify that the 4 large acquiring brewing groups are more efficient than a control group of 200 large breweries but they have...

  7. Implementation of Mobile Streaming Media Player Based on BREW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-rong; LIU Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays mobile streaming service through cell phone is becoming the highlight of new value-added mobile services. Based on the present CDMA1x wireless data network and Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless (BREW) platform, adopting compression technologies of H.264 and QCP, a set of streaming media players are designed and implemented, and the principle, structure, key technologies and performance analysis of this system are introduced. This player works well in practice.

  8. Immobilized cell technology in beer brewing: Current experience and results

    OpenAIRE

    Leskošek-Čukalov Ida J.; Nedović Viktor A.

    2005-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology (ICT) has been attracting continual attention in the brewing industry over the past 30 years. Some of the reasons are: faster fermentation rates and increased volumetric productivity, compared to those of traditional beer production based on freely suspended cells, as well as the possibility of continuous operation. Nowadays, ICT technology is well established in secondary fermentation and alcohol- free and low-alcohol beer production. In main fermentation, the sit...

  9. Evaluation of Biofunctional Compounds Content from Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca C. Fărcaş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee, one of the most popular beverages worldwide, is an infusion of ground, roasted coffee beans. Today, coffee is considered a functional food, especially due to its high content of compounds that exert antioxidant and other beneficial biological properties. The annual consumption exceeds 5 billion kilograms of coffee, which corresponds to 500 billion cups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, caffeine as well as the antioxidant activity of three brewed coffee samples in order to assess the amount of these bioactive compounds in a cup of coffee. The quantification of total phenolic compounds was achieved by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoids content was determined using a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based spectrophotometric method. The caffeine was extracted from brewed coffee samples with dichlormethane and then was quantified by measuring the absorbance of the extract at 260 nm. The antioxidant capacity of each coffee sample was assessed by evaluating their radical scavenging activity on DPPH radical. Even though Arabica coffee variety is appreciated for its fine aroma profile, Robusta variety has proved to be richer in phenolic compounds, flavonoids and caffeine. The larger amount of compounds with antioxidant properties found in Robusta brewed coffee was also confirmed by the obtained antioxidant capacity values.

  10. Bioprotective potential of lactic acid bacteria in malting and brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Susan; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2008-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are naturally associated with many foods or their raw ingredients and are popularly used in food fermentation to enhance the sensory, aromatic, and textural properties of food. These microorganisms are well recognized for their biopreservative properties, which are achieved through the production of antimicrobial compounds such as lactic acid, diacetyl, bacteriocins, and other metabolites. The antifungal activity of certain LAB is less well characterized, but organic acids, as yet uncharacterized proteinaceous compounds, and cyclic dipeptides can inhibit the growth of some fungi. A variety of microbes are carried on raw materials used in beer brewing, rendering the process susceptible to contamination and often resulting in spoilage or inferior quality of the finished product. The application of antimicrobial-producing LAB at various points in the malting and brewing process could help to negate this problem, providing an added hurdle for spoilage organisms to overcome and leading to the production of a higher quality beer. This review outlines the bioprotective potential of LAB and its application with specific reference to the brewing industry.

  11. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Brew during the Brewing Corn Malt in the Production of Maize Beer in Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diakabana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study consists in the production of a traditional beer from maize in the Congo. The traditional method of brewing corn malt has three main stages: malting corn, brewing corn malt and fermentation. During the brewing corn malt, endogenous amylase activity is destroyed during the stiffening of the starch to about 80°C. A pre-cooking of the mash is necessitated to promote amylolyse at 50°C with an exogenous enzyme. The use of a preparation of α-amylase can liquefy the mash and produce a sweet wort (average density = 12.5° Balling rich in dextrin corresponding to an apparent extract of 4° Balling in beer. The rising profile of the pH of the corn malt mash, from mashing to extract the wort does not affect the pH of the beer produced. This beer, slightly alcoholic (3.6% ethanol, is characterized by a nomal acid pH (pH = 4.15 on average and a brown color (25 EBC units. Its slight bitterness (21 EBU and the fine aroma of a beer closer barley produced industrially in the Congo.

  12. [IMPLEMENTATION OF MEASURES FOR OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE AT ENTERPRISES OF BREWING INDUSTRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonov, G V; Novikova, L V; Chusova, A E

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are considered the legal basics of the occupational hygiene of brewing production: acts, bylaws and normative legal acts. There are characterized types of supervision and control (state, departmental, public) implementing the abidance of the sanitary legislation at the enterprises of the brewing industry. There are presented sanitary and hygienic requirements to the enterprises of the brewing industry. There are designated measures of occupational hygiene of brewing production: a sink, cleaning--removal of various pollutions, and also disinfection--process of the decline in quantity of microorganisms to safe level. There are considered some characteristics of pollutions which are subject to removal at various stages ofproduction of beer and stages of sanitary processing of brewing systems according to chemical properties of substances. PMID:27029175

  13. A novel brewing process via controlled hydrodynamic cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Albanese, Lorenzo; Meneguzzo, Francesco; Pagliaro, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a completely new brewing equipment and process based upon controlled hydrodynamic cavitation, providing significant advantages in terms of lowered capital cost, reduced production time, enhanced energy and production efficiency, food safety, while preserving beer organoleptic qualities. Experiments carried out on real microbrewery volume scale using the new and conventional technology unquestionably confirm the relevance of the new findings. Impacts of these discoveries are potentially far reaching, as beer is the worldwide most widely consumed alcoholic beverage, therefore highly relevant to health, environment the economy and even to local identities.

  14. BrewPub - en virksomhed i mikrobryggeri branchen

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Kasper Kornelius; Klindt Pedersen, Susie; Juul-Larsen, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    With the offset in a case, this project deals with the analysis of a possible strategic expansion in the field of microbreweries. Our case is a small microbrewery combined with a pub and a restaurant, called BrewPub. We are contemplating the possibility for them to expand by also producing their beer in bottles/cans and as a result become available on the marked of retail. We analyse this possibility by looking at their current strategy. Furthermore we apply a range of the...

  15. Modifications of Saccharomyces pastorianus cell wall polysaccharides with brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Rita; Coelho, Elisabete; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2015-06-25

    The cell wall polysaccharides of brewers spent yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus (BSY) and the inoculum yeast (IY) were studied in order to understand the changes induced by the brewing process. The hot water and alkali extractions performed solubilized mainly mannoproteins, more branched for BSY than those of IY. Also, (31)P solid state NMR showed that the BSY mannoproteins were 3 times more phosphorylated. By electron microscopy it was observed that the final residues of alkali sequential extraction until 4M KOH preserved the yeast three-dimensional structure. The final residues, composed mainly by glucans (92%), showed that the BSY, when compared with IY, contained higher amount of (1→4)-linked Glc (43% for BSY and 16% for IY) and lower (1→3)-linked Glc (17% for BSY and 42% for IY). The enzymatic treatment of final residue showed that both BSY and IY had (α1→4)-linked Glc and (β1→4)-linked Glc, in a 2:1 ratio, showing that S. pastorianus increases their cellulose-like linkages with the brewing process.

  16. Selenite biotransformation during brewing. Evaluation by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Maria; da Silva, Erik Galvão P; Pérez-Corona, Teresa; Cámara, Carmen; Ferreira, Sergio L C; Madrid, Yolanda

    2012-01-15

    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and lactic bacteria have shown their ability to accumulate and transform inorganic selenium into organo Se compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate selenium biotransformation during brewing by using S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces uvarum for Ale and Lager fermentation, respectively. Se-enriched beer was produced by the addition of sodium selenite (0, 0.2, 1.0, 2.0, 10.0, 20.0 μg Se mL(-1), respectively) to the fermentation media composed of yeast, malt extract and water. The alcoholic fermentation process was not affected by the presence of selenium regardless of the type of Saccharomyces being used. The percentage of selenium incorporated into beer, added between 1.0 and 10 μg mL(-1) was 55-60% of the selenium initially present. Se-compounds in post-fermentation (beer and yeast) products were investigated by using an analytical methodology based on HPLC-ICP-MS. For this purpose, several sample treatments, including ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis, in conjunction with different separation mechanisms like dialysis and anion exchange HPLC chromatography were applied for unambiguously identifying Se-species that produce during brewing. Selenomethionine was the main selenium compound identified in beer and yeast, being this species in the only case of the former not associated to peptides or proteins. PMID:22265498

  17. Experimental Study on Extruded Beer Adjunct Used for Brewing Beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN De-chao

    2004-01-01

    The properties of saccharified and boiled worts between extruded and traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts were studied at the laboratory and a small beer brewing equipment( 100 L) in this paper. Test results indicate that the main saccharification indices and filtration speeds of worts between extruded and traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts are similar basically. The collected rate of extracted material of worts of extruded beer adjuncts is 8%more than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts. Fermentation time of worts of extruded beer adjuncts is 10 %less than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts. The energy consumption of extruded beer adjuncts in saccharification process is 13 % less than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts.

  18. High levels of melatonin generated during the brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Moreno, H; Calvo, J R; Maldonado, M D

    2013-08-01

    Beer is a beverage consumed worldwide. It is produced from cereals (barley or wheat) and contains a wide array of bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceutical compounds. Specifically, high melatonin concentrations have been found in beer. Beers with high alcohol content are those that present the greatest concentrations of melatonin and vice versa. In this study, gel filtration chromatography and ELISA were combined for melatonin determination. We brewed beer to determine, for the first time, the beer production steps in which melatonin appears. We conclude that the barley, which is malted and ground in the early process, and the yeast, during the second fermentation, are the largest contributors to the enrichment of the beer with melatonin. PMID:23607887

  19. M&A as a driver of global competition in the brewing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewer groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. The paper describes the development and puts...

  20. Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast and a brewer's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, N; Nishimori, C; Fujishige, I W; Mizuno, A; Takahashi, T; Sato, K

    2001-01-01

    Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast (a lysine auxotrophic mutant of sake yeast K-14) and a brewer's yeast (a respiratory-deficient mutant of the top fermentation yeast NCYC1333) was performed to take advantage of the beneficial characteristics of sake yeasts, i.e., the high productivity of esters, high tolerance to ethanol, and high osmotolerance. The fusant (F-32) obtained was different from the parental yeasts regarding, for example, the assimilation of carbon sources and tolerance to ethanol. A brewing trial with the fusant was carried out using a 100-l pilot-scale plant. The fusant fermented wort more rapidly than the parental brewer's yeast. However, the sedimentation capacity of the fusant was relatively low. The beer brewed using the fusant contained more ethanol and esters compared to that brewed using the parental brewer's yeast. The fusant also obtained osmotolerance in the fermentation of maltose and fermented high-gravity wort well.

  1. Coffee brew melanoidins Structural and Functional Properties of Brown-Colored Coffee Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis was the identification of structural and functional properties of coffee brew melanoidins, and their formation mechanisms, that are formed upon roasting of coffee beans.

  2. Immobilized cell technology in beer brewing: Current experience and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leskošek-Čukalov Ida J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized cell technology (ICT has been attracting continual attention in the brewing industry over the past 30 years. Some of the reasons are: faster fermentation rates and increased volumetric productivity, compared to those of traditional beer production based on freely suspended cells, as well as the possibility of continuous operation. Nowadays, ICT technology is well established in secondary fermentation and alcohol- free and low-alcohol beer production. In main fermentation, the situation is more complex and this process is still under scrutiny on both the lab and pilot levels. The paper outlines the most important ICT processes developed for beer brewing and provides an overview of carrier materials, bioreactor design and examples of their industrial applications, as well as some recent results obtained by our research group. We investigated the possible applications of polyvinyl alcohol in the form of LentiKats®, as a potential porous matrices carrier for beer fermentation. Given are the results of growth studies of immobilized brewer's yeast Saccharomyces uvarum and the kinetic parameters obtained by using alginate microbeads with immobilized yeast cells and suspension of yeast cells as controls. The results indicate that the immobilization procedure in LentiKat® carriers has a negligible effect on cell viability and growth. The apparent specific growth rate of cells released in medium was comparable to that of freely suspended cells, implying preserved cell vitality. A series of batch fermentations performed in shaken flasks and an air-lift bioreactor indicated that the immobilized cells retained high fermentation activity. The full attenuation in green beer was reached after 48 hours in shaken flasks and less than 24 hours of fermentation in gas-lift bioreactors.

  3. Evaluation of the level of the organic brewing industry in selected countries of the European union

    OpenAIRE

    Fidrová, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the topic "Evaluation of the Level of Organic Brewing Industry in Selected Countries of the European Union". It is describing the current situation of organic hop growing industry and organic brewing industry in two selected countries that are the Czech Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany with the help of two analyses of the external environment (PESTEL analysis and the Porter's Diamond Model). On the basis of these two analyses the evaluation and compa...

  4. Some novel applications of instrumental analytical techniques to the brewing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Brian

    1996-01-01

    Modem instrumental analytical techniques play an important role in the brewing industry today. They are extensively used for both a quality control/quality assurance function and for research purposes. At all stages of the production process, from the assessment of raw materials, through the brewing process, fermentation, maturation, blending of finished beer, packaging and shelf life studies instrumental analytical techniques provide critical data which allow the brewer to understand and kee...

  5. Does Strategic Group Membership Affect Firm Performance? An Analysis of the German Brewing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Theuvsen, Ludwig; Heyder, Matthias; Niederhut-Bollmann, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The concept of strategic groups has been successfully applied for analyzing firm strategies, structures and performance in various industries. Based on a largescale empirical study, this paper identifies strategic groups in the German brewing industry and analyzes the effects of group membership on economic performance. The brewing industry is an interesting research object. The severe economic crisis German breweries face in their home market and the deep structural changes reshaping the glo...

  6. Investigation of Ancient Egyptian Baking and Brewing Methods by Correlative Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel

    1996-07-26

    Ancient Egyptian methods of baking and brewing are investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy of desiccated bread loaves and beer remains. The results suggest that current conceptions about ancient Egyptian bread and beer making should be modified. Bread was made not only with flour from raw grain, but sometimes also with malt and with yeast. Brewing blended cooked and uncooked malt with water; the mixture was strained free of husk before inoculation with yeast. PMID:8662535

  7. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis. PMID:26304363

  8. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis.

  9. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae- the main character in beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodolo, Elizabeth J; Kock, Johan L F; Axcell, Barry C; Brooks, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Historically, mankind and yeast developed a relationship that led to the discovery of fermented beverages. Numerous inventions have led to improved technologies and capabilities to optimize fermentation technology on an industrial scale. The role of brewing yeast in the beer-making process is reviewed and its importance as the main character is highlighted. On considering the various outcomes of functions in a brewery, it has been found that these functions are focused on supporting the supply of yeast requirements for fermentation and ultimately to maintain the integrity of the product. The functions/processes include: nutrient supply to the yeast (raw material supply for brewhouse wort production); utilities (supply of water, heat and cooling); quality assurance practices (hygiene practices, microbiological integrity measures and other specifications); plant automation (vessels, pipes, pumps, valves, sensors, stirrers and centrifuges); filtration and packaging (product preservation until consumption); distribution (consumer supply); and marketing (consumer awareness). Considering this value chain of beer production and the 'bottle neck' during production, the spotlight falls on fermentation, the age-old process where yeast transforms wort into beer.

  10. The Benefits and Risks of Consuming Brewed Tea: Beware of Toxic Element Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Schwalfenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing concern is evident about contamination of foodstuffs and natural health products. Methods. Common off-the-shelf varieties of black, green, white, and oolong teas sold in tea bags were used for analysis in this study. Toxic element testing was performed on 30 different teas by analyzing (i tea leaves, (ii tea steeped for 3-4 minutes, and (iii tea steeped for 15–17 minutes. Results were compared to existing preferred endpoints. Results. All brewed teas contained lead with 73% of teas brewed for 3 minutes and 83% brewed for 15 minutes having lead levels considered unsafe for consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Aluminum levels were above recommended guidelines in 20% of brewed teas. No mercury was found at detectable levels in any brewed tea samples. Teas contained several beneficial elements such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Of trace minerals, only manganese levels were found to be excessive in some black teas. Conclusions. Toxic contamination by heavy metals was found in most of the teas sampled. Some tea samples are considered unsafe. There are no existing guidelines for routine testing or reporting of toxicant levels in “naturally” occurring products. Public health warnings or industry regulation might be indicated to protect consumer safety.

  11. Influence of roasting and brew preparation on the ochratoxin A content in coffee infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez De Obanos, A; González-Peñas, E; López De Cerain, A

    2005-05-01

    A study of the effect of coffee processing in the ochratoxin A (OTA) level has been carried out from the green beans to the drinking form. The analysis of OTA has been carried out by an in-house validated HPLC method with fluorescence detection. The limits of detection were 0.04 microg/kg for green and roasted coffee, and 0.01 microg/L for coffee brew. Thirty-six green coffee samples of different origin (Colombia, Costa Rica, Brazil, Vietnam, India and Uganda) were analysed. The highest concentrations of OTA were found in Vietnamese samples -- Robusta species treated by dry processing -- (range 0.64-8.05 microg/kg), that also showed the highest percentage of defective beans (7.6%). These contaminated samples were roasted in a process that controlled loss of weight and color, as in the industry. A mean reduction of 66.5% was obtained, but the reduction seems to be heterogeneous. Coffee brew was prepared by the three brewing processes more utilized in Europe: moka, auto-drip and espresso. A reduction of the OTA level has been attained, being greater when using a espresso coffee maker (49.8%) than when using auto-drip (14.5%) or moka brewing (32.1%). Therefore, the method of coffee brew preparation plays a key role in the final OTA human exposure. PMID:16019819

  12. Influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews on metabolic parameters of rats fed with hiperlipidemic diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Ariana de Souza Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews (Coffea arabica L and C. canephora Pierre on the metabolic parameters of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (initial weight of 270 g ± 20 g were used in the study, which were divided into six groups five each. The treatments were normal diet, hyperlipidemic diet, hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee arabica or canephora brews (7.2 mL/kg/day and hyperlipidemic diet associated to decaffeinated arabica, or canephora brews, using the same dosage. After 41 days, performance analyses were conducted.The rats were then euthanized and the carcasses were used for the analysis of dried ether extract and crude protein. Fractions of adipose tissue were processed for histological analysis. There was a reduction in weight gain and accumulation of lipids in the carcasses, lower diameter of adipocytes and a lower relative weight of the liver and kidneys of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee brew. Integral coffee brew reduced the obesity in the rats receiving hyperlipidemic diet, but the same effect did not occur with the decaffeinated types.

  13. 40 CFR 63.2166 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations if I monitor brew ethanol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations if I monitor brew ethanol? 63.2166 Section 63.2166 Protection of... demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations if I monitor brew ethanol? (a) You...

  14. 40 CFR 63.2164 - If I monitor brew ethanol, what are my monitoring installation, operation, and maintenance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true If I monitor brew ethanol, what are my... monitor brew ethanol, what are my monitoring installation, operation, and maintenance requirements? (a... section. (1) Calibrate the GC at least daily, by analyzing standard solutions of ethanol in water...

  15. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Lyman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm−1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  16. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm-1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  17. BReW: Blackbox Resource Selection for e-Science Workflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmhan, Yogesh [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Soroush, Emad [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Van Ingen, Catharine [Microsoft Research, San Francisco, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deb [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-10-04

    Workflows are commonly used to model data intensive scientific analysis. As computational resource needs increase for eScience, emerging platforms like clouds present additional resource choices for scientists and policy makers. We introduce BReW, a tool enables users to make rapid, highlevel platform selection for their workflows using limited workflow knowledge. This helps make informed decisions on whether to port a workflow to a new platform. Our analysis of synthetic and real eScience workflows shows that using just total runtime length, maximum task fanout, and total data used and produced by the workflow, BReW can provide platform predictions comparable to whitebox models with detailed workflow knowledge.

  18. Brewing yeast genomes and genome-wide expression and proteome profiling during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Katherine A

    2007-11-01

    The genome structure, ancestry and instability of the brewing yeast strains have received considerable attention. The hybrid nature of brewing lager yeast strains provides adaptive potential but yields genome instability which can adversely affect fermentation performance. The requirement to differentiate between production strains and assess master cultures for genomic instability has led to significant adoption of specialized molecular tool kits by the industry. Furthermore, the development of genome-wide transcriptional and protein expression technologies has generated significant interest from brewers. The opportunity presented to explore, and the concurrent requirement to understand both, the constraints and potential of their strains to generate existing and new products during fermentation is discussed.

  19. Quantification of protein-derived thiols during atmosphere-controlled brewing in laboratory scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murmann, Anne Nordmark; Andersen, Preben; Mauch, Alexander;

    2016-01-01

    An atmosphere-controlled brewing system was built to study thiol oxidation during brewing in laboratory scale under conditions with limited oxygen exposure. Quantification of free and total thiols and protein showed that thiols were lost during wort boiling possibly owing to protein precipitation...... oxidized thiols was determined by incubating boiled wort obtained from a pilot scale trial with various concentrations of sulfite (0-2,000 μM) in an anaerobic chamber for up to 7 days. Addition of sulfite increased the concentration of free thiols in a concentration-dependent manner, and the effect...

  20. Brewing Beer in the Laboratory: Grain Amylases and Yeast's Sweet Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Blake; Deutschman, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Brewing beer provides a straightforward and robust laboratory counterpart to classroom discussions of fermentation, a staple of the biochemistry curriculum. An exercise is described that provides several connections between lecture and laboratory content. Students first extract fermentable carbohydrates from whole grains, then ferment these with…

  1. The Genome Sequence of Saccharomyces eubayanus and the Domestication of Lager-Brewing Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, EmilyClare; Wang, Bing; Bellora, Nicolas; Peris, David; Hulfachor, Amanda Beth; Koshalek, Justin A; Adams, Marie; Libkind, Diego; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2015-11-01

    The dramatic phenotypic changes that occur in organisms during domestication leave indelible imprints on their genomes. Although many domesticated plants and animals have been systematically compared with their wild genetic stocks, the molecular and genomic processes underlying fungal domestication have received less attention. Here, we present a nearly complete genome assembly for the recently described yeast species Saccharomyces eubayanus and compare it to the genomes of multiple domesticated alloploid hybrids of S. eubayanus × S. cerevisiae (S. pastorianus syn. S. carlsbergensis), which are used to brew lager-style beers. We find that the S. eubayanus subgenomes of lager-brewing yeasts have experienced increased rates of evolution since hybridization, and that certain genes involved in metabolism may have been particularly affected. Interestingly, the S. eubayanus subgenome underwent an especially strong shift in selection regimes, consistent with more extensive domestication of the S. cerevisiae parent prior to hybridization. In contrast to recent proposals that lager-brewing yeasts were domesticated following a single hybridization event, the radically different neutral site divergences between the subgenomes of the two major lager yeast lineages strongly favor at least two independent origins for the S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus hybrids that brew lager beers. Our findings demonstrate how this industrially important hybrid has been domesticated along similar evolutionary trajectories on multiple occasions.

  2. Use of high-ethanol-resistant yeast isolates from Nigerian palm wine in lager beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, R C; Anyanwu, T U; Onwumelu, A H

    1993-11-01

    High-ethanol-resistant yeasts, characterized as Saccharomyces sp., were isolated from Nigerian palm wine with added sucrose for high gravity brewing. The yeast isolates that survived the highest ethanol production were used to ferment brewery wort and produced 8.2 to 8.5% (v/v) ethanol; values almost double that of the control yeast from a local brewery.

  3. Pearling barley to alter the composition of the raw material before brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.; Noordman, T.R.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Partly replacing malt with unmalted barley is a trend in brewing. The use of unmalted barley, however, leads to issues such as haze and high mash viscosity, due to its higher content of undesired components. Pearling, an abrasive method to remove the outer layers of the barley kernels has been shown

  4. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one. PMID:23414530

  5. Effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate content of loose-packed black teas and tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-02-01

    Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times.

  6. The Ubiquity of Good Taste: A Spatial Analysis of the Craft Brewing Industry in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Neil; Mclaughlin, Ralph; Moore, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The performance and composition of the U.S. brewing industry has changed dramatically over the past three decades. The industry displays contradictory shifts in both aggregate production volume and number of firms. While aggregate beer production in the US has increased modestly, per capita production has decreased steadily since the early 1980s, dropping 26 percent between 1981 and 2011. However, the number of brewing establishments increased substantially during the same period, expanding f...

  7. Application of multivariate analysis to the effects of additives on chemical and sensory quality of stored coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martínez, Mónica; Sopelana, Patricia; de Peña, M Paz; Cid, Concepción

    2008-12-24

    The aim of this work was to obtain a black coffee brew to be consumed hot by extension of its shelf life, by addition of additives. Four pH-regulator agents (sodium and potassium carbonates and bicarbonates), one pH regulator and antioxidant (sodium citrate), three antioxidants [sodium ascorbate, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA), and sodium sulfite], and lactoserum were tested by sensory analysis. Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate were selected for a study of the physicochemical (soluble and volatile compounds related to the sensory properties) and sensorial quality of coffee brew stored for 90 days at 4 degrees C. Although both additives extended the shelf life of the coffee brew up to 60 days, sodium carbonate was the chosen additive because it was the most useful in limiting the pH decrease and perception of sourness, which are some of the main factors involved in the rejection of stored coffee brews, and it better maintained the aroma and taste/flavor. Moreover, the application of multivariate analysis facilitated first the description of the global changes of the coffee brews with or without additives throughout the storage using principal component analysis and second the obtainment of a simple equation only with pH and caffeic acid parameters to discriminate the three types of coffee brews and simplify the analytical process, by means of the stepwise discriminant analysis.

  8. Selenium in commercial beer and losses in the brewing process from wheat to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, S; Young, S D; Cook, D; Wilkinson, S; Clegg, S; Bailey, E H; Mathers, A W; Broadley, M R

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing interest in enhancing the micronutrient composition of cereals through fertilization. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the Se concentration of commercial beers retailing in the UK, and (2) to test if the transfer of Se, from biofortified grain to final beer product, is beers was measured, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The selenium content of commercial beers varied 6.5-fold, with beers originating from America having higher Se concentrations than those from Europe. Laboratory-scale brewing trials with isotopically-enriched (77)Se wheat, sampled from UK field-sites, showed that most (77)Se losses in the brewing process occurred during mashing (54%), with fermented beer containing ∼ 10% of the (77)Se initially present in the wheat grain. Total N values in wort and malt were positively correlated with the (77)Se content of the wheat grain.

  9. Potential use ofGarcinia kola as hop substitute in lager beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniche, G N; Uwakwe, G U

    1990-09-01

    The chemical, brewing and anti-microbial properties of a tropical seed,Garcinia kola, were compared with traditional hops. Treatment ofGarcinia kola with methanolic lead acetate produced a yellow precipitate from which organic acids (alpha acids) were contirmed to be present by thin-layer chromatography. Hops, however, had a higher concentration of organic acids thanGarcinia kola. Laboratory brewing trials withGarcinia kola and hops gave beers with simillar chemical properties. Organoleptically,Garcinia kola beer was as acceptable to tasters as hopped beer except that it had an improved bitterness.Garcinia kola and hop extracts exerted similar anti-microbial effects on two beer spollage micro-organisms (Lactobacillus delbruckii andCandida vini).

  10. Hydrodynamic behavior of conical fermenters in brewing. Biru jozoyo konikaru hakkoso no ryudo kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Shimazu, T. (Kirin Brewery Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Nakamura, K. (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Tsutsumi, A.; Yoshida, K. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Kitahara, H. (Daikin Kogyo Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-11-10

    The hydrodynamic behavior of liquid in a fermenter has a great influence on the quality of beer. Therefore, temperature distribution, gas germination rate, bubble size, bubble rise velocity, gas holdup, and liquid flow rate in fermenters in brewing of beer are measured to investigate the hydrodynamic behavior experimentally. CO2 germination rate, local gas volume flux, and liquid flow rate are measured using a conical fermenter with 1m diameter and 3.5m height. A two-dimensional conical fermenter with 0.3m width and 1.3m height is used for the measurement of bubble behavior, bubble size distribution, bubble rise velocity, and gas holdup distribution. It is found that a circulating flow is produced in the fermenter due to density difference caused by gas holdup distribution, and hydrodynamic behavior of liquid in a conical fermenter for beer brewing can be explained quantitatively by circulation flow theory of the bubble tower. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Research progress on the brewing techniques of new-type rice wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Aiquan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-01-15

    As a traditional alcoholic beverage, Chinese rice wine (CRW) with high nutritional value and unique flavor has been popular in China for thousands of years. Although traditional production methods had been used without change for centuries, numerous technological innovations in the last decades have greatly impacted on the CRW industry. However, reviews related to the technology research progress in this field are relatively few. This article aimed at providing a brief summary of the recent developments in the new brewing technologies for making CRW. Based on the comparison between the conventional methods and the innovative technologies of CRW brewing, three principal aspects were summarized and sorted, including the innovation of raw material pretreatment, the optimization of fermentation and the reform of sterilization technology. Furthermore, by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of these methods, various issues are addressed related to the prospect of the CRW industry. PMID:27542505

  12. Analysis of elements present in beers and brewing waters by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used for determination of Si, Na, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Cs, and La in Czech beers and brewing waters. The Si concentration in beer determined by the reaction 29Si(n,p)29Al with fast neutrons confirmed that beer is an important Si source in human diet. Determination of other trace elements by NAA with the whole spectrum of reactor neutrons aimed at the feasibility of identification of Gambrinus beers brewed in various breweries. The elements Ca and V appeared to be the best candidates for this purpose. The concentrations of elements determined by NAA were also compared with the recommended daily element intake for humans. The accuracy of the method was proved by analysis of reference materials, specifically NIST SRM 2704 Buffalo River Sediment, NIST SRM 1633b Coal Fly Ash, and NIST SRM 1515 Apple Leaves. (author)

  13. Extraction Kinetics of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity during black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) brewing

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Chamira Dilanka; Soysa, Preethi

    2015-01-01

    Background Tea is the most consumed beverage in the world which is second only to water. Tea contains a broad spectrum of active ingredients which are responsible for its health benefits. The composition of constituents extracted to the tea brew depends on the method of preparation for its consumption. The objective of this study was to investigate the extraction kinetics of phenolic compounds, gallic acid, caffeine and catechins and the variation of antioxidant activity with time after tea b...

  14. Strategic management in turbulent markets: The case of the German and Croatian brewing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Niederhut-Bollmann, Chistoph; Theuvsen, Ludwig

    2008-01-01

    European beer markets are characterized by major changes that are forcing breweries to redesign their competitive strategies. In this paper, we analyze the changes in the German and Croatian brewing industries by referring to Porter's five forces model and generic strategies framework. The analysis reveals growing competitive pressures in both markets and a wide spectrum of competitive strategies. Whereas in Germany cost leaders have gained market shares, the Croatian market is strongly influ...

  15. Contribution of Phenolics and Maillard Reaction Products to the Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Brews

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, I.A. (Iziar A.); Cid, C.; Peña, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and a rich source of antioxidants. The amounts of these antioxidants are influenced by several technological factors. Besides, antioxidants identified in coffee (chlorogenic acids, volatile and non-volatile Maillard reaction products) may contribute to the overall antioxidant capacity in different proportions. Therefore the aim of this research was to evaluate the actual contribution to the overall antioxidant capacity of coffee brews ...

  16. M&A as a driver of global competition in the brewing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewer groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. The paper describes the development and puts it into an industrial economics framework. Based on a major data base the paper further assesses the effects of M&A strategies in the global beer industry.

  17. M&A as a Driver of Global Competition in the Brewing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewer groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. The paper describes the development and puts it into an industrial economics framework. Based on a major data base the paper further assesses the effects of M&A strategies in the global beer industry

  18. Development of industrial brewing yeast with low acetaldehyde production and improved flavor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjing; Shen, Nan; Yin, Hua; Liu, Chunfeng; Li, Yongxian; Li, Qi

    2013-02-01

    Higher acetaldehyde concentration in beer is one of the main concerns of current beer industry in China. Acetaldehyde is always synthesized during beer brewing by the metabolism of yeast. Here, using ethanol as the sole carbon source and 4-methylpyrazole as the selection marker, we constructed a new mutant strain with lower acetaldehyde production and improved ethanol tolerance via traditional mutagenesis strategy. European Brewery Convention tube fermentation tests comparing the fermentation broths of mutant strain and industrial brewing strain showed that the acetaldehyde concentration of mutant strain was 81.67 % lower, whereas its resistant staling value was 1.0-fold higher. Owing to the mutation, the alcohol dehydrogenase activity of the mutant strain decreased to about 30 % of the wild-type strain. In the meantime, the fermentation performance of the newly screened strain has little difference compared with the wild-type strain, and there are no safety problems regarding the industrial usage of the mutant strain. Therefore, we suggest that the newly screened strain could be directly applied to brewing industry.

  19. Optimised quantification of the antiyeast activity of different barley malts towards a lager brewing yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nierop, Sandra N E; Axcell, Barry C; Cantrell, Ian C; Rautenbach, Marina

    2008-10-01

    The brewing of beer involves two major biological systems, namely malted barley (malt) and yeast. Both malt and yeast show natural variation and assessing the impact of differing malts on yeast performance is important in the optimisation of the brewing process. Currently, the brewing industry uses well-established tests to assess malt quality, but these frequently fail to predict malt-associated problem fermentations, such as incomplete fermentations, premature yeast flocculation (PYF) and gushing of the final beer product. Antimicrobial compounds, and in particular antiyeast compounds in malt, may be one of the unknown and unmeasured malt factors leading to problem fermentations. In this study, the adaptation of antimicrobial assays for the determination of antiyeast activity in malt is described. Our adapted assay was able to detect differing antiyeast activities in nine malt samples. For this sample set, malts associated with PYF during fermentation and gushing activity in beer showed high antiyeast activity. Both PYF and gushing are malt quality issues associated with fungal infection of barley in the field which may result in elevated antimicrobial activity in the barley grain. Also, two more malts that passed the normal quality control tests were also observed to have high antiyeast activity and such malts must be considered as suspect. Based on our results, this assay is a useful measure of malt quality as it quantifies the antiyeast activity in malt which may adversely impact on brewery fermentation. PMID:18721679

  20. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voeten Helene ACM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results Porn video shows and local brew dens were identified as popular events where unprotected multipartner, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents. Video halls - rooms with a TV and VCR - often show pornography at night for a very small fee, and minors are allowed. Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships characterised the sexual encounters of youth, frequently facilitated by the abuse of alcohol, which is available for minors at low cost in local brew dens. For many sexually active girls, their vulnerability to STI/HIV infection is enhanced due to financial inequality, gender-related power difference and cultural norms. The desire for love and sexual pleasure also contributed to their multiple concurrent partnerships. A substantial number of girls and young women engaged in transactional sex, often with much older working partners. These partners had a stronger socio-economic position than young women, enabling them to use money/gifts as leverage for sex. Condom use was irregular during all types of sexual encounters. Conclusions In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. These places should be regulated and monitored by the government. Our study strongly points to female vulnerabilities and the role of men in perpetuating the local epidemic. Young men should be targeted in prevention activities, to change their attitudes related to power and control in relationships. Girls

  1. Use of non-saccharomyces Torulaspora delbrueckii yeast strains in winemaking and brewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tataridis Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Selected Saccharomyces yeast strains have been used for more than 150 years in brewing and for several decades in winemaking. They are necessary in brewing because of the boiling of the wort, which results in the death of all yeast cells, with the exception of some Belgian style beers (ex. Lambic, where the wort is left to be colonized by indigenous yeast and bacteria from the environment and ferment naturally. In winemaking their use is also pertinent because they provide regular and timely fermentations, inhibit the growth of indigenous spoilage microorganisms and contribute to the desired sensory characters. Even though the use of selected Saccharomyces strains provides better quality assurance in winemaking in comparison to the unknown microbial consortia in the must, it has been debated for a long time now whether the use of selected industrial Saccharomyces strains results in wines with less sensory complexity and “terroir” character. In previous decades, non-Saccharomyces yeasts were mainly considered as spoilage/problematic yeast, since they exhibited low fermentation ability and other negative traits. In the last decades experiments have shown that there are some non-Saccharomyces strains (Candida, Pichia, Kluyveromyces, Torulaspora, etc which, even though they are not able to complete the fermentation they can still be used in sequential inoculation-fermentation with Saccharomyces to increase sensory complexity of the wines. Through fermentation in a laboratory scale, we have observed that the overall effects of selected Torulaspora delbrueckii yeast strains, is highly positive, leading to products with pronounced sensory complexity and floral/fruity aroma in winemaking and brewing.

  2. Dissipation behavior of octachlorodipropyl ether residues during tea planting and brewing process

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Min; Shi, Yanhong; Cao, Haiqun; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Feng; Wu, Xiangwei; Tang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The dissipation behavior of octachlorodipropyl ether (OCDPE) residues in fresh tea shoots and in tea prepared under field conditions was investigated, and the transfer of residues from brewed tea to tea infusion was determined. OCDPE levels in tea shoots, prepared tea, tea infusion, and spent tea leaves were determined using a sensitive and simple method. The dissipation of OCDPE is fairly slow in tea shoots and prepared tea, with half-life values of 5.10 and 5.46 days, respectively. The degr...

  3. Fundamental studies on the application of enzymes when brewing with unmalted oats and sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    Schnitzenbaumer, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    The use of unmalted oats or sorghum in brewing has great potential for creating new beer types/flavors and saving costs. However, the substitution of barley malt with oat or sorghum adjunct is not only innovative but also challenging due to their specific grain characteristics. The overall objectives of this Ph.D. project were: 1) to investigate the impact of various types and levels of oats or sorghum on the quality/processability of mashes, worts, and beers; 2) to provide solutions as regar...

  4. Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lentz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brettanomyces yeasts are well-known as spoilage organisms in both the wine and beer industries, but also contribute important desirable characters to certain beer styles. These properties are mediated in large part by Brettanomyces’ metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs present in beverage raw materials. Here we compare growth inhibition by, and metabolism of, HCAs among commercial brewing strains and spoilage strains of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus. These properties vary widely among the different strains tested and between the HCAs analyzed. Brewing strains showed more efficient metabolism of ferulic acid over p-coumaric acid, a trait not shared among the spoilage strains.

  5. Brewing techniques of shanxi mature vinegar%山西老陈醋酿造技艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红娟

    2015-01-01

    山西老陈醋经过300多年的不断实践与发展,形成了独特的酿造工艺.从原料、发酵方法、陈酿等方面,简述了山西老陈醋的酿造特色,并对其营养成分保健功能进行了阐述.%After 300 years practice and development, Shanxi mature vinegar formed a unique brewing process. From raw materials, fermentation method, aging, etc., this paper expounds the brewing characteristic and the nutrition health care function of shanxi mature vinegar.

  6. Contribution of ethanol-tolerant xylanase G2 from Aspergillus oryzae on Japanese sake brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Hisashi; Zhou, Yan; Mikami, Shigeaki

    2010-12-01

    We purified three xylanase isozymes (XynF1, XynF3 and XynG2) from a solid-state Aspergillus oryzae RIB128 culture using chromatography. The results of our sake-brewing experiment, in which we used exogenously supplemented enzymes, revealed that only XynG2 improved the alcohol yield and the material utilization. The alcohol yield of the XynG2 batch displayed an increase of 4.4% in comparison to the control, and the amount of sake cake decreased by 4.6%. The contribution of XynG2 was further confirmed through our brewing experiment in which we used the yeast heterogeneously expressing fungal xylanase isozymes. Interestingly XynG1, an enzyme with a XynG2-like sequence that is more vulnerable to ethanol, did not improve the sake-mash fermentation. The stability of XynG2 in ethanol was prominent, and it retained most of its original activity after we exposed it to 80% ethanol for 30min, whereas the stability of the other isozymes in ethanol, including XynG1, was much lower (20-25% ethanol). We concluded, therefore, that the improvement of material utilization achieved with XynG2 is primarily attributable to its characteristically high stability in ethanol, thereby, effectively degrading rice endosperm cell walls under high-alcohol conditions such as a sake-mash environment. PMID:20727822

  7. Drinking pattern and its relation to hemoglobin concentration in local brew consumers from the Kathmandu Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the hemoglobin concentration in alcohol consumers (home made brew-Chang) and compare it with non- alcohohcs healthy subjects. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was determined in 2053 alcoholic consumers (males: 1056; females: 997) and was compared with 1 027 (males: 623; females: 404) healthy non-alcoholic con-trol subjects. The Hb concentration in alcoholic male and female were 13.42 ± 2.14 g/dL and 12.19 ± 1.55 g/dL compared with control showing 14.43 ± 1.07 g/dL and 12.73 ± 1.41 g/dL in males and females respectively. The differences in Hb concentration between alcoholic and non- alcoholic consumers were highly significant in both genders with a P value of 0. 000 674 in males and 0.004 732 in females. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification test (AUDIT) scores was advocated to alcoholic consum-ers to test the severity of drunkenness and disorders related to it. A total of 887 males and 663 females crossed the cut-off limits of ≥8 AUDIT scores showing the addiction towards drinking habits of local brew.

  8. Optimally accepted salt reduction across cultures. Naturally brewed soy sauce used in three countries with different food cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimojo, R.; Sato, T.; Imamura, M.; Leong, L.P.; Itohiya, Y.; Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.

    2014-01-01

    To explore the influence of food-culture on partial replacement of salt by naturally brewed soy sauce, the results of a procedure, based on equivalence of overall taste intensity and pleasantness, were compared in three countries. Per country, untrained consumers assessed pleasantness and some senso

  9. Still Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tea culture and China are synonymous, but even old-style teahouses have to change with the times Xinquan Tea House is filled with old men who seemingly have known each other for years. They share unrestrained and far-ranging conversations on topics that range from tea ceremony culture to how to sort out all the world's troubles. Situated in De'nei Dajie street in downtown Beijing, this teahouse is known as a qingchaguan (teahouse serving tea without

  10. Strange Brew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard Christiansen, Lærke; Lounsbury, Michael

    2013-01-01

    creatively combine elements from different logics into newly designed artifacts. An illustrative case study of a global brewery group’s development of such an artifact – a Responsible Drinking Guide Book – is outlined. We argue that intraorganizational institutional bricolage first requires the...... combined elements from social responsibility and market logics by drawing upon extant organizational resources from different times and spaces in an effort to reconstitute their collective organizational identity....

  11. Breeding of a new brewing yeast suitable for high temperature fermentation by protoplast fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Shinich; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Takahashi, Kojiro; Yoshizawa, Kiyoshi

    1987-01-25

    Protoplast fusion was done between a high temperature fermenting yeast 1031 R and a sake yeast, Sacchsromyces cerevisiae Kyokai No. 7 in order to breed a new brewing yeast which is fermentable at high temperature and produces less off-flavor originating from 1013 R. Mediums used were YPD medium, YPAD medium,for pre-fermentation of the yeast; beta-alanine medium containing 1 M sorbitol for the regeneration of the fusant; YM medium for the fermentation test. Experiments consisted of the following items: Acquisition of auxotroph of 1031 R; Protoplast fusion; Measurement of cell size; Determination of DNA content in the cell; Compositive acidic phosphatase activity; Fermentation test, and Functional evaluation. Two strains of AM2-17B and AM2-18C were selected as producing more than 6% ethanol and having less than 2 functional strength of off-flavor. (7 tabs, 1 fig, 11 refs)

  12. The content of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn and antioxidant activity of green coffee brews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Pohl, Pawel; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2015-09-01

    A simple and fast method of the analysis of green coffee infusions was developed to measure total concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn by high resolution-continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The precision of the method was within 1-8%, while the accuracy was within -1% to 2%. The method was used to the analysis of infusions of twelve green coffees of different geographical origin. It was found that Ca and Mg were leached the easiest, i.e., on average 75% and 70%, respectively. As compared to the mug coffee preparation, the rate of the extraction of elements was increased when infusions were prepared using dripper or Turkish coffee preparation methods. Additionally, it was established that the antioxidant activity of green coffee infusions prepared using the mug coffee preparation was high, 75% on average, and positively correlated with the total content of phenolic compounds and the concentration of Ca in the brew.

  13. Behavior of myclobutanil, propiconazole, and nuarimol residues during lager beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Simón; Pérez, Gabriel; Vela, Nuria; Mena, Luis; Navarro, Ginés

    2005-11-01

    Over a 4 month brewing process, the fate of three fungicides, myclobutanil, propiconazole, and nuarimol, was studied in the spent grain, brewer wort, and final beer product. Only the residual level of myclobutanil after the mashing step was higher than its maximum residue limit (MRL) on barley. A substantial fraction was removed with the spent grain in all cases (26-42%). The half-life times obtained for the fungicides during storage of the spent grains ranged from 82 to 187 days. No significant influence of the boiling stage on the decrease of the fungicide residues was demonstrated. During fermentation, the content reduction varied from 20 to 47%. After the lagering and filtration steps, no significant decrease (<10%) was observed in any of the residues. Finally, during storage of the beer (3 months), the amounts of fungicides fell by 25-50% of their respective concentrations in the finished beer.

  14. Monitoring of Glucose in Beer Brewing by a Carbon Nanotubes Based Nylon Nanofibrous Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, preparation, and characterization of a novel glucose electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX into a nylon nanofibrous membrane (NFM prepared by electrospinning and functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT. A disc of such GOX/CNT/NFM membrane (40 μm in thickness was used for coating the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, with ferrocene methanol as mediator. The binding of GOX around the CNT/NFM greatly enhances the electron transfer, which results in a biosensor with a current five times higher than without CNT. The potential usefulness of the proposed biosensor was demonstrated with the analysis of glucose in commercial beverages and along the monitoring of the brewing process for making beer, from the mashing to the fermentation steps.

  15. Applying sustainable technology for saving primary energy in the brewhouse during beer brewing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willaert, Ronnie G. [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Ultrastructure, Brussel (Belgium); Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Brussel (Belgium); Baron, Gino V. [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Chemical Engineering, Brussel (Belgium)

    2004-12-01

    Wort boiling is the most energy intensive stage in the brewing process. For this reason considerable attention has been given to improve the efficiency of wort boiling systems. Alternative wort boiling technologies, such as low pressure boiling and high temperature wort boiling, have been studied in detail during the last decades, with a focus on the reduction of primary energy consumption. Recently, new boiling systems have been developed and commercialised. The new systems reduced the energy consumption still further and are all characterised by exerting a low thermal stress on the wort during boiling. In this review, an overview of wort boiling objectives, possibilities to reduce the thermal stress on wort and environmental aspects of wort boiling are discussed. Furthermore, recent wort boiling systems - i.e. dynamic low pressure boiling and boiling systems which are based on low thermal stress boiling in combination with volatile stripping (steam, film and vacuum stripping) - are given special attention. (orig.)

  16. 家庭酿造红葡萄酒工艺条件的研究%Research on the Conditions of Red Wine Brewed Progress in the Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温建辉

    2013-01-01

      通过测定几种市售鲜食葡萄与酿酒专用葡萄的平均粒重、含糖量、酸度等指标,比较和论述了它们在酿酒方面的差异,指出由于提子果胶含量较高、含酸量较低,故不宜选用提子酿造葡萄酒。%  By measuring the index of average grain weight, sugar content and acidity of table grapes commercially available and wine-brewed dedicated grapes, the differences of brewing are compared and discussed. The article points out the reason why hard grapes should not be used to brew wine. The choices of raw grapes, containers, sugar volume and yeast have been analyzed. The author analyses and discusses the conditions of wine-brewed progress in the family on the basis of the further study on wine-brewed theory in combination with brewing practice in recent years.

  17. Brewing effect on levels of biogenic amines in different coffee samples as determined by LC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, Donatella; Spizzirri, U Gianfranco; Parisi, Ortensia I; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Picci, Nevio

    2015-05-15

    Eight biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, cadaverine and serotonin) were determined by LC-UV after derivatization with dansyl-chloride in both ground coffee and coffee beverages obtained by different methods. In ground coffee, the most relevant amine was PUT, followed by SPD, HIS, TYR, CAD, SPM, PHE, and SER, with the total BAs content decreasing as the roasting degree increased. In coffee brews, the order was PUT, SPM, TYR, CAD, SPD, PHE, HIS, and SER, but at a very low level in comparison with the amount of BAs determined in roasted ground coffee. Beverages prepared by espresso, capsule, and pod machines had the lowest BAs contents, as a result of the thermal and physical stress imposed on ground coffee by these methods, while mocha contained the highest BAs amounts owing to lower pressure and longer brewing time.

  18. 苏美尔啤酒及其酿造技术%Sumerian Beer and Its Brewing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌玉

    2012-01-01

    Sumerian is one of the earliest people who brewed and consumed the beer in the world.Sumerian beer played a very important role in the whole Sumerian society.Among Sumerian cuneiform documents and archaeological evidences,a considerable number of information concerning beer and beer brewing is available.%苏美尔人是世界上最早酿造啤酒、饮用啤酒的民族之一。根据苏美尔语文献中所记载的大量啤酒相关信息,对苏美尔啤酒及其酿造技术进行了简要介绍。

  19. Chemical transformations of characteristic hop secondary metabolites in relation to beer properties and the brewing process: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenackers, Bart; De Cooman, Luc; De Vos, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The annual production of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) exceeds 100,000 mt and is almost exclusively consumed by the brewing industry. The value of hops is attributed to their characteristic secondary metabolites; these metabolites are precursors which are transformed during the brewing process into important bittering, aromatising and preservative components with rather low efficiency. By selectively transforming these components off-line, both their utilisation efficiency and functionality can be significantly improved. Therefore, the chemical transformations of these secondary metabolites will be considered with special attention to recent advances in the field. The considered components are the hop alpha-acids, hop beta-acids and xanthohumol, which are components unique to hops, and alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, sesquiterpenes which are highly characteristic of hops. PMID:25442616

  20. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested.

  1. Complex Ancestries of Lager-Brewing Hybrids Were Shaped by Standing Variation in the Wild Yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peris

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lager-style beers constitute the vast majority of the beer market, and yet, the genetic origin of the yeast strains that brew them has been shrouded in mystery and controversy. Unlike ale-style beers, which are generally brewed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lagers are brewed at colder temperatures with allopolyploid hybrids of Saccharomyces eubayanus x S. cerevisiae. Since the discovery of S. eubayanus in 2011, additional strains have been isolated from South America, North America, Australasia, and Asia, but only interspecies hybrids have been isolated in Europe. Here, using genome sequence data, we examine the relationships of these wild S. eubayanus strains to each other and to domesticated lager strains. Our results support the existence of a relatively low-diversity (π = 0.00197 lineage of S. eubayanus whose distribution stretches across the Holarctic ecozone and includes wild isolates from Tibet, new wild isolates from North America, and the S. eubayanus parents of lager yeasts. This Holarctic lineage is closely related to a population with higher diversity (π = 0.00275 that has been found primarily in South America but includes some widely distributed isolates. A second diverse South American population (π = 0.00354 and two early-diverging Asian subspecies are more distantly related. We further show that no single wild strain from the Holarctic lineage is the sole closest relative of lager yeasts. Instead, different parts of the genome portray different phylogenetic signals and ancestry, likely due to outcrossing and incomplete lineage sorting. Indeed, standing genetic variation within this wild Holarctic lineage of S. eubayanus is responsible for genetic variation still segregating among modern lager-brewing hybrids. We conclude that the relationships among wild strains of S. eubayanus and their domesticated hybrids reflect complex biogeographical and genetic processes.

  2. Complex Ancestries of Lager-Brewing Hybrids Were Shaped by Standing Variation in the Wild Yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, David; Langdon, Quinn K; Moriarty, Ryan V; Sylvester, Kayla; Bontrager, Martin; Charron, Guillaume; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Landry, Christian R; Libkind, Diego; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2016-07-01

    Lager-style beers constitute the vast majority of the beer market, and yet, the genetic origin of the yeast strains that brew them has been shrouded in mystery and controversy. Unlike ale-style beers, which are generally brewed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lagers are brewed at colder temperatures with allopolyploid hybrids of Saccharomyces eubayanus x S. cerevisiae. Since the discovery of S. eubayanus in 2011, additional strains have been isolated from South America, North America, Australasia, and Asia, but only interspecies hybrids have been isolated in Europe. Here, using genome sequence data, we examine the relationships of these wild S. eubayanus strains to each other and to domesticated lager strains. Our results support the existence of a relatively low-diversity (π = 0.00197) lineage of S. eubayanus whose distribution stretches across the Holarctic ecozone and includes wild isolates from Tibet, new wild isolates from North America, and the S. eubayanus parents of lager yeasts. This Holarctic lineage is closely related to a population with higher diversity (π = 0.00275) that has been found primarily in South America but includes some widely distributed isolates. A second diverse South American population (π = 0.00354) and two early-diverging Asian subspecies are more distantly related. We further show that no single wild strain from the Holarctic lineage is the sole closest relative of lager yeasts. Instead, different parts of the genome portray different phylogenetic signals and ancestry, likely due to outcrossing and incomplete lineage sorting. Indeed, standing genetic variation within this wild Holarctic lineage of S. eubayanus is responsible for genetic variation still segregating among modern lager-brewing hybrids. We conclude that the relationships among wild strains of S. eubayanus and their domesticated hybrids reflect complex biogeographical and genetic processes. PMID:27385107

  3. Communicating the Corporate Social Responsibility Activities of the UK Division of an International Brewing Company through Sustainability Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Olayinka, Ogunrinade

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability reporting has risen to prominence in recent years, and has been particularly identified as having the potential to make significant positive contributions to organisational reputation. This project aims to answer the question of how Molson Coors Brewing Company (UK) (MCBC) can best develop its own sustainability reporting in order to enhance the company’s standing both within the alcohol industry and the wider society. In pursuing this aim I draw upon a peer group reporting c...

  4. Ferulic acid release and 4-vinylguaiacol formation during brewing and fermentation: indications for feruloyl esterase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghe, Stefan; Benoot, Koen; Delvaux, Filip; Vanderhaegen, Bart; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2004-02-11

    The release of ferulic acid and the subsequent thermal or enzymatic decarboxylation to 4-vinylguaiacol are inherent to the beer production process. Phenolic, medicinal, or clove-like flavors originating from 4-vinylguaiacol frequently occur in beer made with wheat or wheat malt. To evaluate the release of ferulic acid and the transformation to 4-vinylguaiacol, beer was brewed with different proportions of barley malt, wheat, and wheat malt. Ferulic acid as well as 4-vinylguaiacol levels were determined by HPLC at several stages of the beer production process. During brewing, ferulic acid was released at the initial mashing phase, whereas moderate levels of 4-vinylguaiacol were formed by wort boiling. Higher levels of the phenolic flavor compound were produced during fermentations with brewery yeast strains of the Pof(+) phenotype. In beer made with barley malt, ferulic acid was mainly released during the brewing process. Conversely, 60-90% of ferulic acid in wheat or wheat malt beer was hydrolyzed during fermentation, causing higher 4-vinylguaiacol levels in these beers. As cereal enzymes are most likely inactivated during wort boiling, the additional release of ferulic acid during fermentation suggests the activity of feruloyl esterases produced by brewer's yeast. PMID:14759156

  5. Hop-Derived Prenylflavonoids and Their Importance in Brewing Technology – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mudura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Beer is one of the world’s most popular beverage products. Beer is all natural ingredients, so moderate consumption contributes to a healthy daily diet. Beer contains a large variety of phenolic compounds which are derived from the processed cereal (70% and hops (30% and which are responsible for the antioxidant activity of the beverage. Hops (Humulus lupulus L. are an essential ingredient of beer and are a source of polyphenols that contain the prenyl or geranyl group in the chemical structure, xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, 6-prenilnaringenin and 8-prenylnaringenin. The prenylflavonoid's compounds found in beer have different biological activities demonstrated in vitro as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and antiviral. Important quantities of prenylflavonoids are lost during wort production. The losses may be explained by the low solubility of these compounds and its insufficient extraction in wort. Using appropriate engineering strategies, improvements in the recovery of prenylflavonoids from hops into beer has involved increased hopping rate, improved brewing process, especially wort boiling, increased colored malt yields and management of beer fermentations.Beer is one of the world’s most popular beverage products. Beer is all natural ingredients, so moderate consumption contributes to a healthy daily diet. Beer contains a large variety of phenolic compounds which are derived from the processed cereal (70% and hops (30% and which are responsible for the antioxidant activity of the beverage. Hops (Humulus lupulus L. are an essential ingredient of beer and are a source of polyphenols that contain the prenyl or geranyl group in the chemical structure, xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, 6-prenilnaringenin and 8-prenylnaringenin. The prenylflavonoid's compounds found in beer have different biological activities demonstrated in vitro as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and antiviral. Important

  6. An investigation of how the Australian brewing industry influence consumers on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgeir Aleti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop and test hypotheses around organisations’ behaviour on social media and its effect on consumers’ responses. We draw on the notion of the market maven to underpin the research and suggest that organisations on social media need to focus on acting in a maven-like manner in order to influence audiences in Twitter. We collected data from the Twitter accounts of the entire brewing industry in Australia, analysing organisational postings and their impact on influence (follower numbers, retweets of their respective Twitter accounts. In particular, we look at message formulation and language, native platform behaviour, reciprocity and persistency variables. Findings suggest that establishing a larger follower base requires an interactive, one-to-one and reciprocal approach. In order to influence audiences to retweet organisations need to speak the ‘native platform language’ and employ a soft-sell strategy. Maven-like behaviour tends to reside in the small independent craft breweries. We offer the conclusion that these craft breweries have realised that, on social media, a different approach to marketing is required: the organisations must act in a maven-like manner.

  7. Production of freeze-dried yeast culture for the brewing of traditional sorghum beer, tchapalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guessan, Florent K; Coulibaly, Hermann W; Alloue-Boraud, Mireille W A; Cot, Marlène; Djè, Koffi Marcellin

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a well-known dehydration method widely used to preserve microorganisms. In order to produce freeze-dried yeast starter culture for the brewing purpose of African sorghum beer, we tested protective agents (sucrose, glucose, glycerol) in combination with support materials (millet, maize, sorghum, and cassava flours) at 1:1 ratio (v/v). The yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae F 12-7 and Candida tropicalis C 0-7 previously isolated from sorghum beer were used in a mixed culture at a ratio of 2:1 (C. tropicalis/S. cerevisiae). After the freeze-drying, the residual water contents were between 0.78 -2.27%, 0.55 -4.09%, and 0.40-2.61%, respectively, with sucrose, glucose and glycerol. The dried yeasts viabilities were between 4.0% and 10.6%. Among the protective agents used, sucrose was found to be the best protectant giving cell viabilities of 8.4-10.6%. Considering the support materials, millet flour was the best support after drying. When the freeze-dried yeast powders were stored at 4°C and room temperature (25-28°C) for up to 3 months, the survival rates were the highest with cassava flour as the support material.

  8. Production of freeze-dried yeast culture for the brewing of traditional sorghum beer, tchapalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guessan, Florent K; Coulibaly, Hermann W; Alloue-Boraud, Mireille W A; Cot, Marlène; Djè, Koffi Marcellin

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a well-known dehydration method widely used to preserve microorganisms. In order to produce freeze-dried yeast starter culture for the brewing purpose of African sorghum beer, we tested protective agents (sucrose, glucose, glycerol) in combination with support materials (millet, maize, sorghum, and cassava flours) at 1:1 ratio (v/v). The yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae F 12-7 and Candida tropicalis C 0-7 previously isolated from sorghum beer were used in a mixed culture at a ratio of 2:1 (C. tropicalis/S. cerevisiae). After the freeze-drying, the residual water contents were between 0.78 -2.27%, 0.55 -4.09%, and 0.40-2.61%, respectively, with sucrose, glucose and glycerol. The dried yeasts viabilities were between 4.0% and 10.6%. Among the protective agents used, sucrose was found to be the best protectant giving cell viabilities of 8.4-10.6%. Considering the support materials, millet flour was the best support after drying. When the freeze-dried yeast powders were stored at 4°C and room temperature (25-28°C) for up to 3 months, the survival rates were the highest with cassava flour as the support material. PMID:26788308

  9. Production of a saccharifying rice malt for brewing using different rice varieties and malting parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Heidi; Marconi, Ombretta; Regnicoli, Gian Franco; Perretti, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2014-06-11

    This study was conducted to produce rice malt suitable for beer brewing. An all-rice beer would be particularly appealing to individuals with celiac disease because rice does not contain gluten proteins. Furthermore, rice malt could also contribute to new beer flavors and brands. A screening of 10 rice varieties was conducted. The varieties Balilla and Centauro were found to be suitable for the production of an all-rice malt beer without the need of exogenous enzymes. They were characterized by a low diastatic power but nevertheless they saccharified well, likely due to other endogenous amylolytic enzymes such as limit dextrinase and α-glucosidase. The addition of CaCl2 and lactic acid during mashing lowered the pH value and increased saccharification. However, the Balilla variety saccharified without the need of these additives. We also show that the soluble nitrogen and free amino nitrogen content of rice malt wort can be increased by the incorporation of the acrospires and rootlets during mashing.

  10. Screening for new brewing yeasts in the non-Saccharomyces sector with Torulaspora delbrueckii as model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Maximilian; Kopecká, Jana; Meier-Dörnberg, Tim; Zarnkow, Martin; Jacob, Fritz; Hutzler, Mathias

    2016-04-01

    This study describes a screening system for future brewing yeasts focusing on non-Saccharomyces yeasts. The aim was to find new yeast strains that can ferment beer wort into a respectable beer. Ten Torulaspora delbrueckii strains were put through the screening system, which included sugar utilization tests, hop resistance tests, ethanol resistance tests, polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting, propagation tests, amino acid catabolism and anabolism, phenolic off-flavour tests and trial fermentations. Trial fermentations were analysed for extract reduction, pH drop, yeast concentration in bulk fluid and fermentation by-products. All investigated strains were able to partly ferment wort sugars and showed high tolerance to hop compounds and ethanol. One of the investigated yeast strains fermented all the wort sugars and produced a respectable fruity flavour and a beer of average ethanol content with a high volatile flavour compound concentration. Two other strains could possibly be used for pre-fermentation as a bio-flavouring agent for beers that have been post-fermented by Saccharomyces strains as a consequence of their low sugar utilization but good flavour-forming properties. PMID:26647111

  11. COBRA: A Computational Brewing Application for Predicting the Molecular Composition of Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fooshee, David R.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Baldi, Pierre

    2012-05-08

    Atmospheric organic aerosols (OA) represent a significant fraction of airborne particulate matter and can impact climate, visibility, and human health. These mixtures are difficult to characterize experimentally due to the enormous complexity and dynamic nature of their chemical composition. We introduce a novel Computational Brewing Application (COBRA) and apply it to modeling oligomerization chemistry stemming from condensation and addition reactions of monomers pertinent to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by photooxidation of isoprene. COBRA uses two lists as input: a list of chemical structures comprising the molecular starting pool, and a list of rules defining potential reactions between molecules. Reactions are performed iteratively, with products of all previous iterations serving as reactants for the next one. The simulation generated thousands of molecular structures in the mass range of 120-500 Da, and correctly predicted ~70% of the individual SOA constituents observed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Selected predicted structures were confirmed with tandem mass spectrometry. Esterification and hemiacetal formation reactions were shown to play the most significant role in oligomer formation, whereas aldol condensation was shown to be insignificant. COBRA is not limited to atmospheric aerosol chemistry, but is broadly applicable to the prediction of reaction products in other complex mixtures for which reasonable reaction mechanisms and seed molecules can be supplied by experimental or theoretical methods.

  12. Influence of the brewing process on furfuryl ethyl ether formation during beer aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhaegen, Bart; Neven, Hedwig; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2004-11-01

    In beer, the development of a solvent-like stale flavor is associated with the formation of furfuryl ethyl ether. The synthesis rate of this important flavor compound is proportional to the concentration of furfuryl alcohol in beer. This study shows that furfuryl alcohol in beer is mainly formed by Maillard reactions initiated during wort boiling and malt production. A mechanism for its formation from alpha-(1,4)-oligoglucans and amino acids in wort and beer is proposed. During wort boiling, a quadratic relationship was found between the wort extract concentration, on the one hand, and the increase of furfuryl alcohol and furfural, on the other. The reduction of furfural by yeast during fermentation further increases the furfuryl alcohol content. In pale beers, the furfuryl alcohol concentration is essentially determined by the thermal load on wort during brewing operations. In dark beers, a considerable fraction of furfuryl alcohol may, however, come from the dark malts used. These results lead to important practical conclusions concerning the control over furfuryl ethyl ether in beer. PMID:15506813

  13. 山西老陈醋传统酿造工艺写实记录%Factory record of Shanxi aged vinega's traditional brewing vinegar process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严蕊; 王晓云

    2015-01-01

    Brewing Shanxi aged vinegar by the traditional techology, process flows, technical points and parameters controlling were followed and record.At the same time,the change of chemical components were detected and analysed during the brewing process, on the basic of which threw out a suggestion for the research of aged vinegar brewing technology .%采用传统工艺酿造山西老陈醋,对其工艺流程、技术要点及参数控制进行跟踪记录,并对酿造过程中的成分变化进行了检测分析,在此基础上提出了对老陈醋酿造工艺研究的改进意见。

  14. Differentiation of roasted and soluble coffees through physical fractionation of selected essential and nonessential metals in their brews and exploratory data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Pawel; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Stelmach, Ewelina; Welna, Maja

    2016-11-01

    An analytical scheme for physical fractionation of Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sr and Zn in ground roasted and soluble coffees brews was proposed. It was based on ultrafiltration through five ultrafiltration membranes having molecular weight cut-offs of 5, 10, 30, 50 and 100kDa. The highest ">100kDa" and the lowest "fractions were established to differentiate the studied coffees brews the most. Al, Cu, Fe and Ni were mostly associated with the ">100kDa" fraction, while Co, K, Mg and Na - with the "fraction. For Ba, Ca, Mn, Sr and Zn, ">100kDa" and "fractions contributions were equally accounted. The physical fractionation pattern of selected metals was convenient for discovering important features of brews of both coffee types and differences between them by principal component analysis and then classifying them by linear discriminant analysis. PMID:27591664

  15. Procedure of brewing alcohol as a staple food: case study of the fermented cereal liquor "Parshot" as a staple food in Dirashe special woreda, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunano, Yui

    2016-07-01

    For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From these alcoholic beverages, parshot is prepared by the addition of plant leaves for lactic fermentation and nech chaka by adding cereal powder for lactic fermentation before alcohol fermentation. People living in the Dirashe area partake of parshot as part of their staple diet. The brewing process used for parshot and a food culture with alcoholic beverages as parts of the staple diet are rare worldwide. This article discusses the significance of using lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation and focuses on lactic fermentation in the brewing methods used for the three kinds of alcoholic beverages consumed in the Dirashe area. We initially observed the brewing process and obtained information about the process from the people in that area. Next, we determined the pH and analyzed the lactic acid (g/100 g) and ethanol (g/100 g) content during lactic fermentation of parshot and nech chaka; the ethyl acetate (mg/100 g) and volatile base nitrogen (mg/100 g) content during this period was also analyzed. In addition, we compared the ethanol (g/100 g) content of all three kinds of alcoholic beverages after completion of brewing. The results showed that it was possible to consume large quantities of these alcoholic beverages because of the use of lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation, which improved the safety and preservation characteristics of the beverages by preventing the propagation of various microorganisms, improving flavor, and controlling the alcohol level. PMID

  16. 酿制红枣酒酵母菌的筛选%Study on Screening of Jujube Wine Brewing Yeasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛希跃; 许倩; 杨海燕

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The purpose of this research was to screen yeast to reduce the high alcohol content in brewing jujube wine. [Method] Dried jujube was used as raw materials, and by comparing the dates of wine alcohol gauge, reducing sugar and soluble solids and high alcohol content, the best varieties of yeast and the best volume were filtered. [Result] Results showed that the best jujube wine brewing yeast strains of the three yeasts was SY -wine yeast, the appropriate additive amount was 0. 3 g/L. [ Conclusion ] The jujube wine brewed by SY - wine yeast has high alcoholicity, good color and flavor, and the nourishment is abundant.%[目的]筛选酿制红枣酒的酵母菌.筛选适合该种红枣的酿酒酵母,降低枣酒中高级醇含量.[方法]以干红枣为原料,通过比较枣酒的酒精度、还原糖、可溶性固形物及高级醇含量筛选出最适酵母品种及最佳添加量.[结果]三种酵母菌中最适酿造红枣酒的酵母为SY型葡萄酒酵母,其适宜的添加量为0.3 g/L.[结论]SY型葡萄酒酵母为红枣酒发酵最合适的酵母菌,产品酒度高、色泽和风味好,营养丰富.

  17. The Survey of Microbial Quality of the Dry Sample, Extract and Brewing of some Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh VALIASILL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants may be exposed to a wide range of microbial contamination during pre- and post- harvest stages and they can present high microbial counts. In this study, the microbial quality of 44 samples of dry herbs namely: mint (Menthaspp., lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, summer savory (Satureja hortensis, zataria (Zataria multiflora, Indian valerian (Valeriana wallichii, their brewing and extracts were analyzed. Total count using plate count agar medium (PCA, coliform count by Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBL, Enterobacteriacea by Violet Red Bile Glucose (VRBG were evaluated. Medium Baird-Parker agar (BP medium and Tryptone Bile X-Gluc (TBX medium were used for the isolation and enumeration of Staphylococcus aurous and E. coli spp. respectively. Furthermore, Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar medium (XLD and Bismuth Sulfite Agar medium(BSA were used for detection of Salmonella spp. Fungal and mold contamination was assessed using yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol agar. The results showed that the contamination of the samples with total count (100% and Enterobacteriaceae (85%, total coliform (83%, mold and yeast (98% and E. coli ssp. (2.27 were detected, including in the study samples the absence of pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aurous, Salmonella spp. Moreover, the extract had a lower microbial load in comparison to dry herb samples. Also, the lowest and the highest of contamination rates were observed for Indian valerian and zataria, respectively. According to the results, there is a need to control the environmental conditions and improve hygiene in the production process; even more, it is recommended to choose a suitable decontamination method for disinfection during packing medicinal plants and during post-packing manipulation and transport.

  18. Examples of the application of optical process and quality sensing (OPQS) to beer brewing and polyurethane foaming processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, Sonja; Kumke, Michael U; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2006-03-01

    Optical methods play an important role in process analytical technologies (PAT). Four examples of optical process and quality sensing (OPQS) are presented, which are based on three important experimental techniques: near-infrared absorption, luminescence quenching, and a novel method, photon density wave (PDW) spectroscopy. These are used to evaluate four process and quality parameters related to beer brewing and polyurethane (PU) foaming processes: the ethanol content and the oxygen (O2) content in beer, the biomass in a bioreactor, and the cellular structures of PU foam produced in a pilot production plant.

  19. Liquid chromatographic determination of polyphenenols in czech beers during brewing proces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsriimyatav Ganbaatar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC/UV method was adapted for simultaneous determination of seven polyphenols, including derivatives of benzoic (gallic and vanillic acids and cinnamic acids (p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids, flavan-3-ols (catechin and flavonols (rutin in worts and beers at the various stages of the brewing process. Based on the semi-quantitative HPLC analysis, total polyphenols chromatographic index (TPCI was in the ranges of 5.18 - 19.4 mg/L and 7.37 - 20.7 mg/L for all worts and beers, respectively. The HPLC analyses showed that relatively high levels of (+-catechin and gallic acid were in all the worts and the beers, while the values were much lower for ferulic acid, rutin, vanillic acid, sinapic acid and p-coumaric acid. Polyphenols with relatively high concentrations, that were detected in all tested worts and beers, were gallic acid (1.29 - 4.75 mg/L resp. 2.59 - 4.97 mg/L, (+-catechin (1.66 - 7.95 mg/L resp. 4.70 - 10.0 mg/L and ferulic acid (0.41 - 4.53 mg/L resp. 1.05 - 2.87 mg/L. On the other side, the sinapic acid (0.72 - 1.59 mg/L resp. 0.72 - 2.5 mg/L, rutin (1.17 - 2.03 mg/L resp. 1.16 - 2.85 mg/L, p-coumaric acid (ND - 4.73 mg/L resp. ND - 1.44 mg/L and vanillic acid (ND - 1.52 mg/L resp. 0.75 - 1.81 mg/L were detected in lowest concentrations. In both, worts and beers investigated in this study, the changes in the contents of individual polyphenols were not uniform. In the case of some polyphenols, a decrease in the content was observed after boiling the worts with hops or after the main fermentation until maturation and filtration, but with some polyphenols, the concentrations were constant until the end of the process or even increased.

  20. Impact of brewing process operations on phytate, phenolic compounds and in vitro solubility of iron and zinc in opaque sorghum beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beer is a significant component of the diet of millions of poor people in rural Africa. This study reports the effect of traditional brewing operations on its level of micronutrients, especially iron and zinc. The example of a West African sorghum beer, tchoukoutou, in Northern Benin

  1. 酿造醋和配置醋质量分析与鉴别%Quality Analysis and Distinction About Brewed Vinegar and Prepared Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李先端; 马志静; 张丽宏; 肖碧英; 戴明辉; 毛淑杰

    2011-01-01

    目的:对酿造醋和配置醋的质量进行分析并建立鉴别方法,为区别市场其成品的真伪优劣提供依据.方法:采用紫外光谱鉴别及国标规定方法,比较各样品变化情况.结果:酿造白米醋在270nm下有吸收,配置白醋则没有.酿造米醋灰分平均在2.00%左右,酿造白米醋灰分在0.29%左右,配置白醋灰分在0.02%左右.酿造米醋氨基态氮平均在0.121%左右,酿造白米醋氛基态氮在0.009%左右,配置白醋氛基态氮为0.结论:本试验方法操作简便、可靠、实用,可作为鉴别酿造醋和配置醋质量的真伪优劣指标.%[Objective]To analyze quality of brewed vinegar and prepared vinegar and establish identification methods. [Method]According to national standards and ultra-violet spectrograph, various samples were compared. [Result] The brewed rice vinegar had the absorption under 270nm, but the prepared white vinegar did not have. The ash of brewed rice vinegar was about 2.00% on average,brewed white rice vinegar was about 0.29%, and prepared white vinegar was about 0.02%. The amino nitrogen of brewed rice vinegar was about 0.121% on average, brewed white rice vinegar was about 0.009%, and the prepared white vinegar was 0. [Conclusion] This empirical approach is easy to operate, reliable, practical and can be used as a indicator to distinguish the quality between brewed vinegar and prepared vinegar.

  2. 番木瓜果酒的酿制工艺%The Brewing Technology of Carica Papaya Fruit Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏杏洲; 彭球生; 庞李生; 彭克东

    2001-01-01

    介绍了以成熟番木瓜为原料,经打浆、成分调整及采用高活性干酵母进行发酵,酿造出风味独特、品质上乘的番木瓜果酒。确定了最适工艺条件,制定了产品的质量标准。%The brewing technology of carica papaya fruit wine with special flavour and high quality by using ripe carica papaya fruit as raw material, through mashing ingredient adjusting and fermenting by using high dry yeasts is introduced in this paper, the optimized processing technology and the quality standards are determined.

  3. 绿茶冲泡过程中咖啡碱的转移动态%On Transfer Dynamics of Caffeine in Green Tea brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈会娟; 童华荣

    2015-01-01

    采用均匀试验设计,模拟中国绿茶消费者的泡饮方式,研究在冲泡过程中液料比、茶汤剩余百分比、加水温度、冲泡时间以及冲泡次数这5个因素对咖啡碱溶出量的影响。结果表明,除冲泡次数外,加水温度对咖啡碱的溶出量影响最大,其次为液料比和茶汤剩余百分比,冲泡时间影响较小。当温度高于90℃,液料比和茶汤剩余百分比为55∶1和30%时,咖啡碱溶出量最多;但无论用哪种冲泡方法进行冲泡,当冲泡4次时,咖啡碱溶出量均达到最大值。%The effect of the factors on the caffeine transfer from dried (made) tea to tea infusion ,has been studied in this paper ,including liquid‐solid ratio ,tea infusion percentage remaining ,water temperature , brewing time and brewing times ,as green tea is subjected to an infusion process prior to the Chinese con‐sumers .It is further interesting to observe that the water temperature has a great influence on the dissolu‐tion of caffeine except brewing times ,followed by liquid‐solid ratio and tea infusion percentage remaining . However ,brewing for longer periods (extend brewing time) resulted in less impact on the transfer of caf‐feine .Moreover ,when the water temperature is higher than 90 ℃ and liquid‐solid ratio and tea infusion percentages remaining are respectively 55∶1 and 30% ,the caffeine amount is more ,no matter w hat brew‐ing method we use .Also ,the caffeine amount reaches the maximum ,when brewing times is 4 .

  4. A simplified determination of total concentrations of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in addition to their bioaccessible fraction in popular instant coffee brews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-04-15

    A direct analysis of instant coffee brews with HR-CS-FAAS spectrometry to determine the total Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn content has been developed and validated. The proposed method is simple and fast; it delivers good analytical performance; its accuracy being within -3% to 3%, its precision--2-3% and detection limits--0.03, 0.04, 0.004 and 0.01 mg l(-1) for Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn, respectively. In addition, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn bioaccessibility in instant coffee brews was measured by means of the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion with the use of simulated gastric and intestinal juice solutions. Absorption of metals in intestinal villi was simulated by means of ultrafiltration over semi-permeable membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 5 kDa. Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn concentrations in permeates of instant coffee gastrointestinal incubates were measured with HR-CS-FAA spectrometry.

  5. Characterization of low-acetic-acid-producing yeast isolated from 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants and its application to high-gravity brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Akihiro; Tabei, Hideaki; Iwahuti, Masahumi

    2006-01-01

    We isolated a mutant with low acetic acid and high ethanol productivities from 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants of brewers' yeast NCYC1245 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). To determine the mechanism for these properties in the mutant (2DGR19) during fermentation, gene expression and enzyme activity related to acetic acid and ethanol production were investigated. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the transcriptional levels of many genes involved in glycolysis were higher in 2DGR19 than in NCYC1245. Among these transcriptional levels of 2DGR19 relative to NCYC1245, the expression level of ADH4 encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was highest, which corresponded to the high ADH activity in 2DGR19. Quantitative PCR analysis also revealed that the transcriptional level of ADH4 was the highest among ADH1 to ADH4. Although no significant differences in the transcriptional levels of ALD2 to ALD6 encoding acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD) between 2DGR19 and NCYC1245 were observed, ALD activity in 2DGR19 was lower. Using quantitative PCR analysis, ALD6 was found to be the most highly expressed among the ALD2 to ALD6 genes. These results indicate that ALD6 contributes to a low ALD activity, depending on post-transcriptional regulation. A high ADH activity appeared to be the major reason for the high ethanol productivity of 2DGR19. A low ALD activity was considered to be principally responsible for a low acetic acid productivity, although a high ADH activity also might have played a role. Beer brewed using 2DGR19 in pilot-scale high-gravity brewing contained about half as much acetic acid and 1.1% more ethanol compared with that brewed using NCYC1245. The use of 2DGR19 may overcome difficulties associated with high-gravity brewing.

  6. Advance of chinese wine-brewing craft with colored rice%我国有色米酿酒工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志栋; 林波; 陈国; 陈惠云; 俞静芬; 黄康盛

    2012-01-01

    Special colored beer, yellow wine and health wine is a new alcoholic liquid which is made by brewing colored rice as raw material with natural color, flavor, taste and nutrition, health care and curative effect. This review detailed the colored brewing wine definition, classify and developing history, and beer, yellow wine, health wine and their brewing process recently in China. And the market prospect of colored brewing wine is analyzed and forecast so as to provide technical support and new method for the development of the colored wine and further exploitation and utilization of colored rice.%应用有色米为基本原辅料酿造特有的有色米啤酒、黄酒或保健酒,是一类集有色米天然的色、香、味及营养疗效于一体的新颖饮料酒.该文就以有色米酿造酒的定义、分类及发展简史,以及我国近年来以有色米为主副料开发的啤酒、黄酒、保健酒及其加工工艺等做了综述,并对其市场前景作了分析,旨在为有色米酿造酒的拓展以及有色米深层次开发利用提供技术依据和新的思路.

  7. Identification of odor-active 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl acetate in volatile fraction of roasted coffee brew isolated by steam distillation under reduced pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Kenji; Masuda, Hideki

    2003-05-01

    In a roasted Arabica coffee brew, the potent roasty odor quality compound was identified as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl acetate by comparison of its Kovats gas chromatography retention index, mass spectrum, and odor quality to those of the synthetic authentic compound. 3-Mercapto-3-methylbutyl acetate has been identified for the first time in the coffee, and according to the results of the aroma extract dilution analysis, the contribution of this compound to the flavor of the roasted coffee brew varied depending on the degree of the coffee bean roasting. The concentration of this compound in the coffee brews as with 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate increased with an increase in the degree of roasting. However, the slope of the amount of both esters was different, and 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl acetate hardly increased with a low degree of roasting at more than a 21 luminosity (L)-value, but it rapidly increased when the roasting degree of the coffee beans reached the L-value of 18. These results suggested that the contribution of 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl acetate to the overall flavor is peculiar to the flavor of the highly roasted coffee. PMID:12720395

  8. Mechanization of Brewing Liquor%我国白酒机械化酿造技术回顾与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪江波; 王炫; 黄达刚; 庄椿虎; 陈茂彬

    2011-01-01

    科技的进步推动了传统白酒酿造的机械化发展,然而中国大陆地区的白酒在酿造环节的机械化程度仍较低.从发酵方法和香型两方面,比较了不同类型白酒的机械化应用状况;对台湾地区白酒及日本烧酒的机械化酿造进行了分析.台湾地区的白酒在酿造各环节已实现连续性机械化操作,这对大陆地区白酒如何提高机械化酿造水平有良好的启示.汲取国内外白酒的机械化经验,三麦酒业对机械设备进行了自主创新,各设备间的衔接良好,使整个酿酒生产基本实现了机械化.我国白酒机械化发展前景广阔,应该继续加强科技研发和应用,使我国白酒生产最终实现机械化.%The different types of mechanical applications of liquor from both the fermentation and flavor of liquor are compared in this paper based on a review of the history of mechanization of brewing liquor in the mainland of China.Mechanized liquor-brewing methods of Taiwan liquor and Japan shochu were analysed as well.Taiwan liquor has been achieved continuous operation in various aspects of mechanization,which has a good inspiration for how to increase mechanization level of liquor-brewing in the mainland area.Hubei Three Grains Wine Industry Group has learned the experience in domestic and foreign mechanized liquor-brewing by making innovation in mechanized liquor-brewing on its own to achieve a good interface between the various devices so that the whole wine production mechanization has basically realized.

  9. Copy number variations of genes involved in stress responses reflect the redox state and DNA damage in brewing yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Deregowska, Anna; Skoneczny, Marek; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Natkanska, Urszula; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Rawska, Ewa; Potocki, Leszek; Kuna, Ewelina; Panek, Anita; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The yeast strains of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex involved in beer production are a heterogeneous group whose genetic and genomic features are not adequately determined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a genetic characterization of selected group of commercially available brewing yeasts both ale top-fermenting and lager bottom-fermenting strains. Molecular karyotyping revealed that the diversity of chromosome patterns and four strains with the most accented genetic variabilities were selected and subjected to genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis. The differences in the gene copy number were found in five functional gene categories: (1) maltose metabolism and transport, (2) response to toxin, (3) siderophore transport, (4) cellular aldehyde metabolic process, and (5) L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase activity (p < 0.05). In the Saflager W-34/70 strain (Fermentis) with the most affected array-CGH profile, loss of aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (AAD) gene dosage correlated with an imbalanced redox state, oxidative DNA damage and breaks, lower levels of nucleolar proteins Nop1 and Fob1, and diminished tolerance to fermentation-associated stress stimuli compared to other strains. We suggest that compromised stress response may not only promote oxidant-based changes in the nucleolus state that may affect fermentation performance but also provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:27299603

  10. Purification and characterization of a new metallo-neutral protease for beer brewing from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SYB-001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjing; Xu, Ailan; Wan, Yansong; Li, Qi

    2013-08-01

    The increased additive amount of adjuncts in the raw materials of Chinese beer requires the usage of protease to release more water-soluble proteins. Here, a metallo-neutral protease suited for brewing industry was purified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SYB-001. A 5.6-fold purification of the neutral protease was achieved with a 4-step procedure including ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and gel-filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 36.8 kDa. The protease was active and stable at a wide range of pH from 6.0-10.0 with an optimum at pH 7.0. The highest activity of the purified enzyme was found at 50 °C. The existence of manganese ion would specifically enhance the protease activity. Comparing with other commercial neutral proteases in China, adding the new neutral protease during mashing process would release more amino acids from wort such as aspartic acid, arginine, methione, and histidine, resulting in a better amino acid profile in wort. Moreover, the wort processed with the new neutral protease had a higher α-amino nitrogen concentration, which would ensure a vigorous yeast growth and better flavor. The study of the enzyme could lay a foundation for its industrial application and further research.

  11. Ayahuasca, psychedelic studies and health sciences: the politics of knowledge and inquiry into an Amazonian plant brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Kenneth W; Labate, Beatriz C

    2014-01-01

    This article offers critical sociological and philosophical reflections on ayahuasca and other psychedelics as objects of research in medicine, health and human sciences. It situates 21st century scientific inquiry on ayahuasca in the broader context of how early modern European social trends and intellectual pursuits translated into new forms of empiricism and experimental philosophy, but later evolved into a form of dogmatism that convenienced the political suppression of academic inquiry into psychedelics. Applying ideas from the field of science and technology studies, we consider how ayahuasca's myriad ontological representations in the 21st century--for example, plant teacher, traditional medicine, religious sacrament, material commodity, cognitive tool, illicit drug--influence our understanding of it as an object of inquiry. We then explore epistemological issues related to ayahuasca studies, including how the indigenous and mestizo concept of "plant teacher" or the more instrumental notion of psychedelics as "cognitive tools" may impact understanding of knowledge. This leads to questions about whether scientists engaged in ayahuasca research should be expected to have personal experiences with the brew, and how these may be perceived to help or hinder the objectivity of their pursuits. We conclude with some brief reflections on the politics of psychedelic research and impediments to academic knowledge production in the field of psychedelic studies. PMID:25563448

  12. Copy number variations of genes involved in stress responses reflect the redox state and DNA damage in brewing yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Deregowska, Anna; Skoneczny, Marek; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Natkanska, Urszula; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Rawska, Ewa; Potocki, Leszek; Kuna, Ewelina; Panek, Anita; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The yeast strains of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex involved in beer production are a heterogeneous group whose genetic and genomic features are not adequately determined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a genetic characterization of selected group of commercially available brewing yeasts both ale top-fermenting and lager bottom-fermenting strains. Molecular karyotyping revealed that the diversity of chromosome patterns and four strains with the most accented genetic variabilities were selected and subjected to genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis. The differences in the gene copy number were found in five functional gene categories: (1) maltose metabolism and transport, (2) response to toxin, (3) siderophore transport, (4) cellular aldehyde metabolic process, and (5) L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase activity (p < 0.05). In the Saflager W-34/70 strain (Fermentis) with the most affected array-CGH profile, loss of aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (AAD) gene dosage correlated with an imbalanced redox state, oxidative DNA damage and breaks, lower levels of nucleolar proteins Nop1 and Fob1, and diminished tolerance to fermentation-associated stress stimuli compared to other strains. We suggest that compromised stress response may not only promote oxidant-based changes in the nucleolus state that may affect fermentation performance but also provide novel directions for future strain improvement.

  13. The Brewing Process of Wheat-poured Wine%“麦淋酒”的酿造工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王都留; 叶文斌; 杨建东; 何九军

    2012-01-01

    "麦淋酒"是礼县大潭人酿造的一种低度酒,属白酒中的一种小曲酒.该酒以小麦为主要原料以青稞、荞及高粱为次要原料酿造.其酒色透明,酒味独特,性地平和.麦淋酒在酿制过程中采用纯粮食酿造,不添加任何其它物质,特别是以"百草尖"自制独特的酒曲,使该酒口味独特,具有一定的保健作用.其酿造过程一般经过制曲、发酵、烤酒三个阶段.%"wheat-poured wine" is a low alcohol liquors distilled by local people of the datan in Lixian, and this spirits is belong to a yeast liquor. The main raw materials of the wine are wheat, buckwheat and sorghum as for secondary raw materials. Wheat-poured wine are transparent, unique flavor and moderate taste. Which is made of pure grain, not adding other substances, in brewing process, Yeast-making, fermenting and roasting are three major stages. Specially, if "Baieao tip" is as distiller's yeast, this spirits has a u- nique taste and a certain role in health care.

  14. Effect of roasting conditions on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in ground Arabica coffee and coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houessou, Justin Koffi; Maloug, Saber; Leveque, Anne-Sophie; Delteil, Corine; Heyd, Bertrand; Camel, Valérie

    2007-11-14

    Roasting is a critical process in coffee production as it enables the development of flavor and aroma. At the same time, roasting may lead to the formation of nondesirable compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, Arabica green coffee beans from Cuba were roasted under controlled conditions to monitor PAH formation during the roasting process. Roasting was performed in a pilot spouted bed roaster, with the inlet air temperature varying from 180 to 260 degrees C, using both dark (20 min) and light (5 min) roasting conditions. Several PAHs were determined in both roasted coffee samples and green coffee samples. Also, coffee brews, obtained using an electric coffee maker, were analyzed for final estimation of PAH transfer coefficients to the infusion. Formation of phenanthrene, anthracene, and benzo[a]anthracene in coffee beans was observed at temperatures above 220 degrees C, whereas formation of pyrene and chrysene required 260 degrees C. Low levels of benzo[g,h,i]perylene were also noted for dark roasting under 260 degrees C, with simultaneous partial degradation of three-cycle PAHs, suggesting that transformation of low molecular PAHs to high molecular PAHs occurs as the roasting degree is increased. The PAH transfer to the infusion was quite moderate (<35%), with a slightly lower extractability for dark-roasted coffee as compared to light-roasted coffee. PMID:17941690

  15. Brewing technology of golden needle black rice wine%金针菇黑米酒的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班清

    2011-01-01

    Golden needle black rice wine was brewed of black rice, fresh golden needle mushroom, potato. The extraction of Lycium barbarum L., Radix Polygoni multiflori, Cordyceps sinensis, Chinese Yam and honey were added to produce a new type healthy wine. The health functions were: nourishing stomach, curing lung and spleen deficiency, anticancer, anti-fatigue and aging-delay.%金针菇黑米酒是以黑米、鲜金针菇、马铃薯、百合等为主料,采用传统发酵工艺酿造出低度酒后,再辅以枸杞子、何首乌、冬虫夏草、肉苁蓉,山药等多味中药的浸提汁以及蜂蜜,生产出的一种具有养肺虚、健脾养胃、抗癌、抗疲劳、延缓衰老等的新型保健酒。

  16. 脐橙果酒酿制工艺研究%Study on Wine Brewing Technology of Navel Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文侠; 赖特明; 米兰芳; 陈玉凤

    2011-01-01

    A navel orange fruit wine were prepared. Effects of the fermentation temperature, the amount of sugar in navel orange juice, addition of yeast and other factors on the sensory quality of the wine were investigated. The optimum parameters of the brewing process were determined by the orthogonal experimental and sensory evaluation. Furthermore, clarify method of tannic-gelatin and debittering method of activated carbon for the navel orange fruit wine were tried in experiments.%以脐橙为原料,研究发酵酿制干型脐橙果酒的技术.通过对发酵温度、橙汁加糖量、酵母添加量等因素进行正交试验设计,以感官评价为指标,确定最佳的酿造工艺参数.并针对脐橙原酒初步开展了单宁-明胶的澄清试验及活性炭脱苦试验,获得了较为理想的效果.

  17. Tea brewed in traditional metallic teapots as a significant source of lead, nickel and other chemical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, F; Brian, W; Petit, D; Boutakhrit, K; Feraille, G; Van Loco, J

    2011-09-01

    An environmental inquiry conducted by the Brussels Inter-communal Laboratory of Chemistry and Bacteriology (BILCB) has revealed that in 2000a traditional metallic teapot caused in Brussels lead intoxication among a family of Morocco origin. Following this case study of lead poisoning and subsequent preliminary results carried out by the BILCB, which confirmed the dangerousness of this kind of item, samples of traditional metallic teapots were collected from North African groceries in Brussels by the Institute of Public Health (IPH) in collaboration with the BILCB and the Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC). Aluminium, copper, iron, nickel, lead and zinc were analysed to identify metals with a potential to migrate into tea solutions. Simulants (natural tea, tea acidified with citric acid and citric acid) were brewed in those teapots in order to identify the leaching potential of migration at boiling point temperature for different contact periods. Multi-elementary analysis was carried out by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). It was concluded that the concentrations of those leached metals depend on the nature of the migration liquids, the type of teapots and the contact periods. Most teapots showed a high level of toxic metals in leachates for lead and to a less extent for nickel, which can contribute significantly to the risk of serious poisoning. A comparison of the results with the toxicological reference values was done. The teapots were withdrawn from the market by the FASFC. PMID:21749233

  18. Influence of Brewing Method on Quality of Apple Vinegar%酿造方法对苹果醋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺江; 樊明涛

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to compare the quality of apple vinegars prepared by different methods and screen an optimum brewing method for apple vinegar production. [Methed] The quality of apple vinegar brewed by three traditional brewing methods and a new method developed by our previous work was analyzed. Three traditional methods were solid state fermentation (SSF), liquid state fermentation (LSF) and immobilized microorganism fermentation (IMF), and the new method was multi-microorganisms co-immobilization technology(MMCT), which used co-immobilized beads of ethanol-producing yeast, aroma-improving yeast and lactic acid bacteria (with a ratio of 6:3:1) for alcoholic fermentation and then used immobilized acetic acid bacteria for vinegar fermentation. [Result] The general quality of apple vinegar brewed by MMCT was superior to the others. Its total acidity reached to 3.845 g/100 ml, unvolatile acidity was about 0.600 g/100 ml, amino-nitrogen was higher than 0.510 g/100 ml, and the composing of flavor compounds was almost similar to that of SSF brewed apple vinegar. [Conclusion] The MMCT method was proven to be the optimum one for high quality apple vinegar brewing and might be widely used in the future.%[目的]比较不同酿造方法所得苹果醋的品种,筛选出最佳的苹果醋酿造方法。[方法]对三种传统酿造方法和一种本课题组前期新建酿造方法所得苹果醋的品质进行了分析。三种传统酿造方法分别为固态发酵法(SSF)、液态发酵法(LSF)和固定化发酵法(IMF);新建酿造方法为多菌种共固定法(MMCT),即采用酿酒酵母、产香酵母以及乳酸菌的共固定颗粒(比例为6:3:1)进行酒精发酵,再利用固定化醋酸菌进行醋酸发酵。[结果]采用多菌种共固定技术酿造所得苹果醋的总体品质最好,其总酸含量为3.845g/100ml,不挥发性酸含量为0.600g/100ml,氨基态氮含量高于O.510g

  19. Brewing with 100%barley beer beverage using the top-fermentation%上面发酵100%大麦啤酒饮料的酿造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔云前; 庞帅; 朱维岳

    2014-01-01

    利用100%大麦添加Ondea Pro复合酶进行啤酒饮料的酿造,同时进行100%大麦芽啤酒的酿造,对制取的麦汁和成品进行理化指标检测。对比发现:100%大麦麦汁成分和100%大麦芽麦汁成分相差不多,能够为酵母生长繁殖提供足够的营养成分。成品检测中,风味物质含量相差不多,感官品评相差不大。使用100%大麦进行啤酒酿造,能有效降低麦芽成本,减少麦芽制备过程中的环境污染,具有推广价值。%100%barley added Ondea Pro®complex enzyme is used to brewing beer,at the same time, brewing beer with 100% malt.Then, the worts, beer ingredients and the corresponding physical and chemical indicators were tested , respectively .The results showed that:in 100% malt wort and 100%barley wort almost the same ingredients,both of them can provide enough nutrients for yeast growth and reproduction.The flavor compounds content in both of the beers are similar.Brewing with 100% barley can fundamentally solve the conventional high cost of raw materials for barley malt, high energy consumption in malting.The final product is worth being promoted.

  20. Absence of fks1p in lager brewing yeast results in aberrant cell wall composition and improved beer flavor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-jing; Xu, Wei-na; Li, Xin'er; Li, Jia; Li, Qi

    2014-06-01

    The flavor stability during storage is very important to the freshness and shelf life of beer. However, beer fermented with a yeast strain which is prone to autolyze will significantly affect the flavor of product. In this study, the gene encoding β-1,3-glucan synthetase catalytic subunit (fks1) of the lager yeast was destroyed via self-clone strategy. β-1,3-glucan is the principle cell wall component, so fks1 disruption caused a decrease in β-1,3-glucan level and increase in chitin level in cell wall, resulting in the increased cell wall thickness. Comparing with wild-type strain, the mutant strain had 39.9 and 63.41 % less leakage of octanoic acid and decanoic acid which would significantly affect the flavor of beer during storage. Moreover, the results of European Brewery Convention tube fermentation test showed that the genetic manipulation to the industrial brewing yeast helped with the anti-staling ability, rather than affecting the fermentation ability. The thiobarbituric acid value reduced by 65.59 %, and the resistant staling value increased by 26.56 %. Moreover, the anti-staling index of the beer fermented with mutant strain increased by 2.64-fold than that from wild-type strain respectively. China has the most production and consumption of beer around the world, so the quality of beer has a significant impact on Chinese beer industry. The result of this study could help with the improvement of the quality of beer in China as well as around the world.

  1. 酸浆果酒酿造工艺研究%Brewing technology of Physalis fruit wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉香; 冯志彬; 周元; 刘进杰; 刘金红; 汪亭

    2009-01-01

    以酸浆为原料了生产酸浆果酒工艺,考察果胶酶用量对酸浆出汁率的影响,以及SO2添加量、发酵温度、接种量对酸浆果酒品质的影响.结果表明:果胶酶用量为0.6g/kg时,可提高出汁率9%;酸浆酒的最佳发酵条件为:SO2添加量0.8mL/L ~1.0mL/L,发酵温度为18℃~22℃,接种量5%.酿制出的酸浆果酒色泽好,澄清透明,酒味浓郁,酒体丰满,具有酸浆的特殊清香.%Physalis was used as raw materials to study on Physalis wine production process, and to inspect the effect of the amount of pectinase on Physalis juice rate and the effect of SO2 added, the fermentation temperature and inoculum on quality of physalis fruit wine.The results showed that the rate of Physalis juice can increase by 9% when the add amount of pectinase is 0.6g/kg; the optimal fermentation conditions were as follow: SO2 concentration 0.8ml/L ~1.0ml/L, fermentation temperature 18℃~ 22℃, inoculum 5%.Physalis brewed wine was featured with good color, clarify transparent and rich taste, at the same time with the special scent.

  2. Detection and Quantification of Gluten during the Brewing and Fermentation of Beer Using Antibody-Based Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rakhi; Zoerb, Hans F; Cho, Chung Y; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-06-01

    In 2013 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defined the term ''gluten-free'' and identified a gap in the analytical methodology for detection and quantification of gluten in foods subjected to fermentation and hydrolysis. To ascertain the ability of current enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect and quantify gluten in fermented and hydrolyzed products, sorghum beer was spiked in the initial phases of production with 0, 20, and 200 μg/ml wheat gluten, and samples were collected throughout the beer production process. The samples were analyzed using five sandwich ELISAs and two competitive ELISAs and by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with Western analysis employing four antibodies (MIoBS, R5, G12, and Skerritt). The sensitivity of the MIoBS ELISA (0.25 ppm) enabled the reliable detection of gluten throughout the manufacturing process, including fermentation, when the initial concentration of 20 μg/ml dropped to 2 μg/ml. The R5 antibody-based and G12 antibody-based sandwich ELISAs were unable to reliably detect gluten, initially at 20 μg/ml, after the onset of production. The Skerritt antibody-based sandwich ELISA overestimated the gluten concentration in all samples. The R5 antibody-based and G12 antibody-based competitive ELISAs were less sensitive than the sandwich ELISAs and did not provide accurate results for quantifying gluten concentration. The Western analyses were able to detect gluten at less than 5 μg/ml in the samples and confirmed the results of the ELISAs. Although further research is necessary before all problems associated with detection and quantification of hydrolyzed and fermented gluten are resolved, the analytical methods recommended by the FDA for regulatory samples can detect ≥ 20 μg/ml gluten that has undergone brewing and fermentation processes associated with the manufacture of beer. PMID:26038908

  3. Technology and Attention Problems of Home-brewing Grape Wine%家酿葡萄酒工艺及应注意的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白杜娟

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the home-brewing grape wine quality, the operating technologies and attention problems at the operating processesof brewing grape wine from selecting materials to storing were outlined. In order to ensure the normal fermentation, sulphurous acid and yeastshould be added after grape had been crushed. In order to improve wine quality,the management of ambient temperature at pre-fermentation,postfermentation and wine storage stage should be strengthened. In order to make crystal clear,aroma,and mellow taste wine,artificial clarifying andblending should be carried out.%为了提高家酿葡萄酒的质量,简述了家酿葡萄酒从选料到贮存各部分的操作工艺及应注意的问题,提出葡萄破碎后应添加亚硫酸及酵母,以保证发酵的正常进行;应加强前期发酵、后期发酵和葡萄酒贮存期间的环境温度管理,以提高葡萄酒质量;开展人工澄清及勾兑,可使酒液清澈透明、香气浓郁、口味醇厚.

  4. Study on Fruit Wine Brewing of Aronia melanocarpa Elliot%黑果腺肋花楸汁酿造果酒的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳丽

    2012-01-01

    The results of the fruit wine brewing of Aronia melanocarpa showed that after pretreatment, the composition of adjustment, inoculation, fermentation, deacidification, clarification, sterilization and other processes to deal with can be processed into a soft texture, color and seductive wine. Aronia melanocarpa wine brewing technology to solve the problem of poor fruit edible, and had considerable development prospects.%对黑果腺肋花楸果酒进行研究的结果表明:经过预处理、成分调整、接种、发酵、降酸、澄清、除茵等工序处理后,黑果腺肋花楸果实可加工成口感柔和、色泽诱人的果酒,不仅很好地解决了果实可食性差的问题,且具有可观的开发前景。

  5. 大平顶枣保健果醋酿造工艺探究%Study on Brewing Process of Dapingding Jujube Health Fruit Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晓磊; 刘香军

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Dapingding jujubes were taken as raw material, and brewed to health vinegar through the deep liquid fermentation. We studied the effects of jujube vinegar fermentation conditions and determine the optimal brewing process. The results showed that the optimum fermentation conditions of Dapingding health vinegar are that:the fermentation temperature at 32℃, the amount of edible alcohol addotion 8%, fermentation period 3 days, and the inoculation amount 6%.%本文以大平顶枣为原料,经过深层液态发酵法酿造保健果醋,研究了影响大枣保健果醋的发酵条件,确定最佳酿造工艺。结果表明,大平顶枣最佳果醋发酵条件:发酵温度32℃,添加食用酒精量8%,发酵时间3d,接种量6%。

  6. Study on Brewing Process of Dapingding Jujube Health Fruit Vinegar%大平顶枣保健果醋酿造工艺探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晓磊; 刘香军

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Dapingding jujubes were taken as raw material, and brewed to health vinegar through the deep liquid fermentation. We studied the effects of jujube vinegar fermentation conditions and determine the optimal brewing process. The results showed that the optimum fermentation conditions of Dapingding health vinegar are that:the fermentation temperature at 32℃, the amount of edible alcohol addotion 8%, fermentation period 3 days, and the inoculation amount 6%.%本文以大平顶枣为原料,经过深层液态发酵法酿造保健果醋,研究了影响大枣保健果醋的发酵条件,确定最佳酿造工艺。结果表明,大平顶枣最佳果醋发酵条件:发酵温度32℃,添加食用酒精量8%,发酵时间3d,接种量6%。

  7. Modelling Brewing Industry Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to analyse the price behaviour of the second to eleventh strongest brewers on the Czech market on the basis of the price behaviour of the price leader, this being Plzeňský Prazdroj (a member of SABMiller. Using monthly prices (the number of observations is generally 108 periods, is modelled the length of delay between the price leader and the other breweries making a price change. A linear regressive analysis is used to produce the model. The beer brands are divided into 3 segments: super- premium, mainstream and non-alcoholic beer and prices are modelled separately for barrelled and bottled beer if the data is available to allow it. The results of each brewery’s behaviour are summarised in conclusion. The information presented in the article is the product of working on the Research Plan MSM 6046070906, “The Economics of Czech agriculture resources and their efficient use within a multifunctional agri-food systems framework”.

  8. Modelling Brewing Industry Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, T

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to analyse the price behaviour of the second to eleventh strongest brewers on the Czech market on the basis of the price behaviour of the price leader, this being Plzeňskı Prazdroj (a member of SABMiller). Using monthly prices (the number of observations is generally 108 periods), is modelled the length of delay between the price leader and the other breweries making a price change. A linear regressive analysis is used to produce the model. The beer brands are...

  9. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems support a high plant diversity where different plant types coexist. However, the mechanisms that support plant coexistence are not entirely clear. Savanna ecosystems that are nutrient and water limited are characterized by a unique ecological feature: the coexistence of trees

  10. The brewing storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Kaplan, DVM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An eclectic collection of papers by physicians, veterinarians and other allied health medical scientists on the ‘One Medicine - One Health’ concept has been assembled in this monograph. The contributions include thirteen individual ‘One Health’ papers by fifty-three participants from twelve countries. The authors joined to confront various global health threats. In addition to the participating countries, individuals from twenty-six other nations have united as supporters of the ‘One Health initiative’. Biomedical research, scientific knowledge, environmental health, public health, individual health and clinical health care will all be enhanced by implementing the ‘One Medicine - One Health’ concept which promotes co-equal, cross-disciplinary communication and collaboration. The scientific coalition that evolves through this collaborative effort will significantly enhance human and animal health for future generations.

  11. Model construction for quality of beer and brewing process using FNN; FNN wo mochiita biru hinshitsu to jozo kotei no moderuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, H.; Hanai, T.; Takahashi, W.; Honda, H.; Kobayashi, T. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Biotechnology; Ichii, T.; Tanikawa, M.; Masuoka, S. [KIRIN Brewery Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory for New Product

    1999-09-10

    Models for sensory evaluation of beer and the beer brewing process were constructed using a fuzzy neural network (FNN). A new method for optimal model selection using a genetic algorithm and a SWEEP operator method was compared with a conventional method using the parameter increasing method. As the result, the new method was useful for the optimal model selection by simplifying the model structure, improving the reliability of fuzzy rules, and accelerating the calculation speed (about 10 times as fast as conventional method) for constructing the model with high accuracy. The percentage of correct answers of the sensory evaluation model is 92 %. The important variables are selected as the input variables, and the obtained fuzzy rules in modeling coincide well with knowledge data bases acquired by process operators, and it is proven that the obtained FNN models are adequate. (author)

  12. Study on Brewing Technology of Vinegar with High Amino Acid%高氨基酸食醋酿造技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春杰; 张茜; 李丽华; 宋春雪

    2014-01-01

    通过原料创新和工艺创新,融合国内知名食醋酿造工艺,靶向调控食醋中氨基酸含量,研制出鲜香浓郁的高氨基酸醋。该技术增加了中国醋类新品种,提升了食醋品质和营养保健价值。%With innovation of raw materials and process,the brewing process of famous vinegar is fused in the fermentation for target regulating the amino acids in vinegar and a kind of delicious full-bodied vinegar with high amino acid is developed.This technology has increased new varieties of Chi-nese vinegar and enhanced the quality and nutritional value of vinegar.

  13. Studies on the Simultaneous Formation of Aroma-Active and Toxicologically Relevant Vinyl Aromatics from Free Phenolic Acids during Wheat Beer Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-03-23

    During the brewing process of wheat beer, the desired aroma-active vinyl aromatics 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol as well as the undesired and toxicologically relevant styrene are formed from their respective precursors, free ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid, deriving from the malts. Analysis of eight commercial wheat beers revealed high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol always in parallel with high concentrations of styrene or low concentrations of the odorants in parallel with low styrene concentrations, suggesting a similar pathway. To better understand the formation of these vinyl aromatics, each process step of wheat beer brewing and the use of different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated. During wort boiling, only a moderate decarboxylation of free phenolic acids and formation of desired and undesired vinyl aromatics were monitored due to the thermal treatment. In contrast, this reaction mainly occurred enzymatically catalyzed during fermentation with S. cerevisiae strain W68 with normal Pof(+) activity (phenolic off-flavor) resulting in a wheat beer eliciting the typical aroma requested by consumers due to high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (1790 μg/L) and 4-vinylphenol (937 μg/L). Unfortunately, also a high concentration of undesired styrene (28.3 μg/L) was observed. Using a special S. cerevisiae strain without Pof(+) activity resulted in a significant styrene reduction (

  14. The Utilization of Refined Maize Starch in Brewing%玉米淀粉在啤酒酿造中的使用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海明

    2001-01-01

    玉米淀粉对于酿造师来说是一种最纯的淀粉原料,它没有得到广泛使用的原因主要是其价格比玉米粉或酿造大米昂贵,不过近几年来玉米淀粉的价格已接近大米的价格,为酿造师提供了良好的选择余地。玉米淀粉的蛋白质、脂肪、多酚含量很低,使用玉米淀粉作为辅料能延长啤酒的保质期、提高啤酒的风味稳定性、降低啤酒的色度。玉米淀粉可全部转化为可溶性物质,所以不会引起过滤问题。玉米淀粉应用的市场前景在很大程度上取决于其相对价格。%Refined maize starch is by far the purest starch available to the brewer. Its use has been limited because of its price is higher relative to those of corn grits and brewers' rice. Within the last few years, however, the price of refined maize starch has come close to that of rice and offers the brewer an attractive alternative. It contains very little nitrogenous material and lipid and polyphenol, so using of refined maize starch as a brewing adjunct could prolong beer shelf- life,improve beer flavour stability, and decrease beer color. Since starch is wholly coverted to soluble materials, it don' t cause run - off problems. The outlook of refined maize starch as a brewing adjunct will depend to a large extent on relative pricing.

  15. Studies on the Simultaneous Formation of Aroma-Active and Toxicologically Relevant Vinyl Aromatics from Free Phenolic Acids during Wheat Beer Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-03-23

    During the brewing process of wheat beer, the desired aroma-active vinyl aromatics 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol as well as the undesired and toxicologically relevant styrene are formed from their respective precursors, free ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid, deriving from the malts. Analysis of eight commercial wheat beers revealed high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol always in parallel with high concentrations of styrene or low concentrations of the odorants in parallel with low styrene concentrations, suggesting a similar pathway. To better understand the formation of these vinyl aromatics, each process step of wheat beer brewing and the use of different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated. During wort boiling, only a moderate decarboxylation of free phenolic acids and formation of desired and undesired vinyl aromatics were monitored due to the thermal treatment. In contrast, this reaction mainly occurred enzymatically catalyzed during fermentation with S. cerevisiae strain W68 with normal Pof(+) activity (phenolic off-flavor) resulting in a wheat beer eliciting the typical aroma requested by consumers due to high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (1790 μg/L) and 4-vinylphenol (937 μg/L). Unfortunately, also a high concentration of undesired styrene (28.3 μg/L) was observed. Using a special S. cerevisiae strain without Pof(+) activity resulted in a significant styrene reduction (

  16. Quantitative studies on the influence of the bean roasting parameters and hot water percolation on the concentrations of bitter compounds in coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Simone; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of roasting time and temperature on the degradation of the bitter precursors 3-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (1), 5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (2), and 4-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (3) as well as the formation of bitter tastants during coffee roasting, we prepared coffee brews from beans roasted either at 260 degrees C for 60-600 s or for 240 s at 190-280 degrees C. By means of HPLC-UV/vis and HPLC-MS/MS, bitter-tasting monocaffeoyl quinides (4-8), dicaffeoyl quinides (9-11), and 4-vinylcatechol oligomers (12-20) as well as the parent bitter precursors 1-3 were quantitatively analyzed in these brews. Quinides 4-11, exhibiting a coffee-typical bitter taste profile, were found to be preferentially formed under slight to medium roasting degrees and were observed to be degraded again to generate harsh bitter-tasting 4-vinylcatechol oligomers under more severe roasting conditions, thus matching the change in bitter taste quality observed by means of sensory studies. In addition, quantitative studies of the release profile of bitter compounds from ground coffee upon water percolation revealed that compounds 1-8 were rapidly extracted, dicaffeoyl quinides 9-11 were released rather slowly, and, in particular, compounds 12-17 were found to show strong retention to the ground coffee material. These data imply that the knowledge-based control of the roasting and/or the extraction conditions might be helpful in tailoring the bitter taste signature of coffee beverages. PMID:20180507

  17. Research on the effect factors on final RDF of beer brewing syrup%影响啤酒糖浆极限发酵度的因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万振平; 李惠安; 黄玉新; 黄智钧; 杨曦宇

    2013-01-01

      研究了不同啤酒厂家的酵母对不同啤酒糖浆极限发酵度的影响。结果表明,不同啤酒厂家的酵母,啤酒糖浆中的麦芽糖、麦芽三糖、可发酵糖的含量都会对啤酒糖浆的极限发酵度造成不同程度的影响。%This article is mainly about the research on final RDF (real degree of fermentation)of syrup for beer brewing. We applied the same method to detect the samples with different components. According to the analysis of the results, we draw a conclusion that brewer's yeast, components of syrup for beer brewing such as maltose, maltotriose, and fermentable Sugar can affect the value of final RDF.

  18. 提高酱醪质量生产高档本酿造酱油%Improving the quality of soy sauce mash to make high natural brew soy sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈龙青; 吴洁

    2001-01-01

    本文通过改变和调整高盐稀发酵酱油工艺的发酵条件、管理方法、生产菌种以及拌曲盐水量、浓度等达到提高酱醪质量及生酱油出品率的目的,从而生产出高档本酿造酱油。%Improving the quality of moromi and the ratio of raw sauce output by the way of change the brew condition、the way of administration、strains of production,the quantity and the concentration of the koji making mixture salt water in the process of high salt diluted state fermentation to make high natural brew soy sauce.

  19. Furanic compounds and furfural in different coffee products by headspace liquid-phase micro-extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: survey and effect of brewing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichi, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh-Mohammadi, Vahid; Hashemi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Abdorreza

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the levels of furan, 2-methylfuran, 2,5-dimethylfuran, vinyl furan, 2-methoxymethyl-furan and furfural in different coffee products were evaluated. Simultaneous determination of these six furanic compounds was performed by a head space liquid-phase micro-extraction (HS-LPME) method. A total of 67 coffee powder samples were analysed. The effects of boiling and espresso-making procedures on the levels of furanic compounds were investigated. The results showed that different types of coffee samples contained different concentrations of furanic compounds, due to the various processing conditions such as temperature, degree of roasting and fineness of grind. Among the different coffee samples, the highest level of furan (6320 µg kg⁻¹) was detected in ground coffee, while coffee-mix samples showed the lowest furan concentration (10 µg kg⁻¹). Levels in brewed coffees indicated that, except for furfural, brewing by an espresso machine caused significant loss of furanic compounds.

  20. Study On The Brewing Rice Koji Qing Shuang Type Chinese Rice Wine%用米曲酿制清爽型黄酒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛青钟

    2014-01-01

    Using orthogonal test trials of the three levels of the four factors of glutinous rice, water, yeast and koji dosage, The results show that:Koji brewed without wheat Qu taste and no enzyme preparations taste so refreshing, the taste good Semi qing shuang type chinese rice wine is feasible, Qing shuang type chinese rice wine instead of wheat koji koji system, Reduce the use of starter 10%, Improve liquor yield;Feeding glutinous rice 100%, The amount of water is 192.0%, Plus yeast starter 10.6%, The Garmisch Qu amount to 15.4%in the most appropriate; Koji traditional craft brewed Qing shuang type chinese rice wine while exploring the impact of its fermentation. Provide a scientific basis for the Qing shuang type chinese rice wine production process improvements.%运用正交试验法对糯米、水、酒母和米曲加量四个因子三个水平的试验研究。结果表明:用米曲酿制成无麦曲味和无酶制剂味等的清爽、口感好的半干清爽型黄酒是可行的,用米曲代替麦曲制清爽型黄酒,减少用曲量10%,提高出酒率;以投料糯米100%计,则加水量为192.0%,加酒母量为10.6%,加米曲量为15.4%最适宜;同时探索了用米曲传统工艺酿制清爽型黄酒对其发酵的影响规律,为清爽型黄酒生产工艺的改进提供科学依据。

  1. Studies on identification and fermentation characterization of yeasts isolated from Chongming rice wine brewing process%崇明老白酒酿造过程中酵母菌的鉴定及其特性初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁准梅; 徐毅菁; 柯芳芳; 李爽

    2015-01-01

    从八二酒曲及酿造崇明老白酒过程中分离纯化得到1株白色酵母菌和1株红色酵母菌,采用分子生物学方法进行鉴定,并对其酿造老白酒的特性进行了分析。结果显示,八二酒曲及崇明老白酒酿造过程中的优势酵母菌为酿酒酵母(Saccaromyces cerevisiae),从酿酒过程中分离的红色酵母菌为粘红酵母(Rhodotorula mucilaginosa )。采用粘红酵母和米根霉曲酿造的酒液的酒精度为11.9%vol,残余还原糖含量为11.2 g/100 mL,总酸含量为4.59 g/L,总酯含量为4.42 g/L。纯化的酿酒酵母和米根霉曲酿成的酒液口味醇和爽口,酒曲的纯化有助于开发出口感更爽口的老白酒。混合酵母和米根霉曲酿造的酒液呈典型的崇明老白酒风味,粘红酵母的参与对崇明老白酒口味风格的形成有一定的作用。%One white yeast strain and one red yeast strain were isolated from No. 82 starter and the brewing process of Chongming rice wine. Both strains were identified by morphological and molecular biological methods of ITS-rDNA gene sequence analysis and their effects on rice wine quality during brewing process were compared. The results showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the dominant strain in No. 82 strarter and Chongming rice wine brewing process;the red yeast strain isolated from the brewing process was Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The rice wine brewed with Rhodotorula mucilagi-nosa and Rhizopus oryzae,with alcohol 11. 9%vol,residual sugar 11. 2 g/100 mL,total acid 4. 59 g/L and total ester 4. 42 g/L. The rice wine brewed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhizopus oryzae had a fresh and full-bodied taste, indicated that the purified wine yeast helped to develop more refreshing sense of rice wine. The rice wine brewed with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa,Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhizopus oryzae tasted with typical Chongming rice wine flavor, indicated that with the participation of

  2. A xylanase with broad pH and temperature adaptability from Streptomyces megasporus DSM 41476, and its potential application in brewing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhenhua; Shi, Pengjun; Luo, Huiying; Bai, Yingguo; Yuan, Tiezheng; Yang, Peilong; Liu, Suchun; Yao, Bin

    2010-05-01

    A xylanase gene, xynAM6, was isolated from the genomic DNA library of Streptomyces megasporus DSM 41476 using colony PCR screening method. The 1440-bp full-length gene encodes a 479-amino acid peptide consisting of a putative signal peptide of 36 residues, a family 10 glycoside hydrolase domain and a family 2 carbohydrate-binding module. The mature peptide of xynAM6 was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The optimal pH and temperature were pH 5.5 and 70°C, respectively. The enzyme showed broad temperature adaptability (>60% of the maximum activity at 50-80°C), had good thermostability at 60°C and 70°C, remained stable at pH 4.0-11.0, and was resistant to most proteases. The Km and Vmax values for oat spelt xylan were 1.68mgml(-1) and 436.76μmolmin(-1)mg(-1), respectively, and 2.33mgml(-1) and 406.93μmolmin(-1)mg(-1) for birchwood xylan, respectively. The hydrolysis products of XYNAM6 were mainly xylose and xylobiose. Addition of XYNAM6 (80U) to the brewery mash significantly reduced the filtration rate and viscosity by 36.33% and 35.51%, respectively. These favorable properties probably make XYNAM6 a good candidate for application in brewing industry.

  3. Producing high adjunct beer by high gravity brewing%高浓酿造法生产高辅料啤酒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪应应; 胡鹏刚

    2012-01-01

    该文通过试验研究,确定了75%高辅料的糖化工艺、麦汁16°P高浓度的发酵工艺、高浓稀释工艺.采用上述工艺不仅生产的产品质量达到GB4927标准,而且感官指标和风味都比较稳定.从而提高了现有设备的利用率,增加了产量,降低了成本,提高了企业的经济效益.%In this study, a beer brewing technology including saccharification with 75% rice (adjunct), fermentation with high-gravity worts (16°P) and a dilution technology of high gravity beer was determined by experiments. Using this technology, the quality of beer reached Chinese national standard GB4927 with stable sensory indexes and flavors. Thus, the utilization of existing equipments was improved, the yield was increased while the cost was decreased and the economic efficiency was improved.

  4. On food safety control measures in beer brewing%论啤酒生产过程的食品安全控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱鑫

    2013-01-01

      啤酒于20世纪传入中国,在中国广受欢迎,诸多啤酒生产企业蓬勃发展。随着《食品安全法》的出台,啤酒生产过程中的食品安全控制引起了更高的重视,如何生产绿色、卫生的啤酒是相关从业人员的必修课。结合啤酒的生产特点,重点研究在生产过程当中如何控制啤酒的食品安全问题。%Beer was introduced to China in the early twentieth century. Beer had become very popular with the Chinese. Beer corporations developed rapidly. The control system of food safety has been focused at national level. Based on the analysis of beer brewing characters, we are trying to do some exploration on the control of quality and safety of beer in the production.

  5. 日本酱油种类及其酿造工艺特点%Varieties and brewing technological characteristics of Japanese soy sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周长海; 徐文斌; 贾友刚; 李勇昊; 齐淑艳

    2011-01-01

    日本酱油最初的酿造工艺是从古代中国传入,在日本发展出很多独特的工艺,酿造出最常见的浓味酱油、淡味酱油、溜酱油、二次酿造酱油和白酱油5种日本式酱油.在酿造过程中的制曲、装料、发酵管理、压榨、沉淀等工艺过程跟国内的多数酱油酿造工艺相似.因原料和工艺的差别,酿造出如二次酿造酱油及白酱油等独特的产品.%Brewing technique of Japanese soy sauce was originated from China and developed multiple specific techniques afterwards.Strong fiavoured soy sauce, light fiavoured soy sauce, percolation soy sauce two-step fermentation soy sauce and "white" sauce are common five varieties.Procedures of Koji making, charging, fermentation management, press methods and precipitation of Japanese soy sauce and Chinese soy sauce are similar.Some New varieties of soy sauce, such as two-step sauce and white sauce, are obtained with application of differences of raw material and techniques.

  6. Analysis of furan in coffee of different provenance by head-space solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: effect of brewing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Pera, Lara; Liberatore, Alfredo; Avellone, Giuseppe; Fanara, Serena; Dugo, Giacomo; Agozzino, Pasquale

    2009-06-01

    A simple, sensitive and accurate method for the analysis of furan in roasted coffee has been used based on headspace-solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The extraction was performed using 75-microm carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber. Ionic strength, extraction time and temperature, and desorption time were assessed as the most important parameters affecting the HS-SPME procedure and d(4)-furan was used as the internal standard. The linearity range was in the range 0.0075-0.486 ng g(-1); the LOD and LOQ calculated using the signal-to-noise ratio approach were 0.002 and 0.006 ng g(-1), respectively. The inter- and intra-day precision was 8 and 10%, respectively. The concentration of furan found in batches of roasted coffee powder different producing countries ranged from 57.3 to 587.3 ng g(-1). The mean reduction in furan levels observed when brewing coffee by either infusion, using a moka pot or an expresso machine was 57, 67.5 and 63.3%, respectively. PMID:19680951

  7. 双孢蘑菇面酱酿制工艺研究%Study on the brewing processes of mushroom flour paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐明; 仇敏; 邵伟; 官文靖

    2012-01-01

    Using mushroom stem and inferior mushroom as materials, the mushroom flour paste was produced by traditional technology, and the optimum conditions were obtained by orthogonal tests. They are as follows: inoculation 0.3%, 12Be saline solution addition equal to the mass of flour cake, Temperature 45℃, time 40d, under these conditions, brewed mushroom flour paste has a nice quality and taste, its quality reached the wheat paste national standard.%以双孢蘑菇菇柄和残次菇为原料,通过传统酿制工艺生产双孢蘑菇面酱产品.并通过正交试验确定了双孢蘑菇面酱酿制的最佳工艺参数,即面酱酿制的种曲接种量为0.3%、发酵过程中12Bé盐水加量等于面糕的量,发酵温度45℃,发酵时间40d,在此条件下所酿制双孢蘑菇面酱感官品质良好,且各项理化指标达到国家标准.

  8. Teff (Eragrostis tef) as a raw material for malting, brewing and manufacturing of gluten-free foods and beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Mekonnen Melaku; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The demand for gluten-free foods is certainly increasing. Interest in teff has increased noticeably due to its very attractive nutritional profile and gluten-free nature of the grain, making it a suitable substitute for wheat and other cereals in their food applications as well as foods for people with celiac disease. The main objective of this article is to review researches on teff, evaluate its suitability for different food applications, and give direction for further research on its applications for health food market. Teff is a tropical low risk cereal that grows in a wider ecology and can tolerate harsh environmental conditions where most other cereals are less viable. It has an excellent balance of amino acid composition (including all 8 essential amino acids for humans) making it an excellent material for malting and brewing. Because of its small size, teff is made into whole-grain flour (bran and germ included), resulting in a very high fiber content and high nutrient content in general. Teff is useful to improve the haemoglobin level in human body and helps to prevent malaria, incidence of anaemia and diabetes. The nutrient composition of teff grain indicates that it has a good potential to be used in foods and beverages worldwide. The high levels of simple sugars and α-amino acids as a result of breakdown of starch and protein, respectively, are essential for fermentation and beer making. PMID:26396284

  9. Change of Antioxidant Activity in Persimmon Vinegar during Brewing Process%柿果醋酿造过程中抗氧化性能的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙璐宏; 鲁周民; 包蓉; 赵楠; 白卫东

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To reveal the change regularity of antioxidant activity and material basis in persimmon vinegar during brewing process.Methods: One-step fermentation method was applied for brew vinegar from persimmon pulp.The major change in antioxidant contents and antioxidant activity as well as their correlation were explored.Results: The content change of total polyphenols,total flavonoids and vitamin C exhibited an initial increase and a final decrease during the fermentation process and a slow ascending trend during the aging stage.An obviously positive correlation among the three components was observed(P0.01).The total antioxidant activity of persimmon vinegar revealed a rapid increase during fermentation process.Meanwhile,a significantly positive correlation between total antioxidant activity and total acid was also observed(P0.01).Moreover,a remarkable positive correlation was also observed between the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of persimmon vinegar and the contents of total flavonoids,total acid or vitamin C(P0.05) and between the hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity and the content of total polyphenols(P0.01).Conclusion: Persimmon vinegar has significant antioxidant activity and its antioxidant activity is attributed to many kinds of components.%目的:揭示柿果醋生产过程中抗氧化性能变化规律及其物质基础。方法:以水柿为原料、采用一步发酵方法,对柿果醋生产过程中主要抗氧化物质含量和抗氧化性能的变化以及它们之间的相关性进行研究。结果:总酚、总黄酮和VC含量在发酵阶段都呈先升高后降低趋势,在陈酿过程中呈缓慢上升趋势,三者含量相互间存在极显著正相关关系(P〈0.01);柿果醋的总抗氧化能力在发酵过程快速上升,在陈酿中呈缓慢上升趋势,与总酸含量呈极显著正相关关系(P〈0.01);柿果醋对DPPH自由基的清除能力与总黄酮、总酸和VC含量

  10. Method to Improve Enzymatic Activity during Beer Brewing%改善啤酒酿造过程酶活力方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乃侨; 孙丽华

    2011-01-01

    以国外大麦Gairdner为原料,分别用麦芽厂所用的空白水、pH值4.0盐酸溶液、pH值4.0硫酸溶液、100 mg/L钙离子溶液、1μg/L赤霉素溶液使大麦浸渍、发芽来达到降低绿麦芽内部pH值的目的,实验结果表明,虽然硫酸、盐酸2种强酸物质具备降低大麦发芽内部pH值的能力,但其食品安全性差、对设备腐蚀大,而用钙离子和赤霉素溶液培养大麦发芽,虽然在大麦发芽过程中对pH值的变化影响不是很稳定,但均能使大麦发芽结束点即绿麦芽的pH值降低,所以对于后期啤酒的酿造均能够使淀粉酶、蛋白酶等活力近于最适pH值状态,为在啤酒酿造过程中减少外源添加酸的使用量,或为温和型弱酸或酸性中草药等物质的添加提供条件.%The aim of the experiment was to reduce pH value inside green malt during barley germination using Gaird-ner barley as raw material, soaking respectively with fresh water used in the malt factory, pH 4. 0 hydrochloric acid solution, pH 4.0 sulphuric acid solution, 100 mg/L calcium ion solution, and 1 u.g/L gibberellin solution. The results showed that although strong acids of sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid possesses the capabilities to reduce pH value inside the barley during the germination, yet the food security is poor, and they corrode the facilities greatly, though while using calcium ion and/or gibberellin solution to cultivate barley to germinate had unstable pH changes during the barley germination, but they all could reduce pH value when reaching the end of barley germination I. E. Green malt. Therefore, at the late stage of beer brewing it could reach closely to the most suitable pH value for the activities of amylase and protease, to reduce the adding amount of acid during the beer brewing process, or provide conditions of adding mild weak acids and/or acidic Chinese medical herbs, and other materials.

  11. Brewing Technology of Apple-Kiwifruit Vinegar%苹果猕猴桃混合型果醋酿造工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪; 程圣恩; 孙浩; 郭攀峰; 严景恩; 史亚歌

    2011-01-01

    以苹果、猕猴桃为原料,对苹果猕猴桃混合果醋的酿造工艺进行研究.获得原料配比、酒精发酵和醋酸发酵的最佳工艺参数.原料配比为m(苹果汁)∶m(猕猴桃汁)=2∶1.酒精发酵的最佳参数为酵母菌接种量0.25%、发酵温度28 ℃、发酵时间7 d.醋酸发酵的最佳参数为酒精体积分数6%、醋酸菌接种量7%、发酵时间10 d.按以上工艺参数所得产品每100 mL总酸含量≥5.50 g,色泽鲜亮呈浅黄色,具有苹果果香,酸味柔和.%Using apple and kiwifruit as raw material, the brewing technology of vinegar was studied. The optimum ratio of apple to kiwifruit was 2:1 and conditions for alcoholic fermentation were started with inoculum of yeast by 0. 25% , fermented under 28℃ for 7days. The optimum acetic acid fermentation conditions were 6% initial alcohol concentration , 7% inoculum of acetobacter and 10 days fermentation. The appLe-kiwifruit vinegar looks pale yellow, and tastes soft with apple aroma.

  12. 香蕉与山楂复合果醋酿造工艺的研究%Study on Brewing Technology of Banana and Hawthorn Composite Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦利

    2015-01-01

    以香蕉、山楂为主要原料,对香蕉山楂复合果醋酿造工艺进行优化,最终确定了香蕉山楂复合果醋酒精发酵工艺最佳条件:香蕉汁∶山楂汁(V/V)为2∶1,酵母接种量为3%,温度控制为30℃,发酵时间为4天。醋酸发酵工艺最佳条件:初始酒精度为8%,醋酸菌接种量为8%,发酵温度为32℃,发酵时间为8天。经过二次发酵得到的香蕉山楂复合果醋营养丰富,口感纯正,风味独特。%Using banana and hawthorn as the main raw materials,the brewing technology of banana and hawthorn composite vinegar is optimized,the optimum alcoholic fermentation technology is as follows:ratio of banana juice and hawthorn juice (V/V)of 2 ∶ 1,yeast inoculation amount of 3%, temperature of 30 ℃,and fermentation time of 4 days.The optimum acetic acid fermentation technology is as follows:initial ethanol content of 8%,acetic acid bacteria inoculation amount of 8%, fermentation temperature of 32 ℃,fermentation time of 8 days.After two times of fermentation,the product has rich nutrition,and the flavor is pure and unique.

  13. Screening of Triticale Varieties for Beer Brewing%适合用于酿造啤酒的小黑麦品种初步筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 刘伟鹏; 杜修桥

    2013-01-01

    为探讨用小黑麦麦芽代替大麦麦芽酿造小黑麦啤酒的可能性,以小黑麦6个品种(系)为材料,研究小黑麦酿造啤酒的主要理化指标、水敏感性以及两种焙燥工艺下麦芽质量.结果表明,小黑麦品种东农95-6654、北联7号的理化指标符合二棱大麦优级标准;焙燥工艺为45℃6h→55℃5h→65℃3h→76℃3h时小黑麦麦芽的α-氨基氮含量、麦芽糖化力、麦芽浸出率等指标与啤酒生产上用大麦芽相似.%In order to explore the possibility of subsituting raw materials of beer brewing process,six triticale varieties (lines) were used to study their physical and chemical properties,water sensitivity,and two baking processes.The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of Dongnong 95-6654 and Beilian 7 reached superior grade standard of two-rowed barley.The α-amino nitrogen content,diastatic power,and extraction rate were similar to malt when baking process was 45℃ 6h→55℃ 5h →65℃ 3h→76℃ 3h.

  14. Study on the Brewing Techniques of Herbalal Coffee Rice Wine%草本咖啡糯米酒的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 陈秀英; 陈安均

    2012-01-01

    Brew coffee rice wine with ratafia yeast, using glutinous rice and herbal coffee as the materials. And measure a series of indexes which had effect on the zymotechnics of coffee rice wine, such as the incipient sugar content of fermentation broth, the incipient pH of the fermentation broth and the inoculum size of yeast. As the result, when the incipient sugar content and pH were 16 °Bx and pH 3.5 respectively, the yeast suspensions was inoculated with 5%, and the admixture was fermented for 8 d at 25 ℃ and post-fermented 20 d at 20 ℃, the quality of coffee rice wine was the best.%以糯米、草本咖啡为原料,采用液体发酵法用果酒酵母酿制草本咖啡糯米酒。研究了发酵液初始糖度、发酵液初始pH、酵母接种量对咖啡糯米酒发酵的影响,并通过正交试验优选出酿制草本咖啡糯米酒的最佳工艺条件为:初始糖度为18°Bx、初始pH3.5,接种5%的酵母菌悬液,4-25℃下主发酵8d,再在20℃ TNK酵20d,得到的草本咖啡糯米酒的整体质量最好。

  15. 利用微山湖水产品酿造米酒%Rice wine brewing using by aquatic product of Weishanhu lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文霞; 韩小龙; 石文祥; 李彤阳; 李桂芝

    2012-01-01

    以微山湖水产品莲藕、莲子为原料,用米酒酿造的传统方法,使用实验室筛选出的具有较优糖化力和发酵性能的根霉菌和酿酒酵母,进行纯种发酵,考察了原料配比、发酵温度及时间对品质的影响.实验得出,糯米:莲藕为1∶1,莲子为二者总量的4%,发酵温度28℃,发酵时间为5d.不仅为微山湖生物资源大规模被利用提供理论依据,而且还丰富了米酒市场.%This research was a kind of functional rice wine fermented in a traditional way used by lotus root and lotus seed from Weishanhu lake and inoculated Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae into the mixture. The main results were as follows:The optimal ration of sticky rice: lotus root is 1:1 and the lotus seed is 4% of the total amount, The best rice wine can be brewed at 28℃ in 5d. The research not only provides theory about biology resource of Weishanhu Lake,but also riches market of rice wine.

  16. 热浸提法酿造树莓干酒工艺研究%The Research on Calorzation Technique of Raspberry Wine Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋韶奕; 张素敏; 王雪松; 陈雪

    2014-01-01

    采用热浸提技术发酵酿造树莓干型酒,通过工艺参数优选试验得到了热浸提最佳工艺参数:浸提温度为65℃,浸提时间为20 min。通过正交试验得到了树莓干酒发酵的最佳工艺参数:酵母接种量0.08%、发酵温度22℃、发酵初始pH3.2。通过单因素试验确定了树莓干酒的最佳澄清剂为壳聚糖,最佳添加量为0.06%。所得树莓干酒为红宝石色,澄清透明有光泽,带有典型的树莓果香及和谐的醇香。%By calorzation technique brewing raspberry wine ,we concluded the technological parameter preference methods:extracting temperature was 65 ℃,extracting time was 20 minutes. We reached the conclusion to the optimal technical fermentation parameter of raspberry dry wine by the orthogonal test. The amount of inoculum yeast was 0.08%,the fermentation temperature was 22℃,the fermentation initial pH was 3.2. We determined that chitosan was the best fining agent of raspberry dry wine by single factor trial;the optimal addition dosage was 0.06%. Product quality index of raspberry wine was as follow:its colour was ruby,clear,transparent,with a typical aromas of raspberries and harmonious flavour.

  17. Effect of processing and roasting on the antioxidant activity of coffee brews Efeito do processamento e da torração sobre a atividade antioxidante da bebida de café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris da Silveira Duarte

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing and roasting on the antioxidant activity of coffee brews. Brews prepared with light, medium and dark roasted coffees were analyzed. The pH, total solids content, polyphenols content, reducing substances and chlorogenic acids content were determined. The antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts, the guaicol decolorizing and the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation were also analyzed. The antioxidant activity of coffee brews were concentration-dependent. A progressive antioxidant activity and polyphenols content was observed decreasing with roasting. The light roasted coffee showed the highest antioxidant activity and dark roasted coffee showed the lowest antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the ingestion of coffee brews prepared with light and medium roasted coffees might protect cells from oxidative stress damages.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do processamento e grau de torração sobre a atividade antioxidante da bebida de café. Foram analisadas bebidas preparadas com café nos graus de torração claro, médio e escuro. Foram determinados o pH, o conteúdo de sólidos totais, o conteúdo de polifenóis, o conteúdo de substâncias redutoras e o conteúdo de ácidos clorogênicos. Além disto, foram analisadas a atividade antioxidante dos extratos aquosos, a descoloração do guaiacol e a capacidade de inibição da formação de peróxidos lipídicos. A atividade antioxidante mostrou ser dependente da concentração da bebida de café. Foi observada redução progressiva da atividade antioxidante e de compostos fenólicos com o grau de torração. O café submetido à torra clara apresentou atividade antioxidante máxima e o café com maior grau de torra apresentou a menor atividade antioxidante. Os resultados indicam que a ingestão de bebidas preparadas com cafés de torras clara e média pode proteger a célula contra os efeitos do estresse

  18. The processing technology eliminating turbidity and deposition in solid brewing vinegar%去除固态发酵食醋中浑浊沉淀的生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋智猛

    2012-01-01

    具体分析了引起固态发酵食醋浑浊沉淀的工艺方面原因,一是原料中的大分子如淀粉、多糖、蛋白质等分解不彻底,后经过生化反应形成沉淀物;二是由于杀菌不彻底引起的生物性返浑.针对这些原因,对固态发酵食醋生产工艺进行改进,采取多种措施去除杂质,取得了较好的澄清效果.%This paper discussed the reasons of turbidity and deposition in solid brewing vinegar. The macromolecules, which were from raw material such as starch, polysaccharides and proteins decomposed incompletely in the process, formed deposition through biochemical reaction. Some bacteria were not killed totally after sterilizing, which caused bacterial deposition. The processing technology of solid brewing vinegar was reformed by taking several measures to eliminate impurity, and the method got obvious effect.

  19. Screening and Identification of a Lactic Acid Bacterium from Sichuan Bran Vinegar Brewing Mass%四川麸醋醋醅中一株乳酸菌的筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明烨; 刘军; 王洋; 郇阿梅; 韩志双

    2016-01-01

    从四川传统固态酿造工艺麸醋的醋醅中筛选出15株疑似乳酸菌菌株。通过对其抑菌性、产双乙酰能力、产酸速率和对不同酸度、培养温度、初始酒精度的耐受性能等指标的考察,最终得到了一株产乳酸多,并且具有抑菌性的乳酸菌E9。经微生物细胞和菌落形态、生理生化特征和分子生物学鉴定,确定此株乳酸菌E9为发酵乳杆菌(Lactobacillus fermentum)。%Select 1 5 strains of suspected lactic acid bacteria from Sichuan bran vinegar brewing mass by traditional solid-state brewing process. By investigation of their antimicrobial activity, diacetyl production ability,acid production rates and the tolerance to different acidity,culture temperature, initial alcoho,finally,a strain of lactic acid bacterium E9 producing more lactic acid and with antimicrobial acitivity is gotten. By microbial cells and colony morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular biology identification,this strain of lactic acid bacterium E9 is determined as Lactobacillus fermentum.

  20. 基于BP神经网络的酿造企业物流成本分析模型构建研究%Cost analysis of brew logistics enterprises based on ABC and neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海平

    2016-01-01

    The use of activity-based costing as the analysis tool, based on BP neural network model to analyze the logistics cost of brewing enterprises, and analyses the empirical calculation, obtained the satisfactory result. The network input is the actual project brewing enterprise logistics cost, output in accordance with the needs of different customers can be in different areas, etc. This study solves the many to many mapping relationship between enterprise logistics cost accounting object and the project cost, according to the different methods of cost provides an effective tool.%利用作业成本法作为分析工具,建立了对酿造企业物流成本分析的BP神经网络模型,并进行了实证分析计算,取得了比较满意的分析结果。网路的输入是酿造企业物流成本的各个实际项目,输出按照需要可以是不同地区,不同客户等。本研究成功解决了企业物流费用项目与各核算对象成本的多对多的非线性映射关系,为按照不同方法研究成本费用提供了有效的工具。

  1. Influence of harmful bacteria on diacetyl content during beer brewing%啤酒发酵过程中有害菌对双乙酰含量影响的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周生民; 焦健; 葛新霞; 王如如; 冯文红; 周广田

    2011-01-01

    双乙酰是影响啤酒风味的重要因素.啤酒发酵过程中双乙酰含量先升高后下降.该文通过对啤酒发酵过程中有害菌对啤酒中双乙酰的影响,深入了解双乙酰含量的变化趋势.从生产的各个环节入手进行微生物的管理和控制,以保证啤酒的微生物安全,进而稳定啤酒的质量和风味.%Diacetyl is an important factor which affects beer flavoring. Contents of diacetyl increases firstly and deceases followed during beer brewing. The changing trend of diacetyl was deeply studied by study on harmful bacteria during beer brewing. The producing of beer should establish mi-crobial control monitoring system to keep the safety of microbial in beer and the quality and flavor of beer.

  2. Furanic compounds and furfural in different coffee products by headspace liquid-phase micro-extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: survey and effect of brewing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichi, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh-Mohammadi, Vahid; Hashemi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Abdorreza

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the levels of furan, 2-methylfuran, 2,5-dimethylfuran, vinyl furan, 2-methoxymethyl-furan and furfural in different coffee products were evaluated. Simultaneous determination of these six furanic compounds was performed by a head space liquid-phase micro-extraction (HS-LPME) method. A total of 67 coffee powder samples were analysed. The effects of boiling and espresso-making procedures on the levels of furanic compounds were investigated. The results showed that different types of coffee samples contained different concentrations of furanic compounds, due to the various processing conditions such as temperature, degree of roasting and fineness of grind. Among the different coffee samples, the highest level of furan (6320 µg kg⁻¹) was detected in ground coffee, while coffee-mix samples showed the lowest furan concentration (10 µg kg⁻¹). Levels in brewed coffees indicated that, except for furfural, brewing by an espresso machine caused significant loss of furanic compounds. PMID:25356540

  3. Brewing Technology of Persimmon plus Hawthorn Fruit Wine%柿子、山楂复合果酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫海珍; 张天英; 曾辉; 杨宁; 张浩

    2013-01-01

    In this study, water persimmon from Huixian of Henan province and red hawthorn from northern Henan province were used as the raw materials to optimize the brewing technology of persimmon +hawthorn complex fruit wine.Water persimmon was used as the foundation, and the pH-value of fruit pulp was adjusted respectively to 3.2, 3.6, 4.0 and 5.0 by hawthorn with higher organic acid content .The change rule of the main compositions in the fermentation process as well as the flavor of the finished product wine were studied.The results showed that:when the pH-value of fruit pulp was adjusted to 3.6 by hawthorn, the taste of the complex fruit wine was delicious , sweet and scented, and its aroma components mainly included some esters , such as ethyl ace-tate and ethyl caproate.The products had good biological stability with clear and transparent appearance .%  利用河南辉县水柿和豫北红山楂作为原料酿制柿子山楂酒,以水柿为基础,采用有机酸含量较高的山楂调节果浆pH值分别至3.2、3.6、4.0和5.0,研究发酵过程中主要成分的变化规律以及成品酒的风味,结果显示:采用山楂果浆调节pH值至3.6的柿子山楂酒的口感圆润、香气浓郁,香气组分主要以乙酸乙酯和己酸乙酯等酯类为主,产品生物稳定性好、澄清透明。

  4. Efeito da bebida de café descascado sobre a atividade antioxidante, os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos em ratos Peeled coffee brew effect in the antioxidant activity hematological and biochemical parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris da Silveira Duarte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o efeito da bebida filtrada, preparada com café-arábica descascado, sobre a peroxidação de lipídios, os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos in vivo. Para isso foram utilizados ratos que ingeriram 280 mg/kg/dia da bebida de café por 7 dias (tratamento agudo e 30 dias (tratamento crônico. A fim de determinar se a bebida de café é capaz de reduzir o estresse oxidativo, foi analisada a peroxidação de lipídios isolados de cérebro de rato analisando-se as substâncias reativas do ácido tiobarbitúrico. A ingestão da bebida por 7 e 30 dias inibiu significativamente a peroxidação lipídica (p The aim of this study was to verify the effect of filtered coffee brew prepared with peeled Coffea arabica on the lipid peroxidation and on hematological and biochemical parameters in vivo. Rats were ingested 280 mg/kg/day of coffee brew for 7 days (acute treatment and 30 days (chronic treatment. In order to determine whether coffee can reduce the oxidative stress, the rats brain isolated lipid peroxidation was accessed evaluating the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs.The ingestion of coffee brew for 7 and 30 days inhibited, significantly, the malondialdehyde concentration (p 0.05 between the percentage of peroxidation inhibition when the acute (48.6% and chronic (53.4% treatments were compared. The chronic ingestion of moderate doses of filtered coffee brew did not modify the plasma level of the hematological and biochemical parameters analyzed. The results indicate the beneficial health effect of moderated filtered coffee brew ingestion since it inhibited lipid peroxidation, but did not change the rats cholesterol and triacylglycerol plasma levels.

  5. Analysis of the Fatty Acid Composition after Brewing Mountain Grape Skin and Seed by GC/MS%酿酒后山葡萄皮和籽中脂肪酸成分的GC/MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁旭光; 侯冬岩; 李铁纯; 回瑞华

    2014-01-01

    After the brewing mountain grape skins and seeds in the fatty acid composition are analysed. Soxhlet extraction method to extract wine after mountain grape skins and seeds in the fatty oil,with potassium hydroxide methanol solution to methyl ester of fatty acid in fatty oil,and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry instrument is analyzed. Results show that the wine after the mountain grape skins identified 9 kinds of fatty acids,including three kinds of unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 72. 59% of the total fatty acid,linoleic acid accounted for 44. 98% of total fatty acid,oleic acid accounted for 25. 35% of total fatty acids. After brew-ing mountain grape seed identified 5 kinds of fatty acids,including three kinds of unsaturated fatty acids ac-counted for 87. 30% of the total fatty acid,linoleic acid accounted for 69. 58% of total fatty acid,oleic acid ac-counted for 14. 90% of total fatty acids.%对酿酒后山葡萄皮和籽中脂肪酸成分进行分析.采用索氏提取法提取酿酒后山葡萄皮和籽中的脂肪油,以氢氧化钾甲醇溶液对脂肪油中的脂肪酸进行甲酯化,用气相色谱-质谱联用仪进行分析.结果表明:酿酒后山葡萄皮鉴定出9种脂肪酸,其中不饱和脂肪酸3种占脂肪酸总量的72.59%,亚油酸占脂肪酸总量的44.98%、油酸占脂肪酸总量的25.35%;酿酒后山葡萄籽鉴定出5种脂肪酸,其中不饱和脂肪酸3种占脂肪酸总量的87.30%,亚油酸占脂肪酸总量的69.58%、油酸占脂肪酸总量的14.90%.

  6. Characterization of a β-glucanase produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus, and its potential for application in the brewing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Carlos R

    2006-12-01

    -glucanase produced by R. microsporus var. microsporus. was determined to be consistently lower. Conclusion The zygomycete microfungus R. microsporus var. microsporus produced a 1,3-1,4-β-D-glucan 4-glucanhydrolase (EC 3.2.1.73 which is able to hydrolyze β-D-glucan that contains both the 1,3- and 1,4-bonds (barley β-glucans. Its molecular mass was 33.7 kDa. Maximum activity was detected at pH values in the range of 4–5, and temperatures in the range of 50–60°C. The enzyme was able to reduce both the viscosity of the brewer mash and the filtration time, indicating its potential value for the brewing industry.

  7. Excavation of the Wine-brewing Workshop Site at Lidu in Jinxian County, Jiangxi%江西进贤县李渡烧酒作坊遗址的发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江西省文物考古研究所

    2003-01-01

    In July-November 2002, the Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology carried out a rescuing excavation of the wine-brewing workshop site at Lidu Town in Jinxian County, Jiangxi Province. They revealed the vestiges of wells, kitchen ranges, airing houses, wine cellars, distillers, wall-foundations, drainage ditches, pavements, ash-pits and brick pillars. The unearthed objects include stone articles, pottery, porcelain, bamboo and wooden wares, irons and bronzes, mostly wine vessels. The workshop began production in the Yuan period and continued to function in Ming and Qing times. It is early in date, long in duration, rich in remains and distinct in local character among the sites of this type. The discovery provides valuable data for studying the origin and development of ancient Chinese wine-distilling techniques.

  8. 酸性蛋白酶在山西老陈醋酿造中的应用%Appl ication of Acid Protease in Brewing of Shanxi Mature Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘佩平; 王慕华; 苏槟楠; 蔡颖慧; 赵玉明; 李海涛

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of acid protease activity of Daqu on the brewing of Shanxi mature vinegar,the brewing process of Shanxi mature vinegar is simulated in laboratory.Acid protease is added to improve Daqu enzyme activity.The results show that acid protease promotes the utilization of raw material during alcohol fermentation period and increases alcohol and amino acid nitrogen yield. The optimal acid protease activity is 501.5 U/g,while the alcohol production rate increases by 20.9%, reaching its highest value,and amino acid nitrogen content increases by 232.7%.The mature vinegar applied acid protease has higher total acid content with good clarity and stable quality.%为探明大曲中酸性蛋白酶酶活对山西老陈醋酿造的影响,在实验室内模拟山西老陈醋酿造工艺,以额外添加酸性蛋白酶来提高大曲酶活。结果发现:酸性蛋白酶可以在酒精发酵阶段促进原料的利用,提高酒精及氨基酸态氮含量,酒精度达到最高值的最适酸性蛋白酶酶活为501.5 U/g,此时,酒精产率提高20.9%,氨基酸态氮含量提高232.7%。通过醋酸发酵制得的老陈醋总酸含量高、澄清度好、品质稳定。

  9. 实训条件下自酿啤酒质量控制研究%A Study of Quality Control of Home Brewed Beer under On-the -spot Training Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严奉坤; 杨春华; 陈彬

    2014-01-01

    The teaching and on-the-spot training equipments of the micro beer production line play an important role in the practical teaching of occupation school. Because the teaching and on-the-spot training equipments of the occupation school are mainly for teaching,so comparing with the equipments for large-scale production in the brewery and for self-brewing at hotels,it is more difficult to grasp the influencing factors in the product quality control. The key factors affecting the quality of the self-brewed beer in the on-the-spot productive training were researched,and the critical control points were put forward.%微型啤酒生产线教学实训设备在职业学校的实践性教学中发挥了重要作用,由于职业学校的教学实训设备主要用于教学,与啤酒厂大生产和酒店自酿啤酒的设备相比,在影响产品质量因素的控制方面更难把握。通过对影响生产性实训中影响自酿啤酒质量的关键因素进行研究分析,确定关键控制点,并制定相应的解决方法和途径。

  10. 拟内孢霉酵母的特性和在黄酒酿造中的作用研究*%Contemplated In The Within Yeast Characteristics And The Chinese Rice Wine Brewing*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛青钟; 俞关松

    2013-01-01

      对拟内孢霉酵母的形态、糖化能力、耐酒精能力、产孢子、产香、产酒精能力等特性进行了研究,对拟内孢霉酵母在黄酒酿造中制酒药过程、淋饭酒母制作过程、发酵过程、浸米过程、制曲过程等作用进行了研究;结果表明:拟内孢霉酵母是酒药香气的主要产生菌,是淋饭酒母制作过程搭窝糖化期的主要糖化菌之一,是淋饭酒母制作过程搭窝糖化期窝液香气的主要产生菌,在黄酒酿造中具有重要作用。%Intends Endomycopsis yeast morphology saccharification ability, alcohol-resistant ability, spore-producing incense, alcohol production capacity and other characteristics of the study, Contemplated within Endomycopsis yeast Chinese Rice Wine brewing the system collaboration process, pour the the rice yeast starter making process, the fermentation process, the process of soaking rice koji process; The results show that: Contemplated within Endomycopsis yeast aroma producing bacteria collaboration, Cream the the rice yeast starter making process her nest in one of the major glycosylated bacteria glycated period, Cream the the rice yeast starter making process makes his nest glycated Wo liquid aroma producing bacteria,Play an important role in Chinese Rice Wine brewing.

  11. Matrix-compatible sorbent coatings based on structurally-tuned polymeric ionic liquids for the determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliero, Cecilia; Nan, He; Bicchi, Carlo; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-08-12

    Nine crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based SPME sorbent coatings were designed and screened in this study for the trace level determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The structure of the ionic liquid (IL) monomer was tailored by introducing different functional groups to the cation and the nature of the IL crosslinker was designed by altering both the structure of the cation as well as counteranions. The extraction efficiency of the new PIL coatings towards acrylamide was investigated and compared to a previously reported PIL sorbent coating. All PIL fibers exhibited excellent analytical precision and linearity. The PIL fiber coating consisting of 50% 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylbenzimidazolium)dodecane dibis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide as IL crosslinker in 1-vinyl-3-(10-hydroxydecyl)imidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide IL monomer resulted in a limit of quantitation of 0.5μgL(-1) with in-solution SPME sampling. The hydroxyl moiety appended to the IL cation was observed to significantly increase the sensitivity of the PIL coating toward acrylamide. The quantitation of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder was performed using the different PIL-based fibers by the method of standard addition after a quenching reaction using ninhydrin to inhibit the formation of interfering acrylamide in the GC inlet, mainly by asparagine thermal degradation. Excellent repeatability with relative standard deviations below 10% were obtained on the real coffee samples and the structure of the coatings appeared intact by scanning electron microscopy after coffee sampling proving the matrix-compatibility of the PIL sorbent coatings. PMID:27423776

  12. Application of response surface methodology in optimization of brewing technology of Fructus Cannabis steeping wine%响应面分析法在优化火麻仁酒酿造工艺中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翾; 李红良; 谢嘉雯

    2012-01-01

    研究了以大米为原料发酵得到的米酒为酒基,浸泡火麻仁制作火麻仁酒的工艺条件。首先通过单因素试验分别考察了火麻仁的颗粒度、火麻仁的添加量、浸泡时间、浸泡温度对火麻仁酒感官评价的影响,然后采用Design-Expert软件中心组合设计法设计正交试验,通过响应面分析法获得了火麻仁酒酿制的最佳工艺条件为:火麻仁的颗粒度25目、火麻仁的添加量32%、浸泡时间5.5d、浸泡温度23℃。利用本工艺制作的火麻仁酒色泽亮黄、诸香和谐纯正、火麻仁甘味与米酒甜味协调适中、1:7感良好、风格独特。%This research mainly studied the brewing technology the Fructus cannabis steeping wine, which took the rice wine as the liquor base. The effects of the granularity of Fructus cannabis, the addition of Fructus cannabis, the soaking time, the soaking temperature on the sensory evaluation of the Fructus cannabis steeping wine were determined respectively by the single factor experiments, on which the orthogonal experiments were designed by the central composite design of Design-Expert soft. And the optimum brewing conditions of the Fructus cannabis steeping wine were obtained as follows: 1.25 mm for the granularity of Fructus cannabis, 32% for the addition of Fructus cannabis, 5.5 days for the soaking time and 23℃for the soaking temperature. The Fructus cannabis steeping wine obtained under the condition was bright yellow, good for taste, aroma harmonious and has a particular flavor of fructus cannabis.

  13. Breeding Process and Traits of Gankenpi 7,a Special Barley Variety for Beer Brewing%酿造专用大麦品种甘垦啤7号的选育与品种特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张想平; 李润喜; 牛小霞

    2016-01-01

    Gankenpi 7 is a special barley variety for beer brewing with the traits of short plant height,compact plant type,high resist-ance to lodging,high yielding,high quality,and high resistance to stripe disease.This variety has shown good agronomic traits for many years in multi-site tests,including high and stable yielding,strong adaptability,and good quality.Hence,it is suitable for cul-tivation in spring-barley planting zones in North China,such as the Hexi Corridor in Gansu Province,Hami and Qitai in Xinjiang, Hailar in Inner Mongolia,and Shuangyashan in Heilongjiang Province.%甘垦啤7号矮秆、紧凑、高抗倒伏,高产、优质、高抗条纹病。多年多点试验表明该品种具有丰产性好、稳产性优、适应性强、品质优良等特点,适宜甘肃河西走廊、新疆哈密、新疆奇台、内蒙古海拉尔、黑龙江双鸭山等我国北方春大麦区种植。

  14. 小麦β-淀粉酶生产啤酒用糖浆糖化工艺条件的优化%Optimization of Saccharification Conditions of Syrup for Brewing Produced by Wheat β-Amylase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春海

    2012-01-01

    本文以新型淀粉酶(小麦β-淀粉酶)替代传统工艺使用的大麦β-淀粉酶糖化淀粉液化液生产啤酒用糖浆,同时,探讨了小麦β-淀粉酶的添加量、糖化温度、pH值、时间等因素对麦芽糖含量的影响.试验结果结合经济效益,得出最适合的工艺条件为:小麦β-淀粉酶添加0.010%(m/m),糖化温度61℃,pH值5.5、糖化24h.%This paper studied the use of a starch enzyme (wheat β-starch enzyme) instead of the traditional technology using of barley β-starch enzyme in saccharification of starch liquefaction liquid to produce syrup for brewing. Meanwhile, effects of some factors on maltose content, such as added amount of wheat P-starch enzyme, saccharification temperature, pH value, and saccharification hours, were discussed. These studies concluded the optimum conditions combined with economic benefit which wheat β-starch enzyme added 0.010% (m/m), saccharification temperature at 60 °C, pH value 5.5, and saccharificate for 24 hours.

  15. Effects research of fatty acid composition and brewing temperature on the infant formula milk powder%婴幼儿配方奶粉中脂肪酸组成及冲调温度对其影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟丽; 苏珊珊; 王晓君; 于珍青

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过比较研究婴幼儿配方奶粉的组成,模拟真实的奶粉冲调环境,考察不同冲调温度对婴幼儿配方奶粉脂肪酸的影响,为婴幼儿配方奶粉的科学冲调提供科学依据。方法:选择30℃、40℃、50℃、60℃、70℃、80℃、90℃的冲调奶粉溶液和原对照奶粉,检测其脂肪酸组成并进行对比分析。结果:婴幼儿配方奶粉与母乳在脂肪酸组成上极为相似,在试验水温下冲调配方奶粉溶液脂肪酸无明显变化。但是随着冲调水温的升高,饱和脂肪酸含量有微小的上升趋势,而不饱和脂肪酸均有微小减少。结论:婴幼儿配方奶粉含有丰富的不饱和脂肪酸,温度对其有一定的影响,建议在日常冲调配方奶粉时即冲即食,切忌长时间高温熬煮造成不饱和脂肪酸变异对婴幼儿的影响。%Objective:To provide scientific basis for brewing the infant formula milk powder scientifically,by the comparison of the composition of infant formula milk powder,simulation of real brewing surrounding,and investigation of the effect of different brewing temperature on the fatty acid of infant formula milk powder.Method:We tested the fatty acid compositions of milk powder solutions brewed at 30℃,40℃,50℃,60℃,70℃,80℃ and 90℃ and that of origical control milk powder solution,and compared the results for analysis.Results:The infant formula milk powder was very similar to breast milk on fatty acid composition.There were no significant changes of fatty acid by brewing infant formula milk powder at the experimental temperature.However,as the temperature rose,the content of saturated fatty acid increased slightly,and the content of unsaturated fatty acid decreased slightly. Conclusion:The infant formula milk powder contains ample unsaturated fatty acids which can be affected by temperature to a certain extent.It suggests that the routine infant formula milk powder solution should be freshly

  16. 生物淀粉酶系对β-淀粉的水解和无蒸煮黄酒酿造释疑%Disabusing of Biological Amylases Hydrolyzing of β-starch and Un-cooking Rice Wine Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佩仁; 陈江萍; 王林秋; 王友崇; 符汉君

    2016-01-01

    以大米(糯、粳、籼米)为主要原料酿造各类黄酒培养黄曲霉、红曲霉、黑曲霉(俗称乌衣)及根霉菌所获得分别以α-淀粉酶(液化型淀粉酶或称糊精化酶)和葡萄糖淀粉酶(淀粉-1,4-葡萄糖苷酶)为主体的淀粉酶系,经恰当的组合,利用其高度专一性之特征,在适宜的条件下催化完成淀粉水解糖化和酵母菌的酒精发酵。淀粉酶系不但能水解糖化经蒸煮糊化后处于常态发酵醪中的α-淀粉(熟淀粉),在经适当改良的无蒸煮发酵醪中亦能水解糖化β-淀粉(生淀粉);于室温等相同的环境下,仅是水解速率有所差异之别。似不存在能水解糖化α-淀粉的淀粉酶系,不能水解糖化β-淀粉的专有之属性。在酒类酿造中对淀粉酶系作用机理的认识,是有必要继续进行深入研究和探讨的。%Using rice (glutinous rice, japonica rice, indica rice ) as main raw materials to brew all kinds of rice wine is catalyzing the hydrolysis and saccharification of the appropriate combination of amylase obtained by cultivation of aspergillus flavus, monascus and aspergillus niger (commonly known as Wu Yi) and rhizopus, mainly respectivelyα-amylase (amylase or dextrinised enzyme) and glucose amylase (starch-1,4-glucosidase), and alcohol fermentation of yeast, under suitable conditions and using its characteristics of high specificity. Amylases not only can hydrolyze and saccharify the cooked and gelatinizedα-starch (cooked starch) in normal fermentation mash, but also can hydrolyze and saccharify the uncookedβ-starch (uncooked starch) in the proper modified fermentation mass. The only difference is the hydrolysis speed in the same environment at room temperature. It seems that there is no specific property of the amylases which could hydrolyze and saccharifyα-starch while couldn't hydrolyze and saccharifyβ-starch, It is necessary to continue research and discussion on the

  17. 杏皮渣醋酸发酵醋酸菌的分离筛选和鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Acetic Acid Bacteria for Fermentation of Brewing Vinegar from Apricot Dreg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴越; 张富县; 艾乃吐拉·马合木提; 傅力

    2013-01-01

    [目的]筛选获得适宜杏皮渣醋发酵的醋酸菌并对其进行鉴定,为杏皮渣醋质量及产量的提高奠定基础.[方法]在杏皮渣汁自然发酵液、固态发酵醋醅和杏园的土壤中分离醋酸菌,对分离菌株进行产酸曲线的测定及生理生化鉴定,对产酸量高的菌株进行16S rDNA序列测定并建立系统发育树,对其进行鉴定.[结果]共分离得到6株菌,其中Ac01、Ac02、Cp01、Cp02和Tr01属于醋酸菌属.初步判定,在杏皮渣汁的自然发酵液中分离的Ac01和Ac02可能属于醋化醋杆菌(Acetobacter aceti),菌株Ac02醋酸产量在分离菌株中最高,可达到3.04 g/100 mL,其16S rDNA序列与Acetobacter pomorum strain LMG 18848 16S rDNA序列相似度大于99%.[结论]在杏皮渣汁自然发酵液中分离得到的菌株Ac02为醋杆菌属(Acaobacter)的Acetobacter pomorum strain LMG 18848,是一株在杏皮渣醋生产中有应用潜力的醋酸菌.%[Objective] The aim of this study was to screen and identify the acetic acid bacteria strain for brewing vinegar from apricot dregs and lay the foundation for the improvement of the quality and yield of apricot dregs vinegar.[Method] The acetic acid bacteria were isolated from the natural fermentation broth of apricot dregs juice,the solid fermentative substrate of vinegar and the orchard soil,the curve of acid production was measured and the experiments of biochemical identification of each selected strain were conducted.The strains which could produce the highest acid were identified by 16S rDNA sequence and by the phylogenetic tree.[Result] Six strains were isolated,Ac01,Ac02,Cp01,Cp02 and Tr01 were identified as Acetobacter.Ac01 and Ac02 separated from the natural fermentation broth of apricot dregs juice may belong to Acetobacter aceti after the preliminary determination,the acetic acid yield of the strain Ac02 can reach 3.04 g/100 mL.The similarity of 16S rDNA sequence is more than 99% between Ac02 and Acetobacter pomorum strain

  18. 利用智利外海茎柔鱼内脏速酿鱼露的研究%Study on fish sauce brewed from the viscera of Dosidicus gigass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲映红; 王敏; 刘志东; 陈新军; 陈舜胜

    2011-01-01

    目的 以智利外海茎柔鱼内脏为原料,采用保温、加曲、加酶等不同速酿方法制备鱼露.方法 测定鱼露在不同酿制阶段的pH值、氨基酸态氮和章鱼胺含量,并对最终样品作感官评价.结果 与结论酿制20 d内,pH值和氨基酸态氮变化显著,20 d后趋于稳定.鱼露酿制前期,章鱼胺含量逐渐增加,15~20 d时,达到最大值,然后又呈下降趋势.保温和加曲速酿的样品在气味上优于加酶的样品.%Objective To brew fish sauce using the viscera of Dosidicus gigass. Methods To shorten brewage period, methods such as insulation, adding enzyme or koji were adopted. The changes of pH value,amino acid nitrogen and content of octopamine during brewage were investigated. The sensory characteristics were also evaluated. Results and Conclusion The pH value and amino acid nitrogen increased obviously in the first 20 days and then became steady. The content of octopamine climbed to the top of 6~7 mg · L-1 ml during 15~20 days of brewage and decreased afterwards. The smell of fish sauce added enzyme was the most unpleasant among the three kinds of samples.

  19. Effect of neutrase on quality of wort in beer brewing%中性蛋白酶对啤酒酿造中麦汁质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田红荀; 王家林

    2011-01-01

    . With development of beer industry, application of enzymes in beer brewing becomes more and more widely. Application and effect of neutrase in saccharification of wort was mainly studied. The results showed that when addition of neutrase was lower than 250g/(t malt, contents of alpha amino nitrogen of wort could increase by 25%, while higher addition of neutrase may inhibit effect of enzyme. Addition of neutrase could decrease turbidity of wort and content of sensitive protein to a certain extent. For further improved wort stability, corresponding control methods is necessary at the same time for control ofpolyphenols.%随着啤酒工业的发展,酶制剂在啤酒酿造中的应用越来越广泛.文中主要对中性蛋白酶在糖化过程的应用及对麦汁的影响进行了研究.研究表明,中性蛋白酶添加量在250mg/(kg麦芽)以下,可以使麦汁中α-氨基酸态氮含量提高25%以上,高于250mg/(kg麦芽)反而不利于酶的作用.添加中性蛋白酶只能在一定程度上降低麦汁浊度和敏感蛋白含量,若要进一步提高麦汁稳定性,需要同时采取相应措施,控制麦汁中多酚物质的含量.

  20. 酿酒葡萄新品种左优红在哈尔滨地区引种试验%Introduced Trial of New Variety Zuoyouhong for Brewing Vitis amurensis Rupr .Wine in Harbin Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In order to select wine grape varieties which have the cold resistance ,high yield ,good quality and are suitable for soil and climatic conditions in Heilongjiang province ,Introduced trial of new variety Zuoyouhong were studied in Harbin areas from 2006 to 2011 .The results showed that :the shape of fruit cluster was long circular ,the average weight of fruit cluster was 144 .8 g ,the shape of fruit grain was round and average weight of fruit grain was 1 .36 g ,Zuoyouhong have dark color ,thicker fruit powder ;Compared with Gongniang 1 ,fruit branch rate ,fruiting coefficient and soluble solid were higher in Zuoyouhong ,at the same time the quality of dry red wine brewed from it was good ;Zuoyouhong was suitable for wide development as a new variety in Harbin area .%  为了筛选出适宜黑龙江省当地土壤和气候条件的抗寒、高产、果实酿酒酒质好的葡萄品种,2006~2012年进行酿酒葡萄新品种左优红的引种试验。结果表明:在哈尔滨地区栽培,其果穗长圆锥形,平均穗重144.8 g ;果粒圆形,平均粒重1.36 g ,色泽深,果粉厚;与对照品种公酿1号相比,左优红品种表现为果枝率、结果系数、可溶性固形物高,霜霉病害轻,酿制的干红葡萄酒质量好;左优红是适宜在哈尔滨地区大面积发展的新品种。

  1. Use Issatchenkia Terricola Brewing Technique of Raspberry Wine by Biological Acid-degradation%陆生伊萨酵母生物降酸酿造树莓干型酒工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋韶奕; 张素敏; 连奎; 王雪松

    2014-01-01

    Research using the red raspberry as material and Issatchenkia Terricola as de-acidification yeast during brewing of pure juice wine, the following results were achieved or recorded. We came to a conclusion of the optimum acid-degradation condition by the single factor trial and orthogonal test: Issatchenkia Terricola inoculum size was 3 %, the Brewers yeast inoculum size was 0.08 %, the temperature of de-acidification was 28℃, and de-acidification time was 5 d. Product quality index of raspberry wine is as follow:its colour was ruby, with no obvious suspensions, The palate stable, with a typical aromas of raspberries and harmonious flavour.%以红树莓为原料,利用陆生伊萨酵母(Issatchenkia Terricola)进行生物降酸酿造全汁树莓干型酒。通过正交试验得到了最佳生物降酸条件:陆生伊萨酵母接种量3%、酿酒酵母接种量0.08%、降酸温度为28℃、降酸时间为5 d。经发酵所得树莓干酒色泽为红宝石色,无明显悬浮物,口感圆润淳厚,带有典型的树莓果香及和谐的醇香,无异味。

  2. Research on Biodiversity of Yeasts Associated with Hongqu Glutinous Rice Wine Starters and the Traditional Brewing Process%红曲黄酒酿造用曲及传统酿造过程中酵母菌的多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕旭聪; 翁星; 黄若兰; 张雯; 饶平凡; 倪莉

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨红曲黄酒酿造用曲中酵母菌多样性以及传统酿造过程中酵母菌菌群结构变化,为我国传统红曲黄酒中酵母菌资源的利用和对传统酿酒的有效控制及现代化酿酒新工艺的建立提供基础数据.方法:收集福建各地区的红曲黄酒酿造用曲20份,从中分离纯化出300株酵母菌,通过ITS1-5.8S-ITS2的PCR-RFLP指纹图谱对酵母菌进行分型,从各个分型类群中随机选取代表菌株,利用26S rDNA基因D1/D2区域序列分析进行分类鉴定;并采用PCR-RFLP快速分型鉴定技术分析红曲黄酒传统酿造过程中酵母菌菌群结构的变化.结果:从红曲黄酒酿造用酒曲中总共分离鉴定出12种类型酵母菌,其中扣囊复膜孢酵母(Saccharomycopsis fibuligera)、酿酒酵母(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)和弗比恩毕赤酵母(Pichia fabianii)是酒曲中3种主要的酵母菌类型.红曲黄酒传统酿造过程酵母菌群的跟踪分析共鉴定出4种酵母菌,即酿酒酵母、扣囊复膜孢酵母、季也蒙毕赤酵母(Pichia guilliermondii)、粘性红圆酵母(Rhodotorula mucilagnosa).在酿造前期扣囊复膜孢酵母是优势酵母菌,而在酿造的后期,酿酒酵母完全取代之成为优势菌.结论:红曲黄酒酿造用酒曲中的酵母菌具有丰富的生物多样性,红曲黄酒传统酿造过程酵母菌菌群结构处于动态变化,最终酿酒酵母成为酿造体系的优势酵母菌.%Objective: To analyze the biodivereity of the yeast species associated with Hongqu glutinous rice wine starters and the yeast dynamics of the traditional brewing process, and to provide essential data for utilization of yeasts in the traditional Hongqu glutinous rice wine of China, effective control of the traditional brewing process and establishment of new brewing process. Methods: 300 yeast strains were isolated from 20 samples of Hongqu glutinous rice wine starter. The isolates were identified by rTSl-5.8S-ITS2 gene region PCR-RFLP and the

  3. Study on Brewing Technology of Navel Orange Fruit Wine by Immobilized Yeast%固定化酵母酿造脐橙果酒的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余森艳; 李志红; 程海韵

    2015-01-01

    以脐橙为原料,对游离酵母和固定化酵母发酵制备脐橙果酒进行对比试验分析,并采用单因素试验和正交试验对固定化酵母发酵的初始糖度、酵母菌用量、发酵温度进行了工艺优化,最后对固定化酵母细胞重复利用进行了初步研究。结果表明:固定化酵母比游离酵母发酵速度快,酒精产生量多;固定化酵母发酵制备脐橙果酒的最佳工艺条件为:初始糖度16%,酵母菌用量0.6%,发酵温度24℃,在此条件下发酵6 d后得到果香浓郁、色泽金黄、澄清透明、酒精度为9.0% vol的优质脐橙果酒;固定化酵母可以重复利用,经3次重复发酵后果酒的酒精度仍能达到6.4% vol。%Using navel oranges as the major raw material ,free yeast and immobilized yeast were used respectively in the experimental production of navel orange wine .The brewing conditions for the ini‐tial sugar content ,yeast dosage and temperature were optimized with immobilized yeast fermentation by using single‐factor test and orthogonal experiments .Finally ,the preliminary study on the continu‐ous fermentation of immobilized yeast was carried out .Results showed that immobilized yeast led to quicker fermentation than free yeast and also had high fermenting alcohol content .The optimum tech‐nical conditions for immobilized yeast fermentation were as the following :initial sugar concentration was 16% ,the yeast dosage is 0 .6% ,and the temperature is 24 ℃ .The alcohol content of navel or‐ange wine amounted to 9 .0% vol under the optimum conditions after 6 days of fermentation with fruity flavor ,golden‐yellow color and good clarification level .Immobilized yeast could be reused for fermentation ,and the alcohol content of wine could still reach 6 .4% vol for 3 times of fermentation .

  4. Study on brewing technology of Clausena lansium fruit wine with wine yeast and da qu%果酒酵母粉辅以大曲酿造黄皮果酒工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘谋泉; 孔美兰; 张福平; 黄绵纯; 王宇星; 方雁慧

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different fermentation technology on the quality of Clausena lansium fruit wine(produced by matured and Clausena lansium) were studied.The optimum production conditi-ions were determined by single factors and orthogonal experiments,sensory evaluation and physio-chemical indexes measurement. The results were as follows;after breaking of Clausena lansium,adapt initial amount of sugar to 18%,initial pH4.0, inoculation amount of yeast 1.0g/L,ratio of da qu and fruit wine yeast 1:2. Under the temperature 35℃ , Clausena lansium fruit was fermented for 9d. Then,the fruit wine was further brewed through later fermentation, clarifying and sterilization.Under above conditions,the Clausena lansium fruit wine was produced in the color of dark yellow,liquor taste,pretty sweet,and had special coordinated fragrant smell of Clausena lansium fruit and maintained the rnerapeutic Values of the fruit. The fruit wine was found that alcohol content of persimmon wine reached 6~9%vol,total amount of sugar(glucose)≤3g/L,total acid(citric acid)6.0~8.0g/L.%以七、八成熟黄皮为原料,研究不同发酵工艺对黄皮果酒的影响.通过单因素实验、正交实验、感官品评和理化指标检测分析,确定其生产工艺为:黄皮破碎后,调节初始含糖量为18%,初始pH4.0,大曲和果酒酵母总接种量为1.0g/L,其中大曲和葡萄酒干酵母质量比为1∶2,发酵温度为35℃,发酵时间为9d;再经陈酿、澄清、除菌过滤得黄皮果酒.成品果酒酒体深黄色,口感醇厚,甘甜爽口,保持了黄皮果的特征香味,有独特的风味,其酒度为6~9%vol,总糖(g/L,以葡萄糖计)≤3,总酸(g/L,以柠檬酸计)为6.0~8.0.

  5. Bootlegging Literacy Sponsorship, Brewing up Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Tracey Hammler

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers how community literacy programs factor into broader economies of literacy development. The author analyzes two Appalachian community literacy projects, Shirley Brice Heath's ethnographic project in the Carolina Piedmont and Highlander Research and Education Center's organizing efforts with the Appalachian People's Movement, to…

  6. Innovations in the brewing industry: light beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos A; Caballero, Isabel; Barrios, Rosa; Rojas, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The demand for light beers has led brewers to innovate by developing light beer. However, these products are not widely accepted in Europe compared to North America and Australasia because of their lack of fullness in the taste and low bitterness compared with conventional beer. The lower levels of some important compounds, present in light beer, can explain these features since they are responsible for the characteristics of the beer. These include alcohol soluble proteins, oligosaccharides, glycerol, polyphenols, iso-α-acids, fusel alcohols and trihydroxy fatty acids. Light beer is produced by several methods, the most commonly used is the addition of glucoamylase to the wort before or during fermentation. This enzyme metabolizes residual carbohydrates (mainly dextrins) transforming them into fermentable sugars and reducing the caloric and alcohol content in this type of beer. Recently pilot studies have been carried out with genetically engineered yeast strains in which amylolytic genes are introduced into the yeast genome in order to metabolize carbohydrate residues. When introducing amylolytic genes, a better fermentability occurs although the fullness of flavor still becomes reduced.

  7. Advertising and concentration in the brewing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    The opening of the markets in East Asia and Eastern Europe in the 1990s changed the structure of the beer markets and in the following years a large wave of mergers and acquisitions took place. The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012, discusses some of the main...... drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market and the world market, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based...

  8. Advertising and concentration in the brewing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market and the world market, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based...

  9. Marketing and Globalization of the Brewing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    for beers and economies of scale at the firm level in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale at the firm level in marketing...... significant economies of scale benefits at the firm level to be shared between the merging partners as marketing and distribution costs are very high in this industry....

  10. Brewing Organizational Responses to Institutional Logics

    OpenAIRE

    Højgaard Christiansen, Lærke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines how the multinational brewer Carlsberg Group responds to the issue of ‘alcohol-related harm’, expressed in its work with the focus area of ‘responsible drinking’ (RD). RD is associated with different initiatives aimed at reducing the misuse of alcohol, e.g., youth drinking, binge drinking (i.e., drinking to excess), and drunk driving. The issue of ‘alcohol-related harm’ is not a new issue, but public perception of the issue has changed in the directio...

  11. Brewing the Recipe for Beer Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Calvo Porral; Normand Bourgault; Domingo Calvo Dopico

    2013-01-01

    This research study aims to analyze the sources and consequences of beverages’ Brand Equity, and more specifically, the beer Brand Equity in a Sothern European mature market. For this purpose, based on the customer-based Aaker’s Brand Equity model, we developed an empirical study, using structural equation modeling (SEM) in order to assess how beer Brand Equity stems from in the brewery industry and to analyze its consequences in consumer behavior. Our findings suggest that the beer brand ima...

  12. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora Coldea; Elena Mudura; Călin Şibotean; Emil Comşa

    2014-01-01

    Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were as...

  13. A New Brewing and Stock Grape Cultivar‘Huapu 1’%酿酒与砧木兼用葡萄新品种‘华葡 1 号’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波; 修德仁; 王宝亮; 王孝娣; 魏长存; 何锦兴; 郑晓翠; 刘万春; 刘凤之

    2012-01-01

    ‘Huapu 1’is a grape cultivar derived from‘Zuoshanyi’בWhite Malaga’. The fruits ripen in the mid to late September in Xingcheng area. The berry is round and purple-black color. Its average fruit cluster weight is 214.4 g,and the average single berry weight is 3.1 g. There are no berry drop or little and green berry,in the fruit cluster while maturing. The soluble solids content is 24.1% and 38.5% respectively,the titratable acid content is 1.27% and 1.32% respectively,the juice yield is 70.16% and 20.48% respectively in early October and early December. It has a high yield,early bearing,cold tolerance and disease resistance. Dry-red and ice-red wine brewed from its berry has high quality. The rooting and seedling rate of its cutting is 86.4%–95.7% and 74.1%–88.5% respectively,it is a good rootstock for table grape grafting.%酿酒与砧木兼用葡萄新品种‘华葡1号’是以‘左山一’与‘白马拉加’杂交育成,在辽宁兴城9月中下旬成熟。果穗中等大,平均单穗质量214.4 g,无小青粒及采前落粒现象。果粒圆形,紫黑色,平均单粒质量3.1 g。10月初采收,可溶性固形物含量24.1%,可滴定酸含量1.27%,出汁率70.16%;延迟到12月上旬采收,可溶性固形物含量38.54%,可滴定酸含量1.32%,出汁率20.48%。抗寒、抗病性强。产量高,用其酿造的干红和冰红葡萄酒酒质好。硬枝扦插生根率86.4%-95.7%,成苗率74.1% -88.5%,与‘红地球’和‘巨峰’等鲜食葡萄品种嫁接亲和力好,可作抗寒砧木。

  14. 北京自来水冲泡绿茶汤颜色及抗氧化性变化因素%Factors Affecting the Photochromism and Anti-oxidant Activity of Green Tea Infusion Brewed with Tap Water in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈然; 张季艾; 范志红

    2012-01-01

    Water quality was measured on Beijing tap water with and without reverse osmosis membrane filtration and deionized water. In addition, the effect of selected ions showing a considerable difference on color parameters and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion was discovered. Our results indicated that Beijing tap water was slightly alkaline, remarkably darkened the color of tea infusion compared with deionized water, and resulted in a distinct decrease in DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Calcium (70 mg/L), magnesium (30 mg/L) and sodium (18 mg/L) ions in Beijing tap water could reduce the color of tea infusion and its DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This suggests that the main reason for the darker color and decreased DPPH free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion brewed with tap water is that tea infusion is kept in a weakly alkaline environment during brewing due to the presence of HCO~ in tap water, thus causing oxidative degradation of tea phenols.%分别对北京地区弱碱性自来水及去离子水进行水质分析,并探究其中差别较大的几种离子对茶汤颜色及DPPH自由基清除能力的影响。结果表明:用北京地区弱碱性自来水冲泡绿茶得到茶汤的颜色较去离子水绿茶茶汤显著加深,DPPH自由基清除能力显著下降。Ca^2+(70mg/L)、Mg^2+(30mg/L)和Na^+(18mg/L)能够使茶汤颜色变浅,DPPH自由基清除能力上升。提示自来水中的HCO^-3在冲泡过程中将绿茶茶汤体系稳定在弱碱性环境,从而导致茶多酚的氧化降解,这是自来水绿茶茶汤颜色变深、DPPH自由基清除能力降低的主要因素。

  15. Application of “SP-3” and “SP-2” in the whole wheat beer brewing%“SP-3”与“SP-2”在全小麦啤酒酿造中应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁仲; 杨继远

    2011-01-01

    " SP-3 " was a new beer yeast strain, while " SP-02 " was the normal strain used in the production of malt beer. Comparison experiments of the application of" SP-3 " and " SP-2 " in production of wheat beer were conducted. The results showed that strains " SP-3 " is more adaptable in the whole wheat beer brewing than that of strain " SP-2 ". The parameters of beer by strain "SP-3 " were superior to that of" SP-2 ", which has pure taste, clean and soft, could meet for the current consumer's requirements.%“SP-3”是新选育的啤酒酵母菌株,而“SP-2”为通常生产大麦芽啤酒使用的啤酒酵母菌株,“SP-3”与“SP-2”啤酒酵母菌株在全小麦啤酒生产中应用对比试验结果表明,“SP-3”啤酒酵母菌株在全小麦芽啤酒的酿造中适用性较强,各项指标均优于“SP-2”啤酒酵母菌株,用其酿制的啤酒口感纯正、清爽、柔和,能够较好地适应当前消费者的口感需求.

  16. Aproveitamento da água de umidificação de malte da moagem úmida como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja Utilization of the wet milling malt steep water as raw material on brewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar G. VENTURINI FILHO

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A água de umidificação de malte, resultante da moagem úmida, pode ser usada como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja. Há, entretanto, cervejarias que descartam esse subproduto, e conseqüentemente, o extrato nele contido. Em função disso, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a possibilidade de ganho de rendimento na mosturação e alterações nas características químicas e sensoriais da bebida, em virtude do uso dessa água. Cervejas do tipo Pilsen foram produzidas de duas formas: com e sem água de umidificação de malte. Utilizou-se como matéria prima malte, lúpulo, xarope de maltose, água destilada e água de umidificação de malte. O mosto foi produzido pelo processo de infusão, separado do bagaço de malte por filtração convencional e fervido durante 60 minutos. Após seu resfriamento e clarificação o mosto foi inoculado com levedura de baixa fermentação (1,3g/l, ps e colocado para fermentar a 10°C. A fermentação foi encerrada com 90% da atenuação limite. Em seguida, a cerveja foi engarrafada e maturada a 0°C por 14 dias. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento do rendimento de mosturação, em função do uso da água de umidificação de malte, foi estatisticamente não significativo. A utilização dessa água praticamente não alterou as características químicas e sensoriais da cerveja, havendo apenas um leve aumento na intensidade de cor da bebida (7,1 x 8,0 EBC. Considerando, no entanto, que a água de umidificação de malte obtida em nível industrial apresenta maior concentração de extrato em relação àquela produzida em laboratório, espera-se que o uso da primeira traga ganho de rendimento industrial sem alterações significativas nas características da cerveja.The wet milling malt steep water can be used as raw material on brewing. However, some breweries discard this water containing a certain amount of extract. Based on this fact, the aim of this work was to evaluate possible

  17. Salt Reduction in Foods Using Naturally Brewed Soy Sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.; Shimojo, R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, health concerns related to salt/sodium chloride consumption have caused an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, sodium chloride (NaCl) reduction in foods has become an important challenge. The more so, since a decrease in NaCl content is often reported to be associ

  18. An Application of ISO 5725 in Brewing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Batchvarov, V; Marinova, G.; Mateev, P.; Christozov, D.

    2003-01-01

    2002 Mathematics Subject Classification: 62P30, 62P10. The colloidal stability is very important part of the total beer quality. The stabilized beers have to have a long shelf-life. Determination of some haze forming complexes could be very useful for prediction of beer colloidal stability. We study the repeatability and reproducibility of a method for determination of some haze forming complexes in beer. The method was tested in 10 laboratories. All of theme analyzed the same beer samples...

  19. Mold and mycotoxin problems encountered during malting and brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Hall, Charlene E

    2007-10-20

    Fusarium infections in grains can have severe effects on malt and beer. While some degree of Fusarium mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol, present in infected barley may be lost during steeping, the Fusarium mold is still capable of growth and mycotoxin production during steeping, germination and kilning. Therefore, detoxification of grain before malting may not be practical unless further growth of the mold is also prevented. Methods to reduce the amount of mold growth during malting are needed. Physical, chemical and biological methods are reviewed. Irradiation looks very promising as a means to prevent Fusarium growth during malting, but the effect on the surviving mold to produce mycotoxins and the effect on malt quality needs further study. Chemical treatments such as ozonation, which would not leave residual chemical in the beer also appear to be promising. Although biological control methods may be desirable, due to the use of "natural" inhibition, the effects of these inhibitors on malt and beer quality requires further investigation. It may also be possible to incorporate detoxifying genes into fermentation yeasts, which would result in detoxification of the wort when mold growth is no longer a problem. Development of these types of technological interventions should help improve the safety of products, such as beer, made from Fusarium infected grain. PMID:17727998

  20. Brewing an Assortment of Responses to Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard Christiansen, Lærke

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a case study on the responses of the five organizational units of Danish brewery company Carlsberg A/S to alcohol-related harm. It examines the interpretations of each unit on the issue and the factors for their varied response to the issue. The four models of response to ins...... to institutional complexity derived from separation, co-existence, industry bricolage and organizational bricolage are discussed....

  1. Implementation of lean tools and techniques in brewing

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, João Mário Marques

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Biológica (área de especialização em Tecnologia Química e Alimentar) Esta dissertação foi desenvolvida no âmbito da conclusão do Mestrado Integrado em Engenharia Biológica, na empresa Unicer Bebidas, S.A.. Este projeto visou a aplicação de metodologias e conceitos Lean Production, no âmbito da melhoria contínua do processo de produção de cerveja. O Lean Production visa a eliminação de atividades que gerem desperdício, isto é, ativida...

  2. Utilização de mostos concentrados na produção de cervejas pelo processo contínuo: novas tendências para o aumento da produtividade Use of concentrated worts for high gravity brewing by continuous process: new tendencies for the productivity increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Dragone

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a produtividade volumétrica em etanol durante a fermentação de mostos com elevadas concentrações de extrato original, para a produção de cerveja pelo processo contínuo, utilizando as leveduras imobilizadas em bagaço de malte. Os mostos com diferentes concentrações de extrato original (14,3 ºP, 15,2 ºP e 19,6 ºP foram preparados a partir de um mosto de 22 ºP elaborado com malte e adjunto de alta maltose em uma relação adjunto: malte de 1:2,8. As fermentações foram conduzidas em um reator de coluna de bolhas, a 15 ºC, empregando uma taxa de diluição de 0,04 h-1 e um fluxo constante de gases de 250 mL/min (200 mL/min de CO2 e 50 mL/min de ar. De acordo com os resultados, a produtividade volumétrica em etanol aumentou quando a concentração de extrato original do mosto foi aumentada, sendo o valor máximo (2,09 g.L-1.h-1 obtido para o mosto de 19,6 ºP. Esse valor representa um aumento de 345% quando comparado com a produtividade (0,47 g.L-1.h-1 da fermentação descontínua de um mosto de 20 ºP. Conclui-se, então, que o processo contínuo de fermentação de mostos com elevadas concentrações de extrato para a produção de cerveja permite obter expressivos ganhos na produtividade em etanol quando comparado ao processo descontínuo.The present work evaluated the ethanol volumetric productivity during fermentation of worts with elevated original extract, for high gravity brewing by continuous process using yeasts immobilized on brewer's spent grain. Worts with different original extract (14.3 ºP, 15.2 ºP and 19.6 ºP were prepared from a wort of 22 ºP elaborated with malt and high maltose adjunct in an adjunct:malt ratio of 1:2.8. The fermentations were performed in a bubble column reactor, at 15 ºC, using a dilution rate of 0.04 h-1 and a constant gas flow of 250 mL/min (200 mL/min CO2 and 50 mL/min air. According to the results, the ethanol volumetric productivity increased when the

  3. 酿造单宁在啤酒生产中的使用效果%The Effect of Brewing Tannin on the Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安建略; 朱汉权

    2006-01-01

    本实验研究了酿造单宁在啤酒生产中的使用效果,结果显示酿造单宁选择性地沉淀蛋白,但不影响泡沫,明显延长啤酒保质期和保鲜期,是提高啤酒非生物稳定的好材料.

  4. 酿造水中的锌离子对啤酒酿造的影响%Effect of Zinc Ion in Brewing Water On Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景晓莉; 李红; 张永茂

    2006-01-01

    啤酒中的锌离子来源于麦芽、大米、酿造用水、酒花.实验表明在啤酒酿造过程中,锌离子可激活酶的活性、提高酶的催化作用,促进糖化、发酵;提高麦汁中糖、氨基酸的含量;促进双乙酰的还原,降低双乙酰的含量;激活乙醇脱氢酶,降低乙醛,提高酵母活力,降低酵母死亡率;提高发酵度,缩短发酵时间.

  5. 海棠果醋的酿造研究%Brewing technology of crab apple vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常启龙; 卢晓霆; 王迎辉

    2009-01-01

    以海棠果为原料,通过果胶酶酶解海棠果胶得到优质海棠果汁后接入0.3%的酵母菌进行8d的酒精发酵酿制出海棠果酒;在发酵温度30℃,酒精度6%,醋酸菌接种量10%条件下经醋酸发酵酿制海棠果醋;选择75℃~80℃灭菌15min较为合理.

  6. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.W. Njue (Carolyne); H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène); P. Remes (Pieter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya. Met

  7. The Draft Genome of Hop (Humulus lupulus), an Essence for Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Satoshi; Takagi, Hiroki; Shiraishi, Akira; Murata, Jun; Toyonaga, Hiromi; Patzak, Josef; Takagi, Motoshige; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Uemura, Aiko; Mitsuoka, Chikako; Yoshida, Kentaro; Krofta, Karel; Satake, Honoo; Terauchi, Ryohei; Ono, Eiichiro

    2015-03-01

    The female flower of hop (Humulus lupulus var. lupulus) is an essential ingredient that gives characteristic aroma, bitterness and durability/stability to beer. However, the molecular genetic basis for identifying DNA markers in hop for breeding and to study its domestication has been poorly established. Here, we provide draft genomes for two hop cultivars [cv. Saazer (SZ) and cv. Shinshu Wase (SW)] and a Japanese wild hop [H. lupulus var. cordifolius; also known as Karahanasou (KR)]. Sequencing and de novo assembly of genomic DNA from heterozygous SW plants generated scaffolds with a total size of 2.05 Gb, corresponding to approximately 80% of the estimated genome size of hop (2.57 Gb). The scaffolds contained 41,228 putative protein-encoding genes. The genome sequences for SZ and KR were constructed by aligning their short sequence reads to the SW reference genome and then replacing the nucleotides at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. De novo RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of SW revealed the developmental regulation of genes involved in specialized metabolic processes that impact taste and flavor in beer. Application of a novel bioinformatics tool, phylogenetic comparative RNA-Seq (PCP-Seq), which is based on read depth of genomic DNAs and RNAs, enabled the identification of genes related to the biosynthesis of aromas and flavors that are enriched in SW compared to KR. Our results not only suggest the significance of historical human selection process for enhancing aroma and bitterness biosyntheses in hop cultivars, but also serve as crucial information for breeding varieties with high quality and yield.

  8. What's Inside That Seed We Brew? A New Approach To Mining the Coffee Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Michael Joe; Mitchell, Thomas; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B

    2015-10-01

    Coffee is a critically important agricultural commodity for many tropical states and is a beverage enjoyed by millions of people worldwide. Recent concerns over the sustainability of coffee production have prompted investigations of the coffee microbiome as a tool to improve crop health and bean quality. This review synthesizes literature informing our knowledge of the coffee microbiome, with an emphasis on applications of fruit- and seed-associated microbes in coffee production and processing. A comprehensive inventory of microbial species cited in association with coffee fruits and seeds is presented as reference tool for researchers investigating coffee-microbe associations. It concludes with a discussion of the approaches and techniques that provide a path forward to improve our understanding of the coffee microbiome and its utility, as a whole and as individual components, to help ensure the future sustainability of coffee production.

  9. Strategically Targeting the Shebeen Market in Namibia With Social Media : Case: Camelthorn Brewing Company

    OpenAIRE

    Vesikko, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Social media strategies are essential for SMEs such as microbreweries that want to interact and engage with consumers with little cost. Social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Youtube and LinkedIn provide a platform for online conversation and can be used to better understand a target market. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how Camelthorn Brewery Company can use social media to strategically target the shebeen market in Namibia. The scope of the thesis covers legally trading s...

  10. Characteristics of African traditional beers brewed with sorghum malt: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyumugabe, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sorghum beers are produced in several countries of Africa, but variations in the manufacturing process may occur depending on the geographic localization. These beers are very rich in calories, B-group vitamins including thiamine, folic acid, riboflavin and nicotinic acid, and essential amino acids such as lysine. However, the traditional sorghum beer is less attractive than Western beers because of its poorer hygienic quality, organoleptic variations and shorter shelf life. Research into the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional sorghum beers as well as their technologies have been performed and documented in several African countries. This review aims to summarize the production processes and compositional characteristics of African traditional sorghum beers (ikigage, merissa, doro, dolo, pito, amgba and tchoukoutou. It also highlights the major differences between these traditional beers and barley malt beer, consumed worldwide, and suggests adaptations that could be made to improve the production process of traditional sorghum beer.

  11. Oxidative reactions during early stages of beer brewing studied by electron spin resonance and spin trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Anne M; Festersen, Rikke M; Andersen, Mogens L

    2008-09-24

    An electron spin resonance (ESR)-based method was used for evaluating the levels of radical formation during mashing and in sweet wort. The method included the addition of 5% (v/v) ethanol together with the spin trap alpha-4-pyridyl(1-oxide)- N- tert-butylnitrone (POBN) to wort, followed by monitoring the rate of formation of POBN spin adducts during aerobic heating of the wort. The presence of ethanol makes the spin trapping method more selective and sensitive for the detection of highly reactive radicals such as hydroxyl and alkoxyl radicals. Samples of wort that were collected during the early stages of the mashing process gave higher rates of spin adduct formation than wort samples collected during the later stages. The lower oxidative stability of the early wort samples was confirmed by measuring the rate of oxygen consumption during heating of the wort. The addition of Fe(II) to the wort samples increased the rate of spin adduct formation, whereas the addition of Fe(II) during the mashing had no effect on the oxidative stability of the wort samples. Analysis of the iron content in the sweet wort samples demonstrated that iron added during the mashing had no effect on the iron level in the wort. The moderate temperatures during the early steps of mashing allow the endogenous malt enzymes to be active. The potential antioxidative effects of different redox-active enzymes during mashing were tested by measuring the rate of spin adduct formation in samples of wort. Surprisingly, a high catalase dosage caused a significant, 20% reduction of the initial rate of radical formation, whereas superoxide dismutase had no effect on the oxidation rates. This suggests that hydrogen peroxide and superoxide are not the only intermediates that play a role in the oxidative reactions occurring during aerobic oxidation of sweet wort.

  12. Metabolic flux and nodes control analysis of brewer's yeasts under different fermentation temperature during beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhimin; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhao, Mouming; Lei, Hongjie; Li, Huiping

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to further investigate the glycolysis performance of lager and ale brewer's yeasts under different fermentation temperature using a combined analysis of metabolic flux, glycolytic enzyme activities, and flux control. The results indicated that the fluxes through glycolytic pathway decreased with the change of the fermentation temperature from 15 °C to 10 °C, which resulted in the prolonged fermentation times. The maximum activities (V (max)) of hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) at key nodes of glycolytic pathway decreased with decreasing fermentation temperature, which was estimated to have different control extent (22-84 %) on the glycolytic fluxes in exponential or flocculent phase. Moreover, the decrease of V (max) of PFK or PK displayed the crucial role in down-regulation of flux in flocculent phase. In addition, the metabolic state of ale strain was more sensitive to the variation of temperature than that of lager strain. The results of the metabolic flux and nodes control analysis in brewer's yeasts under different fermentation temperature may provide an alternative approach to regulate glycolytic flux by changing V (max) and improve the production efficiency and beer quality.

  13. The Renewal of Mature Industries: An Examination of the Revival of the Dutch Beer Brewing Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Kroezen (Jochem J.)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Many mature industries have recently experienced a remarkable revival. Yet, other important industries appear to remain impervious to change. While the evolution of industries is an important topic in the industrial organization and organizational sociology literature,

  14. [Stress on the lumbar spine in workers in the beer brewing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitar-Srebocan, V; Hursidić Radulović, A; Mustajbegović, J

    1995-03-01

    The appearance of lumbal syndrome was analysed in two groups of workers in the "Zagrebacka pivovara" brewery. In a group of 23 workers whose mean age was 34 years and mean length of service 12 years, nine (39.1%) suffered from lumbal syndrome. In another group of 33 workers, with the mean age of 31 years and the mean length of service of nine years there were 24 (72.7%) suffering from the syndrome. According to Student's t-test the differences in age and length of service between the two groups were not significant (P > 0.05), but the difference in the number of ill was significant (P < 0.05). Analysis of the workplace showed that a heavy burden of the lumbal spine was involved, especially with the workers from the second group, and that ergonomic solutions were necessary.

  15. The cocoyam, Xanthosoma sagittifollium, as a potential raw material source for beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuka, N D; Eneh, C O

    1996-06-01

    A widely cultivated cocoyam variety, Xanthosoma sagittifollium, was assessed for its suitability for lager beer production, using malted Sorghum vulgare (white variety) for saccharification of the substrate. The three-mash decoction method was used. Results showed that the cocoyam was superior to barley and sorghum as a substrate because of its potentially higher carbohydrate content (71-78%) compared to barley (65%) and sorghum (70-73%). The percentage wort extract was 13.3-14.5 degrees plato compared to 7-12 for barley and 13 degrees for the tuber crop, cassava. The kiln dried Xanthosoma sagittifollium gave a dark bager beer with good aroma (68%) and very good flavour (73%) when compared with a commercial lager beer (Monarch) as standard (100%). The alcohol content (4.16% w/v) and the specific gravity (1013) were within the range (4.0-6.4%) and (1011-1019), respectively, specified by the Standard Organization of Nigeria. Although the bitterness value 40 EBU, was higher than the typical range 16-30 EBU, the taste panel indicated this was acceptable. The pH was 4.68 compared with the standard 4.36, while the acidity (as % lactic acid) was 0.36 compared to 0.24 for some commercial products.

  16. 野生酵母与啤酒酿造%Wild Barm and Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海明

    2003-01-01

    野生酵母污染会造成啤酒质量问题.要选择适当的方法进行野生酵母的检查,了解污染的来源和程度;对症下药,对设备、管道和阀门等要进行彻底的清洁、灭菌工作,不能有死角.对与啤酒接触的气源、水、助滤剂、添加剂等要保证达到一定的无菌度,从而控制野生酵母的浓度不至于损害啤酒的质量.

  17. The Draft Genome of Hop (Humulus lupulus), an Essence for Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Satoshi; Takagi, Hiroki; Shiraishi, Akira; Murata, Jun; Toyonaga, Hiromi; Patzak, Josef; Takagi, Motoshige; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Uemura, Aiko; Mitsuoka, Chikako; Yoshida, Kentaro; Krofta, Karel; Satake, Honoo; Terauchi, Ryohei; Ono, Eiichiro

    2015-03-01

    The female flower of hop (Humulus lupulus var. lupulus) is an essential ingredient that gives characteristic aroma, bitterness and durability/stability to beer. However, the molecular genetic basis for identifying DNA markers in hop for breeding and to study its domestication has been poorly established. Here, we provide draft genomes for two hop cultivars [cv. Saazer (SZ) and cv. Shinshu Wase (SW)] and a Japanese wild hop [H. lupulus var. cordifolius; also known as Karahanasou (KR)]. Sequencing and de novo assembly of genomic DNA from heterozygous SW plants generated scaffolds with a total size of 2.05 Gb, corresponding to approximately 80% of the estimated genome size of hop (2.57 Gb). The scaffolds contained 41,228 putative protein-encoding genes. The genome sequences for SZ and KR were constructed by aligning their short sequence reads to the SW reference genome and then replacing the nucleotides at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. De novo RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of SW revealed the developmental regulation of genes involved in specialized metabolic processes that impact taste and flavor in beer. Application of a novel bioinformatics tool, phylogenetic comparative RNA-Seq (PCP-Seq), which is based on read depth of genomic DNAs and RNAs, enabled the identification of genes related to the biosynthesis of aromas and flavors that are enriched in SW compared to KR. Our results not only suggest the significance of historical human selection process for enhancing aroma and bitterness biosyntheses in hop cultivars, but also serve as crucial information for breeding varieties with high quality and yield. PMID:25416290

  18. [Body thermal status under low-temperature conditions in brewing production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva-Todorova, L; Dimitrova-Toneva, I

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to trace the thermal state of workers exposed to low temperatures in brewery production, establishing the heat loss and the stress of thermoregulation. The investigations are performed in the departments for fermentation, deposit, cask washing and filling of 3 brewery plants. In order to characterize the microclimate methods of thermometry, psychometry and catathermometry are used. The heat state is controlled by methods of subjective heat perception, skin temperature, average skin temperature, temperature gradients, oral, rectal and average body temperature and the thermal content. The results of the physiological examinations point out to significant loss, which affects not only the periphery but also the deep tissues. There is an expressed risk of supercooling of the organism. The data of the heat deficit impose a correction of the working clothes and limitation of the exposure.

  19. Brewing complications: the effect of acute ethanol exposure on wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Radek, Katherine A.; Ranzer, Matthew J.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol consumption is linked to a higher incidence of traumatic wounds and increases the risk for morbidity and mortality following surgical or traumatic injury. One of the most profound effects of acute ethanol exposure on wound healing occurs during the inflammatory response, and altered cytokine production is a primary component. Acute ethanol exposure also impairs the proliferative response during healing, causing delays in epithelial coverage, collagen synthesis, and blood vessel regrow...

  20. Discipline Issues: Is There a Tempest Brewing in B.C. Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Educational policy in British Columbia does not distinguish between special needs and regular class students in relation to discipline practices. Although Canadian courts have generally upheld the rights of school boards rather than the unspecified rights of special needs children, a recent court case suggests the possibility of change. (JW)

  1. 草莓酒的酿制工艺%Brewing Technique of Strawberry Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李西波; 李晓茹; 刘胜利

    2006-01-01

    以市售新鲜草莓为原料,经榨汁,将汁液发酵、陈酿制得酒度为13°(V/V),总酸为4.5~7.5m∥ml的甘甜草莓酒.加入一定量的优质食用酒精,将酒度调至16°~18°,符合国家果酒标准.

  2. Brewing of Dry Strawberry Wine%干式草莓酒的酿造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代同现; 张艳茹; 王中兴; 苗桂梅

    2001-01-01

    以新鲜草莓为原料,榨汁发酵生产草莓酒.果汁用8.0× 10-5~1.0×104(80~100ppm)的SO2处理,发酵酒度控制在11%~12%,糖度调整到21~22 Bx,总酸控制在0.45~0.5g/100 ml,活性干酵母的添加量为0.2‰~0.3‰,发酵温度控制在18~23℃,发酵时间在8~15天内;勾兑好的草莓酒须经0.5~1.0℃冷冻保温一周后过滤,补加适量SO2,装瓶得成品酒.(孙悟)

  3. Brewing technique of strawberry wine?%问:草莓酒酿制工艺?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2005-01-01

    @@ 答:草莓酒,营养丰富,风味独特,具体酿制工艺如下. 选料:要选择充分成熟,香味浓郁、色泽鲜、含糖量高、无病及无腐烂的果实为原料,洗掉果实表面上的泥土杂质.最好用流动水漂洗,如果果实表面清洁亦可免去这道工序.

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility into the 21st century : Brewing a better future?

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschstein, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), a field still under development, has already seen different phases. With new technological advancements and the demand for ethical business growing –how has history affected the theory and practice in this field? Is Corporate Social Responsibility moving into new directions, and how do global players deal with challenges in the field while trying to stay ahead of their competition? Interests and efforts in Corporate Social Responsibility are seemingly gr...

  5. The effect of dewaxing of green coffee on the coffee brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegen, G.H.D. van der

    1979-01-01

    The two commercially most important mild treatments for green coffee are the steam treatment and the dewaxing process. In the former treatment the green coffee is just steamed. In the dewaxing process the waxy layer is extracted from the green coffee with an organic solvent, after which this coffee

  6. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Voeten Helene ACM; Njue Carolyne; Remes Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results Porn video shows a...

  7. Brewing Service Quality in Higher Education: Characteristics of Ingredients that Make up the Recipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Roland K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to explore the influences of service quality in higher education and the perceptions associated with the implementation of a Singapore tertiary institution. It draws on the underpinnings of SERVQUAL, and discusses the dichotomy and interrelation between customer perception and expectation. Design/methodology/approach:…

  8. The Science of Solubility: Using Reverse Engineering to Brew a Perfect Cup of Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Andrew B.; Sickel, Aaron J.; Cribbs, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards call for the integration of science and engineering. Often, the introduction of engineering activities occurs after instruction in the science content. That is, engineering is used as a way for students to elaborate on science ideas that have already been explored. However, using only this sequence of…

  9. Nanolaser Spectroscopy of Genetically Engineered Yeast: New Tool for a Better Brew?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Paul L.; Hendricks, Judy K.; Naviaux, Robert K.; Yaffe, Michael P.

    2006-03-01

    A basic function of the cell membrane is to selectively uptake ions or molecules from its environment to concentrate them into the interior. This concentration difference results in an osmostic pressure difference across the membrane. Ultimately, this pressure and its fluctuation from cell to cell will be limited by the availability and fluctuations of the solute concentrations in solution, the extent of inter-cell communication, and the state of respiring intracellular mitochondria that fuel the process. To measure these fluctuations, we have employed a high-speed nanolaser technique that samples the osmotic pressure in individual yeast cells and isolated mitochondria. We analyzed 2 yeast cell strains, normal baker’s yeast and a genetically-altered version, that differ only by the presence of mitochondrial DNA. The absence of mitochondrial DNA results in the complete loss of all the mtDNA-encoded proteins and RNAs, and loss of the pigmented, heme-containing cytochromes. These cells have mitochondria, but the mitochondria lack most normal respiratory chain complexes. The frequency distributions in the nanolaser spectra produced by wild-type and modified cells and mitochondria show a striking shift from Gaussian to Poissonian distributions, revealing a powerful novel method for studying statistical physics of yeast.

  10. Interactions between major chlorogenic acid isomers and chemical changes in coffee brew that affect antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Xue, Wei; Kennepohl, Pierre; Kitts, David D

    2016-12-15

    Coffee bean source and roasting conditions significantly (p<0.05) affected the content of chlorogenic acid (CGA) isomers, several indices of browning and subsequent antioxidant values. Principal component analysis was used to interpret the correlations between physiochemical and antioxidant parameters of coffee. CGA isomer content was positively correlated (p<0.001) to capacity of coffee to reduce nitric oxide and scavenge Frémy's salt. Indices of browning in roasted coffee were positively correlated (p<0.001) to ABTS and TEMPO radical scavenging capacity, respectively. Only the CGA content of coffee corresponded to intracellular antioxidant capacity measured in Caco-2 intestinal cells. This study concluded that the intracellular antioxidant capacity that best describes potential health benefits of coffee positively corresponds best with CGA content. PMID:27451179

  11. Cooperation in Prices and Capacities: Trade Associations in Brewing after Repeal.

    OpenAIRE

    McGahan, A M

    1995-01-01

    This study's main contribution is examination of the excess capacity held by brewers during a period in which they tacitly cooperated on price. The analysis covers the industry in the United States between repeal of Prohibition in 1933 and wartime rationing of raw material in 1942. From April 1933 to May 1935, "destructive price-cutting" among brewers was illegal under the National Industrial Recovery Act. Subsequent rivalry among trade associations facilitated the development of tacitly coop...

  12. Brewing Bokashi: Strengthening Student Skills in Dilution Theory through Fermentation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Zdor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic microbiological techniques that students should master is that of using dilution theory to calculate the levels of bacteria in a fluid. This tip reports on using a rice water-milk fermentation mixture termed Bokashi as an easily implemented exercise in the basic microbiological lab to give students multiple opportunities to use dilution theory. Due to the shifts in bacterial community composition over time, a variety of microbes can be cultured using selective and nonselective media. Microscopic observation and the use of GEN III microplates to determine the collective phenotypic pattern of the mixture both give additional opportunities for students to hone their skills in bacterial analysis. Due to the decrease in the pH of the mixture over time, the notion of acid tolerance in bacteria can be explored and assessed using the microplate. By performing multiple rounds of serial dilutions and spread plating, students can practice their skill at using dilution theory several times over the course of the exercise.

  13. What's Inside That Seed We Brew? A New Approach To Mining the Coffee Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Michael Joe; Mitchell, Thomas; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B

    2015-10-01

    Coffee is a critically important agricultural commodity for many tropical states and is a beverage enjoyed by millions of people worldwide. Recent concerns over the sustainability of coffee production have prompted investigations of the coffee microbiome as a tool to improve crop health and bean quality. This review synthesizes literature informing our knowledge of the coffee microbiome, with an emphasis on applications of fruit- and seed-associated microbes in coffee production and processing. A comprehensive inventory of microbial species cited in association with coffee fruits and seeds is presented as reference tool for researchers investigating coffee-microbe associations. It concludes with a discussion of the approaches and techniques that provide a path forward to improve our understanding of the coffee microbiome and its utility, as a whole and as individual components, to help ensure the future sustainability of coffee production. PMID:26162877

  14. Computer epistemology a treatise on the feasibility of the unfeasible or old ideas brewed new

    CERN Document Server

    Vámos, Tibor

    1991-01-01

    This book is an essay on relevant problems of epistemology (the theory of knowledge) related to computer science. It draws a continuous line between the earliest scientific approaches of epistemology, starting with the Greek Classics and the recent practical and theoretical problems of computer modelling, and by that the appropriate application of computers to our present problems. Uncertainty, logic and language are the key issues of this road leading to some new aspects of cognitive psychology and unification of the different results for a modelling procedure. The book is not a textbook but

  15. 酿造水对低度啤酒质量的影响——诠释红石梁的酿造用水%Effect of Brewing Water on Low Gravity Beer: Brewing Water of Red Shiliang Beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱保方

    2006-01-01

    近来低浓度啤酒在中国较受欢迎,尤其在南方地区更为突出.但是随着原麦汁浓度的降低,啤酒的各种异杂味易露头,因此酿造用水的质量对低度啤酒的口感起着非常重要的作用.通过对酿造水的改良,可以解决低度啤酒质量中遇到的口感酸涩、非生物稳定性差等一些技术难题,提高啤酒质量.

  16. 苹果醋酿造工艺的研究%Study on Technique of Apple Vinegar Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾艳萍; 贾心倩; 马姣

    2013-01-01

    以苹果为原料,研究了苹果醋酿造的生产工艺条件和操作要点,结果表明:调整糖浓度为15%,温度为30~32℃,酒精发酵时间为8天,醋酸发酵时间为8天,并经过大约7天的后熟,制得的苹果醋果香和醋香浓郁,口感醇厚柔和.

  17. Screening of brewing yeasts for blueberry wine%蓝莓酒酿造酵母的筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖禹含; 张东升; 李亚东; 辛秀兰; 王彦辉

    2010-01-01

    研究了3株酵母菌在蓝莓酒发酵过程中的生长速率、总糖、总酸和酒精度等理化指标的变化规律,并对蓝莓酒进行感官评定,筛选出酿造蓝莓酒的优良菌株.结果表明,酿酒酵母1203生长繁殖快,酸度小,降糖和产酒精能力强.其果汁发酵结束后总糖为5.6 g/L,总酸8.37g/L,酒精度12.2%vol,感官评分得分93分.确定酿酒酵母1203为蓝莓酒酿造的优良菌株.

  18. 40 CFR 63.2161 - What performance tests and other procedures must I use if I monitor brew ethanol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the EPA Test Method 25A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, over the entire length of a batch. The three... each fermentation stage over the period of EPA Test Method 25A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A... measured by EPA Test Method 25A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, must be linear with a...

  19. Study on the Brewing Techniques of Loquat Fruit Wine%枇杷果酒酿造工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶顺君; 蒲彪

    2007-01-01

    以四川成都龙泉枇杷为原料研究了枇杷果酒的加工工艺,并探讨了不同发酵温度、糖浓度对果酒质量的影响.结果表明,发酵温度和糖浓度对酒的品质有比较明显的影响.

  20. Torulaspora delbrueckii in the brewing process: A new approach to enhance bioflavour and to reduce ethanol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Laura; Agarbati, Alice; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, consumers require fermented alcoholic beverages with particular and enhanced flavour profiles while avoiding the health concerns due to high ethanol content. Here, the use of Torulaspora delbrueckii was evaluated for beer production, in both pure and in mixed cultures with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter strain (US-05). The yeast interactions were also evaluated. In mixed fermentations with S. cerevisiae, the main analytical characters from T. delbrueckii were comparable with those of the S. cerevisiae starter strain, but the beers were characterized by a distinctive overall analytical and aromatic profile. Indeed, there were interactions between S. cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii, with enhanced ethyl hexanoate (0.048 mg l(-1)) and ethyl octaonate (0.014 mg l(-1)) levels at the 1:20 and 1:10 inoculation ratios, respectively; while phenyl ethyl acetate increased in all mix combinations. The presence of T. delbrueckii resulted in reduced β-phenyl ethanol and isoamyl acetate levels, which are responsible for floral and fruity aromas, respectively. Beer produced with T. delbrueckii pure cultures had a low alcohol content (2.66%; v/v), while also showing a particularly analytical and aromatic profile. PMID:26919817

  1. Next-generation sequencing analysis of lager brewing yeast strains reveals the evolutionary history of interspecies hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Miki; Kajitani, Rei; Ryusui, Rie; Morimoto, Hiroya; Kodama, Yukiko; Itoh, Takehiko

    2016-02-01

    The lager beer yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus is considered an allopolyploid hybrid species between S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus. Many S. pastorianus strains have been isolated and classified into two groups according to geographical origin, but this classification remains controversial. Hybridization analyses and partial PCR-based sequence data have indicated a separate origin of these two groups, whereas a recent intertranslocation analysis suggested a single origin. To clarify the evolutionary history of this species, we analysed 10 S. pastorianus strains and the S. eubayanus type strain as a likely parent by Illumina next-generation sequencing. In addition to assembling the genomes of five of the strains, we obtained information on interchromosomal translocation, ploidy, and single-nucleotide variants (SNVs). Collectively, these results indicated that the two groups of strains share S. cerevisiae haploid chromosomes. We therefore conclude that both groups of S. pastorianus strains share at least one interspecific hybridization event and originated from a common parental species and that differences in ploidy and SNVs between the groups can be explained by chromosomal deletion or loss of heterozygosity. PMID:26732986

  2. 麦芽酚在啤酒生产中的应用%Application of Maltol in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董红伟; 武春梅; 李艺频

    2001-01-01

    麦芽酚和乙基麦芽酚作为提香剂和口味改良剂广泛应用于食品工业中,介绍了麦芽酚和乙基麦芽酚的结构和性质,及它们在黑啤酒生产和果啤生产中的应用,探讨其对改善黑啤酒及果啤风味及抑制苦味和异味的作用.

  3. 黑啤酒酿制方法的改进%A Study on Black Beer Brew Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左永泉

    2002-01-01

    为适应啤酒市场竞争和变化的需要,对传统的黑啤酒生产工艺进行改进,采用浅色麦芽、焦香麦芽和大米等为主要原料,经一次煮出糖化和低温发酵,结合后修饰技术,可酿制出具有焦香浓郁、口味醇厚、风味独特的黑啤酒.本文对黑啤酒酿制中原料配比和有关工艺要点进行了探讨.

  4. 啤酒生产过程中双乙酰的控制%Management of Biacetyl in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绒

    2002-01-01

    在发酵过程中,筛选分离提高双乙酰的酵母变异菌株,提高其对双乙酰的还原速率;提高发酵温度,增加通风搅拌,降低麦汁的pH值,以加速α-乙酰乳酸的分解速度;在主酵中添加α-乙酰乳酸脱羧酶、利用CO2洗涤、添加抗坏血酸(Vc)等控制双乙酰.(庞晓)

  5. 高纯食品鞣酸在啤酒中的应用%Application of Tannin in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡鹏刚; 刘强

    2004-01-01

    在啤酒的生产过程中添加高纯食品鞣酸可除去啤酒中的敏感蛋白、金属离子和多酚物质,可降低啤酒的浊度,提高啤酒的胶体稳定性,延长啤酒的保质期.实验表明,在过滤时加入鞣酸最好,最佳添加量为20mg/L.鞣酸为提高啤酒非生物和风味稳定性最好的稳定剂.(孙悟)

  6. 酶制剂在啤酒酿造中的应用%Application of Enzyme Preparation in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余有贵; 杨再云

    2004-01-01

    从啤酒酿造中外加酶制剂的主要种类及其作用机理、作用、影响因素、使用原则和应用趋势等方面着手,阐述了酶制剂给啤酒工业的快速发展提供了崭新的平台.啤酒酿造中采用提高辅料比和外加酶制剂相结合的生产新工艺,正日益受到世界各国啤酒行业的重视.

  7. Technical Equilibrium in Beer Brewing Control%啤酒生产控制中的工艺平衡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇

    2008-01-01

    通过对啤酒胶体稳定性、风味稳定性、泡沫、风味特点以及成本和质量之间的一些相互矛盾分析,提出在啤酒生产控制中应根据原料质量、成本目标、风味特点或消费者需求,品质及品质侧重需要等因素,采取工艺平衡的措施.

  8. Application of Carrageenin in Beer Brewing%卡拉胶在啤酒生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲玲

    2005-01-01

    引起啤酒非生物混浊的成分包括:蛋白质、多酚物质、无机盐、碳水化合物以及某些金属离子等.卡拉胶是啤酒酿造过程中比较理想的澄清剂.在麦汁煮沸结束前10min添加卡拉胶,能改善麦汁外观质量;加快麦汁过滤速度;吨酒耗硅藻土量可节省20%左右;水耗、电耗下降5%左右.酿制出的啤酒各项理化指标均符合国家或企业标准.(孙悟)

  9. Health Food Spiral Alga and Beer Brewing%保健食品螺旋藻与啤酒酿造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任永新; 崔进梅

    2004-01-01

    螺旋藻含有丰富的蛋白质、叶绿素、γ-亚麻酸、β-胡萝卜素和维生素,并富含锌、铁、钾、钙、镁、硒、碘、磷等微量元素及矿物质和人体必需的8种氨基酸.螺旋藻对人体生理和免疫具有重要的保健作用.在啤酒生产中,螺旋藻的加入方式有煮沸时添加、麦汁冷却过程加入、在清酒中加入.螺旋藻的添加量为:酵母啤酒的添加量为0.4%~0.5%;过滤啤酒的添加量为0.2%~0.3%.(孙悟)

  10. 现代啤酒酿造用酶%Recent trend of enzyme preparation in beer brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余有贵; 杨再云

    2004-01-01

    啤酒是我国发展最快的酒类,随着啤酒工业迅猛发展,啤酒生产所用麦芽的价格不断上涨,造成生产成本大大提高;同时,啤酒生产也受到麦芽的糖化力、麦汁的粘度和发酵度等因素不同程度的制约。为了降低生产成本、提高产量和稳定品质,在啤酒酿造中采用提高辅料比和外加酶制剂相结合的生产新工艺,正日益受到世界各国啤酒行业的重视。

  11. Brewing with Distinction: The Implications of a Quality Symbol for the Craft Beer Industry of British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Oppenheimer, Leonardo Manuel

    2008-01-01

    A growing segment of the Canadian beer market is the microbrew/craft beer segment. For the palates of many beer connoisseurs, craft beer has a taste that distinguishes it from other beers, thus setting it apart from the mass-marketed products of the giant commercial breweries. However, a large proportion of beer consumers in Canada remain oblivious to the virtues and properties that make craft beer unique. This study examines the feasibility of creating a quality symbol of distinction as a me...

  12. Selection of Brewing Yeasts for Mead%蜂蜜酒酿造酵母的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 艾遥琴; 李从发; 陈文学

    2014-01-01

    蜂蜜酒是通过酵母菌在稀释的蜂蜜液中发酵而成的一种传统酒。对4种活性干酵母EC1118、安琪、DV10、 D254的发酵特性进行研究,比较4种干酵母在蜂蜜稀释液中的产气能力、产酒精能力、产香能力,并对其酒精耐受性、酸耐受性、SO2耐受性等3个方面进行综合比较,筛选出酿造蜂蜜酒的优良菌种。结果表明,EC1118发酵能力、产香能力强,耐受性强,适合用于蜂蜜发酵。%Mead is a traditional drink, which results from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey carried out by yeasts. Four active dry yeasts, namely EC1118, Angel Yeast, DV10, D254 were studied. The gas producing, flavor producing and ethanol production ability were determined to compare their differences. These yeasts were also evaluated in terms of their fermentation performance under ethanol, sulfur dioxide and acidity. The results obtained in this work show that EC1118, are appropriate for mead production. This strain exhibited powerful gas producing, good flavor and better fermentation capabilities.

  13. 啤酒酵母的基因改良研究动态%Genetic Modification in Brewing Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柳莹

    2000-01-01

    近年来,利用基因工程进行酵母的育种在发酵广谱碳水化合物、提高糖化效率,改良酵母凝聚特性和改善啤酒风味方面取得了很大成绩.基因重组菌株将逐步应用到生产实践中.

  14. The Brewed Rice Vinegar Kurozu Increases HSPA1A Expression and Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction in Aged P8 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kanouchi

    Full Text Available Kurozu is a traditional Japanese rice vinegar. During fermentation and aging of the Kurozu liquid in an earthenware jar over 1 year, a solid residue called Kurozu Moromi is produced. In the present study, we evaluated whether concentrated Kurozu or Kurozu Moromi could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in the senescence-accelerated P8 mouse. Senescence-accelerated P8 mice were fed 0.25% (w/w concentrated Kurozu or 0.5% (w/w Kurozu Moromi for 4 or 25 weeks. Kurozu suppressed cognitive dysfunction and amyloid accumulation in the brain, while Kurozu Moromi showed a tendency to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, but the effect was not significant. We hypothesize that concentrated Kurozu has an antioxidant effect; however, the level of lipid peroxidation in the brain did not differ in senescence-accelerated P8 mice. DNA microarray analysis indicated that concentrated Kurozu increased HSPA1A mRNA expression, a protein that prevents protein misfolding and aggregation. The increase in HSPA1A expression by Kurozu was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting methods. The suppression of amyloid accumulation by concentrated Kurozu may be associated with HSPA1A induction. However, concentrated Kurozu could not increase HSPA1A expression in mouse primary neurons, suggesting it may not directly affect neurons.

  15. 酶法酿制海带保健酱油%The brewing wakame healty sauce by kelp method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽华

    2003-01-01

    海带浸提液浓缩了海带的全部精华,是制备高档富含碘的酱油的理想辅料,本试验在传统的酱油生产过程中添加了一定量的海带浸提液,制备出了味鲜、香醇、稳定性好的富碘酱油.

  16. Research on brewing techniques of Gonggan oranges wine%贡柑果酒酿造工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘功良; 白卫东; 赵文红; 刁素琴

    2012-01-01

    以贡柑为原料,经打浆、酶解和脱苦等预处理,对贡柑果酒酿造的工艺参数等进行研究;以初始pH值、接种量、SO2添加量和发酵温度为因素,做4因素3水平的正交试验.结果表明,贡柑果汁经0.6%β-环糊精处理80min,酵母接种量为0.06%,二氧化硫添加量为90mg/L,初始pH值为4.5,发酵温度为33℃,发酵周期为7d,可得到浅黄色、澄清透明、风味好、营养丰富的贡柑果酒.%Gonggan orange which was used as material through shelling, beating and hydrolysis with pectin enzymatic, debitterization with β-cy-clodextrin, addition of sugar and acid, filtering, fermentation with the yeast, was made into orange wine. The Gonggan fruit was debitterized with 0.6% β-cyclodextrin for 80min. Through the single-factor and orthogonal experiment, the optimum technological conditions of fruit fermentation were as followed, inoculation volume of 0.06%, SO2 90mg/L, pH value 4.5, fermentation temperature 33℃, and time 7d. The produced orange wine had advantages in light yellow, transparent, sapid and nutritional abundance.

  17. Brouwen, branden en bedienen. Werkende vrouwen in de Nederlandse dranknijverheid, 1500-1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dekken, M.

    2009-01-01

    Brewing was always one of the household activities women performed. Some of them brewed more than needed for their own family and sold the surplus to others. During the Middle Ages commercial brewing in Dutch towns evolved and in a short period brewing industry became to be dominated by men. However

  18. 不同品种苹果液态酿醋适应性%Adaptability of different breed apple liquid brewing vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义伦; 陈伟; 施安辉; 束怀瑞

    2001-01-01

    试验以五种苹果汁为原料,采用液态发酵法酿醋,分析了五个试样醋酸发酵前后的主要理化指标及色泽变化,结果认为以国光、陆奥、金帅为原料可酿出具有苹果风味及色泽特征的果醋,国光最有利于良好酸味及色泽品质的形成,富士及浓缩汁不适于良好色泽果醋的酿造.

  19. Brew apple vinegar with the method of the liquid deep - seated zymolysis%液体深层发酵法酿制苹果醋

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭铎

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1 工艺流程 苹果原料→浸泡→洗涤→检果修割→破碎→榨汁→筛滤→酶解→硅藻土过滤→高温瞬时灭菌→贮存醋酸发酵工艺流程: 三角瓶醋酸种子 一、二级醋酸种子 苹果原汁→酒精发酵→醋酸发酵→板框过滤→调配→↑二级酒母种子←一级酒母种子←三角瓶酒母种子高温瞬时灭菌→无菌贮存→无菌灌装

  20. 利用苹果渣生产苹果醋的工艺研究%Study on vinegar-brewing with apple sqeezing risdue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张居尚; 张文隽; 雷萍; 孙悦迎; 杨新文; 张慧

    2009-01-01

    以苹果渣为主要原料,经过酒精发酵和醋酸发酵生产苹果醋饮料.探讨了酵母菌种、醋酸菌种的驯化培养;研究了发酵过程中糖度、酒度和酸度的变化,确定了果渣生产苹果醋的工艺流程和最佳工艺参数.

  1. 利用茎柔鱼废弃物酿制鱼露的研究%Study on Fish Sauce Brewed by the Waste of Dosidicus gigass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲映红; 刘志东; 陈舜胜

    2014-01-01

    以智利外海茎柔鱼废弃物为原料,采用保温、加曲保温、加酶保温等不同速酿方法制备鱼露,测定鱼露在酿制过程中的pH和氨基酸态氮,并对最终样品作感官评价.结果表明,酿制20 d内,pH和氨基酸态氮变化显著,20 d后二者均趋于稳定.常温自然酿制鱼露中的各种变化速度较速酿鱼露缓慢得多.感官评定的结果表明,保温和加曲保温速酿的样品在气味优于加酶保温速酿的样品.对保温速酿鱼露中组胺和重金属含量测定的结果表明,其中组胺及砷、镉的含量均已超标,不适于直接作为调味品食用.

  2. Research Progress of Lactic Acid Bacteria Application to Cider Brewing%乳酸菌在苹果酒中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕兆林; 姚永红; 林西; 任美玲; 张柏林

    2012-01-01

    通过添加乳酸茵,苹果酒在主发酵后能继续进行二次发酵,即苹果酸-乳酸发酵,该过程具有增加苹果酒风味多样性的作用.论述在苹果酒中添加乳酸茵的菌种要求、发酵条件对乳酸茵诱导苹果酸-乳酸发酵的影响,及乳酸茵与苹果酒感官和风味的关系.%The secondary fermentation, i. e. , malolactic fermentation (MLF) could take place in the cider after the primary fermentation if lactic acid bacteria were added, which could improve the flavor diversity of the cider , making the taste softer and weakening the influence of styphnic acid. The requirements for the lactic acid bacteria which could be added to cider, the influence of different fermentation conditions on induction of the lactic acid bacteria to motivate malolactic fermentation and the correlations between the lactic acid bacteria and the flavor and other properties of cider were discussed in the paper.

  3. 二氧化碳浸渍法在蓝莓酒酿造中的应用%Application of carbonic maceration method in blueberry wine brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴皓玥; 董莹璨; 刘雪平; 战吉宬

    2015-01-01

    利用二氧化碳浸渍法酿造蓝莓酒,对比二氧化碳浸渍法和传统酿造法酿造的蓝莓酒在各理化指标方面的不同,探究该方法对蓝莓酒品质的影响.同时利用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定CO2不同浸渍时间对于蓝莓酒中10种有机酸酸、9种酚酸含量的影响.结果表明,蓝莓酒中含量最高的有机酸是柠檬酸,最主要的酚酸是绿原酸;二氧化碳浸渍法相比于传统酿造法能够降低蓝莓酒的酸度(P<0.05),但浸渍时间越长,有机酸含量越高;二氧化碳浸渍法蓝莓酒总酚含量低于传统法(P<0.05),但能提高总黄酮和酚酸类物质的浸出.

  4. Study on the Brewing Process of Blueberry Dry Red Wine%蓝莓干红酒酿制工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱平; 吉平; 张文雅; 柯常毅; 李涛; 谭祥

    2013-01-01

    According to the blueberry juice initial sugar content, from 12° red blueberry wine will fill sugar is adjusted to 21%, the amount of SO2 was adjusted to 40mg/L. meanwhile, adding active dry yeast powder, the inoculation was 0.20%, at 25℃ temperature fermentation for 6 days, the main fermentation onto the end of low temperature aging, can make the residual sugar is low, moderate acidity, the wine body coordination, mellow taste, fruit suitable, deep ruby red in color, with blueberry special typical style of dry red wine.%根据蓝莓汁初始糖度,酿制12°干红蓝莓酒时将补糖量调整至21%,SO2添加量调整为40mg/L。同时,添加活性干酵母粉,其接种量为0.20%,在25℃条件下控温发酵6d,主发酵结束转入低温陈酿,能够酿制残糖较低、酸度适中、酒体协调、口感醇厚、果香适宜,色泽为深宝石红,具有蓝莓特有典型风格的蓝莓干红酒。

  5. 不同蓝莓品种酿造果酒适性的比较研究%APPROPRIATE COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF BLUEBERRIES BREWING WINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 姜雯翔; 袁晔; 彭常安; 韩永斌

    2014-01-01

    果酒品质与新鲜果品原料质量密切相关.本文分析了Tifblue、Premier、Brightwell、Garden blue、Powder Blue5个蓝莓品种的营养组分及果酒发酵过程中酒精度、花色苷含量、总酚指数和颜色变化的差异,旨在寻找适宜于酿酒的蓝莓品种.结果表明:Garden blue中的碳水化合物、还原糖、可溶性蛋白含量均显著高于其他4个品种.不同蓝莓品种其酚类物质及花色苷含量差异显著,Garden blue花色苷和酚类物质含量分别是其他4个蓝莓品种的1.17~1.97倍和1.15 ~1.89倍.酒精发酵过程中果酒中总酚指数均显著上升,而花色苷含量均显著下降,其中Gardenblue花色苷含量下降最少,且其酚类物质含量上升最多.经稀释3倍的蓝莓汁调味发酵,发酵结束后Garden blue总酚指数含量最高达79.9,是其他4个品种的1.30~2.08倍,花色苷含量为25.27 mg/L,比其他品种高出1.25~8.1倍.结论:综合蓝莓营养成分及发酵前后酚类物质含量等因素,发现Garden blue更适于酿造高品质蓝莓果酒.

  6. Development of brewing science in (and since) the late 19th century: molecular profiles of 110-130 year old beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Andrea; Ravasio, Davide; Qin, Fen;

    2015-01-01

    , with decreasing contamination by enzymatic and microbial activities over this time span. Samples are sufficiently well preserved to allow comparisons to present-day references, thus yielding molecular signatures of the effects of 20th century science on beer production. Opposite to rather stable carbohydrate...

  7. 水果型木瓜果酒酿造工艺%RESEARCH OF BREWING TECHNIQUE OF FRUITY PAWPAW CIDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟华锋

    2009-01-01

    研究以水果型木瓜为原料加工成果酒的酿造工艺,采用正交试验法,分析温度、接种量、初始pH值、糖度对水果型木瓜果酒质量的影响,确定最佳工艺参数,结果:温度25℃、酵母接种量0.25 g/L、初始pH值4.0、搪度22%.在此条件下酿造,可得到酒度适中、色泽好、风味佳的水果型木瓜果酒.

  8. 航天酱油酿造过程中微生物学研究%Microbiological analysis in space soy sauce brewing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志梅; 张宗舟; 薛林贵; 石小霞; 褚可成

    2011-01-01

    该文测定了以航天诱变黑曲霉、毛霉和米曲霉混合制曲,天然晒露,自然共酵,高盐稀态酿造生抽的微生物区系变化情况.试验证明了细菌、放线菌、酵母菌都有一定的耐盐性,细菌在食盐含量12%、14%、16%的情况下,分别增加了32.4倍、25倍和20倍,放线菌分别增加了5倍、4.6倍和1.8倍,酵母菌分别增加了1001倍、658倍和4.78倍.这3类微生物是生抽酱酯突出,香味协调,个性明显的生物基础.而霉菌类不耐盐,数量都有所下降,却是提高生抽转化率的生物基础.%Space mutant Aspergillus niger, Mucor, and Aspergillus oryzae were used for mixed koji, which was used soy sauce making with high salt concentration liquid-state natural fermentation under solar thermal. Changes of microbe species and quantity in soy sauce were investigated. The results indicated that all bacteria, actinomycetes and yeasts were salt tolerance to some extent. Under the salt concentration of 12%, 14% and 16%, they were increased by 32.4 times, 25 times and 20 times; 5 times, 4.6 times and 1.8 times, and 1001 times, 658 times and 478 times respectively for bacteria, actinomycetes and yeasts. The three types of microbes were biological basis of outstanding flavor coordination. Mold was not salt tolerance and the it had been decreased, which was the biological basis of improves conversion rate of soy sauce.

  9. Medium and Long-term Opportunities and Risks of the Biotechnological Production of Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Resources. The Potential of White Biotechnology. The BREW Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, M.; Crank, M.; Dornburg, V.; Hermann, B.; Roes, L. [Department of Science, Technology and Society NWS, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Huesing, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research FhG-ISl, Karlsruhe (Germany); Overbeek, L. [Plant Research International PRI, Wageningen (Netherlands); Terragni, F.; Recchia, E. [CERISS, Centro per I' Educazione, la Ricerca, I' lnformazione su Scienza e Society, Milan (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    This study investigates the medium and long-term opportunities and risks of the biotechnological production of organic chemicals. The objective is to gain better understanding of the techno-economic and the societal viability of White Biotechnology in the coming decades. The key research questions are which products could be made with White Biotechnology, whether these products can contribute to savings of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, under which conditions the products become economically viable, which risks may originate from the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in fermentation and what the public perception is. The main purpose of Chapter 2 is to provide an overview of emerging key White Biotechnology products and to explain which chemicals could be produced on their basis. For a selection of these products, detailed environmental and economic assessments are conducted in Chapter 3 (in specific terms, i.e. per tonne of product). Chapter 3 discusses also the so-called Generic Approach which is the methodology we developed and applied to assess future processes and processes, for which very little information is available. In Chapter 4, three scenario projections are developed for Europe (EU-25), thereby assuming benign, moderate and disadvantageous conditions for bio-based chemicals. The purpose of this chapter is hence to understand to which extent restructuring of the chemical sector might occur under which conditions. In Chapter 5, the risks related to the use of White Biotechnology are addressed. The main purpose of this chapter is to give insight into the main risk components influencing the overall risk and of the knowledge gaps. Both conventional risks (e.g., human toxicity and accidents) and risks related to generic modification (e.g., horizontal gene transfer) are analyzed. Since the public perception may play an important role for the implementation of White Biotechnology on a large scale, these issues are discussed in Chapter 6, thereby drawing conclusions from the literature and presenting the outcome of a survey. Finally, the findings are summarized and conclusions are drawn in Chapter 7.

  10. Big International Retailers Brewing Valiant Campaign in China%跨国零售巨头中国大战在即

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳; 倩倩

    2004-01-01

    @@ 2004年12月11日,是个什么日子? 相信中外零售企业都很清楚.按照中国在加入WTO时的承诺,这一天将宣告中国零售业入世过渡期的结束,它更意味着中国对零售市场全面向外资开放承诺的兑现.

  11. Energy-saving methods in beer brewing industry%啤酒生产企业节能措施综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪亮

    2013-01-01

    该文借鉴国内外啤酒企业的先进节能工艺和技术,提出了低压动态煮沸和二次蒸汽回收、高浓糖化、啤酒激冷、电机系统变频改造、凝水回收等节能措施,供我国众多中小型啤酒企业参考.

  12. Research and application of antioxidant system in beer brewing%抗氧化系统在啤酒酿造中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解洪博; 李红; 王异静

    2011-01-01

    介绍了氧、氧自由基在啤酒酿造中的作用,从自由基的角度对啤酒氧化的本质进行了诠释,并探讨了啤酒抗氧化物质及其作用机制,总结了国内外关于啤酒风味老化的各种评价指标及方法.

  13. 异构酒花颗粒在啤酒酿造中的应用研究%Studies of Isomerized Hop Pellets on Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程殿林

    2001-01-01

    对异构酒花颗粒和普通酒花颗粒进行了对比研究.结果表明,添加异构酒花颗粒可减少苦味物质的损失,酿造出的啤酒优于只采用普通酒花颗粒酿造出的啤酒,特别是酒花香突出,泡持性好.

  14. 麦芽缺陷对啤酒酿造的影响%Effects of Malt Quality Defect on Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓岩

    2010-01-01

    劣质麦芽可降低麦汁质量,削弱啤酒的抗氧化能力,从而降低啤酒质量.麦芽的质量缺陷既降低麦汁的收率,又使糖化、过滤时间的延长,导致生产效率下降和生产成本的增高.降低麦芽质量缺陷对产品啤酒生产的影响,必须严格控制从大麦采购到成品麦芽每个环节的工艺管理.

  15. Application of Wort Clarificant in Beer- brewing%麦汁澄清剂在啤酒生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶和国

    2000-01-01

    研究了应用麦汁澄清剂对麦汁的澄清作用,对其用量、除浊效果进行测试对比.分别取麦汁(11度)200ml加入6只250ml量筒,添加麦汁澄清剂0.2ml、0.4ml、0.6ml、0.8ml和1.0ml,混匀后于10℃静置18h.结果表明,最佳使用量为0.5ml,麦汁清亮透明,澄清效果好,保质期可延长50~60天,啤酒泡持性不受影响,可应用于生产.(一平)

  16. 玉米淀粉辅料在啤酒生产中的应用%Application of Cornstarch as Auxiliary Materials in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世敏; 宋安东; 高玉千; 闫德冉

    2005-01-01

    以玉米淀粉为辅料进行啤酒生产的研究结果表明,用量适当,不仅啤酒的成本降低,而且啤酒的发酵度、色度、总酸和非生物稳定性都较原工艺有一定的提高,泡持性有所降低,有利于生产淡爽型啤酒.

  17. Investigation on the Factors Affecting Beer Foam in Beer Brewing%浅析生产中影响啤酒泡沫的几个因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晶心; 李学国

    2002-01-01

    啤酒的泡沫性能包括起泡能力、泡沫外观、泡沫持久性和泡沫挂杯4个方面.影响啤酒泡沫形成的因素主要有原料的质量、制麦工艺、糖化工艺、发酵工艺、贮酒时间长短、过滤与灌装的温度争压力以及杀菌时间.实现啤酒较好的泡沫性能,首先控制原料及生产过程中蛋白质的分解;其次是保证生产后期泡沫质量稳定.(孙悟)

  18. α-乙酰乳酸脱羧酶在啤酒酿造中的应用%The Application of α- Acetolactate Decarboxylase During Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传荣; 张安宁; 徐大好

    2003-01-01

    @@ 连二酮(VDK)是双乙酰和2,3-戊二酮的总称,但对啤酒风味起主要作用的是双乙酰.在影响啤酒风味成熟的众多物质中,双乙酰是关键的影响因素,其含量高低是啤酒质量优劣的重要标志,被认为是衡量啤酒成熟与否的决定性指标.

  19. OVERALL ASSESSMENT ON BIOCHEMICAL TREATMENT PROCESS OF BEER-BREWING WASTEWATER%啤酒废水生物治理工艺的综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇; 易军; 郭军松; 梁琨

    2002-01-01

    在深入探索、研究我国啤酒废水的各种处理工艺和技术的基础上,对5种常见的具代表性、相对较为成熟的生物处理工艺进行了分析和比较;并用模糊数学的方法进行综合评价和废水治理工艺设施筛选,提出评价因素集和制定评价标准集及权重集的具体方法,通过实例的具体计算,取的较为满意的结果.

  20. Applications of Molecular Biotechnology in Beer Brewing%分子生物技术在啤酒酿造中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方维明; 杨振泉; 虞华芳

    2004-01-01

    现代分子生物技术的运用为传统啤酒酿造业注入了新的活力.本文对分子生物学技术在啤酒原料鉴定与改良,啤酒酵母的鉴定和育种以及啤酒发酵中污染杂菌的检测和鉴定等方面的应用进展进行了综述.

  1. 去除啤酒酿造水中氯味的研究%Research on the Approaches to Eliminate Chlorine Aroma in Beer-brewing Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成红; 周志娟; 董贵智; 黄淑霞

    2008-01-01

    氯是强氧化剂,会破坏酶的活性,抑制酵母生长,并和麦芽中酚类结合,产生不愉快的口味,啤酒酿造水中应避免有多余氯的存在.因此,用城市自来水或自供水做酿造用水时必须经过活性炭过滤脱氯.本研究中建立了TTHM的分析方法,确定了水处理操作标准及工艺原则.

  2. Recent research on application of wheat malt in beer brewing%小麦应用于啤酒酿造的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹立民; 何国庆

    2002-01-01

    主要介绍了小麦应用于啤酒酿造的起源,以及近年来对于啤酒用小麦品质特征、化学组成、品种选育、发芽生理、酿造工艺等方面的国内外研究成果,并对今后小麦在啤酒工业中的应用前景作了展望.

  3. 啤酒生产中酵母自溶及其预防措施%Autolyse of Yeast in Beer Brewing and Its Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建中; 赵文忠

    2001-01-01

    啤酒酵母自溶,影响啤酒质量.酵母自溶的原因有:①啤酒酵母品种和不正当地使用酵母;②糖化发酵不当;③过滤不好;④环境卫生不好.预防措施及解决办法有:①选用健壮、性能优良的菌种;②加强管理,调整糖化工艺;③搞好发酵环境卫生.(孙悟)

  4. 啤酒生产中腐败微生物鉴定新技术%New Identification Techniques of Spoilage Microorganism in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔庆新; 张惟广

    2003-01-01

    啤酒生产过程中的污染微生物主要有野生酵母、细菌、放线菌和霉菌四大类.新的快速检测技术有聚合酶链式反应(PCR)技术、伏安型生物传感嚣、自动微生物检测系统(AMS)、改良MRS培养基和三磷酸腺苷(ATP)法等,较传统方法迅速、准确.(小雨)

  5. 啤酒中生物胺的产生与控制%Biogenic Amines Produced and Controled in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴延东

    2003-01-01

    发酵食品中普遍存在有生物胺,适量的生物胺有助于人体正常的生理功能,但过量吸收会引起不良的生理反应.针对啤酒酿造过程中生物胺的产生途径,提出了相应的解决办法.

  6. 小黑麦啤酒的开发与研制%Research and development on the beer brewed with little rye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧; 包怡红

    2000-01-01

    以小黑麦作为酿造啤酒的原料,对其制麦与糖化、发酵工艺进行了探索发酵产品具有风味独特、口味协调、酒体醇厚的特点.其各项理化指标符合部颁啤酒酿造标准.

  7. Engineering example of beer brewing wastewater treatmetat in plateau region%高原地区啤酒废水处理工程实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娇

    2010-01-01

    针对啤酒生产废水特点,采用UASB-接触氧化工艺对高浓度有机废水和低浓度有机废水进行分流治理.针对高原气候条件,采取特殊的供氧和构筑物保温措施.运行结果表明,在设计进水水质、水量范围内,CODCr、BOD5、氧氮和SS都得到较好的去除,出水各项指标均达到GB 8978-1996<污水综合排放标准中的一级排放标准.系统运行费用为0.58元/m3.

  8. White Beer Brewing with a Mixed Culture of Yeast and Lactic Bacteria%酵母和乳酸菌发酵生产白啤酒研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖永红; 周晓宏

    2000-01-01

    以60%大麦芽和40%小麦芽为原料,经上面酵母和乳酸菌L4混合发酵,研制生产出白啤酒.从4株乳酸菌中筛选出适合白啤酒生产的L4菌,通过对发酵方式的选择,确定了酵母BLS-1和乳酸菌L4混合发酵方式,同时对酒花添加量、接种量及发酵温度和时间进行了讨论,制定出工艺路线,所得白啤酒质量符合标准.

  9. Using wheat malt substituting part of barley malt in beer brewing%小麦芽替代部分大麦芽酿制啤酒探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志坚

    2002-01-01

    @@ 长期以来,大麦芽以其优越的特性而成为酿造啤酒的主要原料.随着消费市场需求的多样化及生物技术不断进步和发展,开发新的啤酒原料及新的啤酒品种成为可能.小麦芽被重点开发利用并相继生产出多品种小麦啤酒.以小麦芽为原料酿制的啤酒以其独特风味受到消费者欢迎和喜爱.

  10. Application of ceramic membrane in the draft beer brewing%陶瓷膜在生啤酒酿造过程中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范广璞; 陆正清

    2005-01-01

    对陶瓷膜在生啤酒澄清、酵母回收及罐底沉积物中啤酒回收等方面的应用进行了探讨,讨论了膜孔径、主流体流动方式、温度及澄清剂等因素对生啤酒过滤的影响.

  11. 啤酒酿造过程中硫化氢的变化规律%The Evolution of H2s During Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段飞; 李红; 卫军

    2008-01-01

    讲述了硫化氢的来源、产生机理及其对啤酒风味的影响.并着重探讨了在发酵过程中,硫化氢在每个时期的演变规律,以及硫化氢的形成与酵母出芽率之间的关系.

  12. 啤酒生产中双乙酰调控的研究%Regulation and Control of Diacetyl in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茉; 宋刚

    2010-01-01

    双乙酰是啤酒中重要的风味物质,也是啤酒成熟的重要标志.控制啤酒发酵液中双乙酰的含量可以缩短发酵周期,提高啤酒品质.综述了啤酒生产过程中双乙酰的形成机制和调控方法的研究进展.

  13. 啤酒生产中双乙酰的代谢调控研究%Study on the metabolic control of diacetyl in beer brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建奇; 马歌丽

    2006-01-01

    双乙酰是啤酒生产过程中由酵母在合成氨基酸的途径中产生的重要风味物质,其含量是衡量啤酒成熟的重要标志.本文简要综述了啤酒生产中双乙酰的形成机制和代谢调控研究进展.

  14. Study On the Technology of gelatinization in Beer Brewing%啤酒酿造糊化工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广丰; 常宗明; 陆健

    2010-01-01

    随着啤酒酿造中辅料大米比例的增加,糊化质量对啤酒酿造的影响增大.本文利用Brabender糊化仪研究了大米糊化过程淀粉酶添加量等工艺参数对DE值的影响,通过正交试验确定了最佳大米糊化工艺,即糊化升温速率1.0℃/min、耐高温α-淀粉酶添加量10u/g大米、维持温度90℃.采用该糊化工艺生产得到的成品酒,其各项指标均达到优质啤酒的要求.

  15. Application of Shearzyme 500L in Wheat beer Brewing%真菌木聚糖酶在小麦啤酒酿造中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨观中

    2007-01-01

    阿拉伯木聚糖是谷物细胞壁多糖的重要组成部分,对啤酒的过滤有着重要的影响.通过介绍真菌木聚糖酶在小麦啤酒酿造中应用,从而较好地解决了小麦啤酒生产中存在的过滤难题,生产出了风味独特的小麦啤酒.

  16. 基于BREW平台的手机游戏设计与实现%Mobile Game Design and Implementation Based on BREW Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁静

    2009-01-01

    BREW是美国高通公司为手机的增值应用而开发推广的一套完整的开发平台.文章介绍了BREW的核心技术,开发人员可以在BREW平台下利用C/C++语言进行程序开发,通过本地下载或无线下载装到手机上运行.在该平台下,通过一个手机软件的实例,具体分析了资源器编辑、程序设计与实现、计算机仿真等的全过程.

  17. 高浓发酵和酸洗对酿造酵母的影响%Effects of High- gravity Brewing and Acid Washing on Brewer's Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许瑶; 刘义刚

    2000-01-01

    用磷酸类杀菌物质来洗涤接种酵母,以避免细菌污染是许多啤酒厂通用的方法,使用不正确的方法洗涤酵母将使其发酵特性下降并产生不良影响.酵母酸洗后接种于12'P麦汁,发酵特性没有明显下降;而接种于20'P麦汁,在发酵的第一个24小时,酵母的活力就有所下降,但酵母的发酵特性没有变化.通过检测20'P麦汁的糖,发现葡萄糖的利用率下降,导致麦芽糖的利用滞后,在12'P麦汁中,葡萄糖和麦芽糖的利用没有这种现象.

  18. The application of active dry yeast in soy sauce brewing%活性干酵母在酱油中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷锦成; 李志军; 周俊; 戴浩林

    2012-01-01

    The components which produced by yeast play a very important part in the flavor of soy sauce and other sauces. The key sensory index, such as ethanol and esters contents, have increased significantly with adding soy sauce active dry yeast in the production of soy sauce, and the quality of soy sauce improved significantly. The use and storage of soy sauce active dry yeast are very convenient.%酵母菌在酱油及酱类生产中能产生特殊的香味,是酱香的重要来源;在酱油生产中添加酱油活性干酵母,能使酱油中的乙醇和总酯的含量等指标明显提高,酱油品质显著改善;酱油活性干酵母作为一种活性干菌体使用、存储也非常方便.

  19. DISTRIBUTION OF THE EFFECTS OF BREWING INDUSTRY CONCENTRATION AMONG LARGE AND SMALL COMPANIES OPERATING ON THE POLISH MARKET IN 2004-2011 PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Łobos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polish beer market is characterised by a high degree of concentration. The market share of Kompania Piwowarska, Grupa Żywiec and Carlsberg Polska is 90%. Many authors stress concentration as an important factor when explaining why various industries are more or less effective or more or less profitable. Firms from concentrated industries report, on average, higher profitability than those in non-concentrated industries. The aim of this paper is to analyse the differences of economic efficiency of large (group I and small (group II entities involved in the production of beer. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the test group of companies was based on selected financial ratios (return on assets, return on sales, inventory turnover, total debt ratio.

  20. 平菇醋酿造D 艺的研究%Study on the Brewing Technique of Pleurotus ostreatus Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云

    2016-01-01

    With Pleurotus ostreatus as raw material,the extraction technology of Pleurotus ostreatus polysaccharide,alcohol fermentation and acetic fermentation is studied by orthogonal test,and the best conditions are confirmed. The study shows that the optimal technological conditions for Pleurotus ostreatus polysaccharide extraction are obtained as extraction temperature of 90 ℃,ratio of raw material to extractant of 1 ∶ 15,extraction for 5 h and 2 times.The optimal fermentation technology of alcohol fermentation is fermentation temperature of 26 ℃,yeast inoculum amount of 0.08%,sugar concentration of 16%.The optimal fermentation technology of acetic fermentation is alcohol content of 7%,yeast inoculum amount of 5%,fermentation temperature of 28 ℃.%通过正交试验,以平菇为原料,确定提取平菇多糖、酒精发酵及醋酸发酵的最佳工艺。提取平菇多糖的最佳工艺条件:提取温度90℃、料液比1∶15、提取时间5 h、提取2次。酒精发酵最佳工艺条件:发酵温度26℃、接种量0.08%、糖度16%;醋酸发酵最佳工艺条件:初始酒度7%、菌种接种量5%、温度28℃。

  1. Research and Application of Mead Brewing Technology%蜂蜜酒酿造工艺技术的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅国城

    2014-01-01

    蜂蜜酒是以蜂蜜为原料,经过发酵后所获得的酒精饮料.为了酿造较高酒精度的优质蜂蜜酒,从蜜源挑选、蜜汁灭菌、溶氧操作、选育优良酵母菌株.确定蜂蜜酒发酵过程中流加的次数,流加的量和流加间隔时间,并建立流加的方程.适温发酵、过滤除浊、精心调配等工序,取得蜂蜜酒酿造最佳技术参数.

  2. Coffee brews a future in China%焙烤食品专题漫长而又令人期待的咖啡本土化之路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧睿信息咨询(上海)有限公司

    2006-01-01

    @@ 据欧睿信息咨询的Hope Lee分析,咖啡商们正在致力于把茶的故乡-中国,转变成一个喝咖啡的国家.虽然中国的咖啡消耗量增长迅速,但其在中国仍然是一种时尚的象征.

  3. 草莓酒酿造工艺及香气成分分析研究%Brewing Technology of Strawberry Wine & GC Analysis of Its Flavoring Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文慧; 王颉

    2006-01-01

    以草莓为原料,采用分别添加白砂糖、白砂糖和草莓浓缩汁以及草莓浓缩汁3种方法调整糖度;分别加入安琪活性干酵母、丹宝利活性干酵母和Y1酵母酿造草莓酒.结果表明,用白砂糖和草莓浓缩汁将草莓汁的可溶性固形物含量调整到17%,接种Y1酵母菌种发酵所得的草莓酒香型独特.采用溶液萃取法提取草莓酒中的香气成分,用气相色谱进行分离测定,其主要香气成分为:正丙醇1.484mg/L,正丁醇0.106mg/L,异丁醇15.426mg/L,异戊醇28.834mg/L,β-苯乙醇6.842 mg/L,乙酸乙酯0.309mg/L,乙酸异戊酯0.872 mg/L,己酸乙酯0.394 mg/L,乳酸乙酯0.466 mg/L.

  4. Key technologies on the new procedure of sparkling strawberry wine brewing%草莓起泡酒新工艺关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培忠; 张宗申; 孙尤海; 周广琪; 于玲

    2012-01-01

    采用酶解与增香酵母发酵浸提同时进行的工艺方法,经50h左右可以得到色泽鲜红、香气非常诱人的一次发酵汁.一次发酵汁经成分调整,高温瞬时灭酶、灭菌、冷却后,加入酒精酵母进入2次低温带压发酵.经20d~60d的二次发酵、后熟、饱和稳定二氧化碳、澄清、过滤等工艺过程,即可酿造出果香浓郁、清澈明亮、泡沫持久、营养丰富、口味纯正的起泡草莓酒.本方法与传统的红酒酿造工艺相比,酿造时间大为缩短.%The first-fermentation juice displaying features of bright red coloring and well-defined flavor was obtained by a unique procedure, in which both enzymatic hydrolysis and extraction of juice by fragrance-producing yeast were carried out simultaneously, and the processing time was about 50h. After modification of components, high temperature instantaneous inaction of enzymes and high temperature instantaneous sterilization, and cooling, the second fermentation of the first fermentation juice under low temperature and air pressure was conducted by adding alcohol yeast After 20d~60d of fermentation, and post-ripeness, and treatment of saturated-stable CO2, and clarifying, and leaching, the strawberry wine with features of heavy fragrance, clear and bright in color, and durative foaming, and rich-in nutrients and pure taste was gained. Compared with the traditional fermentation procedure of red wine, the present process has visible advantage in that of short fermentation time.

  5. Study on the brewing technology of fruit wine using frozen strawberry%冻藏草莓全汁果酒酿造技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文化; 黄耐; 王治荣

    2008-01-01

    草莓果实在冻藏和常温条件下预贮,利用不同菌种进行发酵,通过感官评定和理化检测果酒中维生素C、多酚、酸的含量,研究果酒氧化指数乙醛和氧化还原电位等对果酒品质的影响.结果表明,草莓果肉预贮温度为-10℃左右,二氧化硫浓度为250mg/kg,糖浓度(以果肉重计)控制在30%左右,果酒酵母菌1450#.R92#按1∶1配比,冻藏果汁加入3倍的水(w/w)调配后,主发酵温度控制在10℃~15℃,发酵时间为12d,冻藏果汁与新鲜果汁发酵生产的果酒品质没有区别.草莓果肉预贮有利于果肉降温和后续低温发酵工序,有利于产品品质提高.

  6. The Progress of Apple Cider in Brewing and the Composition%苹果酒酿造工艺及成分研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓敏; 李擎; 王耀; 郭敬

    2015-01-01

    苹果酒为低度酒,具有营养丰富、适量饮用、有益健康等特点,因此具有较高的研究价值.通过综述国内外学者关于苹果酒酿酒工艺、酚类物质、有机酸及其他成分的研究进展,为苹果酒的研究工作提供参考依据.

  7. Analysis of the components of hard resin in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and structural elucidation of their transformation products formed during the brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Taniguchi, Harumi; Yamada, Makiko; Matsukura, Yasuko; Koizumi, Hideki; Furihata, Kazuo; Shindo, Kazutoshi

    2014-11-26

    The resins from hops (Humulus lupulus L.), which add the bitter taste to beer, are classified into two main sub-fractions, namely, soft and hard resins. α- and β-Acids in soft resin and their transformation during the wort boiling process are well-studied; however, other constituents in resins, especially hard resin, have been unidentified. In this study, we identified humulinones and hulupones as soft-resin components, in addition to 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones and tricyclooxyisohumulones A and B as hard-resin components. These compounds are all oxidation products derived from α- or β-acids. We also investigated compositional changes in the hard resin during the wort boiling process, which has a significant effect on the taste of the beer, by using model boiling experiments. The major changes were identified to be isomerization of 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones into 4'-hydroxyallo-cis-humulinones, followed by decomposition into cis-oxyhumulinic acids. These findings will be helpful in systematically evaluating and optimizing the effect of the hard resin on beer quality.

  8. Changes of sour taste and the composition of carboxylic acids induced in brewed coffee by γ-irradiation on green beans and storage of roast beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil santos green coffee beans were irradiated with 60Co-γ rays at doses of 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 1.5 Mrad respectively and changes of the composition of carboxylic acids in roast beans were analyzed by means of GLC together with those of the organoleptic properties of roast beans during storage by use of the cup testing. The total acid content immediately after roasting was about 6,000 mg/100 g (roast beans) and the composition of carboxylic acids was as follows. Chlorogenic acid: hydroxy-carboxylic acids: mono-carboxylic acid: others = 73 : 18 : 7 : 2. Fresh coffee flavour was influenced markedly especially in acid taste by both irradiation of γ-rays on green beans and storage of roast beans, because of the change of above acids composition. On γ-ray irradiation, the change of the acid composition were more clear than that of stored roast beans. Therefore, the quality of γ-irradiated coffee beans seems to be closely associated with the ratio of hydroxy-carboxylic acids mg/ monocarboxylic acids mg, but little with total acid content. (author)

  9. Effect of Brewing Duration on the Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Abilities of Tea Phenolic and Alkaloid Compounds in a t-BHP Oxidative Stress-Induced Rat Hepatocyte Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Braud

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tea is an interesting source of antioxidants capable of counteracting the oxidative stress implicated in liver diseases. We investigated the impact of antioxidant molecules provided by a mixture of teas’ leaves (green, oolong, pu-erh after different infusion durations in the prevention of oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes, by comparison with pure epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the main representative of tea catechins. Dried aqueous tea extracts (ATE obtained after 5, 15 and 30 min infusion time were characterized for total polyphenols (gallic acid equivalent, catechins, gallic acid and caffeine (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS contents, and for scavenging ability against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical. Hepatoprotection was evaluated through hepatocyte viability tests using tert-butyl hydroperoxide as a stress inducer, (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, neutral red uptake, real-time cellular impedance and mitochondrial function tests. We showed that a 5-min incubation time is sufficient for an optimal bioaccessibility of tea compounds with the highest antioxidative ability, which decreases for longer durations. A 4-h pretreatment of cells with ATE significantly prevented cell death by regulating reactive oxygen species production and maintaining mitochondrial integrity. Pure EGCG, at doses similar in ATE (5–12 µM, was inefficient, suggesting a plausible synergy of several water-soluble tea compounds to explain the ATE beneficial effects.

  10. Effect of Temperature on the Formation and Decomposition of Butan-2-3-dione in Wort Brewed with Sorghum and Barley During Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Nkiko, M.O.; Taiwo, E.A.; Uruebor, A.; Ogunyemi, A.

    2006-01-01

    The rate of breakdown of fermentable sugar and the formation/ decomposition of butan-2,3-dione (diacetyl) in wort made with unmalted sorghum, malted sorghum, malted barley and sorghum/barley malt adjunct during fermentation was studied as a function of temperature. The rate of fermentation of sugar, formation and decomposition of butan-2,3-dione increases with increasing temperature and is dependent on the nature of the substrate. The decomposition of butan-2,3-dione is faster in wort made wi...

  11. Teff (Eragrostis tef) as a raw material for malting, brewing and manufacturing of gluten-free foods and beverages: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Gebremariam, Mekonnen Melaku; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The demand for gluten-free foods is certainly increasing. Interest in teff has increased noticeably due to its very attractive nutritional profile and gluten-free nature of the grain, making it a suitable substitute for wheat and other cereals in their food applications as well as foods for people with celiac disease. The main objective of this article is to review researches on teff, evaluate its suitability for different food applications, and give direction for further research on its appl...

  12. 77 FR 4835 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... use in beer brewing. Celite Corporation's commercial operations also require that beer be located at... in beer brewing. Beer industry customers are at the core of Dicalite's business. (6) Although DE...

  13. Biopivo a biochmel

    OpenAIRE

    Čiháková, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with the cultivation of organic hops, comparison between parameters of ecologically and conventionally grown hops presented in the literature. Another part of the thesis is concerned with the differences between technologies for ordinary beer brewing and bio-beer brewing. It also describes the bio-quality brewing ingredients and analyses both Czech and foreign market with organic beer. In the methodological section, the factual bio-beer brewing process is discussed. ...

  14. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  15. Enological characterization of Spanish Saccharomyces kudriavzevii strains, one of the closest relatives to parental strains of winemaking and brewing Saccharomyces cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, D; Pérez-Través, L; Belloch, C; Querol, A

    2016-02-01

    Wine fermentation and innovation have focused mostly on Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. However, recent studies have shown that other Saccharomyces species can also be involved in wine fermentation or are useful for wine bouquet, such as Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces paradoxus. Many interspecies hybrids have also been isolated from wine fermentation, such as S. cerevisiae × Saccharomyces kudriavzevii hybrids. In this study, we explored the genetic diversity and fermentation performance of Spanish S. kudriavzevii strains, which we compared to other S. kudriavzevii strains. Fermentations of red and white grape musts were performed, and the phenotypic differences between Spanish S. kudriavzevii strains under different temperature conditions were examined. An ANOVA analysis suggested striking similarity between strains for glycerol and ethanol production, although a high diversity of aromatic profiles among fermentations was found. The sources of these phenotypic differences are not well understood and require further investigation. Although the Spanish S. kudriavzevii strains showed desirable properties, particularly must fermentations, the quality of their wines was no better than those produced with a commercial S. cerevisiae. We suggest hybridization or directed evolution as methods to improve and innovate wine.

  16. Study on brewing vinegar clarification by egg white liquid and activated carbon%蛋清液和活性炭对酿造食醋的澄清作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯百友; 孙玉梅; 于爽; 曹芳

    2009-01-01

    利用蛋清液、活性炭两种澄清剂对酿造食醋进行澄清实验, 并对处理后食醋的吸光度和酸度进行测定, 观察其澄清效果.结果表明: 当蛋清液用量为1.7%(v/v)静置澄清48 h,食醋澄清效果较好;活性炭用量为2.5%(w/v),静置澄清24 h,食醋澄清效果较好.

  17. The Applications of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Meat Products, Brewing Industry etc.%乳酸菌在肉制品、酿造业等领域的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗君莅; 陈有容; 齐凤兰; 郭本恒

    2005-01-01

    乳酸菌作为一种益生菌,具有多种生理功能,用其发酵食品更是具有改善风味、延长保质期等特点,近些年乳酸菌在食品中的应用范围,不再限于传统的发酵乳制品.文中列举了乳酸菌的较新应用领域,即在肉制品(包括水产品)、酿造业等方面的应用,简述了工艺流程,并提出了不足之处和改进意见.

  18. A survey of the development of the Chinese brewing industry(2001-2002)%中国啤酒制造业发展概览(2001-2002年度)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文刚

    2004-01-01

    Not only the market capacity and puichasing power per capica,but also the openness level and system environment etc of the Chinese beer market all have qualitative leap, compared with those in middle of nineties of last century.

  19. 啤酒废酵母中的游离氨基氮对苹果酒发酵的影响%Influence of Free Nitrogen Source in Brewing Yeast on Apple Brand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海翔; 尹卓容; 苗延林

    2002-01-01

    氮源是酵母生长所必需的营养物质之一,经实验分析测定发现,发酵前添加0.2%的啤酒废酵母,有利于提高苹果酒的产量和质量.苹果汁接种酵母后,于室温下(15℃)9d内酒精含量由0上升为6.7%,还原糖12.03%下降为0.23%,转化率可达到90%以上.

  20. Industrial Brewing Yeast with High-glutathione Production and Low-ADH Ⅱ Enzyme Activity%乙醇脱氢酶Ⅱ活性低谷胱甘肽含量高的啤酒酵母工程菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱并生

    2008-01-01

    微生物代谢工程是当前国内外研究的热点。在食品、能源、环境等领域,通过遗传修饰改变微生物的物质和能量代谢流向以获得期望产物的研究已广泛地开展。乙醛是啤酒中重要的风味物质之一,过高的乙醛含量已成为国内啤酒风味改良的瓶颈,一直难有突破。

  1. Effects of Added Enzymes on Wort Yield in Beer Brewing with Extruded Rice as Auxilliary Materials%外加酶对膨化大米辅料麦汁收得率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏军; 申德超

    2008-01-01

    以复合酶、糖化酶和淀粉酶用量3因素进行5水平2次旋转正交组合试验设计,研究膨化大米辅料酿造啤酒的外加酶对麦汁收得率的影响.结果表明,最佳酶添加量为:复合酶用量为1.95~2.24 mL;糖化酶用量为2.04~2.30 mL;淀粉酶用量为2.16~2.67 mL.

  2. The Beer Brewing Technology Using Only Syrup as Auxiliary Material%浅谈辅料不使用大米,全部使用糖浆的啤酒生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩国涛

    2009-01-01

    研究探讨辅料不使用大米,全部使用糖浆的啤酒生产工艺.对大米、小麦芽和糖浆作了重点分析,制定了试验工艺,并得出结论:糖浆完全可以代替大米作为啤酒生产辅料,生产出的啤酒是合格的.对全部使用糖浆产生的节约价值作了重点介绍,对啤酒企业来说又找到了一条降低生产成本、提高盈利空间道路.

  3. 挤压膨化大米作啤酒辅料外加酶糖化工艺研究%Study on the saccharification technology of beer brewing by using extruded rice and enzyme agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐颖; 申德超

    2005-01-01

    研究以挤压膨化大米为辅料,啤酒糖化的外加酶糖化工艺参数对麦汁浸出物收得率的影响规律.寻求最佳的工艺参数,为以后的生产和科研提供依据.同时和传统工艺对比研究,其麦汁的主要技术指标良好,且麦汁收得率比传统工艺高4.22%.

  4. Lehui Fermentation Cylinder and BREWTECH Control System Play an Important Part in Beer Brewing%啤酒酿造中的法宝:乐惠发酵罐和BREWTECH控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文忍; 申林

    2009-01-01

    现代啤酒企业产能越来越大,对质量的要求越来越高,同时对成本的控制更加严格。对酿造系统来说,必须不断追求更先进、节能的技术,不断推陈出新。配置更高、功能更好、维护费用低的设备必将受到广大啤酒厂家的青睐。

  5. 厌氧UASB-新型生物接触氧化工艺处理啤酒废水%Anaerobic UASB Biological Contact Process to Treat Beer Brewing Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌建宇; 刘晓文

    2000-01-01

    分析、总结了应用常温厌氧UASB-(均负荷)新型生物接触氧化工艺处理啤酒废水的设计、调试和工程实际运行情况,实践证明:该工艺是一种技术先进、高效低耗、投资省、运行稳定、出水水质好的新处理工艺.

  6. 腾冲县啤饲大麦新品种适应性鉴定研究%Study on Adaptability Identification of New Barley Variety for Both Feeding and Beer Brewing in Tengchong County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷方正; 张彦昌

    2011-01-01

    对2007-2008年在腾冲县实施的保山市啤饲大麦区域试验6个新品种进行适应性鉴定试验,结果表明:云大麦2号早熟、高产、稳产、抗病性及抗倒性好,比对照品种显著增产,可在腾冲县适宜区域进行大面积示范推广;保大麦9号早熟、高产、稳产、抗病性好,但抗倒性一般,可在腾冲县适宜区域扩大示范.

  7. 优质啤用大麦华大麦2号特征特性及栽培要点%Characteristics and cultural main points of top quality beer brewing barley Huadamai No.2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙东发

    2002-01-01

    华大麦2号是湖北省2001年8月审定命名的优质啤用大麦新品种,其各项品质指标均达到或超过国家优质啤用大麦标准,且表现为早熟、高产、多抗.报道了该品种的选育经过、特征特性及栽培要点,讨论了应用该品种的模式与前景.

  8. Factors and Control Strategy of Harmful Microbes Pollution During Beer Brewing Process%啤酒酿造过程中有害微生物污染因素及防治策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶子豪

    2011-01-01

    介绍了啤酒酿造过程中常见的有害微生物及其危害,分析了有害微生物的污染因素,并根据微生物的种类与特点介绍了啤酒厂在酿造过程中微生物的管理和微生物污染的防治策略.

  9. 西门子啤酒酿造专业解决方案BRAUMAT V5.3再释与青啤酒之缘%Siemens Beer Brewing Professional Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    青岛啤酒厂始建于1903年,由英、德商人投资兴建,糖化工艺设备由著名的法国凯姆内茨史德日耳曼机械厂即德国西门子公司的前身提供(Maschinenfabrik Germaniain Chemnitz)。这种友谊历百年尔不殆,不能不说是奇缘,而这种缘又通过这次青岛啤酒二厂糖化车间由西门子公司原过程自动化S5控制系统升级为西门子成熟的最新技术BRAUMATV5.3控制系统得以延续。

  10. 膨化大米辅料酿造啤酒中糖化工艺参数对双乙酰还原的影响%Effects of Saccharification Parameters on Diacetyl Reduction during Beer Brewing by Extruded Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏军; 申德超

    2006-01-01

    通过5因素5水平二次旋转正交组合试验设计,膨化大米辅料酿造啤酒中糖化工艺参数对双乙酰还原的影响.结果表明,最佳糖化工艺参数为:辅料含量为46.88%~47.12%,料水比为1:4.85~1:4.94,50℃蛋白质休止时间为50.75~51.60 min,63℃糖化时间为40.50~41.15 min,70℃糖化时间为29.20~30.00 min;各因素对啤酒中双乙酰还原时间的影响程度按从大到小的顺序依次为:X1,X5,X3,X2,X4.(孙悟)

  11. Management of Biacetyl from the point of view of Metabolic Way during Beer Brewing%从代谢途径上看啤酒生产中双乙酰的调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海兵

    2004-01-01

    啤酒中双乙酰的含量是国家质量重要标准之一.当啤酒中双乙酰含量过高时,会产生不正常的口味,严重影响啤酒的质量.从双乙酰的代谢途径出发,探讨了双乙酰的形成和代谢机制,并阐述了在啤酒酿造过程中双乙酰含量的控制措施.

  12. Research on the Application of Enzymatic Technology to Produce Maltose Syrup for Beer Brewing%酶法模拟生产啤酒玉米糖浆的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣海龙; 郭德军

    2008-01-01

    啤酒玉米糖浆在国内外逐渐受到重视,具有广阔的发展空间.对啤酒玉米糖浆的应用情况及生产技术进行了综合分析,同时对啤酒糖浆未来的应用作出了展望.

  13. Effect of Higher Alcohols on Beer Flavors and Content Control during Beer Brewing%高级醇对啤酒风味的影响及其在啤酒生产中的控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海兵

    2005-01-01

    高级醇是构成啤酒酒体的重要物质,是啤酒酿造过程中不可避免的副产物.高级醇赋予啤酒醇厚感、泡沫细腻,使啤酒丰满,但含量太高会破坏啤酒酒体及风味.影响和控制啤酒酿造过程中高级醇含量的因素有啤酒酵母、麦芽质量、麦汁成分和发酵工艺(如发酵温度、发酵方法、发酵度)等.

  14. 大豆酶解产物复合含氮糖浆用于啤酒发酵的研究%Using Soybean Hydrolytic Product in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱芳; 黄立新; 杨晓泉; 罗建勇

    2007-01-01

    本文主要对大豆蛋白水解产物用于部分替代麦汁进行啤酒发酵的可行性进行了实验研究,并对发酵液的理化指标进行了检测分析.实验证明酵母在添加了大豆蛋白酶解液中的发酵液里可以正常发酵,所得啤酒各项指标均符合国家标准.

  15. 安琪啤酒活性干酵母在啤酒生产中的应用%Application of Angel Brand Beer Active Dry Yeast in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪志祥

    2002-01-01

    安琪啤酒活性干酵母是湖北安琪酵母股份有限公司运用现代生物高新技术开发出的新一代啤酒酵母菌种,具有耐高温、耐乙醇、耐高渗透压等特点.经多次实验证明,此菌种可在不同的发酵起始温度下发酵生产啤酒,便于生产工艺控制,弥补了传统啤酒生产工艺的不足,提高了生产效率,降低了生产成本.

  16. Application of Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) with High Stability as Disinfectant in Beer Brewing%稳定性过氧化氢消毒剂在啤酒生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹利平

    2001-01-01

    稳定性过氧化氢(H2O2)应用于啤酒生产过程的消毒,具有杀菌效果好,可有效控制啤酒中双乙酰指标反弹,保持啤酒风味稳定.H2O2无毒、无味、安全性高,其有效浓度为0.05%以上.(单雨)

  17. Rapid Detection & Identification of Spoilage Microbes in Beer Brewing%啤酒生产中污染微生物的快速检测与鉴定技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树庆

    2009-01-01

    快速检测与鉴定啤酒生产过程中的污染微生物对于保证啤酒质量至关重要,目前普遍采用传统的微生物检测方法,该方法需要一用或更长的时间才能获得试验结果,对企业生产不利.因此,啤酒行业迫切需要一种快速的检测微生物的方法.介绍几种在啤酒生产中具有发展潜力的对污染微生物的快速检测与鉴定方法.

  18. Research on the Application of Fungal Amylase in the Preparation of Maltose Syrup for Beer Brewing%利用真菌淀粉酶制备啤酒用麦芽糖浆的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正文; 尹卓容

    2005-01-01

    以玉米淀粉为原料,利用耐高温α-淀粉酶、真菌淀粉酶进行液化、糖化.控制淀粉乳浓度30%,液化DE值20,糖化pH5.5,糖化温度60℃,真菌淀粉酶用量0.4 FAU/g淀粉,糖化40 h得到的糖浆中葡萄糖含量<10%、麦芽糖含量在60%左右,符合啤酒用糖浆的要求.

  19. 利用啤酒工业废糟渣发酵复合氨基酸的研究%THE PREPARATION OF COMPOUND AMINOACIDS BY THE FERMENTATION OF BSG AND BEER BREWING WASTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李睿; 邱雁临

    2001-01-01

    以啤酒工业废糟渣为原料,采用两种霉菌进行液态混合发酵制备复合氨基酸,对如何提高培养过程中霉菌纤维素酶活力、从而提高麦糟蛋白质利用率进行了研究.并进行了发酵试验,发酵液中游离氨基酸含量为2688.5mg/100ml, 游离氨基酸含量占水解氨基酸的77.7%, 氨基酸组成合理.

  20. 浅谈四氢异构酒花浸膏在啤酒酿造中的应用%Discussion on the Application of Tetra Hydric Isomery Hops Extractum in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔进梅; 任永新

    2003-01-01

    四氢异构酒花浸膏对啤酒有良好的光稳定性,与疏水性蛋白质结合,可增加啤酒的泡沫性能;可赋予啤酒纯正的苦味,增加啤酒的口感;降低啤酒的日光臭味;增加啤酒的非生物稳定性.用蒸馏水或去离子水将四氢异构酒花浸膏稀释10倍后用,添加量为浓度为5%四氢异构浸膏50ml/kl啤酒.(孙悟)

  1. Influencing Factors of Applied Enzymes in Beer Brewing and Their Treatment Measures%啤酒酿造外加酶的影响因素及解决办法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔居红

    2003-01-01

    酿造过程引起不利于外加酶作用的因素有:酶作用的混合底物不均匀,易与其他物质混合,影响酶作用;糖化开始阶段底物的不溶性;相对较高温条件下的糖化,引起酶活性不稳定,易失活;酶的成分和化学组成以及糖化pH和温度随时间而变化;发酵液和清酒环节低温、pH值不合适等不利于酶制剂作用.使用酶制剂时应针对性选择酶制剂、酶制剂用量、酶制剂的纯度.(孙悟)

  2. Comparison of fermentation properties and RAPD analysis of mutants of yeasts applied in beer brewing%啤酒酵母突变株发酵性能比较及随机扩增多态DNA分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方维明; 杨振泉; 沈力飞; 黄为一

    2005-01-01

    对9株啤酒酵母菌种及经过诱变获得的突变株进行了发酵试验,比较了不同菌株的发酵能力、产高级醇能力、双乙酰还原能力以及菌株稳定性.同时利用随机引物对不同啤酒酵母株的基因组DNA进行了随机扩增多态DNA(RAPD)分析,比较不同突变株之间基因组的分子差异.结果表明:不同酵母发酵14d后外观发酵度在72.3%~76.8%,其中酵母YZB具有较高的发酵能力,最终发酵产物的高级醇含量最低,双乙酰峰值最低为0.36mg/L,而酵母Y1110最终发酵产物的高级醇含量最低为67.4mg/L,但双乙酰峰值达0.41mg/L,后酵结束后这2株酵母的双乙酰均可降至0.1 mg/L以下.菌株稳定性实验结果表明,在传代7次以后和第1代的主要性能没有明显变化.利用随机引物OPG-5对不同酵母的基因组进行RAPD分析,酵母Y1110、YZB和YZD可以通过特异的扩增谱带区别于其它菌株,该结果为啤酒酵母特异的分子标记奠定了基础.

  3. Fermentation Properties of Corn Starch Syrup in Beer Brewing%玉米淀粉糖浆部分取代麦汁的发酵性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣海龙; 郭德军; 刘文芝; 何晶龙

    2009-01-01

    本实验主要对玉米淀粉糖浆部分取代麦汁的发酵性能进行研究,并对发酵液的理化指标进行测定.结果表明:啤酒酵母在添加了50%玉米淀粉糖浆的麦汁中可以正常发酵,所制得的啤酒符合各项国家标准.

  4. Study on the Experiment Parameter of Determination of Raw Starch Content for Brewing Rice%酿酒大米中粗淀粉含量检测实验参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙清华; 谢小兰; 刘建文; 严伟

    2014-01-01

    When the starchs in rice is detecting its content,The other materials composition in rice,For example;Fat,protein and soluble sugar,Which can also generate the reducing substances like glucose when it in the hydrolysis process.If the rest of matters in rice don't removefromthesample,In the experimental process,The determination numericals of starch content will have somewhat increase,The processoftestingisthedeterminationofrawstarchcontent.In fact,which increase is not come from the starchs in sample.In the process of testingstarchcontentusingacidhydrolysis,The most three important key influence factors for acid hydrolysis of starch and redox titration, which is the acid concentration,water bath reflux time and the power of hydrogen after sample neutralization,gets through the orthogonal optimizationexperiment.It's expect to find the accurate testing datas which is nearest the real starch content in the process of raw starch contentdetemination.At the shorten testing time and improve the efficiency of inspection same time,It's hope to get the most accurate and real experimental results of starch.%大米中的淀粉在进行含量测定时,存在于大米中的其他化合物成分,如脂肪、蛋白质和可溶性糖等在水解过程中也会生成与葡萄糖一样具有还原性的物质,这些其余的物质成分如若不除去,所进行的检测即为粗淀粉含量的测定,在实验过程中淀粉含量的测定数值会有所增加,但实际上,这些所增加的数值并不是由样品中的淀粉所增加的。在酸水解法测定淀粉含量的过程中,通过对影响淀粉水解的因素,即酸的浓度和水浴回流时间以及影响氧化还原滴定的因素,即中和后样液的酸碱度这三个关键因素进行正交优化实验,以期找到粗淀粉检测步骤中所获实验数值最接近于样品中淀粉真实数值的实验参数。在缩短实验时间和提高检验效率的同时,以期获得最准确、最真实的实验数据。

  5. 蚕蛹功能酱油酿制研究(Ⅰ)--生产菌株的诱变选育%Study on Brewing of Silkworm Chrysalis Functional Soy Sauce (Ⅰ)--Induced Mutation of Producer Microoganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王常高; 干信

    2001-01-01

    文中研究利用UV、DES及Co60-γ对栖土曲霉进行多因子复合诱变处理,在以蚕蛹为主要原料的固体培养基上进行培养,选育出了一株生长繁殖速度快、孢子丰富且蛋白酶活高的变异菌株DC-7.其蛋白酶活达8628.9u/g(干曲),较出发菌株AS 3.374酶活4012.3u/g(干曲)提高了115%.此外,其遗传稳定性也较好.

  6. Feasible research on brewing fruit wine with fruit juice of chinese dwarf cherry (Cerasus humilis sok.)%钙果汁酿造果酒的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郄志民; 陈安均; 何卫军; 韩世政

    2007-01-01

    试验以山西省的世丰1号钙果为原料,调整钙果汁的糖度为22 %、pH为3.8、游离SO2浓度为100 mg/L,以安琪牌酿酒酵母为发酵菌种,于22 ℃~25 ℃条件下进行发酵,最终酿造出了风味独特、品质优良的钙果果酒.初步证明了用钙果酿造果酒的可行性.

  7. 草莓酒人工发酵过程中化学成分变化的研究%Changes of Chemical Compositions in Strawberry Brewed Wine during It's Manual Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马子骏; 王阳光; 林瑛影

    2004-01-01

    研究了草莓酒人工发酵过程中一些主要成分如糖、酸、单宁、挥发酸、乙醇、甲醇、高级醇和酯等物质含量的变化.结果表明,草莓发酵原酒酒度可达到10.0%(体积分数),总酸7.09g/L,pH3.63;单宁含量基本上无变化;挥发酸含量随着发酵时间的延长而逐渐上升,但最终质量浓度可控制在1g/L以内;甲醇在刚开始发酵时就形成,且含量维持在相对稳定的水平;高级醇主要包括正丙醇、异丁醇和异戊醇3种,约占香气成分的50%,且在发酵过程中不断积累;发酵过程中还检测到乙醛、乙酸乙酯、己酸乙酯、戊酸乙酯和乳酸乙酯等成分及一些未知成分.

  8. 低温发酵草莓澄清汁酿制优质草莓酒%Study on the technology of brewing strawberries wine in low-temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文化; 周其中; 郑仕宏

    2008-01-01

    为探讨草莓果实经速冻处理后对果酒品质的影响,研究草莓果酒全低温酿造技术及其对果酒品质的影响.采用冻藏和常温发酵进行比较,在不同条件下进行预贮,利用不同温区发酵和不同菌种进行发酵,测定果酒中Vc、影响果酒风味成分多酚、酸含量,果酒氧化指数乙醛和氧化还原电位等指标对果酒品质的影响.试验证明:经冻藏处理的果实与新鲜果实发酵的果酒品质没有太大区别.采用果酒酵母菌1450#;R92#按1:1配比,经冻藏果汁加入3倍的水调配后.主发酵温度控制在10~15℃之间,发酵时间为12 d,其果酒品质与新鲜果汁发酵产生果酒品质没有区别.

  9. 啤酒酿造中欧盟的啤酒花供应特点%A Character of the EU Hop Supply for the World Beer Brewing Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Pavlovic; Viljem Pavlovic; 谷方红

    2012-01-01

    基于作者在国际啤酒花种植协会的活动和研究结果以及对相关文献的回顾,对欧盟的啤酒花产业结构、生产特点和欧盟啤酒花产业在世界啤酒行业的经济地位进行了综述。论述表明,欧盟啤酒花产业结构发生了很大变化。以市场为导向的结构调整及改变更具竞争力。在2000年至2008年期间,欧盟主要啤酒花种植国家中啤酒花农场的数量大幅下降。导致几乎所有欧盟成员国农场的平均规模有所增加。为保证生产利润的最大化,啤酒花农场的专业化程度在增加,经营模式也逐渐向企业经营模式转变。%This article is based on authors' research results, activities within the International Hop Growers' Convention (IHGC) and a review of the literature available. It aims at giving an overview of the EU hop industry struc- ture, production characteristics and its economic position within the world beer industry. The results demonstrate that the production structure in the hop industry sector varies greatly across EU countries. Furthermore, the structure is changing due to a market - driven structural adjustment aimed at being more competitive. The number of farms growing hops in the main hop -producing countries in the EU declined significantly during the 2000 -2008 period. As a re- suit, the average farm size increased in almost all EU member states. The rate of specialization of hops farms is general- ly increasing. Hop farmers are stepwise becoming entrepreneurs, trying to achieve a farm size that creates production more lucrative.

  10. Effects of Wheat Gluten Protein Peptides on the Fermentation Performance of Yeast under Super High Gravity Brewing%小麦面筋蛋白活性肽对啤酒超高浓度酿造的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵谋明; 莫芬; 赵海锋; 刘丰源

    2014-01-01

    研究了不同分子段小麦面筋蛋白活性肽对啤酒超高浓度酿造的影响,结果表明:在超高浓度酿造条件下,不同分子段的小麦面筋蛋白活性肽对酿酒酵母的促增殖和发酵效果不同,其中小分子肽段WGP-Ⅲ (Mw<3 ku)具有更合理的氨基酸组成比例,表现出最强的促酵母增殖和发酵效果.不同分子小麦面筋活性肽段WGP-Ⅰ (Mw=5~10 ku)、WGP-Ⅱ (Mw=3~5 ku)、WGP-Ⅲ与CK相比,初始FAN含量分别提高了27%、33%和47%.WGP-Ⅲ增加了最多的麦汁初始FAN水平,且发酵结束时FAN利用率为58%,较空白提高了11%.向20(°P)麦汁中补充0.3%(m/V)的小麦面筋蛋白肽WGP-Ⅲ,可使稳定期酵母生物量提高30%,乙醇浓度提高5%,氨基氮利用率提高11%,发酵时间缩短4 d.同时总醇增加68%,总酯降低17%,小分子肽段的添加并不影响啤酒的感官品质,使啤酒风味更加协调.

  11. Raman Spectroscopic Profile of Ethanol Fermentation in High Gravity Cassava Starch Brewing%浓醪乙醇发酵的单细胞拉曼光谱表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李自达; 赖钧灼; 廖威; 刘军贤; 王桂文

    2012-01-01

    应用激光镊子拉曼光谱技术收集500 L发酵罐中木薯淀粉浓醪乙醇发酵过程底物、产物及酵母单细胞的拉曼光谱,以期从单细胞水平为乙醇发酵提供新的认识.结果显示:1)拉曼光谱可以实时监测浓醪乙醇发酵过程底物与产物的变化;2)酵母细胞胞内物质的变化存在类似于产物变化的前发酵期、主发酵期和后发酵期3个阶段,但出现的时间要比产物变化晚约4 h;3)为适应浓醪发酵环境,酵母细胞的生理状态和胞内物质在不断地进行调整,随着环境乙醇浓度的升高,酵母细胞在胞内累积蛋白质和脂类物质,蛋白质二级结构逐渐变为以无规则卷曲为主;4)发酵后期,酵母细胞在胞内累积大量的嘌呤类物质,但细胞间含量存在异质性.上述结果表明,单细胞拉曼光谱技术提供了一种研究微生物发酵的新方法,可从新的角度获知乙醇发酵过程酵母细胞内外的变化信息.%Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize the process of ethanol fermentation and look into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells at single-cell level. The ethanol fermentation using high-concentration cassava starch as feedstock is processed in a 500 L fermentor and the Raman spectra of substrate, product and individual yeast cell are acquired by using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS). Major results are as follows: 1) Raman spectroscopy can monitor the dynamic changes of substrate and product during the ethanol fermentation; 2) the changes of intracellular components of yeast cells exhibit three stages, I. E., primary fermentation, main fermentation and later fermentation, which are similar to those of products, but there is a delay of about 4 hi 3) yeast cells amend its physiological state and intracellular compounds to adapt to the high osmotic stress at the initial stage and the high ethanol concentration at the later stage of fermentation. Random coiling dominates the secondary structure of yeast protein as the ethanol concentration increases; 4) purine is synthesized and accumulated in yeast cells at the later stage, but the amounts of individual cells are greatly heterogeneous. This work provides beneficial reference on the ethanol fermentation from a new perspective. LTRS shows the potential to open a new frontier of microbial fermentation.

  12. Trial on Introduction of New Variety" Xuelanhong" for Brewing Vitis Amurensis Rupr.Wine%酿造干红山葡萄酒新品种“雪兰红”引种试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘肃; 曲炳章; 刘景宽; 郭振贵; 刘涛; 韩达

    2013-01-01

    酿造干红山葡萄酒新品种“雪兰红”引种试验结果表明:该品种表现果穗大、果实含糖和出汁率高、总酸和单宁低,均达到酿造干红山葡萄酒的工艺要求,酒质好.“雪兰红”5~7年生树平均单产67kg/株、1 494.8kg/667m2、22.4t/hm2.比对照品种“左优红”增产16.0%.在集安市种植“雪兰红”的纯利润是种植玉米的2.89倍,经济效益显著.%The trial results showed that"Xuelanhong"produced big ears,high fruit sugar,high juice yield,low total acid and tannin,wine quality has reached dry wine process requirements.The average yield was 6.7kg per plant,1494.8kg per acre,22.4t per hectare of 5 ~ 7 year old tree.Increased production 16% than"Zuoyouhong".The net profit is 2.89 times of corn cultivation benefit in Ji'an.

  13. 多菌种发酵松仁蛋白粕酱油酿造工艺优化%Multi-strain Fermented Soy Protein Meal Pine Nuts Brewing Process Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立江; 柴娅

    2016-01-01

    以松仁蛋白粕为原料,采用米曲霉、黑曲霉和酵母菌及乳酸菌等多菌种进行混合发酵,然后采用低温增香调味发酵提高酱油的品质,酿造出营养安全的新型酱油产品.通过单因素试验和正交试验对发酵工艺进行工艺优化,得到最佳工艺条件为:食盐浓度16%,米曲霉与黑曲霉的比例6∶4,发酵时间40d,发酵温度40℃.此情况下,氨基酸含量达0.84g/100mL,成品酱油呈红褐色或棕红色,带有松仁特有风味,是具有保健功能的营养型酱油.

  14. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk Ian; Kettle Alec; Hofmeister Sonja; Virdie Amarjeet; Kenny Javier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew). Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discr...

  15. Ekonomická analýza pivovarnického průmyslu v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Starý, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Diploma Thesis deals with current conditions of brewing industry in the Czech Republic. In the theoretical part are defined the base concepts and brewing industry involvement are defined in the area of manufacturing industry and its classification in economics activities. It also inform us with brewing history in the world and the Czech Republic and further it focuses an beer, its production, distribution and legislative relating. The following pages concern the reserved geographical brand “Č...

  16. Coffee and spent coffee extracts protect against cell mutagens and inhibit growth of food-borne pathogen microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Cid, C.; Peña, M. P.; Arbillaga, L. (Leire); Vitas, A I; Bravo, J.; Monente, C. (Carmen)

    2015-01-01

    Coffee consumption decreases the risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. The by-product obtained after brewing process (spent coffee) also has antioxidant capacity. Spent coffee and coffee brews (filter and espresso) extracts were obtained from Arabica and Robusta coffees, respectively. Spent coffee showed slightly high amounts in chlorogenic acids, but caffeine content was similar to their respective coffee brew. All samples exhibited strong protection activity against indirect acting mut...

  17. Biotechnology and the Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jenny; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Traditional and novel uses of enzymes and microbes in the baking, brewing, and dairy industries are described. Cheese, yogurt, baking, brewing, vinegar, soy sauce, single-cell proteins, enzymes, food modification, vanilla, citric acid, monosodium glutamate, xanthan gum, aspartame, and cochineal are discussed. Industrial links with firms involved…

  18. Porous glass carrier for immobilization of brewer's yeast. Kobo koteika tantai to shite no takoshitsu garasu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashihara, T. (Kirin Brewery Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    In this article, merits of porous glass carrier for immobilization are stated as an example of application of vital reaction catalyst for immobilization to the brewing field and furthermore the features of the brewing system of immobilization of yeast for beer brewing (super brew system, SBS) which utilizes the above carrier are outlined. The biggest merit of utilizing immobilized yeast for beer brewing is that increased efficiency of the brewing can be attained, but usable carriers for immobilization whose safety has been confirmed are very few. Since the latter half of 1980's, DEAE cellulose, porous glass and ceramics have been used as the carriers appropriate for the scale of practical brewing. Porous glass carriers have many functions including high percentage of water absorption and capability of holding microorganisms in high density. The number of fungus bodies to be carried with the porous glass is less than that of calcium alginate which is not appropriate for scaling-up for practical brewing. In SBS, fermentation can be made efficiently and in a well balanced manner. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. The Chemistry of Beer Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Graham G.

    2004-01-01

    Brewing of beer, one of the oldest biotechnology industries was one of the earliest processes to be undertaken on commercial basis. Biological instability involves contamination of bacteria, yeast, or mycelia fungi and there is always a risk in brewing that beer can become contaminated by micro-organisms.

  20. The Canadian Competition Bureau’s Attempt to Halt Beer Merger Goes Flat

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Katz

    2008-01-01

    On January 22, 2008, the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal (FCA) rejected the Competition Bureau's appeal in Labatt , refusing the Bureau's request for section 100 relief and more time to investigate Labatt Brewing Co. Ltd.'s proposed 2007 acquisition of Lakeport Brewing.

  1. 解读“纯生啤酒”(续)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国权

    2005-01-01

    According to the variety of beer and the market, flexible use for different methods of final treatment is the dialectic scientific attitude. The ""purity brewing"" of beer is the way of improvement and further development for the brewing industry in China. It is also the tide of industry development for health food that accord with the fundamental interests of the people.

  2. Vers une intégration du sorgho comme matière première pour la brasserie moderne (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bwanganga Tawaba, JC.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Towards the integration of sorghum as an adjunct in the modern brewery industry. A review. Despite the relatively recent use of sorghum in brewing, the accumulated information from studies on the use of this cereal in malting and brewing is far from basic; the biochemistry of sorghum malting consolidates this knowledge. Despite the interest accorded to demonstrating the use of sorghum in brewing, the possibilities and limitations of using this cereal in the modern malting and brewing industries have not yet been fully elucidated. Furthermore, all the transformations involved in these processes are far from being completely understood. This review provides a wealth of knowledge on the properties of sorghum, which is of interest to both the maltster and the brewer, such as: grain composition, malted grain biochemistry and physiology, brewing and fermentation of sorghum, etc. The progress and difficulties encountered during sorghum malting are presented in a way that will be helpful to the brewer.

  3. Postavení pivovarnického průmyslu v ČR

    OpenAIRE

    Baxa, Milan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to analyze the brewing industry in the Czech Republic and to consider the latest trends in the brewing industry at present. The thesis is divided into five chapters. The first chapter characterises the position of the brewing industry in the national economy of the Czech Republic. The most important section of the thesis is the second chapter, which analyzes the production of beer and the structure of the branch in the Czech Republic. Export of Czech beer ab...

  4. I. 'Street of twins': multiple births in Cuba II. The Cuban twin registry: an update / twin research reports: cord entanglement; heritability of clubfoot; school separation / twins and twin researchers in the news: reunited at seventy-eight; basketball duo dissolved; delivered holding hands; the better brew; award winners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L; Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    I was part of a people-to-people tour of Havana, Cuba during the first week in April 2014. Among the many highlights of that adventure were an informal meeting with Dr Beatriz Marcheco-Teruel, from Cuba's National Center for Medical Genetics, and a visit to the famous 'Street of Twins'. A fortuitous meeting with parents of twins in the fishing town of Jaimanitas was also an extraordinary event. The Cuban experience is followed by summaries of recent twin research, covering umbilical cord entanglement, the heritability of clubfoot and school separation policies for twins. Media reports include twins reunited at age 78, the future of UCLA's twin basketball players, MZ twins born holding hands, a twin conflict over beer and a pair of American Psychological Association honors for Drs Nancy L. Segal and Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr.

  5. 啤酒生产中高级醇的形成与低产高级醇酵母菌种的选育%Synthesis of Higher Alcohols During Beer Fermentation and Brewing Yeast Improving for Low Higher Alcohols Producing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖冬光; 陈叶福; 张翠英

    2013-01-01

    高级醇是啤酒中主要的风味物质,但含量过高会对啤酒质量产生不利影响。选育低产高级醇的啤酒酵母菌种,可从源头上有效控制啤酒酿造过程中高级醇的过量生成。本文对啤酒生产中高级醇的生成机制,及依据此机制开展的啤酒酵母选育工作做一综述。随着生物技术的不断发展,高级醇生成的精确机制将会得到清晰阐释,据此对啤酒酵母高级醇代谢进行精细调控以提高啤酒风味质量,将成为啤酒酵母菌种选育工作的重要方向。%Higher alcohols , the major flavor materials in beer , have significant negative effects on beer quality when their concentration beyond certain level .Breeding of yeast strains with low higher alcohols productivity is proved to be an efficient method for the controlling of higher alcohols in beer .In this paper,the synthesis mechanisms of higher alcohols during beer fermentation ,and the strains improving works based on these mechanisms were reviewed .With the development of biotechnology , the details of higher alcohols biosynthesis will be revealed , and the fine tuning of higher alcohols metabolism of beer yeast would be a more efficient strategy to promote beer flavor quality .

  6. Construction of Self-cloning Industrial Brewing Yeast with High-glutathione Production and Low-ADH Ⅱ Enzyme Activity%低乙醇脱氢酶Ⅱ活性的抗老化啤酒酵母工程菌的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡勇; 母茜; 王肇悦; 张博润; 晏本菊

    2008-01-01

    采用自克隆技术,破坏啤酒酵母工业菌株YSF31的ADH2基因,在ADH2基因位点插入来源于YSF31的编码γ-谷氨酰半胱氨酸合成酶的GSH1基因和铜抗性筛选标记CUP1基因.通过铜抗性筛选转化子,经PCR和乙醇脱氢酶Ⅱ(ADH Ⅱ)活性测定验证,获得了1株啤酒酵母工程菌.10°P麦芽汁发酵实验显示,自克隆菌株的乙醇脱氢酶Ⅱ活性是受体菌的65%,谷胱甘肽含量比受体菌YSF31的高34%.其他发酵指标并没有发生明显改变.由于DNA操作过程中没有外源基因介入,因此啤酒酵母工程菌为生物安全的自克隆菌株,具有重要的应用价值.

  7. 抽脂美容酿纠纷依法调解显公正--医疗纠纷人民调解案例分析%Disputes Brewed by Liposuction Beauty, Fair Resolution through Mediation according to Law--People's Mediation Cases of Medical Disputes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷红力

    2015-01-01

    医疗纠纷人民调解制度在全国各地逐渐展开,发挥了积极的作用。在调解过程中,需要运用到一系列的方法和技巧;就此,本文通过对一例抽脂美容手术的医疗纠纷的分析,详细讲述了根据现场实际情况巧妙使用一系列调解方法和技巧的过程,具有较好的实践借鉴和指引价值。%People's mediation system for medical disputes gradually spread all over the country, and it has played a positive role. We need apply a series of methods and techniques to the process of mediation. Therefore, taking one medical dispute of liposuction plastic surgery as an example, the author described in detail the media-tion process of ingenious use of a series of methods and techniques according to the actual situation, which had a good practical value for reference and guidance.

  8. Life Difficulty and Eternal Dilemma Brewed by Emotional Desire——Comparison between Connie and Cao Qiqiao%情欲酿制的生命难局与永恒困境——康尼与曹七巧形象比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伏涛; 王瑜

    2011-01-01

    中的康妮是资本主义文明束缚下追求真正爱情的英国贵族少妇,中的曹七巧是封建伦理道德桎梏下有着变态情欲的中国下层社会妇女,她们是个性迥异的两位女性形象.不同的社会地位、生活环境与时代背景造就不同的性格,她们同是在痛苦的婚姻下苦苦挣扎,在欲望的压抑中饱受煎熬,虽然都在绝望中反抗,却谁也选不出悲剧的结局.两位作家通过他们塑造的两位女性形象凸显了女性悲剧命运的深层文化内涵.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF SACCHARIFICAION TECHNOLOGY PARAMETERS ON THE COLOUR VALUE OF BEER DURING BEER BREWING USING EXTRUDED RICE%膨化大米辅料酿造啤酒中糖化工艺参数对啤酒色度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏军; 申德超

    2006-01-01

    在100L规模上,通过五因素五水平二次旋转正交组合试验设计,探讨了挤压膨化大米辅料酿造啤酒的外加酶糖化工艺参数对啤酒色度的影响规律,得出最佳的糖化工艺参数.

  10. Influence of saccharificaion technology parameters on the content of alcohol during beer brewing using extruded rice%膨化大米辅料酿造啤酒中糖化工艺参数对啤酒酒精含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏军; 申德超

    2007-01-01

    在100L规模上,通过五因素五水平二次旋转正交组合试验设计,探讨了膨化大米辅料酿造啤酒的外加酶糖化工艺参数对啤酒酒精含量的影响规律,得出最佳的糖化工艺参数.

  11. 挤压膨化大米辅料酿造啤酒糖化过程中蛋白质分解条件的研究%Investigation of the condition of protein decomposed during the saccharificaion of beer brewing using extruded rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏军; 申德超

    2007-01-01

    在实验室500 mL规模上,通过三因素三水平正交试验,探讨了挤压膨化大米辅料酿造啤酒糖化过程中醪液pH值、温度和时间对蛋白质分解的影响规律,得出蛋白质分解的最佳工艺条件为pH值5.2,温度50℃,时间60 min.

  12. The Influence of mashing parameters on the content of reducing sugar during beer brewing using extruded rice as the adjunct%膨化大米辅料酿造啤酒中糖化工艺参数对麦汁还原糖含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏军; 申德超

    2007-01-01

    在100L规模上,通过五因素五水平二次旋转正交组合实验设计,探讨了膨化大米辅料酿造啤酒的外加酶糖化工艺参数对麦汁还原糖含量的影响规律,得出最佳的糖化工艺参数.

  13. The Engineered Application of the Technique of Hydrolysis Acidification- Catalytic Oxidation on Beer- brewing Wastewater Treatment%水解酸化--接触氧化工艺在啤酒废水处理中的工程实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红霞; 王晓明; 刘春雪; 王永芳

    2004-01-01

    通过衡水市啤酒厂废水处理的情况,介绍了水解酸化-接触氧化工艺的特点,详细说明了各处理单元的结构特征、作用原理及相关的设备,通过运行状况分析,总结了工程经验,提出了建议采取的相应措施.

  14. 与时俱进改革创新推进优势资源转换--新疆乌苏啤酒有限责任公司改革发展启示%Reforms and Achievements of Xinjiang Wusu Beer Brewing Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长江; 杨晓村

    2004-01-01

    改革创新是新疆企业加快发展、实施资源转环境的政府,需要良性互动和适应环境置换.文章选择乌啤这一较具代表性的企业,总结分析了其发展壮大和转换经营机制的主要举措,提出了新疆企业应对机遇挑战和振兴新疆啤酒产业的若干对策.

  15. Effect of additional enzymes on the α-amino nitrogen content of wort by using extruded rice as adjunct in beer brewing%外加酶对膨化大米辅料麦汁α-氨基氮含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏军; 申德超

    2008-01-01

    以复合酶、糖化酶和淀粉酶用量3因素进行五水平二次旋转正交组合试验设计,研究膨化大米辅料酿造啤酒的外加酶对麦汁α-氨基氮含量的影响.得出最佳酶添加量:每50 g原料添加2.5 mL复合酶、2.5 mL糖化酶和2.8 mL淀粉酶,相应的麦汁α-氨基氮含量为155.31 mg/L.

  16. 外加酶对膨化大米辅料麦汁还原糖含量的影响%Effect of additional enzymes on the reducing sugar content of wort by using extruded rice as auxilliary materials in beer brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏军; 申德超

    2009-01-01

    以复合酶、糖化酶和淀粉酶用量3因素进行5水平2次旋转正交组合实验设计,研究膨化大米辅料酿造啤酒的外加酶对麦汁还原糖含量的影响.得出最适酶添加量:复合酶用量2.12~2.41mL,糖化酶用量2.10~2.39 mL,淀粉酶用量2.30~2.70 mL.

  17. 啤酒生产酵母全循环新工艺的研究 --啤酒酵母提取物的脱臭%Study on the new technology of total circle of yeast in brewing--The deodorization of brewer's yeast extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈廷登; 陈开宏

    2003-01-01

    采用正交试验法研究了利用添加化学试剂,对啤酒酵母提取物进行脱臭的较佳工艺条件,可使酵母提取物达到基本无异味.其α-氨基氮损耗不大,且非生物稳定性好.

  18. 英博:致力于绿色酿酒——英博2008年企业公民责任报告(环境部分)%ABlnBev has been Working for Green Beer Brewing:An Environmental Summary of its CSR Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    加强对环境影响的管理,使其负面影响最小化,具有积极的经济意义。英博啤酒集团(以下简称英博)的目的在于尽可能有效地利用自然资源。英博通过工厂最优化(VP0)这一严格的啤酒厂管理体系,在整个啤酒厂网络内分享并制定最佳实践经验等核心措施,持续减少对环境的影响。

  19. The comparisons of red qu for brewing, red qu for pigment and red qu for function and the investigations of their antibiotic%酿酒红曲、色素红曲、功能红曲的对比及抑菌性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵树欣; 李凤美

    2007-01-01

    简要介绍了目前国内主要生产的三类红曲包括酿酒红曲、色素红曲和功能红曲.并对这三类红曲的色价、色调、外观、代谢组分、用途进行了比较.本文用不同种类的红曲米进行抑菌实验,结果显示不论是功能红曲、酿酒红曲,还是色素红曲都对一些菌有明显抑制作用.主要对金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、毛霉有抑制作用,对酵母菌和大肠杆菌抑制作用不明显.

  20. Aproveitamento da água de umidificação de malte da moagem úmida como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja Utilization of the wet milling malt steep water as raw material on brewing

    OpenAIRE

    VENTURINI FILHO Waldemar G.; NOJIMOTO T.

    1999-01-01

    A água de umidificação de malte, resultante da moagem úmida, pode ser usada como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja. Há, entretanto, cervejarias que descartam esse subproduto, e conseqüentemente, o extrato nele contido. Em função disso, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a possibilidade de ganho de rendimento na mosturação e alterações nas características químicas e sensoriais da bebida, em virtude do uso dessa água. Cervejas do tipo Pilsen foram produzidas de duas formas: com ...

  1. 变化中的世界啤酒市场%The changing world beer market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛国华

    2004-01-01

    At present,the purhasing activities by the big international beer group companies have extended into the developing countries.This has also become the most important issue and the developing trend in the Chinese brewing industry.

  2. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    2003-01-01

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Mega

  3. 27 CFR 13.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 CFR Part 13, Labeling Proceedings. Brewer. Any person who brews beer (except a person who produces..., whisky, rum, brandy, gin, and other distilled spirits, including all dilutions and mixtures thereof...

  4. The role of lager beer yeast in oxidative stability of model beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berner, Torben Sune; Arneborg, Nils

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: In this study, we investigated the relationship between the ability of lager brewing yeast strains to tolerate oxidative stress and their ability to produce oxidative stable model beer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Screening of 21 lager brewing yeast strains against diamide and paraquat showed...... that the oxidative stress resistance was strain dependent. Fermentation of model wort in European Brewing Convention tubes using three yeast strains with varying oxidative stress resistances resulted in three model beers with different rates of radical formation as measured by electron spin resonance in forced...... in the model beers. CONCLUSIONS: A more oxidative stable beer is not obtained by a more-oxidative-stress-tolerant lager brewing yeast strain, exhibiting a higher secretion of thioredoxin, but rather by a less-oxidative-stress-tolerant strain, exhibiting a higher iron uptake. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT...

  5. 27 CFR 25.276 - Operations and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... receipt, production, and disposition of all beer received or produced on the premises, and the receipt..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Pilot Brewing Plants § 25.276 Operations and records....

  6. MALT BARLEY PRODUCTION ON THE CHESTNUT SOILS AREA OF VOLGOGRAD REGION Производство ячменя, пригодного для пивоварения в зоне каштановых почв Волгоградской области

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna E. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a short review of malt barley cultivation and its improvement ways on chestnut soils in Volgograd region. It includes the results of home brewing with the use of the experimental crop

  7. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisk Ian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

  8. 76 FR 64384 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... ingredients, thereby creating a ``filter-cake.'' At the end of the brewing process, following fermentation... passed-through the filter-cake to remove undesirable contaminants. This results in higher clarity of...

  9. 78 FR 58559 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Section II.I of the proposed Final Judgment, a Covered Interest ``means any non-ABI Beer brewing assets or... the proposed Final Judgment and CIS in the Federal Register on May 22, 2013, see 78 FR...

  10. Foreign Banks Set Sights on Housing Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Having cleared all the hurdles to enter the market, locally incorporated foreign banks declare their intentions to dive into the personal housing loan business in China A battle is brewing between domestic and locally incorporated foreign banks over the

  11. 23 CFR 1313.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... limited to, ale, lager, porter, stout, sake, and other similar fermented beverages brewed or produced from.... (f) Other associated costs permitted by statute means labor costs, management costs, and...

  12. Dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Winemaking, brewing and baking are some of the oldest biotechnological processes. In all of them, alcoholic fermentation is the main biotransformation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae the primary microorganism. Although a wide variety of microbial species may participate in alcoholic fermentation and...

  13. Turning Traffic Jams to Jelly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Beijing, known for having the worst traffic in China, is brewing up a traffic plan with the harshest ever measures to ensure smooth traffic flow as the capital’s gridlock during rush hour and private car sales soar.

  14. Palm prints

    OpenAIRE

    Goffin, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Palms – set of A2 prints showing at Brew & Foam Gallery – Off the Wall & Pipeline, Hawaii Develop from the 'Palms zine' earlier this year, the set of images have requested within the surf event community.

  15. Effect of Coffea canephora aqueous extract on microbial counts in ex vivo oral biofilms: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Andréa Gonçalves; Iorio, Natália Lopes Pontes; Farah, Adriana; Netto dos Santos, Kátia Regina; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, the ex vivo antimicrobial effect of brewed coffee was tested on oral biofilms. For this, unsweetened and sweetened (10 % sucrose) brewed light-roasted Coffea canephora at 20 % was used in biofilms formed by non-stimulated saliva from three volunteers. After 30 min contact with unsweetened and sweetened brews, the average microorganism count in the biofilms reduced by 15.2 % and 12.4 %, respectively, with no statistical difference among them. We also observed a drop of microorganisms in the biofilms after treatment with sucrose solution at 5 % compared to control (saline) and to sucrose at 1 % and 3 %. In conclusion, Coffea canephora extract reduces the microbial count in oral biofilm, and our data suggest that sucrose concentration in coffee brew can influence its antimicrobial property against the referred biofilm.

  16. MARKETING PLAN FOR CHURCH STREET BREWERY

    OpenAIRE

    Penttinen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the craft brewing industry in the United States is booming and increasing its market share and output, even though the overall brewing industry is in decline. In the past 10 years, craft beer has gained a significant market share of 7.8%, and the industry has grown 11% annually. Consumer behavior has also changed towards customers valuing quality over quantity. This has led to an increase in the demand for craft beer and in the number of microbreweries. The aim o...

  17. Trendy v produkci a spotřebě piva

    OpenAIRE

    Bukovská, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Subject of the thesis is given to production of beer and its consumption in the Czech Republic . This bachelor’s thehis deals tells about history of the brewing industry, production of beer and its marketing. Furthermore the work presents features of factors having impact on the product. Here is presented market with beer and the biggest exporters and beer producers. As well is appraised position of the brewing as on inland trade so on abroad. Foreshadowed is eventual prospective developme...

  18. Pivovarnictví a uplatňování českého piva

    OpenAIRE

    Marková, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This graduation thesis deals with the brewing industry, especially the production and the consumption of beer. The theoretical concepts are focused on the history of brewing, used raw materials and the desired quality features and value. The next section focuses on the development of the beer production, consumption of beer in the world and the Czech Republic. Then discusses the determinants and describes their impact. For the production of beer were selected determinants of be...

  19. Analysis of production and consumption of beer in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Zamrzlová, Jiřina

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the analysis of production, consumption, export and import of beer in the Czech Republic in the years 1990 - 2011. The lengths of the time period of the individual indicators vary according to availability of the necessary data. The aim of this work is to assess the development of these indicators and predict their value for the year 2012. The theoretical work introduces to the problems of brewing and describes the origins of beer and Czech brewing, present ...

  20. Aktuální trendy ve výrobě a distribuci piva ve světle dlouhodobých trendů české pivní kultury (na příkladu Plzeňského Prazdroje).

    OpenAIRE

    Černý, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this master thesis is to analyze actual and long-term trends in production and distribution of beer in the Czech area. The master thesis is divided into several parts. The first part presents basic information about the influence of brewing industry on the European and Czech economies; in the following part are described trends of distribution and production of beer in the past which influenced current state of Czech brewing industry. Last part of this thesis is concentrating o...

  1. わが国ビール産業の揺籃期 : 麦酒醸造技術の伝播と継承

    OpenAIRE

    山ノ内, 敏隆; ヤマノウチ, トシタカ; Toshitaka, YAMANOUCHI

    2004-01-01

    There were two routes that the beer brewing technology had been spread over Japan. One was the genealogy of Copeland. Yokoyama and Kubo played the biggest role in this genealogy. They contributed the rise of the beer industry in Japan. The oter was the govermmental route. Nakagawa contributed to establish Kaitakushi Brewery. He is the most important person who transplanted the Germany beer brewing technology in Japan.

  2. Lokalizační faktory pivovarnického průmyslu

    OpenAIRE

    Kadeřávková, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is focused on definition of basic factors of localization of brewing industry in Czech Republic. Traditionally, beer is the part of Czech culture. The aim of this thesis is to identify main factors of localization, to analyze them and to evaluate their influence on spatial distribution of brewing industry in Czech Republic. Thesis is divided into four parts. The first part is focused on summary of basic theoretical knowledge of localization. The second part summarizes important fa...

  3. Analýza výroby a spotřeby piva v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Masojídek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis describes the overall development and changes in the branch of Czech brewing since its beginning until the current trends. There are presented the basic raw materials for the production of beer even the production process, in the thesis. Briefly characterized here are the different types of beer, trade mark relating to the brewing industry, and government intervention in commodity beer and hops. Thesis thoroughly analyses the development and current situation of the Czech ...

  4. Atraktivita odvětví pivovarnictví v ČR

    OpenAIRE

    Cupáková, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This master's thesis deals with an analysis of the brewing industry in the Czech Republic. The main aim of this thesis is to evaluate the attractiveness of the sector and to develop suggestions and recommendations for enterprises considering entering the researched sector and for companies already operating in the brewing industry. Recommendations for potential new entrants derive from an evaluation of industry attractiveness, and proposals for current breweries stem from an assessment of opp...

  5. Trendy v nahrazování sladu jinými surovinami při výrobě piva

    OpenAIRE

    Dostál, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to describe raw materials as brewing adjuncts of beer production and also gives advantages and disadvantages to each of them. The opening chapter includes explanation of elementary terms such as definition of beer, which ingredients are constituent in beer (barley, hops, water, yeast) and its characterization. The next chapter gives general explanation of brewery and brewing equipment and how beer is made. The term adjunct is used to refer corn, rice, wheat, unmalte...

  6. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Denis De Keukeleire

    2000-01-01

    Beer brewing is an intricate process encompassing mixing and further elaboration of four essential raw materials, including barley malt, brewing water, hops and yeast. Particularly hops determine to a great extent typical beer qualities such as bitter taste, hoppy flavour, and foam stability. Conversely, hop-derived bitter acids account for an offending lightstruck flavour, which is formed on exposure of beer to light. These various processes are presented in detail, while due emphasis is pla...

  7. Comment: 235 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available koji mold Aspergillus oryzae Aspergillus_oryzae_L.png 235.png Osamu Mizutani (Tohoku University (curren...tly National Research Institute of Brewing)) licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan 撮影: ...水谷治(東北大学(現 酒類総研)) Photo: Osamu Mizutani (Tohoku University (currently National Research Institute of Brewing)) bando 2010/08/04 09:28:07 2010/08/04 11:18:35 ...

  8. Batch process. Batch process used in a beer brewery; Biru kojo no bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, K. [Kirin Engneering Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    In a beer brewing process, there is a system in which unit operation of chemical engineering is combined with the techniques of food and fermentation engineering in order to brew beer meeting the quality concept. This paper introduces the characteristics of a batch system used in the brewing of beer and the control method for the brewing of beer. The characteristics of the batch system used in a beer brewing process are the following three. In order to minimize the quality variation ascribed to the raw materials and the process, the materials are blended in various parts of the system. In the saccharification step which determines the quality of beer, two methods, i.e. a batch method and a continuous method are used, and beer brewing companies employ a saccharification system meeting the condition for attaining a desired quality of their own products. Two mashing systems are operated at different cycles shifted by half cycle from each other, not starting both at a time, so as to level the peaks of the utilities, whereby the operation of the utility-related facility is optimized. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Antiradical activity, phenolics profile, and hydroxymethylfurfural in espresso coffee: influence of technological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rita C; Costa, Anabela S G; Jerez, María; Casal, Susana; Sineiro, Jorge; Núñez, María J; Oliveira, Beatriz

    2010-12-01

    The influence of technological factors (decaffeination, brew volume, coffee species, and roast degree) on antiradical activity and phenolics content of espresso coffee is described. The screenings of phenolics profile and other compounds (caffeine and trigonelline), as well as the quantification of hydroxymethylfurfural, were performed by LC-DAD-ESI-MS. Significantly lower (p decaffeinated espressos when compared with regular ones (32 vs 38% and 324 vs 410 mg/30 mL cup, respectively). A long espresso (70 mL) offers more than twice the phenolics amount of a short one (20 mL). Robusta brews showed higher (p 0.05) were observed for scavenging activities of differently roasted robusta brews, whereas an increase in medium-dark brews was observed for arabica samples. Total phenolics in robusta espressos decreased (p 0.05) were found between arabica espressos from different roasts. By LC-DAD-ESI-MS, 23 hydroxycinnamic derivatives were found, including chlorogenic acids, lactones, and cinnamoyl-amino acid conjugates. The amount of each compound was differently affected by species and roast. Robusta brews presented superior levels of caffeine and chlorogenic acids, whereas arabica ones contained more trigonelline. Hydroxymethylfurfural contents in the brew (30 mL) varied from 2.60 to 0.84 mg for light- and dark-roasted arabicas and from 1.29 to 0.68 mg for light- and dark-roasted robustas, respectively.

  10. Effect of decaffeination of green and roasted coffees on the in vivo antioxidant activity and prevention of liver injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriene R. Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Decaffeination and roasting affects the composition of the chlorogenic acids in coffee, which have antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of coffee decaffeination on the in vivo antioxidant activity and the prevention of liver damage. The Wistar rats received intraperitoneal doses of carbon tetrachloride and daily doses of Arabica coffee brews (whole and decaffeinated, both green and roasted by gavage for fifteen days. The activity of liver marker enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and serum albumin were measured as well as the quantification of the thiobarbituric acid reactive species and the content of liver total lipids. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase are good indicators of liver damage: the results showed that all studied coffee brews decreased the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and liver levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species and total lipids. The compounds presents in coffee brews are able to decrease the hepatic lipid peroxidation induced by carbon tetrachloride, making a significant hepatoprotective effect, in accordance with the liver function tests. The coffee brews are hepatoprotective regardless of the decaffeination process and our results suggest a better protection against liver damage for the roasted coffee brews compared with green coffee brews.

  11. DETERMINATION OF CAFFEINE CONTENTS OF COFFEE BRANDS IN THE VIETNAMESE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the caffeine contents in five certain Vietnamese coffee (Dak Tin, Di Linh, Nam Nguyen, Origin and Vinacafe found in the Vietnamese market were determined using UV/vis spectrophotometry. The quantification of caffeine sample was calculated by standard addition method. Our results showed that the caffeine contents in coffee brewing were influenced by temperature of water used to brew, time of brewing, and independent on the volume of water, respectively. In general, higher concentrations of caffeine were found in all samples prepared at temperature 100°C for 5 minutes. The order of caffeine contents in coffee samples was Dak Tin, Di Linh, Nam Nguyen, Origin and Vinacafe, respectively. This study can contribute to a better knowledge of caffeine contents in Vietnamese coffee of Vietnamese consumers.

  12. [Overexpression of FKS1 to improve yeast autolysis-stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wang, Jinjing; Li, Qi

    2015-09-01

    With the development of high gravity brewing, yeast cells are exposed to multiple brewing-associated stresses, such as increased osmotic pressure, enhanced alcohol concentration and nutritional imbalance. These will speed up yeast autolysis, which seriously influence beer flavor and quality. To increase yeast anti-autolytic ability, FKS1 overexpression strain was constructed by 18S rDNA. The concentration of β-1,3-glucan of overexpression strain was 62% higher than that of wild type strain. Meantime, FKS1 overexpression strain increased anti-stress ability at 8% ethanol, 0.4 mol/L NaCl and starvation stress. Under simulated autolysis, FKS1 showed good anti-autolytic ability by slower autolysis. These results confirms the potential of FKS1 overexpression to tackle yeast autolysis in high-gravity brewing. PMID:26955712

  13. ESR仪器在啤酒酿造中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪玉盆; 贺立东; 刘月琴

    2012-01-01

    ESR作为啤酒抗氧化性能的评价工具。它可以监控啤酒酿造过程自由基的变化,预测成品酒的风味保鲜期,对啤酒风味稳定性进行全面评价。%ESR (Electron Spin Resonance), a tool to evaluate the antioxidan tability of beer. itcan t)e used toevaluate the whole process of brewing by monitoring the change of flee radical through-out beer brewing process and forecastingthc shelf life of packaged beer.

  14. Economic Viability of Brewery Spent Grain as a Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the technical feasibility and economic viability of use grain wastes from the beer brewing process as fuel to generate the heat needed in subsequent brewing process. The study finds that while use of spent grain as a biofuel is technically feasible, the economics are not attractive. Economic viability is limited by the underuse of capital equipment. The investment in heating equipment requires a higher utilization that the client brewer currently anticipates. It may be possible in the future that changing factors may swing the decision to a more positive one.

  15. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis De Keukeleire

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Beer brewing is an intricate process encompassing mixing and further elaboration of four essential raw materials, including barley malt, brewing water, hops and yeast. Particularly hops determine to a great extent typical beer qualities such as bitter taste, hoppy flavour, and foam stability. Conversely, hop-derived bitter acids account for an offending lightstruck flavour, which is formed on exposure of beer to light. These various processes are presented in detail, while due emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art hop technology, which provides brewers with efficient means to control bitterness, foam, and light-stability thereby allowing for the production of beers with consistent quality.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos CP 62580 (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Tranferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM, Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, Morelos CP 62760 (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this. (author)

  17. Simplified Mashing Efficiency. Novel Method for Optimization of Food Industry Wort Production with the Use of Adjuncts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwed Łukasz P.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Malt extracts and malt concentrates have a broad range of application in food industry. Those products are obtained by methods similar to brewing worts. The possible reduction of cost can be achieved by application of malt substitutes likewise in brewing industry. As the malt concentrates for food industry do not have to fulfill strict norms for beer production it is possible to produce much cheaper products. It was proved that by means of mathematic optimization it is possible to determine the optimal share of unmalted material for cheap yet effective production of wort.

  18. Obchod s pivem v České republice a Německu

    OpenAIRE

    Schottková, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The Czech Republic and Germany are inseparably connected with a tradition of the brewing. However, both countries went through a different way of a political as well as economic development during the last 60 years. The aim of this bachelor thesis is to find out, if it is possible to predict the development of the Czech beer industry according to the knowledge of the development of the brewing in Germany. The first chapter concentrate on the history of the beer industry and kinds of beer. The...

  19. Pivovarnictví v právní teorii a praxi

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlová, Eliška

    2013-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the financial health of Pilsner Urquell, a.s., and the brewery Nova Paka, a.s., in the years 2007 to 2012. The work is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical. The first part deals with the nature and legal treatment of the brewing industry in the Czech Republic. In the theoretical part is broken down the evolution of beer on world markets, its taxation, history of Czech brewing and malting and Brewery industry in the current state of the Czech Republic. There i...

  20. Statistická analýza vývoje výsledků pivovarského průmyslu České republiky po vstupu do Evropské unie

    OpenAIRE

    Rampáková, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis is focused on the statistical analysis of the development of the brewing industry results in the Czech Republic after the accession to the European Union. The aim of the work is thru the analysis of the time series affect the development of the brewing industry on the basis of initial datas from the period 1993 - 2009. Within the thesis will be described and analyzed the total beer production in the Czech Republic, the number of active breweries, the average production of o...

  1. Fluorescence studies of beer protein uptake by silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperson, Kathleen; Birch, David J. S.; Leiper, Kenneth; McKeown, Ian P.

    2001-05-01

    Fluorescence has been investigated with respect to new methods for monitoring protein uptake by silica, with particular attention being given to haze forming proteins and foam proteins present in beer. These are of particular interest to the brewing industry as an important aspect of the brewing process is the prevention of chill haze formation. This is necessary in order to maintain the clarity of the beer and to extend the shelf life. Chill haze, which is a result of the interaction of certain proteins with some polyphenols, can be prevented by the removal of one or both of these constituents.

  2. Retrospective value analysis of decision support benefits from a production planning system for a brewery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.W. Ittmann

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A decision support system for production planning in a brewing company was developed to assist with the planning of brewing, packaging and distribution of beer and to minimise production costs. Having been in operation for some time, the system has changed and adapted in a very dynamic environment. The system's present form and current use are discussed. Initial management approval for system development was based on faith rather than proper cost-benefit and value analyses. This paper aims at retrospectively highlighting these values and benefits with regard to supporting decision-making in the company.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this.

  4. Technologie výroby nealkoholických piv

    OpenAIRE

    MÁCHALOVÁ, Hana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Bachelor thesis is a literature review talking about the Technology of non-alcoholic beer. The first part of this work is dedicated to the general conditions of beer production. Talking about processes such as malting, brewing and some general information about malting and brewing raw materials are included to this first part. The second part is devoted to non-alcoholic beer. It talks about the history of non-alcoholic beer and its development, nonalcoholic beer as it is, ways ...

  5. Special Issue: Recent Developments in Finance and Banking after the 2008 Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Apergis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The sub-prime financial crisis was not simply the result of excessive leverage and inadequate capital, but it was brewing for some time as a result of a gradual deterioration of business leadership, lapses in governance and in the regulatory framework (particularly in derivatives markets, and an ineffective risk-management framework.[...

  6. Ponteration over 2004 China International beer festival%对2004中国国际啤酒节的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China Inter national China International Beer Festival fosters and markets the brands for the establishments, put in to effect brand development strategy, heightens the brand's popularity and reputation, provides the rare environment and sage. It is an advance opportunity for the brewing enterprises to improve their whole economic benefit and their competitiveness in the world market.

  7. Natural and modified promoters for tailored metabolic engineering of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubmann, Georg; Thevelein, Johan M; Nevoigt, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The ease of highly sophisticated genetic manipulations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has initiated numerous initiatives towards development of metabolically engineered strains for novel applications beyond its traditional use in brewing, baking, and wine making. In fact, baker's yeast has be

  8. 27 CFR 25.15 - Materials for the production of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production of beer. 25.15 Section 25.15 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Definitions Standards for Beer § 25.15 Materials for the production of beer. (a) Beer must be brewed from malt or from substitutes for malt. Only...

  9. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  10. New “Dog Only” Beer Hits Shelves%荷兰推出狗狗啤酒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A Dutch① brewer② has started producing beer for the dogs and man's best friend can now join man in an ice cold brew. Dog Beer is made from a special blend of beef extracts and malt, giving dogs that clean, crisp lager taste while adding some meaty goodnes

  11. Pharmacological profile of Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Flavonoid from Hops (Humulus lupulus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Hansen, Poul Erik; Wang, Genzhu;

    2015-01-01

    The female inflorescences of hops (Humulus lupulus L.), a well-known bittering agent used in the brewing industry, have long been used in traditional medicines. Xanthohumol (XN) is one of the bioactive substances contributing to its medical applications. Among foodstuffs XN is found primarily...

  12. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans, cafestol, as an agonist ligand for the farnesoid and pregnane X receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Kreeft, Arja J.; Hooiveld, Guido J. E. J.; Moen, Corina J. A.; Mueller, Michael; Frants, Rune R.; Kasanmoentalib, Soemini; Post, Sabine M.; Princen, Hans M. G.; Porter, J. Gordon; Katan, Martijn B.; Hofker, Marten H.; Moore, David D.

    2007-01-01

    Cafestol, a diterpene present in unfiltered coffee brews such as Scandinavian boiled, Turkish, and cafetiere coffee, is the most potent cholesterol-elevating compound-knownin the human diet. Several genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis have previously been shown to be targets of cafestol, inclu

  13. The Future of Teaching Research in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Current literature on teaching research methodology in the social sciences highlights the changing nature of our world in terms of its complexity and diversity, and points to how this affects the way in which we search for answers to related problems (Brew 2003, 3; Tashakkori and Teddlie 2003, 74). New ways of approaching research problems that…

  14. Effect of Household Coffee Processing on Pesticide Residues as a Means of Ensuring Consumers' Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-09-30

    Coffee is a highly consumed and popular beverage all over the world; however, coffee beans used for daily consumption may contain pesticide residues that may cause adverse health effects to consumers. In this monitoring study, the effect of household coffee processing on pesticide residues in coffee beans was investigated. Twelve pesticides, including metabolites and isomers (endosulfan α, endosulfan β, cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT, and p'p-DDT) were spiked in coffee beans collected from a local market in southwestern Ethiopia. The subsequent household coffee processing conditions (washing, roasting, and brewing) were established as closely as possible to the traditional household coffee processing in Ethiopia. Washing of coffee beans showed 14.63-57.69 percent reduction, while the roasting process reduced up to 99.8 percent. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, permethrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan α and β in roasting and all of the 12 pesticides in the coffee brewing processes were not detected. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the reduction of pesticide residues by washing is significantly different from roasting and brewing (P coffee roasting and brewing (P > 0.05). The processing factor (PF) was less than one (PF coffee beans. The cumulative effect of the three processing methods has a paramount importance in evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of pesticide residues, particularly in coffee beans.

  15. RESTAURANT INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Terrazas Winery Terrazas Winery,from Argentina’s Mendoza wine region,has launched a food and wine promotion by cooperating with more than 100 top restaurants in Beijing,Guangzhou,Shanghai and Shenzhen. Combining the charm of its high quality wine with traditional Chinese culture,Terrazas uses Malbec red wine brewed with

  16. Ways of Light Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2009-01-01

    @@ "The planning of the right industry restructuring and revitalization" was officially released on May 18th this year. This planning mainly includes food, cereals, oil, batteries, leather, paper, fermentation, brewing, sugar refining and home electrical appliances. As a response to a comprehensive action plan, the planning period is from 2009 to 2011.

  17. From Mothers' Pensions to Aid to Dependent Children in the Great Plains: The Course from Charity to Entitlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. Alton

    2012-01-01

    The most important third-party movement in American history emerged out of the social and economic chaos brewing in the Great Plains in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. The maelstrom, labeled Populism, contained a powerful, indeed a truly revolutionary message--that man was his brother's keeper. This concept proved to have…

  18. Consumer perceptions of the application of biotechnology in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    Background: There has been considerable enthusiasm among scientists and industry about the possibilities of biotechnology and especially genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food production. At the same time, there has been considerable scepticism by consumers, much public debate, and a cautio...... produced using a GMO starter culture and a beer brewed using GMO yeast were used as examples....

  19. Effect of spent craft brewers’ yeast on fermentation and methane production by rumen microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key component of beer brewing and a major by-product. The leftover, spent brewers’ yeast, from large breweries has been used for some time as a protein supplement in cattle, however the possible advantages of spent yeast from smaller craft breweries, containing much hig...

  20. Filtering apparatus and method for mixing, extraction and/or separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a filtering apparatus and method for mixing a compound of solid and fluid phases, separating the phases and/or extracting fluid from the compound. One embodiment of the invention discloses a filtering apparatus comprising a first filter section accommodating a fir...... in a beer brewing procedure....

  1. Effect of malt milling for wort extract content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Géczi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Beer manufacturing is one of the most ancient procedures of food manufacturing. The four (in many cases much more ingredients, the great numbers of technological steps and variations of technological parameters (temperature, time, pressure etc. have a major influence on both type and quality of the final product. As a result of this, studying beer brewing may offer a great deal of possibilities for numerous researches, scientific examinations, and can provide useful informations for the manufacturing companies as well. At the „Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra" we examined an entire beer brewing process in October 2013, utilising the Ahlborn sensors, which were integrated in the instruments. Simultaneously, in Gödöllő at the Szent István University, we analysed the effect of malt milling on extract yield and the filterability of wort. We used the brewing parameters (temperature, time, volume ratios, which were experienced in the microbrewery and published in professional literature. Our results verify the conclusions drawn in the professional literature, however they point out the importance of grinding. Results performed on the yields with different grain-constitution might directly be utilised for the specialists of recently in Slovakia and Hungary spreading small-scale, handicraft, and homemade beer brewing.

  2. AA 2011, 226, (case C-28/08 P, European Commission v. The Bavarian Lager Co. Ltd, not yet reported: privacy of EU government data)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Curtin

    2010-01-01

    The Bavarian Lager Company challenged the Commission's refusal to grant it full access tot the minutes of a meeting in Brussels with national and European civil servants as well as representatives of the European Beer Brewing Federation, including the names of all those who attended. The Court of Ju

  3. PLS2 regression as a tool for selection of optimal analytical modality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Esbensen, Kim

    , analytical modalities. We here present results from a feasibility study, where Fourier Transform Near InfraRed (FT-NIR), Fourier Transform Mid InfraRed (FT-MIR), and Raman laser spectroscopy were applied on the same set of samples obtained from a pilot-scale beer brewing process. Quantitative PLS1 models...

  4. Studies of iso-alpha-acids : analysis, purification, and stability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, Alfi

    2006-01-01

    The female cones of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) are added to beer, providing taste and flavour and contributing to the stability of foam. The main constituents of hop related to these properties are generically known as alpha-acids. During the brewing process, these acids are isomerized, resulting in t

  5. Household production of sorghum beer in Benin: technological and socio-economic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.; Niehof, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the sorghum brewing microenterprises in Benin with emphasis on the beer quality, the social significance of the product as well as the income generated. Tchoukoutou, the Benin opaque sorghum beer, has important social functions as it fosters the cooperative spirit and remains an

  6. WEEKLY WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    1. INDIA A patient is carried on a stretcher at a Calcutta hospital on December 15 after drinking poisonous liquor. A batch of home-brewed liquor possibly laced with a lethal dose of the highly toxic chemical methanol killed 170 people in eastern India

  7. Temperature profiles of ethanol tolerance: effects of ethanol on the minimum and the maximum temperatures for growth of the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces fragilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa-Correia, I.; Van Uden, N.

    1983-06-01

    Difficulties experienced by brewers with yeast performance in the brewing of lager at low temperatures has led the authors to study the effect of ethanol on the minimum temperature for growth (T. min). It has been found that both the maximum temperature (T max) and T min were adversely affected by ethanol and that ethanol tolerance prevailed at intermediate temperatures. (Refs. 8).

  8. The Chemistry of Everyday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982) are summarized. A variety of chemical topics were addressed, including development of printed circuit boards, chemical/physical structure of hair, brewing, uses of EDTA, cleaning agents, hydrocyanation of olefins, drag reducers, and…

  9. Fungi in the Ancient World: How Mushrooms, Mildews, Molds and Yeast Shaped the Early Civilizations of Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Near East. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This monograph comprises a survey of roles of fungi in ancient societies of the western tradition or its predecessors in Egypt and western Asia. Topics include the use of yeasts in brewing and baking, poisonous and mycotoxigenic fungi, fungi used for medicinal purposes or for other technologies, pla...

  10. Greener and Rapid Access to Bio-Active Heterocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new kind of chemical revolution “GREEN CHEMISTRY” is brewing, 150 years after the first one transformed modern life with a host of conveniences. It protects the environment, not by cleaning up, but by inventing new chemistry and new chemical processes that do not pollute. The f...

  11. Learning to cope with uncertainty: on the spatial distributions of financial innovation and its fallout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Engelen

    2009-01-01

    The final year of the boom will enter financial history books as a Janus-faced year. While the problems that were ultimately to unlock the triumphant course that the financial markets had taken since 2003 had been brewing for quite some time, disaster nevertheless struck like lightning. The increasi

  12. Alpha-Amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Both (Porcine and bacterial) starch degrading enzymes highly valued by the biotechnology industry. (Porcine) A major target for protein engineering and the study of diabetes, obesity and dental care. (Bacterial) Major industrial and biotechnology interest used in brewing, baking, and food processing. World's number one industrial protein.

  13. Turning Traffic Jams to Jelly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Beijing, known for having the worst traffic in China, is brewing up a traffic plan with the harshest ever measures to ensure smooth traffic flow as the capital's gridlock during rush hour and private car sales soar. On December 13, the Beijing Municipal Government started soliciting public opinions for a draft plan designed to relieve the city's traffic problems.

  14. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    ' in risk perception research covering structure, process, and the social dynamics of risk debates. After that I will present results from a recently completed research project. In this project, we specifically looked into consumers' perceptions of gene technology applied to brewing, and how...... these perceptions related to consumers' attitudes and choice behavior....

  15. Bio-assisted synthesis of mesoporous Li3V2(PO4)3 for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, W.; Zhang, X.D.; Du, X.Y.;

    2013-01-01

    The mesoporous biocarbon coated Li3V2(PO4)3(MBC-LVP) cathode material is synthesized by abiotemplate-assisted sol–gel reaction process using low-cost beer waste brewing yeasts (BWBYs) as bothstructural template and biocarbon source. The structure and electrochemical performances of MBC-LVPwere in...

  16. Mortality and morbidity among HIV type-1-infected patients during the first 5 years of a multicountry HIV workplace programme in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. van der Borght; P. Clevenbergh; H. Rijckborst; P. Nsalou; N. Onyia; J.M. Lange; T.F. Rinke de Wit; M.F.S. van der Loeff

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an HIV workplace programme in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The international brewing company, Heineken, introduced an HIV workplace programme in its African subsidiaries in 2001. Beneficiaries from 16 sites in 5 countries were eligible. H

  17. Characterization of Fen-Daqu Through Multivariate Statistical Analysis of H-1 NMR Spectroscopic Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van-Diep, L.; Zheng, X.; Ma, K.; Chen, J.Y.; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    J. Inst. Brew. 117(4), 516-522, 2011 Fen liquor is typical of Chinese light-flavour liquor (alcoholic spirit), which is fermented from sorghum with Fen-Daqu powder. Fen-Daqu is a saccharifying agent and fermentation starter in this fermentation process and in Fen traditional vinegar. To investigate

  18. Will Exam Credits for Women Help Erase Gender Inequality?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Xinyang,a city in central China’s Henan Province,is well known for the green tea it produces called Xinyang maojian,a rare brew that is much in demand.Recently, however,the city made headlines for an en- tirely different reason—a new set of policies to take care of its women.

  19. Parenting Manuals on Underage Drinking: Differences between Alcohol Industry and Non-Industry Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Gordon B.; Merrill, Ray M.; Owens, Adam; Barleen, Nathan A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is some debate over the efficacy of alcohol industry parenting manuals. Purpose: This study compares the content and focus of alcohol industry and non-industry "talk to your child about drinking" parenting manuals. Methods: Parenting manuals from Anheuser-Busch and Miller Brewing Company were compared to federal government and…

  20. Challenged Bull

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AmCham-China’s latest white paper indicates that U.S.companies remain bullish on China as an investment destination,but their concerns are brewing in the wake of rising costs and intense competition,which may eat into their profit margins

  1. Clinical Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates cannot cross the epithelial barrier in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Llopis, Silvia; Jespersen, Lene;

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is generally considered to be a safe organism and is essential to produce many different kinds of foods as well as being widely used as a dietary supplement. However, several isolates, which are genetically related to brewing and baking yeasts, have shown virulent traits,...

  2. Břehová a umělá infiltrace pitné vody

    OpenAIRE

    Čeloudová, Klára

    2014-01-01

    In this bacalo rwork are characterised wals of intaking surface and subterranean waters, then is explained the resolution of bank and artificialin filtration. Shore and artificial infiltration is practically described in Karany area. Further is mentioned usage for huge resources in food processing, such as brewing, maltingetc.

  3. Extraction of espresso coffee by using gradient of temperature. Effect on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of espresso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, C Alejandra; Fiol, Núria; González, Carlos; Saez, Marc; Villaescusa, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Espresso extraction is generally carried out at a fixed temperature within the range 85-95°C. In this work the extraction of the espressos was made in a new generation coffee machine that enables temperature profiling of the brewing water. The effect of using gradient of temperature to brew espressos on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the beverage has been investigated. Three different extraction temperature profiles were tested: updrawn gradient (88-93°C), downdrawn gradient (93-88°C) and fixed temperature (90°C). The coffee species investigated were Robusta, Arabica natural and Washed Arabica. Results proved that the use of gradient temperature for brewing espressos allows increasing or decreasing the extraction of some chemical compounds from coffee grounds. Moreover an appropriate gradient of temperature can highlight or hide some sensorial attributes. In conclusion, the possibility of programming gradient of temperature in the coffee machines recently introduced in the market opens new expectations in the field of espresso brewing. PMID:27507518

  4. Pharmacological profile of Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Flavonoid from Hops (Humulus lupulus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Hansen, Poul Erik; Wang, Genzhu;

    2015-01-01

    The female inflorescences of hops (Humulus lupulus L.), a well-known bittering agent used in the brewing industry, have long been used in traditional medicines. Xanthohumol (XN) is one of the bioactive substances contributing to its medical applications. Among foodstuffs XN is found primarily in ...

  5. Identification of Ethyl Formate as a Quality Marker of the Fermented Off-note in Coffee by a Nontargeted Chemometric Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindinger, C.; Pollien, P.; Vos, de C.H.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Hageman, J.A.; Lambot, C.; Fumeaux, R.; Voirol-Baliguet, E.; Blank, I.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of coffee is influenced by many factors such as coffee variety, agricultural and postharvest conditions, roasting parameters, and brewing. The pleasure of drinking coffee may be affected by off-notes such as burnt, green, earthy, or fermented. Their presence is related to the variety, fe

  6. Teapots Made of Zisha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yang

    2012-01-01

    PEOPLE worldwide drink Chinese tea daily and may be familiar with all kinds of East Asian teas. But dry leaves alone do not capture everything there is to know ahout China's tea culture. To become a qualified tea drinker. there is much to learn about the pots in which the leavcs are brewed.

  7. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY AND PRIORITY DIRECTIONS OF ACTIVIZATION OF SOCIAL INVESTMENTS OF THE ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grishnova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the features of social investment and estimated impact of social investment on key financial and economic indicators of the breweries. Is proved priority areas in social investment and offered to recommendation to improve social investment in the enterprises of the brewing industry in Ukraine.

  8. Moutai Applying for World Intangible Cultural Heritage Listing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In order to carry on China's traditional distillation and brewing techniques by Kweichow Moutai,Shanxi Fen Chiew,and Luzhou Laojiao,classic representatives of the sauce-flavor,delicate-flavor,and strong-flavor liquors,have applied to the United Nations Eductional,Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO) for the World Intangible Cultural Heritage listing.

  9. What Is a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the most important procedure to save life. Essentially, it’s the only procedure that will prevent colon cancer ... anesthetize the patient with something called monitored anesthesia. It’s a very gentle brew, which the patient will ...

  10. Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains sorghum and millet during malting and mashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Y; Bryce, J H; Goodfellow, V; MacKinlay, J; Agu, R C; Brosnan, J M; Bringhurst, T A; Harrison, B

    2012-04-11

    Our study showed that sorghum and millet followed a similar pattern of changes when they were malted under similar conditions. When the malt from these cereals was mashed, both cereal types produced wide spectra of substrates (sugars and amino acids) that are required for yeast fermentation when malted at either lower or higher temperatures. At the germination temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C used in malting both cereal types, production of reducing sugars and that of free amino nitrogen (FAN) were similar. This is an important quality attribute for both cereals because it implies that variation in temperature during the malting of sorghum and millet, especially when malting temperature is difficult to control, and also reflecting temperature variations, experienced in different countries, will not have an adverse effect on the production and release of amino acids and sugars required by yeast during fermentation. Such consistency in the availability of yeast food (substrates) for metabolism during fermentation when sorghum and millet are malted at various temperatures is likely to reduce processing issues when their malts are used for brewing. Although sorghum has gained wide application in the brewing industry, and has been used extensively in brewing gluten-free beer on industrial scale, this is not the case with millet. The work described here provides novel information regarding the potential of millet for brewing. When both cereals were malted, the results obtained for millet in this study followed patterns similar to those of sorghum. This suggests that millet, in terms of sugars and amino acids, can play a role similar to that of sorghum in the brewing industry. This further suggests that millet, like sorghum, would be a good raw material for brewing gluten-free beer. Inclusion of millet as a brewing raw material will increase the availability of suitable materials (raw material sustainability) for use in the production of gluten-free beer, beverages, and

  11. Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains rice and buckwheat during malting and mashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, R C; Chiba, Y; Goodfellow, V; MacKinlay, J; Brosnan, J M; Bringhurst, T A; Jack, F R; Harrison, B; Pearson, S Y; Bryce, J H

    2012-10-10

    This study examined the performance of rice and buckwheat when malted under various temperature conditions and for different lengths of time. The mashed malts produced from both rice and buckwheat contained a wide spectra of sugars and amino acids that are required for yeast fermentation, regardless of malting temperature. At the germination temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C used, production of reducing sugars and free amino nitrogen (FAN) followed similar patterns. This implies that temperature variations, experienced in different countries, will not have an adverse effect on the production and release of amino acids and sugars, required by yeast during fermentation, from these grains. Such consistency in the availability of yeast substrates is likely to reduce differences in processing when these malts are used for brewing. This study revealed that, while rice malt consistently produced more maltose than glucose, buckwheat malt gave several times more glucose than maltose, across all germination temperatures. Buckwheat malt also produced more soluble and free amino nitrogen than rice malt. Unlike sorghum, which has gained wide application in the brewing industry for the production of gluten-free beer, the use of rice and buckwheat is minimal. This study provides novel information regarding the potential of rice and buckwheat for brewing. Both followed similar patterns to sorghum, suggesting that they could play a similar role to sorghum in the brewing industry. Inclusion of rice and buckwheat as brewing raw materials will increase the availability of suitable materials for use in the production of gluten-free beer, potentially making it more sustainable, cheaper, and more widely available. PMID:22950683

  12. 樱桃酿造啤酒加工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚瑞祺; 马兆瑞

    2014-01-01

    以大麦芽、啤酒酵母、啤酒花和樱桃汁等为主要原料酿制樱桃啤酒,阐明麦芽汁制备、发酵等工艺的操作要点,探讨樱桃果汁添加量、樱桃果汁添加时间、啤酒花添加量对樱桃酿造啤酒的风味影响。结果表明,后发酵开始时加入樱桃果汁15%,啤酒花添加量0.06%较为适宜,所得樱桃酿造啤酒风味纯正,有明显的酒花香气。%The processing technology of cherry brewing beer is researched in this paper. Barley malt, beer yeast, hops and cherry juice cherry beer are used as the main raw material to brew cherry brewing beer. Besides, the operating points of wort preparation and fermentation processes are clarified. The addition amount of cherry juice, cherry juice adding time, and addition amount of hops are discussed for the flavor of cherry brewing beer. The results show that cherry juice should be added at the beginning of post-fermentation and its addition is 15%. The addition amount of hops is 0.06%, cherry brewing beer is better with pure flavor and clear hop aroma in this condition.

  13. Investigation of shelf-life extension of sorghum beer (Chibuku) by removing the second conversion of malt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyauripo, Josphat; Parawira, Wilson; Tinofa, Sharai; Kudita, Ivy; Ndengu, Clement

    2009-02-28

    The effect of removing the second step of malt conversion in the brewing of Chibuku beer was investigated with the intention of extending the shelf-life of the product. Chibuku was brewed in the laboratory scale fermenters using Delta Beverages' standard brewing procedure. A variation was made where the second malt conversion was not conducted on one brew. The effect of increasing pasteurisation time was also investigated. The extension of shelf-life was determined by following the physicochemical and the sensory profile of the products for a period of ten days under sub-tropical ambient conditions. Ethanol productions were similar between the control and test beers (without second conversion malt). A product with overall acceptability of 70% was made from the brew without the second malt conversion and with 15 min pasteurisation at 80 degrees C. The product was, however, low in bite and head retention, but had less bacterial load, decreased acid production, and improved keeping quality by at least two days. However, due to contamination of the pitching yeast with lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total acids rapidly increased after 168 h and caused unacceptable sourness. Increasing pasteurisation time to 20 min reduced bacterial load of the wort to figures as low as 2 x 10(3) cfu/ml. General hygiene levels of the brewery were acceptable and no coliforms were detected in the product or contact surfaces along the production line. Bacterial contamination of the product mainly comes from the raw materials with pasteurisation greatly reducing this load. If improved, the procedure has the potential of extending the shelf-life of the beer to beyond 168 h. PMID:19162356

  14. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion of commercial tea products available in uae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, twenty four commercial tea samples were assayed to determine their free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic contents based on the brewing/infusing period. Tea samples were infused/brewed in 200 mL boiled water at 120 degree C for 1, 2 and 5 min, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of tea infusion/brewing were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay method. The results were ranged from 67.81-90.51% for black tea bags, 90.37-94.51% for green tea bags, 24.66-92.25% for black tea powder, 16.08-93.06% for green tea powder and 32.90- 45.54% for Camomile herbal infusion. The results showed that 1 or 2 min black tea bags infusion exhibited highest radical scavenging activity than 5 min infusion. Antioxidant activities of tea powders were variable with the amount of tea powder. It was observed that antioxidant activity increased with increasing boiling time for smaller amount of sample. In contrary, shorter boiling time was better for larger amount of sample. The polyphenol contents of tea infusion were determined and the results were expressed as milligram quercetin equivalent/200 mL of tea infusion. The polyphenol content was increased with increased brewing period. In contrary, brewing for longer time rendered extract less antiradical activity. This study suggests that infusing tea bag for 1 or 2 min is sufficient for getting infusion with maximum radical scavenging activity and in case of tea powder, shorter boiling time is better for larger amount of powder or small amount of powder should be boiled for minimum 5 min for rendering extract with maximum radical scavenging activity. (author)

  15. Estudio de factibilidad técnica y económica orientado a la utilización de residuos de tierra diatomacea y lodo de cal resultantes de la industria cervecera en la fabricación de bloques de gres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sánchez-Molina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades industrial production has caused an increase in waste generation, commonly available in natural sources without any treatment and without taking into account the limited capacity of these sources, significantly affecting the natural balance of the environment. Aware of this problem, a study was carried out in the laboratory and industry with a view to the use of waste of the brewing process, such as lime and diatomaceous earth. The project seeks to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing ceramic blocks with lime and / or diatomaceous earth, as an alternative solution focused on the problem of waste. Acceptance of using the residue of lime or diatomaceous earth of the brewing industry, is subject to different aspects within which is: the improvement of the technical specifications of the blocks, the production cost, the required investment and contribution environmental conservation as one of the most important aspects of the project.

  16. Review: the dominant flocculation genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae constitute a new subtelomeric gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, A W; Steensma, H Y

    1995-09-15

    The quality of brewing strains is, in large part, determined by their flocculation properties. By classical genetics, several dominant, semidominant and recessive flocculation genes have been recognized. Recent results of experiments to localize the flocculation genes FLO5 and FLO8, combined with the in silicio analysis of the available sequence data of the yeast genome, have revealed that the flocculation genes belong to a family which comprises at least four genes and three pseudogenes. All members of this gene family are located near the end of chromosomes, just like the SUC, MEL and MAL genes, which are also important for good quality baking or brewing strains. Transcription of the flocculation genes is repressed by several regulatory genes. In addition, a number of genes have been found which cause cell aggregation upon disruption or overexpression in an as yet unknown manner. In total, 33 genes have been reported that are involved in flocculation or cell aggregation.

  17. Fermentation of Apple Juice with a Selected Yeast Strain Isolated from the Fermented Foods of Himalayan Regions and Its Organoleptic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, S S; Keshani

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, suggesting differences in aroma and flavor of their brewing products. Apple is a predominant fruit in Himachal Pradesh and apple cider is one of the most popular drinks all around the world hence, it was chosen for sensory evaluation of six selected yeast strains. Organoleptic studies and sensory analysis suggested Sc21 and Sc01 as best indigenous strains for soft and hard cider, respectively, indicating their potential in enriching the local products with enhanced quality. PMID:27446050

  18. Circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopic characterization of secondary structure components of protein Z during mashing and boiling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yupeng; Wang, Jinjing; Li, Yongxian; Hang, Yu; Yin, Xiangsheng; Li, Qi

    2015-12-01

    In beer brewing, protein Z is hypothesized to stabilize beer foam. However, few investigations have revealed the relationship between conformational alterations to protein Z during the brewing process and beer foam. In this report, protein Z from sweet wort was isolated during mashing and boiling processes. Circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to monitor the structural characteristics of protein Z. The results showed that the α-helix and β-sheet content decreased, whereas the content of β-turn and random coil increased. The complex environment rich in polysaccharides may facilitate conformational alterations and modifications to protein Z. Additionally, the formation of extended structural features to protein Z provides access to reactive amino acid side chains that can undergo modifications and the exposure of hydrophobic core regions of the protein. Analyzing structural transformations should provide a deeper understanding of the mechanism of protein Z on maintaining beer foam.

  19. The Components in Wort and Their Changes During Boiling in Detail%麦汁的成分及煮沸过程中物质的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文玉; 杨大毅

    2012-01-01

    wort boiling is the most important process in beer brewing. Greatchanges of physical property and chemical component have been taken before andafter boiling which will affect the beer flavor seriously. The chemical component changes before and after boiling were discussed in detail in this paper which will be enlightening in the reasonable control in beer brewing.%麦汁的煮沸是啤酒发酵中最重要的工序,麦汁煮沸前后无论是物理性质还是化学成分变化极大,这对啤酒发酵风味影响很大,阐述了麦汁煮沸前后化学成分变化,对啤酒发酵合理控制有很大的启发作用。

  20. Ethnobotany, traditional knowledge and socioeconomic importance of native drink among the Oraon tribe of Malda district in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Saha

    2015-03-01

    Results: Present study revealed that four medicinal plant species along with rice having strong local ethnomedicinal value were used to prepare this indigenous drink. Oraon prepare the brew using their unique home-made distillation process. Commercialization of this local brew represents an alternative income to develop their economic condition, especially for poor households. The Index of Importance Value (IVs was considered to evaluate the importance, usage, and knowledge of the five studied species. Conclusion: It could be concluded that practices of chullu preparation represent a bonding between ethnic knowledge and Oraon people of the province. Commercialization of chullu may be considered as a source of alternative way of income for poor households in the region. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 34-39