WorldWideScience

Sample records for brewers yeast

  1. Modeling brewers' yeast flocculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hamersveld EH; van der Lans RG; Caulet; Luyben

    1998-02-01

    Flocculation of yeast cells occurs during the fermentation of beer. Partway through the fermentation the cells become flocculent and start to form flocs. If the environmental conditions, such as medium composition and fluid velocities in the tank, are optimal, the flocs will grow in size large enough to settle. After settling of the main part of the yeast the green beer is left, containing only a small amount of yeast necessary for rest conversions during the next process step, the lagering. The physical process of flocculation is a dynamic equilibrium of floc formation and floc breakup resulting in a bimodal size distribution containing single cells and flocs. The floc size distribution and the single cell amount were measured under the different conditions that occur during full scale fermentation. Influences on flocculation such as floc strength, specific power input, and total number of yeast cells in suspension were studied. A flocculation model was developed, and the measured data used for validation. Yeast floc formation can be described with the collision theory assuming a constant collision efficiency. The breakup of flocs appears to occur mainly via two mechanisms, the splitting of flocs and the erosion of yeast cells from the floc surface. The splitting rate determines the average floc size and the erosion rate determines the number of single cells. Regarding the size of the flocs with respect to the scale of turbulence, only the viscous subrange needs to be considered. With the model, the floc size distribution and the number of single cells can be predicted at a certain point during the fermentation. For this, the bond strength between the cells, the fractal dimension of the yeast, the specific power input in the tank and the number of yeast cells that are in suspension in the tank have to be known. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Pseudoporphyria associated with consumption of brewers' yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C K; Rideout, J M; Peters, T J

    1984-06-01

    A case of pseudoporphyria associated with excessive consumption of brewers ' yeast was studied. Detailed analysis of the yeast tablets by high performance liquid chromatography showed the presence of dicarboxylic deuteroporphyrin , mesoporphyrin, and protoporphyrin; coproporphyrin I and III isomers; and uroporphyrin I and III isomers. The faecal porphyrin concentration of the patient taking yeast tablets was significantly increased, resembling the excretion pattern in variegate porphyria. Any patient showing an unusual porphyrin excretion pattern on high performance liquid chromatography should be investigated for a possible dietary cause.

  3. Activation of waste brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste brewer's yeast S. cerevisiae (activated and non-activated was compared with the commercial baker's yeast regarding the volume of developed gas in dough, volume and freshness stability of produced bread. The activation of waste brewer's yeast resulted in the increased volume of developed gas in dough by 100% compared to non-activated brewer's yeast, and the obtained bread is of more stable freshness compared to bread produced with baker's yeast. The activation of BY affects positively the quality of produced bread regarding bread volume. The volume of developed gas in dough prepared with the use of non-activated BY was not sufficient, therefore, it should not be used as fermentation agent, but only as an additive in bread production process for bread freshness preservation. Intense mixing of dough results in more compressible crumb 48 hrs after baking compared to high-speed mixing.

  4. Ochratoxin A in brewer's yeast used as food supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Christoph; Biermaier, Barbara; Gross, Madeleine; Schwaiger, Karin; Gareis, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Brewer's yeasts are rich in vitamins of the B-group and contain other nutritive factors; therefore, they are recommended as valuable food supplements for people with special dietary requirements like pregnant women, children, and adolescents, or for people with high physical activity. Additionally, certain strains of brewer's yeast are known to be capable of adsorbing xenobiotics such as mycotoxins. Because of that, these yeasts are regarded as having positive effects in food, beverage, and feed technology. Their potential to bind mycotoxins such as ochratoxin A (OTA), however, can subsequently lead to a contamination of such brewer's yeasts used as food supplements. In the present study, we analyzed 46 samples of brewer's yeasts for the occurrence of OTA by HPLC with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) and for confirmatory measurements by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Nearly 90% of the samples were contaminated with OTA, the levels ranging from the limit of detection (LOD, 0.01 μg/kg) to 4.2 μg/kg. The mean and median levels of contamination were 0.49 and 0.27 μg/kg, respectively. Based on these results, the additional weekly OTA exposure by regularly consuming such supplements was assessed. Depending on different subpopulations (adults, children) and levels of contamination used for calculation, the additional OTA intake via brewer's yeast products ranged from 9.3% (mean case) to 114% (worst case) of the published mean weekly OTA intake in Germany (adults 279.3 ng, children 195.3 ng). At present, maximum levels for OTA in nutritional supplements like brewer's yeast do not exist. Based on our results, however, it is recommended that producers of these dietary supplements should include mycotoxin analyses in ongoing and future self-monitoring programs and in product quality checks.

  5. Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast and a brewer's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, N; Nishimori, C; Fujishige, I W; Mizuno, A; Takahashi, T; Sato, K

    2001-01-01

    Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast (a lysine auxotrophic mutant of sake yeast K-14) and a brewer's yeast (a respiratory-deficient mutant of the top fermentation yeast NCYC1333) was performed to take advantage of the beneficial characteristics of sake yeasts, i.e., the high productivity of esters, high tolerance to ethanol, and high osmotolerance. The fusant (F-32) obtained was different from the parental yeasts regarding, for example, the assimilation of carbon sources and tolerance to ethanol. A brewing trial with the fusant was carried out using a 100-l pilot-scale plant. The fusant fermented wort more rapidly than the parental brewer's yeast. However, the sedimentation capacity of the fusant was relatively low. The beer brewed using the fusant contained more ethanol and esters compared to that brewed using the parental brewer's yeast. The fusant also obtained osmotolerance in the fermentation of maltose and fermented high-gravity wort well.

  6. Investigation of zinc biosorption by brewer's yeast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodić Siniša N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The highest amount of zinc (= 90% is bound after 3 hrs of contact at low initial (total concentrations of zinc in suspension of yeast, 10-100 mg/l at 10-30°C. The equilibrium between bound and free zinc ions is established after 6 hrs of contact time, independently on the total zinc concentration in yeast milk. No bigger changes of content of zinc bound to brewer's yeast cells was determined at temperatures 10°C and 30°C. 40% of bound zinc in the equilibrium state is bound during the first 15 min of contact of zinc ions and brewer's yeast cells at all initial (total zinc concentrations in suspension of yeast both at 10°C and 30°C. The "KEKAM" equation can be used for the description of kinetics of zinc biosorption by waste brewer's yeast cells, for the ranges of zinc concentration 10-100 mg/l at 30°C (mean correlation coefficient 0,96 and 60,0-100 mg/l at 10°C (mean correlation coefficient 0,95.

  7. Brewer's Yeast Improves Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Hosseinzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Brewer's yeast supplementation on serum lipoproteins and blood pressure in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 90 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited, and divided randomly into 2 groups, trial group received brewer's yeast (1800 mg/day and control group received placebo for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, food consumption (based on 24 hour food recall, fasting serum lipoproteins (Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-c, HDL-c, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured before and after the intervention. Data analyses were performed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences ver. 18.0, and the statistical tests included Independent t-test, Paired t-test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and analysis of covariance. This trial was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT, No.IRCT138807062513N1.Results: Eighty-four subjects (21 men and 63 women aged 46.3±6.1 years completed the study. After 12 weeks supplementation, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were decreased in the group receiving brewer's yeast (4.1±1.5, P=0.007 and 5.7±0.6, P=0.001 respectively. No-significant changes in LDL-c, HDL-c, Triglyceride and Cholesterol were shown.Conclusion: Supplementation with Brewer's yeast besides the usual treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus can reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressures in diabetic patients.

  8. Yeast flocculation: what brewers should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstrepen, K J; Derdelinckx, G; Verachtert, H; Delvaux, F R

    2003-05-01

    For many industrial applications in which the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used, e.g. beer, wine and alcohol production, appropriate flocculation behaviour is certainly one of the most important characteristics of a good production strain. Yeast flocculation is a very complex process that depends on the expression of specific flocculation genes such as FLO1, FLO5, FLO8 and FLO11. The transcriptional activity of the flocculation genes is influenced by the nutritional status of the yeast cells as well as other stress factors. Flocculation is also controlled by factors that affect cell wall composition or morphology. This implies that, during industrial fermentation processes, flocculation is affected by numerous parameters such as nutrient conditions, dissolved oxygen, pH, fermentation temperature, and yeast handling and storage conditions. Theoretically, rational use of these parameters offers the possibility of gaining control over the flocculation process. However, flocculation is a very strain-specific phenomenon, making it difficult to predict specific responses. In addition, certain genes involved in flocculation are extremely variable, causing frequent changes in the flocculation profile of some strains. Therefore, both a profound knowledge of flocculation theory as well as close monitoring and characterisation of the production strain are essential in order to gain maximal control over flocculation. In this review, the various parameters that influence flocculation in real-scale brewing are critically discussed. However, many of the conclusions will also be useful in various other industrial processes where control over yeast flocculation is desirable.

  9. Ethanol tolerance of immobilized brewers' yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S; Watson, K; D'Amore, T

    1995-04-01

    A method based on the survival of yeast cells subjected to an ethanol or heat shock was utilized to compare the stress resistance of free and carrageenan-immobilized yeast cells. Results demonstrated a significant increase of yeast survival against ethanol for immobilized cells as compared to free cells, while no marked difference in heat resistance was observed. When entrapped cells were released by mechanical disruption of the gel beads and submitted to the same ethanol stress, they exhibited a lower survival rate than entrapped cells, but a similar or slightly higher survival rate than free cells. The incidence of ethanol- or heat-induced respiratory-deficient mutants of entrapped cells was equivalent to that of control or non-stressed cells (1.3 +/- 0.5%) whereas ethanol- and heat-shocked free and released cells exhibited between 4.4% and 10.9% average incidence of respiration-deficient mutants. It was concluded that the carrageenan gel matrix provided a protection against ethanol, and that entrapped cells returned to normal physiological behaviour as soon as they were released. The cell growth rate was a significant factor in the resistance of yeast to high ethanol concentrations. The optimum conditions to obtain reliable and reproducible results involved the use of slow-growing cells after exhaustion of the sugar substrate.

  10. Corrected: The influence of brewers' yeast addition on lactic acid fermentation of brewers' spent grain hydrolysate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin, Jelena; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) hydrolysates were used for lactic acid (LA) fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The aim of this study was to evaluate possibilities of the BSG hydrolysate utilization as a substrate for LA fermentation as well as the effect of dry brewers' yeast addition in hydrolysate on lactic acid fermentation parameters (L-(+)-LA and reducing sugar concentration and number of viable cell-viability). Very high L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cell viability was achieved in a...

  11. The influence of brewers' yeast addition on lactic acid fermentation of brewers' spent grain hydrolysate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin, Jelena; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Đukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    In this study brewers' spent grain (BSG) hydrolysate was produced using optimal conditions. Hydrolysates were used for lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The aim of this study was to evaluate possibilities of the BSG hydrolysate utilization as a substrate for lactic acid fermentation as well as the effect of dry brewers' yeast (1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 %) addition in hydrolysate on lactic acid fermentation parameters (L-(+)-lactic acid and reducing sugars concentration an...

  12. Genetics and breeding of brewers yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson-Tillgren, T.; Gjermansen, C.; Petersen, J.G.L.; Holmberg, S.; Kielland-Brandt, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Yeasts, used for beer production, can be divided into two groups, top fermenters and bottom fermenters and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis has been chosen as the name for the bottom fermenting yeasts which are used in lager beer production. The key for the analysis of the chromosomes of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis was provided by the discovery that single chromosomes of meiotic segregants of these strains can be transferred to genetically marked Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and subsequently analyzed by tetrad analysis and molecular hybridization. It is proposed that Saccharomyces carlsbergensis is composed of two rather divergent genotypes. Breeding can be accomplished by cross breeding and mutagenesis and possibly by introducing in vitro modified cloned genes into meiotic segregants of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis.

  13. Resolution of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase into two isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, D J; Dikdan, G; Jordan, F

    1986-03-01

    A novel purification method was developed for brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) that for the first time resolved the enzyme into two isozymes on DEAE-Sephadex chromatography. The isozymes were found to be distinct according to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: the first one to be eluted gave rise to one band, the second to two bands. The isozymes were virtually the same so far as specific activity, KM, inhibition kinetics and irreversible binding properties by the mechanism-based inhibitor (E)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoic acid are concerned. This finding resolves a longstanding controversy concerning the quaternary structure of this enzyme.

  14. Genome annotation of a Saccharomyces sp. lager brewer's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Marcela De León-Medina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The genome of lager brewer's yeast is a hybrid, with Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as sub-genomes. Due to their specific use in the beer industry, relatively little information is available. The genome of brewing yeast was sequenced and annotated in this study. We obtained a genome size of 22.7 Mbp that consisted of 133 scaffolds, with 65 scaffolds larger than 10 kbp. With respect to the annotation, 9939 genes were obtained, and when they were submitted to a local alignment, we found that 53.93% of these genes corresponded to S. cerevisiae, while another 42.86% originated from S. eubayanus. Our results confirm that our strain is a hybrid of at least two different genomes.

  15. Evaluating biochemical methane production from brewer's spent yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Hernández, Ornella; Parameswaran, Prathap; Alemán-Nava, Gibrán Sidney; Torres, César I; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion treatment of brewer's spent yeast (SY) is a viable option for bioenergy capture. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay was performed with three different samples (SY1, SY2, and SY3) and SY1 dilutions (75, 50, and 25 % on a v/v basis). Gompertz-equation parameters denoted slow degradability of SY1 with methane production rates of 14.59-4.63 mL/day and lag phases of 10.72-19.7 days. Performance and kinetic parameters were obtained with the Gompertz equation and the first-order hydrolysis model with SY2 and SY3 diluted 25 % and SY1 50 %. A SY2 25 % gave a 17 % of TCOD conversion to methane as well as shorter lag phase (methane production. Methane capture and biogas composition were dependent upon the SY source, and co-digestion (or dilution) can be advantageous.

  16. Inactivation of MET10 in brewer's yeast specifically increases SO2 formation during beer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J; Kielland-Brandt, M C

    1996-11-01

    Sulfite is widely used as an antioxidant in food production. In beer brewing, sulfite has the additional role of stabilizing the flavor by forming adducts with aldehydes. Inadequate amounts of sulfite are sometimes produced by brewer's yeasts, so means of controlling the sulfite production are desired. In Saccharomyces yeasts, MET10 encodes a subunit of sulfite reductase. Partial or full elimination of MET10 gene activity in a brewer's yeast resulted in increased sulfite accumulation. Beer produced with such yeasts was quite satisfactory and showed increased flavor stability.

  17. Subunit structure of 6-phosphofructokinase from brewers' yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, N; Hess, B

    1975-11-01

    An analysis of 6-phosphofructokinase from brewers' yeast in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate reveals the occurrence of four components with the following molecular weights: alpha = 140000, beta = 130000, and alpha' = 92000, beta' = 87000. It was found that the alpha- and beta-components can be converted to the alpha' and beta' components by treatment of the native preparation with hyaluronidase. A comparison of the molecular weight obtained by ultracentrifugation and gel filtration with the results obtained by dodecylsulfate electrophoresis after treatment with hyaluronidase reveals that the alpha' and beta' components are the smallest molecular structures obtained upon dissociation of the native enzyme. The mechanism of action of hyaluronidase suggests a desensitization of the alpha and beta components of the enzyme towards dodecylsulfate. Thus, in the absence of hyaluronidase treatment; only an apparent molecular weight for the alpha and beta component is obtained. The analysis indicates that the native enzyme might be composed of four different subunits with an alpha, beta, alpha' and beta' configuration. It is not excluded that the native enzyme consists only of alpha- and beta-chains.

  18. Valuation of brewers spent yeast polysaccharides: a structural characterization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mariana; Coelho, Elisabete; Nunes, Alexandra; Brandão, Tiago; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2015-02-13

    Brewers spent yeast (BSY) is a by-product from beer industry that can be exploited as source of glucans and mannoproteins, with potential biological activities. In order to solubilize these carbohydrate-rich polymeric materials, a sequential extraction with hot water and alkaline solutions (0.1-8 M KOH) was performed. Mannoproteins were mainly (85%) extracted with 4 M KOH whereas glucans were extracted with 8 M KOH and in an amount that accounted only for 34% of total glucose. Final residue still accounted for 34% of the initial glucans and contained 98% of glucose. Cellulase and α-amylase treatments showed the presence of both α- and β-(1→4)-Glc linkages. To promote total solubilization of these insoluble glucans, the final residue was submitted to a partial acid hydrolysis. This work is the first report showing that the most abundant polysaccharides in BSY are polymers that contain structural features similar to cellulose, thus justifying their resistance to alkaline extractions, acid hydrolysis, and insolubility in water.

  19. Defective quiescence entry promotes the fermentation performance of bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomuro, Mayu; Kato, Taku; Zhou, Yan; Watanabe, Daisuke; Motoyama, Yasuo; Yamagishi, Hiromi; Akao, Takeshi; Aizawa, Masayuki

    2016-11-01

    One of the key processes in making beer is fermentation. In the fermentation process, brewer's yeast plays an essential role in both the production of ethanol and the flavor profile of beer. Therefore, the mechanism of ethanol fermentation by of brewer's yeast is attracting much attention. The high ethanol productivity of sake yeast has provided a good basis from which to investigate the factors that regulate the fermentation rates of brewer's yeast. Recent studies found that the elevated fermentation rate of sake Saccharomyces cerevisiae species is closely related to a defective transition from vegetative growth to the quiescent (G0) state. In the present study, to clarify the relationship between the fermentation rate of brewer's yeast and entry into G0, we constructed two types of mutant of the bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus Weihenstephan 34/70: a RIM15 gene disruptant that was defective in entry into G0; and a CLN3ΔPEST mutant, in which the G1 cyclin Cln3p accumulated at high levels. Both strains exhibited higher fermentation rates under high-maltose medium or high-gravity wort conditions (20° Plato) as compared with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, G1 arrest and/or G0 entry were defective in both the RIM15 disruptant and the CLN3ΔPEST mutant as compared with the wild-type strain. Taken together, these results indicate that regulation of the G0/G1 transition might govern the fermentation rate of bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast in high-gravity wort.

  20. Effect of Brewer's Yeast-Induced Pyrexia on Aminophylline-Elicited Convulsions in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki,Hiroaki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline-associated convulsions have been observed most frequently in children with fever, but the mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the basic mechanism of aminophylline [theophylline-2-ethylenediamine]-induced convulsions and the effects of Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. Diazepam (5-10mg/kg, i.p., a benzodiazepine receptor agonist, significantly prolonged the onset and significantly decreased the incidence of convulsions induced by aminophylline (350mg/kg, i.p.. However, the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (1-4mg/kg, i.p., the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (2-4mg/kg, i.p. and the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist dizocilpine (0.1-0.3mg/kg, i.p. failed to protect against the convulsions. 20% Brewer's yeast (0.02ml/g, s.c. increased body temperature by 1.03, and also significantly shortened the onset and significantly increased the incidence of convulsions induced by aminophylline. The anticonvulsant action of diazepam (2.5-10mg/kg, i.p. on the convulsions induced by aminophylline was reduced by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia. The proconvulsant actions of the GABAA receptor antagonists picrotoxin (3-4mg/kg, i.p. and pentylenetetrazol (40-60mg/kg, i.p. were enhanced by Brewer's yeast. These results suggest that the anticonvulsant action of diazepam against aminophylline is reduced by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia, and that GABAA receptors are involved in the aggravation of the convulsions by Brewer's yeast in mice.

  1. Construction of dextrin and isomaltose-assimilating brewer's yeasts for production of low-carbohydrate beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Yeong; Lee, Ja-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Ko, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Il-Chul; Lee, Hwanghee Blaise; Bai, Suk

    2014-08-01

    Most Saccharomyces spp. cannot degrade or ferment dextrin, which is the second most abundant carbohydrate in wort for commercial beer production. Dextrin-degrading brewer's bottom and top yeasts expressing the glucoamylase gene (GAM1) from Debaryomyces occidentalis were developed to produce low-carbohydrate (calorie) beers. GAM1 was constitutively expressed in brewer's yeasts using a rDNA-integration system that contained yeast CUP1 gene coding for copper resistance as a selective marker. The recombinants secreted active glucoamylase, displaying both α-1,4- and α-1,6-debranching activities, that degraded dextrin and isomaltose and consequently grew using them as sole carbon source. One of the recombinant strains expressing GAM1 hydrolyzed 96 % of 2 % (w/v) dextrin and 98 % of 2 % (w/v) isomaltose within 5 days of growth. Growth, substrate assimilation, and enzyme activity of these strains were characterized.

  2. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Shola Gabriel; Itodo, Gabriel Enemona

    2017-01-01

    Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer's yeast slurry meal (DBYM) based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58 ± 0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer's yeast and a control without dried brewer's yeast (0% substitution) were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly (p < 0.05) among treated groups. Specific growth rate decreased with increasing substitution while the best feed conversion ratio was obtained in the diet devoid of DBYM. Protein efficiency and utilization decreased with increasing levels of DBYM. Body composition was also affected by inclusion of DBYM with significant differences (p < 0.05) being observed across the diets. The trend in body composition follows the utilization of the diets. We conclude that the optimal range of inclusion and substitution of soybean meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter. PMID:28239492

  3. Comparative proteome and transcriptome analysis of lager brewer's yeast in the autolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weina; Wang, Jinjing; Li, Qi

    2014-12-01

    The autolysis of brewer's yeast during beer production has a significant effect on the quality of the final product. In this work, we performed proteome and transcriptome studies on brewer's yeast to examine changes in protein and mRNA levels in the process of autolysis. Protein and RNA samples of the strain Qing2 at two different autolysis stages were obtained for further study. In all, 49 kinds of proteins were considered to be involved in the autolysis response, eight of which were up-regulated and 41 down-regulated. Seven new kinds of proteins emerged during autolysis. Results of comparative analyses showed that important changes had taken place as an adaptive response to autolysis. Functional analysis showed that carbohydrate and energy metabolism, cellular amino acid metabolic processes, cell response to various stresses (such as oxidative stress, salt stress, and osmotic stress), translation and transcription were repressed by the down-regulation of the corresponding proteins, and starvation and DNA damage responses could be induced. The comparison of data on transcriptomes with proteomes demonstrated that most autolysis-response proteins as well as new proteins showed a general correlation between mRNA and protein levels. Thus these proteins were thought to be transcriptionally regulated. These findings provide important information about how brewer's yeast acts to cope with autolysis at molecular levels, which might enhance global understanding of the autolysis process.

  4. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia

    2001-11-15

    Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed. (author)

  5. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cresoni-Pereira Carla

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed.

  6. Spent brewer's yeast extract as an ingredient in cooked hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancrazio, Gaston; Cunha, Sara C; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Loureiro, Mónica; Meireles, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the effect of the incorporation of 1% spent yeast extract into cooked hams. Physical/chemical/sensorial characteristics and changes during 12 and 90days storage were evaluated on control and treated cooked hams processed for 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3h. Spent yeast extract addition increased hardness, chewiness, ash, protein and free amino acid content. Similar volatile profiles were obtained, although there were some quantitative differences. No advantages were observed for increased cooking time. No significant differences were observed for physical and sensorial parameters of cooked hams with spent yeast extract at 12 and 90days post production, but His, aldehydes and esters increased at the end of storage. This behaviour was similar to that observed for control hams. The higher hardness of cooked ham with 1% yeast extract was due to the stronger gel formed during cooking and was maintained during storage. This additive acts as gel stabilizer for cooked ham production and could potentially improve other processing characteristics.

  7. Use of a modified alcohol dehydrogenase, ADH1, promoter in construction of diacetyl non-producing brewer's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, M L; Suihko, M L; Penttilä, M; Keränen, S

    1996-08-20

    The bacterial gene, encoding alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (alpha-ALDC), was expressed in a bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast under the control of a modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1) promoter which lacks the upstream regions from -800 bp to -1500 bp. In pilot scale brewing conditions, the level of alpha-ALDC produced was high enough to reduce the concentration of diacetyl so that lagering was not required. alpha-ALDC active brewer's yeast strains were also shown to be suitable for high gravity brewing.

  8. Brewers dried yeast as a source of mannan oligosaccharides for weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L A; Newman, M C; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D

    2002-10-01

    Brewers dried yeast, a source of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), was assessed as an alternative to an antimicrobial agent (carbadox) for young pigs in two experiments. The yeast contained 5.2% MOS. Agglutination tests confirmed adsorption of several serovars of E. coli and Salmonella spp. onto the yeast product. In Exp. 1, seven replicates (five pigs per pen) of 22-d-old pigs were fed a nonmedicated basal diet or the basal diet with carbadox (55 mg/kg), yeast (3%), or a combination of 3% yeast and 2% citric acid for 28 d. Carbadox did not improve growth performance. Growth rate and feed intake were depressed (P yeast alone or in combination with acid. Log counts of total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens in feces were not affected by diet, but Bifidobacteria spp. counts were lower (P yeast + acid diet and lactobacilli counts were higher (P yeast. Fecal pH and VFA concentrations and intestinal morphological traits were not consistently affected by diet. Serum IgG levels were elevated in the yeast + acid (P yeast and carbadox additions to the diet on enteric microbial populations in young pigs housed in isolation units were evaluated. Pigs (n = 24) were weaned at 11 d of age (4.1 kg BW) and placed in isolation chambers (two pigs per chamber) equipped with individual air filtering systems and excrement containers. Treatments were a nonmedicated basal diet and the basal diet with 55 mg/kg of carbadox or with 3% yeast. Diets were fed for 29 d, then each pig was orally dosed with approximately 9.5 x 10(8) CFU of E. coli K88. Daily fecal E. coli K88 counts were not different (P > 0.05) among treatments, but fecal shedding of carbadox-resistant coliforms was higher (P yeast (P Yeast reduced colonization oftotal coliforms in the duodenum,jejunum, cecum, and colon, but it did not have a consistent effect on colonization of E. coli K88. Pigs fed yeast tended (P yeast and carbadox had minimal effects on growth, microbial populations, and intestinal health

  9. Metabolic flux and nodes control analysis of brewer's yeasts under different fermentation temperature during beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhimin; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhao, Mouming; Lei, Hongjie; Li, Huiping

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to further investigate the glycolysis performance of lager and ale brewer's yeasts under different fermentation temperature using a combined analysis of metabolic flux, glycolytic enzyme activities, and flux control. The results indicated that the fluxes through glycolytic pathway decreased with the change of the fermentation temperature from 15 °C to 10 °C, which resulted in the prolonged fermentation times. The maximum activities (V (max)) of hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) at key nodes of glycolytic pathway decreased with decreasing fermentation temperature, which was estimated to have different control extent (22-84 %) on the glycolytic fluxes in exponential or flocculent phase. Moreover, the decrease of V (max) of PFK or PK displayed the crucial role in down-regulation of flux in flocculent phase. In addition, the metabolic state of ale strain was more sensitive to the variation of temperature than that of lager strain. The results of the metabolic flux and nodes control analysis in brewer's yeasts under different fermentation temperature may provide an alternative approach to regulate glycolytic flux by changing V (max) and improve the production efficiency and beer quality.

  10. Effects of nitrogen composition on fermentation performance of brewer's yeast and the absorption of peptides with different molecular weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Fen; Zhao, Haifeng; Lei, Hongjie; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-11-01

    Four kinds of worts with different nitrogen compositions were used to examine their effects on fermentation performance of brewer's yeast. The absorption pattern of peptides with different molecular weights (Mw) in yeast cells during wort fermentation was also investigated. Results showed that both the nitrogen composition and level had significant impacts on the yeast biomass accumulation, ethanol production, and free amino nitrogen and sugars consumption rates. Worts supplemented with wheat gluten hydrolysates increased 11.5% of the biomass, 5.9% of fermentability, and 0.6% of ethanol content and decreased 25.6% of residual sugar content during wort fermentation. Moreover, yeast cells assimilated peptides with various Mw differently during fermentation. Peptides with Mw below 1 kDa decreased quickly, and the rate of assimilation was more than 50% at the end of fermentation, while those with Mw above 10 kDa almost could not be assimilated by yeast. All these results further indicated that the level and composition of wort nitrogen had significant impacts on the growth and fermentation performances of brewer's yeast, and peptides with Mw below 1 kDa were one of preferred nitrogen sources for brewer's yeast.

  11. Evaluation of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and brewers yeast in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to examine the use of distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), ethanol extracted DDGS (EDDGS), and brewers yeast in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets. Diets containing these ingredients were compared with all-plant and fish meal control diets. Juvenile channel catfish ...

  12. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in yeast products produced from the ethanol industry, and in brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2014-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the DE, ME, and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in 2 novel sources of yeast (C-yeast and S-yeast) and in brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. The 2 new sources of yeast are coproducts from the dry-grind ethanol industry. The concentrations of DM, GE, and P were 94.8%, 5,103 kcal/kg, and 1.07% in C-yeast; 94.4%, 4,926 kcal/kg, and 2.01% in S-yeast; 93.6%, 4,524 kcal/kg, and 1.40% in brewers' yeast; 91.4%, 4,461 kcal/kg, and 3.26% in fish meal; and 87.7%, 4,136 kcal/kg, and 0.70% in soybean meal, respectively. The DE and ME in each of the ingredients were determined using 42 growing barrows (28.9±2.18 kg BW). A corn-based basal diet and 5 diets containing corn and 24% to 40% of each test ingredient were formulated. The total collection method was used to collect feces and urine, and the difference procedure was used to calculate values for DE and ME in each ingredient. The concentrations of DE in corn, C-yeast, S-yeast, brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal were 4,004, 4,344, 4,537, 4,290, 4,544, and 4,362 kcal/kg DM (SEM=57), respectively, and the ME values were 3,879, 3,952, 4,255, 3,771, 4,224, and 4,007 kcal/kg DM (SEM=76), respectively. The ME in S-yeast and fish meal were greater (Pcorn and brewers' yeast, whereas the ME in C-yeast and soybean meal were not different from those of any of the other ingredients. The STTD of P in the 5 ingredients was determined using 42 barrows (28.3±7.21 kg BW) that were placed in metabolism cages. Five diets were formulated to contain each test ingredient as the sole source of P, and a P-free diet was used to estimate the basal endogenous loss of P. Feces were collected for 5 d using the marker to marker method after a 5-d adaptation period. The STTD of P in brewers' yeast (85.2%) was greater (Pcorn, fish meal, and soybean meal, and the STTD of P in the 2 yeast products is not different from the STTD of P in fish meal.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Brewer's Yeast Variants with Improved Fermentation Performance under High-Gravity Conditions▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blieck, Lies; Toye, Geert; Dumortier, Françoise; Verstrepen, Kevin J.; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Thevelein, Johan M.; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    To save energy, space, and time, today's breweries make use of high-gravity brewing in which concentrated medium (wort) is fermented, resulting in a product with higher ethanol content. After fermentation, the product is diluted to obtain beer with the desired alcohol content. While economically desirable, the use of wort with an even higher sugar concentration is limited by the inability of brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) to efficiently ferment such concentrated medium. Here, we describe a successful strategy to obtain yeast variants with significantly improved fermentation capacity under high-gravity conditions. We isolated better-performing variants of the industrial lager strain CMBS33 by subjecting a pool of UV-induced variants to consecutive rounds of fermentation in very-high-gravity wort (>22° Plato). Two variants (GT336 and GT344) showing faster fermentation rates and/or more-complete attenuation as well as improved viability under high ethanol conditions were identified. The variants displayed the same advantages in a pilot-scale stirred fermenter under high-gravity conditions at 11°C. Microarray analysis identified several genes whose altered expression may be responsible for the superior performance of the variants. The role of some of these candidate genes was confirmed by genetic transformation. Our study shows that proper selection conditions allow the isolation of variants of commercial brewer's yeast with superior fermentation characteristics. Moreover, it is the first study to identify genes that affect fermentation performance under high-gravity conditions. The results are of interest to the beer and bioethanol industries, where the use of more-concentrated medium is economically advantageous. PMID:17158628

  14. Isolation and characterization of brewer's yeast variants with improved fermentation performance under high-gravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blieck, Lies; Toye, Geert; Dumortier, Françoise; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delvaux, Freddy R; Thevelein, Johan M; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2007-02-01

    To save energy, space, and time, today's breweries make use of high-gravity brewing in which concentrated medium (wort) is fermented, resulting in a product with higher ethanol content. After fermentation, the product is diluted to obtain beer with the desired alcohol content. While economically desirable, the use of wort with an even higher sugar concentration is limited by the inability of brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) to efficiently ferment such concentrated medium. Here, we describe a successful strategy to obtain yeast variants with significantly improved fermentation capacity under high-gravity conditions. We isolated better-performing variants of the industrial lager strain CMBS33 by subjecting a pool of UV-induced variants to consecutive rounds of fermentation in very-high-gravity wort (>22 degrees Plato). Two variants (GT336 and GT344) showing faster fermentation rates and/or more-complete attenuation as well as improved viability under high ethanol conditions were identified. The variants displayed the same advantages in a pilot-scale stirred fermenter under high-gravity conditions at 11 degrees C. Microarray analysis identified several genes whose altered expression may be responsible for the superior performance of the variants. The role of some of these candidate genes was confirmed by genetic transformation. Our study shows that proper selection conditions allow the isolation of variants of commercial brewer's yeast with superior fermentation characteristics. Moreover, it is the first study to identify genes that affect fermentation performance under high-gravity conditions. The results are of interest to the beer and bioethanol industries, where the use of more-concentrated medium is economically advantageous.

  15. Preliminary crystallographic data for the thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase from brewers' yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyda, F; Furey, W; Swaminathan, S; Sax, M; Farrenkopf, B; Jordan, F

    1990-10-15

    Single crystals of the thiamin diphosphate (the vitamin B1 coenzyme)-dependent enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) from brewers' yeast have been grown using polyethylene glycol as a precipitating agent. Crystals of the homotetrameric version alpha 4 of the holoenzyme are triclinic, space group P1, with cell constants a = 81.0, b = 82.4, c = 116.6 A, alpha = 69.5 beta = 72.6, gamma = 62.4 degrees. The crystals are reasonably stable in a rotating anode x-ray beam and diffract to at least 2.5 A resolution. The Vm value of 2.55 A/dalton is consistent with a unit cell containing four subunits with mass of approximately 60 kDa each. Rotation function results with native data indicate strong non-crystallographic 222 symmetry relating the four identical subunits, thus density averaging methods are likely to play a role in the structure determination.

  16. Phytoceramide and sphingoid bases derived from brewer's yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutake Susumu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate lipid and glucose metabolism. PPARα is highly expressed in the liver and controls genes involved in lipid catabolism. We previously reported that synthetic sphingolipid analogs, part of which contains shorter-length fatty acid chains than natural sphingolipids, stimulated the transcriptional activities of PPARs. Sphingosine and dihydrosphingosine (DHS are abundant sphingoid bases, and ceramide and dihydroceramide are major ceramide species in mammals. In contrast, phytosphingosine (PHS and DHS are the main sphingoid bases in fungi. PHS and phytoceramide exist in particular tissues such as the epidermis in mammals, and involvement of ceramide species in PPARβ activation in cultured keratinocytes has been reported. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether natural sphingolipids with C18 fatty acid and yeast-derived sphingoid bases activate PPARs as PPAR agonists. Method Lipids of brewer's yeast contain PHS- and DHS-based sphingolipids. To obtain the sphingoid bases, lipids were extracted from brewer's yeast and acid-hydrolyzed. The sphingoid base fraction was purified and quantified. To assess the effects of sphingolipids on PPAR activation, luciferase reporter assay was carried out. NIH/3T3 and human hepatoma (HepG2 cells were transfected with expression vectors for PPARs and retinoid × receptors, and PPAR responsive element reporter vector. When indicated, the PPAR/Gal4 chimera system was performed to enhance the credibility of experiments. Sphingolipids were added to the cells and the dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the transcriptional activity of PPARs. Results We observed that phytoceramide increased the transcriptional activities of PPARs significantly, whereas ceramide and dihydroceramide did not change PPAR activities. Phytoceramide also increased transactivation of

  17. Effects of wort gravity and nitrogen level on fermentation performance of brewer's yeast and the formation of flavor volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hongjie; Zhao, Haifeng; Yu, Zhimin; Zhao, Mouming

    2012-03-01

    Normal gravity wort and high gravity wort with different nitrogen levels were used to examine their effects on the fermentation performance of brewer's yeast and the formation of flavor volatiles. Results showed that both the wort gravity and nitrogen level had significant impacts on the growth rate, viability, flocculation, and gene expression of brewer's yeast and the levels of flavor volatiles. The sugar (glucose, maltose, and maltotriose) consumption rates and net cell growth decreased when high gravity worts were used, while these increased with increasing nitrogen level. Moreover, high gravity resulted in lower expression levels of ATF1, BAP2, BAT1, HSP12, and TDH, whereas the higher nitrogen level caused higher expression levels for these genes. Furthermore, the lower nitrogen level resulted in increases in the levels of higher alcohols and esters at high wort gravity. All these results demonstrated that yeast physiology and flavor balance during beer brewing were significantly affected by the wort gravity and nitrogen level.

  18. RELEASE OF INTROGENOUS SUBSTANCES BY BREWER'S YEAST. 3. SHOCK EXCRETION OF AMINO ACIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEWIS, M J; PHAFF, H J

    1964-06-01

    Lewis, M. J. (University of California, Davis), and H. J. Phaff. Release of nitrogenous substances by brewers' yeast. III. Shock excretion of amino acids. J. Bacteriol. 87:1389-1396. 1964.-When Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (two strains) and S. cerevisiae (one strain) were grown in static culture and the harvested, washed cells were suspended in a solution of glucose, amino acids were suddenly released and then rapidly reabsorbed in a space of about 2 hr. The phenomenon of amino acid release, which was termed shock excretion, varied in intensity with the strain of yeast and was shown to be dependent on the size of the pool of free amino acids within the cells. Shock excretion was independent of osmotic pressure of the suspending medium, but required the presence of a fermentable sugar. d-Galactose and maltose caused shock excretion only when yeast was previously adapted to these sugars. Limiting glucose concentrations prevented reabsorption of amino acids, and a further decrease in glucose concentration also limited excretion. Shock excretion was strikingly reduced when the temperature of the suspending medium was lowered.

  19. Global transcription engineering of brewer's yeast enhances the fermentation performance under high-gravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cuijuan; Wang, Zhikun; Liang, Quanfeng; Qi, Qingsheng

    2010-08-01

    Global transcription engineering was developed as a tool to reprogram gene transcription for eliciting new phenotypes important for technological applications (Science 2006, 314(5805):1565-1568). A recent report indicated that the beneficial growth advantage of yeast cells expressing the SPT15-300 mutation is the result of enhanced uptake and/or improved utilization of leucine and thus was seen only on defined media with low concentrations of leucine (Appl Environ Microbiol 2009, 75(19):6055-6061). Further investigation towards a leucine-prototrophic strain of industrial lager brewer's yeast indicated that integration one copy of SPT15-300 in SPT15 allele, however, did lead to an increased ethanol tolerance on complex rich medium at high gravity fermentation condition. Under brewing conditions, the SPT15-300 mutant produced 80.78 g/L ethanol from 200 g/L carbohydrates after 384 h, almost twice as much as that of the wild-type strain. The results convinced us that the effect of global regulator modification of yeast is at multi-genes level and is extremely complicated.

  20. The examination of parameters for lactic acid fermentation and nutritive value of fermented juice of beetroot, carrot and brewer’s yeast autolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MAKSIMOVIC

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for lactic acid fermentation based on a mixture of beetoot juice (Beta vulgaris L. and carrot juice (Daucus carota L. and different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate with Lactobacillus plantarum A112 and with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDO 1748 has been studied. Both cultures showed good biochemical activity in these mixtures. The production of lactic acid has been stimulated using a higher content of brewer’s yeast autolysate. In these mixtures, L. plantarum A112 showed better growth and lactic acid production than L. acidophilus NCDO 1748. From the data obtained through chemical analyses of the fermented products, it can be seen that the mixture of beetroot and carrot juice and brewer’s yeast autolysate is richer in minerals (Ca, P, Fe and b-carotene than fermented beetroot juice with the same content of brewer’s yeast autolysate.

  1. Panax Ginseng in combination with brewers' yeast (Gerivet) as a stimulant for geriatric dogs: a controlled-randomized blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielm-Björkman, A; Reunanen, V; Meri, P; Tulamo, R-M

    2007-08-01

    The study was performed on two groups of dogs, one (n = 41) given Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) together with brewers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) and the other (n = 39) given only brewers' yeast (control group, but not a true placebo), for 8 weeks. Using a questionnaire and three visual analogue scales, the blinded owners evaluated the dogs before the trial, weekly for the 8 weeks of the trial and twice, at 12th and 16th weeks, after the trial (follow-up). At 8th, 12th and 16th weeks the owners also answered questions concerning what treatment their dogs likely had been getting, willingness to continue medication and the dogs' general status. The changes from baseline to the end of the treatment period in the variable scores were calculated for each dog and used in statistics. Panax Ginseng plus yeast significantly improved all evaluated variables within the group. Four of the seven primary (mentally) outcome measures were significant when comparing the changes in the Ginseng group with the control group, and six of the seven were significant when compared to an external group. As the secondary (physical) outcome measures were significantly better in both the Ginseng and the control group compared to the external group, it indicates that brewers' yeast is the ingredient that has impact on physical performance. No significant changes in blood- or urine analyses and no side effects were seen.

  2. Towards diacetyl-less brewers' yeast. Influence of ilv2 and ilv5 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjermansen, C; Nilsson-Tillgren, T; Petersen, J G; Kielland-Brandt, M C; Sigsgaard, P; Holmberg, S

    1988-01-01

    During alcoholic fermentations, the off-flavour compound diacetyl is formed non-enzymatically from acetolactate leaking out from the cells. Acetolactate is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of valine. In beer fermentation, the amount of diacetyl is reduced to acceptable levels during maturation. A reduction of the time needed for maturation may be achieved by the use of a brewing yeast that produces less diacetyl. Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains with an inactive ilv2 gene can not form acetolactate, while ilv5 strains, blocked in the subsequent step, leak acetolactate in high amounts. Induction of recessive mutations in production strains of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis has not yet been achieved, as the yeast is polyploid and possibly a hybrid between S. cerevisiae and another Saccharomyces species. Thus, all chromosomes investigated so far are present in at least two genetically different versions. Genetic and molecular analysis has shown that the brewing yeast is structurally heterozygous for ILV2 and ILV5. Genetic modification of brewers' yeast to reduce diacetyl formation is being carried out by mutation of ILV2. Deletion mutations in both ILV2 alleles have been constructed in vitro to be used for gene replacement in the brewing strain. In addition, partial inactivation of the ILV2 function is carried out by selecting spontaneous dominant mutations resistant to the herbicide sulfometuron methyl. Among these mutants some produce only half the amount of diacetyl compared to the parental strain. An alternative way to reduce diacetyl production might be to increase the activity of the ILV5 gene product. Model experiments in S. cerevisiae show that the presence of the ILV5 gene on a 2-micron based multi-copy vector can reduce the diacetyl production by half.

  3. Encapsulation of brewers yeast in chitosan coated carrageenan microspheres by emulsification/thermal gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Marie-Christine; Neufeld, Ronald J; Poncelet, Denis

    2004-05-01

    Brewers yeast was encapsulated in kappa-carrageenan microspheres using an emulsification-thermal gelation approach. Due to heat sensitivity of the yeast at temperatures in excess of 36 degrees C, mixtures of low and high gelation temperature carrageenans were tested to obtain a blend yielding a gelation temperature under 40 degrees C. A 20:80 dispersion of 2% carrageenan sol containing cells, in warm canola oil, produced microspheres upon cooling, with a mean diameter of 450 microm and narrow size dispersion (span of 1.2). Application of a chitosan membrane coat to minimize cell release, increased the mean microsphere diameter to 700 microm, due to the coat thickness and swelling of the microspheres. This diameter was designed so as to minimize mass transfer limitations. Batch fermentations were carried out in a 3 L reactor on a commercial wort medium. Cell loading was 10(7) cells mL(-1) microspheres, and cell "burst" release was observed upon inoculation into fresh medium, whether microspheres were coated or not. The kinetics of intra- and extracapsular cell growth were determined. Increased concentrations of extracapsular free cells could be accounted for by growth in the wort medium, and by ongoing release from the gel microspheres, whether coated or not. Cell release from chitosan-coated carrageenan microspheres was less than that from uncoated microspheres, likely due to retention by the membrane coat. Growth kinetics and alpha-amino nitrogen consumption of encapsulated yeast were higher than that of free cells, and differences in alcohol and ester profiles were also observed, likely due to modified metabolism of the encapsulated yeast.

  4. Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddocke, Maya P; Kreisz, Stefan; Heldt-Hansen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2009-09-01

    High-gravity brewing, which can decrease production costs by increasing brewery yields, has become an attractive alternative to traditional brewing methods. However, as higher sugar concentration is required, the yeast is exposed to various stresses during fermentation. We evaluated the influence of high-gravity brewing on the fermentation performance of the brewer's yeast under model brewing conditions. The lager brewer's strain Weihenstephan 34/70 strain was characterized at three different gravities by adding either glucose or maltose syrups to the basic wort. We observed that increased gravity resulted in a lower specific growth rate, a longer lag phase before initiation of ethanol production, incomplete sugar utilization, and an increase in the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in the final beer. Increasing the gravity by adding maltose syrup as opposed to glucose syrup resulted in more balanced fermentation performance in terms of higher cell numbers, respectively, higher wort fermentability and a more favorable flavor profile of the final beer. Our study underlines the effects of the various stress factors on brewer's yeast metabolism and the influence of the type of sugar syrups on the fermentation performance and the flavor profile of the final beer.

  5. Effects of chromium brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, blood carbohydrates, and lipids and minerals in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Byks, Hanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta

    2011-11-01

    Chromium(III) is considered as an essential element for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of Cr brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, carbohydrate, lipids and mineral indices in type 2 diabetic patients. Twenty adult type 2 diabetic subjects (11 males and 9 females aged 37-63) were supplemented with Cr brewer's yeast in dosages of 500 μg Cr/person/day or placebo for 8 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. It was found that supplemental Cr did not affect body mass, blood lipid profile, resistin levels, and the serum and hair Zn, Fe, and Cu levels, but increased serum Cr (by 116%) and hair Cr (by 20.6%) concentrations and improved some blood carbohydrate indices (significant increase in the β cell function index by 18.8%) in type 2 diabetic patients. In conclusion, Cr brewer's yeast has a weak hypoglycemic potential, but does not affect body mass, blood biochemical profile, and microelement levels in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  6. Identification of Sc-type ILV6 as a target to reduce diacetyl formation in lager brewers' yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, C T; Strack, L; Futschik, M; Katou, Y; Nakao, Y; Fujimura, T; Shirahige, K; Kodama, Y; Nevoigt, E

    2011-11-01

    Diacetyl causes an unwanted buttery off-flavor in lager beer. It is spontaneously generated from α-acetolactate, an intermediate of yeast's valine biosynthesis released during the main beer fermentation. Green lager beer has to undergo a maturation process lasting two to three weeks in order to reduce the diacetyl level below its taste-threshold. Therefore, a reduction of yeast's α-acetolactate/diacetyl formation without negatively affecting other brewing relevant traits has been a long-term demand of brewing industry. Previous attempts to reduce diacetyl production by either traditional approaches or rational genetic engineering had different shortcomings. Here, three lager yeast strains with marked differences in diacetyl production were studied with regard to gene copy numbers as well as mRNA abundances under conditions relevant to industrial brewing. Evaluation of data for the genes directly involved in the valine biosynthetic pathway revealed a low expression level of Sc-ILV6 as a potential molecular determinant for low diacetyl formation. This hypothesis was verified by disrupting the two copies of Sc-ILV6 in a commercially used lager brewers' yeast strain, which resulted in 65% reduction of diacetyl concentration in green beer. The Sc-ILV6 deletions did not have any perceptible impact on beer taste. To our knowledge, this has been the first study exploiting natural diversity of lager brewers' yeast strains for strain optimization.

  7. Disruption of Brewers' yeast by hydrodynamic cavitation: Process variables and their influence on selective release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundaram, B; Harrison, S T L

    2006-06-01

    Intracellular products, not secreted from the microbial cell, are released by breaking the cell envelope consisting of cytoplasmic membrane and an outer cell wall. Hydrodynamic cavitation has been reported to cause microbial cell disruption. By manipulating the operating variables involved, a wide range of intensity of cavitation can be achieved resulting in a varying extent of disruption. The effect of the process variables including cavitation number, initial cell concentration of the suspension and the number of passes across the cavitation zone on the release of enzymes from various locations of the Brewers' yeast was studied. The release profile of the enzymes studied include alpha-glucosidase (periplasmic), invertase (cell wall bound), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; cytoplasmic) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; cytoplasmic). An optimum cavitation number Cv of 0.13 for maximum disruption was observed across the range Cv 0.09-0.99. The optimum cell concentration was found to be 0.5% (w/v, wet wt) when varying over the range 0.1%-5%. The sustained effect of cavitation on the yeast cell wall when re-circulating the suspension across the cavitation zone was found to release the cell wall bound enzyme invertase (86%) to a greater extent than the enzymes from other locations of the cell (e.g. periplasmic alpha-glucosidase at 17%). Localised damage to the cell wall could be observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of cells subjected to less intense cavitation conditions. Absence of the release of cytoplasmic enzymes to a significant extent, absence of micronisation as observed by TEM and presence of a lower number of proteins bands in the culture supernatant on SDS-PAGE analysis following hydrodynamic cavitation compared to disruption by high-pressure homogenisation confirmed the selective release offered by hydrodynamic cavitation.

  8. EFFECT OF REPLACING CORN AND SOYBEAN MEAL WITH BREWERS RICE AND DRIED DISTILLERS BREWERS YEAST ON PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondieki Gekara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of replacing corn and Soybean Meal (SBM with Brewers Rice (BR and Dried Distillers Brewers Yeast (DDBY, respectively, on ADG, G:F, Apparent Total Tract Digestibility (ATTD, fecal DM output and fecal loss of N and P of growing-finishing pigs. Sixty four Yorkshire x Duroc x Hampshire crosses (BW = 73±5.7 kg were randomly assigned to corn/SBM (CSM, BR/SBM (RSM, corn/DDBY (CBY or BR/DDBY (RBY diets. Compared with pigs finished on corn based diets, pigs fed BR based diets gained faster (0.868 vs. 0.730 kg.pig-1; p<0.01 and had better gain to feed ratio (0.30 vs. 0.25; p<0.01. Pigs finished on RBY diet had the least fecal DM output (0.245, 0.352, 0.575, 0.639 kg.pig-1; p<0.001 and greatest ATTD (91.5, 87.8, 80.0, 77.9%; p<0.001 followed by RSM, CBY and CSM pigs, respectively. Pigs finished on RBY diet lost the least (p<0.001 amount of N (0.010, 0.013, 0.019, 0.021 kg.pig-1 and P (0.010, 0.014, 0.016, 0.019 kg.pig-1 in the feces followed by pigs finished on RSM, CBY and CSM, respectively. In conclusion, BR and DDBY can replace all corn and SBM in swine diets with no negative effects on performance of growing-finishing pigs.

  9. Substrate activation of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase is abolished by mutation of cysteine 221 to serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburina, I; Gao, Y; Hu, Z; Jordan, F; Hohmann, S; Furey, W

    1994-05-10

    Brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1), a thiamin diphosphate and Mg(II)-dependent enzyme, isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses four cysteines/subunit at positions 69, 152, 221, and 222. Earlier studies conducted on a variant of the enzyme with a single Cys at position 221 (derived from a gene that was the product of spontaneous fusion) showed that this enzyme is still subject to substrate activation [Zeng, X., Farrenkopf, B., Hohmann, S., Jordan, F., Dyda, F., & Furey, W. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 2704-2709], indicating that if Cys was responsible for this activation, it had to be C221. To further test the hypothesis, the C221S and C222S single and the C221S-C222S double mutants were constructed. It is clearly shown that the mutation at C221, but not at C222, leads to abolished substrate activation according to a number of kinetic criteria, both steady state and pre steady state. On the basis of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme [Dyda, F., Furey, W., Swaminathan, S., Sax, M., Farrenkopf, B., Jordan, F. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 6165-6170], it is obvious that while C221 is located on the beta domain, whereas thiamin diphosphate is wedged at the interface of the alpha and gamma domains, addition of pyruvate or pyruvamide as a hemiketal adduct to the sulfur of C221 can easily bridge the gap between the beta and alpha domains. In fact, residues in one or both domains must be dislocated by this adduct formation. It is very likely that regulation as expressed in substrate activation is transmitted via this direct contact made between the two domains in the presence of the activator.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. [Certain properties of "biosynthetic" L-threonine dehydratase from subcellular structures of brewers' yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, S V; Korozhko, A I; Beliaeva, N F; Kagan, Z S

    1981-01-01

    The paper is concerned with kinetic properties of the "biosynthetic" L-threonine dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.16) solubilized from subcellular structures of brewers' yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis in the absence and presence of the allosteric inhibitor, L-isoleucine, at three pH-values (pH 6.5, 7.8 and 9.5). The curve of the initial reaction rate versus initial substrate concentration in the absence of L-isoleucine at pH 6.5 was of hyperbolic character (Km = 5.5.10(-2) M), and at pH 7.8 and 9.5 the kinetic curve had a weakly sigmoidal pattern with a sharp going into the saturation plateaux; the values of [S] 0.5 are 1.10(-2) and 8.7.10(-3) M, respectively. An addition of L-isoleucine to the reaction mixture led to the appearance (at pH 6.5) or to an increase (at pH 7.8 and 9.5) of the sigmoidality of these kinetic curves and to a decrease in values of the maximum reaction rate V. The enzyme sensibility to the inhibitory effect of L-isoleucine decreased with an increase in pH values. Low L-isoleucine concentrations at low substrate concentrations activated the enzyme. The pH optimum for L-threonine dehydratase under study was 9.5-10.0. The enzyme molecular weight is about 300 000.

  11. Beta-glucan-depleted, glycopeptide-rich extracts from Brewer's and Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) lower interferon-gamma production by stimulated human blood cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roderick; Dias, Daniel A; Jayasinghe, Nirupama; Roessner, Ute; Bennett, Louise E

    2016-04-15

    Regulation of the human immune system requires controlled pro- and anti-inflammatory responses for host defence against infection and disease states. Yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), as used in brewing and baking, are mostly known for ability to stimulate the human immune-system predominantly reflecting the pro-inflammatory cell wall β-glucans. However, in this study, using food-compatible processing methods, glycopeptide-enriched and β-glucan-depleted products were each prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeasts, which suppressed production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in human whole blood cell assay, signifying that anti-inflammatory factors are also present in yeast. Anti-inflammatory bioactivities of products prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeast were compared with the commercial yeast product, Epicor®. While unfractionated Epicor was inactive, the C18 resin-binding fractions of Brewer's and Baker's yeast products and Epicor dose-dependently lowered IFN-γ, demonstrating that Epicor also contained both pro-inflammatory (β-glucans) and anti-inflammatory components. Anti-inflammatory activity was attributed to C18 resin-binding species glyco-peptides in Epicor and experimental yeast products. This study demonstrated that pro- and anti-inflammatory factors could be resolved and enriched in yeasts by suitable processing, with potential to improve specific activities.

  12. Growth performance and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets supplemented with GroBiotic - A and Brewtech Dried Brewers Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of Brewtech® dried brewers yeast (BY) and GroBiotic®-A (GB) on growth performance, proximate body composition, immune response and resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. A practical basal (control) diet ...

  13. Enhancement of biomass and fermentation activity of surplus brewers' yeast in a fed-batch process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strel, B. (Ministry of Science and Technology, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Industrial Property Office); Grba, S.; Maric, V. (Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology)

    1993-04-01

    The growth of surplus brewers' yeast in a fedbatch process was studied with the aim of increasing the fermentation activity of the yeast cells and of optimizing the growth conditions: 20 h cultivation at 30deg C and pH 5.0-5.5 using beet molasses as substrate, with a regulated feeding rate, showed satisfactory results. Under the chosen conditions, the final amount of biomass increased more than fivefold, achieving a specific growth rate of 0.1 h[sup -1] and substrate yield coefficient of 0.54 g.g[sup -1]. The increase in fermentation activity of yeast cells during cultivation correlated very well with the concentration of reduced glutathione, which increased from 1.2 to 2.7 mg.g[sup -1] (dry matter). At the same time the fermentation activity increased fivefold, which related to the nitrogen content of the yeast cells. Ethanol formation throughout the cultivation did not exceed 0.5 g.l[sup -1]. (orig.).

  14. The primary structure of tRNAIIArg from brewers' yeast. 1. Complete digestions with pancreatic and T1 ribonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenbach, J; Martin, R; Dirheimer, G

    1975-08-15

    tRNAIIArg purified from bulk brewers' yeast tRNA by countercurrent distribution followed by two column-chromatographic steps was completely digested with pancreatic and T1 ribonucleases. Isolations of the products have been carried out either by column chromatography or by high-voltage electrophoresis. Analyses of the isolated nucleotides and olignoucleotides were in good agreement and indicate that this tRNA is composed of 76 nucltotide residues including 13 minor nucleotides. Overlaps resulting from the end-products of the two complementary digests led to a sequence of 25 residues. The primary structure of tRNAIIArg has been determined after partial digestion with T1 ribonuclease as described in the following paper.

  15. A preliminary in vitro assessment of GroBiotic-A, brewer's yeast and fructooligosaccharide as prebiotics for the red drum Sciaenops ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Gary; Hume, Michael; Ricke, Steven; Nisbet, David; Gatlin, Delbert

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of brewers yeast, fructooligosaccharide (FOS), and GroBiotic-A, a mixture of partially autolyzed brewers yeast, dairy components and dried fermentation products, on the intestinal microbial community of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Gastrointestinal (GI) tracts were aseptically removed from three sub-adult red drum previously maintained on a commercial diet and placed in an anaerobic chamber. Intestinal contents were removed, diluted and incubated in vitro in one of four liquid media: normal diet alone, diet + 2% (w/w) GroBiotic-A, diet + 2% brewers yeast, and diet + 2% FOS. After 24 and 48 h of incubation at 25 degrees C, supernatants were removed for volatile fatty acid (VFA) analysis and DNA was extracted for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on a highly conserved region of M 16S rDNA and the amplicons were subjected to DGGE. The microbial community (MC) fingerprint was used to distinguish microbial populations. The intestinal contents incubated with GroBiotic-A had significantly (Pyeast.

  16. Over-expression of GSH1 gene and disruption of PEP4 gene in self-cloning industrial brewer's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Yue; He, Xiu-Ping; Zhang, Bo-Run

    2007-11-01

    Foam stability is often influenced by proteinase A, and flavor stability is often affected by oxidation during beer storage. In this study, PEP4, the gene coding for proteinase A, was disrupted in industrial brewing yeast. In the meantime, one copy of GSH1 gene increased in the same strain. GSH1 is responsible for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, a rate-limiting enzyme for synthesis of glutathione which is one kind of important antioxidant and beneficial to beer flavor stability. In order to improve the brewer's yeast, plasmid pYPEP, pPC and pPCG1 were firstly constructed, which were recombined plasmids with PEP4 gene, PEP4's disruption and PEP4's disruption+GSH1 gene respectively. These plasmids were verified to be correct by restriction enzymes' assay. By digesting pPCG1 with AatII and PstI, the DNA fragment for homologous recombination was obtained carrying PEP4 sequence in the flank and GSH1 gene internal to the fragment. Since self-cloning technique was applied in the study and the modified genes were from industrial brewing yeast itself, the improved strains, self-cloning strains, were safe to public. The genetic stability of the improved strains was 100%. The results of PCR analysis of genome DNA showed that coding sequence of PEP4 gene had been deleted and GSH1 gene had been inserted into the locus of PEP4 gene in self-cloning strains. The fermentation ability of self-cloning strain, SZ-1, was similar to that of the host. Proteinase A could not be detected in beer brewed with SZ-1, and GSH content in the beer increased 35% compared to that of the host, Z-1.

  17. Preparation and characteristics of beta-glucan concentrate from brewer's yeast as the additive substance in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Mikuš

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The brewer¢s yeast was used for preparation of concentrate with content of β-glucan. Hot water extraction (100°C, 5 hours and subsequently an alkaline extraction of sediment using 1 M NaOH at 90°C for 1 hour were used. β-glucan concentrate containing 59,15 % of β-glucan had good functional properties (water binding capacity 13,34 g water/1 g concentrate, fat binding capacity 6,86 g fat/1 g concentrate and indicated biological action too.  At concentration of 2 mg/ml DMSO (dimethylsulfoxid was viability of murine L1210 leukemic cells reduced to 76.15 %. When observing the antioxidant activity it was identified, that the lipid peroxidation in linoleic acid samples was decreased during the presence of β-glucan concentrate. These results and good sensory properties like a bright colour and the pleasant taste and smell indicate, that prepared β-glucan concentrate has a potential to be used to improve the health – beneficial substances in the foods.doi:10.5219/258

  18. 啤酒废酵母自溶条件的研究%Autolysis conditions of waste brewer' s yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建梅; 李红; 杜金华

    2012-01-01

    The key factors of waste brewer's yeast autolysis such as temperature, pH value, addition of NaCl and autolysis time were optimized by single factor tests and orthogonal tests in this article. The results indicated that the optimum conditions were obtained as follows: autolysis temperature 50℃,pH value 5.0, addition of NaCl 3% and autolysis time 24h. Under these autolysis conditions, the content of total sugar would reach 2.27g/L, yield of amino-nitragen was 3.98% and yield of the extract was 54.12% in the supernatant fluid.%通过单因素试验和正交试验对影响啤酒废酵母自溶的温度、pH值、NaCl添加量和自溶时间4个关键因素进行了优化,得到了啤酒废酵母自溶最佳工艺条件:自溶温度50℃,自溶pH值为5.0,NaCl添加量为3% (w/w),自溶时间24h,自溶上清液中总糖分含量达到2.27g/L,游离氨基酸态氮得率达到3.98%,抽提物得率达到54.12%.

  19. Quantification of brewers' yeast flocculation in a stirred tank: effect of physical parameters on flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hamersveld, E H; van der Lans, R G; Luyben, K C

    1997-10-20

    Quantification of yeast flocculation under defined conditions will help to understand the physical mechanisms of the flocculation process used in beer fermentation. Flocculation was quantified by measuring the size of yeast flocs and the number of single cells. For this purpose, a method to measure floc size and number of single cells in situ was developed. In this way, it was possible to quantify the actual flocculation during fermentation, without influencing flocculation. The effects of three physical parameters, floc strength, fluid shear, and yeast cell concentration, on flocculation during beer fermentation, were examined. Increasing floc strength results in larger flocs and lower numbers of single cells. If the fluid shear is increased, the size of the flocs decreases, and the number of single cells remains constant at approximately 10% of the total cells present. The cell concentration also influences flocculation, a reduction of 50% in cell concentration leads to a decrease of about 25% in floc size. The number of single cells decreases in linear proportion to the cell concentration. This means that, during yeast settling at full scale, the number of single cells decreases. The results of this study are used in a model for yeast flocculation. With respect to full scale fermentation the effect of cell concentration will play an important role, for flocculation and sedimentation will occur simultaneously leading to a quasi steady state between these phenomena. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 56: 190-200, 1997.

  20. Beneficial effect of brewers' yeast extract on daily activity in a murine model of chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Takashi; Yu, Fei; Zhu, Shi-Jie; Moriya, Junji; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Shigeto; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Kanda, Tsugiyasu

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Brewers' yeast extract (BYE) on daily activity in a mouse model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). CFS was induced by repeated injection of Brucella abortus (BA) antigen every 2 weeks. BYE was orally administered to mice in a dose of 2 g per kg per day for 2 weeks before injecting BA and for 4 weeks thereafter. We evaluated daily running activity in mice receiving BYE as compared with that in untreated mice. Weekly variation of body weight (BW) and survival in both groups was monitored during the observation period. Spleen weight (SW), SW/BW ratio, percent splenic follicular area and expression levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA in spleen were determined in both groups at the time of sacrifice. The daily activity during 2 weeks after the second BA injection was significantly higher in the treated group than in the control. There was no difference in BW between both groups through the experimental course. Two mice in the control died 2 and 7 days after the second injection, whereas no mice in the treated group died. Significantly decreased SW and SW/BW ratio were observed in the treated mice together with elevation of splenic follicular area. There were suppressed IFN-gamma and IL-10 mRNA levels in spleens from the treated mice. Our results suggest that BYE might have a protective effect on the marked reduction in activity following repeated BA injection via normalization of host immune responses.

  1. Beneficial Effect of Brewers' Yeast Extract on Daily Activity in a Murine Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Takahashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Brewers' yeast extract (BYE on daily activity in a mouse model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. CFS was induced by repeated injection of Brucella abortus (BA antigen every 2 weeks. BYE was orally administered to mice in a dose of 2 g per kg per day for 2 weeks before injecting BA and for 4 weeks thereafter. We evaluated daily running activity in mice receiving BYE as compared with that in untreated mice. Weekly variation of body weight (BW and survival in both groups was monitored during the observation period. Spleen weight (SW, SW/BW ratio, percent splenic follicular area and expression levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-10 (IL-10 mRNA in spleen were determined in both groups at the time of sacrifice. The daily activity during 2 weeks after the second BA injection was significantly higher in the treated group than in the control. There was no difference in BW between both groups through the experimental course. Two mice in the control died 2 and 7 days after the second injection, whereas no mice in the treated group died. Significantly decreased SW and SW/BW ratio were observed in the treated mice together with elevation of splenic follicular area. There were suppressed IFN-γ and IL-10 mRNA levels in spleens from the treated mice. Our results suggest that BYE might have a protective effect on the marked reduction in activity following repeated BA injection via normalization of host immune responses.

  2. Study on adsorption of mixed heavy metal ions by discarded brewer's yeast%酿酒废酵母吸附共存重金属离子的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武运; 葛凤; 陈卫林; 聂威; 孙翠; 古丽娜孜

    2012-01-01

    To study the feasible for the discarded brewer's yeast adsorption heavy metal ions, on the basis of single factor experiment, use response surface method to make sure the best conditions for discarded brewer's yeast adsorption heavy metal ions. Result: the optimal adsorption conditions of metal ions by discarded brewer's yeast were; pH value is 3. 15, adsorption temperature is 30℃, adsorption time is 60 min, the density of discarded brewer's yeast is 2. 04 g/L and the density of metal ions is 61. 34 mg/L. Under the above conditions, the adsorption rate of metal ions by discarded brewer's yeast can approximately reach to 62. 78%.%为研究酿酒废酵母吸附共存重金属离子的可行性,在单因素试验的基础上,采用响应曲面法探讨酿酒废酵母吸附共存离子Pb2+、Ni2-、Cu2+的最佳工艺条件.结果表明:酿酒废酵母对共存重金属离子Pb2+、Ni2、Cu2+吸附的最佳条件为pH值3.15,吸附温度30℃,吸附时间60 min,酵母浓度2.04 g/L,离子浓度61.34mg/L,该条件下酿酒废酵母对共存离子的吸附率为62.78%.

  3. Effects of colupulone, a component of hops and brewers yeast, and chromium on glucose tolerance and hepatic cytochrome P450 in nondiabetic and spontaneously diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannering, G J; Shoeman, J A; Shoeman, D W

    1994-05-16

    Brewers yeast contains factors that increase and decrease glucose tolerance. Hop components (lupulones) that adhere to yeast during the brewing process elicit a variety of biological effects including the induction of hepatic cytochrome P4503A. Colupulone was tested for its effects on glucose tolerance and cytochrome P450. Serum glucose levels 30 min after the injection of glucose were lowered by colupulone in nondiabetic Swiss-Webster mice, elevated in diabetic C57B1/KSJ-db/db mice, and unaffected in nondiabetic C57B1/KSJ+m/+m mice. Colupulone lowered hemoglobin glycation slightly in +m/+m mice but not in db/db mice. The cytochrome P450 system was highly induced by colupulone in both db/db and +m/+m mice. Chromium, which acts in concert with the factor in yeast that enhances glucose tolerance, had little or no effect on the plasma glucose level or the cytochrome P450 system in either +m/+m or db/db mice.

  4. Preparation of Protein Hydrolysates with Waste Brewer's Yeast%啤酒废酵母蛋白水解物的制取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓鸣; 袁信华; 徐柔; 章克昌

    2001-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates were prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis ofpretreated waste brewer's yeast. The hydrolysis parameters were specified by response surface analysis. The Parameters are as follows: initial yeast concentration 15%, temperature 55~60 ℃, the β-glucanase-substrate ratio 15~20 U/g, and pH 6.6~6.8. When hydrolysed for 7 hour, more than 82% of the Kjeldahl protein in yeast was extracted. Measured by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), 65.26% of the hydrolysates had molecular weights of 210~635 Dalton, which corresponded to dipeptides and tripeptides.%利用啤酒废酵母资源,通过破壁预处理与复合酶降解相结合的工艺,制取特定相对分子质量范围的蛋白水解物.响应面分析结果表明,在温度55~60℃,pH6.6~6.8,β-葡聚糖酶用量15~20U/g(以酵母计)的条件下,有最高的肽提取率.酶解7h,蛋白质提取率大于82%,经HPLC测定,水解产物中65%组分的相对分子质量在210~635之间,处于二肽和三肽相对分子质量范围.

  5. Brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase produces acetoin from acetaldehyde: a novel tool to study the mechanism of steps subsequent to carbon dioxide loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G C; Jordan, F

    1984-07-31

    A gas-liquid chromatographic technique was developed for the determination of both acetaldehyde and the 3-4% acetoin side product that results from the brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) catalyzed reaction of pyruvic acid. Employing this method enabled the demonstration of the catalysis of acetaldehyde condensation to acetoin by the enzyme. It was found that the acetoin produced enzymatically from pyruvic acid or from acetaldehyde was optically active, thus providing stereochemical information about the reaction. Deuterium kinetic isotope effects (employing CH3CHO and CH3CDO) were determined on the steady-state kinetic parameters to be 4.5 (Vmax) and 3.2 (Vmax/Kappm), respectively. This enabled, for the first time, the estimation of relative kinetic barriers for steps past decarboxylation. It could be concluded that (a) C-H bond scission was part of rate limitation in the enzyme-catalyzed condensation of acetaldehyde to acetoin and that (b) among the steps leading to the release of acetaldehyde, protonation of the key enamine intermediate was part of rate limitation. This latter finding is also directly applicable to the mechanism of pyruvate decarboxylation.

  6. Wet brewers grains for lactating dairy cows during hot, humid weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J W; Ely, L O; Martin, S A

    1994-01-01

    Twenty lactating Jersey cows were offered diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wet brewers grains or 30% wet brewers grains plus liquid brewers' yeast during hot, humid weather. The DMI was not different, even though diets with 30% wet brewers grains contained only 35.5% DM and approximately 50 versus 36.8% NDF for the control diet. Yields of milk and FCM did not differ for cows offered the control diet versus wet brewers grains or diets with 15 versus 30% wet brewers grains, but milk yield for diets with 30% wet brewers grains was greater with added liquid brewers' yeast than without it. Milk fat percentage was not different, but milk protein percentage was lower, for diets with wet brewers grains than for controls and for 30% wet brewers grains than for 15% wet brewers grains. Serum urea N was lower for control cows than for cows receiving the diets with wet brewers grains. Feed cost per cow was lower for wet brewers grains versus the control diet, and income over feed cost was greater for diets with 30 versus 15% wet brewers grains. Large quantities of wet brewers grains can be added to the diet during hot weather without depressing DMI.

  7. Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piddocke, Maya Petrova; kreisz, Stefan; Heldt-Hansen, Hans Peter

    2009-01-01

    resulted in a lower specific growth rate, a longer lag phase before initiation of ethanol production, incomplete sugar utilization, and an increase in the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in the final beer. Increasing the gravity by adding maltose syrup as opposed to glucose syrup...... resulted in more balanced fermentation performance in terms of higher cell numbers, respectively, higher wort fermentability and a more favorable flavor profile of the final beer. Our study underlines the effects of the various stress factors on brewer’s yeast metabolism and the influence of the type...... of sugar syrups on the fermentation performance and the flavor profile of the final beer....

  8. Role of cysteines in the activation and inactivation of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase investigated with a PDC1-PDC6 fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Farrenkopf, B; Hohmann, S; Dyda, F; Furey, W; Jordan, F

    1993-03-16

    Possible roles of the Cys side chains in the activation and inactivation mechanisms of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase were investigated by comparing the behavior of the tetrameric enzyme pdc1 containing four cysteines/subunit (positions 69, 152, 221, and 222) with that of a fusion enzyme (pdc1-6, a result of spontaneous gene fusion between PDC1 and PDC6 genes) that is 84% identical in sequence with pdc1 and has only Cys221 (the other three Cys being replaced by aliphatic side chains). The two forms of the enzyme are rather similar so far as steady-state kinetic parameters and substrate activation are considered, as tested for activation by the substrate surrogate pyruvamide. Therefore, if a cysteine is responsible for substrate activation, it must be Cys221. The inactivation of the two enzymes was tested with several inhibitors. Methylmethanethiol sulfonate, a broad spectrum sulfhydryl reagent, could substantially inactivate both enzymes, but was slightly less effective toward the fusion enzyme. (p-Nitrobenzoyl)formic acid is an excellent alternate substrate, whose decarboxylation product p-nitrobenzaldehyde inhibited both enzymes possibly at a Cys221, the only one still present in the fusion enzyme. Exposure of the fusion enzyme, just as of pdc1, to (E)-2-oxo-4-phenyl-3-butenoic acid type inhibitors/alternate substrates enabled detection of the enzyme-bound enamine intermediate at 440 nm. However, unlike pdc1, the fusion enzyme was not irreversibly inactivated by these substrates. These substrates are now known to cause inactivation of pdc1 with concomitant modification of one Cys of the four [Zeng, X.; Chung, A.; Haran, M.; Jordan, F. (1991) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 5842-49].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Porous glass carrier for immobilization of brewer's yeast. Kobo koteika tantai to shite no takoshitsu garasu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashihara, T. (Kirin Brewery Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    In this article, merits of porous glass carrier for immobilization are stated as an example of application of vital reaction catalyst for immobilization to the brewing field and furthermore the features of the brewing system of immobilization of yeast for beer brewing (super brew system, SBS) which utilizes the above carrier are outlined. The biggest merit of utilizing immobilized yeast for beer brewing is that increased efficiency of the brewing can be attained, but usable carriers for immobilization whose safety has been confirmed are very few. Since the latter half of 1980's, DEAE cellulose, porous glass and ceramics have been used as the carriers appropriate for the scale of practical brewing. Porous glass carriers have many functions including high percentage of water absorption and capability of holding microorganisms in high density. The number of fungus bodies to be carried with the porous glass is less than that of calcium alginate which is not appropriate for scaling-up for practical brewing. In SBS, fermentation can be made efficiently and in a well balanced manner. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Integrated expression of the α-amylase, dextranase and glutathione gene in an industrial brewer's yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Jing; Wang, Zhao-Yue; He, Xiu-Ping; Zhang, Bo-Run

    2012-01-01

    Genetic engineering is widely used to meliorate biological characteristics of industrial brewing yeast. But how to solve multiple problems at one time has become the bottle neck in the genetic modifications of industrial yeast strains. In a newly constructed strain TYRL21, dextranase gene was expressed in addition of α-amylase to make up α-amylase's shortcoming which can only hydrolyze α-1,4-glycosidic bond. Meanwhile, 18s rDNA repeated sequence was used as the homologous sequence for an effective and stable expression of LSD1 gene. As a result, TYRL21 consumed about twice much starch than the host strain. Moreover TYRL21 speeded up the fermentation which achieved the maximum cell number only within 3 days during EBC tube fermentation. Besides, flavor evaluation comparing TYRL21 and wild type brewing strain Y31 also confirmed TYRL21's better performances regarding its better saccharides utilization (83% less in residual saccharides), less off-flavor compounds (57% less in diacetyl, 39% less in acetaldehyde, 67% less in pentanedione), and improved stability index (increased by 49%) which correlated with sensory evaluation of final beer product.

  11. 啤酒酵母RNA对5-氟尿嘧啶处理小鼠免疫功能的影响%Effects of Brewer's Yeast RNA on Immune Function in Mice Treated with 5-Fluorouracil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾伶; 薛存宽; 何学斌; 陈艳雯; 许明旺; 李颖

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of brewer's yeast RNA on immune insufficiency in mice treated with 5-flu-orouracil. Methods The spleen and thymus index.phagocytosis rate of peritoneal macrophages,levels of serum hemolysin,contents of serum TNF-α and IL-2,and lymphocyte transformation rate were measured after mice were treated with 5-fluorouracil [25 mg/(kg ? d)] and/or brewer's yeast RNA [100 mg/(kg ? d) ,300 mg/(kg ? d) ,respectively] for 14 days. Results The phagocytosis rate of peritoneal macrophages, levels of serum TNF-α and IL-2. and spleen and thymus index in brewer' s yeast RNA-treated groups were significantly higher than those in 5-fluorouracil-treated group (P<0. 05,or P<0. 01). As compared with 5-fluorouracil-treated group,the levels of serum hemolysin and lymphocyte transformation rate were notably increased in brewer's yeast RNA-treated groups (P<0. 05,or P<0. 01). Conclusion Brewer's yeast RNA may increase the immune function of the mice with immune insufficiency.%目的 探讨啤酒酵母RNA对5-氟尿嘧啶(5-Fu)处理小鼠免疫功能的影响.方法 将小鼠随机分为空白组,5-氟尿嘧啶组,啤酒酵母RNA小剂量组、大剂量组[分别以啤酒酵母RNA 100 mg/(kg·d)、300 mg/(kg·d)灌胃给药];除空白组外,其余各组均以5-Fu 25 mg/(kg·d)灌胃.检测腹腔巨噬细胞吞噬率,血清溶血素形成水平、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)及白细胞介素-2(IL-2)的含量和淋巴细胞转化率,计算脾指数及胸腺指数.结果 啤酒酵母RNA大、小剂量组均可明显提高5-氟尿嘧啶处理小鼠腹腔巨噬细胞吞噬率、血清TNF-α、IL-2水平,逆转脾指数、胸腺指数的萎缩,与5-氟尿嘧啶组相比差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);啤酒酵母RNA大、小剂量组对5-氟尿嘧啶所致的血清溶血素形成水平低下和淋巴细胞转化率低下有明显的拮抗作用(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 啤酒酵母RNA可提高免疫功能低下机体的免疫功能.

  12. The Mechanism of Hydrogen Sulfide Production by Brewer's Yeast and Characterization of Change of Hydrogen Sulfide Content During the Beer Fermentation%啤酒发酵过程酵母代谢形成H_2S的机理及H_2S变化特征的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 贾士儒; 张五九

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of hydrogen sulfide production by brewer' s yeast was investigated, and the change of hydrogen sulfide content was studied in industrial scale. The results showed that the hydrogen sulfide that brewer' s yeast excreted was from the hydrogen sulfide when brewer' s yeast reduced sulfate into sulfide during the biosynthesis of methionine. There were at least two peak values of hydrogen sulfide content during the fermentation process. The change of hydrogen sulfide concentration was closely related to the yeast growth, methioni and threonine metabolism.%对啤酒发酵过程中酵母代谢形成硫化氢的机理进行了探讨,并对工业化规模发酵过程中硫化氢的变化特征进行了研究.结果表明,发酵过程酵母分泌的硫化氢来自酵母生物合成蛋氧酸时,对硫酸盐的还原产生的硫化氢.发酵过程中H_2S的含量呈现至少2个峰值,硫化氢浓度的变化和酵母的生长、蛋氨酸及苏氨酸的代谢有紧密的关系.

  13. Changes in Autolysis Solution of Brewer's Yeasts and the Evaluation of Autolysis%啤酒酵母自溶液中的物质变化及酵母自溶评价指标探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许维娜; 王金晶; 陈希; 李崎

    2013-01-01

    以4株不同的啤酒酵母菌株为研究对象,比较其在模拟自溶条件下电镜细胞形态及溶液物质变化,寻找能够判定酵母自溶性能的较优评价指标.结果表明,α-氨基氮、甲醛氮、各种分子质量蛋白质和游离长链脂肪酸等指标虽然都随酵母自溶有一定的变化,但规律性不强,单一因素不适合作为判定酵母自溶的直接指标.随着酵母自溶性能和自溶程度的变化,(A260/A280)/死亡率呈现明显且一致的变化趋势,酵母自溶程度越大,该比值越小.该指标综合性好、灵敏度高、耗时少、操作简单,能够及时反映不同菌株自溶性能的差异,以及同一株菌在不同阶段的自溶情况,是较好的酵母自溶评价指标.%Four brewer's yeasts with different autolysis performance were used to study their microscopic morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and changes in solution during autolysis in order to find out the optimal evaluating indicator of yeast autolysis.Results showed that α-amino nitrogen,formaldehyde nitrogen,each molecule of protein content,and free long-chain fatty acid content had certain variations during autolysis,but there was no obvious regularity.Meantime,single factor was not suitable for the evaluation of autolysis as a direct indicator.Nevertheless,(A260/A280)/yeast mortality showed an obvious and consistent trend during autolysis.When the yeast autolysis degree increased,the value of (A260/A280)/yeast mortality gradually decreased.This indicator had the advantages of comprehensive,high sensitive,and less timeconsuming,also the method was easy to operate.It could reflect different autolysis performance of different strains,as well as differences of the same strain at different stages of autolysis.So (A260/A280)/yeast mortality was a good indicator to evaluate yeast autolysis.

  14. 多倍体啤酒酵母URA3基因的失活与恢复%Inactivation and Recovery of URA3 Gene of Polyploid Brewer's Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许海艳; 赵丽彬; 董健; 肖冬光

    2014-01-01

    Polyploid brewer's yeast strain S6 was used as the starting strain to construct uracil auxotrophic strain S6-△U through gene homologous recombination, which could be used as a genetic marker. Then uracil auxotrophic strain S6-△U was restored to original strain and named strain S6'. The growth of strain S6, strain S6-△U and strain S6' was compared and the results suggested that the mutation of URA3 gene would not re-duce the growth of the strain. Accordingly, a method for rapid preparation of auxotrophic brewer's strains had been established in this study.%以多倍体啤酒酵母菌株S6作为出发菌株,利用同源重组的方法构建了尿嘧啶营养缺陷型啤酒酵母菌株S6-△U,使之用于遗传标记,并把缺陷型菌株恢复成原营养型S6'。同时对出发菌株S6,缺陷型菌株S6-△U和恢复后的菌株S6'的生长状况进行比较。结果表明,URA 3点突变并没有弱化菌株的生长状况。从而建立一种快速获得缺陷型啤酒酵母菌株的方法。

  15. 小麦面筋蛋白水解物对酿酒酵母增殖和发酵性能的影响%Effect of wheat gluten protein hydrolysates on the propagation and fermentation performance of brewer's yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫芬; 赵谋明; 赵海锋

    2012-01-01

    研究了小麦面筋蛋白水解物对酿酒酵母增殖和发酵性能的影响,结果表明,不同水解度的小麦面筋蛋白水解物对酿酒酵母的促增殖和发酵效果不同,其中水解度为13.96%的水解物具有最强的促酵母增殖和发酵效果,该水解物可使稳定期酵母生物量提高37.0%,表观发酵度提高8.8%,乙醇产量提高6.4%,氨基氮利用率提高13.0%,同时发酵时间缩短14.3%。%Effect of wheat gluten protein hydrolysates treated with pancreatin on propagation and fermentation performance of brewer's yeast were studied.Results showed that wheat gluten protein hydrolysates with different degree of hydrolysis(DH) varied in propagation and fermentation-promoting activity for yeast strains.Hydrolysates with DH of 13.96% showed the highest propagation-promoting activity and could promote yeast fermentation significantly.Supplement of wheat gluten protein hydrolysates with DH of 13.96% during fermentation resulted in the increases of biomass,fermentation degree,ethanol yield and the utilization rate of free amino nitrogen by 37.0%,8.8%,6.4% and 13.0%,respectively.Moreover,the fermentation time was reduced significantly by 14.3%.

  16. Active site directed irreversible inactivation of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase by the conjugated substrate analogue (E)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoic acid: development of a suicide substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, D J; Jordan, F

    1983-08-01

    (E)-4-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoic acid (CPB) was found to irreversibly inactivate brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC, EC 4.1.1.1) in a biphasic, sigmoidal manner, as is found for the kinetic behavior of substrate. An expression was derived for two-site irreversible inhibition of allosteric enzymes, and the kinetic behavior of CPB fit the expression for two-site binding. The calculated Ki's of 0.7 mM and 0.3 mM for CPB were assigned to the catalytic site and the regulatory site, respectively. The presence of pyruvic acid at high concentrations protected PDC from inactivation, whereas low concentrations of pyruvic acid accelerated inactivation by CPB. Pyruvamide, a known allosteric activator of PDC, was found to enhance inactivation by CPB. The results can be explained if pyruvamide binds only to a regulatory site, but CPB and pyruvic acid compete for both the regulatory and the catalytic centers. [1-14C]CPB was found to lose 14CO2 concurrently with the inactivation of the enzyme. Therefore, CPB was being turned over by PDC, in addition to inactivating it. CPB can be labeled a suicide-type inactivator for PDC.

  17. 不同啤酒酵母在麦汁发酵过程中发酵性能的对比研究%Comparative Study on Fermentation Performances of Different Lager Brewer's Yeast Strains in Wort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑莉烨; 赵海锋; 赵谋明

    2012-01-01

    研究了四种具有不同遗传背景的下面发酵啤酒酵母(Saccharomyces pastoriamus,FBY0095、FBY0096、FBY0097和FBY0098)在12°P正常浓度与24°P超高浓度麦汁中发酵性能的差异.考察的发酵性能指标包括发酵速率、细胞生长量、酵母活性、麦汁发酵度、产酒量、游离氨基氮的消耗量、风味物质浓度及双乙酰的还原能力.结果表明,同一酵母菌株在正常浓度和超高浓度麦汁中的发酵性能显著不同.正常浓度发酵条件下,啤酒酵母FBY0095和FBY0098具有良好的发酵特性;而超高浓度条件下,啤酒酵母FBY0097和FBY0098表现出了较好的发酵性能.%The fermentation performances including fermentation rate, cell growth, viability, apparent attenuation, alcohol content, FAN consumption and the concentrations of flavor volatiles and diacetyl of four brewer's yeasts (FBY0095, FBY0096, FBY0097 and FBY0098) in both normal (12 °P) and very high gravity wort (24 °P) were investigated in this paper. Results showed that yeast strains exhibited significantly different fermentation performances in normal and very high gravity worts fermentation. FBY0095 and FBY0098 showed the good fermentation performances in normal gravity fermentation, whereas FBY0097 and FBY0098 exhibited the better fermentation performances in very high gravity fermentation.

  18. Effects of Some Physico-chemical Treatments on Autolysis of Brewer's Yeast%理化处理对啤酒酵母自溶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓鸣; 袁信华; 章克昌

    2001-01-01

    利用酵母自溶动力学方程考察了温度、破壁酶、酵母预处理、酵母初始质量分数、盐等理化因素对啤酒酵母自溶过程的影响.温度对酵母自溶速度有很大影响.通过回归分析得到不同体系中反映自溶温度和速度常数关系的Arrhenius方程及相应的自溶反应的活化能Ea;破壁预处理能显著加速酵母自溶,添加破壁复合酶或食盐均有利于加速酵母自溶反应,但两者复合添加有相互抑制作用;酵母初始质量分数对自溶影响不大.%The effects of some physico-chemical treatments, such as temperature, lytic enzyme, pre-treatment of yeast, salt and initial concentration of yeast on autolysis were studied based on the autolysis kinetic rate constant(Ka). The autolysis temperature had great effect on Ka. The Arrhenius-type equations for different systems, which show the relationship between Ka and the absolute temperature(Tk), were obtained by using a linear least squares estimation method. The corresponding molecular activation energy of yeast autolysis could be calculated. The autolysis was significantly accelerated by lytic enzyme, pre-treatment of yeast, and salt, respectively, but the initial yeast concentration had little effect on the autolysis. The analysis of autolysates at the optimal autolysis conditions indicated that free amino acids prevailed in the protein extracts.

  19. 高效毛细管电泳检测啤酒酵母中谷胱甘肽%Determination of glutathione in brewers yeast by high performance capillary electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱龙宝; 魏胜华; 葛飞; 陶玉贵

    2011-01-01

    The HPCE method for the determination of glutathione in brewers yeast was established with silica capillary column(60cm×75μm,effective length 36cm),1/15mmol/L phosphate buffer,pH7.4 at a constant voltage of 25kV,and sampling 5s,the detective wavelength 200nm.The results showed that the linear determination range was 5 ~ 100mg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996 and the average recovery and RSD were 97.24% and 3.2%,respectively.The method was simple and accurate,and could be used for determination of glutathione.%为建立简单、快速的谷胱甘肽检测方法,采用Beckman毛细管电泳仪对啤酒酵母中谷胱甘肽进行检测,选用石英毛细管柱(60cm×75μm,有效柱长36cm)、1/15mmol/L、pH7.4的磷酸缓冲液、分离电压25kV、紫外检测波长为200nm,进样5s。结果表明:谷胱甘肽在5~100mg/L内呈现良好的线性关系(R2=0.9996),平均回收率为97.2%,平均相对标准偏差RSD为3.2%。该法结果准确,操作简单,重现性好,可应用于谷胱甘肽的测定。

  20. Screening of brewer's yeast with low acetaldehyde by directional domestication%低产乙醛啤酒酵母的定向驯化筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈楠; 王金晶; 刘春凤; 李永仙; 李崎

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at reduce the acetaldehyde concentration in beer,an industrial brewing yeast strain M14 was used as original strain and mutagenized with ultraviolet radiation.After primary screening with disulfiram and domestication with media containing acetaldehyde,a mutant strain D-A-14 was obtained with considerably low yield of acetaldehyde.The concentration of acetaldehyde in the beer brewed with the mutant strain was 2.86 mg/L,which was 76% lower than that of MI4.In the meantime,the beer brewed with the mutant strain contained less higher alcohols and more esters and showed more harmonious flavor.These results demonstrated that the low-acetaldehyde mutant strain D-A-14 would be suitable for beer industry.%为降低啤酒中乙醛含量,采用紫外线对1株啤酒工业生产菌株M41进行诱变,经双硫仑平板初筛、乙醛培养基驯化复筛,获得了1株低产乙醛的啤酒酵母D-A-14.与出发菌株M14相比,采用该突变株酿制的啤酒中乙醛含量为2.86 mg/L,降低了76%;且高级醇总量降低而酯含量升高,风味更加协调.这表明筛选得到的低乙醛突变株适于啤酒工业生产.

  1. 以啤酒废酵母为原料生产优质酵母提取物%Study on Processing Technology of High-quality Yeast Extract Based on Spent Brewer's Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任光辉; 王德良; 林智平; 郭立芸; 苏东海

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The study focused on a kind of high-quality yeast extract processing technology based on spent brew- er' s yeast. The process included removal of impurity, debittering, enzymolysis, concentration and spray dehydration, after which a kind of light yellow yeast extract powder with well water-solubility can be obtained. During the process, 71.00% of raw yeast' s total amount, which be measured by absolutely dry weight, came into the final product, andthe percent for crude protein was 85.55%. Analysis result ot the product snowed mat lotJ g yeast extract eonta~neu 52.90 g crude protein, 26.48 g Carbohydrate, 0.20 g fat, 11.08 g ash and 9.34 g dietary fiber. What' s more, free amino acids and oligopeptide was the main form of nitrogen in the yeast extract, and it will be of great important po- tential material for health-care food.%研究了以啤酒生产中废弃酵母为原料的优质酵母提取物制备工艺。啤酒废酵母经除杂、洗涤脱苦、细胞破碎、蛋白水解、浓缩干燥等加工程序,获得一种水溶性良好、淡黄色、粉末状酵母提取物产品。该产品的原料利用率为71.00%,粗蛋白利用率为85.55%。100 g绝干酵母提取物含有粗蛋白52.90 g、膳食纤维9.34 g、灰分11.08 g、脂肪0.20 g、碳水化合物26.48 g,其中粗蛋白主要以游离氨基酸和低聚肽形式存在。

  2. Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D.K.; Armbruster, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Many of the known recoverable coal reserves in the Western United States occur within the breeding and wintering range of the Brewer's sparrow. Although the species is common throughout much of its breeding range, local and regional populations may be adversely affected due to mining-related disturbances and habitat loss. The species may serve as a valuable indicator of the impacts of surface-mining activities because it is restricted primarily to the sagebrush type during the breeding season and is known to be sensitive to habitat change. Recommendations for mitigating impacts focus on minimizing disturbance during the breeding season and re-establishing preferred native vegetation on mined sites. Monitoring populations on and adjacent to mine sites will give a better understanding of the effects of disturbance and the success of mitigation efforts.

  3. 77 FR 72999 - Small Brewers Bond Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... publishing a temporary rule that for a period of three years modifies the penal sum for a brewer's bond where... calendar year. Under the temporary rule, for the next three years, the penal sum of the required bond is $1... proposes to adopt the $1,000 penal sum amount for the brewer's bond for such brewers as a...

  4. The manometric determination of thiamine pyrophosphate and the inhibition of the acid yeast phosphatase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyn-Parvé, Elizabeth P.

    1962-01-01

    Sodium molybdate is a powerful inhibitor of the acid yeast phosphatase in both fresh baker's yeast and dried brewer's yeast, provided that the yeast is suspended in a suitable buffer. It displays no action in citrate or phosphate buffers, but is active in acetate or maleate buffers, both at the opti

  5. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  6. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  7. Catalysis of acetoin formation by brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, J T; Washabaugh, M W

    1993-12-14

    Catalysis of C(alpha)-proton transfer from 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)thiamin diphosphate (HETDP) by pyruvate decarboxylase isozymes (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis was investigated by determining the steady-state kinetics of the reaction of [1-L]acetaldehyde (L = H, D, or T) to form acetoin and the primary kinetic isotope effects on the reaction. The PDC isozyme mixture and alpha 4 isozyme (alpha 4-PDC) have different steady-state kinetic parameters and isotope effects for acetoin formation in the presence and absence of the nonsubstrate allosteric effector pyruvamide: pyruvamide activation occurs by stabilization of the acetaldehyde/PDC ternary complex. The magnitudes of primary L(V/K)-type (L = D or T) isotope effects on C(alpha)-proton transfer from alpha 4-PDC-bound HETDP provide no evidence for significant breakdown of the Swain-Schaad relationship that would indicate partitioning of the putative C(alpha)-carbanion/enamine intermediate between HETDP and products. The substrate concentration dependence of the deuterium primary kinetic isotope effects provides evidence for an intrinsic isotope effect of 4.1 for C(alpha)-proton transfer from alpha 4-PDC-bound HETDP. A 1.10 +/- 0.02-fold 14C isotope discrimination against [1,2-14C]acetaldehyde in acetoin formation is inconsistent with a stepwise mechanism, in which the addition step occurs after rate-limiting formation of the C(alpha)-carbanion/enamine as a discrete enzyme-bound intermediate, and provides evidence for a concerted reaction mechanism with an important component of carbon-carbon bond formation in the transition state.

  8. Application of hybrid yeasts for molasses fermentation during the production of alcohol and bakers' yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raev, Z.A.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Korobkova, L.A.; Sadovnikova, T.A.; Bespalaya, M.K.

    1973-01-01

    Various hybrids of brewers yeasts were studied and their technological properties established. It was shown that hybrid 75 was suitable for increasing alcohol yields from molasses. Hybrid 112 was suitable for increasing the maltase activity of bakers' yeast. Efficient exploitation of the above properties of yeast hybrids may be achieved in a 2 stage molasses fermentation process developed at the Ukrainian Res. Inst. of Distillery Ind. The method is based on 2-stage yeast addition: strain B yeasts in the 1st stage and an appropriate hybrid in the second.

  9. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a...

  10. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Edward D; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers' yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers' yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer's yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers' yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers' yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed "Vegemite Beer" would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings.

  11. Analysis of the hybrid genomes of brewing yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolat, I.

    2016-01-01

    One of the best guarded secrets of brewers is represented by the brewing yeast employed in beer fermentation, due to its profound impact upon the specific flavour profile of the final product. The current research tackles the genome diversity of lager brewing strains as well as their impact on impor

  12. Digestibility and bioavailability of phosphorus from spray-dried yeasts in the diet of starting pigs (15-30 kg)

    OpenAIRE

    Peñuela Sierra,Lina Maria; Moreira,Ivan; Furlan,Antonio Claudio; Carvalho,Paulo Levi de Oliveira; Poveda Parra,Ângela Rocio; Oliveira,Gisele Cristina de

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the bioavailability of phosphorus in two spray-dried yeasts - sugarcane yeast (SCY), and sugarcane yeast + brewer's yeast (SCBY) - in starting pigs, by comparing different methods (Apparent Digestibility Coefficient of Phosphorus - ADCP; True Digestibility Coefficient of Phosphorus - TDCP; slope ratio; and standard curve). In experiment I, a digestibility assay were carried out using 30 cross breed pig with initial weigh of 22.69 ± 4.24kg, allotte...

  13. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article announces the 2007 recipient of the Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Baron Perlman. A brief biography, highlighting areas of special focus in Perlman's work, is provided.

  14. Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as alternative culture medium substrates for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pires do Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands were detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70, 100, 116 and 212 kDa. The results obtained suggest an opportunity for exploring this alternative strategy for proteinases production by actinomycetes, using BSG and CSL as economically feasible substrates.

  15. Assessment and characterisation of yeast-based products intended to mitigate ochratoxin exposure using in vitro and in vivo models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A; Hadjeba-Medjdoub, K; Ballet, N; Schrickx, J; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the capacity of several yeast-based products, derived from baker's and brewer's yeasts, to sequester the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) and to decrease its rate of absorption and DNA adduct formation in vivo. The experimental protocol included in vitro binding stu

  16. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenbacher, E G; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1980-11-01

    Twenty-four volunteers, mean age 78, including eight mildly non-insulin-dependent diabetics, were randomly allocated to one of two groups and were fed (daily for 8 wk) 9 g of either chromium-rich brewers' yeast (experimental) or chromium-poor torula yeast (control). Before and after yeast supplementation, the serum glucose and insulin response to 100 g oral glucose was measured at 30 min intervals for 2 h. Fasting serum cholesterol, total lipids, and triglycerides were also determined. In the total experimental group (normals + diabetics) and in both the diabetic and nondiabetic experimental subgroups, glucose tolerance improved significantly and insulin output decreased after supplementation. Cholesterol and total lipids fell significantly after supplementation in the total experimental group. The cholesterol decrease was particularly marked in hypercholesterolemic subjects (cholesterol > 300 mg/dl). In the control group, no significant change in glucose tolerance, insulin, triglycerides, or total lipids was found. Cholesterol was significantly lowered in the nondiabetic but not in the diabetic group. Thus, chromium-rich brewers' yeast improved glucose tolerance and total lipids in elderly subjects, while chromium-poor torula yeast did not. An improvement in insulin sensitivity also occurred with brewers' yeast supplementation. This supports the thesis that elderly people may have a low level of chromium and that an effective source for chromium repletion, such as brewers' yeast, may improve their carbohydrate tolerance and total lipids. The improvement in serum cholesterol in some control subjects, as well as in the total experimental group, also suggests the presence of a hypocholesterolemic factor other than chromium in both brewers' and torula yeast.

  17. Yeast Genomics for Bread, Beer, Biology, Bucks and Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharkar, Kishore R.; Sakharkar, Meena K.

    The rapid advances and scale up of projects in DNA sequencing dur ing the past two decades have produced complete genome sequences of several eukaryotic species. The versatile genetic malleability of the yeast, and the high degree of conservation between its cellular processes and those of human cells have made it a model of choice for pioneering research in molecular and cell biology. The complete sequence of yeast genome has proven to be extremely useful as a reference towards the sequences of human and for providing systems to explore key gene functions. Yeast has been a ‘legendary model’ for new technologies and gaining new biological insights into basic biological sciences and biotechnology. This chapter describes the awesome power of yeast genetics, genomics and proteomics in understanding of biological function. The applications of yeast as a screening tool to the field of drug discovery and development are highlighted and the traditional importance of yeast for bakers and brewers is discussed.

  18. Bioavailibility of selenium from fish, yeast and selenate: a comparative study in humans using stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, T.E.; Heuvel, van den E.G.H.M.; Atherton, C.A.; Luten, J.B.; Hoek-van Nieuwenhuizen, van M.; Kotterman, M.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To measure the bioavailability of selenium from cooked and raw fish in humans by estimating and comparing apparent absorption and retention of selenium in biosynthetically labelled fish with labelled selenate and biosynthetically labelled selenium in brewers yeast. Design: The interventio

  19. Horizontal gene transfer promoted evolution of the ability to propagate under anaerobic conditions in yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gojkovic, Zoran; Knecht, Wolfgang; Warneboldt, J.;

    2004-01-01

    The ability to propagate under anaerobic conditions is an essential and unique trait of brewer's or baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cervisiae). To understand the evolution of facultative anaerobiosis we studied the dependence of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, more precisely the fourth enzymic...... a bacterial gene for DHODase, which subsequently allowed cell growth gradually to become independent of oxygen....

  20. Bioavailability of selenium from fish, yeast and selenate: A comparative study in humans using stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, T.E.; Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Atherton, C.A.; Dainty, J.R.; Lewis, D.J.; Langford, N.J.; Crews, H.M.; Luten, J.B.; Lorentzen, M.; Sieling, F.W.; Aken-Schneyder, P. van; Hoek, M.; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Dael, P. van; Firweather-Tail, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To measure the bioavailability of selenium from cooked and raw fish in humans by estimating and comparing apparent absorption and retention of selenium in biosynthetically labelled fish with labelled selenate and biosynthetically labelled selenium in brewers yeast. Design: The interventio

  1. Charles L. Brewer award for distinguished teaching of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2010 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Bernard C. Beins. This article recognizes his life achievement in the area of psychology.

  2. Protease-induced solubilisation of carbohydrates from brewers' spent grain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faulds, C.B.; Collins, S.; Robertson, J.A.; Treimo, J.; Eijsink, V.G.H.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Schols, H.A.; Buchert, J.; Waldron, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of microbial proteases on the release of carbohydrates from BSG was studied. The proteases were able to release the non-cellulosic glucose, a portion of feruloylated arabinoxylan and over 50% of the protein from brewers' spent grain (BSG) after 24 h hydrolysis. The non-cellulosic glucose

  3. Hydrolysis of Brewers' Spent Grain by Carbohydrate Degrading Enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forssell, P.; Kontkanen, H.; Schols, H.A.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Eijsink, V.G.H.; Treimo, J.; Robertson, J.A.; Waldron, K.W.; Faulds, C.B.; Buchert, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this work four commercial cellulase-hemicellulase mixtures with different activity profiles were used for solubilization of carbohydrates from brewers' spent grain (BSG). After the enzyme treatment, both the solubilised fraction and the unhydrolysed residue were characterized. Treatment with 5,00

  4. 27 CFR 25.173 - Brewer in default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brewer in default. 25.173 Section 25.173 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... consumption or sale or taken from the brewery for consumption or sale until the tax has been prepaid...

  5. High-gravity brewing: effects of nutrition on yeast composition, fermentative ability, and alcohol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, G P; Magnus, C A; Ingledew, W M

    1984-09-01

    A number of economic and product quality advantages exist in brewing when high-gravity worts of 16 to 18% dissolved solids are fermented. Above this level, production problems such as slow or stuck fermentations and poor yeast viability occur. Ethanol toxicity has been cited as the main cause, as brewers' yeasts are reported to tolerate only 7 to 9% (vol/vol) ethanol. The inhibitory effect of high osmotic pressure has also been implicated. In this report, it is demonstrated that the factor limiting the production of high levels of ethanol by brewing yeasts is actually a nutritional deficiency. When a nitrogen source, ergosterol, and oleic acid are added to worts up to 31% dissolved solids, it is possible to produce beers up to 16.2% (vol/vol) ethanol. Yeast viability remains high, and the yeasts can be repitched at least five times. Supplementation does not increase the fermentative tolerance of the yeasts to ethanol but increases the length and level of new yeast cell mass synthesis over that seen in unsupplemented wort (and therefore the period of more rapid wort attenuation). Glycogen, protein, and sterol levels in yeasts were examined, as was the importance of pitching rate, temperature, and degree of anaerobiosis. The ethanol tolerance of brewers' yeast is suggested to be no different than that of sake or distillers' yeast.

  6. Hydrothermal decomposition of yeast cells for production of proteins and amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoolphak, Wiwat; Goto, Motonobu; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Suphantharika, Manop; Muangnapoh, Chirakarn; Prommuag, Chattip; Shotipruk, Artiwan

    2006-10-11

    This study examines hydrothermal decomposition of Baker's yeast cells, used as a model for spent Brewer's yeast waste, into protein and amino acids. The reaction was carried out in a closed batch reactor at various temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C. The reaction products were separated into water-soluble and solid residue. The results demonstrated that the amount of yeast residue decreased with increasing hydrolysis temperature. After 20 min reaction in water at 250 degrees C, 78% of yeast was decomposed. The highest amount of protein produced was also obtained at this condition and was found to be 0.16 mg/mg dry yeast. The highest amount of amino acids (0.063 mg/mg dry yeast) was found at the lowest temperature tested after 15 min. The hydrolysis product obtained at 200 degrees C was tested as a nutrient source for yeast growth. The growth of yeast cells in the culture medium containing 2 w/v% of this product was comparable to that of the cells grown in the medium containing commercial yeast extract at the same concentration. These results demonstrated the feasibility of using subcritical water to potentially decompose proteinaceous waste such as spent Brewer's yeast while recovering more useful products.

  7. Brewer spectrometer total ozone column measurements in Sodankylä

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Tomi; Lakkala, Kaisa; Karhu, Juha M.; Heikkinen, Pauli; Kivi, Rigel; Kyrö, Esko

    2016-06-01

    Brewer total ozone column measurements started in Sodankylä in May 1988, 9 months after the signing of The Montreal Protocol. The Brewer instrument has been well maintained and frequently calibrated since then to produce a high-quality ozone time series now spanning more than 25 years. The data have now been uniformly reprocessed between 1988 and 2014. The quality of the data has been assured by automatic data rejection rules as well as by manual checking. Daily mean values calculated from the highest-quality direct sun measurements are available 77 % of time with up to 75 measurements per day on clear days. Zenith sky measurements fill another 14 % of the time series and winter months are sparsely covered by moon measurements. The time series provides information to survey the evolution of Arctic ozone layer and can be used as a reference point for assessing other total ozone column measurement practices.

  8. Fractionation and Characterization of Brewers' Spent Grain Protein Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Celus, Inge; BRIJS, Kristof; Delcour, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates with a low and high degree of hydrolysis were enzymatically produced from brewers' spent grain (BSG), the insoluble residue of barley malt resulting from the manufacture of wort in the production of beer. To that end, BSG protein concentrate (BPC), prepared by alkaline extraction of BSG and subsequent acid precipitation, was enzymatically hydrolyzed with Alcalase during both 1.7 and 120 min. Because these hydrolysates contained many different peptides, fractionation of th...

  9. Ronnie Brewer 快红新生代9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Husky

    2008-01-01

    经过一年在板凳上见习观摩,以及季前暑假努力自我加强之后,爵士队在2006年选进的布鲁尔(Ronnie Brewer )本季一开始就脱胎换骨大跃进,成为得分后卫固定先发。

  10. Fermentation efficiency of cells immobilized on delignified brewers' spent grains after low- and high-temperature thin layer thermal drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaousi, Konstantina; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Bekatorou, Argyro; Loukatos, Paul

    2010-09-01

    Low-cost dried yeasts immobilized on delignified brewers' spent grains for use in wine making and brewing were produced by simple thermal drying techniques. To optimize the thermal drying process, vacuum and air stream conditions were examined. Drying of thin layers of the biocatalysts was performed at low (30-38 degrees C) and high temperatures (40-70 degrees C). The fermentation efficiency of the thermally dried biocatalysts was acceptable, with immobilized cells showing a significantly higher thermotolerance compared with free cells. Immobilized cells dried at high temperatures presented slightly improved glucose fermentation efficiency compared with the low-temperature dried biocatalysts. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of aroma volatiles of the fermented products revealed an increase of esters, lower higher alcohol formation, and significantly lower concentration of carbonylic compounds.

  11. Effects of brewers` condensed solubles (BCS) on the production of ethanol from low-grade starch materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.H.; Chung, D.S.; Seib, P.A. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Yeast fermentation was performed on grain and bakery byproducts with and without adding the same volume of brewers` condensed solubles (BCS). Starch material in the grain and bakery byproducts effectively was converted to fermentable sugars with conversion ratios of 93-97% by successive treatments of samples with bacterial {alpha}-amylase and fungal glucoamylase. The yeast fermentation of these enzyme-digested byproducts alone showed that ethanol concentrations of 16.4-42.7 mL/100 g dry solid in the broth were achieved with fermentation efficiencies of 87-96%. Addition of BCS to the grain byproducts increased ethanol concentration by 10-86% by increasing the potential glucose content of the broth. The rates of fermentation measured by CO{sub 2} gas production demonstrated that BCS addition to bakery byproducts reduced the fermentation time from 62-72 h to 34-35 h. In bakery byproducts that were low in amino nitrogen, exhaustion of nitrogenous compounds in substrates was found to be a limiting factor for yeast growth. Because BCS is a rich source of nitrogen, adding BCS to these substrates markedly increased the fermentation rate. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Reduction of hepatic lipid deposition in laying hens by dietary selenium-yeast interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, D V; Jensen, L S

    1979-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effect of chromiun and selenium on liver lipid deposition and incidence of liver hemorrhage in caged layers. Commercial strains of layers were fed ad libitum equicaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Corn-torula dried yeast diets containing added selenium (.1 microgram/g) with or without supplementary chromium (10 microgram/g) significantly reduced total liver lipid and liver hemorrhage. The effects of protein source (soybean meal vs. yeast) and selenium were separated in a factorial experiment which showed that the hepatic lipid response to selenium results from an interaction of selenium with an unidentified factor in torula yeast. The addition of selenium to diets with each protein source significantly elevated glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity. Inclusion of 5% brewers yeast in the corn-soy diet or vitamin E (50 IU/kg) to the corn-torula dried yeast reduced liver lipid similar to that seen in birds fed the torula-yeast diet containing .1 microgram Se/g. Comparison of oral glucose tolerance of birds fed corn-soy and corn-soy brewers yeast diets showed no significant difference. None of the dietary treatments significantly altered body weight, egg production, egg weight, or feed consumption. The results indicate that the metabolic role of selenium in relation to its role in hepatic lipid metabolism is mediated through an interaction with a dietary factor(s) present in yeast.

  13. Ethanol tolerance in yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, G P; Ingledew, W M

    1986-01-01

    It is now certain that the inherent ethanol tolerance of the Saccharomyces strain used is not the prime factor regulating the level of ethanol that can be produced in a high sugar brewing, wine, sake, or distillery fermentation. In fact, in terms of the maximum concentration that these yeasts can produce under batch (16 to 17% [v/v]) or fed-batch conditions, there is clearly no difference in ethanol tolerance. This is not to say, however, that under defined conditions there is no difference in ethanol tolerance among different Saccharomyces yeasts. This property, although a genetic determinant, is clearly influenced by many factors (carbohydrate level, wort nutrition, temperature, osmotic pressure/water activity, and substrate concentration), and each yeast strain reacts to each factor differently. This will indeed lead to differences in measured tolerance. Thus, it is extremely important that each of these be taken into consideration when determining "tolerance" for a particular set of fermentation conditions. The manner in which each alcohol-related industry has evolved is now known to have played a major role in determining traditional thinking on ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces yeasts. It is interesting to speculate on how different our thinking on ethanol tolerance would be today if sake fermentations had not evolved with successive mashing and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of rice carbohydrate, if distillers' worts were clarified prior to fermentation but brewers' wort were not, and if grape skins with their associated unsaturated lipids had not been an integral part of red wine musts. The time is now ripe for ethanol-related industries to take advantage of these findings to improve the economies of production. In the authors' opinion, breweries could produce higher alcohol beers if oxygenation (leading to unsaturated lipids) and "usable" nitrogen source levels were increased in high gravity worts. White wine fermentations could also, if

  14. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Brewers' Spent Grain Arabinoxylans

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, M. A. M.; Saraiva, J.; Coimbra,M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Brewers´ spent grain (BSG) is a by-product from beer industry that can be exploited as a source of arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) with prebiotic activity. In this study, microwave-assisted extractions were performed during 2 min at 140-210°Cin order to evaluate the feasibility of this extraction technology for quantitative extraction of the arabinoxylans (AX) or AXOS from BSG. The AX yield increasedwith the increase of the temperature in the range used. The best condition...

  15. LIVE/DEAD YEAST VIABILITY STAINING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING ARTISANAL PILSNER BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Bottari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of an artisanal beer, made by brewers using traditional practices on a small scale, is founded on the empirical adjustment of parameters, including yeasts handling and serial repitching. The aim of this study was to monitor yeast viability during different stages of artisanal beer productions through the Live/Dead Yeast viability staining and to correlate it with fermentation dynamics in order to increase process standardization and to maintain the quality of final products. Yeast viability and fermentation activities were evaluated during seven fermentation cycles of an artisanal pilsner beer. Yeast inoculated with higher viability performed generally better in fermentation, resulting in faster sugar consumption, faster ethanol production and stability. Handling yeast and serial repitching based on Live/Dead viability measurements, could be the key way to ensure reliable manufacture of high quality beer and to improve process standardization particularly for microbreweries, where variability of production can be a challenging point.

  16. Temperature profiles of ethanol tolerance: effects of ethanol on the minimum and the maximum temperatures for growth of the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces fragilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa-Correia, I.; Van Uden, N.

    1983-06-01

    Difficulties experienced by brewers with yeast performance in the brewing of lager at low temperatures has led the authors to study the effect of ethanol on the minimum temperature for growth (T. min). It has been found that both the maximum temperature (T max) and T min were adversely affected by ethanol and that ethanol tolerance prevailed at intermediate temperatures. (Refs. 8).

  17. Closure of the Brewer Gold Mine by pit backfilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis-Russ, A.; Lupo, J.F. [Titan Environmental Corp., Englewood, CO (United States); Bronson, J.M. [Titan Environmental Corp., Tempe, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Brewer Gold Mine, located in north-central South Carolina, is implementing an innovative reclamation plan that includes backfilling the main Brewer open pit with mine waste. The primary goals of the closure are to reduce acid rock drainage and minimize or eliminate long-term operation and maintenance requirements by restoring the site property to approximate pre-mining topography. The plan calls for consolidation of approximately 200 acres of waste into approximately 20 hectares (50 acres). Much of the material to be backfilled into the pit, including spent heap leach material and waste rock, has acid-generating potential. Therefore, the backfill design integrated geochemical properties of the backfill materials with expected post-closure conditions. A prime consideration was the final position of the water table. Since mining at the site started in the early 1800`s, no records exist of the original groundwater levels. Therefore, the design incorporates a large anoxic limestone drain to control the final groundwater level. Additional amendments are to be placed in targeted areas of the backfill to maximize their utilization. A low-permeability cap system that includes a GEOSYNTHETIC clay liner has been designed to limit infiltration into the backfill.

  18. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers' Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers' spent grain (BSG) into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours) when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT) or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46%) glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g), 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L) obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source.

  19. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers' Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers' spent grain (BSG) into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours) when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT) or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46%) glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g), 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L) obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source. PMID:26640784

  20. Intercomparison of aerosol optical depth from Brewer ozone spectrophotometers and CIMEL sunphotometers measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cheymol

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Langley plot method applied on the Brewer Ozone measurements can provide accurate Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD in the UV-B. We present seven intercomparisons between AOD retrieved from Brewer Ozone measurements and AOD measured by CIMEL sunphotometer, which are stored in the international AERONET database. Only the intercomparisons between co-located instruments can be used to validate the Langley Plot method applied to the Brewer measurements: in this case, all the correlation coefficient are above 0.83. If the instruments are not at the same site, the correlation between the AOD retrieved by both instruments is much lower.

  1. The biotransformation of brewer's spent grain into biogas by anaerobic microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhova, Dina V; Egorova, Maria A; Prokudina, Ljuba I; Netrusov, Alexander I; Tsavkelova, Elena A

    2015-12-01

    The present study reports on the biotransformation of the brewer's spent grain (BSG) in co-digestion with Jerusalem artichoke (JA, Helianthus tuberosus L.) phytomass by thermophilic (+55 °C) and mesophilic (+30 °C) anaerobic methanogenic communities. BSG is a by-product of the beer-brewing process generated in large amounts, in which utilization provokes a negative effect on the environment. In this study, we will show an effective conversion of BSG into biogas by selected microbial communities, obtained from different sources (animal manure and previously isolated microbial consortia). The stimulation of methanogenesis was reached by the co-digestion of JA's phytomass (stem and leaves). The optimized conditions for microbial stable cultivation included the use of nutrient medium, containing yeast extract and trace element solution. The optimal BSG concentration in biogas production was 50 and 100 g L(-1). Under thermophilic conditions, the maximum total methane production reached 64%, and it comprised around 6-8 and 9-11 of L CH4 per 100 g of fermented BSG without and with co-digested JA, respectively, when the fresh inoculum was added. Although, after a year of re-cultivation, the values reduced to around 6-7, and 6-10 L CH4/100 g BSG, correspondingly, the selected microbial communities showed effective biotransformation of BSG. The supplementation of soil with the residual fermented BSG (10%, w/w) resulted in the promotion of lettuce (Lepidium sativum L.) growth. The results obtained demonstrate a potential for complete BSG utilization via biogas production and application as a soil additive.

  2. Mechanism of reconstitution of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase with thiamin diphosphate and magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, J A; Crane, E J; Harris, T K; Washabaugh, M W

    1995-10-01

    Reconstitution of apo-pyruvate decarboxylase isozymes (PDC, EC 4.1.1.1) from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis was investigated by determination of the steady-state kinetics of the reaction with thiamin diphosphate (TDP) and Mg2+ in the presence and absence of substrate (pyruvate) or allosteric effector (pyruvamide). Reconstitution of the PDC isozyme mixture and alpha 4 isozyme (alpha 4-PDC) exhibits biphasic kinetics with 52 +/- 11% of the PDC reacting with k1 = (1.0 +/- 0.3) x 10(-2) s-1 and 48 +/- 12% of the PDC reacting with k2 = (1.1 +/- 0.6) x 10(-1) s-1 when TDP (KTDP = 0.5 +/- 0.2 mM) is added to apo-PDC equilibrated with saturating Mg2+. PDC reconstitution exhibits first-order kinetics with k1 = (1.6 +/- 0.5) x 10(-2) s-1 upon addition of Mg2+ (KMg2+ = 0.2 +/- 0.1 mM) to apo-PDC equilibrated with saturating TDP. Biphasic kinetics for the PDC isozymes provides evidence that apo-PDC reconstitution with TDP and Mg2+ involves two pathways, TDP binding followed by Mg2+ (k1) or Mg2+ binding followed by TDP (k2). This is supported by a change in reconstitution pathway with the order of cofactor addition and is inconsistent with a single pathway involving ordered binding of the metal ion followed by TDP. The presence of pyruvamide has no significant effect on the rate constants for apo-PDC reconstitution and favors the k2 pathway; pyruvate decreases the value of k2 < or = 3-fold and has no effect on the value of k1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Solvent-derived protons in catalysis by brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T K; Washabaugh, M W

    1995-10-31

    Catalysis of proton transfer to thiamin diphosphate (TDP) and 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)thiamin diphosphate (HETDP) by pyruvate decarboxylase isozymes (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis was investigated by determining the solvent discrimination tritium isotope effect, (kH/kT)disc, on the reaction of pyruvate to form acetaldehyde in the presence of the nonsubstrate allosteric effector pyruvamide. The fractionation factors for TDP C(2)-L (phi C(2) = 0.98 +/- 0.06) and HETDP C(alpha)-L (phi C(alpha) = 1.01 +/- 0.07) (L = H or D) do not contribute significantly to observed enzymic isotopic discrimination. The value of (kH/kT)disc = 1.0 for reprotonation of TDP C(2)-L under single-turnover conditions ([E] > [S]) is consistent with C(2)-hydron transfer via a catalytic group (phi = 1) equilibrated with solvent. [1-L]Acetaldehyde formation under transient steady-state ([E] or = 1.2) provides significant intramolecular catalysis in the enzyme-bound coenzyme.

  4. The optothermal approach to a real time monitoring of glucose content during fermentation by brewers' yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, J P; Bicanic, D; Helander, P; van Iersel, M

    1997-06-01

    During production of both normal and low-alcohol beers, sugar is fermented to ethanol, carbon dioxide and several flavour products. Tight control of fermentation is necessary in order to keep production costs low, and to prevent formation of excessive ethanol in low-alcohol beer. Several types of control devices based on, e.g., determination of carbon dioxide, ethanol, and extract have been developed so far; the main disadvantage of these devices is their unsuitability for on-line applications. Here, the optothermal window was used in a laboratory experiment as a new sensor for real time monitoring fermentation of glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the results were compared to those obtained by conventional techniques.

  5. THE VITAMIN B(1) AND B(2) G CONTENT OF LIVER EXTRACT AND BREWERS' YEAST CONCENTRATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D K; Rhoads, C P

    1934-02-28

    1. Liver extract powder, No. 343 Lilly, and the same material prepared for parenteral use, when administered daily by mouth in amounts derived from 2.5 gm. of fresh whole liver, to rats weighing from 40 to 50 gm., contain sufficient vitamin B(1) to support normal growth, provided the animals receive in addition an adequate amount of vitamin B(2) G. Moreover, liver extract in the forms mentioned, administered in the same amounts, does not contain sufficient vitamin B(2) G to maintain normal growth of similar rate when all other necessary constituents of the diet are provided. 2. Liver extract (Lilly) in the form prepared for parenteral use, when administered daily by intraperitoneal injections, in amounts derived from 2.5 gm. of fresh whole liver, to rats under standard experimental conditions, does not contain sufficient vitamin B(2) G to maintain normal growth. Furthermore, the amount of vitamin B(1) present in liver extract in this form is not as effective in supporting normal growth when given by intraperitoneal injection as it is when given by mouth. 3. Vegex, when administered daily in amounts of 50, 150, and 250 mg. to rats of 40 to 50 gm. in weight contains sufficient vitamin B(1) to maintain normal growth of the rats, provided the animals receive in addition an adequate amount of vitamin B(2) G. However, vegex in the same amounts does not contain sufficient vitamin B(2) G to support normal growth of similar rats when all other necessary constituents of the diet are provided. 4. These experiments indicate that the extrinsic, anti-anemic factor of Castle and the thermostable growth-promoting food constituent, commonly known as vitamin B(2) G, are not identical.

  6. Antiproliferation and induction of cell death of Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) extract fermented by brewer malt waste on breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Ivy Tuang Ngo; Chui, Chung Hin; Tang, Johnny Cheuk On; Lau, Fung Yi; Cheng, Gregory Yin Ming; Wong, Raymond Siu Ming; Kok, Stanton Hon Lung; Cheng, Chor Hing; Chan, Albert Sun Chi; Ho, Kwok Ping

    2005-11-01

    Astaxanthin has been shown to have antiproliferative activity on breast cancer and skin cancer cells. However, the high cost of production, isolation and purification of purified astaxanthin from natural sources or chemically synthetic methods limit its usage on cancer therapy. We show that astaxanthin could be produced by fermentating the Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) yeast cells with brewer malt waste using a 20 L B. Braun fermentor. The percentage composition of astaxanthin from the P. rhodozyma was >70% of total pigment as estimated by the high performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Furthermore, the antiproliferative activity of this P. rhodozyma cell extract (PRE) was demonstrated on breast cancer cell lines including the MCF-7 (estrogen receptor positive) and MDA-MB231 (estrogen receptor negative) by using the [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-arboxymethoxyphenyl)-2- (4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] (MTS) assay. No apoptotic cell death, but growth inhibitory effect was induced after 48 h of PRE incubation as suggested by morphological investigation. Anchorage-dependent clonogenicity assay showed that PRE could reduce the colony formation potential of both breast cancer cell lines. Cell death was observed from both breast cancer cell lines after incubation with PRE for 6 days. Taken together, our results showed that by using an economic method of brewer malt waste fermentation, we obtained P. rhodozyma with a high yield of astaxanthin and the corresponding PRE could have short-term growth inhibition and long-term cell death activity on breast cancer cells.

  7. Genetic and physiological variants of yeast selected from palm wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeronye, O U; Okerentugba, P O

    2001-01-01

    Genetic screening of 1200-palm wine yeasts lead to the selection of fourteen isolates with various genetic and physiological properties. Nine of the isolates were identified as Saccharamyces species, three as Candida species, one as Schizosaccharomyces species and one as Kluyveromyces species. Five of the isolates were wild type parents, two were respiratory deficient mutants (rho) and nine were auxotrophic mutants. Four isolates were heterozygous diploid (alphaa) and two were homozygous diploid (aa/alphaalpha) for the mating a mating types were further identified on mating with type loci. Four Mat alpha and four Mat a types were further identified on mating with standard haploid yeast strains. Forty-five percent sporulated on starvation medium producing tetrads. Fifty-two percent of the four-spored asci contained four viable spores. Maximum specific growth rate [micromax] of the fourteen isolates range from 0.13-0.26, five isolates were able to utilize exogenous nitrate for growth. Percentage alcohol production range between 5.8-8.8% for palm wine yeast, 8.5% for bakers' yeast and 10.4% for brewers yeast. The palm wine yeast were more tolerant to exogenous alcohol but had a low alcohol productivity. Hybridization enhanced alcohol productivity and tolerance in the palm wine yeasts.

  8. Brewing yeast genomes and genome-wide expression and proteome profiling during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Katherine A

    2007-11-01

    The genome structure, ancestry and instability of the brewing yeast strains have received considerable attention. The hybrid nature of brewing lager yeast strains provides adaptive potential but yields genome instability which can adversely affect fermentation performance. The requirement to differentiate between production strains and assess master cultures for genomic instability has led to significant adoption of specialized molecular tool kits by the industry. Furthermore, the development of genome-wide transcriptional and protein expression technologies has generated significant interest from brewers. The opportunity presented to explore, and the concurrent requirement to understand both, the constraints and potential of their strains to generate existing and new products during fermentation is discussed.

  9. High-Gravity Brewing: Effects of Nutrition on Yeast Composition, Fermentative Ability, and Alcohol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Gregory P.; Magnus, Carol A.; Ingledew, W M

    1984-01-01

    A number of economic and product quality advantages exist in brewing when high-gravity worts of 16 to 18% dissolved solids are fermented. Above this level, production problems such as slow or stuck fermentations and poor yeast viability occur. Ethanol toxicity has been cited as the main cause, as brewers' yeasts are reported to tolerate only 7 to 9% (vol/vol) ethanol. The inhibitory effect of high osmotic pressure has also been implicated. In this report, it is demonstrated that the factor li...

  10. Ozone, spectral irradiance and aerosol measurements with the Brewer spectro radiometer; Misure di ozono, irradianza spettrale ultravioletta e aerosol con lo spettroradiometro Brewer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marenco, F.; Di Sarra, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In this technical report a detailed description of the Brewer spectro radiometer, a widespread instrument for ozone and ultraviolet radiation, is given. The methodologies used to measure these quantities and for instrument calibration are described in detail. Finally a new methodology, developed by ENEA to derive the aerosol optical depth from the Brewer routine total ozone measurements, is described. This methodology is based on Langley extrapolation, on the determination of the transmissivity of the Brewer neutral density filters, and on a statistically significant number of half days of measurements obtained in could-free conditions. Results of this method, obtained with the Brewer of the ENEA station for climate observations Roberto Sarao, located in the island of Lampedusa, are reported. These results confirm the validity of the method, thanks to independent measurements taken in 1999 with a Multi filter Rotating Shadow band Radiometer. This methodology allows researchers to obtain an aerosol climatology from ozone measurements obtained at several sites world-wide. [Italian] In questo rapporto tecnico viene fornita la descrizione dettagliata di uno strumento comunemente utilizzato per le misure di ozono e radiazione ultravioletta: lo spettroradiometro Brewer. Le metodologie usate per la misura di queste grandezze e per la calibrazione dello strumento vengono descritte in dettaglio. Infine, viene descritto una nuova metodologia, messa a punto dall'ENEA, per ricavare lo spessore ottico degli aerosol a partire dalle misure di ozono fatte normalmente dal Brewer. Questa metodologia si basa su di una calibrazione effettuata con il metodo dell' estrapolazione di Langley, sulla misura della trasmissivita' dei filtri a densita' neutra dello strumento, e su un numero statisticamente grande di mezze giornate di misure effettuate in assenza di nuvole. Sono riportati alcuni risultati della metodologia, ottenuti con il Brewer della Stazione per le

  11. Climate Change and the Brewer-Dobson Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, David

    1999-01-01

    Using GCM (General Circulation Model) simulations of the troposphere-stratosphere circulation in different climate regimes, the sensitivity of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation to climate change will be discussed. Included will be simulations of the stratosphere with increasing/doubled CO2 as done with different versions of the GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies) Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model, with and without ozone response. To put the results in a broader perspective, stratospheric circulation changes from several paleoclimate simulations will also be presented, including the Last Glacial Maximum and the Paleocene, each with several different (plausible) latitudinal sea surface temperature gradients. Hence the climate changes investigated will include strong variations in baroclinic and topographic tropospheric planetary wave and gravity wave forcing, as well as global mean temperature and atmospheric CO2 levels. Results will be analyzed in terms of wave driving via E-P flux convergences and gravity wave effects, and will be shown to be strongly dependent on wave propagation characteristics.

  12. Production of microbial enzymes using brewers spent grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, H.; Yamashita, H.; Yabuuchi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Brewers spent grain was used as the raw material for production of three extracellular enzymes, ..cap alpha..-amylase, alkaline protease, and lichenase, by Bacillus licheniformis. The basal medium was composed of wet spent grain (about 80% moisture) and 40 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 (1:5-10, w/v). For ..cap alpha..-amylase production by strain No. 18, 0.5% corn oil was added to the basal medium, and the maximum activity (66 units/ml) was found in the culture solution of the 4th day of incubation at 45 degrees C. Alkaline protease from strain H-9 was produced in the basal medium supplemented with 2 mM CaCL/sub 2/ and 10mM sodium citrate. The maximum activity during incubation at 35 degrees C was 7.2 units/ml on the 4th day. On the other hand, lichenase was produced sufficiently in the basal medium by strain Y-25, and the activity reached the level of 20 units/ml on the 3rd day of incubation at 30 degrees C. This enzyme preparation could also hydrolyze ..beta..-glucans from malt and beer. 15 references.

  13. Brewer's spent grain: a valuable feedstock for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussatto, Solange I

    2014-05-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG) is the most abundant by-product generated from the beer-brewing process, representing approximately 85% of the total by-products obtained. This material is basically constituted by the barley grain husks obtained as solid residue after the wort production. Since BSG is rich in sugars and proteins, the main and quickest alternative for elimination of this industrial by-product has been as animal feed. However, BSG is a raw material of interest for application in different areas because of its low cost, large availability throughout the year and valuable chemical composition. In the last decade, many efforts have been directed towards the reuse of BSG, taking into account the incentive that has been given to recycle the wastes and by-products generated by industrial activities. Currently, many interesting and advantageous methods for application of BSG in foods, in energy production and in chemical and biotechnological processes have been reported. The present study presents and discusses the most recent perspectives for BSG application in such areas.

  14. Ensiling of soybean curd residue and wet brewers grains with or without other feeds as a total mixed ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Nishino, N

    2008-06-01

    Wet brewers grains and soybean curd residue were stored in laboratory-scale silos without (BG and SC silages, respectively) or with other ingredients as total mixed rations (BGT and SCT silages, respectively). Silages were opened after 14 and 56 d, and microbial counts, fermentation products, and aerobic stability were determined. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was carried out to examine bacterial communities, and several bacteria that appeared to be involved in fermentation were identified. Lactic acid content was greater in SCT than in BGT silage, but lower in SC than in BG silage. Ethanol content was greater in BG than in SC regardless of silage type. Aerobic deterioration occurred promptly in ensiling materials (nonensiled by-products and total mixed ration mixtures) and in silages stored alone; however, SCT and BGT silages resisted deterioration and no heating was found for more than 5.5 d regardless of storage period. Silages were stable even with high yeast populations at silo opening, whereas prolonged ensiling decreased yeast counts in the 2 total mixed ration silages. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles appeared similar between SCT and BGT silages but not between SC and BG silages. Weissella spp. and Lactobacillus brevis were common in aerobically stable SCT and BGT silages, and Lactobacillus buchneri was detected only in BGT silage. Both L. brevis and L. buchneri were found in silage but not in ensiling materials. Several other lactic acid bacteria were also identified in SCT and BGT silages, but did not appear to be related to fermentation and aerobic stability.

  15. Intercomparison of Aerosol Optical Depth from Brewer Ozone spectrophotometers and CIMEL sunphotometers measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cheymol

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Langley plot method applied on the Brewer Ozone measurements can provide accurate Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD in the UV-B. We present seven intercomparisons between AOD retrieved from Brewer Ozone measurements at 320 nm and AOD measured by CIMEL sunphotometer at 340 nm or 440 nm (shifted to 320 nm in using the Angström's law, which are stored in the international AERONET database. Only the intercomparisons between co-located instruments can be used to validate the Langley Plot Method applied to the Brewer measurements: in this case, all the correlation coefficients are above 0.82. If the instruments are not at the same site, the correlation between the AOD retrieved by both instruments is much lower. In applying the Angström's law the intercomparison is improved compared to previous study.

  16. Fermentation applications of brewer' s spent grain%啤酒糟发酵应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹正; 陈力力; 王雅君; 廖杰琼

    2011-01-01

    啤酒糟是微生物发酵的良好基质,利用微生物发酵啤酒糟的用途非常广泛.啤酒糟的再利用,有利于保护生态环境和节约资源.综述了近年来国内外啤酒糟在酶制剂、动物饲料、活性物质、食品添加剂方面的发酵应用.%Brewer's spent grain was good resource for microorganism fermentation, which was widely utilized. Recycling brewer's spent grain was good for protecting ecological environment and saving resources. The applications of brewer's spent grain in enzyme preparation, animal feed, active substances and food additives from home and abroad were summarized.

  17. Synthesis Technology of PEI Modified Brewer's Grains for the Adsorption of Cr(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihua Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With beer production waste brewer's grains (BSG as the raw material, through polyethylenimine (PEI modified and glutaraldehyde (GA cross-linking process for preparing the modified brewer's grains biosorbents. The simulation of Cr (VI wastewater as treatment object, through the optimization of synthesis conditions of Cr (VI, the optimal synthesis process was obtained. The results showed, 4 g BSG and 100 mL 4% PEI methanol solution were placed in 250 mL conical flask at room temperature, shaking for 24 h. After the mixture,shifted to 200 mL l.5% GA solution directly, magnetic stirring for half an hour, the modified results of brewer’s grain was best. Under the optimal conditions, the average of adsorption rate was 98.82% and adsorption capacity was 45.31 mg/g. The modified brewer's grains of amine surfactant modified is a promising treatment of chromium wastewater biological materials.

  18. Influence of the ozone profile above Madrid (Spain) on Brewer estimation of ozone air mass factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, M. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Lopez, M.; Banon, M. [Agenica Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET), Madrid (Spain); Costa, M.J.; Silva, A.M. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Evora Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Physics; Serrano, A. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Bortoli, D. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Vilaplana, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Huelva (Spain). Estacion de Sondeos Atmosferico ' ' El Arenosillo' '

    2009-07-01

    The methodology used by Brewer spectroradiometers to estimate the ozone column is based on differential absorption spectroscopy. This methodology employs the ozone air mass factor (AMF) to derive the total ozone column from the slant path ozone amount. For the calculating the ozone AMF, the Brewer algorithm assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height of 22 km. However, for a real specific site the ozone presents a certain profile, which varies spatially and temporally depending on the latitude, altitude and dynamical conditions of the atmosphere above the site of measurements. In this sense, this work address the reliability of the mentioned assumption and analyses the influence of the ozone profiles measured above Madrid (Spain) in the ozone AMF calculations. The approximated ozone AMF used by the Brewer algorithm is compared with simulations obtained using the libRadtran radiative transfer model code. The results show an excellent agreement between the simulated and the approximated AMF values for solar zenith angle lower than 75 . In addition, the relative differences remain lower than 2% at 85 . These good results are mainly due to the fact that the altitude of the ozone layer assumed constant by the Brewer algorithm for all latitudes notably can be considered representative of the real profile of ozone above Madrid (average value of 21.7{+-}1.8 km). The operational ozone AMF calculations for Brewer instruments are limited, in general, to SZA below 80 . Extending the usable SZA range is especially relevant for Brewer instruments located at high mid-latitudes. (orig.)

  19. Retrieval of aerosol optical depth in the visible range with a Brewer spectrophotometer in Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diémoz, Henri; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Kazadzis, Stelios; Amiridis, Vassilis; Zerefos, Christos S.

    2016-04-01

    A MkIV Brewer spectrophotometer has been operating in Athens since 2004. Direct-sun measurements originally scheduled for nitrogen dioxide retrievals were reprocessed to provide aerosol optical depths (AODs) at a wavelength of about 440 nm. A novel retrieval algorithm was specifically developed and the resulting AODs were compared to those obtained from a collocated Cimel filter radiometer belonging to the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The series are perfectly correlated, with Pearson's correlation coefficients being as large as 0.996 and with 90 % of AOD deviations between the two instruments being within the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) traceability limits. In order to reach such a high agreement, several instrumental factors impacting the quality of the Brewer retrievals must be taken into account, including sensitivity to the internal temperature, and the state of the external optics and pointing accuracy must be carefully checked. Furthermore, the long-term radiometric stability of the Brewer was investigated and the performances of in situ Langley extrapolations as a way to track the absolute calibration of the Brewer were assessed. Other sources of error, such as slight shifts of the wavelength scale, are discussed and some recommendations to Brewer operators are drawn. Although MkIV Brewers are rarely employed to retrieve AODs in the visible range, they represent a key source of information about aerosol changes in the past three decades and a potential worldwide network for present and future coordinated AOD measurements. Moreover, a better understanding of the AOD retrieval at visible wavelengths will also contribute in improving similar techniques in the more challenging UV range.

  20. Influence of the ozone profile above Madrid (Spain) on Brewer estimation of ozone air mass factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, M.; López, M.; Costa, M. J.; Serrano, A.; Bortoli, D.; Bañón, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Silva, A. M.

    2009-08-01

    The methodology used by Brewer spectroradiometers to estimate the ozone column is based on differential absorption spectroscopy. This methodology employs the ozone air mass factor (AMF) to derive the total ozone column from the slant path ozone amount. For the calculating the ozone AMF, the Brewer algorithm assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height of 22 km. However, for a real specific site the ozone presents a certain profile, which varies spatially and temporally depending on the latitude, altitude and dynamical conditions of the atmosphere above the site of measurements. In this sense, this work address the reliability of the mentioned assumption and analyses the influence of the ozone profiles measured above Madrid (Spain) in the ozone AMF calculations. The approximated ozone AMF used by the Brewer algorithm is compared with simulations obtained using the libRadtran radiative transfer model code. The results show an excellent agreement between the simulated and the approximated AMF values for solar zenith angle lower than 75°. In addition, the relative differences remain lower than 2% at 85°. These good results are mainly due to the fact that the altitude of the ozone layer assumed constant by the Brewer algorithm for all latitudes notably can be considered representative of the real profile of ozone above Madrid (average value of 21.7±1.8 km). The operational ozone AMF calculations for Brewer instruments are limited, in general, to SZA below 80°. Extending the usable SZA range is especially relevant for Brewer instruments located at high mid-latitudes.

  1. Brewer-Dobson circulation diagnosed from JRA-55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki; Iwasaki, Toshiki

    2016-02-01

    We examine the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) in the lower stratosphere diagnosed from the Japanese 55 year Reanalysis (JRA-55) data set and compare it with the BDCs diagnosed from the other reanalyses (i.e., ERA-Interim and JRA-25), and JRA-55-related data sets (i.e., JRA-55C, created by assimilating only in situ observations, and JRA-55AMIP, a simulation by a prediction model). The climatological mean seasonal change of the BDC in JRA-55 is similar to that in ERA-Interim but considerably different from that in JRA-25. Dynamical and thermodynamical consistencies among the variables are greatly improved in the JRA-55 data set. The interannual variations of the annual mean tropical upwellings in JRA-55 are almost coincident with those in JRA-55C. It suggests that the weakly increasing trend of the BDC found in JRA-55 does not have anything to do with changes in the satellite observing system. The climatological mean tropical upwelling diagnosed from JRA-55 is stronger than that from JRA-55AMIP. This difference is presumed to partly link to the model's inability to simulate the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). The JRA-55AMIP data set, a simple simulation performed without data assimilation, does not simulate the QBO, whereas the JRA-55 data set represents the QBO with the aid of data assimilation. The climatological mean zonal mean states of JRA-55AMIP considerably deviate from those of JRA-55 in the lower stratosphere. The deviation of JRA-55AMIP is similar to the modulation pattern by the QBO in specific phase regions in which the BDC is rather weak. The simulated QBO might enhance the BDC and reduce the model biases in the tropical lower stratosphere.

  2. An "Alms-Basket" of "Bric-a-Brac": "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development and history of "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable," a reference source first published in 1870 that includes the etymology of phrases, allusions and words. Discusses reviews that reflected and shaped its status as a standard reference book, describes the current edition, and considers its enduring value. (LRW)

  3. An "Alms-Basket" of "Bric-a-Brac": "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development and history of "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable," a reference source first published in 1870 that includes the etymology of phrases, allusions and words. Discusses reviews that reflected and shaped its status as a standard reference book, describes the current edition, and considers its enduring value.…

  4. Yeast Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Matt; Powell, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Yeast are grown in a small, capped ask, generating carbon dioxide which is trapped in an inverted jar full of colored water. The volume of carbon dioxide produced can either be measured directly or using time-lapse imagery on an iPad or similar. Students are then challenged to model the resulting data. From this exercise students gain greater understand- ing of ODE compartment models, parameter estimation, population dynamics and limiting factors.

  5. Production response of lactating cows fed dried versus wet brewers' grain in diets with similar dry matter content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, T R; Bingham, H R; Radloff, H D

    2003-09-01

    Twenty-four Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (20 intact and 4 fitted with rumen cannula) during early lactation (56 +/- 25.3 d in milk) were assigned to two treatments to determine intake and production responses to feeding dried and wet brewers' grain. There were two cows fitted with a rumen cannula in each treatment. Cows were fed a total mixed ration twice daily containing either dried or wet brewers' grain at 15% of the dietary dry matter (DM). The diet contained 47% forage and 53% concentrate. The experimental design was a replicated 2 x 2 Latin square with two periods of 5 wk each. First 2 wk in each period were considered as adaptation to diets and data from the last 3 wk were used for treatment comparisons. Dried and wet brewers' diets contained 68.0 and 66.5% DM, respectively. Feeding brewers' grain dry or wet to dairy cows had no influence on feed intake (25.6 vs. 25.1 kg/d), fat corrected milk yield (40.1 vs. 40.7 kg/d), milk composition and feed consumption. The pH, ammonia, total volatile fatty acids and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids in the rumen fluid were not different between treatments. Fatty acid composition of milk fat from cows fed diets containing dry or wet brewers' grain was identical, except C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids were lower in milk fat from cows fed wet brewers' grain compared with dried brewers' grain. The results from the present study suggest that the performance of cows fed either dried or wet brewers' grain at 15% of dietary DM was similar when diets had the same DM. The average price for dried and wet brewers' grain in the United States from July 2001 to June 2002 was dollars 145.3 and dollars 96.9/metric tonne DM, respectively. Using wet instead of dried brewers' grain will save dollars 49/metric tonne minus the difference in storage costs. Wet brewers' grain can be fed to dairy cows in areas that are close to the brewery and provides nutritive value similar to the dried brewers' grain.

  6. Activated carbon from pyrolysis of brewer's spent grain: Production and adsorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanreppelen, Kenny; Vanderheyden, Sara; Kuppens, Tom; Schreurs, Sonja; Yperman, Jan; Carleer, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Brewer's spent grain is a low cost residue generated by the brewing industry. Its chemical composition (high nitrogen content 4.35 wt.%, fibres, etc.) makes it very useful for the production of added value in situ nitrogenised activated carbon. The composition of brewer's spent grain revealed high amounts of cellulose (20.8 wt.%), hemicellulose (48.78 wt.%) and lignin (11.3 wt.%). The fat, ethanol extractives and ash accounted for 8.17 wt.%, 4.7 wt.% and 3.2 wt.%, respectively. Different activated carbons were produced in a lab-scale pyrolysis/activation reactor by applying several heat and steam activation profiles on brewer's spent grain. Activated carbon yields from 16.1 to 23.6 wt.% with high N-contents (> 2 wt.%) were obtained. The efficiency of the prepared activated carbons for phenol adsorption was studied as a function of different parameters: pH, contact time and carbon dosage relative to two commercial activated carbons. The equilibrium isotherms were described by the non-linear Langmuir and Freundlich models, and the kinetic results were fitted using the pseudo-first-order model and the pseudo-second-order model. The feasibility of an activated carbon production facility (onsite and offsite) that processes brewer's spent grain for different input feeds is evaluated based on a techno-economic model for estimating the net present value. Even though the model assumptions start from a rather pessimistic scenario, encouraging results for a profitable production of activated carbon using brewer's spent grain are obtained.

  7. Comparison between Brewer spectrometer, M 124 filter ozonometer and Dobson spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feister, U.

    1994-01-01

    Concurrent measurements were taken using the Brewer spectrometer no. 30, the filter ozonometer M 124 no. 200 and the Dobson spectrophotometer no. 71 from September 1987 to December 1988 at Potsdam. The performance of the instrument types and the compatibility of ozone data was checked under the conditions of a field measuring station. Total ozone values derived from Dobson AD direct sun measurements were considered as standard. The Dobson instrument had been calibrated at intercomparisons with the World Standard Dobson instrument no. 83 (Boulder) and with the Regional Standard instrument no. 64 (Potsdam), while the Brewer instrument was calibrated several times with the Travelling Standard Brewer no. 17 (Canada). The differences between individual Brewer DS (direct sun) ozone data and Dobson ADDS are within plus or minus 3 percent with half of all differences within plus or minus 1 percent. Less than 0.7 percent of the systematic difference can be due to atmospheric SO2. Due to inadequate regression coefficients Brewer ZB (zenith blue) ozone measurements are by (3...4) percent higher than Dobson ADDS ozone values. M124 DS ozone data are systematically by (1...2) percent higher than Dobson ADDS ozone with 50 percent of the differences within plus or minus 4 percent, but with extreme differences up to plus or minus (20...25) percent. M124 ZB ozone values are by (3...5) percent higher than Dobson ADDS with all the differences within plus or minus 10 percent, i.e. the scatter of differences is smaller for ZB than for M 124 DS measurements, Results for differences in the daily mean ozone values are also addressed. The differences include the uncertainties in the ozone values derived from both types of measurements. They provide an indication of the uncertainty in ozone data and the comparability of ozone values derived from different types of instruments.

  8. 啤酒糟发酵产高蛋白饲料菌种的的配伍%Compatibility of strains for producing higher protein feed by fermentation of brewer's residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶敏; 王维嘉; 蔡俊

    2011-01-01

    以啤酒糟为主要原料,采用多菌种混合固态发酵生产蛋白饲料,并通过菌种的配伍实验对发酵产蛋白饲料菌种的组合进行优化,试验结果表明:挑选的8株菌都能在以啤酒糟为唯一底物的平板上生长,并且菌种最佳组合为固氮菌、白地霉、绿色木霉、啤酒酵母、热带假丝酵母等5株菌,其发酵后的蛋白质含量为31.45%,粗蛋白为39.22%,无机氮转化率为56.42%.%With brewer's residue as main materials, through solid-state fermentation to produce protein feed by multiplex strains, and optimizing the strain compatibility experiment of producing protein feed by fermentation optimized combination.Experimental results showed that the selected eight strains were growing on the only substrate of brewer's residue, and the best combination of strains were Azotobacter,geotrichum candidum, trichoderma viride, beer yeast, candida tropicalis etc, after fermentation of brewer's residue, the protein content was 31.45%, crude protein was 39.22%, conversion of inorganic nitrogen was 56.42%.

  9. Pharmacological inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis and hyperalgesia in yeast-injected rat paws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opas, E.E.; Dallob, A.; Herold, E.; Luell, S.; Humes, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    Brewer's yeast caused an inflammation characterized by edema and hyperalgesia when injected into the hindpaw of a rat. These events were temporally distinct and each was associated with increases of specific arachidonic and oxygenation products. As determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) on whole paw lipid extracts, the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) products, leukotrienes C/sub 4/ and D/sub 4/ and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraendic acid (5-HETE) were synthesized concurrently with the onset of edema (maximal at 15 minutes after yeast injection). The hyperalgesic phase of the inflammation (3-4 hr after yeast injection) was associated with increased tissue levels of the cyclooxygenase (CO) products, prostaglandin E/sub 2/ and thromboxane B/sub 2/ (TXB/sub 2/) as well as increases in levels of the 5-LO products, leukotriene B/sub 4/ (LTB/sub 4/) and 5-HETE. Pharmacological agents modulated the synthesis of eicosanoids and suppressed the hyperalgesic response.

  10. 27 CFR 25.251 - Authorized removals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removal of Brewer's Yeast and Other Articles § 25.251 Authorized removals. (a) Brewer's yeast. A brewer may remove brewer's yeast, in liquid or solid form containing not... including the words “Brewer's Yeast.” (c) Pipeline. If brewer's yeast is removed by pipeline, the......

  11. Studying Functions of All Yeast Genes Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor; Eason, Robert G.; Poumand, Nader; Herman, Zelek S.; Davis, Ronald W.; Anthony Kevin; Jejelowo, Olufisayo

    2006-01-01

    A method of studying the functions of all the genes of a given species of microorganism simultaneously has been developed in experiments on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commonly known as baker's or brewer's yeast). It is already known that many yeast genes perform functions similar to those of corresponding human genes; therefore, by facilitating understanding of yeast genes, the method may ultimately also contribute to the knowledge needed to treat some diseases in humans. Because of the complexity of the method and the highly specialized nature of the underlying knowledge, it is possible to give only a brief and sketchy summary here. The method involves the use of unique synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences that are denoted as DNA bar codes because of their utility as molecular labels. The method also involves the disruption of gene functions through deletion of genes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a particularly powerful experimental system in that multiple deletion strains easily can be pooled for parallel growth assays. Individual deletion strains recently have been created for 5,918 open reading frames, representing nearly all of the estimated 6,000 genetic loci of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tagging of each deletion strain with one or two unique 20-nucleotide sequences enables identification of genes affected by specific growth conditions, without prior knowledge of gene functions. Hybridization of bar-code DNA to oligonucleotide arrays can be used to measure the growth rate of each strain over several cell-division generations. The growth rate thus measured serves as an index of the fitness of the strain.

  12. Evaluation of the use of five laboratory determined ozone absorption cross sections in brewer and dobson retrieval algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Redondas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary ground-based instruments used to report total column ozone (TOC are Brewer and Dobson Spectrophotometers, in separate networks. These instruments make measurements of the UV irradiances, and through a well-defined process a TOC value is produced. Inherent in the algorithm is the use of a laboratory determined cross-section data set. We used five ozone cross section data sets: three Bass and Paur, Daumont, Malicet and Brion (DMB and a new Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP, University of Bremen, set. The three Bass and Paur (1985 sets are: quadratic temperature coefficients from IGACO web page (IGQ4, the Brewer network operational calibration set (BOp, and the set used by Bernhard et al. (2005, in the reanalysis of the Dobson absorption coefficient values (B05. The ozone absorption coefficients for Brewer and Dobson are then calculated using the normal Brewer operative method which is essentially the same as used on Dobson. Considering the standard TOC algorithm for the Brewer instruments and comparing to the Brewer standard operational calibration data set, using the slit functions for the individual instruments: we find the UIP data set changes the calculated TOC by −0.5%, the DBM data set changes the calculate TOC by −3.2%, and the IGQ4 data set at −45 °C changes the calculated TOC by +1.3%. Considering the standard algorithm for the Dobson instruments, and comparing to results using the official 1992 ozone absorption coefficients values and the single set of slit functions defined for all Dobson instruments, the calculated TOC changes by +1%, with little variation depending on which data set is used We applied the changes to the European Dobson and Brewer reference instruments during the Izaña 2012 Absolute Calibration Campaign. The application of a common Langley calibration and the IUP cross section the differences between Brewer and Dobson vanish whereas using Bass and Paur and DBM produce differences of 1.5% and 2

  13. The comprehensive utilization of used brewer's yeast%啤酒废酵母的综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏; 张春艳; 李政; 许春英

    2005-01-01

    提出一条利用啤酒废酵母生产高附加值产品鸡肉味香精、酵母精和RNA,并将剩余的酵母残渣生产优质饲料的综合开发路线,既提高了啤酒废酵母的经济价值,又实现了生产过程无废物排放.

  14. Distribution of the thiamin diphosphate C(2)-proton during catalysis of acetaldehyde formation by brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T K; Washabaugh, M W

    1995-10-31

    The distribution of tritium derived from enzyme-bound [thiazole-2-T]thiamin diphosphate (TDP) during the reaction of pyruvate to form acetaldehyde catalyzed by pyruvate decarboxylase isozymes (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis was determined under single-turnover conditions ([E] > [S]) in the presence of the nonsubstrate allosteric effector pyruvamide. The specific radioactivity of the [1-L]acetaldehyde product and solvent ([L]H2O) was 43 +/- 4% and 54 +/- 2%, respectively, of the initial specific radioactivity of PDC-bound [thiazole-2-T]TDP and was independent of the extent of the single-turnover reaction. There is little (< or = 3%) or no return of the abstracted C(2)-hydron to the C(2) position of PDC-bound TDP. This provides evidence that the abstracted C(2)-hydron is involved in the specific protonation of the C(alpha) position of the PDC-bound intermediate 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)thiamin diphosphate (HETDP), which is cleaved to form [1-L]acetaldehyde and PDC-bound [thiazole-2-H]TDP. The partial exchange of C(2)-derived tritium into solvent requires that (1) hydron transfer from C(2) occurs to a catalytic-base in which the conjugate catalytic acid is partially shielded from hydron exchange with the solvent, (2) the conjugate catalytic acid transfers the C(2)-derived hydron to the C(alpha) position of HETDP, and (3) hydron transfer to C(2) to regenerate the coenzyme occurs either from solvent directly or from a second catalytic acid of the enzyme that undergoes rapid hydron exchange with the solvent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Surveillance of Aflatoxin and Microbiota Related to Brewer's Grain Destined for Swine Feed in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela A. Gerbaldo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Córdoba province in the center of Argentina is an important area of swine production. The use of industry by-product (brewer's grain as feedstuff for swine is a regular practice and increases animal performance on these animals production. The occurrence of aflatoxin contamination is global, causing severe problems especially in developing countries. No reports on aflatoxin B1 production, micoflora, and potential aflatoxin B1 producing microorganism from brewer's grain are available. The aims of this study were (1 to isolate the microbiota species from brewer's grain, (2 to determine aflatoxin B1 natural contamination levels, and (3 to determine the ability of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates to produce aflatoxins in vitro. Physical properties, total fungal counts, lactic acid bacteria, and fungal genera distribution were determined on this substrate. In 65% of the samples, fungal counts were higher than recommended by GMP, and lactic bacterium counts ranged from 1.9×105 to 4.4×109 CFU g−1. Aspergillus spp. prevailed over other fungal genera. Aspergillus flavus was the prevalent species followed by A. fumigatus. Aflatoxin B1 levels in the samples were higher than the recommended limits (20 ng g−1 for complementary feedstuffs. Several Aspergillus section Flavi strains were able to produce aflatoxin B1  in vitro. Inadequate storage conditions promote the proliferation of mycotoxin-producing fungal species. Regular monitoring of feeds is required in order to prevent chronic and acute toxic syndromes related to this kind of contamination.

  16. Capacity of Fusarium species isolated from brewer's barley to synthesise zearalenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Fusarium, known as toxigenic species, are very of- ten parasites and contaminants of brewer's barley. In this paper, the composition of the genus Fusarium species in brewer's barley samples and their potential in the zearalenone synthesis were investigated. The tests were done on different brewer's barley varieties, crop 2003, samples (SSK1, SSK2, SSK3 SSK4, SSK5, SSK6, SSK7, SSK8, SSK9, SSK10 and SSK12 from Kragujevac locality. The isolation and identification of the Fusarium species were done according to the methods described by N e l s o n et al. (1983. The identified Fusarium species (6 were tested for their capacity to synthesise zearalenone. The isolates were cultivated on sterilised barley grains at the temperature of 25°C for 14 days, and then the zearalenone concentration was determined by the fluorometric method on the fluorometer "VI- CAM" series 4. The following seven Fusarium species were isolated from barley samples: F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. tricinctum. F. poae was the most distributed species (10.26%. The zearalenone concentration within the range of 12.0 to 430.0 g kg-1 was determined in cultures of barley grain inoculated with F. avenacuem (SSK6 and SSK12, F. culmorum (SSK8, F. tricinctum (SSK1, F. sporotrichioides (SSK7 and SSK12 and F. poae (SSK5, SSK9 and SSK10. Isolates of F. equiseti (SSK2 and F. poae (SSK6 did not express capacity to synthesise this toxic metabolite.

  17. Absolute spectral measurements of direct solar ultraviolet irradiance with a Brewer spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, A F

    1997-07-20

    A methodology for the absolute calibration of spectral measurements of direct solar ultraviolet radiation, performed with a Brewer spectrophotometer is presented. The method uses absolute measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance obtained practically simultaneously at each wavelength with the direct-Sun component. On the basis of this calibration, direct-Sun spectra, measured over a wide range of solar zenith angles at a high altitude site, were used to determine the extraterrestrial solar spectrum by applying the Langley extrapolation method. Finally this spectrum is compared with a solar spectrum derived from the airborne tunable laser absorption spectrometer 3 Space Shuttle mission, showing an agreement of better than +/-3%.

  18. Yeast That Smell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Y Xu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental mechanism of olfactory receptor activation has been conserved from yeast to humans. Engineered yeast cells can smell some of the same odorants as humans can, which makes yeast an ideal model system for studying human olfaction. Furthermore, if engineered yeast cells are incorporated into sensory arrays, they can be used as biosensors or artificial noses.Keywords: Yeast, olfactory receptor, G protein-coupled receptor, biosensor, smellReceived: 31 July 2008 / Received in revised form: 6 August 2008, Accepted: 13 August 2008, Published online: 17 August 2008

  19. Production, purification, and characterization of a major Penicillium glabrum xylanase using Brewer's spent grain as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knob, Adriana; Beitel, Susan Michelz; Fortkamp, Diana; Terrasan, César Rafael Fanchini; de Almeida, Alex Fernando

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, xylanases have been used in many processing industries. This study describes the xylanase production by Penicillium glabrum using brewer's spent grain as substrate. Additionally, this is the first work that reports the purification and characterization of a xylanase using this agroindustrial waste. Optimal production was obtained when P. glabrum was grown in liquid medium in pH 5.5, at 25 °C, under stationary condition for six days. The xylanase from P. glabrum was purified to homogeneity by a rapid and inexpensive procedure, using ammonium sulfate fractionation and molecular exclusion chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed one band with estimated molecular mass of 18.36 kDa. The optimum activity was observed at 60 °C, in pH 3.0. The enzyme was very stable at 50 °C, and high pH stability was verified from pH 2.5 to 5.0. The ion Mn(2+) and the reducing agents β -mercaptoethanol and DTT enhanced xylanase activity, while the ions Hg(2+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) as well as the detergent SDS were strong inhibitors of the enzyme. The use of brewer's spent grain as substrate for xylanase production cannot only add value and decrease the amount of this waste but also reduce the xylanase production cost.

  20. Production, Purification, and Characterization of a Major Penicillium glabrum Xylanase Using Brewer's Spent Grain as Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Knob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, xylanases have been used in many processing industries. This study describes the xylanase production by Penicillium glabrum using brewer's spent grain as substrate. Additionally, this is the first work that reports the purification and characterization of a xylanase using this agroindustrial waste. Optimal production was obtained when P. glabrum was grown in liquid medium in pH 5.5, at 25 °C, under stationary condition for six days. The xylanase from P. glabrum was purified to homogeneity by a rapid and inexpensive procedure, using ammonium sulfate fractionation and molecular exclusion chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed one band with estimated molecular mass of 18.36 kDa. The optimum activity was observed at 60 °C, in pH 3.0. The enzyme was very stable at 50 °C, and high pH stability was verified from pH 2.5 to 5.0. The ion Mn2+ and the reducing agents β-mercaptoethanol and DTT enhanced xylanase activity, while the ions Hg2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ as well as the detergent SDS were strong inhibitors of the enzyme. The use of brewer's spent grain as substrate for xylanase production cannot only add value and decrease the amount of this waste but also reduce the xylanase production cost.

  1. Observations and Interpretation of Descent and Mixing in the Northern Hemisphere Brewer Dobson Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, J. C.; Karol, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Yudin, V.; Nardi, B.

    2012-12-01

    In 1929 Brewer proposed that the motions now known as the Brewer-Dobson (BD) circulation were responsible for the observed high values of ozone at high latitudes, far from their low-latitude region of formation. Here data from the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument, with 1 km vertical resolution and 100 km along track spacing, are used examine how this circulation creates that distribution and its seasonal variation through the interactions between the overturning motions of the BD circulation and isentropic mixing in the lower and lowermost stratosphere (350-450K). Isopleths of ozone in equivalent latitude-potential temperature coordinates illustrate the high-latitude descent, controlled by diabatic cooling, from September to the lowest altitudes in January and February. This descent creates large gradients along isentropic surfaces, where mixing above ~ 360K is weak at this time. The strength of mixing is taken to be the effective diffusivity Deff as formulated by Nakamura [1996]. By late winter into spring the BD circulation weakens, as does the transport barrier near 35° associated with the sub-tropical jet. These processes allow strong equator-ward mixing, leading to progressively smaller latitudinal ozone gradients on the isentropes, and the rising and flattening of the ozone isopleths. By the end of the summer the isopleths show only small slopes, preparatory for the next cycle. These results for the ozone dynamics are similar, but not identical, to those obtained with NCAR's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) Version 4.

  2. 利用啤酒废酵母制备富铁酵母%Preparation of iron-enriched yeast by discarded brewer's yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶; 胡春霞; 王战勇; 苏婷婷; 张雪松

    2010-01-01

    以啤酒废酵母为原料制备富铁酵母,对制备的工艺条件进行了优化.确定最佳的工艺条件条件为:培养温度28℃,培养基Fe2+添加浓度为120 mg/L,装液量50 mL/500 mL三角瓶,酵母添加量50 g,pH为4.5~5.0,培养时间12 h.在此优化条件下获得的富铁酵母生物量可达到600μg/g以上,其中有机铁含量为80.3%.对空白啤酒废酵母和富铁酵母进行红外光谱分析,比较了酵母富集Fe2+后吸收峰的变化.

  3. Preparation of Chromium-rich yeast from waste brewer's yeast%用啤酒废酵母研制富铬酵母

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帅; 王秀道

    2003-01-01

    详细介绍了用啤酒废酵母制备富铬酵母的工艺过程,通过对影响成品中铬浓度的主要因素的分析,最终确定了其最佳工艺条件,制得的富铬酵母中有机铬的浓度可达188.1μg/g,适合工业化规模生产.

  4. Production of zinc-enriched yeast by waste brewer's yeast%利用啤酒废酵母制备富锌酵母

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关转飞; 贾飞; 王战勇; 张晶; 张雪松

    2010-01-01

    以啤酒废酵母为原料制备富锌酵母.对制备的工艺条件进行了优化.确定最佳的工艺条件条件为:Zn2+的浓度为500μg/mL;培养pH值为4.5:振荡培养时间为10h;啤酒酵母投加量为50g/50mL培养基.通过红外分析对空白废酵母和富锌废酵母进行比较,分析了酵母富集锌前后吸收峰的变化.

  5. 啤酒废酵母抽提物制备工艺优化研究%OPTIMIZATION of YEAST EXTRACT PRODUCTION from SPENT BREWER'S YEAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄恩; 梁磊; 田小群; 朱明军; 梁世中

    2007-01-01

    以啤酒废酵母为原料,采用自溶结合外加酶法制备酵母抽提物.外加蛋白酶可以提高产物中固形物及氨基氮得率;添加5 mg/g干酵母的Protamex时,固形物得率和氨基氮得率分别比不加酶对照提高了24.7%和82.8%;添加5 mg/g干酵母的Neurase时,氨基氮得率提高了62.3%.同时添加0.5 mg/g干酵母的溶壁酶Lywallzyme和5 mg/g干酵母的木瓜蛋白酶处理,上清液氨基氮含量达4 580 mg/L;固形物得率达60%.

  6. Preparation of Yeast Extract and β-1,3-Glucan from Spent Brewer's Yeast%啤酒废酵母泥综合利用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李科德; 曾庆孝

    2007-01-01

    研究了利用啤酒废酵母泥制备酵母抽提物和β-葡聚糖的相关工艺条件.结果表明,自溶酶联法是制备啤酒酵母抽提物的理想方法,用该法制备啤酒酵母抽提物的抽提率达68.6%、蛋白质利用率达87.3%,抽提物中蛋白质、游离氨基酸态氮和复合核苷酸的含量分别达10.6%、4.2%和3.9%,远高于普通自溶工艺的技术指标;将自溶后的酵母残渣进一步制备成β-1,3-葡聚糖,通过正交试验获得了其优化的工艺条件:酵母浓度10%、碱浓度2%、反应温度80℃、反应时间4 h、碱处理次数4次.在优化的工艺条件下,β-1,3-葡聚糖得率达26.8%、成品中杂蛋白含量仅0.4%、β-葡聚糖分子质量为158ku.实现了啤酒废酵母泥的综合利用和高值化.

  7. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer....

  8. An improved algorithm for the determination of aerosol optical depth in the ultraviolet spectral range from Brewer spectrophotometer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellitto, P.; di Sarra, A.; Siani, A. M.

    2006-10-01

    Methods to derive aerosol optical depth in the UV spectral range from ground-based remote-sensing stations equipped with Brewer spectrophotometers have been recently developed. In this study a modified Langley plot method has been implemented to retrieve aerosol optical depth from direct sun Brewer measurements. The method uses measurements over an extended range of atmospheric airmasses obtained with two different neutral density filters, and accounts for short-term variations of total ozone, derived from the same direct sun observations. The improved algorithm has been applied to data collected with a Brewer mark IV, operational in Rome, Italy, and with a Brewer mark III, operational in Lampedusa, Italy, in the Mediterranean. The efficiency of the improved algorithm has been tested comparing the number of determinations of the extraterrestrial constant against those obtained with a standard Langley plot procedure. The improved method produces a larger number of reliable Langley plots, allowing for a better statistical characterization of the extraterrestrial constant and a better study of its temporal variability. The values of aerosol optical depth calculated in Rome and Lampedusa compare well with simultaneous determinations in the 416-440 nm interval derived from MFRSR and CIMEL measurements.

  9. Validation of OMI-TOMS and OMI-DOAS total ozone column using five Brewer spectroradiometers at the Iberian peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, M.; López, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Kroon, M.; McPeters, R.; Bañón, M.; Serrano, A.

    2009-07-01

    This article focuses on the comparison of the total ozone column data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flying aboard the NASA EOS-Aura satellite platform with ground-based measurement recorded by Brewer spectroradiometers located at five Spanish remote sensing ground stations between January 2005 and December 2007. The satellite data are derived from two algorithms: OMI Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (OMI-TOMS) and OMI Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (OMI-DOAS). The largest relative differences between these OMI total ozone column estimates reach 5% with a significant seasonal dependence. The agreement between OMI ozone data and Brewer measurements is excellent. Total ozone columns from OMI-TOMS are on average a mere 2.0% lower than Brewer data. For OMI-DOAS data the bias is a mere 1.4%. However, the relative difference between OMI-TOMS and Brewer measurements shows a notably lower seasonal dependence and variability than the differences between OMI-DOAS and ground-based data. For both OMI ozone data products these relative differences show significant dependence on the satellite ground pixel solar zenith angle for cloud-free cases as well as for cloudy conditions. However, the OMI ozone data products are shown to reveal opposite behavior with respect to the two antagonistic sky conditions. No significant dependency of the ground-based to satellite-based differences with respect to the satellite cross-track position is seen for either OMI retrieval algorithm.

  10. Validation of OMI total ozone retrievals from the SAO ozone profile algorithm and three operational algorithms with Brewer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of total ozone computed from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO optimal estimation (OE ozone profile algorithm (SOE applied to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI is assessed through comparisons with ground-based Brewer spectrometer measurements from 2005 to 2008. We also make comparisons with the three OMI operational ozone products, derived from the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, KNMI Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS, and KNMI OE (KOE algorithms. Excellent agreement is observed between SAO and Brewer, with a mean difference of less than ±1% at most individual stations. The KNMI OE algorithm systematically overestimates Brewer total ozone by 2% at low/mid latitudes and 5% at high latitudes while the TOMS and DOAS algorithms underestimate it by ~1.65% on average. Standard deviations of ~1.8% are found for both SOE and TOMS, but DOAS and KOE have scatters of 2.2% and 2.6%, respectively. The stability of the SOE algorithm is found to have insignificant dependence on viewing geometry, cloud parameters, total ozone column. In comparison, the KOE differences to Brewer values are significantly correlated with solar and viewing zenith angles, with a significant deviation depending on cloud parameters and total ozone amount. The TOMS algorithm exhibits similar stability to SOE with respect to viewing geometry and total column ozone, but stronger cloud parameter dependence. The dependence of DOAS on the algorithmic variables is marginal compared to KOE, but distinct compared to the SOE and TOMS algorithms. Comparisons of All four OMI products with Brewer show no apparent long-term drift but a seasonally affected feature, especially for KOE and TOMS. The substantial differences in the KOE vs. SOE algorithm performance cannot be sufficiently explained by the use of soft calibration (in SOE and the use of different a priori error covariance matrix, but other algorithm details cause larger fitting

  11. Arctic total ozone trend and variability during 2004 - 2012 based on Brewer revised data, Ozonesonde and satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, Omid; Vaziri, Zahra; McElroy, Tom; Tarasick, David; Savastiouk, Vladimir; Barton, David

    2015-04-01

    It is now known that Single-Monochromator Brewer Spectrophotometer ozone measurements suffer from non-linearity due to the presence of instrumental stray light caused by scattering from the optics within the instrument. Stray light is unwanted radiation from different wavelengths that arrives at the detector during the measurements. Since the gradient of ozone absorption is large in the ultraviolet spectral region, the stray light contribution becomes significant between 300 and 325 nm where the Brewer measures, especially when the amount of ozone in the light path becomes more than 1000 Dobson Units (D.U.). Stray light results in an underestimated ozone column at larger air masses. As the light path (air mass) increases, stray-light effects in the measurements also increase. An ozone column of 600 D.U. with at an air mass factor of 3 (1800 D.U.) can measure as much as 8% lower than the ozone actual amount. These are conditions commonly seen during the Arctic spring. A new method to account for stray light effects is being developed for the Brewer ozone measurements. This method is based on a mathematical model of the instrument response and a non-linear retrieval which calculates the best values for the model parameters. The parameterization used is validated by an instrument physical model simulation. Using the mathematical model in reverse provides correct ozone values. This paper presents the method and the results of a trend analysis based of the re-evaluated data of three Brewers which are located in the Arctic (Alert Lat. 82.44, Lon. -62.55, Eureka Lat. 79.96, Lon. -86.45 and Resolute Lat. 74.69, and Lon. -95.01) from 2004 to 2012. Gaps in the Brewer data are filled with ozonesonde reanalysis data obtained from WOUDC (World Ozone and Ultraviolet radiation Data Centre) and the results will be compared with MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) satellite data.

  12. Palytoxin induces K+ efflux from yeast cells expressing the mammalian sodium pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner-Bobis, G; Meyer zu Heringdorf, D; Christ, M; Habermann, E

    1994-06-01

    Palytoxin causes potassium efflux and sodium influx in all investigated animals cells. Much evidence points to the sodium pump (Na+/K(+)-ATPase) as the target of the toxin. A heterologous expression system for mammalian Na+/K(+)-ATPase in the brewers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to test this hypothesis. Yeast cells do not contain endogenous sodium pumps but can be transformed with vectors coding for the alpha and beta subunits of the mammalian sodium pump. We now show that transformed yeast cells expressing both alpha and beta subunits of Na+/K(+)-ATPase are highly sensitive to the toxin, as measured by the loss of intracellular potassium. Palytoxin-induced potassium efflux is completely inhibited by 500 microM ouabain. In contrast, nontransformed yeast cells or cells expressing either the alpha or beta subunits are insensitive to palytoxin. Thus, the alpha/beta heterodimer of the sodium pump is required for the release of potassium induced by palytoxin. The results suggest that palytoxin converts the sodium pump into an open channel, allowing the passage of alkali ions.

  13. Host-Pathogen Interactions: XIV. Isolation and Partial Characterization of an Elicitor from Yeast Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, M G; Albersheim, P

    1978-07-01

    An elicitor of glyceollin accumulation in soybeans (Glycine max L.) has been isolated from a commercially available extract of brewers' yeast. Yeast is not a known pathogen of plants. The elicitor was isolated by precipitation in 80% (v/v) ethanol followed by column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, sulfopropyl-Sephadex, and concanavalin A-Sepharose. Compositional and structural analysis showed the elicitor to be a glucan containing terminal, 3-, 6-, and 3,6-linked glucosyl residues. The yeast elicitor stimulates the accumulation of glyceollin in the cotyledons and hypocotyls of soybeans when as little as 15 nanograms or 100 nanograms of the elicitor is applied to the respective tissues. The yeast elicitor is very similar in both structure and absolute elicitor activity to an elicitor isolated from the mycelial walls of Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae, a pathogen of soybeans. These and other results of this laboratory suggest that plants are able to respond to the presence of a wide range of fungi by recognizing, as foreign to the plant, structural polysaccharides of the mycelial walls of the fungi.

  14. Interactions of a lignin-rich fraction from brewer's spent grain with gut microbiota in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Piritta; Aura, Anna-Marja; Maukonen, Johanna; Smeds, Annika I; Mattila, Ismo; Niemelä, Klaus; Tamminen, Tarja; Faulds, Craig B; Buchert, Johanna; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2013-07-10

    Lignin is a constituent of plant cell walls and thus is classified as part of dietary fiber. However, little is known about the role of lignin in gastrointestinal fermentation. In this work, a lignin-rich fraction was prepared from brewer's spent grain and subjected to an in vitro colon model to study its potential bioconversions and interactions with fecal microbiota. No suppression of microbial conversion by the fraction was observed in the colon model, as measured as short-chain fatty acid production. Furthermore, no inhibition on the growth was observed when the fraction was incubated with strains of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. In fact, the lignin-rich fraction enabled bifidobacteria to survive longer than with glucose. Several transiently appearing phenolic compounds, very likely originating from lignin, were observed during the fermentation. This would indicate that the gut microbiota was able to partially degrade lignin and metabolize the released compounds.

  15. Carboxylic acid production from brewer's spent grain via mixed culture fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaobo; Wan, Caixia

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating carboxylic acid production from brewer's spent grain (BSG) via mixed culture fermentation. The results showed that the distribution of fermentation products was significantly affected by pH conditions and the addition of electron donors. Lactic acid was the dominant component under acidic and alkaline conditions while volatile fatty acids (VFAs) became dominant under the neutral condition. Furthermore, the neutral condition favored the chain elongation of carboxylic acids, especially with ethanol as the electron donor. Ethanol addition enhanced valeric acid and caproic acid production by 44% and 167%, respectively. Lactic acid addition also had positive effects on VFAs production under the neutral condition but limited to C2-C4 products. As a result, propionic acid and butyric acid production was increased by 109% and 152%, respectively. These findings provide substantial evidence for regulating carboxylic acid production during mixed culture fermentation of BSG by controlling pH and adding electron donors.

  16. Enhancement of biohydrogen production from brewers' spent grain by calcined-red mud pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jishi; Zang, Lihua

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigated the utilization of calcined-red mud (CRM) pretreatment to enhance fermentative hydrogen yields from brewers' spent grain (BSG). The BSG samples were treated with different concentrations (0.0-20g/L) of CRM at 55°C for 48h, before the biohydrogen process with heat-treated anaerobic sludge inoculum. The highest specific hydrogen production of 198.62ml/g-VS was obtained from the BSG treated with 10g/L CRM, with the corresponding lag time of 10.60h. Hydrogen yield increments increased by 67.74%, compared to the control tests without CRM. The results demonstrated that the CRM could hydrolyze more cellulose and further provided adequate broth and suitable pH value for efficient fermentative hydrogen. The model-based analysis showed that the modified Gompertz model presented a better fit for the experimental data than the first-order model.

  17. Climate change reduces warming potential of nitrous oxide by an enhanced Brewer-Dobson circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracher, Daniela; Reick, Christian H.; Manzini, Elisa; Schultz, Martin G.; Stein, Olaf

    2016-06-01

    The Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), which is an important driver of the stratosphere-troposphere exchange, is expected to accelerate with climate change. One particular consequence of this acceleration is the enhanced transport of nitrous oxide (N2O) from its sources at the Earth's surface toward its main sink region in the stratosphere, thus inducing a reduction in its lifetime. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas and the most relevant currently emitted ozone-depleting substance. Here we examine the implications of a reduced N2O lifetime in the context of climate change. We find a decrease in its global warming potential (GWP) and, due to a decline in the atmospheric N2O burden, also a reduction in its total radiative forcing. From the idealized transient global warming simulation we can identify linear regressions for N2O sink, lifetime, and GWP with temperature rise. Our findings are thus not restricted to a particular scenario.

  18. Dynamical forcing of sub-seasonal variability in the tropical Brewer-Dobson circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, Marta; Randel, William; Serrano, Encarna

    2014-05-01

    Upwelling across the tropical tropopause exhibits strong sub-seasonal variability superimposed on the well-known annual cycle, and these variations directly affect temperature and tracers in the tropical lower stratosphere. The dynamical forcing of tropical upwelling on sub-seasonal timescales is investigated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis for 1979-2011. Momentum balance diagnostics reveal that transience is linked to the effects of extratropical wave forcing, with centers of action in the extratropical winter stratosphere and in the subtropical upper troposphere of both hemispheres. From a diagnostic point of view, the zonal-mean wind transient response is important for communicating the remote wave forcing to the tropical stratosphere. Dynamical patterns reflect distinctive forcing of the shallow versus deep branches of the Brewer-Dobson circulation.

  19. The yeast Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yasuyuki; Nakano, Akihiko

    2012-04-01

    The Golgi apparatus is an organelle that has been extensively studied in the model eukaryote, yeast. Its morphology varies among yeast species; the Golgi exists as a system of dispersed cisternae in the case of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas the Golgi cisternae in Pichia pastoris and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are organized into stacks. In spite of the different organization, the mechanism of trafficking through the Golgi apparatus is believed to be similar, involving cisternal maturation, in which the resident Golgi proteins are transported backwards while secretory cargo proteins can stay in the cisternae. Questions remain regarding the organization of the yeast Golgi, the regulatory mechanisms that underlie cisternal maturation of the Golgi and transport machinery of cargo proteins through this organelle. Studies using different yeast species have provided hints to these mechanisms.

  20. Study on the Cultivation of Chromium-enriched Yeast%富铬酵母的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盛良; 黄杰; 黄薇; 孙桂菊

    2001-01-01

    This paper offered a method to get organic chromium nutrient bycultivating chromium-enriched yeast. It was found that the solution of low consistency promoted the growth of yeast, and with increasing the chromium concentration in culture,the chromium content of chromium-enriched yeast would increase. The solution of chromium-enriched and normal brewer' s yeast was measured by ultraviolet spectrometry with in 200~320nm wavelength range. A characteristic ultraviolet absorption peak appeared at 260nm. The organic chromium was about 97.6% of the total chromium in chromium-enriched yeast.%研究了富铬酵母的培养方法,发现培养基中低浓度的铬(<100mg/kg)对酵母生长起促进作用,且随着铬浓度的增加酵母对铬的富集作用亦增加。用200~320nm波长范围对富铬酵母及普通酵母溶液进行紫外扫描,发现在260nm处有一特征的吸收峰。富铬酵母中有机铬占总铬量的97.6%.

  1. Comparison of GOME-2/MetOp total ozone data with Brewer spectroradiometer data over the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, M.; Serrano, A. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Loyola, D.; Zimmer, W. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling (DE). Remote Sensing Technology Inst. (IMF); Lopez, M.; Banon, M. [Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMet), Madrid (Spain); Vilaplana, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Huelva (Spain). Estacion de Sondeos Atmosferico ' ' El Arenosillo' '

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of this article is to compare the total ozone data from the new Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment instrument (GOME-2/MetOp) with reliable ground-based measurement recorded by five Brewer spectroradiometers in the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, a similar comparison for the predecessor instrument GOME/ERS-2 is described. The period of study is a whole year from May 2007 to April 2008. The results show that GOME-2/MetOp ozone data already has a very good quality, total ozone columns are on average 3.05% lower than Brewer measurements. This underestimation is higher than that obtained for GOME/ERS-2 (1.46%). However, the relative differences between GOME-2/MetOp and Brewer measurements show significantly lower variability than the differences between GOME/ERS-2 and Brewer data. Dependencies of these relative differences with respect to the satellite solar zenith angle (SZA), the satellite scan angle, the satellite cloud cover fraction (CF), and the ground-based total ozone measurements are analyzed. For both GOME instruments, differences show no significant dependence on SZA. However, GOME-2/MetOp data show a significant dependence on the satellite scan angle (+1.5%). In addition, GOME/ERS-2 differences present a clear dependence with respect to the CF and ground-based total ozone; such differences are minimized for GOME-2/MetOp. The comparison between the daily total ozone values provided by both GOME instruments shows that GOME-2/MetOp ozone data are on average 1.46% lower than GOME/ERS-2 data without any seasonal dependence. Finally, deviations of a priori climatological ozone profile used by the satellite retrieval algorithm from the true ozone profile are analyzed. Although excellent agreement between a priori climatological and measured partial ozone values is found for the middle and high stratosphere, relative differences greater than 15% are common for the troposphere and lower stratosphere. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of GOME-2/MetOp total ozone data with Brewer spectroradiometer data over the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, M.; Loyola, D.; López, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Bañón, M.; Zimmer, W.; Serrano, A.

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this article is to compare the total ozone data from the new Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment instrument (GOME-2/MetOp) with reliable ground-based measurement recorded by five Brewer spectroradiometers in the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, a similar comparison for the predecessor instrument GOME/ERS-2 is described. The period of study is a whole year from May 2007 to April 2008. The results show that GOME-2/MetOp ozone data already has a very good quality, total ozone columns are on average 3.05% lower than Brewer measurements. This underestimation is higher than that obtained for GOME/ERS-2 (1.46%). However, the relative differences between GOME-2/MetOp and Brewer measurements show significantly lower variability than the differences between GOME/ERS-2 and Brewer data. Dependencies of these relative differences with respect to the satellite solar zenith angle (SZA), the satellite scan angle, the satellite cloud cover fraction (CF), and the ground-based total ozone measurements are analyzed. For both GOME instruments, differences show no significant dependence on SZA. However, GOME-2/MetOp data show a significant dependence on the satellite scan angle (+1.5%). In addition, GOME/ERS-2 differences present a clear dependence with respect to the CF and ground-based total ozone; such differences are minimized for GOME-2/MetOp. The comparison between the daily total ozone values provided by both GOME instruments shows that GOME-2/MetOp ozone data are on average 1.46% lower than GOME/ERS-2 data without any seasonal dependence. Finally, deviations of a priori climatological ozone profile used by the satellite retrieval algorithm from the true ozone profile are analyzed. Although excellent agreement between a priori climatological and measured partial ozone values is found for the middle and high stratosphere, relative differences greater than 15% are common for the troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: C/O and Mg/Si for solar neighborhood's stars (Brewer+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J. M.; Fischer, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    The catalog of Brewer+ (2016, J/ApJS/225/32) has abundances of 15 elements, including C, O, Mg, and Si, for more than 1600 F, G, and K stars. The stars were all observed using the HIRES instrument on the Keck telescope with the same instrumental setup. Most of the stars were observed as part of the California Planet Search (CPS) program and have a typical S/N>>100. (1 data file).

  4. Yeast genome sequencing:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold

    2004-01-01

    For decades, unicellular yeasts have been general models to help understand the eukaryotic cell and also our own biology. Recently, over a dozen yeast genomes have been sequenced, providing the basis to resolve several complex biological questions. Analysis of the novel sequence data has shown...... of closely related species helps in gene annotation and to answer how many genes there really are within the genomes. Analysis of non-coding regions among closely related species has provided an example of how to determine novel gene regulatory sequences, which were previously difficult to analyse because...... they are short and degenerate and occupy different positions. Comparative genomics helps to understand the origin of yeasts and points out crucial molecular events in yeast evolutionary history, such as whole-genome duplication and horizontal gene transfer(s). In addition, the accumulating sequence data provide...

  5. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection caused by a type of fungus called candida albicans . Yeast infections usually happen in warm, moist parts of the body, like the mouth, or vagina. We all have candida in our bodies, but usually it's kept in ...

  6. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing

  7. Forces in yeast flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2015-02-07

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion ("flocculation") is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  8. Production, Purification, and in Vitro Evaluation of the Prebiotic Potential of Arabinoxylooligosaccharides from Brewer's Spent Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Belén; Míguez, Beatriz; Veiga, Adán; Parajó, Juan Carlos; Alonso, José Luís

    2015-09-30

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG) samples were subjected to a two-step aqueous processing (starch extraction and autohydrolysis) in order to assess their potential as a raw material for obtaining a mixture of arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS) suitable to be use as prebiotics for elderly. After hydrothermal treatment, the liquors were refined by a sequence of purification and conditioning steps including membrane filtration, enzymatic hydrolysis, and ion exchange. The presence of both substituted (degree of polimerization (DP) = 2-10) and unsubstituted (DP = 2-16) oligosaccharides made up of xylose and arabinose (AXOS) were confirmed in purified mixtures (in which total OS content = 84% w/w) by using chromatographic techniques and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Finally, AXOS were evaluated for their prebiotic activity by in vitro fermentation assays using fecal inocula from elderly people, demonstrating that AXOS were slightly better substrates than FOS, in terms of bacterial population shifts as in the production of SCFA.

  9. Evaluating the advective Brewer-Dobson circulation in three reanalyses for the period 1979-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, Marta; Legras, Bernard; Ploeger, Felix; Randel, William J.

    2015-08-01

    Most chemistry-climate models show an intensification of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) in the stratosphere associated with increasing greenhouse gas emissions and ozone depletion in the last decades, but this trend remains to be confirmed in observational data. In this work the evolution of the advective BDC for the period 1979-2012 is evaluated and compared in three modern reanalyses (ERA-Interim, MERRA, and JRA-55). Three different estimates of the BDC are computed for each reanalysis, one based on the definition of the residual circulation and two indirect estimates derived from momentum and thermodynamic balances. The comparison among the nine estimates shows substantial uncertainty in the mean magnitude (˜40%) but significant common variability. The tropical upwelling series show variability linked to the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation and to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and also reflect extreme events such as major sudden stratospheric warmings and volcanic eruptions. The trend analysis suggests a strengthening of tropical upwelling of around 2-5%/decade throughout the layer 100-10 hPa. The global spatial structure of the BDC trends provides evidence of an overall acceleration of the circulation in both hemispheres, with qualitative agreement among the estimates. The global BDC trends are mainly linked to changes in the boreal winter season and can be tracked to long-term increases in the resolved wave drag in both hemispheres.

  10. The advective Brewer-Dobson circulation in three reanalyses (1979-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, Marta; Legras, Bernard; Ploeger, Felix; Randel, William

    2015-04-01

    Most chemistry-climate models predict an intensification of the Brewer-Dobson circulation in the stratosphere in the last decades, but this trend remains to be confirmed in observational data. In this work the evolution of the advective BDC for the period 1979-2012 is evaluated and compared in three modern reanalyses (ERA-Interim, MERRA and JRA-55). Three different estimates of the BDC are computed for each reanalysis, one based on the definition of the residual circulation and two indirect estimates derived from momentum and thermodynamic balance. The comparison among the nine estimates shows substantial uncertainty in the mean magnitude but significant common variability. The trend analysis suggests an intensification in tropical upwelling throughout the layer 100-10 hPa. Globally, an acceleration of the circulation is observed in both hemispheres, with qualitative agreement among the estimates. The global BDC trends are mainly due to changes in the DJF circulation and can be tracked to changes in the resolved wave drag in both hemispheres, which are highly consistent in the three reanalyses.

  11. Improved retrieval of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 column densities by means of MKIV Brewer spectrophotometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Diémoz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm to retrieve nitrogen dioxide (NO2 column densities using MKIV ("Mark IV" Brewer spectrophotometers is described. The method includes several improvements, such as a more recent spectroscopic data set, the reduction of measurement noise, interference by other atmospheric species and instrumental settings, and a better determination of the zenith sky air mass factor. The technique was tested during an ad hoc calibration campaign at the high-altitude site of Izaña (Tenerife, Spain and the results of the direct sun and zenith sky geometries were compared to those obtained by two reference instruments from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC: a Fourier Transform Infrared Radiometer (FTIR and an advanced visible spectrograph (RASAS-II based on the differential optical absorption spectrometry (DOAS technique. To determine the extraterrestrial constant, an easily implementable extension of the standard Langley technique for very clean sites without tropospheric NO2 was developed which takes into account the daytime linear drift of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide due to photochemistry. The measurement uncertainty was thoroughly determined by using a Monte Carlo technique. Poisson noise and wavelength misalignments were found to be the most influential contributors to the overall uncertainty, and possible solutions are proposed for future improvements. The new algorithm is backward-compatible, thus allowing for the reprocessing of historical data sets.

  12. Improved retrieval of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 column densities by means of MKIV Brewer spectrophotometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Diémoz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm to retrieve nitrogen dioxide (NO2 column densities using MKIV Brewer spectrophotometers is described. The method includes several improvements, such as a more recent spectroscopic dataset, the reduction of the measurement noise and interferences by other atmospheric species and instrumental settings, and a better determination of the air mass enhancement factors. The technique was tested during an ad-hoc calibration campaign at the high-altitude site of Izaña (Tenerife, Spain and provided results compatible to those obtained from a spectrometer associated to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, with deviations of less than 0.02 DU. To determine the extraterrestrial constant, an easily implementable generalisation of the standard Langley technique was developed which takes into account the daytime linear drift of nitrogen dioxide due to the photochemistry. Estimates obtained from different observation geometries, by collecting the light from either the sun or the zenith sky, were found to be comparable within the measurement uncertainty. The latter was thoroughly determined by using a Monte Carlo technique. Finally, a method to retrieve additional products such as the degree of linear polarisation of the zenith sky and the oxygen dimer optical depth is presented. The new algorithm is backward-compatible, thus allowing for the reprocessing of historical datasets.

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of beer brewers' spent grain and the influence of pretreatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beldman, G.; Hennekam, J.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The enzymatic saccharification of plant material has been shown to be of interest in various fields, such as the production of fruit juices and the utilization of biomass. A combination of cellulase, pectinase, and hemicellulases is usually used because of the chemical composition of the matrix of plant cell walls. For apples, beet pulp, and potato fiber, almost a complete hydrolysis of polysaccharides is obtained by combining cellulase and pectinase. For nonparenchymatic tissue, the situation is somewhat different: pectin is a minor component and the hemicellulose content is much higher. Enzyme action is restricted by the lignin barrier and by the high crystallinity of cellulose in this material. For such materials, mechanical, thermal, or chemical pretreatments are necessary to achieve efficient hydrolysis. This communication describes various enzymatic treatments and chemical and physical pretreatment, using brewers' spent grain as substrate. Spent grain is the residue of malt and grain which remains in the mash-kettle after the liquefied and saccharified starch has been removed by filtration. (Refs. 15).

  14. Time-varying changes in the simulated structure of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Aquila, Valentina; Waugh, Darryn W.; Oman, Luke D.

    2017-01-01

    A series of simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model are analyzed in order to assess changes in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation (BDC) over the past 55 years. When trends are computed over the past 55 years, the BDC accelerates throughout the stratosphere, consistent with previous modeling results. However, over the second half of the simulations (i.e., since the late 1980s), the model simulates structural changes in the BDC as the temporal evolution of the BDC varies between regions in the stratosphere. In the mid-stratosphere in the midlatitude Northern Hemisphere, the BDC does not accelerate in the ensemble mean of our simulations despite increases in greenhouse gas concentrations and warming sea surface temperatures, and it even decelerates in one ensemble member. This deceleration is reminiscent of changes inferred from satellite instruments and in situ measurements. In contrast, the BDC in the lower stratosphere continues to accelerate. The main forcing agents for the recent slowdown in the mid-stratosphere appear to be declining ozone-depleting substance (ODS) concentrations and the timing of volcanic eruptions. Changes in both mean age of air and the tropical upwelling of the residual circulation indicate a lack of recent acceleration. We therefore clarify that the statement that is often made that climate models simulate a decreasing age throughout the stratosphere only applies over long time periods and is not necessarily the case for the past 25 years, when most tracer measurements were taken.

  15. Techno-economic analysis for brewer's spent grains use on a biorefinery concept: the Brazilian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussatto, Solange I; Moncada, Jonathan; Roberto, Inês C; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-11-01

    A techno-economic analysis for use of brewer's spent grains (BSG) on a biorefinery concept for the Brazilian case is presented. Four scenarios based on different levels of heat and mass integration for the production of xylitol, lactic acid, activated carbon and phenolic acids are shown. A simulation procedure using the software Aspen Plus and experimental yields was used. Such procedure served as basis for the techno-economic and environmental assessment according to the Brazilian conditions. Full mass integration on water and full energy integration was the configuration with the best economic and environmental performance. For this case, the obtained economic margin was 62.25%, the potential environmental impact was 0.012 PEI/kg products, and the carbon footprint of the processing stage represented 0.96 kg CO2-e/kg of BSG. This result served as basis to draw recommendations on the technological, economic and environmental feasibility for implementation of such type of biorefinery in Brazil.

  16. Enhanced Brewer Dobson circulation reduces N2O warming potential under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracher, Daniela; Reick, Christian; Manzini, Elisa; Schultz, Martin; Stein, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    One implication of climate change is an enhancement of the Brewer Dobson circulation (BDC) triggering the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere. This change in atmospheric dynamics will have effects on atmospheric constituents, especially those with stratospheric sinks such as ozone depleting substances (ODS) including nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O is the most important currently emitted ODS, and the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Under enhanced BDC, more N2O is transported from the troposphere into the stratosphere, reaching higher altitudes, resulting in an increased N2O sink and a decrease in N2O lifetime. Some aspects of the effect of an enhanced BDC on lifetimes of ODS have already been examined with focus on its implications for ozone. In this study, we examine the effect of a decreasing N2O lifetime in light of climate change. To this end we conduct idealized transient global warming simulations with ECHAM, the atmosphere component of the MPI Earth System Model. As we prescribe surface flux boundary conditions for N2O, we are able to examine further implications of an enhanced N2O sink on atmospheric abundance, which is an important factor for e.g. generating concentration scenarios. Due the idealized simulation setup, we derive findings that are scenario-independent and can easily be extended to other global warming scenarios.

  17. Monitoring yeast physiology during very high gravity wort fermentations by frequent analysis of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Jari J; Huuskonen, Anne; Vuokko, Heikki; Vidgren, Virve; Londesborough, John

    2007-09-01

    Brewer's yeast experiences constantly changing environmental conditions during wort fermentation. Cells can rapidly adapt to changing surroundings by transcriptional regulation. Changes in genomic expression can indicate the physiological condition of yeast in the brewing process. We monitored, using the transcript analysis with aid of affinity capture (TRAC) method, the expression of some 70 selected genes relevant to wort fermentation at high frequency through 9-10 day fermentations of very high gravity wort (25 degrees P) by an industrial lager strain. Rapid changes in expression occurred during the first hours of fermentations for several genes, e.g. genes involved in maltose metabolism, glycolysis and ergosterol synthesis were strongly upregulated 2-6 h after pitching. By the time yeast growth had stopped (72 h) and total sugars had dropped by about 50%, most selected genes had passed their highest expression levels and total mRNA was less than half the levels during growth. There was an unexpected upregulation of some genes of oxygen-requiring pathways during the final fermentation stages. For five genes, expression of both the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. bayanus components of the hybrid lager strain were determined. Expression profiles were either markedly different (ADH1, ERG3) or very similar (MALx1, ILV5, ATF1) between these two components. By frequent analysis of a chosen set of genes, TRAC provided a detailed and dynamic picture of the physiological state of the fermenting yeast. This approach offers a possible way to monitor and optimize the performance of yeast in a complex process environment.

  18. Mapping yeast transcriptional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Timothy R; de Boer, Carl G

    2013-09-01

    The term "transcriptional network" refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face. For most yeast TFs, data have been collected on their sequence preferences, in vivo promoter occupancy, and gene expression profiles in deletion mutants. These systematic studies have led to the identification of new regulators of numerous cellular functions and shed light on the overall organization of yeast gene regulation. However, many yeast TFs appear to be inactive under standard laboratory growth conditions, and many of the available data were collected using techniques that have since been improved. Perhaps as a consequence, comprehensive and accurate mapping among TF sequence preferences, promoter binding, and gene expression remains an open challenge. We propose that the time is ripe for renewed systematic efforts toward a complete mapping of yeast transcriptional regulatory mechanisms.

  19. Host-pathogen interactions. XIV. Isolation and partial characterization of an elicitor from yeast extract. [Glycine max, Phytophthora megasperma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, M.G.; Albersheim, P.

    1978-01-01

    An elicitor of glyceollin accumulation in soybeans (Glycine max L.) has been isolated from a commercially available extract of brewers' yeast. Yeast is not a known pathogen of plants. The elicitor was isolated by precipitation in 80% (v/v) ethanol followed by column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, sulfopropyl-Sephadex, and concanavalin A-Sepharose. Compositional and structural analysis showed the elicitor to be a glucan containing terminal, 3-, 6-, and 3,6-linked glucosyl residues. The yeast elicitor stimulates the accumulation of glyceollin in the cotyledons and hypocotyls of soybeans when as little as 15 nanograms or 100 nanograms of the elicitor is applied to the respective tissues. The yeast elicitor is very similar in both structure and absolute elicitor activity to an elicitor isolated from the mycelial walls of Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae, a pathogen of soybeans. These and other results of this laboratory suggest that plants are able to respond to the presence of a wide range of fungi by recognizing, as foreign to the plant, structural polysaccharides of the mycelial walls of the fungi.

  20. 啤酒酵母泥中的功能性成分及其应用前景%The functional component and application prospect of waste brewer(s) yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宏伟; 王春玲; 丁红洁

    2013-01-01

    啤酒酵母泥是啤酒生产中的重要副产物,其营养素含量丰富,种类齐全,是天然的营养来源和营养载体,充分开发和利用啤酒酵母泥,不仅可以变废为宝,又可增加经济效益.通过对近年来啤酒酵母泥功能性成分、应用状况进行调查研究,从而对啤酒酵母泥的应用前景略作阐述.

  1. [Fructose transporter in yeasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Zbigniew; Dobrowolski, Adam; Robak, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Study of hexoses transporter started with discovery of galactose permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Glucose, fructose and mannose assimilation is assumed by numerous proteins encoded by different genes. To date over 20 hexoses transporters, belonging to Sugar Porter family and to Major Facilitator Superfamily, were known. Genome sequence analysis of Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces lactis, Yarrowia lipolytica, S. cerevisaie and Debaryomyces hansenii reveled potential presence of 17-48 sugar porter proteins. Glucose transporters in S. cerevisiae have been already characterized. In this paper, hexoses transporters, responsible for assimilation of fructose by cells, are presented and compared. Fructose specific transporter are described for yeasts: Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Zygosaccharomyces bailli, K. lactis, Saccharomyces pastorianus, S. cerevisiae winemaking strain and for fungus Botritys cinerea and human (Glut5p). Among six yeasts transporters, five are fructose specific, acting by facilitated diffusion or proton symport. Yeasts monosaccharides transporter studies allow understanding of sugars uptake and metabolism important aspects, even in higher eukaryotes cells.

  2. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric; Suominen, Pirkko

    2010-12-07

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains. ##STR00001##

  3. Assessment and characterisation of yeast-based products intended to mitigate ochratoxin exposure using in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A; Hadjeba-Medjdoub, K; Ballet, N; Schrickx, J; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the capacity of several yeast-based products, derived from baker's and brewer's yeasts, to sequester the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) and to decrease its rate of absorption and DNA adduct formation in vivo. The experimental protocol included in vitro binding studies using isotherm models, in vivo chicken experiments, in which the serum and tissue concentrations of OTA were analysed in the absence and presence of the test compounds, and the profile of OTA-derived metabolites and their associated DNA adducts were determined. Additionally in vitro cell culture studies (HK2 cells) were applied to assess further the effects for yeast cell product enriched with glutathione (GSH) or selenium. Results of the in vitro binding assay in a buffer system indicated the ability of the yeast-based products, as sequester of OTA, albeit at a different level. In the in vitro experiments in chickens, decreased serum and tissue concentrations of treated animals confirmed that yeast-based products are able to prevent the absorption of OTA. A comparison of the binding affinity in a standard in vitro binding assay with the results obtained in an in vivo chicken experiment, however, showed a poor correlation and resulted in a different ranking of the products. More importantly, we could show that yeast-based products actively modulate the biotransformation of OTA in vivo as well as in vitro in a cell culture model. This effect seems to be attributable to residual enzymatic activities in the yeast-based products. An enrichment of yeast cell wall products with GSH or selenium further modulated the profile of the generated OTA metabolites and the associated pattern of OTA-induced DNA adducts by increasing the conversion of OTA into less toxic metabolites such as OTA, OTB and 4-OH-OTA. A reduced absorption and DNA adduct formation was particularly observed with GSH-enriched yeast, whereas selenium-enriched yeasts could counteract the OTA-induced decrease

  4. Modified calibration procedures for a Yankee Environmental System UVB-1 biometer based on spectral measurements with a brewer spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, José M; Cachorro, Victoria E; Sorribas, Mar; Luccini, Eduardo; de Frutos, Angel M; Berjón, Alberto; de la Morena, Benito

    2006-01-01

    The calibration of the erythemal irradiance measured by a Yankee Environmental System (YES) UVB-1 biometer is presented using two methods of calibration with a wide range of experimental solar zenith angles (SZAs) and ozone values. The calibration is performed through simultaneous spectral measurements by a calibrated double-monochromator Brewer MK-III spectrophotometer at "El Arenosillo" station, located in southwestern Spain. Because the range of spectral measurements of the Brewer spectrophotometer is 290-363 nm, a previously validated radiative transfer model was used to account for the erythemal contribution between 363 and 400 nm. Both methods are recommended by the World Meteorological Organization and we present and discuss here a wide range of results and features given by modified procedures applied to these two general methods. As is well established, the calibration factor for this type of radiometric system is dependent on atmospheric conditions, the most important of which are the ozone content and the SZA. Although the first method is insensitive to these two factors, we analyze this behavior in terms of the range used for the SZA and the use of two different mathematical approaches for its determination. The second method shows the dependence on SZA and ozone content and, thus, a polynomial as a function of SZA or a matrix including SZA and ozone content were determined as general calibration factors for the UV radiometric system. We must note that the angular responses of the YES radiometer and Brewer spectroradiometer have not been considered, because of the difficulty in correcting them. The results show in detail the advantages and drawbacks (and the corresponding associated error) given by the different approaches used for the determination of these calibration coefficients.

  5. Detailed Aerosol Optical Depth Intercomparison between Brewer and Li-Cor 1800 Spectroradiometers and a Cimel Sun Photometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachorro, V. E.; Berjon, A.; Toledano, C.; Mogo, S.; Prats, N.; de Frutos, A. M.; Sorribas, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; de la Morena, B. A.; Grobner, Julian; Laulainen, Nels

    2009-08-01

    We present here representative results about a comparison of aerosol optical depth (AOD) using different instruments during three short and intensive campaigns carried out from 1999 to 2001 at El Arenosillo (Huelva, Spain). The specific aim of this study is to determine the level of agreement between three different instruments operating at our station. This activity, however, is part of a broader objective to recover an extended data series of AOD in the UV range obtained from a Brewer spectroradiometer. This instrument may be used to obtain AOD at the same five UV wavelengths used during normal operation for ozone content determination. As part of the validation of the Brewer AOD data recovery process, a Cimel sun photometer and another spectroradiometer, a Licor1800, were used. The Licor1800 spectroradiometer (which covers the spectral range 300-1100 nm) was the first instrument used at this station for aerosol monitoring (1996-99) and it was operated during these intercomparison campaigns (1999-2001) specifically to assess the continuity of the AOD data series. The Cimel sunphotometer was installed at our station at the beginning of 2000 as part of AERONET to provide AOD data over the visible and near infrared spectrum. A detailed comparison of these three instruments is carried out by means of near-simultaneous measurements, with particular emphasis on examining any diurnal AOD variability that may be linked with calibration and/or measurement errors or real atmospheric variability. Because the comparison is carried out from UV (320nm) to near infrared (1020nm) wavelengths under all possible atmospheric conditions (including clouds), AOD values range from near zero up to 1. Absolute AOD uncertainties range from 0.02 for the Cimel to 0.08 for the Brewer, with intermediate values for the Licor1800. All the values during the comparison are in reasonable agreement, when taking into account the different performance characteristics of each instrument. The

  6. Aerosol Optical Depth measurements at 340 nm with a Brewer spectrophotometer and comparison with Cimel sunphotometer observations at Uccle, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. De Bock

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Langley Plot Method (LPM is adapted for the retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD values at 340 nm from Brewer#178 sun scan measurements between 335 and 345 nm (convoluted with the band pass function of the Cimel sunphotometer filter at 340 nm performed in Uccle, Belgium. The use of sun scans instead of direct sun measurements simplifies the comparison of the AOD values with quasi-simultaneous Cimel sunphotometer values. Also, the irradiance at 340 nm is larger than the one at 320.1 nm due to lower ozone absorption, thus improving the signal to noise ratio. For the selection of the cloudless days (from now on referred to as calibration quality clear days, a new set of criteria is proposed. With the adapted method, individual clear sky AOD values, for which the selection criteria are also presented in this article, are calculated for a period from September 2006 until the end of August 2010. These values are then compared to quasi-simultaneous Cimel sunphotometer measurements, showing a very good agreement (the correlation coefficient, the slope and the intercept of the regression line are respectively 0.974, 0.968 and 0.011, which proves that good quality observations can be obtained from Brewer sun scan measurements at 340 nm. The analysis of the monthly and seasonal Brewer AODs at Uccle is consistent with studies at other sites reporting on the seasonal variation of AODs in Europe. The highest values can be observed in summer and spring, whereas more than 50% of the winter AODs are lower than 0.3. On a monthly scale, the lowest AOD are observed in December and the highest values occur in June and April. No clear weekly cycle is observed for Uccle. The current cloud-screening algorithm is still an issue, which means that some AOD values can still be influenced by scattered clouds. This effect can be seen when comparing the calculated monthly mean values of the Brewer with the AERONET measurements.

  7. The Brewer-Dobson circulation and total ozone from seasonal to decadal time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Weber

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the winter Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC on the seasonal and decadal evolution of total ozone in both hemispheres is investigated using satellite total ozone data and outputs from two chemistry-climate models (CCM. Combining data from both hemispheres a linear relationship between the winter cumulative extratropical 100 hPa eddy heat flux and the ozone ratio with respect to fall ozone levels exists and is statistically significant for tropical as well as polar ozone. The high correlation at high latitudes persists well into the summer months until the onset of the next winter season. The anti-correlation of the cumulative eddy heat flux with tropical ozone ratios, however, breaks down in spring as the polar vortex erodes and changes to a weak positive correlation similar to that observed at high latitudes. The inter-annual variability and decadal evolution of ozone in each hemisphere in winter, spring, and summer are therefore driven by the cumulative effect of the previous winter's meridional circulation. This compact linear relationship is also found in two different CCMs (EMAC-FUB, DLR-E39C-A indicating that current models realistically describe the variability in stratospheric circulation and its climate effect on total ozone. Both models show a positive trend in the winter mean eddy heat flux (and winter BDC strength in both hemispheres until year 2050, however the inter-annual variability (peak-to-peak is two to three times larger than the mean change between 1960 and 2050. It is, therefore, possible to detect a shift in this compact linear relationship related to past and future changes in the stratospheric halogen load. A similar shift is difficult to derive from observational data since the satellite era now spanning more than thirty years is still fairly short.

  8. Variability in the Speed of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation as Observed by Aura/MLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, Thomas; Wu, Dong L.; Read, W. G.

    2013-01-01

    We use Aura/MLS stratospheric water vapour (H2O) measurements as tracer for dynamics and infer interannual variations in the speed of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) from 2004 to 2011. We correlate one-year time series of H2O in the lower stratosphere at two subsequent pressure levels (68 hPa, approx.18.8 km and 56 hPa, approx 19.9 km at the Equator) and determine the time lag for best correlation. The same calculation is made on the horizontal on the 100 hPa (approx 16.6 km) level by correlating the H2O time series at the Equator with the ones at 40 N and 40 S. From these lag coefficients we derive the vertical and horizontal speeds of the BDC in the tropics and extra-tropics, respectively. We observe a clear interannual variability of the vertical and horizontal branch. The variability reflects signatures of the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO). Our measurements confirm the QBO meridional circulation anomalies and show that the speed variations in the two branches of the BDC are out of phase and fairly well anti-correlated. Maximum ascent rates are found during the QBO easterly phase. We also find that transport of H2O towards the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is on the average two times faster than to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) with a mean speed of 1.15m/s at 100 hPa. Furthermore, the speed towards the NH shows much more interannual variability with an amplitude of about 21% whilst the speed towards the SH varies by only 10 %. An amplitude of 21% is also observed in the variability of the ascent rate at the Equator which is on the average 0.2mm/s.

  9. Methane as a Diagnostic Tracer of Changes in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation of the Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study makes use of time series of methane (CH4/ data from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) to detect whether there were any statistically significant changes of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) within the stratosphere during 1992-2005. The HALOE CH4 profiles are in terms of mixing ratio versus pressure altitude and are binned into latitude zones within the Southern Hemisphere and the Northern Hemisphere. Their separate time series are then analyzed using multiple linear regression (MLR) techniques. The CH4 trend terms for the Northern Hemisphere are significant and positive at 10 N from 50 to 7 hPa and larger than the tropospheric CH4 trends of about 3%decade(exp -1) from 20 to 7 hPa. At 60 N the trends are clearly negative from 20 to 7 hPa. Their combined trends indicate an acceleration of the BDC in the middle stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere during those years, most likely due to changes from the effects of wave activity. No similar significant BDC acceleration is found for the Southern Hemisphere. Trends from HALOE H2O are analyzed for consistency. Their mutual trends with CH4 are anti-correlated qualitatively in the middle and upper stratosphere, where CH4 is chemically oxidized to H2O. Conversely, their mutual trends in the lower stratosphere are dominated by their trends upon entry to the tropical stratosphere. Time series residuals for CH4 in the lower mesosphere also exhibit structures that are anti-correlated in some instances with those of the tracer-like species HCl. Their occasional aperiodic structures indicate the effects of transport following episodic, wintertime wave activity. It is concluded that observed multi-year, zonally averaged distributions of CH4 can be used to diagnose major instances of wave-induced transport in the middle atmosphere and to detect changes in the stratospheric BDC.

  10. Proteolytic activities in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheki, T; Holzer, H

    1975-03-28

    Studies on the mechanism and time course of the activation of proteinases A (EC 3.4.23.8), B (EC 3.4.22.9) and C (EC 3.4.12.--) in crude yeast extracts at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C showed that the increase in proteinase B activity is paralleled with the disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor. Addition of purified proteinase A to fresh crude extracts accelerates the inactivation of the proteinase B inhibitor and the appearance of maximal activities of proteinases B and C. The decrease of proteinase B inhibitor activity and the increase of proteinase B activity are markedly retarded by the addition of pepstatin. Because 10-minus 7 M pepstatin completely inhibits proteinase A without affecting proteinase B activity, this is another indication for the role of proteinase A during the activation of proteinase B. Whereas extracts of yeast grown on minimal medium reached maximal activation of proteinases B and C after 20 h of incubation at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C, extracts of yeast grown on complete medium had to be incubated for about 100 h. In the latter case, the addition of proteinas A results in maximal activation of proteinases B and C and disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor activity only after 10--20 h of incubation. With the optimal conditions, the maximal activities of proteinases A, B and C, as well as of the proteinase B inhibitor, were determined in crude extracts of yeast that had been grown batchwise for different lengths of time either on minimal or on complete medium. Upon incubation, all three proteinases were activated by several times their initial activity. This reflects the existence of proteolytically degradable inhibitors of the three proteinases and together with the above mentioned observations it demonstrates that the "activation" of yeast proteinases A, B and C upon incubation results from the proteolytic digestion of inhibitors rather than from activation of inactive zymogens by limited proteolysis.

  11. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

    2013-02-12

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

  12. Mapping Yeast Transcriptional Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Timothy R; de Boer, Carl G.

    2013-01-01

    The term “transcriptional network” refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face....

  13. Enhanced ethanol production from brewer's spent grain by a Fusarium oxysporum consolidated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christakopoulos Paul

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brewer's spent grain (BG, a by-product of the brewing process, is attracting increasing scientific interest as a low-cost feedstock for many biotechnological applications. BG in the present study is evaluated as a substrate for lignocellulolytic enzyme production and for the production of ethanol by the mesophilic fungus Fusarium oxysporum under submerged conditions, implementing a consolidated bioconversion process. Fermentation experiments were performed with sugar mixtures simulating the carbohydrate content of BG in order to determine the utilization pattern that could be expected during the fermentation of the cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysate of BG. The sugar mixture fermentation study focused on the effect of the initial total sugar concentration and on the effect of the aeration rate on fermenting performance of F. oxysporum. The alkali pretreatment of BG and different aeration levels during the ethanol production stage were studied for the optimization of the ethanol production by F. oxysporum. Results Enzyme yields as high as 550, 22.5, 6.5, 3225, 0.3, 1.25 and 3 U per g of carbon source of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, β-D-glucosidase, xylanase, feruloyl esterase, β-D-xylosidase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase respectively, were obtained during the growth stage under optimized submerged conditions. An ethanol yield of 109 g ethanol per kg of dry BG was obtained with alkali-pretreated BG under microaerobic conditions (0.01 vvm, corresponding to 60% of the theoretical yield based on total glucose and xylose content of BG. Conclusion The enzymatic profile of the extracellular extract from F. oxysporum submerged cultures using BG and corn cob as the carbon source was proved efficient for a successful hydrolysis of BG. The fermentation study carried out using sugar mixtures simulating BG's carbohydrates content and consecutively alkali-pretreated and untreated BG, indicates that BG hydrolysis is the bottleneck

  14. Genomics and the making of yeast biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasts are unicellular fungi that do not form fruiting bodies. Although the yeast lifestyle has evolved multiple times, most known species belong to the subphylum Saccharomycotina (syn. Hemiascomycota, hereafter yeasts). This diverse group includes the premier eukaryotic model system, Saccharomyces ...

  15. Isolation and Screening of Fine Strains of Yeast%优良酵母菌株的分离和筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓辉; 张效川; 辛小玲; 白延琴; 徐文华; 蔡涛; 辛亚平; 昝林森

    2013-01-01

    The experiment adopted malt extract medium and straw powder medium, applied plate streaking method to isolate yeasts form silage and distiller soluble which are rich in yeasts, after optimizing the cultivating condition, the superior yeast strains for ruminant forage were isolated. The results showed that no. 9 strain isolated from silage and barley brewer's grain had the highest biological yield, and the OD value was 2. 231, which is a superior yeast strain.%试验采用麦芽浸粉培养基和秸秆粉培养基,利用平板划线法,从富含酵母菌的青贮饲料和酒糟饲料中分离出酵母菌,经过培养条件的优化,从中筛选出用作反刍动物饲用的优良酵母菌株.试验结果表明,从青贮玉米和大麦啤酒糟中分离得到9号菌株生物产量最高,OD值为2.231,为优良酵母菌株.

  16. Inheritance of the yeast mitochondrial genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure

    1994-01-01

    Mitochondrion, extrachromosomal genetics, intergenic sequences, genome size, mitochondrial DNA, petite mutation, yeast......Mitochondrion, extrachromosomal genetics, intergenic sequences, genome size, mitochondrial DNA, petite mutation, yeast...

  17. Yeast two-hybrid screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Yeast two-hybrid is a method for screening large numbers of gene products (encoded by cDNA libraries) for their ability to interact with a protein of interest. This system can also be used for characterizing and manipulating candidate protein: protein interactions. Interactions between proteins are monitored by the growth of yeast plated on selective media.

  18. Biosorption of Pb2+ by Immobilized Discarded Brewers Yeast%固定化啤酒废酵母对Pb2+的吸附

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵增华; 王婵; 王战勇

    2007-01-01

    用2 %海藻酸钠与1 %明胶混合为包埋剂固定啤酒酵母废菌体,研究固定化啤酒废酵母对Pb2+的吸附行为.利用原子吸收光谱法测定Pb2+含量.结果表明,固定化啤酒废酵母吸附Pb2+受吸附时间、吸附温度、溶液pH值、酵母添加量和Pb2+起始浓度等因素影响.实验确定了固定化啤酒废酵母对Pb2+的最佳吸附条件.即:pH为3.0~5.0,Pb2+浓度为100 mg·L-1,酵母添加量1.2 g·L-1,吸附温度25 ℃,吸附时间120 min.在一定的浓度范围内啤酒废酵母对Pb2+的吸附符合Langmuir吸附模型和Freundlich吸附模型,但符合Freundlich吸附模型的程度更优.

  19. Biosorption of Cr(Ⅵ) by immobilized discarded brewers yeast%固定化啤酒废酵母对Cr(VI)的吸附

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帅; 程昊

    2009-01-01

    用2%海藻酸钠与1%明胶混合作为包埋剂固定啤酒废酵母,研究固定化啤酒废酵母对Cr(Ⅳ)的吸附特性.结果表明,固定化啤酒废酵母吸附Cr(Ⅵ)受吸附时间、起始pH、固定化菌体浓度、cr(Ⅵ)起始浓度及共存离子等因素的影响.确定固定化啤酒废酵母对Cr(Ⅵ)最佳吸附条件为:pH 2,Cr(Ⅵ)起始浓度100 mg/L,固定化菌体浓度2 g/L,吸附90 min.此条件下Cr(Ⅵ)的吸附率可达96.8%.Pd2+等并存离子可抑制固定化啤酒废酵母对Cr(Ⅵ)的吸附.用1 mol/L盐酸洗脱固定化啤酒废酵母所吸附的Cr(Ⅵ)3 h,解吸率为93.6%.

  20. Study on bio-adsorption of copper (Ⅱ) by brewer's yeast%啤酒酵母菌对铜离子的吸附研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志东; 李娜; 邱峰

    2007-01-01

    采用辽宁天湖啤酒厂的啤酒酵母自制生物吸附剂,用于吸附金属离子铜,考察了啤酒酵母吸附Cu2+过程中的影响因素,包括pH、反应时问、酵母浓度及金属离子浓度.实验结果表明,啤酒酵母对Cu2+的吸附量随pH的增加而增大,吸附的最佳pH范围是3.5~4.5,当pH=4时达到吸附最大值;随着初始Cu2+质量浓度增加,吸附量有所提高;当溶液初始Cu2+质量浓度为80mg/L,pH 4时,吸附量达到最大;啤酒酵母的浓度及反应时间分别为1.0 g/L和0.5h时吸附效果最佳.

  1. Study on Autolysis Conditions of Waste Brewer's Yeast%啤酒废酵母自溶条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤务霞

    2006-01-01

    本文探讨了以啤酒废酵母为原料,采用自溶法生产酵母抽提物的条件.结果表明:以食盐为啤酒酵母自溶促进剂的最佳作用条件是10%的啤酒酵母悬浮液在pH5.0、温度50℃、食盐浓度3%下,自溶40h,所得酵母抽提液的氨基氮含量为0.498g/100mL,产品得率47.50%,风味非常醇厚.

  2. Preparation of Alkali - Insoluble Glucan from Discarded Brewers Yeast%啤酒废酵母制备碱不溶性葡聚糖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王战勇; 杨双春; 苏婷婷

    2006-01-01

    以啤酒废酵母为原料,采用碱提法确定了碱不溶性葡聚糖的制备条件,使用1.0 mol·L-1的NaOH溶液,以固液比为1:5进行提取,45℃处理6 h.此条件下碱不溶性葡聚糖得率可达10.94%,其多糖质量分数可达91.57%.红外光谱分析显示产品为β-(1-3)键的葡聚糖,其中不含甘露聚糖.

  3. Study on Autolysis Conditions of Waste Brewer's Yeast%啤酒废酵母自溶条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤务霞

    2006-01-01

    探讨了以啤酒废酵母为原料,采用自溶法生产酵母抽提物的条件.结果表明:以食盐为啤酒酵母自溶促进剂的最佳作用条件是10%的啤酒酵母悬浮液在pH5.0、温度50℃、食盐浓度3%下,自溶40h,所得酵母抽提液的氨基氮含量为0.498g/100mL,产品得率47.50%,风味非常醇厚.

  4. 弱碱盐法提取核糖核酸工艺的研究%Study on Extraction of Ribonucleic Acid from Brewer's Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 刘建军; 赵祥颖; 李静

    2008-01-01

    啤酒废酵母作为啤酒生产排放的主要废弃物,核糖核酸的含量高达4.5%~8.3%.搞好综合利用具有重要的意义.提出了浓盐法与稀碱法相结合即弱碱盐法提取核糖核酸的工艺技术路线,酵母中核糖核酸的提取率达到90%以上,样品的纯度达到90.3%.

  5. 啤酒废酵母变温自溶条件的研究%Study on autolysis conditiohs of spent brewer yeast by changing temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雪薇; 罗晓明; 刘永乐

    2003-01-01

    研究了啤酒废酵母的变温自溶,并优化了变温自溶的条件.在初始pH6.0、自溶加水量200%(W/W)、自溶时间26h(40℃保持6h→50℃保持14h→60℃保持6h)进行变温自溶,抽提液氨基氮含量及收率均高于恒温自溶.

  6. Metabolic mechanism of organic acid production by brewer's yeast%啤酒酵母发酵产有机酸的生理代谢机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙付保; 任洪艳; 赵长新

    2005-01-01

    以微波破壁和高效液相色谱法,对通风发酵过程中的啤酒酵母细胞胞外、胞内六种有机酸含量的动态变化进行了跟踪检测.研究结果表明,酵母细胞对一部分有机酸有着非常亲缘性的代谢途径和生理机制;柠檬酸等某些有机酸在酵母细胞衰老凋亡时作为碳底物代谢,存在着非常严格的精确保守性、经济效能性调控机制.

  7. Research progress of integrated utilization of spent brewer's yeast%废啤酒酵母综合利用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟峰; 周素梅; 王强

    2008-01-01

    从酵母的营养与有效成分入手,全面回顾了近年来国内外利用废啤酒酵母开发食用营养酵母、分离蛋白,肽、氨基酸等新蛋白资源产品,生产酵母抽提物功能性调味品,以及提取β-葡聚糖、甘露聚糖、海藻糖、SOD、谷胱甘肽等功能活性物质方面的研究动态和进展,阐述了对废啤酒酵母资源综合利用的重要性.

  8. Screening of low diacetyl brewer's yeast strain BEZ112%低双乙酰啤酒酵母菌株BEZ112的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀丽; 唐晓达; 蔡车国; 刘月英; 魏文铃; 戴玉聪; 郑建山

    2003-01-01

    以啤酒酿造生产菌株啤酒酵母(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)FB作为出发菌株,用甲基磺酸乙酯(EMS)诱变,经分离筛选得到一株优良的啤酒酵母菌株BEZ112。该菌株的絮凝性、发酵度、酒精度、发酵液的总酯和总高级醇的含量等特性保持了亲株的优良性状。但以12°Bx麦芽汁为培养基用500mL三角瓶在12℃下发酵,该菌株发酵至第4d,发酵液中的双乙酰含量达到峰值(0.291mg/L),比出发菌株FB发酵4d的峰值降低了30%,发酵至第8d,BEZ112发酵液中的双乙酰含量比出发菌株FB的降低了23%。以12°Bx麦芽汁为培养基用500L罐在12℃下发酵8d,BEZ112发酵液中的双乙酰含量(0.091mg/L)比出发菌株FB的(0.124mg/L)降低了27%。发酵得到的啤酒口感纯正清爽。

  9. Study on the Autolysis Kinetics of Brewer Yeast%啤酒酵母自溶动力学的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓鸣; 袁信华; 章克昌

    2000-01-01

    研究了啤酒酵母自溶过程中溶出产物随自溶时间的变化,建立了啤酒酵母自溶过程中产物溶出的非结构性动力学模型.应用非线性最小方差回归方法得到自溶反应的速度常数Ka及产物生成系数αKP、βLP等.酵母自溶过程中产物溶出遵循一级反应速度方程.

  10. 诱导啤酒酵母细胞溶解释放蛋白质%Release of Protein by Induced Brewer's Yeast Cell Lysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈廷登; 刘献军; 宁静

    2000-01-01

    采用自溶法、自溶+酶解法、诱导剂+自溶+酶解法对S.Cerevisiae YJ 酵母细胞进行生物处理使其释放蛋白质及其分解产物.对反应产物α-氨基氮和细胞蛋白质溶出率及细胞干基提取率的测定结果表明:诱导剂+自溶+酶解法的作用效果明显优于自溶+酶解法及自溶法.诱导剂+自溶+酶解法比自溶+酶解法及自溶法的反应产物中游离α-氨基氮分别提高了9.0 mg/g及23.0 mg/g(以干酵母计),细胞蛋白质溶出率分别提高了13.50%及29.83%,细胞干基提取率分别提高了7.0%及20.90%.

  11. 谈酿酒酵母在不同原料上的代谢%Analysis of the Brewer's Yeast Metabolism on Different Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    信春晖; 胥伟宏; 王凤丽; 许玲; 董乔娟

    2013-01-01

    研究五株常用酿酒酵母在不同原料上的培养代谢.结果表明:1.代谢产物与菌种有关;2.J-4酵母是芝麻香型酒酿造的重要菌种;3.多菌种酿造有利于丰富酒的香味成分.

  12. 啤酒酵母中提取核糖核酸的研究%Study on Cell Breaking Extraction of Ribonucleic Acid from Brewer Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊东; 黄国荣; 糜漫天; 郎海滨

    2006-01-01

    本实验采用食盐破壁法和高压均质破壁法提取啤酒酵母中的核糖核酸(RNA).结果表明:在盐浓度为8%,温度为121℃,时间为30min,沉淀pH2的工艺条件下,RNA提取率为2.21%.高压均质压力为70MPa,均质3次的工艺条件下,RNA提取率为3.08%.

  13. Study of Antolyse Condition of Selenium-enriched Brewer's Yeast%富硒啤酒酵母自溶条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉荣; 赵进宝

    2003-01-01

    本文研究了富硒啤酒酵母的自溶条件,并利用酶制剂改进其自溶条件,确定了富硒啤酒酵母的最适水解条件.采用食盐作自溶促进剂,最适添加量为3%,自溶最适加水量为250%,最适温度为50 ℃,pH值为6.5.采用蛋白酶可以促进自溶过程,最适添加量为0.03%,可将自溶时间由48 h减少到24 h,并提高氨基氮的含量.

  14. 固定化中性蛋白酶水解啤酒废酵母的研究%Hydrolysis of used brewer yeast with immobilized neutral proteinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠义; 覃明; 张妙玲; 龙志远

    2003-01-01

    以离子交换树脂为载体,以戊二醛为交联剂,固定化中性蛋白酶,再利用固定化的酶来水解啤酒废酵母.本文研究了不同水解时间和温度、不同的酶量对啤酒酵母水解的影响.通过研究发现,树脂styene-DVB D392对中性蛋白酶的固定化效果及固定化之后对酵母的水解效果比较好.

  15. 用啤酒废弃生物质酿造鲜味酱油的研究%Soy sauce production with used brewer yeast from brewery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李魁

    2003-01-01

    论述了以啤酒废弃生物质替代豆粕为生产主原料,利用混合茵种发酵酿造鲜味酱油;确定了发酵原料的最佳配比为:啤酒废弃生物质:豆粕:麸皮:小麦粉=30:30:35:5;全氮利用率达69.91%,最佳发酵期为24d;成品酱油质量符合国家二级酱油标准;成品酱油吨成本比全豆粕酱油降低220元.

  16. THE APPLICATION OF BREWER'S YEAST IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY%啤酒废酵母在食品工业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 刘建军; 赵祥颖

    2008-01-01

    啤酒废酵母富含蛋白质、核酸、维生素、矿物质等多种营养成分,在食品工业具有良好的开发应用前景,主要论述了啤酒废酵母在食品行业应用现状及前景.

  17. 啤酒废酵母菌体吸附Ni2+的特性研究%Biosorption of Beer Discarded Brewer's Yeast to Ni2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武运; 苏小明; 陶永霞; 张子萱; 古丽娜孜

    2009-01-01

    啤酒废酵母菌体是一种新型的生物吸附剂,可用于处理重金属离子.本实验研究不同吸附温度、吸附时间、pH值,以及镍离子浓度和啤酒废酵母菌体浓度条件下,啤酒废酵母菌体对Ni2+的吸附能力.初步确定啤酒废酵母菌体对Ni2+吸附的最佳组合,即吸附温度为40℃、吸附时间为60min、起始pH值为5、啤酒废酵母菌体的质量浓度为0.9g/L、Ni2+质量浓度为230mg/L,在此条件下啤酒废酵母菌体对Ni2+吸附率可达57%左右.

  18. 低双乙酰啤酒酵母工程菌的构建%Construction of diacetyl - low brewer's yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 铁翠娟; 王正祥; 张博润; 诸葛健

    2002-01-01

    利用PCR技术以啤酒酵母QY的染色体为模板扩增出含有乙酰羟酸合成酶(AHAS)基因ILV2的片段,将ILV2基因的内部EcoRI片段连接到整合载体YIp5上,并在该载体的Bam HI-Sall位点插入铜抗性基因CUP1-MT1,构建了YIpCE质粒,将其转化啤酒酵母QY,所得到的转化子AHAS酶的活力比受体菌QY降低75%左右,在发酵测试中,转化了产生双乙酰的量比原始菌株降低30%.

  19. Autolysis of Brewers' Yeast and Its Influence on Beer Quality%啤酒酵母的自溶及对啤酒质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝秋娟; 李崎; 顾国贤

    2005-01-01

    啤酒酵母的质量对啤酒风味至关重要,由于各种原因会造成啤酒酵母的自溶,从而影响啤酒的质量.文章讨论了啤酒酿造过程中影响啤酒酵母自溶的各种因素,并提出了防止啤酒酵母自溶的工艺措施.

  20. Extraction of polysaccharide from brewer yeast slurry%啤酒酵母泥中酵母多糖提取方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宏伟; 张海龙; 丁红洁

    2013-01-01

    [目的]比较不同方法对啤酒酵母泥中多糖的提取效果,旨在为啤酒酵母泥的高效利用提供依据.[方法]采用传统热水浸提法、超声波处理技术、微波辅助提取法、冻融法和酶法从啤酒酵母泥中提取多糖,比较提取效果,并研究了其中提取效果较好的2种方法对酵母多糖提取的协同作用.[结果]传统热水浸提法的酵母多糖提取率为12.8 mg/g,酵母细胞破壁率为38%;采用超声波处理技术提取时,时间应控制在30 min内,酵母多糖提取率最高达17.6 mg/g,酵母细胞破壁率为54%;采用微波辅助提取法提取时,时间应不超过3.5 min,酵母多糖提取率最高达16.6 mg/g,酵母细胞破壁率达48%;采用冻融法处理啤酒酵母泥,反复冻融5次时,酵母多糖提取率最高可达13.7mg/g,酵母细胞破壁率达42%;采用酶法处理时,当木瓜蛋白酶用量为200 IU/g、温度为50℃、时间为15 h时,酵母多糖提取率为18.0 mg/g,酵母细胞破壁率为58%;采用超声波处理技术与酶法相结合处理啤酒酵母泥时,酵母多糖提取率可达24.5 mg/g,酵母细胞破壁率达75%.[结论]采用超声波处理技术与酶法提取酵母泥中的多糖时,二者具有协同作用,且提取效果较好.

  1. 啤酒废酵母中蛋白质提取工艺的研究%Study on Extraction of Protein from Waste Brewer's Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蓉; 邓泽元; 李瑞贞

    2007-01-01

    本研究在采用诱导剂+自溶法的基础上,结合多种提取方法,通过对比和正交试验确定啤酒废酵母中蛋白质的最佳提取工艺及参数,并用胃蛋白酶-胰蛋白酶联合消化法测定提取蛋白质的消化率.实验结果表明使用诱导剂+自溶+酶解法提取较好,最佳工艺条件为:温度50℃、pH值7.0、酶解自溶时间为40h、中性蛋白酶用量25U/g干酵母、β-葡聚糖酶用量15U/g干酵母.在此条件下,粗蛋白质得率达27%.啤酒废酵母提取的粗蛋白质体外消化率为81.06%.

  2. 高浓发酵和酸洗对酿造酵母的影响%Effects of High- gravity Brewing and Acid Washing on Brewer's Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许瑶; 刘义刚

    2000-01-01

    用磷酸类杀菌物质来洗涤接种酵母,以避免细菌污染是许多啤酒厂通用的方法,使用不正确的方法洗涤酵母将使其发酵特性下降并产生不良影响.酵母酸洗后接种于12'P麦汁,发酵特性没有明显下降;而接种于20'P麦汁,在发酵的第一个24小时,酵母的活力就有所下降,但酵母的发酵特性没有变化.通过检测20'P麦汁的糖,发现葡萄糖的利用率下降,导致麦芽糖的利用滞后,在12'P麦汁中,葡萄糖和麦芽糖的利用没有这种现象.

  3. Volatiles formation from grape must fermentation using a cryophilic and thermotolerant yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Bosnea, Loulouda; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2012-07-01

    Grape must fermentation performance and volatiles formation by simultaneously cryophilic and thermotolerant yeast (strain AXAZ-1), isolated from grapes in Greece, was evaluated in a wide temperature range (5-40°C). Yeast strain was immobilized on brewer's spent grains (BSG) and the formed biocatalyst was introduced into a Multi-Stage Fixed Bed Tower (MFBT) bioreactor. Almost complete sugar utilization from the aforementioned biocatalyst was observed in a wide temperature spectrum, ranging from 5 °C to 37 °C, while at 40 °C residual sugar was up to 29 g/l. Time to complete fermentation with the immobilized yeast ranged from 290 h at 5 °C and 120 h at 40 °C to 25 h at 33 °C. The daily ethanol productivity reached maximum (88.6 g/l) and minimum (5.6 g/l) levels at 33 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The aroma-related compounds' profiles of immobilized cells at different fermentation temperatures were evaluated by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Must fermentation resulted in a high-quality fermentation product due to the low concentrations of higher and amyl alcohols at all temperatures tested. AXAZ-1 is a very promising strain for quality wine production, as it is capable of performing fermentations of high ethanol concentration and productivities in both low and high temperatures.

  4. Comparison of UV irradiances from Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI with Brewer measurements at El Arenosillo (Spain – Part 1: Analysis of parameter influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antón

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to compare the erythemal UV irradiance (UVER and spectral UV irradiances (at 305, 310 and 324 nm from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI onboard NASA EOS/Aura polar sun-synchronous satellite (launched in July 2004, local equator crossing time 01:45 p.m. with ground-based measurements from the Brewer spectrophotometer #150 located at El Arenosillo (South of Spain. The analyzed period comprises more than four years, from October 2004 to December 2008. The effects of several factors (clouds, aerosols and the solar elevation on OMI-Brewer comparisons were analyzed. The proxies used for each factor were: OMI Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER at 360 nm (clouds, the aerosol optical depth (AOD at 440 nm measured from the ground-based Cimel sun-photometer (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov, and solar zenith angle (SZA at OMI overpass time. The comparison for all sky conditions reveals positive biases (OMI higher than Brewer 12.3% for UVER, 14.2% for UV irradiance at 305 nm, 10.6% for 310 nm and 8.7% for 324 nm. The OMI-Brewer root mean square error (RMSE is reduced when cloudy cases are removed from the analysis, (e.g., RMSE~20% for all sky conditions and RMSE smaller than 10% for cloud-free conditions. However, the biases remain and even become more significant for the cloud-free cases with respect to all sky conditions. The mentioned overestimation is partially due to aerosol extinction influence. In addition, the differences OMI-Brewer typically decrease with SZA except days with high aerosol loading, when the bias is near constant. The seasonal dependence of the OMI-Brewer difference for cloud-free conditions is driven by aerosol climatology.

    To account for the aerosol effect, a first evaluation in order to compare with previous TOMS results (Antón et al., 2007 was performed. This comparison shows that the OMI bias is between +14% and +19% for

  5. Bioprotective Role of Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Muccilli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The yeasts constitute a large group of microorganisms characterized by the ability to grow and survive in different and stressful conditions and then to colonize a wide range of environmental and human ecosystems. The competitive traits against other microorganisms have attracted increasing attention from scientists, who proposed their successful application as bioprotective agents in the agricultural, food and medical sectors. These antagonistic activities rely on the competition for nutrients, production and tolerance of high concentrations of ethanol, as well as the synthesis of a large class of antimicrobial compounds, known as killer toxins, which showed clearly a large spectrum of activity against food spoilage microorganisms, but also against plant, animal and human pathogens. This review describes the antimicrobial mechanisms involved in the antagonistic activity, their applications in the processed and unprocessed food sectors, as well as the future perspectives in the development of new bio-drugs, which may overcome the limitations connected to conventional antimicrobial and drug resistance.

  6. BIOSYNTHESIS OF YEAST CAROTENOIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kenneth L.; Nakayama, T. O. M.; Chichester, C. O.

    1964-01-01

    Simpson, Kenneth L. (University of California, Davis), T. O. M. Nakayama, and C. O. Chichester. Biosynthesis of yeast carotenoids. J. Bacteriol. 88:1688–1694. 1964.—The biosynthesis of carotenoids was followed in Rhodotorula glutinis and in a new strain, 62-506. The treatment of the growing cultures by methylheptenone, or ionone, vapors permitted observations of the intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway. On the basis of concentration changes and accumulation in blocked pathways, the sequence of carotenoid formation is postulated as phytoene, phytofluene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, β-zeacarotene, γ-carotene, torulin, a C40 aldehyde, and torularhodin. Torulin and torularhodin were established as the main carotenoids of 62-506. PMID:14240958

  7. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  8. Yeasts: from genetics to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, S; Berkovitz Siman-Tov, R; Poli, G

    1995-01-01

    Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the "biotechnological revolution" by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry.

  9. Narrowing of the Upwelling Branch of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation and Hadley Cell in Chemistry-Climate Model Simulations of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Stolarski, Richard S.; Pawson, Steven; Newman, Paul A.; Waugh, Darryn

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the width of the upwelling branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and Hadley cell in the 21st Century are investigated using simulations from a coupled chemistry-climate model. In these model simulations the tropical upwelling region narrows in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The narrowing of the Brewer-Dobson circulation is caused by an equatorward shift of Rossby wave critical latitudes and Eliassen-Palm flux convergence in the subtropical lower stratosphere. In the troposphere, the model projects an expansion of the Hadley cell's poleward boundary, but a narrowing of the Hadley cell's rising branch. Model results suggest that eddy forcing may also play a part in the narrowing of the rising branch of the Hadley cell.

  10. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  11. Growth and nitrogen metabolism of sea bass fed graded levels of nucleic acid nitrogen from yeast or RNA extract as partial substitute for protein nitrogen from fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaushik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some studies carried out in mammalian models have shown de novo synthesis and salvage of nucleotides to be a costly metabolic process and a dietary supplementation with nucleic acids (NA or nucleotides has been suggested to result in a protein sparing action (Sanderson and He, 1994. On the other hand, high levels of dietary NA could have toxic effects and lead to disturbance in protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in monogastric animals lacking uricase activity, an enzyme involved in NA degradation (Clifford and Story, 1976. So far, there is no clear indication of such effects in fish fed nucleic acid-enriched diets (Tacon and Cooke, 1980; Rumsey et al., 1992; Fournier et al., 2002. The aim of this experiment was to investigate growth response and N metabolism in juvenile sea bass (D. labrax fed diets supplying graded levels of nucleic acid N from dry brewer's yeast or RNA extract as partial substitutes for protein nitrogen provided by fish meal.

  12. Novel trends in electrocatalysis: Extended Brewer hypo-hyper-d-interionic bonding theory and selective interactive grafting of composite bifunctional electrocatalysts for simultaneous anodic hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neophytides S.G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel Trends in Electrocatalysis: Extended Brewer Hypo-Hyper-d-lnterionic Bonding Theory and Selective Interactive Grafting of Composite Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Simultaneous Anodic Hydrogen and CO OxidationThe Extended Brewer Interactive Interionic Bonding Theory (EBIIBT has been developed to show the equivalence of interatomic and interionic bonding features, and for their mutual combinations, as well as its effect upon electrocatalytic properties for the hydrogen electrode reactions (HELR. The equivalence of interionic hypo-hyper-d-interelectronic interaction in both metallic and any other ionic state and its effect upon electrocatalytic properties for hydrogen electrode reactions (HELR has been proved and inferred. TG (Thermal Gravimetry analysis of TPR (Temperature Programmed Reduction of mixed hypc-hyper-d-electronic oxides of transition elements was broadly employed to prove the EBIIBT effect as reflected in dramatically decreased individual temperatures of their mutual reduction into intermetallic phases. The same interionic Brewer (and/or intermetallic bonding effect has been confirmed both by UPD of hyper-d-upon hypo-d-electronic substrates and vice versa, and by the shift of bonding peaks in XPS analysis.

  13. Applications of yeast flocculation in biotechnological processes

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, Lucília; Vicente, A.A.; Lima, Nelson; Teixeira, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    A review on the main aspects associated with yeast flocculation and its application in biotechnological processes is presented. This subject is addressed following three main aspects – the basics of yeast flocculation, the development of “new” flocculating yeast strains and bioreactor development. In what concerns the basics of yeast flocculation, the state of the art on the most relevant aspects of mechanism, physiology and genetics of yeast flocculation is reported. The const...

  14. Marine Yeasts and Their Applications in Mariculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Zhenming; LIU Zhiqiang; GAO Lingmei; GONG Fang; MA Chunling; WANG Xianghong; LI Haifeng

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial yeasts have been receiving great attention in science and industry for over one hundred years because they can produce many kinds of bioactive substances. However, little is known about the bioactive substances of marine yeasts. In recent years, it has been found that marine yeasts have wide applications in mariculture and other fields.Therefore, marine yeasts, the bioactive substances from them and the applications of marine yeasts themselves and the bioactive substances they produced are reviewed in this paper.

  15. Assimilation of nitrate by yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverio, José M

    2002-08-01

    Nitrate assimilation has received much attention in filamentous fungi and plants but not so much in yeasts. Recently the availability of classical genetic and molecular biology tools for the yeast Hansenula polymorpha has allowed the advance of the study of this metabolic pathway in yeasts. The genes YNT1, YNR1 and YNI1, encoding respectively nitrate transport, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, have been cloned, as well as two other genes encoding transcriptional regulatory factors. All these genes lie closely together in a cluster. Transcriptional regulation is the main regulatory mechanism that controls the levels of the enzymes involved in nitrate metabolism although other mechanisms may also be operative. The process involved in the sensing and signalling of the presence of nitrate in the medium is not well understood. In this article the current state of the studies of nitrate assimilation in yeasts as well as possible venues for future research are reviewed.

  16. Biotechnical Microbiology, yeast and bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Ingrid Stampe

    1999-01-01

    This section contains the following single lecture notes: Eukaryotic Cell Biology. Kingdom Fungi. Cell Division. Meiosis and Recombination. Genetics of Yeast. Organisation of the Chromosome. Organization and genetics of the mitochondrial Geneme. Regulatio of Gene Expression. Intracellular Compart...

  17. Sexual differentiation in fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, R; Nielsen, O; Weilguny, D

    1990-01-01

    The regulation of sexual reproduction in yeast constitutes the highest level of differentiation observed in these unicellular organisms. The various ramifications of this system involve DNA rearrangement, transcriptional control, post-translational modification (such as protein phosphorylation) a...

  18. Engineering antibodies by yeast display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent

    2012-10-15

    Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering.

  19. Sociobiology of the budding yeast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dominika M Wloch-Salamon

    2014-04-01

    Social theory has provided a useful framework for research with microorganisms. Here I describe the advantages and possible risks of using a well-known model organism, the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for sociobiological research. I discuss the problems connected with clear classification of yeast behaviour based on the fitness-based Hamilton paradigm. Relevant traits include different types of communities, production of flocculins, invertase and toxins, and the presence of apoptosis.

  20. Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

    The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

  1. Red Yeast Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterol-reducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, non-augmented, standardized amount of monacolins. PMID:28257063

  2. Red Yeast Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Red yeast rice (RYR, produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  3. In search of traceability: two decades of calibrated Brewer UV measurements in Sodankylä and Jokioinen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Anu; Sakari Mäkelä, Jakke; Lakkala, Kaisa; Meinander, Outi; Kaurola, Jussi; Koskela, Tapani; Matti Karhu, Juha; Karppinen, Tomi; Kyrö, Esko; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2016-11-01

    The two Brewer spectrophotometers of the Finnish Meteorological Institute at Jokioinen and Sodankylä have been operated according to the highest levels of the WMO/GAW (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch) recommendations with rigorous quality control and quality assurance. The calibration of the instruments is based on annual recalibrations of primary standard lamps in the VTT MIKES Metrology National Standards Laboratory in Finland and an exhaustive measurement program with measurements of standard and working lamps in the on-site optical laboratories. Over the years, the maintenance of the calibration has produced data sets of approximately 2000 lamp scans for both instruments. An extensive re-examination of the lamp measurements and the response of the spectrophotometers was carried out. The primary standard lamps were found to age on an average rate of 0.3 % per burn. The responsivity at wavelength 311 nm was found to exhibit both long-term and short-term changes. The overall long-term change was declining. In addition, abrupt changes of as large as 25 % were detected. The short-term changes were found to fluctuate on time frames shorter than the interval between the measurements of the primary standard lamps. This underlines the importance of the use of more frequently measured working standard lamps.

  4. Steam explosion of Brewer's spent grain improves enzymatic digestibility of carbohydrates and affects solubility and stability of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, K; Rommi, K; Holopainen, U; Kruus, K

    2016-09-01

    Steam explosion was studied as a means to improve the enzymatic digestibility of carbohydrates in Brewer's spent grain, a protein and lipid-rich lignocellulosic by-product of the brewing industry. Having temperature, treatment time and the presence of acid catalyst as variables, a treatment at 200 °C for 10 min without an acid catalyst was found to be the most efficient, dissolving 12.1 % of the dry matter. Mainly oligomeric non-cellulosic glucan and arabinoxylan were dissolved, and the remaining insoluble carbohydrates could be efficiently hydrolysed by an enzyme cocktail (75 % hydrolysis yield). The process also caused partial protein degradation and dissolved over a third of the total nitrogen. Meanwhile, the insoluble protein appeared to become more strongly associated with acid-insoluble lignin. Compositional changes observed in the proteins and carbohydrates were supported by the results of epifluorescence microscopy. The process yielded three chemically different fractions which could serve as biorefinery products or intermediates.

  5. Maximising high solid loading enzymatic saccharification yield from acid-catalysed hydrothermally-pretreated brewers spent grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Wilkinson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme saccharification of pretreated brewers spent grains (BSG was investigated, aiming at maximising glucose production. Factors investigated were; variation of the solids loadings at different cellulolytic enzyme doses, reaction time, higher energy mixing methods, supplementation of the cellulolytic enzymes with additional enzymes (and cofactors and use of fed-batch methods. Improved slurry agitation through aerated high-torque mixing offered small but significant enhancements in glucose yields (to 53 ± 2.9 g/L and 45% of theoretical yield compared to only 41 ± 4.0 g/L and 39% of theoretical yield for standard shaking methods (at 15% w/v solids loading. Supplementation of the cellulolytic enzymes with additional enzymes (acetyl xylan esterases, ferulic acid esterases and α-L- arabinofuranosidases also boosted achieved glucose yields to 58 – 69 ± 0.8 - 6.2 g/L which equated to 52 - 58% of theoretical yield. Fed-batch methods also enhanced glucose yields (to 58 ± 2.2 g/L and 35% of theoretical yield at 25% w/v solids loading compared to non-fed-batch methods. From these investigations a novel enzymatic saccharification method was developed (using enhanced mixing, a fed-batch approach and additional carbohydrate degrading enzymes which further increased glucose yields to 78 ± 4.1 g/L and 43% of theoretical yield when operating at high solids loading (25% w/v.

  6. A novel application of microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenols from brewer's spent grain with HPLC-DAD-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Manuela M; Morais, Simone; Barros, Aquiles A; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Guido, Luís F

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports a novel application of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polyphenols from brewer's spent grains (BSG). A 2(4) orthogonal composite design was used to obtain the optimal conditions of MAE. The influence of the MAE operational parameters (extraction time, temperature, solvent volume and stirring speed) on the extraction yield of ferulic acid was investigated through response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimal conditions were 15 min extraction time, 100 °C extraction temperature, 20 mL of solvent, and maximum stirring speed. Under these conditions, the yield of ferulic acid was 1.31 ± 0.04% (w/w), which was fivefold higher than that obtained with conventional solid-liquid extraction techniques. The developed new extraction method considerably reduces extraction time, energy and solvent consumption, while generating fewer wastes. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis indicated that other hydroxycinnamic acids and several ferulic acid dehydrodimers, as well as one dehydrotrimer were also present, confirming that BSG is a valuable source of antioxidant compounds.

  7. Removal of the Pesticide Pymetrozine from Aqueous Solution by Biochar Produced from Brewer's Spent Grain at Different Pyrolytic Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinguo Xi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochar (BC produced from brewer's spent grain (BSG via slow pyrolysis at 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 °C was characterized and investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of the pesticide pymetrozine from aqueous solution. Batch BSG BCs adsorption experiments were carried out under various conditions (such as pH, pymetrozine concentration, and BC dosage to adsorb the pymetrozine. The BSG BCs adsorption pymetrozine capacities were increased by 21.4% to 55.5% under pyrolysis temperatures of 300, 400, 500, and 600 °C compared to 700 °C with a pyrolysis time of 2 h and by 19.0% to 52.1% at 4 h. At solution pH values of 2, 4, 6, and 8, the adsorption capacities were increased by 9.6% to 39.5% compared with that at pH 10. A similar adsorption tendency was found for the different BCs dosage. In the first 60 min, BC absorbed 70% to 80% pymetrozine. The Langmuir and Freundlich model were highly correlated with BC adsorption. The magnitude of free energy decreased by 32.2% to 47.3% with increasing temperature. The value of the enthalpy change showed the adsorption to be endothermic. The BSG BC had high efficiency in adsorbing pymetrozine and had great potential to prevent the water pollution and reuse the waste of the beer factory.

  8. Yeast Genetics and Biotechnological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Saroj; Baranwal, Richa

    Yeast can be recognized as one of the very important groups of microorganisms on account of its extensive use in the fermentation industry and as a basic eukaryotic model cellular system. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used to elucidate the genetics and regulation of several key functions in the cell such as cell mating, electron transport chain, protein trafficking, cell cycle events and others. Even before the genome sequence of the yeast was out, the structural organization and function of several of its genes was known. With the availability of the origin of replication from the 2 μm plasmid and the development of transformation system, it became the host of choice for expression of a number of important proteins. A large number of episomal and integrative shuttle vectors are available for expression of mammalian proteins. The latest developments in genomics and micro-array technology have allowed investigations of individual gene function by site-specific deletion method. The application of metabolic profiling has also assisted in understanding the cellular network operating in this yeast. This chapter is aimed at reviewing the use of this system as an experimental tool for conducting classical genetics. Various vector systems available, foreign genes expressed and the limitations as a host will be discussed. Finally, the use of various yeast enzymes in biotechnology sector will be reviewed.

  9. Effect of ultrafiltration of yeast extracts on their ability to promote lactic acid bacteria growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, H; Champagne, C P; Conway, J; Degré, R

    1999-11-01

    Five yeast extracts (YE) were fractionated by ultrafiltration (UF) with 1, 3, and 10 kDa molecular weight cutoff membranes, concentrated by freeze-drying, and the resulting powders of yeast extract filtrates (YEF) were evaluated for their growth-promoting properties on nine cultures of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). There was an increase in alpha-amino nitrogen content of the YEF powders as the pore size of the UF membranes used to filter the YE solutions decreased. The source of YE had a much greater effect than UF on the growth of LAB. This was also the case for the YEF contents in total and alpha-amino nitrogen. Growth curves of the LAB showed that maximum growth rate (mumax) data were on average 30% higher with bakers' YE than with brewers' YE, while maximum optical density (ODmax) values were on average 16% higher with bakers' YE. This could be related to the higher nitrogen content of the bakers' YE used in this study. Modification by UF of the YE had no significant influence on the growth of 4 of the 9 LAB strains. The three strains of Lactobacillus casei were negatively influenced by UF, as they did not grow as well in the media containing the YEF obtained after filtering with 1 and 3 kDa membranes. On a total solids basis, the 2.5 x retentates from the 10 kDa membrane gave, on average, 4% lower mumax and 5% lower ODmax values as compared to cultures where the corresponding YEF was used as medium supplement. This could also be partially related to the different nitrogen contents of the filtrates and retentates.

  10. 利用啤酒废酵母进行营养型酵母调味品的研究%Study on Making Nutritious Yeast Flavoring from Discarded Brewers Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鑫颖; 邱树毅; 刘文龙

    2002-01-01

    研究利用啤酒废酵母为原料生产营养型酵母调味品的方法和条件.原料经洗涤、脱苦、自溶、真空浓缩等工序得到含多种营养成分的,具有增鲜、增香赋予食品肉香味等功能的、符合国家理化、卫生指标的调味品.该工艺的最佳条件为:用0.5%(w/w)NaHCO3溶液脱苦0.5 h,自溶加水量为2倍,自溶剂为1.0%(w/w)的食盐并在(45±1)℃条件下自溶48 h.

  11. Utilization of spent brewer's yeast (active and inactivate) for the production of yeast extract%利用有活力和无活力的啤酒废酵母生产酵母抽提物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武慧媛; 薛文通

    2010-01-01

    以两种形态的啤酒废酵母(有活力的和无活力的)为原料,制备酵母抽提物.实验表明,采用自溶法处理啤酒废酵母液(有活力的),最佳作用条件是在温度45 ℃、pH 5.5下,自溶28 h,所得酵母抽提液的氨基氮含量为5.16 g/L,氨基氮得率为6.77%,产品得率为69.01%;酶采用酶水解法添加木瓜蛋白处理啤酒废酵母粉(无活力的),最佳作用条件是在木瓜蛋白酶添加量2.5%(以酵母干重计)、温度55 ℃、pH 4.5下,酶水解时间18 h,所得酵母抽提液的氨基氮含量为3.35 g/L,氨基氮得率为4.31%,产品得率为76.66%.

  12. Emulsifying activity of hydrocarbonoclastic marine yeasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, R.

    Marine yeast growth on four petroleum hydrocarbons induced the production of extracellular emulsifying agents (biosurfactants). Out of the 17 marine yeast isolates tested, 7 isolates, i.e., Candida parapsilosis, C. cantarelli, C. membranae...

  13. Shuffling Yeast Gene Expression Data

    CERN Document Server

    Bilke, S

    2000-01-01

    A new method to sort gene expression patterns into functional groups is presented. The method is based on a sorting algorithm using a non-local similarity score, which takes all other patterns in the dataset into account. The method is therefore very robust with respect to noise. Using the expression data for yeast, we extract information about functional groups. Without prior knowledge of parameters the cell cycle regulated genes in yeast can be identified. Furthermore a second, independent cell clock is identified. The capability of the algorithm to extract information about signal flow in the regulatory network underlying the expression patterns is demonstrated.

  14. Advances in yeast genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Florian; Siewers, Verena

    2015-02-01

    Genome engineering based on homologous recombination has been applied to yeast for many years. However, the growing importance of yeast as a cell factory in metabolic engineering and chassis in synthetic biology demands methods for fast and efficient introduction of multiple targeted changes such as gene knockouts and introduction of multistep metabolic pathways. In this review, we summarize recent improvements of existing genome engineering methods, the development of novel techniques, for example for advanced genome redesign and evolution, and the importance of endonucleases as genome engineering tools.

  15. 利用含铬废革料制备富铬酵母的研究(Ⅱ)--富铬酵母的制备%Preparation of Chromium-enriched Brewer's Yeast from Chromium-containing Leather Waste (Ⅱ) -- Preparation of Chromium-enriched Brewer's Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦; 杨志华; 张明辉

    2004-01-01

    在含铬废革料湿热-酸法降解的基础上,通过两次正交试验,以富铬酵母铬含量为指标,确定出发酵制备富铬酵母的最优培养基配方为:含铬废革料降解液79 ml/L,葡萄糖5 g/L和蛋白胨2 g/L;最优发酵条件为:发酵温度28 ℃、接种量10%、培养基装量50 ml/250 ml.实验结果表明,利用含铬废革料降解液为培养基主原料来发酵制备富铬酵母,可以充分利用含铬废革料中的铬资源,所制得的富铬酵母产品的铬含量较高,具有一定的制备价值.

  16. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phaffia yeast. 73.355 Section 73.355 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive phaffia yeast consists of the killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of...

  17. Direct-Sun column ozone retrieval by the ultraviolet multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer and comparison with those from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W; Slusser, J; Gibson, J; Scott, G; Bigelow, D; Kerr, J; McArthur, B

    2001-07-01

    A methodology for direct-Sun ozone retrieval using the ultraviolet multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer (UV-MFRSR) is presented. Total vertical column ozone was retrieved in three stations: Mauna Loa, Hawaii, in the U.S., and Regina, Saskatchewan, and Toronto, Ontario, in Canada, from direct solar irradiances of the UV-MFRSR at 325-, 305-, 332-, and 311-nm channels (2-nm FWHM). The total uncertainty of ozone retrievals in this study is +/-2.0%. For Mauna Loa the mean ratios of the UV-MFRSR column ozone retrievals to the collocated Dobson and Brewer were 0.998 and 0.986 between May and September of 1999. The mean ratio of UV-MFRSR retrievals to the collocated Brewer retrievals was 1.012 in Toronto between April and August of 1999, and the mean ratio of retrievals of the UV-MFRSR to the collocated Brewer was 0.988 in Regina between June and September of 1999. Total vertical column ozone values for solar zenith angles of >70 degrees were not considered, because of the signal-to-noise ratio and the angular response of the instruments, and were not used in the evaluation. The advantages of total vertical column ozone retrieval using UV-MFRSR include relatively low cost, computer-controlled operation, automated calibration stability checks, and minimal maintenance. It allows for the real-time measurement of total vertical column ozone. The UV-MFRSR is being used at 28 sites across the United States and 2 sites in Canada that form the U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Radiation Monitoring and Research Program. This constitutes a unique network of total vertical colunm ozone measurement.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of the BD Phoenix Yeast ID Panel and Remel RapID Yeast Plus System for Yeast Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle L. Grant; Shobha Parajuli; Raquel Deleon-Gonsalves; Raghava Potula; Truant, Allan L.

    2016-01-01

    Becton Dickinson Phoenix Yeast ID Panel was compared to the Remel RapID Yeast Plus System using 150 recent clinical yeast isolates and the API 20C AUX system to resolve discrepant results. The concordance rate between the Yeast ID Panel and the RapID Yeast Plus System (without arbitration) was 93.3% with 97.3% (146/150) and 95.3% (143/150) of the isolates correctly identified by the Becton Dickinson Phoenix and the Remel RapID, respectively, with arbitration.

  19. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Brewer's Spent Grain Dietary Fiber on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Min-Sung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; n Lee, Soo-Yeo; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork back fat with brewer's spent grain (BSG) pre-emulsion for physicochemical, textural properties, and sensory evaluations of reduced-fat chicken sausages are evaluated. Control was prepared with 15% pork back fat, and three reduced-fat chicken sausages were formulated with the replacement of 20, 25, and 30% pork back fat with BSG pre-emulsion. The pH level of reduced-fat sausages formulated with BSG pre-emulsion is lower than that of the control (p

  20. Black yeasts in cold habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selbmann, L.; de Hoog, G.S.; Zucconi, L.; Isola, D.; Onofri, S.; Buzzini, B.; Margesin, E.

    2014-01-01

    Black yeasts have already been known since the end of the nineteenth century, but for a number of reasons, only few workers were familiar with them. That was since recently, until the wealth of biodiversity, stunning ecologies and potential applications have become apparent. Some remote and extreme

  1. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, Patrick van

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a conserved DNA repair pathway capable of removing a broad spectrum of DNA damage. In human cells a defect in NER leads to the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism to study the mechanism of NER. The

  2. Yeast as factory and factotum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, B

    2000-02-01

    After centuries of vigorous activity in making fine wines, beers and breads, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is now acquiring a rich new portfolio of skills, bestowed by genetic manipulation. As shown in a recent shop-window of research supported by the European Commission, yeasts will soon be benefiting industries as diverse as fish farming, pharmaceuticals and laundering.

  3. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history.

  4. Measurements of the total ozone column using a Brewer spectrophotometer and TOMS and OMI satellite instruments over the Southern Space Observatory in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz Peres, Lucas; Bencherif, Hassan; Mbatha, Nkanyiso; Passaglia Schuch, André; Toihir, Abdoulwahab Mohamed; Bègue, Nelson; Portafaix, Thierry; Anabor, Vagner; Kirsch Pinheiro, Damaris; Paes Leme, Neusa Maria; Valentin Bageston, José; Schuch, Nelson Jorge

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents 23 years (1992-2014) of quasi-continuous measurements of the total ozone column (TOC) over the Southern Space Observatory (SSO) in São Martinho da Serra, Brazil (29.26° S, 53.48° and 488 m altitude). The TOC was measured by a Brewer spectrometer, and the results are also compared to daily and monthly observations from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) satellite instruments. Analyses of the main interannual modes of variability computed using the wavelet transform method were performed. A favorable agreement between the Brewer spectrophotometer and satellite datasets was found. The seasonal TOC variation is dominated by an annual cycle, with a minimum of approximately 260 DU in April and a maximum of approximately 295 DU in September. The wavelet analysis applied in the SSO TOC anomaly time series revealed that the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) modulation was the main mode of interannual variability. The comparison between the SSO TOC anomaly time series with the QBO index revealed that the two are in opposite phases.

  5. Effective utilization of heat from incinerating brewer prime s grains and dehydrated sludge. Beer kasu dassui odei shokyakunetsu no yuko riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, T. (Asahi Breweries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-02-04

    Merits of treatment cost reduction and effective utilization of waste heat were obtained through effectively utilizing the waste heat from the in-plant incineration of the brewer {prime} s grains (barley grains) generated from the brewing processes, and the dehydrated sludge generated from the waste water treatment. Keeping the pace with increase in the annual manufacturing capacity at Hakata Plant, from 60,000 kl to 180,000 kl, the brewer {prime} s grain generation has increased, but these grains have become unable to be utilized as livestock feed due to the appreciation of the yen value, hence the excess is now disposed of as wastes, causing an expense increase. Therefore, these will be incinerated together with the hydrated sludge. Because dehydrating the grains will produce fluids with high BOD value, the grains are to be burned as they are, and for this reason, a fluidized bed furnace was introduced. Effects of the incineration to the environment were surveyed, and it was confirmed that the parameters agreed with the Fukuoka Municipality can be maintained. The operation was begun in June 1989. As a result of the measures applied, an annual monetary saving of about 100 million yen can be expected out of the capital investment of 350 million yen, with the return of investment estimated to be made in about four years. 21 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Surplus yeast tank failing catastrophically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2016-01-01

    GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air. T....... The accident described in this article serves to illustrate that care should be taken if a tank originally designed for atmospheric pressure is modified to operate at slight overpressure.......GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air...

  7. Mycotoxins - prevention and decontamination by yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfliegler, Walter P; Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Pócsi, István

    2015-07-01

    The application of yeasts has great potential in reducing the economic damage caused by toxigenic fungi in the agriculture. Some yeasts may act as biocontrol agents inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi. These species may also gain importance in the preservation of agricultural products and in the reduction of their mycotoxin contamination, yet the extent of mycotoxin production in the presence of biocontrol agents is relatively less understood. The application of yeasts in various technological processes may have a direct inhibitory effect on the toxin production of certain molds, which is independent of their growth suppressing effect. Furthermore, several yeast species are capable of accumulating mycotoxins from agricultural products, thereby effectively decontaminating them. Probiotic yeasts or products containing yeast cell wall are also applied to counteract mycotoxicosis in livestock. Several yeast strains are also able to degrade toxins to less-toxic or even non-toxic substances. This intensively researched field would greatly benefit from a deeper knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of toxin degradation. Moreover, yeasts and their biotechnologically important enzymes may exhibit sensitivity to certain mycotoxins, thereby mounting a considerable problem for the biotechnological industry. It is noted that yeasts are generally regarded as safe; however, there are reports of toxin degrading species that may cause human fungal infections. The aspects of yeast-mycotoxin relations with a brief consideration of strain improvement strategies and genetic modification for improved detoxifying properties and/or mycotoxin resistance are reviewed here.

  8. Application of acid-treated yeast cell wall (AYC) as a pharmaceutical additive. III. AYC aqueous coating onto granules and film formation mechanism of AYC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Hiroshi; Kaneshige, Junichi; Ozeki, Tetsuya; Kasai, Takahide; Eguchi, Takahiro; Ishiwaki, Naomu

    2002-04-26

    From the viewpoint of effective utilization of natural resources and development of new pharmaceutical materials, acid-treated yeast cell wall (AYC) was prepared via a novel approach involving acidification of brewers' yeast cell wall. AYC aqueous dispersion containing 5% (w/v) AYC and 0.5% (w/v) glycerol was prepared. Subsequently, AYC was coated onto core granules containing acetaminophen (AAP). Spray mist size under various spray conditions and viscosity of the AYC aqueous dispersion at various AYC concentrations were measured. AYC spray mists were optically observed. The surface of AYC cast film and AYC-coated granules were observed with a confocal scanning laser microscope. We attempted to show the utility of AYC as a novel material for granule coating, following the tablet coating in our previous report. In addition, the film formation mechanism of AYC was investigated. A smooth surface of the AYC-coated granules was obtained at a coating ratio of only 5%, which generally requires approximately 15-30% coating against the core granule weight, with no aggregation. These results are attributable to the fact that the granules were coated with a large number of small mists of AYC and the coating progressed efficiently, and the thin film layer of AYC was formed on the granules by mutual tangling of the hydrogel layers of AYC polysaccharides. AAP release from AYC-coated granules was obviously rapid, suggesting the high utility of AYC as a coating material for the rapidly releasing granules.

  9. Yeast: A new oil producer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beopoulos Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of plant oils or animal fat for biodiesel and specific lipid derivatives for the oleochemical field (such as lubricants, adhesives or plastics have created price imbalance in both the alimentary and energy field. Moreover, the lack of non-edible oil feedstock has given rise to concerns on land-use practices and on oil production strategies. Recently, much attention has been paid to the exploitation of microbial oils. Most of them present lipid profiles similar in type and composition to plants and could therefore have many advantages as are no competitive with food, have short process cycles and their cultivation is independent of climate factors. Among microorganisms, yeasts seem to be very promising as they can be easily genetically enhanced, are suitable for large-scale fermentation and are devoid of endotoxins. This review will focus on the recent understanding of yeasts lipid metabolism, the succeeding genetic engineering of the lipid pathways and the recent developments on fermentation techniques that pointed out yeasts as promising alternative producers for oil or plastic.

  10. Chromium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The best source of chromium is brewer's yeast. However, many people do not use brewer's yeast because it causes bloating ( abdominal distention ) and nausea . Other good sources of chromium include ...

  11. Variability of the Brewer-Dobson circulation's meridional and vertical branch using Aura/MLS water vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Flury

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We use Aura/MLS stratospheric water vapor measurements to infer interannual variations in the speed of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC from 2004 to 2011. Stratospheric water vapor (H2O is utilized as a tracer for dynamics and we follow its path along the vertical and meridional branch of the BDC from the tropics to mid-latitudes. We correlate one year time series of H2O in the lower stratosphere at two subsequent altitude levels (68 hPa, ~18.8 km and 56 hPa, ~19.9 km at the Equator and determine the time lag for best correlation. The same calculation is made on the horizontal on the 100 hPa (~16.6 km level by correlating the H2O time series at the Equator with the ones at 40° N and 40° S. From these lag coefficients we derive the vertical and horizontal speeds of the BDC in the tropics and extra-tropics respectively. We observe a clear interannual variability of the vertical and horizontal branch. The variability reflects signatures of the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO. Our measurements confirm the QBO meridional circulation anomalies and show that the speed variations in the two branches of the BDC are out of phase and fairly well anti-correlated. Maximum ascent rates are found during the QBO easterly phase. We also find that the transport towards the Northern Hemisphere (NH is on the average two times faster than to the Southern Hemisphere (SH with a mean speed of 1.15 m s−1 at 100 hPa. Furthermore, the speed towards the NH shows much more variability with an amplitude of about 21% whilst the speed towards the SH varies by only 10%. An amplitude of 21% is also observed in the variability of the ascent rate at the Equator which is on the average 0.2 mm s−1 and hence about 5000 times slower than the meridional branch.

  12. Tracer studies of nitrogen assimilation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABRAMS, R; HAMMARSTEN, E

    1949-01-01

    By using N(15) as a tracer the assimilation of ammonia by the yeast, Torulopsis utilis, has been studied. It has been shown that: 1. There was no measurable incorporation of N in the protein or polynucleotide purine of carbon-starved yeast. 2. When ammonia is added to nitrogen-starved yeast there is a long lag period before division begins during which the yeast rapidly synthesizes protein, this process being accompanied by a turnover of polynucleotide purine. There was no significant dilution of the N(15)H(4) (+) of the medium by ordinary NH(4) (+). 3. When yeast containing N(15) is allowed to divide and grow in ordinary ammonia, the total amount of N(15) in the yeast remains constant. The dicarboxylic amino acids are most diluted, while arginine and nucleic acid guanine are not diluted at all.

  13. [Metabolomics analysis of taxadiene producing yeasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huifang; Ding, Mingzhu; Yuan, Yingjin

    2014-02-01

    In order to study the inherent difference among terpenes producing yeasts from the point of metabolomics, we selected taxadiene producing yeasts as the model system. The changes of cellular metabolites during fermentation log phase of artificial functional yeasts were determined using metabolomics methods. The results represented that compared to W303-1A as a blank control, the metabolites in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle and several amino acids were influenced. And due to the changes of metabolites, the growth of cells was inhibited to a certain extent. Among the metabolites identified, citric acid content in taxadiene producing yeasts changed the most, the decreasing amplitude reached 90% or more. Therefore, citric acid can be a marker metabolite for the future study of artificial functional yeasts. The metabolomics analysis of taxadiene producing yeasts can provide more information in further studies on optimization of terpenes production in heterologous chassis.

  14. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  15. Assembly of eukaryotic algal chromosomes in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Karas, Bogumil J.; Molparia, Bhuvan; Jablanovic, Jelena; Hermann, Wolfgang J; Lin, Ying-Chi; Dupont, Christopher L.; Tagwerker, Christian; Yonemoto, Isaac T.; Noskov, Vladimir N.; Chuang, Ray-Yuan; Allen, Andrew E; Glass, John I.; Hutchison, Clyde A; Smith, Hamilton O; Venter, J Craig

    2013-01-01

    Background Synthetic genomic approaches offer unique opportunities to use powerful yeast and Escherichia coli genetic systems to assemble and modify chromosome-sized molecules before returning the modified DNA to the target host. For example, the entire 1 Mb Mycoplasma mycoides chromosome can be stably maintained and manipulated in yeast before being transplanted back into recipient cells. We have previously demonstrated that cloning in yeast of large (> ~ 150 kb), high G + C (55%) prokaryoti...

  16. The hydrolysis of protein of brewer's spent grains with neutrase%中性蛋白酶水解啤酒糟中蛋白质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡俊; 邱雁临

    2001-01-01

    以啤酒厂主要副产物啤酒糟为主要的原料,利用中性蛋白酶对其蛋白质进行水解。研究了酶解的 pH温度、固液比、时间和加酶量对水解程度的影响,确定了最佳的影响因素。%The brewer's spent grains(BSG),the main byproduct of brewery,was hydrolyzed with neutrase. The effects of PH temperature,the proportion of solid to liquid(s% ),time and enzyme concentration on the hydrolysis were studied.The best effective factors were determined.

  17. Biofuels. Altered sterol composition renders yeast thermotolerant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Ghiaci, Payam;

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol production for use as a biofuel is mainly achieved through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by yeast. Operating at ≥40°C would be beneficial in terms of increasing efficiency of the process and reducing costs, but yeast does not grow efficiently at those temperatures. We use...

  18. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics.

  19. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24932634

  20. Yeast cell factories on the horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    For thousands of years, yeast has been used for making beer, bread, and wine. In modern times, it has become a commercial workhorse for producing fuels, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals such as insulin, human serum albumin, and vaccines against hepatitis virus and human papillomavirus. Yeast has al...

  1. Growth requirements of san francisco sour dough yeasts and bakers' yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, N

    1976-03-01

    The growth requirements of several yeasts isolated from San Francisco sour dough mother sponges were compared with those of bakers' yeast. The sour dough yeasts studied were one strain of Saccharomyces uvarum, one strain of S. inusitatus, and four strains of S. exiguus. S. inusitatus was the only yeast found to have an amino acid requirement, namely, methionine. All of the yeasts had an absolute requirement for pantothenic acid and a partial requirement for biotin. Inositol was stimulatory to all except bakers' yeast. All strains of S. exiguus required niacin and thiamine. Interestingly, S. inusitatus, the only yeast that required methionine, also needed folic acid. For optimal growth of S. exiguus in a molasses medium, supplementation with thiamine was required.

  2. Genetic constitution of industrial yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, T; Martínez, P; Codón, A C

    1996-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae industrial yeast strains are highly heterogeneous. These industrial strains, including bakers', wine, brewing and distillers', have been compared with respect to their DNA content, number and size of chromosomes, homologies between their genes and those of laboratory strains, and restriction fragment lengths of their mitDNA. A high variability, and the presence of multigenic families, were observed in some industrial yeast groups. The occurrence or the lack of chromosomal polymorphism, as well as the presence of multiple copies of some genes, could be related to a selective process occurring under specific industrial conditions. This polymorphism is generated by reorganization events, that take place mainly during meiosis and are mediated by repetitive Y' and Ty elements. These elements give rise to ectopic and asymmetric recombination and to gene conversion. The polymorphism displayed by the mitDNA could also result from specific industrial conditions. However, in enological strains the selective process is masked by the mutagenic effect that ethanol exerts on this DNA.

  3. Comet assay on tetraploid yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Syberg, Kristian; Jensen, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Tetraploid yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used in the comet assay with the intention of developing a new, fast and easy assay for detecting environmental genotoxic agents without using higher organisms. Two DNA-damaging chemicals, H2O2 and acrylamide, together with wastewater from...... three municipal treatment plants were tested for their effect on the yeast-cell DNA. The main problem with using yeast in the comet assay is the necessity to degrade the cell wall. This was achieved by using Zymolase 100 T twice during the procedure, since Zymolase 20 T did not open the cell wall....... Analytical problems that arose due to the small amount of DNA in the yeast nuclei in haploid and diploid cells, which contain 13 Mbp and 26 Mbp DNA per cell, respectively, were solved by using tetraploid yeast cells (52 Mbp) instead. DNA damage was shown after exposure to H2O2 and acrylamide. The lowest dose...

  4. Ceramide Accumulation in Yeast Yarrowia lipolitica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周全; 陈国强

    2005-01-01

    Ceramides are a class of lipid molecules widely distributed in eukaryotic cells in small amount. To investigate the possibility of ceramide production by yeast, a yeast strain Yarrowia lipolitica was grown under different conditions including changing carbon/nitrogen ratio, and serine concentration, dissolved oxygen and presence of ethanol. It was found that increased dissolved oxygen supply increased the ceramide content in the yeast 2.5 fold of its normal control level. Ethanol treatment could also enhance ceramide accumulation by 3.3 fold compared with the control although the cell growth was negatively affected. Cellular redox potential was shown to affect ceramide accumulation by the yeast. This was possibly related to the cellular reactive oxygen species presented in the yeast.

  5. Modeling competition between yeast strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gee, Maarten; van Mourik, Hilda; de Visser, Arjan; Molenaar, Jaap

    2016-04-01

    We investigate toxin interference competition between S. cerevisiae colonies grown on a solid medium. In vivo experiments show that the outcome of this competition depends strongly on nutrient availability and cell densities. Here we present a new model for S. cerevisiae colonies, calculating the local height and composition of the colonies. The model simulates yeast colonies that show a good fit to experimental data. Simulations of colonies that start out with a homogeneous mixture of toxin producing and toxin sensitive cells can display remarkable pattern formation, depending on the initial ratio of the strains. Simulations in which the toxin producing and toxin sensitive species start at nearby positions clearly show that toxin production is advantageous.

  6. Accelerating Yeast Prion Biology using Droplet Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Lloyd; Rotem, Assaf; Jarosz, Daniel; Datta, Manoshi; Lindquist, Susan; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    Prions are infectious proteins in a misfolded form, that can induce normal proteins to take the misfolded state. Yeast prions are relevant, as a model of human prion diseases, and interesting from an evolutionary standpoint. Prions may also be a form of epigenetic inheritance, which allow yeast to adapt to stressful conditions at rates exceeding those of random mutations and propagate that adaptation to their offspring. Encapsulation of yeast in droplet microfluidic devices enables high-throughput measurements with single cell resolution, which would not be feasible using bulk methods. Millions of populations of yeast can be screened to obtain reliable measurements of prion induction and loss rates. The population dynamics of clonal yeast, when a fraction of the cells are prion expressing, can be elucidated. Furthermore, the mechanism by which certain strains of bacteria induce yeast to express prions in the wild can be deduced. Integrating the disparate fields of prion biology and droplet microfluidics reveals a more complete picture of how prions may be more than just diseases and play a functional role in yeast.

  7. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast protein. 172.325 Section 172.325 Food... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast protein is...

  8. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract... a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may be concentrated or dried. (b)...

  10. Corning and Kroger turn whey to yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-16

    It is reported that Corning and Kroger intend to build a 35,000 sq. ft. plant in Winchester, Ky., that will turn whey into bakers' yeast. The plant will convert whey from Kroger's dairies into bakers' yeast, supplying about 60% of the yeast needed for nine Kroger bakeries. It will also produce syrups and whey protein concentrate for use in other food processing activities. In addition to making useful products, the project will convert the whey to glucose and galactose. The protein component of the whey will be concentrated and used in various foods and feeds.

  11. YeastWeb: a workset-centric web resource for gene family analysis in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Haihua

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, a number of yeast genomes with different physiological features have been sequenced and annotated, which provides invaluable information to investigate yeast genetics, evolutionary mechanism, structure and function of gene families. Description YeastWeb is a novel database created to provide access to gene families derived from the available yeast genomes by assigning the genes into putative families. It has many useful features that complement existing databases, such as SGD, CYGD and Génolevures: 1 Detailed computational annotation was conducted with each entry with InterProScan, EMBOSS and functional/pathway databases, such as GO, COG and KEGG; 2 A well established user-friendly environment was created to allow users to retrieve the annotated genes and gene families using functional classification browser, keyword search or similarity-based search; 3 Workset offers users many powerful functions to manage the retrieved data efficiently, associate the individual items easily and save the intermediate results conveniently; 4 A series of comparative genomics and molecular evolution analysis tools are neatly implemented to allow users to view multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic tree of gene families. At present, YeastWeb holds the gene families clustered from various MCL inflation values from a total of 13 available yeast genomes. Conclusions Given the great interest in yeast research, YeastWeb has the potential to become a useful resource for the scientific community of yeast biologists and related researchers investigating the evolutionary relationship of yeast gene families. YeastWeb is available at http://centre.bioinformatics.zj.cn/Yeast/.

  12. Cyanohydrin reactions enhance glycolytic oscillations in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Nielsen, Astrid Gram; Tortzen, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous metabolic oscillations can be induced in yeast by addition of glucose and removal of extracellular acetaldehyde (ACAx). Compared to other means of ACAx removal, cyanide robustly induces oscillations, indicating additional cyanide reactions besides ACA to lactonitrile conversion. Here...

  13. Continuous ethanol fermentation by beer yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kida, Kenji; Morimura, Shigeru; Shima, Noriyuki; Asano, Shinichi; Yamadaki, Motozumi; Miyazawa, Toshiki

    1987-01-25

    Cooked and uncooked continuous fermentation tests and a bench-scale continuous fermentation test were carried out using a flocculating yeast, beer yeast IFO-2018, and using molasses of various origin. Heat of fermentation was measured at the same time. High productivity was found in a non-cooking continuous fermentation, but lowering of a flocculating ability was a problem. A theoretical equation for calculating the heat of fermentation was introduced and its adaptability was examined. The continuous fermentation unit was a single tank type using a tower type fermentor. The fermentor had a capacity of 0.7 l actual volume, made of glass, and consisted of the two parts, a flowing part and a precipitation/separation part. The yeast used was Saccharomyces crevisiae IFO-2018 in comparison with such yeast as S. cerevisiae IFO-0224 and S. cervisiae EP-1. (7 figs,3 tabs,21 refs)

  14. Structure and function of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR LESKOVAC

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Isoenzymes of YADH 3. Substrate specificity 4. Kinetic mechanism 5. Primary structure 6. The active site 7. Mutations in the yeast enzyme 8. Chemical mechanism 9. Binding of coenzymes 10. Hydride transfer

  15. Structure and function of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    VLADIMIR LESKOVAC; SVETLANA TRIVIC

    2000-01-01

    1. Introduction 2. Isoenzymes of YADH 3. Substrate specificity 4. Kinetic mechanism 5. Primary structure 6. The active site 7. Mutations in the yeast enzyme 8. Chemical mechanism 9. Binding of coenzymes 10. Hydride transfer

  16. Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

  17. Genomic Evolution of the Ascomycete Yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Salamov, Asaf; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Goker, Markus; Hittinger, Chris; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lopes, Mariana; Meir-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos; Scheuner, Carmen; Soares, Marco; Stielow, Benjamin; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Wolfe, Ken; Blackwell, Meredith; Kurtzman, Cletus; Grigoriev, Igor; Jeffries, Thomas

    2015-03-16

    Yeasts are important for industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable metabolic and phylogenetic diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. Phylogenetic analysis of these and previously published yeast genomes helped resolve the placement of species including Saitoella complicata, Babjeviella inositovora, Hyphopichia burtonii, and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Moreover, we find that alternative nuclear codon usage, where CUG encodes serine instead of leucine, are monophyletic within the Saccharomycotina. Most of the yeasts have compact genomes with a large fraction of single exon genes, and a tendency towards more introns in early-diverging species. Analysis of enzyme phylogeny gives insights into the evolution of metabolic capabilities such as methanol utilization and assimilation of alternative carbon sources.

  18. Physiological and environmental control of yeast prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, Tatiana A; Wilkinson, Keith D; Chernoff, Yury O

    2014-03-01

    Prions are self-perpetuating protein isoforms that cause fatal and incurable neurodegenerative disease in mammals. Recent evidence indicates that a majority of human proteins involved in amyloid and neural inclusion disorders possess at least some prion properties. In lower eukaryotes, such as yeast, prions act as epigenetic elements, which increase phenotypic diversity by altering a range of cellular processes. While some yeast prions are clearly pathogenic, it is also postulated that prion formation could be beneficial in variable environmental conditions. Yeast and mammalian prions have similar molecular properties. Crucial cellular factors and conditions influencing prion formation and propagation were uncovered in the yeast models. Stress-related chaperones, protein quality control deposits, degradation pathways, and cytoskeletal networks control prion formation and propagation in yeast. Environmental stresses trigger prion formation and loss, supposedly acting via influencing intracellular concentrations of the prion-inducing proteins, and/or by localizing prionogenic proteins to the prion induction sites via heterologous ancillary helpers. Physiological and environmental modulation of yeast prions points to new opportunities for pharmacological intervention and/or prophylactic measures targeting general cellular systems rather than the properties of individual amyloids and prions.

  19. Revaluation of Waste Yeast from Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Suruceanu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brewing yeast is an important waste product from beer production. The valorification of slurry yeast mainly consists of separation of vitamins and important nitrogen compounds. The hops compounds, one of the most important raw materials in beer technology are removed beforehand valorification. The prenylflavonoids compounds from hops are important bioactive compounds that can be revaluation with proper technology. Revaluation of prenylflavonoids from waste yeast into dietary supplement, identification and quantification of xanthohumol by HPLC method. Waste yeast from brewery pilot plant of USAMV Cluj Napoca it was dried by atomization and the powder was analyzed on xanthohumol content by HPLC method. For quantification a calibration curve it was used. The process of drying by atomisation lead to a powder product. It was used malt dextrin powder for stabilisation. The final product it was encapsulated. The xanthohumol content of powdered yeast it was 1.94 µg/ml. In conclusion the slurry yeast from beer production it is an important source of prenylflavonoids compounds.

  20. Novel brewing yeast hybrids: creation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Gibson, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The natural interspecies Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrid yeast is responsible for global lager beer production and is one of the most important industrial microorganisms. Its success in the lager brewing environment is due to a combination of traits not commonly found in pure yeast species, principally low-temperature tolerance, and maltotriose utilization. Parental transgression is typical of hybrid organisms and has been exploited previously for, e.g., the production of wine yeast with beneficial properties. The parental strain S. eubayanus has only been discovered recently and newly created lager yeast strains have not yet been applied industrially. A number of reports attest to the feasibility of this approach and artificially created hybrids are likely to have a significant impact on the future of lager brewing. De novo S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus hybrids outperform their parent strains in a number of respects, including, but not restricted to, fermentation rate, sugar utilization, stress tolerance, and aroma formation. Hybrid genome function and stability, as well as different techniques for generating hybrids and their relative merits are discussed. Hybridization not only offers the possibility of generating novel non-GM brewing yeast strains with unique properties, but is expected to aid in unraveling the complex evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast.

  1. Yeast communities in a natural tequila fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, M A

    1995-08-01

    Fresh and cooked agave, Drosophila spp., processing equipment, agave molasses, agave extract, and fermenting must at a traditional tequila distillery (Herradura, Amatitan, Jalisco, México) were studied to gain insight on the origin of yeasts involved in a natural tequila fermentations. Five yeast communities were identified. (1) Fresh agave contained a diverse mycobiota dominated by Clavispora lusitaniae and an endemic species, Metschnikowia agaveae. (2) Drosophila spp. from around or inside the distillery yielded typical fruit yeasts, in particular Hanseniaspora spp., Pichia kluyveri, and Candida krusei. (3) Schizosaccharomyces pombe prevailed in molasses. (4) Cooked agave and extract had a considerable diversity of species, but included Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5) Fermenting juice underwent a gradual reduction in yeast heterogeneity. Torulaspora delbrueckii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Hanseniaspora spp. progressively ceded the way to S. cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Candida milleri, and Brettanomyces spp. With the exception of Pichia membranaefaciens, which was shared by all communities, little overlap existed. That separation was even more manifest when species were divided into distinguishable biotypes based on morphology or physiology. It is concluded that crushing equipment and must holding tanks are the main source of significant inoculum for the fermentation process. Drosophila species appear to serve as internal vectors. Proximity to fruit trees probably contributes to maintaining a substantial Drosophila community, but the yeasts found in the distillery exhibit very little similarity to those found in adjacent vegetation. Interactions involving killer toxins had no apparent direct effects on the yeast community structure.

  2. Flor Yeast: New Perspectives Beyond Wine Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C.; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L.; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air–liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as velum or flor. This behavior is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodeling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids, and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilization within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed. PMID:27148192

  3. Flor yeast: new perspectives beyond wine ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-luc eLegras

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the ageing of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air-liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as the velum or flor. This behaviour is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodelling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilisation within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed.

  4. Process optimization of brewers' grains fermentation using photosynthetic bacteria to make fish feed%光合菌发酵啤酒糟制鱼饲料工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 冯学愚; 刘小彬; 谢刚; 方勤; 罗辉

    2011-01-01

    In order to get high-quality fish feed from brewers' spent grains, an anaerobic fermentation installation was set up, and the brewers' grains as raw material were pretreated by anaerobic photosynthetic bacteria separated from drainage ditch of brewers' grains in a beer factory. The orthogonal experiments were conducted based on single factors to study the semisolid fermentation technique for anaerobic photosynthetic bacteria culture. The results showed that the satisfied fermentation effect was attained under the technical conditions of dry brewers' grains/water 1:9 (mass fraction), inoculation amount 9%, illumination intensity 1100 Lx, fermentation time 5 d, fermentation temperature 30 ℃, and material thickness 3 cm. After fermentation, the real protein concentration of brewers' grains increased from 17.0% to 41.6%, the cellulose concentration decreased from 15.3% to 7.0%, the crude fat concentration increased from 5.9% to 6.6%, the crude ash concentration increased from 3.8% to 4.1%, the total phosphorus concentration increased from 0.6% to 1.3%, and the water concentration of dried brewers' grains was 9.8%. All the six indices satisfied the China standard of Grass Carp's fingerling (SC/T 1024-2002). The results can provide references for making active photosynthetic bacteria fish feed from brewers' grains.%为把啤酒糟加工成优质鱼饲料,从啤酒厂啤酒糟排水沟中以厌氧法分离出一株光合菌为菌种,对原料啤酒糟进行预处理,自组装厌氧发酵装置,采用单因素与正交试验法,对啤酒糟半固态培养光合菌的条件进行了研究.结果表明,当料水比1∶9(干糟:水,g/g)、接种量9%、光照强度1 100Lx、发酵时间5d、发酵温度30℃、料层厚度3 cm时,发酵效果较好.发酵后啤酒干糟真蛋白质量分数可从17.0%上升至41.6%、粗纤维素从15.3%下降至7.0%、粗脂肪从5.9%上升至6.6%、粗灰分从3.8%上升至4.1%、总磷从0.6%上升至1.3

  5. Boolean model of Yeast Apoptosis as a tool to study yeast and human apoptotic regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh eKazemzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death (PCD is an essential cellular mechanism that is evolutionary conserved, mediated through various pathways and acts by integrating different stimuli. Many diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancers are found to be caused by, or associated with, regulations in the cell death pathways. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a unicellular eukaryotic organism that shares with human cells components and pathways of the PCD and is therefore used as a model organism. Boolean modelling is becoming promising approach to capture qualitative behaviour and describe essential properties of such complex networks. Here we present large literature-based and to our knowledge first Boolean model that combines pathways leading to apoptosis (a type of PCD in yeast. Analysis of the yeast model confirmed experimental findings of anti-apoptotic role of Bir1p and pro-apoptotic role of Stm1p and revealed activation of the stress protein kinase Hog proposing the maximal level of activation upon heat stress. In addition we extended the yeast model and created an in silico humanized yeast in which human pro- and anti-apoptotic regulators Bcl-2 family and Valosin-contain protein (VCP are included in the model. We showed that accumulation of Bax in in silico humanized yeast shows apoptotic markers and that VCP is essential target of Akt Signaling. The presented Boolean model provides comprehensive description of yeast apoptosis network behaviour. Extended model of humanized yeast gives new insights of how complex human disease like neurodegenration can initially be tested.

  6. NetPhosYeast: prediction of protein phosphorylation sites in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingrell, C.R.; Miller, Martin Lee; Jensen, O.N.;

    2007-01-01

    sites compared to those in humans, suggesting the need for an yeast-specific phosphorylation site predictor. NetPhosYeast achieves a correlation coefficient close to 0.75 with a sensitivity of 0.84 and specificity of 0.90 and outperforms existing predictors in the identification of phosphorylation sites...

  7. Antimycotic activity of 4-thioisosteres of flavonoids towards yeast and yeast-like microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzini, Pietro; Menichetti, Stefano; Pagliuca, Chiara; Viglianisi, Caterina; Branda, Eva; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2008-07-01

    Different substituted methoxy- and hydroxy-4-thioisosteres of flavonoids were prepared and their in vitro antimycotic activity towards yeast (Candida spp., Clavispora spp., Cryptococcus spp., Filobasidiella spp., Issatchenkia spp., Pichia spp., Kluyveromyces spp., Saccharomyces spp. and Yarrowia spp.) and yeast-like (Prototheca spp.) microorganisms was tested. Further insights in the biological activities of these antioxidant, oestrogenic and antimicrobial biomimetic derivatives were obtained.

  8. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDR357C, YGL079W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available izes to the endosome; identified as a transcriptional activator in a high-throughput yeast one-hybrid assa...ome; identified as a transcriptional activator in a high-throughput yeast one-hybrid assay Rows with this pr

  9. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YEL005C, YGL079W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available endosome; identified as a transcriptional activator in a high-throughput yeast one-hybrid assay Rows with th...protein localizes to the endosome; identified as a transcriptional activator in a high-throughput yeast one-hybrid assay

  10. YeastIP: a database for identification and phylogeny of Saccharomycotina yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stéphanie; Samson, Franck; Navarro, David; Casaregola, Serge

    2013-02-01

    With the advances in sequencing techniques, identification of ascomycetous yeasts to the species level and phylogeny reconstruction increasingly require curated and updated taxonomic information. A specific database with nucleotide sequences of the most common markers used for yeast taxonomy and phylogeny and a user-friendly interface allowing identification, taxonomy and phylogeny of yeasts species was developed. By 1 September 2012, the YeastIP database contained all the described Saccharomycotina species for which sequences used for taxonomy and phylogeny, such as D1/D2 rDNA and ITS, are available. The database interface was developed to provide a maximum of relevant information and data mining tools, including the following features: (1) the blast n program for the sequences of the YeastIP database; (2) easy retrieval of selected sequences; (3) display of the available markers for each selected group of species; and (4) a tool to concatenate marker sequences, including those provided by the user. The concatenation tool allows phylogeny reconstruction through a direct link to the Phylogeny.fr platform. YeastIP is thus a unique database in that it provides taxonomic information and guides users in their taxonomic analyses. YeastIP facilitates multigenic analysis to encourage good practice in ascomycetous yeast phylogeny (URL: http://genome.jouy.inra.fr/yeastip.).

  11. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YPR083W, YMR294W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Rows with this bait as bait (1) Rows with this bait as prey (0) YMR294W JNM1 Component of the yeast dynactin...as prey (0) Prey ORF YMR294W Prey gene name JNM1 Prey description Component of the yeast dynactin complex, c

  12. Boolean Model of Yeast Apoptosis as a Tool to Study Yeast and Human Apoptotic Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Laleh; Cvijovic, Marija; Petranovic, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an essential cellular mechanism that is evolutionary conserved, mediated through various pathways and acts by integrating different stimuli. Many diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancers are found to be caused by, or associated with, regulations in the cell death pathways. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a unicellular eukaryotic organism that shares with human cells components and pathways of the PCD and is therefore used as a model organism. Boolean modeling is becoming promising approach to capture qualitative behavior and describe essential properties of such complex networks. Here we present large literature-based and to our knowledge first Boolean model that combines pathways leading to apoptosis (a type of PCD) in yeast. Analysis of the yeast model confirmed experimental findings of anti-apoptotic role of Bir1p and pro-apoptotic role of Stm1p and revealed activation of the stress protein kinase Hog proposing the maximal level of activation upon heat stress. In addition we extended the yeast model and created an in silico humanized yeast in which human pro- and anti-apoptotic regulators Bcl-2 family and Valosin-contain protein (VCP) are included in the model. We showed that accumulation of Bax in silico humanized yeast shows apoptotic markers and that VCP is essential target of Akt Signaling. The presented Boolean model provides comprehensive description of yeast apoptosis network behavior. Extended model of humanized yeast gives new insights of how complex human disease like neurodegeneration can initially be tested. PMID:23233838

  13. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YFR015C, YFR015C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yeast homolog; expression induced by glucose limitation, nitrogen starvation, environmental stress, and entr...ression induced by glucose limitation, nitrogen starvation, environmental stress, and entry into stationary ...tion, nitrogen starvation, environmental stress, and entry into stationary phase Rows with this bait as bait..., the more highly expressed yeast homolog; expression induced by glucose limitation, nitrogen starvation, environmental

  14. Clear and present danger? The use of a yeast biosensor to monitor changes in the toxicity of industrial effluents subjected to oxidative colour removal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Patrick O; Knight, Andrew W; Billinton, Nicholas; Cahill, Paul A; Dalrymple, Ian M; Hawkyard, Christopher J; Stratton-Campbell, Duncan; Walmsley, Richard M

    2007-12-01

    Discharges of coloured effluents into surface waters provide conspicuous evidence of the impact of industry on the environment. The textile industry is an obvious candidate for sources of such discharges. Conventional treatment methods appear to alleviate this situation by removing colour, however the affect on toxicity is less obvious. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in effluent toxicity during the course of two alternative wastewater treatment methods, ozonation and electrochemical oxidation, using a novel toxicity biosensor, GreenScreen EM. The biosensor is capable of measuring both general acute toxicity (cytotoxicity), and more specifically genotoxicity, that is damage to a cell's DNA structure, replication or distribution, caused by substances that may be mutagenic and/or carcinogenic. The biosensor utilises a modified strain of the brewers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, incorporating a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to the inducible promoter of the DNA damage responsive RAD54 gene. Upon exposure to a genotoxin, the production of GFP is up-regulated in parallel with RAD54, and the resulting cellular fluorescence provides a measure of genotoxicity. Acute toxicity is simultaneously determined by monitoring relative total growth of the cell culture during incubation. The results presented in this paper show that a reduction in colouration does not necessarily correspond to a reduction in effluent toxicity.

  15. Studies on yeast nucleoside triphosphate-nucleoside diphosphate transphosphorylase (nucleoside diphosphokinase). IV. Steady-state kinetic properties with thymidine nucleotides (including 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine analogues).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, S A; Fleming, G; Alber, T; Richardson, D; Takenaka, H; Hamada, M

    1991-01-01

    A study of the steady-state kinetics of the crystalline brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces carlsbergensis) nucleoside diphosphokinase, with the magnesium complexes of the adenine and thymidine nucleotides as reactants, has led to a postulated kinetic mechanism which proceeds through a substituted enzyme. This agrees with the earlier conclusions of Garces and Cleland [Biochemistry 1969; 8:633-640] who characterized a reaction between the magnesium complexes of the adenine and uridine nucleotides. An advantage of using thymidine nucleotides as reactants is that they permit accurate, rapid and continuous assays of the enzymatic activity in coupled-enzymatic tests. Through measurements of the initial velocities and product inhibition studies, the Michaelis constants, maximum velocities, and inhibition constants could be evaluated for the individual substrates. Competitive substrate inhibition was encountered at relatively high substrate concentrations, which also permitted an evaluation of their ability to act as 'dead-end' inhibitors. The Michaelis constants for the 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AzT) analogues were also evaluated and, although these values were only somewhat higher than those of their natural substrates, the Km's for the adenine nucleotides as paired substrates were lower and the Vmax's were drastically reduced. The pharmacological implications of these observations are touched upon and extrapolated to the cases where therapeutic doses of AzT may be employed.

  16. Terroir of yeasts? – Application of FTIR spectroscopy and molecular methods for strain typing of yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhards Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The site specific influence on wine (Terroir is an often by wine producers, consumers and scientists discussed topic in the world of wine. A study on grapes and (spontaneous fermentations from six different vineyards was done to investigate the biodiversity of yeasts and to answer the question if there is a terroir of yeast and how it could be influenced. Randomly isolated yeasts were identified by FTIR-spectroscopy and molecular methods on species and strain level. Vineyard specific yeast floras would be observed but they are not such important as expected. Only a few overlapping strain patterns would be identified during both vintages. The yeast flora of the winery had a huge impact on the spontaneous fermentations, but is not really constant and influenced by different factors from outside.

  17. Effects of Storage Duration and Temperature on the Chemical Composition, Microorganism Density, and In vitro Rumen Fermentation of Wet Brewers Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Luo, Y; Myung, K H; Liu, J X

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of storage duration and temperature on the characteristics of wet brewers grains (WBG) as feeds for ruminant animals. Four storage temperatures (5°C, 15°C, 25°C, and 35°C) and four durations (0, 1, 2, and 3 d) were arranged in a 4×4 factorial design. Surface spoilage, chemical composition and microorganism density were analyzed. An in vitro gas test was also conducted to determine the pH, ammonia-nitrogen and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations after 24 h incubation. Surface spoilage was apparent at higher temperatures such as 25°C and 35°C. Nutrients contents decreased concomitantly with prolonged storage times (pyeast and mold increased (p<0.05) with increasing storage times and temperatures. As storage temperature increased, gas production, in vitro disappearance of organic matter, pH, ammonia nitrogen and total VFA from the WBG in the rumen decreased (p<0.01). Our results indicate that lower storage temperature promotes longer beneficial use period. However, when storage temperature exceeds 35°C, WBG should be used within a day to prevent impairment of rumen fermentation in the subtropics such as Southeast China, where the temperature is typically above 35°C during summer.

  18. An upper-branch Brewer-Dobson circulation index for attribution of stratospheric variability and improved ozone and temperature trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, William T.; Kuchař, Aleš; Rozanov, Eugene V.; Staehelin, Johannes; Tummon, Fiona; Smith, Anne K.; Sukhodolov, Timofei; Stenke, Andrea; Revell, Laura; Coulon, Ancelin; Schmutz, Werner; Peter, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    We find that wintertime temperature anomalies near 4 hPa and 50° N/S are related, through dynamics, to anomalies in ozone and temperature, particularly in the tropical stratosphere but also throughout the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. These mid-latitude anomalies occur on timescales of up to a month, and are related to changes in wave forcing. A change in the meridional Brewer-Dobson circulation extends from the middle stratosphere into the mesosphere and forms a temperature-change quadrupole from Equator to pole. We develop a dynamical index based on detrended, deseasonalised mid-latitude temperature. When employed in multiple linear regression, this index can account for up to 60 % of the total variability of temperature, peaking at ˜ 5 hPa and dropping to 0 at ˜ 50 and ˜ 0.5 hPa, respectively, and increasing again into the mesosphere. Ozone similarly sees up to an additional 50 % of variability accounted for, with a slightly higher maximum and strong altitude dependence, with zero improvement found at 10 hPa. Further, the uncertainty on all equatorial multiple-linear regression coefficients can be reduced by up to 35 and 20 % in temperature and ozone, respectively, and so this index is an important tool for quantifying current and future ozone recovery.

  19. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Brewer's Spent Grain Dietary Fiber on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Sung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; N Lee, Soo-Yeo; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork back fat with brewer's spent grain (BSG) pre-emulsion for physicochemical, textural properties, and sensory evaluations of reduced-fat chicken sausages are evaluated. Control was prepared with 15% pork back fat, and three reduced-fat chicken sausages were formulated with the replacement of 20, 25, and 30% pork back fat with BSG pre-emulsion. The pH level of reduced-fat sausages formulated with BSG pre-emulsion is lower than that of the control (pfat chicken sausages increase proportionally with increasing BSG pre-emulsion (pfat contents and energy values are decreased in reduced-fat chicken sausages (pfat chicken sausages (pfat and the addition of BSG pre-emulsion had no influence on the cohesiveness of the chicken sausage. And there is no significant difference in the overall acceptability among control, T1 (chicken sausage with 20% of BSG pre-emulsion, 10% of fat addition), and T2 (chicken sausage with 25% of BSG pre-emulsion, 5% of fat addition) (p>0.05). Therefore, our results indicate that BSG is effective dietary fiber source for manufacturing of reduced-fat meat product and suggest that 20-25% of BSG pre-emulsion is suitable for pork back fat in chicken sausages.

  20. Effects of urban agglomeration on surface-UV doses: a comparison of Brewer measurements in Warsaw and Belsk, Poland, for the period 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwińska, Agnieszka E.; Krzyścin, Janusz W.; Jarosławski, Janusz; Posyniak, Michał

    2016-11-01

    Specific aerosols and cloud properties over large urban regions seem to generate an island, similar to the well-known urban heat island, leading to lower ultraviolet (UV) radiation intensity compared to the surrounding less polluted areas, thus creating a shield against excessive human exposure to UV radiation. The present study focuses on differences between erythemal and UVA (324 nm) doses measured by the Brewer spectrophotometers in Warsaw (52.3° N, 21.0° E) and Belsk (51.8° N, 20.8° E). The latter is a rural region located about 60 km south-west of the city. Ratios between erythemal and UVA partly daily doses, obtained during all-sky and cloudless-sky conditions for the period May 2013-December 2015, were analysed to infer a specific cloud and aerosol forcing on the surface UV doses over Warsaw. Radiative model simulations were carried out to find sources of the observed differences between the sites. It was found that Warsaw urban agglomeration induced 8 and 6 % attenuation of the erythemal and UVA doses respectively. This is mostly due to the lower sun elevation in Warsaw during the near-noon measurements and the larger optical depth of the city aerosols and increased cloudiness. It could be hypothesised that the expected stronger absorption of the solar UV radiation by urban aerosols is compensated for here by a higher surface reflectivity over the city.

  1. Discarded oranges and brewer's spent grains as promoting ingredients for microbial growth by submerged and solid state fermentation of agro-industrial waste mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2013-08-01

    The exploitation of various agro-industrial wastes for microbial cell mass production of Kluyveromyces marxianus, kefir, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported in the present investigation. Specifically, the promotional effect of whole orange pulp on cell growth in mixtures consisting of cheese whey, molasses, and potato pulp in submerged fermentation processes was examined. A 2- to 3-fold increase of cell mass was observed in the presence of orange pulp. Likewise, the promotional effect of brewer's spent grains on cell growth in solid state fermentation of mixtures of whey, molasses, potato pulp, malt spent rootlets, and orange pulp was examined. The cell mass was increased by 3-fold for K. marxianus and 2-fold for S. cerevisiae in the presence of these substrates, proving their suitability for single-cell protein production without the need for extra nutrients. Cell growth kinetics were also studied by measurements of cell counts at various time intervals at different concentrations of added orange pulp. The protein content of the fermented substrates was increased substantially, indicating potential use of mixed agro-industrial wastes of negligible cost, as protein-enriched livestock feed, achieving at the same time creation of added value and waste minimization.

  2. Excretion and degradation of dietary fiber constituents in ileostomy subjects consuming a low fiber diet with and without brewer's spent grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, P; Zhang, J X; Hallmans, G; Lundin, E

    1994-03-01

    Excretion of total dietary fiber and dietary fiber components was studied in 10 human subjects with ileostomies, consuming in a crossover design a low fiber diet (15 g total dietary fiber/d) or this diet supplemented with 62 g/d of brewer's spent grain. Food and excreta were collected and analyzed on d 2, 3 and 7 of each dietary period. No significant differences in excretion of total dietary fiber or dietary fiber components were found on the three days. Excreta from subjects consuming the low fiber diet contained significantly more total dietary fiber than was ingested (20%, P importance of endogenous and microbial material, contributing to the total dietary fiber value, in ileostomy effluents. Analysis of specific dietary fiber components showed that this increased excretion was mainly due to fucose, mannose, galactose and uronic acid residues. When the high-fiber diet was consumed, there was a significantly greater excretion of the same non-starch polysaccharide residues as for consumption of the low fiber diet, but with a simultaneous decrease in excretion of arabinose, xylose and glucose residues (12%, P < 0.01), which were the major fiber components in the diet.

  3. Baker's yeast: production of D- and L-3-hydroxy esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Allan Carsten; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard

    1998-01-01

    Baker's yeast grown under oxygen limited conditions and used in the reduction of 3-oxo esters results in a shift of the stereoselectivity of the yeast towards D-hydroxy esters as compared with ordinary baker's yeast. The highest degree of stereoselectivity was obtained with growing yeast or yeast...... harvested while growing. In contrast, the stereoselectivity was shifted towards L-hydroxy esters when the oxo esters were added slowly to ordinary baker's yeast supplied with gluconolactone as co-substrate. The reduction rate with gluconolactone was increased by active aeration. Ethyl L-(S)-3...

  4. Mutational analysis of yeast profilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarer, B K; Petzold, A S; Brown, S S

    1993-12-01

    We have mutated two regions within the yeast profilin gene in an effort to functionally dissect the roles of actin and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding in profilin function. A series of truncations was carried out at the C terminus of profilin, a region that has been implicated in actin binding. Removal of the last three amino acids nearly eliminated the ability of profilin to bind polyproline in vitro but had no dramatic in vivo effects. Thus, the extreme C terminus is implicated in polyproline binding, but the physiological relevance of this interaction is called into question. More extensive truncation, of up to eight amino acids, had in vivo effects of increasing severity and resulted in changes in conformation and expression level of the mutant profilins. However, the ability of these mutants to bind actin in vitro was not eliminated, suggesting that this region cannot be solely responsible for actin binding. We also mutagenized a region of profilin that we hypothesized might be involved in PIP2 binding. Alteration of basic amino acids in this region produced mutant profilins that functioned well in vivo. Many of these mutants, however, were unable to suppress the loss of adenylate cyclase-associated protein (Cap/Srv2p [A. Vojtek, B. Haarer, J. Field, J. Gerst, T. D. Pollard, S. S. Brown, and M. Wigler, Cell 66:497-505, 1991]), indicating that a defect could be demonstrated in vivo. In vitro assays demonstrated that the inability to suppress loss of Cap/Srv2p correlated with a defect in the interaction with actin, independently of whether PIP2 binding was reduced. Since our earlier studies of Acanthamoeba profilins suggested the importance of PIP2 binding for suppression, we conclude that both activities are implicated and that an interplay between PIP2 binding and actin binding may be important for profilin function.

  5. 27 CFR 25.252 - Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removal of Brewer's Yeast and Other Articles § 25.252 Records. (a) Production. The brewer shall keep records of the production of malt syrup, wort, and other articles which are removed... of brewer's yeast, malt and other articles from the brewery. The record shall include the...

  6. Yeasts associated with Sardinian ewe's dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, S; Fadda, M E; Deplano, M; Mulargia, A F; Palmas, F

    2001-09-19

    In the present work, the occurrence of yeasts in different types of typical Sardinian ewe's cheeses (32 samples of pecorino, 32 of caciotta, 40 of feta, 56 of ricotta) was determined. For the strains isolated the following properties were studied: proteolytic and lipolytic activities, the ability to grow at different temperatures, different concentrations of salt, and to assimilate and/or ferment compounds like lactate, citrate, lactose, glucose, galactose, lactic acid. Of 160 samples analysed, 76.2% yielded growth of yeasts. Yeast counts showed a certain variability among the samples. The highest levels were observed in caciotta and feta cheeses. A total of 281 strains belonging to 16 genera and 25 species were identified. In general, Debaryomyces hansenii was the dominant species, representing 28.8% of the total isolates. Other frequently appearing species were Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces lactis and K. marxianus. Other genera encountered were Pichia, Candida, Dekkera, Yarrowia and Rhodotorula. With regard to the biochemical and technological properties of the yeasts, only K. lactis, K. marxianus and Dek. anomala assimilated and fermented lactose, whereas the majority of the species assimilated lactic acid. The assimilation of citrate was a characteristic of D. hansenii, R. rubra and Y. lipolytica. On the whole, the yeasts were weakly proteolytic while lipolytic activity was present in several species. A high percentage of strains showed a certain tolerance to low temperatures while only some strains of D. hansenii and K. lactis were able to grow at a 10% NaCl concentration.

  7. Isolation and characterization of oenological yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatbardha Lamce

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic fermentation is carried out by all microorganisms presented in must, which vary by technological characteristics of interest to oenology. So far, in Albania the fermentation is spontaneous and not directed, resulting in an absence of a standard product. The object of the present study is the isolation, identification and determination of yeasts, isolated in different phases of fermentation of musts from different varieties of grapes, with the purpose of selecting autochthonous yeasts for a directed fermentation. In the present study were isolated 14 strains, with P.D.A. and Y.M.A. mediums. After isolation, purity controls were made to the strains through cultivation and re-cultivation of them in Petri dish, and also, by running a stereomicroscopic and microscopic examination. Classification and identification of yeast strains in genus and species were based on macro-morphological characteristics of the colonies. Then, morphological characteristics of the cell were observed as an important taxonomic indicator. For the determination of the physiological and biochemical characteristics of yeasts, the assimilation of sugars and the fermenting ability of yeast were used. At the end were isolated and identified 9 strains of the genus Saccharomyces, 1 strain of the genus Schizosaccharomyces, 2 strains of the genus Brettanomyces, 2 strains of the genus Kloeckera. These will serve to further work towards their selection based on their fermenting technological characteristics.

  8. Yeast fuel cell: Application for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiana, Ummy; Innocent, Christophe; Cretin, Marc; Buchari, Buchari; Gandasasmita, Suryo

    2016-02-01

    Yeasts have been implicated in microbial fuel cells as biocatalysts because they are non-pathogenic organisms, easily handled and robust with a good tolerance in different environmental conditions. Here we investigated baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the oxidation of glucose. Yeast was used in the anolyte, to transfer electrons to the anode in the presence of methylene blue as mediator whereas K3Fe(CN)6 was used as an electron acceptor for the reduction reaction in the catholyte. Power production with biofuel cell was coupled with a desalination process. The maximum current density produced by the cell was 88 mA.m-2. In those conditions, it was found that concentration of salt was removed 64% from initial 0.6 M after 1-month operation. This result proves that yeast fuel cells can be used to remove salt through electrically driven membrane processes and demonstrated that could be applied for energy production and desalination. Further developments are in progress to improve power output to make yeast fuel cells applicable for water treatment.

  9. Radiodiagnosis of yeast alveolitis (a clinicoexperimental study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amosov, I.S.; Smirnov, V.A.

    A clinicoroetgenological study was made of 115 workers engaged in yeast production for different periods of time. Disorders of respiration biomechanics were revealed depending on the period of service. These data were obtained as a result of the use of roentgenopneumopolygraphy. An experimental study was conducted to establish the nature of lesions in the bronchopulmonary system in allergic alveolitis. The effect of finely divided yeast dust on the bronchopulmonary system was studied on 132 guinea-pigs usinq microbronchography and morphological examination. As a result of the study it has been established that during the inhalation of yeast dust, noticeable dystrophy of the bronchi develops, the sizes of alveoli enlarge and part of them undergo emphysematous distension with rupture of the interalveolar septa. In the course of the study, it has been shown that yeast alveolitis develops after many years of work. The clinical symptoms are non-specific and insignificant. X-ray and morphological changes are followed by the physical manifestations of yeast alveolitis.

  10. Extension of yeast chronological lifespan by methylamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronological aging of yeast cells is commonly used as a model for aging of human post-mitotic cells. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose in the presence of ammonium sulphate is mainly used in yeast aging research. We have analyzed chronological aging of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha grown at conditions that require primary peroxisome metabolism for growth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The chronological lifespan of H. polymorpha is strongly enhanced when cells are grown on methanol or ethanol, metabolized by peroxisome enzymes, relative to growth on glucose that does not require peroxisomes. The short lifespan of H. polymorpha on glucose is mainly due to medium acidification, whereas most likely ROS do not play an important role. Growth of cells on methanol/methylamine instead of methanol/ammonium sulphate resulted in further lifespan enhancement. This was unrelated to medium acidification. We show that oxidation of methylamine by peroxisomal amine oxidase at carbon starvation conditions is responsible for lifespan extension. The methylamine oxidation product formaldehyde is further oxidized resulting in NADH generation, which contributes to increased ATP generation and reduction of ROS levels in the stationary phase. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that primary peroxisome metabolism enhanced chronological lifespan of H. polymorpha. Moreover, the possibility to generate NADH at carbon starvation conditions by an organic nitrogen source supports further extension of the lifespan of the cell. Consequently, the interpretation of CLS analyses in yeast should include possible effects on the energy status of the cell.

  11. Chemotyping of yeast mutants using robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, K J; El-Alama, M; Stein, G; Bradshaw, C; Slonimski, P P; Maundrell, K

    1999-07-01

    By now, the EUROFAN programme for the functional analysis of genes from the yeast genome has attained its cruising speed. Indeed, several hundreds of yeast mutants with no phenotype as tested by growth on standard media and no significant sequence similarity to proteins of known function are available through the efforts of various laboratories. Based on the methodology initiated during the pilot project on yeast chromosome III (Yeast 13, 1547-1562, 1997) we adapted it to High Throughput Screening (HTS), using robotics. The first 100 different gene deletions from EUROSCARF, constructed in an FY1679 strain background, were run against a collection of about 300 inhibitors. Many of these inhibitors have not been reported until now to interfere in vivo with growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present paper we provide a list of novel growth conditions and a compilation of 49 yeast deletants (from chromosomes II, IV, VII, X, XIV, XV) corresponding to 58% of the analysed genes, with at least one clear and stringent phenotype. The majority of these deletants are sensitive to one or two compounds (monotropic phenotype) while a distinct subclass of deletants displays a hyper-pleiotropic phenotype with sensitivities to a dozen or more compounds. Therefore, chemotyping of unknown genes with a large spectrum of drugs opens new vistas for a more in-depth functional analysis and a more precise definition of molecular targets.

  12. Application of acid-treated yeast cell wall (AYC) as a pharmaceutical additive. II: effects of curing on the medicine release from AYC-coated tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, H; Kaneshige, J; Ozeki, T; Kasai, T; Eguchi, T; Ishiwaki, N

    2000-11-19

    Acid-treated yeast cell wall (AYC) was newly prepared by acidifying brewers' yeast cell wall. Core tablets containing 3% of acetaminophen (AAP) were coated with the AYC aqueous dispersion containing 5% (w/v) of AYC and 0.35% (w/v) of glycerol. The curing of AYC-coated tablets was performed at various curing periods of time and temperatures. The effects of curing on AAP release from AYC-coated tablets, the weight and thickness of the coated layer of AYC and the water sorption into the AYC-coated tablets were studied. The tensile strength and pore size distribution of the AYC cast film were measured. In the case of 60, 80, or 100 degrees C curing, AAP release from AYC-coated tablets showed a sigmoidal release profile with an initial lag time. The duration of the lag time increased with the increasing curing time and temperature, though the release rate after the lag time hardly changed. At 120 degrees C curing, the release rate after the lag time decreased with the increasing curing time and a sustained release was observed. The weight and thickness of the AYC-coated layer and the water sorption rate into AYC-coated tablets decreased with the increasing curing time and temperature. The tensile strength of the AYC cast film increased with increasing the curing temperature, particularly at 120 degrees C curing. It is considered that the water was evaporated from the AYC-coated layer and the adhesion force between AYC particles increased during curing, making the structure of the AYC-coated layer densely firm. The changes in the duration of lag time and the release rate may be due to changes in the structure of the AYC-coated layer caused by curing. These results show that it is feasible to control the lag time and the release rate of AAP from AYC-coated tablets by varying the curing time and temperature.

  13. Yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with fruits and blossoms of different fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Vránová, Dana; Sláviková, Elena

    2012-12-01

    Yeasts are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere, but our knowledge of their diversity in various plant organs is still limited. This study focused on the diversity of yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with matured fruits and fully open blossoms of apple, plum, and pear trees, during 2 consecutive years at 3 localities in southwest Slovakia. The occurrence of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in fruit samples was 2½ times higher and the yeast community more diverse than that in blossom samples. Only 2 species (Aureobasidium pullulans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) occurred regularly in the blossom samples, whereas Galactomyces candidus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, M. pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the most frequently isolated species from the fruit samples. The ratio of the number of samples where only individual species were present to the number of samples where 2 or more species were found (consortium) was counted. The occurrence of individual species in comparison with consortia was much higher in blossom samples than in fruit samples. In the latter, consortia predominated. Aureobasidium pullulans, M. pulcherrima, and S. cerevisiae, isolated from both the fruits and blossoms, can be considered as resident yeast species of various fruit tree species cultivated in southwest Slovakia localities.

  14. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C; knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells.

  15. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yumei; Chen, Zikai; Zhu, Detu; Tu, Haitao; Pan, Shen Quan

    2015-01-01

    The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C); knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells.

  16. Modeling diauxic glycolytic oscillations in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Sørensen, Preben Graae

    2010-01-01

    switching in a closed-system experiment by feeding the yeast suspension with a glucose pulse-notably the initial NADH spike and final NADH rise. Another object of this study is to gain insight into the secondary low-flux metabolic pathways by feeding starved yeast cells with various metabolites......Glycolytic oscillations in a stirred suspension of starved yeast cells is an excellent model system for studying the dynamics of metabolic switching in living systems. In an open-flow system the oscillations can be maintained indefinitely at a constant operating point where they can...... be characterized quantitatively by experimental quenching and bifurcation analysis. In this article, we use these methods to show that the dynamics of oscillations in a closed system is a simple transient version of the open-system dynamics. Thus, easy-setup closed-system experiments are also useful...

  17. Complete biosynthesis of opioids in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanie, Stephanie; Thodey, Kate; Trenchard, Isis J; Filsinger Interrante, Maria; Smolke, Christina D

    2015-09-04

    Opioids are the primary drugs used in Western medicine for pain management and palliative care. Farming of opium poppies remains the sole source of these essential medicines, despite diverse market demands and uncertainty in crop yields due to weather, climate change, and pests. We engineered yeast to produce the selected opioid compounds thebaine and hydrocodone starting from sugar. All work was conducted in a laboratory that is permitted and secured for work with controlled substances. We combined enzyme discovery, enzyme engineering, and pathway and strain optimization to realize full opiate biosynthesis in yeast. The resulting opioid biosynthesis strains required the expression of 21 (thebaine) and 23 (hydrocodone) enzyme activities from plants, mammals, bacteria, and yeast itself. This is a proof of principle, and major hurdles remain before optimization and scale-up could be achieved. Open discussions of options for governing this technology are also needed in order to responsibly realize alternative supplies for these medically relevant compounds.

  18. Degradation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural during yeast fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akıllıoglu, Halise Gül; Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Gökmen, Vural

    2011-12-01

    5-Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) may occur in malt in high quantities depending on roasting conditions. However, the HMF content of different types of beers is relatively low, indicating its potential for degradation during fermentation. This study investigates the degradation kinetics of HMF in wort during fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results indicated that HMF decreased exponentially as fermentation progressed. The first-order degradation rate of HMF was 0.693 × 10(-2) and 1.397 × 10(-2)min(-1) for wort and sweet wort, respectively, indicating that sugar enhances the activity of yeasts. In wort, HMF was converted into hydroxymethyl furfuryl alcohol by yeasts with a high yield (79-84% conversion). Glucose and fructose were utilised more rapidly by the yeasts in dark roasted malt than in pale malt (pfermentation medium increases this activity.

  19. Metallic Biosorption Using Yeasts in Continuous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Miriam Hernández Mata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining effluents were found to be the main source of pollution by heavy metals of the surface water in the San Pedro River in Sonora, Mexico. The overall objective of this study was to determine the biosorption of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe with yeasts isolated from San Pedro River in a continuous system. The tests conducted in two reactors packed with zeolite connected in series. The first reactor was inoculated mixing two yeasts species, and the effluent of the first reactor was fed to second reactor. Subsequently, the first reactor was fed with contaminated water of San Pedro River and effluent from this was the second reactor influent. After 40 days of the experiment a reduction of 81.5% zinc, 76.5% copper, manganese 95.5%, and 99.8% of iron was obtained. These results show that the selected yeasts are capable of biosorbing zinc, copper, manganese, and iron under these conditions.

  20. Probiotic Properties of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Ida Mosbech

    to harmless luminal substances is a key feature of the intestinal immune system. In this context, dendritic cells (DCs) present in the tissues lining the human gut are central players involved in microbial sensing and shaping of appropriate adaptive immune responses. Probiotics are live microorganisms which...... when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. While the majority of probiotic microorganisms studied to date are lactic acid bacteria, research in yeasts with potentially beneficial influences on human health has mainly revolved around Saccharomyces boulardii. This yeast...... has shown a positive impact on disease outcome in clinical studies of inflammatory bowel disease, indicating an ability of S. boulardii to influence human immune responses underlying intestinal inflammation. Consequent to this focus on S. boulardii as the fundamental probiotic yeast, very little...

  1. Fission Yeast Cell Cycle Synchronization Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormos-Pérez, Marta; Pérez-Hidalgo, Livia; Moreno, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Fission yeast cells can be synchronized by cell cycle arrest and release or by size selection. Cell cycle arrest synchronization is based on the block and release of temperature-sensitive cell cycle mutants or treatment with drugs. The most widely used approaches are cdc10-129 for G1; hydroxyurea (HU) for early S-phase; cdc25-22 for G2, and nda3-KM311 for mitosis. Cells can also be synchronized by size selection using centrifugal elutriation or a lactose gradient. Here we describe the methods most commonly used to synchronize fission yeast cells.

  2. Genetic diversity of the yeast Candida utilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenburg, R; Klinner, U; Ritzerfeld, P; Zimmermann, M; Emeis, C C

    1992-12-01

    The electrophoretic karyotypes and some mtDNA restriction fragment patterns of 13 strains of Candida utilis and one strain of Hansenula jadinii were compared. PFGE separations revealed remarkable chromosome length polymorphisms between two groups of strains suggesting that perhaps they do not belong to the same species. However, all strains had the same or similar EcoRI, HindIII and BamHI mtDNA restriction patterns. The mtDNA genomes had an average size range of 55 kb. These results support the supposition that C. utilis is a yeast with a highly variable electrophoretic karyotype as already known for another imperfect yeast species, Candida albicans.

  3. 啤酒酿造酵母原生质体融合株GR5的中试%The pilot fermentation test of brewer, s yeast protoplast fusant GR5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴玉聪

    2005-01-01

    报道了啤酒酵母原生质体融合株GR5的中试结果.融合株GR5的凝絮性较强(本斯值为2.7),以12°Bx麦芽汁为培养基,用500L发酵罐在12℃下发酵,发酵至第8d菌株GR5的发酵度为69.2%,发酵液中的双乙酰含量为0.0498mg/L、乙醛含量为6.34mg/L,总高级醇含量为74.4mg/L,该菌株生产的啤酒,口感柔和、协调,略带酯香味.融合株GR5的遗传性稳定,是一株具有工业应用前景的啤酒酿造酵母菌株.

  4. 由啤酒废酵母发酵提取1,6-二磷酸果糖的研究%Study on Preparation and Purification of Fructose-1, 6-Diphosphate with Brewer's Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉强

    2006-01-01

    探讨了由啤酒废酵母发酵提取1,6-二磷酸果糖(FDP)的工艺.正交试验结果表明,发酵液中氯化镁的浓度、酸度是1,6-二磷酸果糖生产最主要的影响因素.最佳发酵参数为:发酵温度37℃,葡萄糖浓度为0.5mol/L,磷酸盐浓度0.4mol/L,酸度6.5,有机溶剂的加量约6%.1,6-二磷酸果糖在发酵液中的得率最高可达69.8mg/mL.

  5. 利用啤酒废酵母深层发酵培养假蜜环菌的研究%Application of used brewer's yeast in the cultivation of armillariella mellea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉艳红; 邱皓坚; 刘大岭; 梁郁强

    2005-01-01

    明确了假蜜环菌试验菌株摇瓶培养条件为:碳源浓度25g/L,氮源浓度0 336g/L,初始pH4.0,种龄为7d的液体种子接种量为10%(V/V),在27℃,摇床转速140r/min.对照此培养条件,确定假蜜环菌深层发酵培养基的组成为:经过破壁处理啤酒废酵母粉4.8g/L,葡萄糖24g/L.相同培养条件下,菌丝体收获量为干重13.5g/L,生物量高于利用蛋白胨培养基扩大培养的产量:13.0g/L.

  6. Study on the fermenting technology of Fructose-1,6-diphosphate with brewer's yeast%啤酒废酵母制备1,6-二磷酸果糖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迎辉; 卢晓霆; 常启龙

    2008-01-01

    啤酒废酵母生产1,6-二磷酸果糖发酵工艺进行了试验性探讨.正交试验结果表明,啤酒废酵母发酵生产FDP的最佳工艺参数为:发酵体系中葡萄糖的加量为0.5 mol/L、无机磷的浓度为0.4 mol/L、pH 6.5、转化时间6 h.

  7. Studies on extraction of dextran and recovery of protein in waste brewer's yeast%啤酒废酵母的葡聚糖提取及蛋白质回收工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞凌云; 王书园; 齐慧; 张文学

    2008-01-01

    利用废啤酒酵母进行试验,采用较为简单、环保的酶促-自溶-碱法提取酵母葡聚糖和回收蛋白质.葡聚糖得率45.8%,纯度33.6%;回收蛋白质作为饲料添加剂的得率达到91.49%.经成本核算,以年产10吨葡聚糖计,每年可实现利润343.95万元,因此有很好的发展前景.

  8. Effects of High-Voltage Pulsed Electric Field on Released Protein by Brewer Yeast Cell%高压脉冲电场对啤酒酵母细胞溶解释放蛋白质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉珠; 殷涌光; 丁宏伟

    2006-01-01

    应用高压脉冲电场在不同条件下处理啤酒酵母细胞,使其释放蛋白质及其分解产物氨基酸.结果表明:高压脉冲电场处理具有使啤酒酵母细胞溶解释放蛋白质和氨基酸的作用,且随着处理温度增高、电场强度增大和脉冲数增加,啤酒酵母细胞的蛋白质和氨基酸溶出量增大.当试验条件在25℃、40kV/cm电场强度和60个脉冲数时,酵母细胞蛋白质和氨基酸溶出量最大(0.154mg/mL,0.190mg/mL),约为未用高压脉冲电场处理的2倍.

  9. 酶法制备啤酒废酵母生物活性肽的工艺条件研究%Study on the Process Conditions of Polypeptides Preparation from the Discarded Brewers Yeast by Enzymatic Hydrolyzation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鑫颖; 邱树毅; 凌秀梅

    2008-01-01

    以啤酒废酵母为原料,经木瓜蛋白酶酶解、分离、纯化、干燥等工序制得啤酒废酵母活性肽.试验通过单因素及响应面分析方法确定了木瓜蛋白酶对废酵母的最佳酶解条件为:酶解温度57.78℃,pH 7.05,酶用量3.03%.酶解后多肽得率可达到52.13%.

  10. Extracting RNA from Spent Brewer's Yeast by the Combination of High Pressure Homogenization and Saline%机械破壁和盐法结合从啤酒酵母中提取RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄淑霞; 史红梅; 尹卓容

    2004-01-01

    机械破壁法和盐法结合,在酵母浓度为10%,高压均质破壁循环两次,盐浓度5%,95℃下加热3h,RNA平均净得率>3%;将上清液回收利用,回用到第三次时,RNA净得率达3.67%.

  11. The Application of D-Threonine in Screening Low Hydrogen Sulfide Production Brewer's Yeast%D-苏氨酸在低产硫化氢啤酒酵母选育中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 贾士儒; 张五九

    2009-01-01

    研究了酵母菌、麦芽汁中L-苏氨酸对发酵液后期硫化氧含量的影响.结果表明,不同的酵母产硫化氢的能力差异很大,使用菌种H的发酵液后期的硫化氢含量为84.24μg/L,使用菌种E的发酵液后期的硫化氢含量为3.45μg/L;麦芽汁中的L-苏氨酸可以促进发酵液中硫化氢的积累.通过筛选D-苏氨酸抗性突变株,可以提高获得低产硫化酵母的概率,初筛正突变率高达50%.在中试试验结果表明,与出发菌种相比较,突变菌种的发酵液后期的硫化氢含量降低34%.

  12. Study on the cell wall breaking of brewer's yeast by high-pressure homogenization%高压均质破碎啤酒酵母细胞壁的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海翔; 尹卓容; 马美范

    2002-01-01

    采用高压均质机破碎啤酒酵母细胞壁提取细胞质中RNA,酵母浓度、工作压力及循环次数对细胞破壁率有影响,当酵母干物质浓度为15%,压力为70MPa,循环3次,酵母细胞破壁率达到70.99%.

  13. Primary research of molecular weight distribution of protein hydrolysate in brewer yeast%啤酒酵母蛋白酶解物分子量分布研究初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卫芸; 杜冰; 李燕杰; 杨公明

    2009-01-01

    凝胶层析分离经胰蛋白酶酶解啤酒酵母后得到的多肽粗粉,并采用SDS-PAGE电泳测定啤酒酵母多肽分子量,发现其中含有16~26、5、1.4kDa等三种不同分子量水平的蛋白组分,酶解得率分别为27.08%、11.55%、17.99%.

  14. 啤酒酵母在红薯淀粉麦芽汁中的发酵特性研究%Study on Fermentation Performance of Brewer Yeast in Wort with Sweet Potato Starch as Auxiliary Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩珍琼; 张玲

    2007-01-01

    本实验研究了酵母在红薯淀粉做辅料的麦汁中的发酵特性,并与其在大米做辅料的麦汁中的发酵特性作了对比,结果表明其完成主发酵所用的时间、可发酵浸出物的变化、还原糖含量的变化、α-氨基氮的利用情况、双乙酰的生成量等均无明显的区别,而且酵母的生长繁殖正常.红薯淀粉作辅料的啤酒色度较大.

  15. 啤酒酵母XB05及其突变株JY2-2的RAPD分析%The RAPD Analysis of Brewer's Yeast XB05 and Its Mutant Strain JY2-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婷; 刘月英

    2008-01-01

    菌株JY2-2是啤酒酵母(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)XB05经半导体激光诱变筛选得到的优良菌株.为了从分子水平考察菌株JY2-2与XB05的差异,为酵母菌株JY2-2的鉴定提供分子依据,我们运用随机扩增多态性DNA(RAPD)技术对啤酒酵母XB05和JY2-2进行全基因组分析.用27条随机引物对这两株酵母菌进行扩增,结果得到5条可产生较多扩增条带,并具有较丰富多态性的随机引物,每条引物可扩增8~20条DNA条带,分子量大小在100~3000bp之间.菌株XB05和JY2-2的DNA遗传相似系数为0.794,可以认为菌株JY2-2是啤酒酵母XB05的突变株.

  16. 啤酒废酵母复合促溶剂促溶效果的研究%Study on autolysis effect of spent brewer's yeast with complex promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雪薇; 罗晓明; 刘永乐

    2003-01-01

    研究几种单一促溶剂及复合促溶剂的促溶效果,优化了复合促溶剂配比,得出其最佳值为NaCl 2%(W/W)、乙醇1%(V/V)、葡萄糖1%(W/W).以此促溶啤酒废酵母,其抽提液氨基氮含量比传统促溶剂(NaCl)提高了9.6%,收率提高了8%,而自溶时间则缩短了12h.

  17. Study of Prduction Technique of Selenium- Enriched Nutritive Soy Sauce by Selenium- Enriched Brewer's Yeast%利用富硒酵母自溶液制取富硒营养酱油的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉荣

    2003-01-01

    介绍了以富硒酵母自溶液为原料,加入一定量的其它配料来制取富硒营养酱油的生产工艺.产品富含多种氨基酸、 B族维生素,具有强烈的增鲜效应及醇厚浓郁的肉香味.

  18. Study on the process of converting IMP to ATP by brewer's yeast%啤酒酵母转化次黄嘌呤核苷酸生成三磷酸腺苷的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常景玲; 任敏; 张军霞

    2008-01-01

    啤酒厂废酵母经培养可转化次黄嘌呤核苷酸(IMP)生成三磷酸腺苷(ATP).研究了初始葡萄糖、磷酸盐、Mg2+、IMP底物浓度、pH值等主要参数对转化率的影响以及纯化过程中洗脱液的选择.利用酵母体内的酶成功地对IMP进行了转化,结果表明,在优化条件下ATP转化率稳定在90%以上,含量超过85%,纯度超过99%.

  19. 啤酒酵母吸附工业废水中镉离子的可行性研究%A feasibility study of cadmium absorption by waste brewer's yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振扬; 刘超

    2009-01-01

    在分析啤酒酵母吸附镉离子的各种影响因素的基础上,采用2 m3吸附装置及与之匹配的后分离设备进行了扩大实验.结果表明,啤酒酵母对镉离子的生物吸附的最佳条件:pH为7.0、吸附时间为90 min、酵母加入量为10 g/L、搅拌转数为25 r/min.在该最佳条件下,镉离子的回收率为96.8%.同时,探讨了利用啤酒废酵母处理含镉废水的可行性.

  20. Adsorptive Properties of β -D-Glucans Extracted from Spent Brewer Yeast Cell Wall against Zearalenone%啤酒酵母β-D-葡聚糖吸附毒素玉米赤霉烯酮(ZEA)的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽霞; 徐学明

    2006-01-01

    本文用碱法,碱酸法和酶碱法从啤酒废酵母中提取碱不溶性葡聚糖,对产品进行了定性定量分析,得到的产品主要为β-D-葡聚糖,且不含甘露糖.研究了三种产品对真菌毒素玉米赤霉烯酮(ZEA)的吸附作用,实验结果表明,酶碱法提取的葡聚糖具有较好的吸附效果,在反应条件:β-D-葡聚糖100μg/ml,玉米赤霉烯酮40μg/ml,37℃,200r/min振荡2h,吸附量最大可达到2.296μg/mg葡聚糖.

  1. Domestication of brewer yeast with high diacetyl concentration wort%高浓度双乙酰定向驯化获得优良啤酒酵母菌株的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀丽; 唐晓达; 刘进文; 刘月英; 魏文铃; 戴玉聪; 林英辉

    2003-01-01

    在双乙酰浓度为1mg/mL的12°Bx麦芽汁中进行高浓度定向驯化,经涂布抗双乙酰固体选择培养基,从啤酒酿造生产菌株啤酒酵母(Saccharomyces sp.)A中富集筛选分离得到一株双乙酰还原速度优于亲株A的新菌株TA4.以12°Bx麦芽汁为培养基用内装300mL麦芽汁的500mL三角瓶10℃下发酵,发酵8d后发酵液双乙酰含量比亲株降低了36.31%,发酵度提高4 5%,且该菌株的絮凝性、发酵速率等特性仍保持了亲株A的优良性状.

  2. 啤酒酵母细胞壁β-(1,3)-D-葡聚糖的应用前景%Application Prospect of β-(1,3)-D-glucan of Brewer's Yeast Cell Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宜磊; 张明; 许谦; 杨宏宇; 王同阳

    2014-01-01

    综述了啤酒酵母葡聚糖在食品工业、化妆品行业、动物养殖与饲料工业以及免疫方面的应用,阐述了啤酒酵母葡聚糖在各个行业中的优越性及其研究发展方向,以期为实现啤酒废酵母的综合利用提供理论依据.

  3. Elimination of off-flavor of brewer's yeast extract with active cells of S. Cerevisiae%S. Cerevisiae活性细胞消除啤酒酵母提取物的异味

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈廷登; 许培雅

    2001-01-01

    在啤酒酵母水解液中添加S.Cerevisiae活性细胞,并保温培养一定时间后,能除啤酒酵母水解液的异味.通过正交试验得出其较佳的培养条件为培养液pH5.3、温度30℃、接种量0.5%、培养时间16h、培养液浓度为啤酒酵母水解液原液:水=1:0.5.将脱除异味的啤酒酵母水解液在低浓度啤酒和高辅料(大米)比例啤酒的酿造中应用作为啤酒酿造的补充氮源试验,取得了良好的效果.

  4. 啤酒酵母抽提物生产中CIP系统的配置及应用%The design and application of the CIP system in brewer's yeast extraction production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵伟; 乐超银; 韩晓凯; 宋丽燕; 史咏华

    2008-01-01

    原地清洗(CIP)系统是一种不用拆卸设备、零部件和管道,不用进行人工擦洗和冲刷,而是通过清洗液的理化作用直接清洗设备和管道本身的方法.文中论述了原地清洗(CIP)系统的构成、影响CIP清洗效果的因素及CIP系统的设计要点,并结合酵母抽提物生产工艺实际,说明了CIP的应用情况.

  5. 高压脉冲电场和超声波协同作用破碎啤酒废酵母的研究%Breaking of Waste Brewer Yeast with Pulsed Electric Fields Combined with Ultrasound Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢阁; 杨瑞金; 卢蓉蓉; 张文斌; 赵伟

    2008-01-01

    利用高压脉冲电场(PEF)与超声波技术相结合的方法破壁啤酒酵母细胞提取其中蛋白质和核酸.结果表明:啤酒酵母悬浮液先经高压脉冲处理(场强25kV/cm,脉冲频率667pps,处理时间1584μs)再经超声处理(功率400W,超声处理时间15min)后进行蛋白质和核酸提取,蛋白质和核酸提取率分别达到45.86%和53.75%,且蛋白质和核酸提取率均是PEF单独作用时的1.5倍左右,是超声波单独作用时的2倍左右.

  6. Effects of chromium - rich brewer's yeast on blood sugar in type 2 diabetes patients%富铬酵母提取液降低血糖作用观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏飞; 张绍维; 孙文娟; 王雨; 叶丽杰

    2005-01-01

    目的观察富铬酵母提取液降低2型糖尿病患者血糖的作用.方法将132例2型糖尿病患者,其中男性84例,女性48例,按性别分层后随机分为实验组与对照组.在原治疗方案不变的条件下,实验组加服富铬酵母提取液.剂量以每日含铬200μg统计,观察3个月后血糖、胰岛素与糖化血红蛋白的变化.结果口服富铬酵母提取液3个月后,实验组的血糖、胰岛素与糖化血红蛋白与服用前及对照组比较均显著降低.实验组41%、对照组24%的患者空腹血糖降至7.0 mmol/L以下,2组比较差异有统计学意义,P<0.05.结论富铬酵母提取液具有较好的降低2型糖尿病患者血糖的作用,作用机制可能是提高胰岛素的生物效应,或提高胰岛素受体的敏感性,而不是促进胰岛β细胞分泌胰岛索.

  7. 高温弱碱稀盐法从啤酒废酵母中提取RNA%Extracting RNA from spent brewer's yeast by the new technology rare salt of high temperature of weak base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何娟; 詹自力; 夏萍; 曹颖; 卢奎

    2006-01-01

    采用盐法与碱法相结合破壁的方法,即高温弱碱稀盐法从啤酒废酵母中提取核糖核酸(RNA).正交试验确定的最佳工艺条件为:抽提温度100 ℃,w(NaCl)=6%,抽提时间90 min,pH=8.在此条件下,RNA收率可达8.01%,较传统工艺收率有显著提高.

  8. 羟酸还原异构酶基因在啤酒工业酵母中的整合表达%Study on the Integrative Expression of ILV5 Gene in Brewer's Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 张博润; 王正祥; 诸葛健

    2003-01-01

    采用PCR技术扩增啤酒工业酵母QY中的羟酸还原异构酶基因ILV5,构建了整合载体YIp-5C,整合转化QY,通过铜抗性筛选转化子,所得的转化子的羟酸还原异构酶的活力明显高于对照菌株QY, 转化子产生的双乙酰的量比原始菌株降低了40%.

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from brewers' yeast. The effects of pH and temperature on the steady-state kinetic parameters of the two-chain protein species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, S A; Roy, R N

    1976-05-04

    A systematic study has been made of the pH- and temperature-dependency of the steady-state kinetic parameters of the stabilized two-subunit enzyme species of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, in the absence of superimposed association-dissociation reactions. The Vmax(app) data obtained in several buffers between pH 5 and 10 and at 18-32 degrees C lead to the postulate that at least two sets of protonic equilibria may govern the catalysis (one near pH 5.7 AT 25 DEGREES C and another near pH 9.2); furthermore, two pathways for product formation (i.e., two Vmax's) appear to be required to explain the biphasic nature of the log Vmax(app) vs. pH curves, with Vmax(basic) greater than Vmax(acidic + neutral). Of the several buffers explored, either a uniform degree of interaction or a minimal degree of buffer species interaction could be assessed from the enthalpy changes associated with the derived values for ionization constants attributed to the protonic equilibria in the enzyme-substrates ternary complexes for the case of Tris-acetate-EDTA buffers, at constant ionic strength. With the selection of this buffer at 0.1 (T/2) and at 25 and 32 degrees C, a self-consistent kinetic mechanism has emerged which allows for the random binding of the two fully ionized substrates to the enzyme via two major pathways, and product formation by both E-A--B- and HE-A--B-. As before (Kuby et al. Arch. Biochem, Biophys. 165, 153-178, 1974), a quasi-equilibrium is presumed, with rate-limiting steps (k + 5 and k + 5') at the interconversion of the ternary complexes. Values for the two sets of protonic equilibria defined by this mechanism (viz., pKk, pKH2 for the first ionizations, and pKk', pKH' for the second) could then be estimated. From their numerical values (e.g., at 25 degrees C: pKK = 5.7 PKH2 = 5.2; and pKK' = 9.1, PKH' = 8.2) and from the values for delta H degrees ioniz (e.g., delta H degrees pKK APPROXIMATELY 5.1 KCAL/MOL; DELTA H degrees pKK' APPROXIMATELY 11 KCAL/MOL), A POSTULATE IS PRESENTED WHICH ATTRIBUTES THESE Acid dissociation constants to an imidazole and epsilon-amino group, respectively.

  10. Screening of Low Acetic Acid Brewer's Yeast Strain A12 and Its Pilot Fermentation%低产乙酸啤酒酵母菌株A12的选育及中试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张菡; 张彦青; 陈慧; 童军茂; 王异静; 高家明

    2011-01-01

    以啤酒酿造生产菌株啤酒酵母JM-36为出发菌株,用甲基磺酸乙酯(EMS)诱变,用含浅蓝菌素的麦芽汁琼脂平板分离抗浅蓝菌素的突变株,在低温下发酵,以发酵液的乙酸、双乙酰、乙醛、高级醇、发酵度和凝聚性为筛选指标,得到1株发酵特性优良的菌株A12.以13°Bx麦芽汁为培养基,用100L发酵罐在10℃下发酵14d,菌株A12发酵液的发酵度为68.2%,乙酸、双乙酰、乙醛和高级醇的含量分别为62.3mg/L、0.081mg/L、5.321ms/L和76.43mg/L.菌株A12的主要发酵特性优良且稳定,啤酒口感良好.%After treatment with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and separation with cerulenin wort agar plate,several cerulenin resistant mutants were obtained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae JM -36 for beer brewage production.Among the mutants, fermented degree of mutant A12 was 68.2%, the content of acetic acid, diacetyl, acetaldehyde and total higher alcohols were respectively 62.3, 0. 081, 5. 321 and 76.43 mg/L under the conditions of 100 L fermentor with 100L 13°Bx wort at 10℃ for 14 days. The sensory evaluation of the beer produced by the mutant strain A12 was nice. The fermentated properties of the mutant A12 were relatively stable. A12 is of well applied prospect on the beer brewing.

  11. Evaluation of fungichrom 1: A new yeast identification system

    OpenAIRE

    Umabala P; Satheeshkumar T; Lakshmi V

    2002-01-01

    Advances in anti-fungal therapy necessitate the need for accurate identification of fungi especially yeasts to their species level for more effective management. Unlike the time consuming conventional methods of yeast identification using fermentation and assimilation patterns of various carbohydrates, the new commercialized yeast identification systems are simpler, rapid and are particularly easy to interpret. In our study, a new colorimetric yeast identification system-Fungichrom 1(Internat...

  12. 21 CFR 573.750 - Pichia pastoris dried yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pichia pastoris dried yeast. 573.750 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.750 Pichia pastoris dried yeast. (a) Identity. The food additive Pichia pastoris dried yeast may be used in feed formulations of broiler chickens as a source of protein not...

  13. Adhesive interactions between medically important yeasts and bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millsap, KW; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Bos, R.R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Yeasts are being increasingly identified as important organisms in human infections. Adhesive interactions between yeasts and bacteria may contribute to yeast retention al body sites. Methods for studying adhesive interactions between bacterial strains are well known, and range from simple macroscop

  14. Effects of Brewers Spent Grains-typed Bio-organic Fertilizer on Cowpea Photosynthesis Characteristics%啤酒糟型生物有机肥对豇豆光合特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻夜兰; 荣湘民; 刘强; 谢桂先; 曾晶

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究在豇豆生长过程中施用啤酒糟型生物有机肥对豇豆光合特性的影响.[方法]采用田间小区试验,共设4个处理,以自然堆肥+化肥处理、纯化肥处理作为对照,比较啤酒糟型生物有机肥和双效活性精致有机肥2种肥料对豇豆功能叶光合特性的影响.[结果]在开花结英期,啤酒糟型生物有机肥处理豇豆功能叶净光合速率、胞间CO2浓度、叶绿素含量最高.[结论]啤酒糟型生物有机肥能明显促进豇豆中后期功能叶净光合速率,提高叶绿素含量,但对功能叶气孔导度影响不大.%[Objective] The effects of brewer's spent grains-typed bio-organic fertilizer on cowpea photosynthesis characteristics were studied. [ Method] Field plot experiments were conducted which had four treatments including natural compost, pure chemical fertilizer, brewers spent grains-typed bio-organic fertilizer, double effect exquisite bio-organic fertilizer. [Result] Net photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO2 concentra tion and content of chlorophyll of cowpea functional leaves were uppermost during flower buds. [ Conclusion ] Brewers spent grains-typed bio organic fertilizer could increase net photosynthetic rate in later stage of cowpea growth, improve the content of chlorophyll of functional leaves, decrease transpiration rate, and it had little effect on stomata conductance of functional leaves.

  15. Comparative Performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System and the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael B; Dunklee, Daisy; Vu, Hangna; Woods, Gail L.

    1999-01-01

    The performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System (Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.), a 4-h micropanel using single-substrate enzymatic test reactions, was compared with that of the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.), a 48- to 72-h carbohydrate assimilation panel. Two hundred twenty-five yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and algae, comprising 28 species and including 30 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans, an important pathogen not tested in appreciable numb...

  16. Fission yeast meets a legend in Kobe: report of the Eighth International Fission Yeast Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Haruhiko; Yamamoto, Takaharu G; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2015-12-01

    The Eighth International Fission Yeast Meeting, which was held at Ikuta Shrine Hall in Kobe, Japan, from 21 to 26 June 2015, was attended by 327 fission yeast researchers from 25 countries (190 overseas and 137 domestic participants). At this meeting, 124 talks were held and 145 posters were presented. In addition, newly developed database tools were introduced to the community during a workshop. Researchers shared cutting-edge knowledge across broad fields of study, ranging from molecules to evolution, derived from the superior model organism commonly used within the fission yeast community. Intensive discussions and constructive suggestions generated in this meeting will surely advance the understanding of complex biological systems in fission yeast, extending to general eukaryotes.

  17. Dynamic changes in brewing yeast cells in culture revealed by statistical analyses of yeast morphological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Enomoto, Kenichi; Yoshimoto, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2014-03-01

    The vitality of brewing yeasts has been used to monitor their physiological state during fermentation. To investigate the fermentation process, we used the image processing software, CalMorph, which generates morphological data on yeast mother cells and bud shape, nuclear shape and location, and actin distribution. We found that 248 parameters changed significantly during fermentation. Successive use of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed several important features of yeast, providing insight into the dynamic changes in the yeast population. First, PCA indicated that much of the observed variability in the experiment was summarized in just two components: a change with a peak and a change over time. Second, PCA indicated the independent and important morphological features responsible for dynamic changes: budding ratio, nucleus position, neck position, and actin organization. Thus, the large amount of data provided by imaging analysis can be used to monitor the fermentation processes involved in beer and bioethanol production.

  18. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YFR015C, YLR258W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yeast homolog; expression induced by glucose limitation, nitrogen starvation, environmental stress, and entr...; expression induced by glucose limitation, nitrogen starvation, environmental stress, and entry into statio

  19. Antarctic Yeasts: Biodiversity and Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaji, S.; Prasad, G. S.

    This review is an attempt in cataloguing the diversity of yeasts in Antarctica, highlight their biotechnological potential and understand the basis of adaptation to low temperature. As of now several psychrophilic and psychrotolerant yeasts from Antarctic soils and marine waters have been characterized with respect to their growth characteristics, ecological distribution and taxonomic significance. Interestingly most of these species belonged to basidiomycetous yeasts which as a group are known for their ability to circumvent and survive under stress conditions. Simultaneously their possible role as work horses in the biotechnological industry was recognized due to their ability to produce novel enzymes and biomolecules such as agents for the breakdown of xenobiotics, and novel pharmaceutical chemi cals. The high activity of psychrophilic enzymes at low and moderate temperatures offers potential economic benefits. As of now lipases from Pseudozyma antarctica have been extensively studied to understand their unique thermal stability at 90°C and also because of its use in the pharmaceutical, agriculture, food, cosmetics and chemical industry. A few of the other enzymes which have been studied include extracellular alpha-amylase and glucoamylase from the yeast Pseudozyma antarctica (Candida antarctica), an extra-cellular protease from Cryptococcus humicola, an aspartyl proteinase from Cryptococcus humicola, a novel extracellular subtilase from Leucosporidium antarcticum, and a xylanase from Cryptococcus adeliensis

  20. Arachidonic acid metabolites in pathogenic yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ells Ruan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although most of what is known about the biology and function of arachidonic acid metabolites comes from the study of mammalian biology, these compounds can also be produced by lower eukaryotes, including yeasts and other fungi. It is also in this group of organisms that the least is known about the metabolic pathways leading to the production of these compounds as well as the functions of these compounds in the biology of fungi and yeasts. This review will deal with the discovery of oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids, and more specifically the arachidonic acid derived eicosanoids, such as 3-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid, prostaglandin F2α and prostaglandin E2, in yeasts starting in the early 1990s. This review will also focus on what is known about the metabolic pathways and/or proteins involved in the production of these compounds in pathogenic yeasts. The possible roles of these compounds in the biology, including the pathology, of these organisms will be discussed.

  1. Yeast improves resistance to environmental challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphamune™, a yeast extract antibiotic alternative, was added at either 1 lb/ton or 2 lb/ton to a turkey starter diet. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of Alphamune™ on gut maturation of 7 and 21 day old poults. Sections from the mid-point of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of each ...

  2. An Engineered Yeast Efficiently Secreting Penicillin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gidijala, Loknath; Kiel, Jan A. K. W.; Douma, Rutger D.; Seifar, Reza M.; van Gulik, Walter M.; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at developing an alternative host for the production of penicillin ( PEN). As yet, the industrial production of this beta(-)lactam antibiotic is confined to the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. As such, the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, a recognized producer of pharmaceutic

  3. Cell biology of homologous recombination in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine Valerie; Rothstein, Rodney; Lisby, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Homologous recombination is an important pathway for error-free repair of DNA lesions, such as single- and double-strand breaks, and for rescue of collapsed replication forks. Here, we describe protocols for live cell imaging of single-lesion recombination events in the yeast Saccharomyces...

  4. UBA domain containing proteins in fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Semple, Colin A M; Ponting, Chris P;

    2003-01-01

    characterised on both the functional and structural levels. One example of a widespread ubiquitin binding module is the ubiquitin associated (UBA) domain. Here, we discuss the approximately 15 UBA domain containing proteins encoded in the relatively small genome of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe...

  5. Catalytic site interactions in yeast OMP synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Riis; Barr, Eric W.; Jensen, Kaj Frank;

    2014-01-01

    45 (2006) 5330-5342]. This behavior was investigated in the yeast enzyme by mutations in the conserved catalytic loop and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-diphosphate (PRPP) binding motif. Although the reaction is mechanistically sequential, the wild-type (WT) enzyme shows parallel lines in double reciprocal...

  6. Functional differences in yeast protein disulfide isomerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Westphal, V; Tachibana, C;

    2001-01-01

    PDI1 is the essential gene encoding protein disulfide isomerase in yeast. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, however, contains four other nonessential genes with homology to PDI1: MPD1, MPD2, EUG1, and EPS1. We have investigated the effects of simultaneous deletions of these genes. In several...

  7. Resurrecting ancestral alcohol dehydrogenases from yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, J Michael; Gaucher, Eric A; Burgan, Michelle F; De Kee, Danny W; Li, Tang; Aris, John P; Benner, Steven A

    2005-06-01

    Modern yeast living in fleshy fruits rapidly convert sugars into bulk ethanol through pyruvate. Pyruvate loses carbon dioxide to produce acetaldehyde, which is reduced by alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) to ethanol, which accumulates. Yeast later consumes the accumulated ethanol, exploiting Adh2, an Adh1 homolog differing by 24 (of 348) amino acids. As many microorganisms cannot grow in ethanol, accumulated ethanol may help yeast defend resources in the fruit. We report here the resurrection of the last common ancestor of Adh1 and Adh2, called Adh(A). The kinetic behavior of Adh(A) suggests that the ancestor was optimized to make (not consume) ethanol. This is consistent with the hypothesis that before the Adh1-Adh2 duplication, yeast did not accumulate ethanol for later consumption but rather used Adh(A) to recycle NADH generated in the glycolytic pathway. Silent nucleotide dating suggests that the Adh1-Adh2 duplication occurred near the time of duplication of several other proteins involved in the accumulation of ethanol, possibly in the Cretaceous age when fleshy fruits arose. These results help to connect the chemical behavior of these enzymes through systems analysis to a time of global ecosystem change, a small but useful step towards a planetary systems biology.

  8. Uncommon opportunistic yeast bloodstream infections from Qatar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taj-Aldeen, S.J.; AbdulWahab, A.; Kolecka, A.; Deshmukh, A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Boekhout, T.

    2014-01-01

    Eleven uncommon yeast species that are associated with high mortality rates irrespective of antifungal therapy were isolated from 17/187 (201 episodes) pediatric and elderly patients with fungemia from Qatar. The samples were taken over a 6-year period (January 2004-December 2010). Isolated species

  9. Decreasing the frequency and rate of wet brewers grains supplementation did not impact growth but reduced humoral immune response of preconditioning beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Piccolo, M B; Artioli, L F A; Poore, M H; Marques, R S; Cooke, R F

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of preconditioning beef heifers supplemented with wet brewers grains (WBG) at 2 supplementation rates and frequencies. At 14 d after weaning (d 0), Angus heifers ( = 36; 213 ± 2 kg BW and 254 ± 7 d of age) were stratified by BW and age and randomly assigned to 1 of 12 drylot pens (3 heifers/pen). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and consisted of heifers provided ground tall fescue hay ad libitum (55% TDN and 12% CP of DM) and supplemented with WBG (75% TDN and 36% CP of DM) either daily (7X) or 3 times weekly (3X; Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) at 0.5 or 1.0% of BW (DM basis) for 42 d. Heifers were vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mannheimia haemolytica, and Clostridium on d 14 and 28. Individual BW was measured before feeding on d 0 and 42 following 12 h of feed and water withdrawal. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture 4 h after WBG supplementation on d 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 28, 29, 30, 31, 35, and 42. Heifers fed WBG 3X had less hay DMI (2.6 ± 0.16 vs. 3.2 ± 0.16 kg/d; against BVDV-2 and IBR were greater for heifers fed WBG at 1.0% of BW vs. heifers fed WBG at 0.5% of BW (7.6 vs. 6.7 and 3.3 vs. 2.8 ± 0.19 log, respectively). In summary, decreasing WBG supplementation frequency (7 vs. 3 times weekly) or rate (1.0 vs. 0.5% of BW) for recently weaned beef heifers did not affect growth but decreased vaccine-induced antibody production against pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease during a 42-d preconditioning period.

  10. The upward branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation quantified by tropical stratospheric water vapor and carbon monoxide measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minschwaner, K.; Su, H.; Jiang, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    The vertical distributions of water vapor (H2O) and carbon monoxide (CO) in the tropical lower stratosphere are controlled largely by their mixing ratios near the tropopause and by ascending motions as part of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC). The upward propagation of seasonal variations imprinted on H2O and CO vertical profiles, often referred to as the tropical "tape recorder," can be used to derive the mean vertical velocity, w*>¯, in this region of the lower stratosphere where quasi-horizontal mixing is not strong enough to erase the seasonal tape recorder signals. We used Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations of the tropical tape recorders from 2004 to 2014 to derive values of w*>¯ at pressures between 90 and 16 hPa (about 18 to 28 km altitude). Mean vertical profiles of w*>¯ are consistent with calculated velocities derived from net radiative heating rates based on observed temperature, humidity, cloud, and trace gas amounts. Temporal variations in w*>¯ are dominated by a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and seasonal cycles, with maximum upwelling coinciding with easterly phases of the QBO in zonal wind shear and during the November-December period of the seasonal cycle. Both the QBO and annual modes emphasize the importance of wave phenomena in modulating the strength of tropical upwelling in the BDC. Interannual anomalies in w*>¯ are correlated with variations in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with enhanced stratospheric upwelling during El Niño phases and reduced upwelling during La Niña. A small decreasing linear trend (~6%/decade) in w*>¯ is observed from 2005 to 2014, although confidence is low in identifying such a trend as part of a long-term change due to the influence of ENSO over this period.

  11. High Precision, Absolute Total Column Ozone Measurements from the Pandora Spectrometer System: Comparisons with Data from a Brewer Double Monochromator and Aura OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortziou, Maria A.; Herman, Jay R.; Cede, Alexander; Abuhassan, Nader

    2012-01-01

    We present new, high precision, high temporal resolution measurements of total column ozone (TCO) amounts derived from ground-based direct-sun irradiance measurements using our recently deployed Pandora single-grating spectrometers. Pandora's small size and portability allow deployment at multiple sites within an urban air-shed and development of a ground-based monitoring network for studying small-scale atmospheric dynamics, spatial heterogeneities in trace gas distribution, local pollution conditions, photochemical processes and interdependencies of ozone and its major precursors. Results are shown for four mid- to high-latitude sites where different Pandora instruments were used. Comparisons with a well calibrated double-grating Brewer spectrometer over a period of more than a year in Greenbelt MD showed excellent agreement and a small bias of approximately 2 DU (or, 0.6%). This was constant with slant column ozone amount over the full range of observed solar zenith angles (15-80), indicating adequate Pandora stray light correction. A small (1-2%) seasonal difference was found, consistent with sensitivity studies showing that the Pandora spectral fitting TCO retrieval has a temperature dependence of 1% per 3K, with an underestimation in temperature (e.g., during summer) resulting in an underestimation of TCO. Pandora agreed well with Aura-OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument) satellite data, with average residuals of <1% at the different sites when the OMI view was within 50 km from the Pandora location and OMI-measured cloud fraction was <0.2. The frequent and continuous measurements by Pandora revealed significant short-term (hourly) temporal changes in TCO, not possible to capture by sun-synchronous satellites, such as OMI, alone.

  12. Effect of yeast storage temperature and flour composition on fermentative activities of baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast is a set of living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It contains around 70-72% of water, 42-45% of proteins, around 40% of carbohydrates, around 7.5% of lipids (based on dry matter, and vitamin B-complex. On the basis of yeast cell analysis it can be concluded that yeast is a complex biological system which changes in time. The intensity of the changes depends on temperature. Yeast sample was stored at 4°C i 24°C for 12 days. During storage at 4°C, the content of total carbohydrates decreased from 48.81% to 37.50% (dry matter, whereas carbohydrate loss ranged from 40.81% to 29.28% at 24°C. The content of trehalose was 12.33% in the yeast sample stored at 4°C and 0.24% at 24°C. Loss of fermentative activity was 81.76% in the sample stored at 24°C for 12 days. The composition of five samples of 1st category flour was investigated. It was found that flours containing more reducing sugars and maltose enable higher fermentation activities. The flours with higher ash content (in the range 0.5-0.94% had higher contents of phytic acid. Higher ash and phytic contents in flour increased the yeast fermentative efficiency. In bakery industry, a range of ingredients has been applied to improve the product's quality such as surface active substances (emulsifiers, enzymes, sugars and fats. In the paper, the effect of some ingredients added to dough (margarine, saccharose, sodium chloride and malted barley on the yeast fermentative activity was studied. The mentioned ingredients were added to dough at different doses: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%, flour basis. It was found that the investigated ingredients affected the fermentative activity of yeast and improved the bread quality.

  13. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YMR294W, YLL049W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMR294W JNM1 Component of the yeast dynactin complex, consisting of Nip100p, Jnm1p,... for nuclear migration; null mutant shows a reduced affinity for the alcian blue dye...M1 Bait description Component of the yeast dynactin complex, consisting of Nip100...nknown function; required for nuclear migration; null mutant shows a reduced affinity for the alcian blue dye

  14. Seed yeast cultivation for salad oil manufacturing wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The mixture of five yeast strains obtained from soil could remove about 85% TOC of oil-rich wastewater in batch test.While the highest MLSS was obtained at an N:C of 1:5, the oil removal decreased with the increase of N:C during yeast sludge cultivation. Ammonium chloride was the best nitrogen source for yeast cultivation from the viewpoint of yeast growth and oil utilization. An ammonia concentration of over 1300 mg l-1 led to mass death of yeast at a pH of 5. The ammonia concentration should be controlled at a level of 1000 mg l-1 or lower.

  15. Evaluation of fungichrom 1: A new yeast identification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umabala P

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in anti-fungal therapy necessitate the need for accurate identification of fungi especially yeasts to their species level for more effective management. Unlike the time consuming conventional methods of yeast identification using fermentation and assimilation patterns of various carbohydrates, the new commercialized yeast identification systems are simpler, rapid and are particularly easy to interpret. In our study, a new colorimetric yeast identification system-Fungichrom 1(International microbio, Signes, France was evaluated against the conventional method to identify 50 clinical isolates of yeasts belonging to the genera -Candida, Cryptococcus, Geotrichum. 96% agreement was found between the two methods.

  16. Evaluation of Fungichrom 1: a new yeast identification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umabala, P; Satheeshkumar, T; Lakshmi, V

    2002-01-01

    Advances in anti-fungal therapy necessitate the need for accurate identification of fungi especially yeasts to their species level for more effective management. Unlike the time consuming conventional methods of yeast identification using fermentation and assimilation patterns of various carbohydrates, the new commercialized yeast identification systems are simpler, rapid and are particularly easy to interpret. In our study, a new colorimetric yeast identification system-Fungichrom 1(International microbio, Signes, France) was evaluated against the conventional method to identify 50 clinical isolates of yeasts belonging to the genera -Candida, Cryptococcus, Geotrichum. 96% agreement was found between the two methods.

  17. Inventions on baker's yeast strains and specialty ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélinas, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Baker's yeast is one of the oldest food microbial starters. Between 1927 and 2008, 165 inventions on more than 337 baker's yeast strains were patented. The first generation of patented yeast strains claimed improved biomass yield at the yeast plant, higher gassing power in dough or better survival to drying to prepare active dry baker's yeast. Especially between 1980 and 1995, a major interest was given to strains for multiple bakery applications such as dough with variable sugar content and stored at refrigeration (cold) or freezing temperatures. During the same period, genetically engineered yeast strains became very popular but did not find applications in the baking industry. Since year 2000, patented baker's yeast strains claimed aroma, anti-moulding or nutritive properties to better meet the needs of the baking industry. In addition to patents on yeast strains, 47 patents were issued on baker's yeast specialty ingredients for niche markets. This review shows that patents on baker's yeast with improved characteristics such as aromatic or nutritive properties have regularly been issued since the 1920's. Overall, it also confirms recent interest for a very wide range of tailored-made yeast-based ingredients for bakery applications.

  18. Ability of RapID Yeast Plus System to identify 304 clinically significant yeasts within 5 hours.

    OpenAIRE

    Kitch, T T; Jacobs, M R; McGinnis, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1996-01-01

    The RapID Yeast Plus System (Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.) is a qualitative micromethod that uses conventional and chromogenic substrates for the identification of medically important yeasts. The ability of the RapID Yeast Plus system to accurately identify 304 clinical yeast isolates within 5 h was evaluated. The RapID Yeast Plus method correctly identified 286 (94.1%) of strains to the species level without the need for additional tests. A further 12 strains (3.9%) were clas...

  19. Yeast Biodiversity from DOQ Priorat Uninoculated Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Beatriz; García-Fernández, David; González, Beatriz; Izidoro, Iara; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Beltran, Gemma; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Climate, soil, and grape varieties are the primary characteristics of terroir and lead to the definition of various appellations of origin. However, the microbiota associated with grapes are also affected by these conditions and can leave a footprint in a wine that will be part of the characteristics of terroir. Thus, a description of the yeast microbiota within a vineyard is of interest not only to provide a better understanding of the winemaking process, but also to understand the source of microorganisms that maintain a microbial footprint in wine from the examined vineyard. In this study, two typical grape varieties, Grenache and Carignan, have been sampled from four different vineyards in the DOQ Priorat winegrowing region. Afterward, eight spontaneous alcoholic fermentations containing only grapes from one sampling point and of one variety were conducted at laboratory scale. The fermentation kinetics and yeast population dynamics within each fermentation experiment were evaluated. Yeast identification was performed by RFLP-PCR of the 5.8S-ITS region and by sequencing D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene of the isolates. The fermentation kinetics did not indicate clear differences between the two varieties of grapes or among vineyards. Approximately 1,400 isolates were identified, exhibiting high species richness in some fermentations. Of all the isolates studied, approximately 60% belong to the genus Hanseniaspora, 16% to Saccharomyces, and 11% to Candida. Other minor genera, such as Hansenula, Issatchenkia, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomycodes, and Zygosaccharomyces, were also found. The distribution of the identified yeast throughout the fermentation process was studied, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be present mainly at the end of the fermentation process, while Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated primarily during the first days of fermentation in three of the eight spontaneous fermentations. This work highlights the complexity and diversity of the vineyard

  20. Cellulase Production from Brewer's Spent Grain by Solid-State Fermentation with Aspergillus Niger 3.316%黑曲霉3.316固态发酵啤酒糟生产纤维素酶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓梅; 付国家; 郭庆杰; 王许云

    2012-01-01

    以啤酒糟为主要原料,采用黑曲霉3.316(Aspergillus niger 3.316)固态发酵生产纤维素酶,对培养基组成和培养条件进行优化.结果表明:啤酒糟和麸皮的质量比为8∶2、水料质量比为1.5∶1、硫酸铵质量分数为3%、发酵时间为4d时,所产纤维素酶活性最大,滤纸酶活性(FPA)和羧甲基纤维素酶活性(CMCA)分别达72.6118和692.1700nkat.%Cellulase production was carried out by Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) with Aspergillus niger 3. 316 using brewer's spent grain as the main material. The SSF conditions were studied and optimized. It indicated that the optimum conditions were as follows: the ratio of brewer's spent grain and wheat bran was 8 :2, the ratio of water to material was 1. 5 : 1. the content of the ammonium sulfate was 3%, and the fermentation time was 4 d, respectively. Under the above-mentioned conditions, the filter paper activity (FPA) and carboxymethyl cellulase activity (CMCA) can reach 72.611 8and 692. 170 0 nkat, respectively.

  1. 利用啤酒糟制备高品质饲料蛋白%Study on the preparation of high-quality feedstuffs protein by brewer's spent grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡国林; 张麟; 陆健

    2015-01-01

    通过刀片粉碎和筛分技术对啤酒糟进行预处理,对筛下物进行球磨处理、固态酶解和有益微生物发酵,可以显著提高啤酒糟的饲用品质,制备高品质饲料蛋白.啤酒糟经刀片粉碎后过60目筛,筛下物粗蛋白含量达到38.8%,粗纤维含量降低到1.89%,实现蛋白-纤维的初步富集分离.对筛下物球磨后,经纤维素酶、木聚糖酶和蛋白酶混合固态酶解和产朊假丝酵母JX-09固态发酵之后,其粗蛋白含量达到45.17%,比啤酒糟原样提高了59.6%,多肽含量从0.68%提高到5.21%,蛋白体外消化率从53.7%提高到61.8%,水解氨基酸总量达到42.18%,比啤酒糟原样提高了60%,必需氨基酸总量达到17.3%,比啤酒糟原样提高了60%,粗纤维含量达到1.66%,比啤酒糟原样降低了89%.%After blade grinding and sieving pretreatment,the partial of brewer' s spent grain with high level of protein was dealt with ball milling,solid enzymatic digestion and fermentation with beneficial microorganism.The feeding quality of brewer' s spent grain has been significantly improved,resulting in the production of feed protein with high-quality.The contents of crude protein and crude fiber in the undersize brewer's spent grain were 38.8% and 1.89%,respectively after blade grinding and filtration through a 60 mesh sieve.Consequently,the preliminary enrichment and separation of protein and fiber had been achieved.Moreover,the enzymatic efficiency of undersize brewer' s spent grain could be further improved after milling of fiber bundle by ball milling.After the hydrolysis by cellulase,xylanase,protease and solid fermentation with Candida utilis JX-09,the crude protein content of brewer's spent grain was increased up to 45.17%,which was 59.6% higher than that of original sample.Polypeptides content was increased from 0.68% to 5.21%,while the in vitro digestibility of proteins was increased from 53.7% to 61.8%.Total amino acids

  2. Synchronization of the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A number of model organisms have provided the basis for our understanding of the eukaryotic cell cycle. These model organisms are generally much easier to manipulate than mammalian cells and as such provide amenable tools for extensive genetic and biochemical analysis. One of the most common model organisms used to study the cell cycle is the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This model provides the ability to synchronise cells efficiently at different stages of the cell cycle, which in turn opens up the possibility for extensive and detailed study of mechanisms regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle. Here, we describe methods in which budding yeast cells are arrested at a particular phase of the cell cycle and then released from the block, permitting the study of molecular mechanisms that drive the progression through the cell cycle.

  3. Structural Studies of the Yeast Mitochondrial Degradosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Ane; Jonstrup, Anette Thyssen; Brodersen, Ditlev Egeskov

    The yeast mitochondrial degradosome/exosome (mtExo) is responsible for most RNA turnover in mitochondria and has been proposed to form a central part of a mitochondrial RNA surveillance system responsible for degradation of aberrant and unprocessed RNA ([1], [2]). In contrast to the cytoplasmic...... and nuclear exosome complexes, which consist of 10-12 different nuclease subunits, the mitochondrial degradosome is composed of only two large subunits - an RNase (Dss1p) and a helicase (Suv3p), belonging the Ski2 class of DExH box RNA helicases. Both subunits are encoded on the yeast nuclear genome...... and imported to the mitochondrial matrix posttranslationally. In an effort to understand the complex mechanisms underlying control of RNA turnover and surveillance in eukaryotic organisms, we are studying the structure of the mitochondrial degradosome as a model system for the more complex exosomes. Dss1p...

  4. Microcompartments within the yeast plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzendorfer, Hans; Heinisch, Jürgen J

    2013-02-01

    Recent research in cell biology makes it increasingly clear that the classical concept of compartmentation of eukaryotic cells into different organelles performing distinct functions has to be extended by microcompartmentation, i.e., the dynamic interaction of proteins, sugars, and lipids at a suborganellar level, which contributes significantly to a proper physiology. As different membrane compartments (MCs) have been described in the yeast plasma membrane, such as those defined by Can1 and Pma1 (MCCs and MCPs), Saccharomyces cerevisiae can serve as a model organism, which is amenable to genetic, biochemical, and microscopic studies. In this review, we compare the specialized microcompartment of the yeast bud neck with other plasma membrane substructures, focusing on eisosomes, cell wall integrity-sensing units, and chitin-synthesizing complexes. Together, they ensure a proper cell division at the end of mitosis, an intricately regulated process, which is essential for the survival and proliferation not only of fungal, but of all eukaryotic cells.

  5. Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts-the basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric A

    2013-09-01

    Yeasts are the major producer of biotechnology products worldwide, exceeding production in capacity and economic revenues of other groups of industrial microorganisms. Yeasts have wide-ranging fundamental and industrial importance in scientific, food, medical, and agricultural disciplines (Fig. 1). Saccharomyces is the most important genus of yeast from fundamental and applied perspectives and has been expansively studied. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts (non-conventional yeasts) including members of the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes also have substantial current utility and potential applicability in biotechnology. In an earlier mini-review, "Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts-the ascomycetes" (Johnson Appl Microb Biotechnol 97: 503-517, 2013), the extensive biotechnological utility and potential of ascomycetous yeasts are described. Ascomycetous yeasts are particularly important in food and ethanol formation, production of single-cell protein, feeds and fodder, heterologous production of proteins and enzymes, and as model and fundamental organisms for the delineation of genes and their function in mammalian and human metabolism and disease processes. In contrast, the roles of basidiomycetous yeasts in biotechnology have mainly been evaluated only in the past few decades and compared to the ascomycetous yeasts and currently have limited industrial utility. From a biotechnology perspective, the basidiomycetous yeasts are known mainly for the production of enzymes used in pharmaceutical and chemical synthesis, for production of certain classes of primary and secondary metabolites such as terpenoids and carotenoids, for aerobic catabolism of complex carbon sources, and for bioremediation of environmental pollutants and xenotoxicants. Notwithstanding, the basidiomycetous yeasts appear to have considerable potential in biotechnology owing to their catabolic utilities, formation of enzymes acting on recalcitrant substrates, and through the production of unique primary

  6. Effect of Yeast : Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Marine Yeast as probiotic supplement on performance of poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Kompiang

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment had been conducted to evaluate the effect of marine yeast and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc as probiotic supplement on poultry performance. Marine yeast isolated from rotten sea-weed and commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used. Evaluation was conducted by comparing performance of broiler chicken supplemented with marine yeast or Sc, which were given through drinking water (5 ml/l to negative control (feed without antibiotic growth promotor/GPA, positive control (feed with GPA, and reference commercial probiotic. Forty DOC broiler birds were used for each treatment, divided into 4 replicates (10 birds/replicate and raised in wire cages for 5 weeks. Body weight and feed consumption were measured weekly and mortality was recorded during the trial. The results showed that there were no significant difference on the birds performance among marine yeast, Sc, positive control and probiotic reference control treatments. However their effects on bird performance were better (P<0.05 than treatment of negative control. It is concluded that marine yeast or Saccharomyces cerevisiae could replace the function of antibiotic as a growth promotant.

  7. Telomere behavior in a hybrid yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ona C Martin; Christopher G De Sevo; Benjamin Z Guo; Douglas E Koshland; Maiterya J Dunham; Yixian Zheng

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Telomeres and the protein/RNA complexes involved in maintaining them are rapidly evolving systems across eukaryotes.Using two Saccharomyces species, among S.cerevisiae and S.bayanus, we provide evidence that the telomere systems of these two closely related yeasts have evolved significantly apart and that the gene in one spe-cies cannot maintain the set-point of telomere length of the other soecies in the hybrid.

  8. An engineered yeast efficiently secreting penicillin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loknath Gidijala

    Full Text Available This study aimed at developing an alternative host for the production of penicillin (PEN. As yet, the industrial production of this beta-lactam antibiotic is confined to the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. As such, the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, a recognized producer of pharmaceuticals, represents an attractive alternative. Introduction of the P. chrysogenum gene encoding the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS in H. polymorpha, resulted in the production of active ACVS enzyme, when co-expressed with the Bacillus subtilis sfp gene encoding a phosphopantetheinyl transferase that activated ACVS. This represents the first example of the functional expression of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase in yeast. Co-expression with the P. chrysogenum genes encoding the cytosolic enzyme isopenicillin N synthase as well as the two peroxisomal enzymes isopenicillin N acyl transferase (IAT and phenylacetyl CoA ligase (PCL resulted in production of biologically active PEN, which was efficiently secreted. The amount of secreted PEN was similar to that produced by the original P. chrysogenum NRRL1951 strain (approx. 1 mg/L. PEN production was decreased over two-fold in a yeast strain lacking peroxisomes, indicating that the peroxisomal localization of IAT and PCL is important for efficient PEN production. The breakthroughs of this work enable exploration of new yeast-based cell factories for the production of (novel beta-lactam antibiotics as well as other natural and semi-synthetic peptides (e.g. immunosuppressive and cytostatic agents, whose production involves NRPS's.

  9. An engineered yeast efficiently secreting penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidijala, Loknath; Kiel, Jan A K W; Douma, Rutger D; Seifar, Reza M; van Gulik, Walter M; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2009-12-15

    This study aimed at developing an alternative host for the production of penicillin (PEN). As yet, the industrial production of this beta-lactam antibiotic is confined to the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. As such, the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, a recognized producer of pharmaceuticals, represents an attractive alternative. Introduction of the P. chrysogenum gene encoding the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS) in H. polymorpha, resulted in the production of active ACVS enzyme, when co-expressed with the Bacillus subtilis sfp gene encoding a phosphopantetheinyl transferase that activated ACVS. This represents the first example of the functional expression of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase in yeast. Co-expression with the P. chrysogenum genes encoding the cytosolic enzyme isopenicillin N synthase as well as the two peroxisomal enzymes isopenicillin N acyl transferase (IAT) and phenylacetyl CoA ligase (PCL) resulted in production of biologically active PEN, which was efficiently secreted. The amount of secreted PEN was similar to that produced by the original P. chrysogenum NRRL1951 strain (approx. 1 mg/L). PEN production was decreased over two-fold in a yeast strain lacking peroxisomes, indicating that the peroxisomal localization of IAT and PCL is important for efficient PEN production. The breakthroughs of this work enable exploration of new yeast-based cell factories for the production of (novel) beta-lactam antibiotics as well as other natural and semi-synthetic peptides (e.g. immunosuppressive and cytostatic agents), whose production involves NRPS's.

  10. Secretion of invertase in mitotic yeast cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Makarow, M

    1988-01-01

    In mammalian cells intracellular transport is inhibited during mitosis. Here we show that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae secretion continues uninterrupted during mitosis. S. cerevisiae cells were arrested in mitosis by treating wild-type cells with the microtubule-inhibitor nocodazole, or by incubating a temperature-sensitive cell division cycle mutant (cdc16) at the restrictive temperature. Secretion of invertase into the periplasmic space was equally efficient in mitotic and in unsyn...

  11. Strategies for identifying new prions in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    MacLea, Kyle S.; Ross, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    The unexpected discovery of two prions, [URE3] and [PSI+], in Saccharomyces cerevisiae led to questions about how many other proteins could undergo similar prion-based structural conversions. However, [URE3] and [PSI+] were discovered by serendipity in genetic screens. Cataloging the full range of prions in yeast or in other organisms will therefore require more systematic search methods. Taking advantage of some of the unique features of prions, various researchers have developed bioinformat...

  12. Dissection and design of yeast prions.

    OpenAIRE

    Osherovich, Lev Z.; Cox, Brian S; Tuite, Mick F; Weissman, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    Many proteins can misfold into beta-sheet-rich, self-seeding polymers (amyloids). Prions are exceptional among such aggregates in that they are also infectious. In fungi, prions are not pathogenic but rather act as epigenetic regulators of cell physiology, providing a powerful model for studying the mechanism of prion replication. We used prion-forming domains from two budding yeast proteins (Sup35p and New1p) to examine the requirements for prion formation and inheritance. In both proteins, ...

  13. Multipurpose Transposon-Insertion Libraries in Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anuj

    2016-06-01

    Libraries of transposon-insertion alleles constitute powerful and versatile tools for large-scale analysis of yeast gene function. Transposon-insertion libraries are constructed most simply through mutagenesis of a plasmid-based genomic DNA library; modification of the mutagenizing transposon by incorporation of yeast selectable markers, recombination sites, and an epitope tag enables the application of insertion alleles for phenotypic screening and protein localization. In particular, yeast genomic DNA libraries have been mutagenized with modified bacterial transposons carrying the URA3 marker, lox recombination sites, and sequence encoding multiple copies of the hemagglutinin (HA) epitope. Mutagenesis with these transposons has yielded a large resource of insertion alleles affecting nearly 4000 yeast genes in total. Through well-established protocols, these insertion libraries can be introduced into the desired strain backgrounds and the resulting insertional mutants can be screened or systematically analyzed. Relative to alternative methods of UV irradiation or chemical mutagenesis, transposon-insertion alleles can be easily identified by PCR-based approaches or high-throughput sequencing. Transposon-insertion libraries also provide a cost-effective alternative to targeted deletion approaches, although, in contrast to start-codon to stop-codon deletions, insertion alleles might not represent true null-mutants. For protein-localization studies, transposon-insertion alleles can provide encoded epitope tags in-frame with internal codons; in many cases, these transposon-encoded epitope tags can provide a more accurate localization for proteins in which terminal sequences are crucial for intracellular targeting. Thus, overall, transposon-insertion libraries can be used quickly and economically and have a particular utility in screening for desired phenotypes and localization patterns in nonstandard genetic backgrounds.

  14. Yeast Biodiversity from DOQ Priorat Uninoculated Fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Beatriz; García-Fernández, David; González, Beatriz; Izidoro, Iara; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Beltran, Gemma; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Climate, soil, and grape varieties are the primary characteristics of terroir and lead to the definition of various appellations of origin. However, the microbiota associated with grapes are also affected by these conditions and can leave a footprint in a wine that will be part of the characteristics of terroir. Thus, a description of the yeast microbiota within a vineyard is of interest not only to provide a better understanding of the winemaking process, but also to understand the source of...

  15. Physiology of yeasts in alcoholic fermentation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Pedro M. R.

    2008-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica This thesis is focused on physiological aspects of the yeasts used in two alcoholic fermentation processes: primary brewing fermentation and fermentation of lactose (particularly lactose derived from cheese whey) to ethanol by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae flocculent strains. The brewing fermentation is probably the most extensively studied alcoholic fermentation process. Nevertheless, developments in brewing tech...

  16. How do yeast sense mitochondrial dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Knorre

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Apart from energy transformation, mitochondria play important signaling roles. In yeast, mitochondrial signaling relies on several molecular cascades. However, it is not clear how a cell detects a particular mitochondrial malfunction. The problem is that there are many possible manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction. For example, exposure to the specific antibiotics can either decrease (inhibitors of respiratory chain or increase (inhibitors of ATP-synthase mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Moreover, even in the absence of the dysfunctions, a cell needs feedback from mitochondria to coordinate mitochondrial biogenesis and/or removal by mitophagy during the division cycle. To cope with the complexity, only a limited set of compounds is monitored by yeast cells to estimate mitochondrial functionality. The known examples of such compounds are ATP, reactive oxygen species, intermediates of amino acids synthesis, short peptides, Fe-S clusters and heme, and also the precursor proteins which fail to be imported by mitochondria. On one hand, the levels of these molecules depend not only on mitochondria. On the other hand, these substances are recognized by the cytosolic sensors which transmit the signals to the nucleus leading to general, as opposed to mitochondria-specific, transcriptional response. Therefore, we argue that both ways of mitochondria-to-nucleus communication in yeast are mostly (if not completely unspecific, are mediated by the cytosolic signaling machinery and strongly depend on cellular metabolic state.

  17. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Lopes, Mariana R; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Göker, Markus; Salamov, Asaf A; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Long, Tanya M; Calvey, Christopher H; Aerts, Andrea L; Barry, Kerrie W; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; Coughlan, Aisling Y; Deshpande, Shweta; Douglass, Alexander P; Hanson, Sara J; Klenk, Hans-Peter; LaButti, Kurt M; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A; Lipzen, Anna M; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Ohm, Robin A; Otillar, Robert P; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L; Peng, Yi; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos A; Scheuner, Carmen; Sibirny, Andriy A; Slot, Jason C; Stielow, J Benjamin; Sun, Hui; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor V; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2016-08-30

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the clade sister to the known CUG-Ser clade. Our well-resolved yeast phylogeny shows that some traits, such as methylotrophy, are restricted to single clades, whereas others, such as l-rhamnose utilization, have patchy phylogenetic distributions. Gene clusters, with variable organization and distribution, encode many pathways of interest. Genomics can predict some biochemical traits precisely, but the genomic basis of others, such as xylose utilization, remains unresolved. Our data also provide insight into early evolution of ascomycetes. We document the loss of H3K9me2/3 heterochromatin, the origin of ascomycete mating-type switching, and panascomycete synteny at the MAT locus. These data and analyses will facilitate the engineering of efficient biosynthetic and degradative pathways and gateways for genomic manipulation.

  18. Role of yeasts in table olive production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-López, F N; Querol, A; Bautista-Gallego, J; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2008-12-10

    Table olives are a traditional fermented vegetable of the Mediterranean countries, but their production and consumption are now spread all around the world. Yeasts can play a double role in this food. They are present throughout the fermentative process and it is generally accepted that they can produce compounds with important organoleptic attributes determining the quality and flavour of the final product. However, yeasts can also be spoilage microorganisms in olive fermentation/storage and packing causing gas pockets, swollen containers, cloudy brines and off-flavours and off-odours. Candida boidinii, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia anomala, P. membranifaciens, Rhodotorula glutinis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are species isolated with a high frequency from olive processes. Scarce information is still available about the ecology, biochemistry and molecular biology of these important microorganisms in table olives. A wider knowledge about these aspects could facilitate the possible application of yeasts as a starter culture, due to their ability to produce aromatic compounds, antioxidants, enzymes, and improve the growth of lactic acid bacteria.

  19. Frequency of wet brewers grains supplementation during late gestation of beef cows and its effects on offspring postnatal growth and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Artioli, L F A; Piccolo, M B; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate postnatal growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of beef calves born to dams fed wet brewers grains (WBG) daily or 3 times weekly during late gestation. On d 0 (approximately 60 d before calving), 28 multiparous, spring-calving Angus cows (BW = 578 ± 19 kg; age = 4.7 ± 0.65 yr; BCS = 7.0 ± 0.18) were stratified by sire, age, BW, and BCS and then randomly allocated into 1 of 14 drylot pens (2 cows/pen; 18 by 3 m; 27 m/cow). Cows were offered ground tall fescue hay ad libitum and received similar weekly WBG supplementation (DMI = 0.5% of BW multiplied by 7 d). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (7 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows receiving WBG supplementation daily (S7; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 7 d) or 3 times weekly (S3; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 3 d; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) from d 0 until calving. Cow-calf pairs were managed as a single group on tall fescue pastures from calving to weaning (d 226). Calves were immediately submitted to a preconditioning period from d 226 to 266 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, , and on d 231 and 245. Decreasing the frequency of WBG supplementation did not impact ( ≥ 0.21) precalving intake of total DM, CP, and TDN; BW and BCS change; overall plasma cortisol concentrations; and postcalving growth and pregnancy rate of cows. Overall plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin did not differ ( ≥ 0.28) between S3 and S7 cows, whereas S3 cows had greater ( = 0.002) plasma glucose concentrations and tended ( = 0.06) to have greater plasma insulin concentrations on days they were not fed WBG vs. days of WBG supplementation. Calf plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth but not serum IgG ( = 0.63) tended ( = 0.10) to be greater for S3 vs. S7 calves. However, additional calf growth and immunity variables obtained during pre- and postweaning phases did not differ between S3 and S7 calves

  20. On the reduced lifetime of nitrous oxide due to climate change induced acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation as simulated by the MPI Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracher, D.; Manzini, E.; Reick, C. H.; Schultz, M. G.; Stein, O.

    2014-12-01

    Greenhouse gas induced climate change will modify the physical conditions of the atmosphere. One of the projected changes is an acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation in the stratosphere, as it has been shown in many model studies. This change in the stratospheric circulation consequently bears an effect on the transport and distribution of atmospheric components such as N2O. Since N2O is involved in ozone destruction, a modified distribution of N2O can be of importance for ozone chemistry. N2O is inert in the troposphere and decays only in the stratosphere. Thus, changes in the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere can also affect the stratospheric sink of N2O, and consequently its atmospheric lifetime. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of currently approximately 300 CO2-equivalents in a 100-year perspective. A faster decay in atmospheric N2O mixing ratios, i.e. a decreased atmospheric lifetime of N2O, will also reduce its global warming potential. In order to assess the impact of climate change on atmospheric circulation and implied effects on the distribution and lifetime of atmospheric N2O, we apply the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, MPI-ESM. MPI-ESM consists of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM, the land surface model JSBACH, and MPIOM/HAMOCC representing ocean circulation and ocean biogeochemistry. Prognostic atmospheric N2O concentrations in MPI-ESM are determined by land N2O emissions, ocean-atmosphere N2O exchange and atmospheric tracer transport. As stratospheric chemistry is not explicitly represented in MPI-ESM, stratospheric decay rates of N2O are prescribed from a MACC MOZART simulation. Increasing surface temperatures and CO2 concentrations in the stratosphere impact atmospheric circulation differently. Thus, we conduct a series of transient runs with the atmospheric model of MPI-ESM to isolate different factors governing a shift in atmospheric circulation. From those transient

  1. YeastMed: an XML-Based System for Biological Data Integration of Yeast

    CERN Document Server

    Briache, Abdelaali; Kerzazi, Amine; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Montes, Jose F Aldana; Hassani, Badr D Rossi; Lairini, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    A key goal of bioinformatics is to create database systems and software platforms capable of storing and analysing large sets of biological data. Hundreds of biological databases are now available and provide access to huge amount of biological data. SGD, Yeastract, CYGD-MIPS, BioGrid and PhosphoGrid are five of the most visited databases by the yeast community. These sources provide complementary data on biological entities. Biologists are brought systematically to query these data sources in order to analyse the results of their experiments. Because of the heterogeneity of these sources, querying them separately and then manually combining the returned result is a complex and laborious task. To provide transparent and simultaneous access to these sources, we have developed a mediator-based system called YeastMed. In this paper, we present YeastMed focusing on its architecture.

  2. Cell surface engineering of yeast for applications in white biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Cell surface engineering is a promising strategy for the molecular breeding of whole-cell biocatalysts. By using this strategy, yeasts can be constructed by the cell surface display of functional proteins; these yeasts are referred to as arming yeasts. Because reactions using arming yeasts as whole-cell biocatalysts occur on the cell surface, materials that cannot enter the cell can be used as reaction substrates. Numerous arming yeasts have therefore been constructed for a wide range of uses such as biofuel production, synthesis of valuable chemicals, adsorption or degradation of environmental pollutants, recovery of rare metal ions, and biosensors. Here, we review the science of yeast cell surface modification as well as current applications and future opportunities.

  3. Genetic aspects of targeted insertion mutagenesis in yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinner, U; Schäfer, B

    2004-05-01

    Targeted insertion mutagenesis is a main molecular tool of yeast science initially applied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The method was extended to fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and to "non-conventional" yeast species, which show specific properties of special interest to both basic and applied research. Consequently, the behaviour of such non-Saccharomyces yeasts is reviewed against the background of the knowledge of targeted insertion mutagenesis in S. cerevisiae. Data of homologous integration efficiencies obtained with circular, ends-in or ends-out vectors in several yeasts are compared. We follow details of targeted insertion mutagenesis in order to recognize possible rate-limiting steps. The route of the vector to the target and possible mechanisms of its integration into chromosomal genes are considered. Specific features of some yeast species are discussed. In addition, similar approaches based on homologous recombination that have been established for the mitochondrial genome of S. cerevisiae are described.

  4. The complexity and implications of yeast prion domains

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Prions are infectious proteins with altered conformations converted from otherwise normal host proteins. While there is only one known mammalian prion protein, PrP, a handful of prion proteins have been identified in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast prion proteins usually have a defined region called prion domain (PrD) essential for prion properties, which are typically rich in glutamine (Q) and asparagine (N). Despite sharing several common features, individual yeast PrDs are genera...

  5. Effects of Li+ and PEG on DNA uptake in yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ping; LIU Huihui; ZHANG Zhiling; PANG Daiwen; XIE Zhixiong; ZHENG Huzhi; LU Zhexue; TONG Hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ DNA uptake of Saccharomyces cerevisiae known as genetic transformation was firstly described by Oppenoorth in 1960[1], and now the most commonly used efficient protocol for yeast transformation makes use of PEG and Li+, which works well for most laboratory strains and is suitable for high-efficiency transformation of plasmid DNA[2-4]. However, it is still unknown how plasmid DNA enters yeast cells and what roles Li+ and PEG play on DNA uptake in yeast cells until now.

  6. Mediated Electrochemical Measurements of Intracellular Catabolic Activities of Yeast Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Sheng ZHAO; Zhen Yu YANG; Yao LU; Zheng Yu YANG

    2005-01-01

    Coupling with the dual mediator system menadione/ferricyanide, microelectrode voltammetric measurements were undertaken to detect the ferrocyanide accumulations arising from the mediated reduction of ferricyanide by yeast cells. The results indicate that the dual mediator system menadione/ferricyanide could be used as a probe to detect cellular catabolic activities in yeast cells and the electrochemical response has a positive relationship with the specific growth rate of yeast cells.

  7. Probiotic properties of yeasts occurring in fermented food and beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lene

    Besides being able to improve the quality and safety of many fermented food and beverages some yeasts offer a number of probiotic traits. Especially a group of yeast referred to as "Saccharomyces boulardii", though taxonomically belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been claimed to have...... probiotic properties. Besides, yeasts naturally occurring globally in food and beverages will have traits that might have a positive impact on human health....

  8. Identification of yeasts present in sour fermented foods and fodders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelhoven, Wouter J

    2002-07-01

    This paper deals with rapid methods for identification of 50 yeast species frequently isolated from foods and fodders that underwent a lactic acid fermentation. However, many yeast species present in olive brine, alpechin, and other olive products were not treated. The methods required for identification include light microscopy, physiological growth tests (ID32C system of BioMérieux), assimilation of nitrate and of ethylamine as sole nitrogen sources, vitamin requirement, and maximum growth temperature. An identification key to treated yeast species is provided. In another table characteristics of all yeast species treated are listed.

  9. [Novel bioconversion systems using a yeast molecular display system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Seiji

    2010-11-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used for the process of fermentation as well as for studies in biochemistry and molecular biology as a eukaryotic model cell or tool for the analysis of gene functions. Thus, yeast is essential in industries and researches. Yeast cells have a cell wall, which is one characteristic that helps distinguish yeast cells from other eukaryotic cells such as mammalian cells. We have developed a molecular display system using the protein of the yeast cell wall as an anchor for foreign proteins. Yeast cells have been designed for use in sensing and metal adsorption, and have been used in vaccines and for screening novel proteins. Currently, yeast is used not only as a tool for analyzing gene or protein function but also in molecular display technology. The phage display system, which is at the forefront of molecular display technologies, is a powerful tool for screening ligands bound to a target molecule and for analyzing protein-protein interactions; however, in some cases, eukaryotic proteins are not easily expressed by this system. On the other hand, yeast cells have the ability to express eukaryotic proteins and proliferate; thus, these cells display various proteins. Yeast cells are more appropriate for white biotechnology. In this review, displays of enzymes that are important in bioconversion, such as lipases and β-glucosidases, are going to be introduced.

  10. Aboveground Deadwood Deposition Supports Development of Soil Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Wehde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Unicellular saprobic fungi (yeasts inhabit soils worldwide. Although yeast species typically occupy defined areas on the biome scale, their distribution patterns within a single type of vegetation, such as forests, are more complex. In order to understand factors that shape soil yeast communities, soils collected underneath decaying wood logs and under forest litter were analyzed. We isolated and identified molecularly a total of 25 yeast species, including three new species. Occurrence and distribution of yeasts isolated from these soils provide new insights into ecology and niche specialization of several soil-borne species. Although abundance of typical soil yeast species varied among experimental plots, the analysis of species abundance and community composition revealed a strong influence of wood log deposition and leakage of organic carbon. Unlike soils underneath logs, yeast communities in adjacent areas harbored a considerable number of transient (phylloplane-related yeasts reaching 30% of the total yeast quantity. We showed that distinguishing autochthonous community members and species transient in soils is essential to estimate appropriate effects of environmental factors on soil fungi. Furthermore, a better understanding of species niches is crucial for analyses of culture-independent data, and may hint to the discovery of unifying patterns of microbial species distribution.

  11. A study of yeast carriage on hands of hospital personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Batra, R

    2000-01-01

    The present study was conducted by culture with a modified broth wash technique to examine the frequency of yeast carriage on the hands of 60 nurses and 35 nonnursing hospital employees. Seventy two percent of the nurses and 80% of the nonnurses were harbouring yeast on their hands. Candida spp. were isolated in 57% on of nurses and 34% of nonnurses. Ninety percent of nurses working in nursing home care unit (NHCU), 50% working in intensive care unit (ICU) and 75% working in outpatient department (OPD) carried yeasts on their hands. Only 80% of nonnurses staff harboured yeasts on their hands.

  12. Dobson, Brewer, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim original and merged total ozone data sets – evaluation of differences: a case study, Hradec Králové (Czech, 1961–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vaníček

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Homogenized data series of total ozone measurements taken by the regularly and well calibrated Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers at Hradec Králové (Czech and the data from the re-analyses ERA-40 and ERA-Interim were merged and compared to investigate differences between the particular data sets originated in Central Europe, the Northern Hemisphere (NH mid-latitudes. The Dobson-to-Brewer transfer function and the algorithm for approximation of the data from the re-analyses were developed, tested and applied for creation of instrumentally consistent and completed total ozone data series of the 50-yr period 1961–2010 of observations. This correction has reduced the well-known seasonal differences between Dobson and Brewer data below the 1% calibration limit of the spectrophotometers. Incorporation of the ERA-40 and ERA-Interim total ozone data on days with missing measurements significantly improved completeness and reliability of the data series mainly in the first two decades of the period concerned. Consistent behaviour of the original and corrected/merged data sets was found in the pre-ozone-hole period (1961–1985. In the post-Pinatubo (1994–2010 era the data series show seasonal differences that can introduce uncertainty in estimation of ozone recovery mainly in the winter-spring season when the effect of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments is expected. All the data sets confirm substantial depletion of ozone also in the summer months that gives rise to the question about its origin. The merged and completed data series of total ozone will be further analyzed to quantify chemical ozone losses and contribution of natural atmospheric processes to the ozone depletion over the region. This case study points out the importance of selection and evaluation of the quality and consistency of the input data sets used in estimation of long-term ozone changes including recovery of the ozone layer over the selected areas. Data are available

  13. Dobson, Brewer, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim original and assimilated total ozone data sets – evaluation of differences: a case study, Hradec Králové (Czech, 1961–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vaníček

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Homogenized data series of total ozone measurements taken by the regularly and well calibrated Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers at Hradec Králové (Czech and the data from the re-analyses ERA-40 and ERA-Interim were assimilated and combined to investigate differences between the particular data sets over Central Europe, the NH mid-latitudes. The Dobson-to-Brewer transfer function and the algorithm for approximation of the data from the re-analyses were developed, tested and applied for creation of instrumentally consistent and completed total ozone data series of the 50-yr period 1961–2010 of observations. The assimilation has reduced the well-known seasonal differences between Dobson and Brewer data below the 1% calibration limit of the spectrophotometers. Incorporation of the ERA-40 and ERA-Interim total ozone data on days with missing measurements significantly improved completeness and reliability of the data series mainly in the first two decades of the period concerned. Consistent behaviour of the original and assimilated data sets was found in the pre-ozone-hole period (1961–1985. In the post-Pinatubo (1994–2010 era the data series show seasonal differences that can introduce uncertainty in estimation of ozone recovery mainly in the winter-spring season when the effect of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments is expected. All the data sets confirm substantial depletion of ozone also in the summer months that gives rise to the question about its origin. The assimilated and completed data series of total ozone will be further analyzed to quantify chemical ozone losses and contribution of natural atmospheric processes to the ozone depletion over the region. This case study points out importance of selection and evaluation of the quality and consistency of the input data sets used in estimation of long-term ozone changes including recovery of the ozone layer over the selected areas. Data are available from the PANGAEA database

  14. The effects on cow performance and calf birth and weaning weight of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in a barley straw diet offered to pregnant beef cows of two different breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, J A; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Morgan, C A; Waterhouse, T

    2016-08-01

    The effects on cow and calf performance of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in diets based on barley straw and fed to pregnant beef cows are reported. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet, cows pregnant by artificial insemination (n = 34) of two breeds (cross-bred Limousin, n = 19 and pure-bred Luing, n = 15) were fed diets ad libitum which consisted of either (g/kg dry matter) barley straw (664) and grass silage (325; GS) or barley straw (783) and brewers grains (206, BG) and offered as total mixed rations. From gestation day (GD) 168 until 266, individual daily feed intakes were recorded and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) measured weekly. Calving date, calf sex, birth and weaning BW, and calf age at weaning were also recorded. Between GD 168 and 266, cross-bred Limousin cows gained more weight than Luing cows (p < 0.05) and cows offered BG gained more weight than cows offered GS (p < 0.001). Luing cows lost more BCS than cross-bred Limousin cows (p < 0.05), but diet did not affect BCS. There were no differences in dry matter intake as a result of breed or diet. Calf birth BW, however, was greater for cows fed BG than GS (44 vs. 38 kg, SEM 1.0, p < 0.001) with no difference between breeds. At weaning, calves born to BG-fed cows were heavier than those born to GS-fed cows (330 vs. 286 kg, SEM 9.3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of grass silage with brewers grains improved the performance of beef cows and increased calf birth and weaning BW. Further analysis indicated that the superior performance of cows offered the BG diet was most likely due to increases in protein supply which may have improved both energy and protein supply to the foetus.

  15. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YGR013W, YKL012W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available st specific, no metazoan counterpart Rows with this bait as bait (1) Rows with this bait as prey (0) YKL012W...U71 Bait description Component of U1 snRNP required for mRNA splicing via spliceosome; yeast specific, no metazoan counter

  16. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDR311W, YMR294W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Rows with this bait as prey (0) YMR294W JNM1 Component of the yeast dynactin complex, consisting of Nip100p...ows with this bait as prey Rows with this bait as prey (0) Prey ORF YMR294W Prey gene name JNM1 Prey description Component of the ye

  17. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YOL069W, YMR294W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available inetochore clustering Rows with this bait as bait (3) Rows with this bait as prey (0) YMR294W JNM1 Component of the ye...ene name JNM1 Prey description Component of the yeast dynactin complex, consisting of Nip100p, Jnm1p, and Ar

  18. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YBR288C, YGR261C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bait (1) Rows with this bait as prey (0) YGR261C APL6 Beta3-like subunit of the yeast AP-3 complex; functio...rey (0) Prey ORF YGR261C Prey gene name APL6 Prey description Beta3-like subunit of the ye

  19. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2013-05-14

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  20. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2016-08-09

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  1. Crystal structure of yeast Sco1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abajian, Carnie; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    The Sco family of proteins are involved in the assembly of the dinuclear CuA site in cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme in aerobic respiration. These proteins, which are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, are characterized by a conserved CXXXC sequence motif that binds copper ions and that has also been proposed to perform a thiol:disulfide oxidoreductase function. The crystal structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae apo Sco1 (apo-ySco1) and Sco1 in the presence of copper ions (Cu-ySco1) were determined to 1.8- and 2.3-{angstrom} resolutions, respectively. Yeast Sco1 exhibits a thioredoxin-like fold, similar to that observed for human Sco1 and a homolog from Bacillus subtilis. The Cu-ySco1 structure, obtained by soaking apo-ySco1 crystals in copper ions, reveals an unexpected copper-binding site involving Cys181 and Cys216, cysteine residues present in ySco1 but not in other homologs. The conserved CXXXC cysteines, Cys148 and Cys152, can undergo redox chemistry in the crystal. An essential histidine residue, His239, is located on a highly flexible loop, denoted the Sco loop, and can adopt positions proximal to both pairs of cysteines. Interactions between ySco1 and its partner proteins yeast Cox17 and yeast COX2 are likely to occur via complementary electrostatic surfaces. This high-resolution model of a eukaryotic Sco protein provides new insight into Sco copper binding and function.

  2. How does yeast respond to pressure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M.B. Fernandes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The brewing and baking yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used as a model for stress response studies of eukaryotic cells. In this review we focus on the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP on S. cerevisiae. HHP exerts a broad effect on yeast cells characteristic of common stresses, mainly associated with protein alteration and lipid bilayer phase transition. Like most stresses, pressure induces cell cycle arrest. Below 50 MPa (500 atm yeast cell morphology is unaffected whereas above 220 MPa wild-type cells are killed. S. cerevisiae cells can acquire barotolerance if they are pretreated with a sublethal stress due to temperature, ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, or pressure. Nevertheless, pressure only leads to protection against severe stress if, after pressure pretreatment, the cells are also re-incubated at room pressure. We attribute this effect to the inhibition of the protein synthesis apparatus under HHP. The global genome expression analysis of S. cerevisiae cells submitted to HHP revealed a stress response profile. The majority of the up-regulated genes are involved in stress defense and carbohydrate metabolism while most repressed genes belong to the cell cycle progression and protein synthesis categories. However, the signaling pathway involved in the pressure response is still to be elucidated. Nitric oxide, a signaling molecule involved in the regulation of a large number of cellular functions, confers baroprotection. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae cells in the early exponential phase submitted to 50-MPa pressure show induction of the expression level of the nitric oxide synthase inducible isoform. As pressure becomes an important biotechnological tool, studies concerning this kind of stress in microorganisms are imperative.

  3. Microbial Populations in Naked Neck Chicken Ceca Raised on Pasture Flock Fed with Commercial Yeast Cell Wall Prebiotics via an Illumina MiSeq Platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Hong Park

    Full Text Available Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrate dietary supplements that selectively stimulate the growth of one or more beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of the host. These bacteria can inhibit colonization of pathogenic bacteria by producing antimicrobial substances such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs and competing for niches with pathogens within the gut. Pasture flock chickens are generally raised outdoors with fresh grass, sunlight and air, which represents different environmental growth conditions compared to conventionally raised chickens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in microbial populations from naked neck chicken ceca fed with commercial prebiotics derived from brewer's yeast cell wall via an Illumina MiSeq platform. A total of 147 day-of-hatch naked neck chickens were distributed into 3 groups consisted of 1 C: control (no prebiotic, 2 T1: Biolex® MB40 with 0.2%, and 3 T2: Leiber® ExCel with 0.2%, consistently supplemented prebiotics during the experimental period. At 8 weeks, a total of 15 birds from each group were randomly selected and ceca removed for DNA extraction. The Illumina Miseq platform based on V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was applied for microbiome analysis. Both treatments exhibited limited impact on the microbial populations at the phylum level, with no significant differences in the OTU number of Bacteroidetes among groups and an increase of Proteobacteria OTUs for the T1 (Biolex® MB40 group. In addition there was a significant increase of genus Faecalibacterium OTU, phylum Firmicutes. According to the development of next generation sequencing (NGS, microbiome analysis based on 16S rRNA gene proved to be informative on the prebiotic impact on poultry gut microbiota in pasture-raised naked neck birds.

  4. Characterization of low-acetic-acid-producing yeast isolated from 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants and its application to high-gravity brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Akihiro; Tabei, Hideaki; Iwahuti, Masahumi

    2006-01-01

    We isolated a mutant with low acetic acid and high ethanol productivities from 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants of brewers' yeast NCYC1245 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). To determine the mechanism for these properties in the mutant (2DGR19) during fermentation, gene expression and enzyme activity related to acetic acid and ethanol production were investigated. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the transcriptional levels of many genes involved in glycolysis were higher in 2DGR19 than in NCYC1245. Among these transcriptional levels of 2DGR19 relative to NCYC1245, the expression level of ADH4 encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was highest, which corresponded to the high ADH activity in 2DGR19. Quantitative PCR analysis also revealed that the transcriptional level of ADH4 was the highest among ADH1 to ADH4. Although no significant differences in the transcriptional levels of ALD2 to ALD6 encoding acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD) between 2DGR19 and NCYC1245 were observed, ALD activity in 2DGR19 was lower. Using quantitative PCR analysis, ALD6 was found to be the most highly expressed among the ALD2 to ALD6 genes. These results indicate that ALD6 contributes to a low ALD activity, depending on post-transcriptional regulation. A high ADH activity appeared to be the major reason for the high ethanol productivity of 2DGR19. A low ALD activity was considered to be principally responsible for a low acetic acid productivity, although a high ADH activity also might have played a role. Beer brewed using 2DGR19 in pilot-scale high-gravity brewing contained about half as much acetic acid and 1.1% more ethanol compared with that brewed using NCYC1245. The use of 2DGR19 may overcome difficulties associated with high-gravity brewing.

  5. Detection and identification of wild yeasts in lager breweries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aa Kühle, A; Jespersen, L

    1998-09-08

    Wild yeasts were detected in 41 out of 101 brewery yeast samples investigated using six different selective principles. Malt extract, yeast extract, glucose, peptone (MYGP) agar supplemented with 195 ppm CuSO4 was found to be the most effective selective principle, detecting wild yeasts in 80% of the contaminated samples. Both Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces wild yeasts were detected on this medium. Lysine medium, crystal violet medium and incubation of non-selective media at 37 degrees C detected wild yeasts in 46-56% of the contaminated samples. On using actidione medium, only 20% of the wild yeasts were detected. The combined use of MYGP supplemented with 195 ppm CuSO4 and one of the other selective principles did not improve the recovery of the wild yeasts. The wild yeasts found consisted of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (57%), Pichia spp. (28%) and Candida spp. (15%). Using the API ID 32 C kit, 35 different assimilation profiles were obtained for the 124 wild yeast isolates investigated. All isolates were capable of glucose assimilation, whereas only 79% of the isolates assimilated saccharose, 75% maltose, 70% galactose, 65% raffinose and 65% lactate. Lactose, inositol, rhamnose and glucuronate were not assimilated by any of the isolates. The differences in assimilation pattern did not reflect any differences in recovery by the selective principles investigated. The majority of the wild yeast isolates investigated were capable of growth in wort and beer, indicating their possible role as spoilage organisms. The Sacch. cerevisiae isolates were found to be the most hazardous, with some isolates being capable of extensive growth in bottled beer within seventeen days at ambient temperature.

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Budding yeast [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomyces_cerevisiae_L.png Saccharomyces_cerevisiae_NL.png Saccha...romyces_cerevisiae_S.png Saccharomyces_cerevisiae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/ta...xonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharomyces+cerevisiae&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharomyces...+cerevisiae&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharomyces...+cerevisiae&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharomyces+cerevisiae&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=216 ...

  7. In situ rheology of yeast biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnoni, Lorena I; Tarifa, María C; Lozano, Jorge E; Genovese, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the in situ rheological behavior of yeast biofilms growing on stainless steel under static and turbulent flow. The species used (Rhodototula mucilaginosa, Candida krusei, Candida kefyr and Candida tropicalis) were isolated from a clarified apple juice industry. The flow conditions impacted biofilm composition over time, with a predominance of C. krusei under static and turbulent flow. Likewise, structural variations occurred, with a tighter appearance under dynamic flow. Under turbulent flow there was an increase of 112 μm in biofilm thickness at 11 weeks (p rheology and contribute to a thin body of knowledge about fungal biofilm formation.

  8. MAGNETIC FIELD EFFECT ON YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVIISIIAE ACTIVITY AT GRAPE MUST FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktar, V.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of yeast cultures using magnetic fields enables us to gain a better understanding of the magnetic fields’ action on enzyme activity and the fluctuation of macroand micro-element concentrations within yeast cultures. For this purpose, the two following groups of yeast were studied: laboratory yeast cultures isolated from regional grape must and commercial yeast cultures that are commonly used in the wine industry. Both yeast groups were biochemically tested with and without magnetic ...

  9. Studies on the Production of Protein Feed through Liquid and Solid Co-fermentation from Dried Brewer's Grain%啤酒糟液固态混合发酵生产蛋白饲料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵启美; 何佳; 李西波

    2001-01-01

    The method of producing protein feed from dried brewer's grain through liquid and solid co-fermentation by many strain was studied. The results showed that the crude protein content in feed could be increased from 25.5% to 37.8%, the crude fiber content in feed could be declined from 16.3% to 9.4%, and also many active digestive enzymes could be contained in feed.%研究了以啤酒糟为主要原料,经多菌种液固态混合发酵生产蛋白饲料的工艺,结果显示:发酵料蛋白含量从啤酒糟的25.5%提高到37.8%,粗纤维由16.3%下降至9.4%,且含有多种消化酶。

  10. Influence of valine and other amino acids on total diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione levels during fermentation of brewer's wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Gibson, Brian R

    2013-08-01

    Undesirable butter-tasting vicinal diketones are produced as by-products of valine and isoleucine biosynthesis during wort fermentation. One promising method of decreasing diacetyl production is through control of wort valine content since valine is involved in feedback inhibition of enzymes controlling the formation of diacetyl precursors. Here, the influence of valine supplementation, wort amino acid profile and free amino nitrogen content on diacetyl formation during wort fermentation with the lager yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus was investigated. Valine supplementation (100 to 300 mg L(-1)) resulted in decreased maximum diacetyl concentrations (up to 37 % lower) and diacetyl concentrations at the end of fermentation (up to 33 % lower) in all trials. Composition of the amino acid spectrum of the wort also had an impact on diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione production during fermentation. No direct correlation between the wort amino acid concentrations and diacetyl production was found, but rather a negative correlation between the uptake rate of valine (and also other branched-chain amino acids) and diacetyl production. Fermentation performance and yeast growth were unaffected by supplementations. Amino acid addition had a minor effect on higher alcohol and ester composition, suggesting that high levels of supplementation could affect the flavour profile of the beer. Modifying amino acid profile of wort, especially with respect to valine and the other branched-chain amino acids, may be an effective way of decreasing the amount of diacetyl formed during fermentation.

  11. Surface Modifying Substances that Reduce Apparent Yeast Cell Hydrophobicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Colling

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Conclusions. Several commercially available compounds were able to block binding of styrene microspheres to yeast. Some of the binding activity appeared to be attributable to mannose-containing surface components. These findings have implications for formulating therapeutic products that might block yeast binding to tissues.

  12. Functional genomics of beer-related physiological processes in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelwood, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the release of the entire genome sequence of the S. cerevisiae laboratory strain S288C in 1996, many functional genomics tools have been introduced in fundamental and application-oriented yeast research. In this thesis, the applicability of functional genomics for the improvement of yeast in b

  13. The making of biodiversity across the yeast subphyllum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals for this research project are to determine how the functional diversity of the yeast subphylum is encoded, and to reconstruct the history of yeasts to elucidate the tempo and mode of functional diversification. The impact of this work will be to integrate discoveries within broadly disseminate...

  14. Determination of adenosine triphosphate in yeast and blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyn-Parvé, Elizabeth P.

    1953-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of ATP in yeast and blood, in which use is made of the decomposition of ATP by myosin adenosinetriphosphatase. ATP is extracted without injury by one minute's boiling at pH 2.5 to 3. Yeast extracts contain myokinase. To destroy this enzyme they are treat

  15. Efficient expression of the yeast metallothionein gene in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, T.; Shatzman, A.; Zimmerman, J.; Strickler, J.; Rosenberg, M.

    1988-01-01

    The yeast metallothionein gene CUP1 was cloned into a bacterial expression system to achieve efficient, controlled expression of the stable, unprocessed protein product. The Escherichia coli-synthesized yeast metallothionein bound copper, cadmium, zinc, indicating that the protein was functional. Furthermore, E. coli cells expressing CUP1 acquired a new, inducible ability to selectively sequester heavy metal ions from the growth medium.

  16. Analysis of the RNA Content of the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutch, Charles E.; Marshall, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an interconnected set of relatively simple laboratory experiments in which students determine the RNA content of yeast cells and use agarose gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the major species of cellular RNA. This set of experiments focuses on RNAs from the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a…

  17. Molecular identification of uncommon clinical yeast species in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Karimi

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: We identified several rare clinical isolates selected from a big collection at the species level by ITS-sequencing. As the list of yeast species as opportunistic human fungal infections is increasing dramatically, and many isolates remain unidentified using conventional methods, more sensitive and specific advanced approaches help us to clarify the aspects of microbial epidemiology of the yeast infections.

  18. [Yeasts in domestic animals: species identification and susceptibility to antifungals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamal, Petr; Koukalová, Dagmar

    2010-02-01

    Yeasts frequently colonize various kinds of domestic animals, but may also cause serious diseases. The aim of this study was to identify yeast isolates collected from dogs, cows and pigs, and to determine their in vitro antifungal susceptibility. Fifty-six yeast isolates from dogs (n = 24), cows (n = 20), and pigs (n = 12) were investigated. Appearance of colonies grown on Sabouraud agar, micromorphology on rice agar, as well as assimilation and fermentation of various carbon and nitrogen sources were evaluated. Susceptibility to six antifungals (flucytosine, amphotericin B, miconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole) was determined semiquantitatively using the commercially available Fungitest kit (Bio-Rad Laboratories). Ten yeast species were identified in dogs with relatively even distribution. On the other hand, cow and pig were clearly dominated by Candida krusei (from 7 species) and Candida rugosa (from 5 species), respectively. Further, most of yeast isolates exhibited good susceptibility to the antifungals tested particularly to amphotericin B, ketoconazole and itraconazole. Based on results, it can be concluded that significant differences in the species spectrum and distribution were documented between groups of yeasts from dogs, cows and pigs. This is probably due to different environmental conditions and the endogenous origin of the yeast isolates. Mostly good susceptibility to systemic antifungals should positively influence the therapy of diseases caused by yeasts in veterinary medicine.

  19. Identification of Yeasts Present in Sour Fermented Foods and Fodder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with rapid methods for identification of 50 yeast species frequently isolated from foods and fodders that underwent a lactic acid fermentation. However, many yeast species present in olive brine, alpechin, and other olive products were not treated. The methods required for identific

  20. Using Microsatellites to Identify Yeast Strains in Beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruke, Alexandria; Van Brocklin, Jennifer; Rivest, Jason; Prenni, Jessica E.; Ibrahim, Hend

    2012-01-01

    Yeast is an integral part of the brewing process and is responsible for much of the taste and characteristics of beer. During the brewing process, yeast is subject to ageing and stress factors that can result in growth inhibition, decreased genetic stability, and changes in cell membrane stability. Characterization of yeast species used in industrial fermentation (e.g. S. cerevisiae) is of great importance to the brewing industry. The objective of this study was to develop an assay to identify yeast strains commonly used in the production of beer. Six microsatellite regions of DNA (comprised of AAT) were used as sequence tagged site markers (STR) to identify and compare yeast samples and to determine strain within a species. Labeled primers ScATT (1-6) targeting these six microsatellite regions were designed using 6-FAM, VIC, NED and PET 5′-fluorescent labels. The six regions were amplified, in a single reaction, from extracted yeast genomic DNA using a modified multiplex-PCR protocol and the labeled PCR products were analyzed on an ABI 3130xl Genetic Analyzer. Using this approach 6 STR markers were amplified in a single multiplex reaction from a commercially utilized yeast strain provided by Odell Brewing. Different alleles were distinguished based on the size of each STR and the labeling fluorophore. The procedures developed in this study will provide an invaluable tool for the quality control of yeast strains in the brewing industry.

  1. Bipolar budding in yeasts - an electron microscope study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreger-van Rij, N.J.W.; Veenhuis, M.

    1971-01-01

    Bud formation in yeasts with bipolar budding was studied by electron microscopy of thin sections. Budding in yeasts of the species Saccharomycodes ludwigii, Hanseniaspora valbyensis and Wickerhamia fluorescens resulted in concentric rings of scar ridges on the wall of the mother cell. The wall betwe

  2. How do yeast cells become tolerant to high ethanol concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, Tim; Verstrepen, Kevin J.; Voordeckers, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The brewer’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae displays a much higher ethanol tolerance compared to most other organisms, and it is therefore commonly used for the industrial production of bioethanol and alcoholic beverages. However, the genetic determinants underlying this yeast’s exceptional ethan...... and challenges involved in obtaining superior industrial yeasts with improved ethanol tolerance....

  3. Effect of salt hyperosmotic stress on yeast cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logothetis Stelios

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During fermentation for ethanol production, yeasts are subjected to different kinds of physico-chemical stresses such as: initially high sugar concentration and low temperature; and later, increased ethanol concentrations. Such conditions trigger a series of biological responses in an effort to maintain cell cycle progress and yeast cell viability. Regarding osmostress, many studies have been focused on transcriptional activation and gene expression in laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The overall aim of this present work was to further our understanding of wine yeast performance during fermentations under osmotic stress conditions. Specifically, the research work focused on the evaluation of NaCl-induced stress responses of an industrial wine yeast strain S. cerevisiae (VIN 13, particularly with regard to yeast cell growth and viability. The hypothesis was that osmostress conditions energized specific genes to enable yeast cells to survive under stressful conditions. Experiments were designed by pretreating cells with different sodium chloride concentrations (NaCl: 4%, 6% and 10% w/v growing in defined media containing D-glucose and evaluating the impact of this on yeast growth and viability. Subsequent fermentation cycles took place with increasing concentrations of D-glucose (20%, 30%, 40% w/v using salt-adapted cells as inocula. We present evidence that osmostress induced by mild salt pre-treatments resulted in beneficial influences on both cell viability and fermentation performance of an industrial wine yeast strain.

  4. Interactions between yeasts, fungicides and apple fruit russeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gildemacher, P.R.; Heijne, B.; Silvestri, M.; Houbraken, J.; Hoekstra, E.; Theelen, B.; Boekhout, T.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of inoculations with yeasts occurring on apple surfaces and fungicide treatments on the russeting of Elstar apples was studied. Captan, dithianon and a water treatment were implemented to study the interaction between the fungicides, the inoculated yeast species and Aureobasidium pullulan

  5. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis after exposure to the yeast Rhodotorula rubra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siersted, H C; Gravesen, S

    1993-05-01

    A case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis following exposure to the red yeast Rhodotorula rubra is reported--to our knowledge, for the first time. Extensive growth of the yeast in the patient's environment was demonstrated, explaining an elevated titer of Rhodotorula-specific precipitating antibodies in his serum. A bronchial provocation test confirmed the diagnosis.

  6. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidoo, K.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages

  7. Specialist nectar-yeasts decline with urbanization in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Jeannine; Mittelbach, Moritz; Rillig, Matthias C.; Verbruggen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Nectar yeasts are common inhabitants of insect-pollinated flowers but factors determining their distribution are not well understood. We studied the influence of host identity, environmental factors related to pollution/urbanization, and the distance to a target beehive on local distribution of nectar yeasts within Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Tilia tomentosa Moench in Berlin, Germany. Nectar samples of six individuals per species were collected at seven sites in a 2 km radius from each target beehive and plated on YM-Agar to visualise the different morphotypes, which were then identified by sequencing a section of the 26S rDNA gene. Multivariate linear models were used to analyze the effects of all investigated factors on yeast occurrence per tree. Yeast distribution was mainly driven by host identity. The influence of the environmental factors (NO2, height of construction, soil sealing) strongly depended on the radius around the tree, similar to the distance of the sampled beehive. Incidence of specialist nectar-borne yeast species decreased with increasing pollution/urbanization index. Given that specialist yeast species gave way to generalist yeasts that have a reduced dependency on pollinators for between-flower dispersal, our results indicate that increased urbanization may restrict the movement of nectar-specialized yeasts, via limitations of pollinator foraging behavior. PMID:28358006

  8. An overview of macroautophagy in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Klionsky, Daniel J

    2016-05-08

    Macroautophagy is an evolutionarily conserved dynamic pathway that functions primarily in a degradative manner. A basal level of macroautophagy occurs constitutively, but this process can be further induced in response to various types of stress including starvation, hypoxia and hormonal stimuli. The general principle behind macroautophagy is that cytoplasmic contents can be sequestered within a transient double-membrane organelle, an autophagosome, which subsequently fuses with a lysosome or vacuole (in mammals, or yeast and plants, respectively), allowing for degradation of the cargo followed by recycling of the resulting macromolecules. Through this basic mechanism, macroautophagy has a critical role in cellular homeostasis; however, either insufficient or excessive macroautophagy can seriously compromise cell physiology, and thus, it needs to be properly regulated. In fact, a wide range of diseases are associated with dysregulation of macroautophagy. There has been substantial progress in understanding the regulation and molecular mechanisms of macroautophagy in different organisms; however, many questions concerning some of the most fundamental aspects of macroautophagy remain unresolved. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about macroautophagy mainly in yeast, including the mechanism of autophagosome biogenesis, the function of the core macroautophagic machinery, the regulation of macroautophagy and the process of cargo recognition in selective macroautophagy, with the goal of providing insights into some of the key unanswered questions in this field.

  9. Parameters affecting methanol utilization by yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, M.S.; El-Masry, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    Screening of 28 yeast cultures, representing 22 species of various yeasts, with respect to their capabilities to assimilate methanol, has shown that this property was mostly found in certain species of the two genera Hansenula and Candida. When methanol was used as a sole carbon source for a methanol-adapted strain of Hansenula polymorpha, a linear yield response could be obtained with increasing alcohol up to 2% concentration. The amount of inoculum proved to be the decisive factor in determining a priori the ability of the organism to grow at 6% methanol as final concentration. The optimum pH values for growth ranged between 4.5-5.5 with no growth at pH 6.5 or higher. A marked growth stimulation was obtained when the medium was supplied with phosphate up to 0.08 M as final concentration. Within the nitrogen sources tested, corn steep liquor concentrate gave the highest yield of cells. The significance of the obtained results are discussed with reference to feasibilities of application.

  10. Yeast lipid metabolism at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Lisa; Daum, Günther

    2014-05-01

    During the last decades, lipids have gained much attention due to their involvement in health and disease. Lipids are required for the formation of membranes and contribute to many different processes such as cell signaling, energy supply, and cell death. Various organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and lipid droplets are involved in lipid metabolism. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become a reliable model organism to study biochemistry, molecular biology, and cell biology of lipids. The availability of mutants bearing defects in lipid metabolic pathways and the ease of manipulation by culture conditions facilitated these investigations. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about lipid metabolism in yeast. We grouped this large topic into three sections dealing with (1) fatty acids; (2) membrane lipids; and (3) storage lipids. Fatty acids serve as building blocks for the synthesis of membrane lipids (phospholipids, sphingolipids) and storage lipids (triacylglycerols, steryl esters). Phospholipids, sterols, and sphingolipids are essential components of cellular membranes. Recent investigations addressing lipid synthesis, degradation, and storage as well as regulatory aspects are presented. The role of enzymes governing important steps of the different lipid metabolic pathways is described. Finally, the link between lipid metabolic and dynamic processes is discussed.

  11. Perchlorate Reduction by Yeast for Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alaisha

    2015-01-01

    Martian soil contains high levels (0.6 percentage by mass) of calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2), which readily dissociates into calcium and the perchlorate ion (ClO4-) in water. Even in trace amounts, perchlorates are toxic to humans and have been implicated in thyroid dysfunction. Devising methods to lessen perchlorate contamination is crucial to minimizing the health risks associated with human exploration and colonization of Mars. We designed a perchlorate reduction pathway, which sequentially reduces perchlorate to chloride (Cl-) and oxygen (O2), for implementation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using genes obtained from perchlorate reducing bacteria Azospira oryzae and Dechloromonas aromatica, we plan to assemble this pathway directly within S. cerevisiae through recombinational cloning. A perchlorate reduction pathway would enable S. cerevisiae to lower perchlorate levels and produce oxygen, which may be harvested or used directly by S. cerevisiae for aerobic growth and compound synthesis. Moreover, using perchlorate as an external electron acceptor could improve the efficiency of redox-imbalanced production pathways in yeast. Although several perchlorate reducing bacteria have been identified and utilized in water treatment systems on Earth, the widespread use of S. cerevisiae as a synthetic biology platform justifies the development of a perchlorate reducing strain for implementation on Mars.

  12. The natural history of yeast prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, Mick F

    2013-01-01

    Although prions were first discovered through their link to severe brain degenerative diseases in animals, the emergence of prions as regulators of the phenotype of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina has revealed a new facet of prion biology. In most cases, fungal prions are carried without apparent detriment to the host cell, representing a novel form of epigenetic inheritance. This raises the question of whether or not yeast prions are beneficial survival factors or actually gives rise to a "disease state" that is selected against in nature. To date, most studies on the impact of fungal prions have focused on laboratory-cultivated "domesticated" strains of S. cerevisiae. At least eight prions have now been described in this species, each with the potential to impact on a wide range of cellular processes. The discovery of prions in nondomesticated strains of S. cerevisiae and P. anserina has confirmed that prions are not simply an artifact of "domestication" of this species. In this review, I describe what we currently know about the phenotypic impact of fungal prions. I then describe how the interplay between host genotype and the prion-mediated changes can generate a wide array of phenotypic diversity. How such prion-generated diversity may be of benefit to the host in survival in a fluctuating, often hazardous environment is then outlined. Prion research has now entered a new phase in which we must now consider their biological function and evolutionary significance in the natural world.

  13. Thermodynamic study of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C Q; Sturtevant, J M

    1987-01-13

    Enthalpies of binding of MgADP, MgATP, and 3-phosphoglycerate to yeast phosphoglycerate kinase have been determined by flow calorimetry at 9.95-32.00 degrees C. Combination of these data with published dissociation constants [Scopes, R.K. (1978) Eur. J. Biochem. 91, 119-129] yielded the following thermodynamic parameters for the binding of 3-phosphoglycerate at 25 degrees C: delta Go = -6.76 +/- 0.11 kcal mol-1, delta H = 3.74 +/- 0.08 kcal mol-1, delta So = 35.2 +/- 0.6 cal K-1 mol-1, and delta Cp = 0.12 +/- 0.32 kcal K-1 mol-1. The thermal unfolding of phosphoglycerate kinase in the absence and presence of the ligands listed above was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The temperature of half-completion, t 1/2, of the denaturation and the denaturational enthalpy are increased by the binding of the ligands, the increase in t 1/2 being a manifestation of Le Chatelier's principle and that in enthalpy reflecting the enthalpy of dissociation of the ligand. Only one denaturational peak was observed under all conditions, and in contrast with the case of yeast hexokinase [Takahashi, K., Casey, J.L., & Sturtevant, J.M. (1981) Biochemistry 20, 4693-4697], no definitive evidence for the unfolding of more than one domain was obtained.

  14. Optimization of Fermentation Condition of Yeast Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiuju; XU Li; CUI Yizhe

    2008-01-01

    Culture condition of every phase for fermentation of yeast culture was studied, and its solid and liquid conditions of elaboration were optimized to improve the total counts of living cells.Results showed that microzyme grew best at 30℃ when solid fermented,and the count of the living cells reached the tiptop with pH 5.5.The count of Candida tropicalis could reach 137.96×109 cfu·g-1,the count of Saccharomyces cerevisia could reach 134.62×109 cfu·g-1;the best liquid fermentation condition for cell-wall broken was 50℃ for 28 h,the rate of cell-wall broken could reach 80% at least;the rate of vitamin loss in yeast could be the minimun, the loss rate of vitamin B1 in Candida tropicalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was 8.71% and 19.54% respectively, the loss rate of vitamin B2 was 19.39% and 13.18%,respectively,and the loss rate of vitamin B6 was 6.3% and 3.04%,respectively.

  15. Isolation and Identification of Yeasts from Tibet Kefir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and distribution of yeasts in Tibet kefir were investigated in this study. Five samples of Tibetan kefir from Tibet and surrounding areas were collected for yeast isolation. Based on physiological, biochemical characteristics and molecular identification results, eight species of yeast were isolated and identified from Tibet kefir, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia fermentans, Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Candida zeylanoide, Candida parapsilosis, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Kazachstania unispora. Among the test samples, K. marxianus, Ka. unispora and P. fermentans were the highest three species in frequency of occurrence of yeast isolates. C. zeylanoides, C. parapsilosis and R. mucilaginosa were first found the occurrence in Tibet kefir. The results provided new information of yeast composition and biodiversity of Tibet kefir.

  16. Immuno-assay techniques for detecting yeasts in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelhoven, W J; Notermans, S

    1993-06-25

    A brief literature review on immuno-assay of yeast cell wall antigens is given. Special attention is paid to extracellular, thermostable yeast antigens (EPS), which are released to the growth medium by many yeast species. The EPS of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of Stephanoascus ciferrii (syn. Candida ciferrii) could be specifically and sensitively detected by a sandwich ELISA, using an IgG raised in rabbits immunized with the EPS of these yeasts. The EPS ELISA of three basidiomycetous yeasts tested was not specific, that of Geotrichum candidum was genus-specific but was not sensitive. The EPS of Zygosaccharomyces bailii could be detected in a highly specific competitive ELISA but not in a sandwich ELISA or in a latex agglutination test.

  17. Stabilization and encapsulation of photosensitive resveratrol within yeast cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guorong; Rao, Liqun; Yu, Huazhong; Xiang, Hua; Yang, Hua; Ji, Runa

    2008-02-12

    The photosensitive resveratrol was successfully encapsulated in yeast cells for the first time, as characterized by FT-IR spectra, fluorescence and confocal micrographs of the yeast cells, resveratrol and microcapsules. The release characteristic of the obtained yeast-encapsulated resveratrol in simulated gastric fluid was evaluated, and its storage stability as a powder was investigated at 25 degrees C/75% relative humidity (RH), 25 degrees C/90% RH and 60 degrees C under the laboratory fluorescent lighting conditions (ca. 300 lx) or in the dark. Also, the scavenging capacity of yeast-encapsulated resveratrol on DPPH radical was compared with that of non-encapsulated resveratrol. It could be demonstrated clearly that no chemical changes occurred during the encapsulation. Besides, the DPPH radical-scavenging activity increased after the encapsulation. In addition, the yeast-encapsulated resveratrol exhibited good stability, and its bioavailability was enhanced as a result of increased solubility of resveratrol and sustained releasing.

  18. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  19. Yeast systems for the commercial production of heterologous proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckholz, R G; Gleeson, M A

    1991-11-01

    Yeasts are attractive hosts for the production of heterologous proteins. Unlike prokaryotic systems, their eukaryotic subcellular organization enables them to carry out many of the post-translational folding, processing and modification events required to produce "authentic" and bioactive mammalian proteins. In addition, they retain the advantages of a unicellular microorganism, with respect to rapid growth and ease of genetic manipulation. The vast majority of yeast expression work has focused on the well-characterized baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, with the development of DNA transformation technologies, a growing number of non-Saccharomyces yeasts are becoming available as hosts for recombinant polypeptide production. These include Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Schwanniomyces occidentalis and Yarrowia lipolytica. The performance of these alternative yeast expression systems is reviewed here relative to S. cerevisiae, and the advantages and limitations of these systems are discussed.

  20. Yeast identification in the clinical microbiology laboratory: phenotypical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydiere, A M; Guinet, R; Boiron, P

    2001-02-01

    Emerging yeast pathogens are favoured by increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients and by certain current medical practices. These yeasts differ in their antifungal drug susceptibilities, and rapid species identification is imperative. A large variety of methods have been developed with the aim of facilitating rapid, accurate yeast identification. Significant recent commercial introductions have included species-specific direct enzymatic colour tests, differential chromogenic isolation plates, direct immunological tests, and enhanced manual and automated biochemical and enzymatic panels. Chromogenic isolation media demonstrate better detection rates of yeasts in mixed cultures than traditional media, and allow the direct identification of Candida albicans by means of colony colour. Comparative evaluation of rapid methods for C. albicans identification, including the germ tube test, shows that chromogenic media may be economically advantageous. Accurate tests for single species include the Bichrolatex Albicans and Krusei Color tests, both immunologically based, as well as the Remel Rapid Trehalose Assimilation Broth for C. glabrata. Among broad-spectrum tests, the RapID Yeast Plus system gives same-day identification of clinical yeasts, but performance depends on inoculum density and geographic isolate source. The API 20 C AUX system is considered a reference method, but newer systems such as Auxacolor and Fungichrom are as accurate and are more convenient. Among automated systems, the ID 32 C strip, the Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card and the Vitek 2 ID-YST system correctly identify >93% of common yeasts, but the ID-YST is the most accurate with uncommon yeasts, including C. dubliniensis. Spectroscopic methods such as Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy offer potential advantages for the future. Overall, the advantages of rapid yeast identification methods include relative simplicity and low cost. For all rapid methods, meticulous, standardized