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Sample records for brevibacterium

  1. Degradation of Ochratoxin A by Brevibacterium Species

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Héctor; Reverón, Inés; Doria, Francesca; Costantini, Antonella; Rivas, Blanca de las; Muñoz, Rosario; García-Moruno, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    The ability to degrade ochratoxin A was studied in different bacteria with a well-known capacity to transform aromatic compounds. Strains belonging to Rhodococcus, Pseudomonas, and Brevibacterium genera were grown in liquid synthetic culture medium containing ochratoxin A. Brevibacterium spp. strains showed 100% degradation of ochratoxin A.Ochratoxin ¿ was detected and identified by high-performance liquid chromatographymass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) as a degradation product in the cellfree supe...

  2. Identification of Brevibacterium from clinical sources.

    OpenAIRE

    Pitcher, D.G.; Malnick, H

    1984-01-01

    Coryneform bacteria of the genus Brevibacterium occur on the normal skin surface, but reports of human infection with this genus are lacking. A number of cultures of coryneform bacteria sent to the National Collection of Type Cultures for identification have been identified as Brevibacterium spp on the basis of their cell wall composition and ability to produce methane-thiol from L-methionine. We describe a rapid method for the detection of methane-thiol and confirmatory tests which different...

  3. Identification of a Novel Brevibacterium Species Isolated from Humans and Description of Brevibacterium sanguinis sp. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Wauters, Georges; Haase, Gerhard; Avesani, Véronique; Charlier, Jacqueline; Janssens, Michèle; Van Broeck, Johan; Delmée, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Six coryneforms isolated from blood and dialysate fluid were phenotypically similar to Brevibacterium casei, but 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization indicate that they belong to a new species for which the name Brevibacterium sanguinis is proposed.

  4. Identification of a novel Brevibacterium species isolated from humans and description of Brevibacterium sanguinis sp. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Wauters, Georges; Haase, Gerhard; Avesani, Véronique; Charlier, Jacqueline; Janssens, Michèle; Van Broeck, Johan; Delmée, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Six coryneforms isolated from blood and dialysate fluid were phenotypically similar to Brevibacterium casei, but 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization indicate that they belong to a new species for which the name Brevibacterium sanguinis is proposed.

  5. Growth stimulation of Brevibacterium sp. by siderophores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, W.H.; Reissbrodt, R.; Bongers, R.S.; Rademaker, J.L.W.; Bockelmann, W.; Smit, G.

    2006-01-01

    To assess which types of siderophores are typically produced by Brevibacterium and how siderophore production and utilization traits are distributed within this genus. Methods and Results: During co-cultivation experiments it was found that growth of B. linens Br5 was stimulated by B. linens NIZO B1

  6. Characterization of Brevibacterium spp. from clinical specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Gruner, E; Pfyffer, G E; von Graevenitz, A

    1993-01-01

    Nonfermenting coryneform bacteria identified as Brevibacterium spp. were isolated from routine clinical specimens. Four strains were derived from peritoneal fluid and has presumably been involved in the pathogenesis of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis. Another five isolates most probably represented skin contaminants. Cell wall and lipid analyses confirmed the genus identification. Strains in this taxon are difficult to distinguish from other biochemically inactive and no...

  7. Manganese transport in Brevibacterium ammoniagenes ATCC 6872.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, J.; Auling, G

    1987-01-01

    Uptake of manganese by Brevibacterium ammoniagenes ATCC 6872 was energy dependent and obeyed saturation kinetics (Km = 0.65 microM; Vmax = 0.12 mumol/min per g [dry weight]). Uptake showed optima at 27 degrees C and pH 9.5. 54Mn2+ accumulated by the cells was released by treatment with toluene or by exchange for unlabeled manganese ions, via an energy-dependent process. Co2+, Fe2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ inhibited manganese uptake. Inhibition by Cd2+ and Zn2+ was competitive (Ki = 0.15 microM Cd2+ an...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacterium massiliense Strain 541308T

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Véronique; Robert, Catherine; Gimenez, Grégory; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    A draft genome sequence of Brevibacterium massiliense, an aerobic bacterium isolated from a human ankle discharge, is described here. CRISPR-associated proteins were found to be encoded in the genome, and analysis of transport proteins was performed.

  9. Hydrocarbon utilization by Brevibacterium, Azotomonas, Protaminobacterium, Mycococcus and Aeromonas spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonsane, B.K.; Vadalkar, K.; Singh, H.D.; Baruah, J.N.

    1976-11-01

    Morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics of 7 bacterial isolates, capable of utilizing hydrocarbons as sole source of carbon, reveal that 3 isolates belong to genus Aeromonas and one each to genera Brevibacterium, Protaminobacter, Mycococcus and Azotomonas. The isolates are studied for biomass formation on gas oil, substrate specificities for petroleum hydrocarbons and fermentation of gas oil by Brevibacterium sp. The hydrocarbon utilizing abilities of the strains of Protaminobacter, Azotomonas and Aeromonas are not known previously.

  10. Transcriptional analysis and regulatory signals of the hom-thrB cluster of Brevibacterium lactofermentum.

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos, L M; Pisabarro, A; Pátek, M; Malumbres, M; Guerrero, C.; Eikmanns, B J; Sahm, H; Martín, J F

    1994-01-01

    Two genes, hom (encoding homoserine dehydrogenase) and thrB (encoding homoserine kinase), of the threonine biosynthetic pathway are clustered in the chromosome of Brevibacterium lactofermentum in the order 5' hom-thrB 3', separated by only 10 bp. The Brevibacterium thrB gene is expressed in Escherichia coli, in Brevibacterium lactofermentum, and in Corynebacterium glutamicum and complements auxotrophs of all three organisms deficient in homoserine kinase, whereas the Brevibacterium hom gene d...

  11. Brevibacterium casei as a Cause of Brain Abscess in an Immunocompetent Patient ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, V. Anil; Augustine, Deepthi; Panikar, Dilip; Nandakumar, Aswathy; Kavitha R Dinesh; Karim, Shamsul; Philip, Rosamma

    2011-01-01

    Coryneform bacteria belonging to the genus Brevibacterium have emerged as opportunistic pathogens. Of the nine known species of Brevibacterium isolated from human clinical samples, Brevibacterium casei is the most frequently reported species from clinical specimens. We report the first case of B. casei brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient successfully treated by surgery and antimicrobial therapy.

  12. Brevibacterium otitidis: an elusive cause of neurosurgical infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fe Talento, Alida

    2013-03-01

    Coryneform bacteria are usually considered as non-pathogenic when isolated from clinical specimens. We present a case of Brevibacterium otitidis neurosurgical infection in an immunocompetent patient, and highlight the difficulty with identification and interpretation of antimicrobial susceptibility results for this unusual pathogen.

  13. Brevibacterium casei isolated as a cause of relapsing peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Althaf, Mohammed Mahdi; Abdelsalam, Mohamed Said; Alsunaid, Mohammed Sunaid; Hussein, Maged Hassan

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of relapsing peritonitis in a 33-year-old woman on automated peritoneal dialysis. End-stage renal disease was secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus complicated with lupus nephritis. The organism isolated was Brevibacterium casei that was not readily identified, delaying appropriate management with an extended antibiotic course. Definite management of B casei peritonitis was peritoneal dialysis catheter removal.

  14. Human infections caused by Brevibacterium casei, formerly CDC groups B-1 and B-3.

    OpenAIRE

    Gruner, E; Steigerwalt, A G; Hollis, D G; Weyant, R S; Weaver, R E; Moss, C W; M Daneshvar; J. M. Brown; Brenner, D J

    1994-01-01

    Forty-one clinical strains of CDC coryneform groups B-1 and B-3 were compared biochemically, by analysis of cell wall sugars, amino acids, and cellular fatty acids, and by DNA relatedness to the type strains of Brevibacterium casei, Brevibacterium epidermidis, and Brevibacterium linens. Twenty-two strains were shown to be B. casei, while five other strains formed a phenotypically inseparable genomospecies in the same genus. The remaining isolates were genetically heterogeneous, and most are p...

  15. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Brevibacterium senegalense sp. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Kokcha, Sahare; Ramasamy, Dhamodharan; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2012-01-01

    Brevibacterium senegalense strain JC43T sp. nov. is the type strain of Brevibacterium senegalense sp. nov., a new species within the Brevibacterium genus. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from the fecal flora of a healthy Senegalese patient. B. senegalense is an aerobic rod-shaped Gram-positive bacterium. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 3,425,960 bp long genome (1 chromosome but no plasmid)...

  16. Brevibacterium sandarakinum sp. nov., isolated from a wall of an indoor environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kämpfer, Peter; Schäfer, Jenny; Lodders, Nadine; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, non-endospore-forming, orange-pigmented (coloured) actinobacterium (01-Je-003T) was isolated from the wall of an indoor environment primarily colonized with moulds. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies, strain 01-Je-003T was shown to belong to the genus Brevibacterium and was most similar to the type strains of Brevibacterium picturae (98.8% similarity), Brevibacterium marinum (97.3%) and Brevibacterium aurantiacum (97.2 %). Chemotaxonom...

  17. Generalized Net Model of Brevibacterium flavul 22LD Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to render the specific peculiarities of the fermentation processes, as well as to avoid the complexity of mathematical description with systems of differential equations, the elaboration of some new methods and approaches for their modelling and control is predetermined. As a new, alternative approach for modelling of fermentation processes, an application of generalized nets is presented in this paper. The theory of generalized nets is applied to the fermentation process of Brevibacterium flavul 22LD for L-lysine production. A generalized net model of considered process is developed. For comparison and completeness, model with differential equations is also provided. The generalized nets model developed for the fed-batch cultivation of Brevibacterium flavul 22LD allows changing the concentration of the feeding solution and the aeration rate. In this way some inhibition effects are prevented and a possibility for optimal carrying out of the considered fermentation process is provided.

  18. Biodegradation of Cyclohexylamine by Brevibacterium oxydans IH-35A

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaki, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Masatake; Tokuyama, Tai; Hasegawa, Yoshie

    1999-01-01

    A bacterial strain capable of growing on cyclohexylamine (CHAM) was isolated by using enrichment and isolation techniques. The strain isolated, strain IH-35A, was classified as a member of the genus Brevibacterium. The results of growth and enzyme studies are consistent with degradation of CHAM via cyclohexanone (CHnone), 6-hexanolactone, 6-hydroxyhexanoate, and adipate. Cell extracts obtained from this strain grown on CHAM contained CHAM oxidase, and the model for CHAM oxidation by this enzy...

  19. Differentiation of Brevibacterium spp. encountered in clinical specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Funke, G; Carlotti, A

    1994-01-01

    Forty-three strains belonging to the genus Brevibacterium which were encountered in clinical materials over 2 decades were compared with reference strains, including the type strains, of B. casei, B. epidermidis, B. mcbrellneri, B. iodinum, and B. linens. By means of carbohydrate assimilation tests (CATs) the 43 clinical isolates could be assigned to the species B. casei (n = 41) and B. epidermidis (n = 2). DNA-DNA hybridizations were performed for 20 clinical isolates and confirmed the speci...

  20. Inhibition of Brevibacterium linens by Probiotics from Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, Alison M.; Viljoen, Bennie C.; Lourens-Hattingh, Analie

    2005-01-01

    Brevibacterium linens is an important species in dairy products rendering a specific taste and aroma to numerous smear ripened and blue veined cheeses due to proteolysis. However, the presence of the species in South African blue veined cheeses is undesirable and consumers demand the product void of the species. Accordingly, numerous methods including microbial inhibition using fungi and bacterial probiotic cultures with possible inhibitory effects were applied in an attempt to inhibit the sp...

  1. Transport kinetics of ectoine, an osmolyte produced by Brevibacterium epidermis

    OpenAIRE

    Onraedt, Annelies; De Mey, Marjan; Walcarius, Bart; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2006-01-01

    Brevibacterium epidermis DSM 20659 is a halotolerant Gram-positive bacterium which can synthesize the osmolyte, ectoine, but prefers to take it up from its environment. The present study revealed that B. epidermis is equipped with at least one transport system for ectoine, with a maximal transport velocity of 15.7 +/- 4.3 nmol/g CDW center dot min. The transport requires energy (ATP) and is completely inhibited by the proton uncoupler, CCCP. The ectoine uptake system is constitutively express...

  2. Brevibacterium casei isolated as a cause of relapsing peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaf, Mohammed Mahdi; Abdelsalam, Mohamed Said; Alsunaid, Mohammed Sunaid; Hussein, Maged Hassan

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of relapsing peritonitis in a 33-year-old woman on automated peritoneal dialysis. End-stage renal disease was secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus complicated with lupus nephritis. The organism isolated was Brevibacterium casei that was not readily identified, delaying appropriate management with an extended antibiotic course. Definite management of B casei peritonitis was peritoneal dialysis catheter removal. PMID:24648477

  3. Brevibacterium casei Sepsis in an 18-Year-Old Female with AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Brazzola, P; Zbinden, R; Rudin, C.; Schaad, U B; HEININGER, U.

    2000-01-01

    Brevibacterium sp. was isolated from the blood of an acutely ill 18-year-old female with AIDS. The isolate was identified as Brevibacterium casei by use of carbohydrate assimilation tests. Treatment was successful with intravenously administered ciprofloxacin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sepsis caused by B. casei in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient.

  4. Transport of aromatic amino acids by Brevibacterium linens.

    OpenAIRE

    Boyaval, P; Moreira, E; Desmazeaud, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Whole metabolizing Brevibacterium linens cells were used to study the transport of aromatic amino acids. Kinetic results followed the Michaelis-Menten equation with apparent Km values for phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan of 24, 3.5, and 1.8 microM. Transport of these amino acids was optimum at pH 7.5 and 25 degrees C for phenylalanine and pH 8.0 and 35 degrees C for tyrosine and tryptophan. Crossed inhibitions were all noncompetitive. The only marked stereospecificity was for the L for...

  5. Peritonitis due to Brevibacterium otitidis in a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wauters, Georges; Van Bosterhaut, B; Avesani, V; Cuvelier, R.; Charlier, Jacqueline; Janssens, Michèle; Delmée, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Brevibacterium otitidis is a coryneform rod and, as far as is known, is isolated only from infected ears. We report the first known case of peritonitis caused by B. otitidis in a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

  6. Post-traumatic endophthalmitis due to Brevibacterium casei : A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Asima Banu; Sriprakash KS; Vidyadevi M; ER, Nagraj

    2013-01-01

    Endophthalmitis is a serious post-traumatic ocular complication that can lead to loss of vision. We report a case of acute post-traumatic endophthalmitis following a penetrating injury caused by an unusual organism, Brevibacterium casei . The patient was successfully treated with intravitreal antibiotics like ceftazidime and vancomycin, along with topical cefazolin and tobramycin. Brevibacterium casei can be added to the list of rare bacteria causing endophthalmitis and should be kept in mind...

  7. Isolation and Preliminary Characterization of Twenty Bacteriophages Infecting Either Brevibacterium or Arthrobacter Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Trautwetter, Annie; Blanco, Carlos

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-seven bacteriophages plaquing on Corynebacterium, Brevibacterium, or Arthrobacter strains were isolated from soil or vegetation samples. Restriction analysis of phage DNA indicated that 20 phages were unique; one of them produced entirely turbid plaques on Brevibacterium ketoglutamicum and was characterized as temperate. All these phages were assigned to group B of the classification of Bradley (Bacteriol. Rev. 31:230-314, 1967) and had relatively narrow host ranges.

  8. Hydrocarbon metabolism by Brevibacterium erythrogenes: normal and branched alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnik, M P; Atlas, R M; Bartha, R

    1974-09-01

    Branched- and straight-chain alkanes are metabolized by Brevibacterium erythrogenes by means of two distinct pathways. Normal alkanes (e.g., n-pentadecane) are degraded, after terminal oxidation, by the beta-oxidation system operational in fatty acid catabolism. Branched alkanes like pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) and 2-methylundecane are degraded as dicarboxylic acids, which also undergo beta-oxidation. Pristane-derived intermediates are observed to accumulate, with time, as a series of dicarboxylic acids. This dicarboxylic acid pathway is not observed in the presence of normal alkanes. Release of (14)CO(2) from [1-(14)C]pristane is delayed, or entirely inhibited, in the presence of n-hexadecane, whereas CO(2) release from n-hexadecane remains unaffected. These results suggest an inducible dicarboxylic acid pathway for degradation of branched-chain alkanes. PMID:4852318

  9. Post-traumatic endophthalmitis due to Brevibacterium casei : A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asima Banu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Endophthalmitis is a serious post-traumatic ocular complication that can lead to loss of vision. We report a case of acute post-traumatic endophthalmitis following a penetrating injury caused by an unusual organism, Brevibacterium casei . The patient was successfully treated with intravitreal antibiotics like ceftazidime and vancomycin, along with topical cefazolin and tobramycin. Brevibacterium casei can be added to the list of rare bacteria causing endophthalmitis and should be kept in mind by clinicians as a potential source of pathology.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacterium linens AE038-8, an Extremely Arsenic-Resistant Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizel, Daniela; Utturkar, Sagar M; Brown, Steven D; Ferrero, Marcela A; Rosen, Barry P

    2015-01-01

    To understand the arsenic biogeocycles in the groundwaters at Tucumán, Argentina, we isolated Brevibacterium linens sp. strain AE38-8, obtained from arsenic-contaminated well water. This strain is extremely resistant to arsenicals and has arsenic resistance (ars) genes in its genome. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. linens AE38-8. PMID:25883298

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacterium linens AE038-8, an Extremely Arsenic-Resistant Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Maizel, Daniela; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Brown, Steven D.; Ferrero, Marcela A.; ROSEN, BARRY P.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the arsenic biogeocycles in the groundwaters at Tucumán, Argentina, we isolated Brevibacterium linens sp. strain AE38-8, obtained from arsenic-contaminated well water. This strain is extremely resistant to arsenicals and has arsenic resistance (ars) genes in its genome. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. linens AE38-8.

  12. PENURUNAN KADAR SIANIDA SINGKONG PAHIT PADA PROSES FERMENTASI CAIR BAKTERI BREVIBACTERIUM LACTOFERMENTEMUM BL-1M76

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryana Purawisastra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available THE REDUCTION OF THE CYANIDE CONTENT OF BITIER CASSAVA BY THE PROCESS OF LIQUID FERMENTATION USING BREVIBACTERIUM LACTOFERMENTUM BL-1M76.Background: Cassava is one of the important source of carbohydrate in tropical countries, that easliy grows in any kind of soil. However, there is a kind of cassava containing cyanide substance, which is toxic for human consumption. This kind of cassava known as bitter cassava contains more starch, but it can't be used as food directly. Usually, people uses this cassava as raw material for producing starch known as 'tapioka' by the traditional method. The cyanide substance in cassava can be degraded by bacteria known as Brevibacterium sp R312 that is capable to degrade about 80% of the cyianide content in cassava, since this bacteria produces some enzymes namely E glucosidase, nitrilhydratase, and amidase, which degrade this cyanide substance. In our laboratory, has another strain of this bacteria, Brevibacterium fermentum BL-1M76, which Is not harmful and has potential capability in producing amino acid of lysine. Objectives: The study was conducted to investigate the potential of the bacteria Brevibacterium fermentum BL-1M76 in reducting of the cyanide substance of bitter cassava using the process of liquid fermentation. Materials and Methods: This experiment used four kinds of bitter cassava obtained from the Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi Tanaman Pangan, Departemen Pertanian (The Research Station of Biotechnology for Food Crops. Those cassavas are known as Adira II, Adria IV, 39.1.1 code, and 46.8 code. The liquid fermentation was conducted in the erlenmeyer flask 250 ml containing 10 ml of 10% cassava medium. The process of fermentation was done in two steps. The first step was to decide the maxmium volume and concentration cell of bacteria suspension, and the duration time of the incubation at the 28°C. The observation was done to the changes content of cyanide, and protein of the cassava medium due

  13. First isolation of Brevibacterium sp. pigments in the rind of an industrial red-smear-ripened soft cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Galaup, Patrick; Sutthiwong, Nuthathai; Leclercq-Perlat, Marie-Noëlle; Valla, Alain; Caro, Yanis; Fouillaud, Mireille; Guérard, Fabienne; Dufossé, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience The smear-ripened soft cheeses are characterised by a surface orange-red-brown colour, which has a microbial origin. For a long time, this colouration was mainly imputed to Brevibacterium linens. However, the latest published works, based on molecular biology, have shown a minor role for this bacterium. This study shows the results obtained with an industrial cheese named Vieux-Pané, which is characterised by the presence of carotenoids from Brevibacterium linens gro...

  14. Consecutive episodes of peritonitis in a patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis caused by unusual organisms: Brevibacterium and Pantoea agglomerans

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Joon Seok; Kim, Chang Seong; Park, Jeong Woo; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan

    2012-01-01

    A 52-year-old man undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis presented with two consecutive episodes of peritonitis caused by unusual organisms, namely, Brevibacterium and Pantoea agglomerans. The patient was successfully treated with a 2-week course of cefazolin and ceftazidime for the Brevibacterium-associated peritonitis, and a 3-week course of gentamicin for the P. agglomerans-associated peritonitis. Although these environmental organisms are rarely responsible for human infecti...

  15. Brevibacterium rufescens nov. comb. , a facultative anaerobic methylotrophic bacterium from oil-bearing strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazina, T.N.

    1981-03-01

    The paper presents the results of studying the bacterial population from the microaerophilic zone of oil-bearing strata of the Apsheron Peninsula. The incidence of bacteria capable of growing at the account of organic substances present in stratal water could reach dozens of thousands of cells in 1 ml. A bacterium predominant in the bacterial cenosis of the microaerophilic zone was islated as a pure culture. A new combination, Brevibacterium rufescens nov. comb. was created on the basis of morphological, physiologo-biochemical properties and the GC content in the DNA of the organism under study. The microorganism is adapted to its habitat in a number of properties. The necessity of recreating the genus Brevibacterium is discussed.

  16. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of genes involved in the lysine pathway of Brevibacterium lactofermentum.

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez, G.; Sousa, J. M.; Sánchez, F.

    1985-01-01

    The Brevibacterium lactofermentum genes which complement Escherichia coli lysA and asd-1 mutants were identified, respectively, as a 1.9-kilobase PstI-ClaI fragment and a 2.5-kilobase PstI fragment by cloning into pBR325. Southern blot transfers show hybridization to chromosomal fragments of identical size. The putative B. lactofermentum asd and lysA products are 44 and 48 kilodaltons, respectively.

  17. Cholesterol oxidase from Brevibacterium sterolicum : the relationship between covalent flavinylation and redox properties

    OpenAIRE

    Motteran, Laura; Pilone, Mirella S.; Molla, Gianluca; Ghisla, Sandro; Pollegioni, Loredano

    2001-01-01

    Brevibacterium sterolicum possesses two forms of cholesterol oxidase, one containing noncovalently bound FAD, the second containing a FAD covalently linked to His69 of the protein backbone. The functional role of the histidyl-FAD bond in the latter cholesterol oxidase was addressed by studying the properties of the H69A mutant in which the FAD is bound tightly, but not covalently, and by comparison with native enzyme. The mutant retains catalytic activity, but with a turnover rate decreased 3...

  18. Biosynthetic preparation of L-[13C]- and [15N]glutamate by Brevibacterium flavum.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, T E; London, R E

    1987-01-01

    The biosynthesis of isotopically labeled L-glutamic acid by the microorganism Brevibacterium flavum was studied with a variety of carbon-13-enriched precursors. The purpose of this study was twofold: to develop techniques for the efficient preparation of labeled L-glutamate with a variety of useful labeling patterns which can be used for other metabolic studies, and to better understand the metabolic events leading to label scrambling in these strains. B. flavum, which is used commercially fo...

  19. Metabolism of pyrimidine bases and nucleosides in the coryneform bacteria Brevibacterium ammoniagenes and Micrococcus luteus.

    OpenAIRE

    Auling, G; Moss, B

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of exogenous pyrimidine bases and nucleosides was investigated in Brevibacterium ammoniagenes and Micrococcus luteus with fluorinated analogs and radioactive precursors. Salvage of thymine and thymidine was found in M. luteus, but not in B. ammoniagenes. Exogenous uracil or uracil nucleosides, but not cytosine or cytosine nucleosides, were nucleic acid precursors for both bacteria. By examining the possible nucleoside-metabolizing enzymes, it can be suggested that the pyrimidin...

  20. Medium optimization of protease production by Brevibacterium linens DSM 20158, using statistical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Khadija Shabbiri; Ahmad Adnan; Sania Jamil; Waqar Ahmad; Bushra Noor; H.M. Rafique

    2012-01-01

    Various cultivation parameters were optimized for the production of extra cellular protease by Brevibacterium linens DSM 20158 grown in solid state fermentation conditions using statistical approach. The cultivation variables were screened by the Plackett-Burman design and four significant variables (soybean meal, wheat bran, (NH4)2SO4 and inoculum size were further optimized via central composite design (CCD) using a response surface methodological approach. Using the optimal factors (soybea...

  1. Medium optimization of protease production by Brevibacterium linens DSM 20158, using statistical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shabbiri, Khadija; Adnan, Ahmad; Jamil, Sania; Ahmad, Waqar; Noor, Bushra; H.M. Rafique

    2012-01-01

    Various cultivation parameters were optimized for the production of extra cellular protease by Brevibacterium linens DSM 20158 grown in solid state fermentation conditions using statistical approach. The cultivation variables were screened by the Plackett–Burman design and four significant variables (soybean meal, wheat bran, (NH4)2SO4 and inoculum size were further optimized via central composite design (CCD) using a response surface methodological approach. Using the optimal factors (soybea...

  2. Recent advances in recombinant protein expression by Corynebacterium, Brevibacterium, and Streptomyces: from transcription and translation regulation to secretion pathway selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are widely used to produce recombinant proteins, amino acids, organic acids, higher alcohols, and polymers. Many proteins have been expressed in Gram-positive hosts such as Corynebacterium, Brevibacterium, and Streptomyces. The favorable and advantageous characteristics (e.g., high secretion capacity and efficient production of metabolic products) of these species have increased the biotechnological applications of bacteria. However, owing to multiplicity from genes encoding the proteins and expression hosts, the expression of recombinant proteins is limited in Gram-positive bacteria. Because there is a very recent review about protein expression in Bacillus subtilis, here we summarize recent strategies for efficient expression of recombinant proteins in the other three typical Gram-positive bacteria (Corynebacterium, Brevibacterium, and Streptomyces) and discuss future prospects. We hope that this review will contribute to the development of recombinant protein expression in Corynebacterium, Brevibacterium, and Streptomyces. PMID:24068337

  3. THREONINE MUTANT STRAIN-PRODUCER BREVIBACTERIUM FLAVUM ІМВ В-7446 CHARACTERISTICS AND OPTIMIZATION PROCESS OF ITS BIOSYNTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Г. С. Андріяш; Заболотна, Г. М.; Ткаченко, А. Ф.; С. М. Шульга

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Identification and optimization process of biosynthesis threonine of mutant strain-producer Brevibacterium flavum ІМВ В-7446. Methods. The strain Brevibacterium flavum ІМВ В-7446 was studied using standard microbiological and biochemical methods. A fragment of genomic DNA isolated from agarose gel using a set of «Macherey-Nagel NucleoSpin Extract» according to the instructions of the manufacturer and sequenced. A comparative analysis was done by evaluation of statistical significance adj...

  4. Identification and Functional Analysis of the Gene Encoding Methionine-γ-Lyase in Brevibacterium linens

    OpenAIRE

    Amarita, Felix; Yvon, Mireille; Nardi, Michele; Chambellon, Emilie; Delettre, Jerôme; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of l-methionine and subsequent formation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) is believed to be essential for flavor development in cheese. l-Methionine-γ-lyase (MGL) can convert l-methionine to methanethiol (MTL), α-ketobutyrate, and ammonia. The mgl gene encoding MGL was cloned from the type strain Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9175 known to produce copious amounts of MTL and related VSCs. The disruption of the mgl gene, achieved in strain ATCC 9175, resulted in a 62% ...

  5. High-frequency transformation of Brevibacterium lactofermentum protoplasts by plasmid DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Santamaria, R I; Gil, J.A.; Martin, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    An efficient polyethylene glycol-assisted method for transformation of Brevibacterium lactofermentum protoplasts that uses plasmid vectors has been developed. Two small plasmids, pUL330 (5.2 kilobases) and pUL340 (5.8 kilobases), both containing the kanamycin resistance gene from transposon Tn5 and the replication origin of the natural plasmid pBL1 of B. lactofermentum, were selected as vectors. Supercoiled forms of the plasmids yielded a 100-fold higher transformation frequency than did line...

  6. Purification and Characterization of l-Methionine γ-Lyase from Brevibacterium linens BL2†

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Benjamin; Weimer, Bart

    1998-01-01

    l-Methionine γ-lyase (EC 4.4.1.11) was purified to homogeneity from Brevibacterium linens BL2, a coryneform bacterium which has been used successfully as an adjunct bacterium to improve the flavor of Cheddar cheese. The enzyme catalyzes the α,γ elimination of methionine to produce methanethiol, α-ketobutyrate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme, with a native molecular mass of approximately 170 kDa, consisting of four identical subunits of 43 kDa each. The purified enzy...

  7. Production of Coenzyme A by a Mutant of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes Resistant to Oxypantetheine

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Sakayu; Esumi, Akihiko; Komaki, Ryohei; Yamada, Hideaki

    1984-01-01

    For improved production of coenzyme A (CoA), a mutant of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes IFO127071 resistant to oxypantetheine, the corresponding oxygen analog of pantetheine, was obtained. In the mutant, activity of pantothenate kinase (EC 2.7.1.33), the first-step enzyme for the biosynthesis of CoA from pantothenic acid, l-cysteine, and ATP, was about threefold higher than that in the parent strain. As the main regulation mechanism of CoA biosynthesis in this bacterium is negative feedback inhi...

  8. Specificity of an extracellular proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 on bovine beta-casein.

    OpenAIRE

    Rattray, F P; Fox, P. F.; Healy, A.

    1997-01-01

    The specificity of the extracellular proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 on bovine beta-casein was studied. Hydrolysis was monitored over time by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and urea-PAGE. The major pH 4.6-soluble peptides were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry. The major sites of hydrolysis were Ser-18-Ser-19, Glu-20-Glu-21, Gln-56-Ser-57, Gln-72-Asn-73, ...

  9. Multiple sigma factor genes in Brevibacterium lactofermentum: characterization of sigA and sigB.

    OpenAIRE

    Oguiza, J A; Marcos, A T; Malumbres, M; Martín, J F

    1996-01-01

    Four rpoD hybridizing signals have been identified in the chromosome of Brevibacterium lactofermentum. Two rpoD-like genes, sigA and sigB, have been cloned and sequenced, and they encode principal sigma factors of the RNA polymerase. The deduced amino acid sequences of SigA and SigB showed very high similarities to those of Mycobacterium smegmatis MysA and MysB proteins, respectively, and also to those of HrdB proteins from different Streptomyces species. SigA and SigB maintain the conserved ...

  10. Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174

    OpenAIRE

    Rattray, F P; Bockelmann, W; Fox, P. F.

    1995-01-01

    An extracellular serine proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 was purified to homogeneity. pH and temperature optima were 8.5 and 50(deg)C, respectively. The results for the molecular mass of the proteinase were 56 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 126 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that the native enzyme exists as a dimer. Mg(sup2+) and Ca(sup2+) activated the proteinase, as did NaCl; however, Hg(sup2+), Fe(sup2+), and Zn(sup2+) caused strong i...

  11. Specificity of an extracellular proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 on bovine alpha s1-casein.

    OpenAIRE

    Rattray, F P; Fox, P. F.; Healy, A.

    1996-01-01

    The specificity of the extracellular proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 on bovine alpha s1-casein was studied. Hydrolysis was monitored over time by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and urea-PAGE. The major pH 4.6-soluble peptides were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry. The time course of peptide formation indicated that His-8-Gln-9, Ser-161-Gly-162, and eithe...

  12. Nucleotide sequence and taxonomical distribution of the bacteriocin gene lin cloned from Brevibacterium linens M18.

    OpenAIRE

    Valdes-Stauber, N; Scherer, S

    1996-01-01

    Linocin M18 is an antilisterial bacteriocin produced by the red smear cheese bacterium Brevibacterium linens M18. Oligonucleotide probes based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence were used to locate its single copy gene, lin, on the chromosomal DNA. The amino acid composition, N-terminal sequence, and molecular mass derived from the nucleotide sequence of an open reading frame of 798 nucleotides coding for 266 amino acids found on a 3-kb BamHI restriction fragment correspond closely to thos...

  13. Enzymes involved in 3,5-diaminohexanoate degradation by Brevibacterium sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, H. A.; Kahn, J. M.; Chew, S

    1980-01-01

    Cell-free extracts of Brevibacterium sp. L5 grown on DL-erythro-3,5-diaminohexanoate were found to contain a 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate cleavage enzyme that converts 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate and acetyl-coenzyme A (CokA) to 3-aminobutyryl-CoA and acetoacetate and a deaminase that coverts L-3-aminobutyryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA. The cleavage enzyme has been purified extensively, and some of its properties have been determined for comparison with the 3-keto-6-acetamido-hexanoate cleavage enzyme of Pseu...

  14. Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Proteinase from Brevibacterium-Linens ATCC-9174

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattray, F P; Bockelmann, W; Fox, P F

    1995-01-01

    An extracellular serine proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 was purified to homogeneity. pH and temperature optima were 8,5 and 50 degrees C, respectively. The results for the molecular mass of the proteinase were 56 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...... and 126 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that the native enzyme exists as a dimer. Mg2+ and Ca2+ activated the proteinase, as did NaCl; however, Hg2+ Fe2+, and Zn2+ caused strong inhibition. The sequence of the first 20 N-terminal amino acids was NH2-Ala-Lys- Asn...

  15. Bioremediation of hexavalent chromate using permeabilized Brevibacterium sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shimei; Ge, Shichao; Zhou, Maohong; Dong, Xinjiao

    2015-07-01

    Bioremediation has been found to be a useful method for removing hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), which is very toxic, from wastewater. Two strains of bacteria that were able to reduce Cr(VI) effectively were isolated from Cr(VI) contaminated soil samples and identified as Brevibacterium sp. K1 and Stenotrophomonas sp. D6, respectively, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. Brevibacterium sp. K1 and Stenotrophomonas sp. D6 could grow in Luria-Broth medium containing K2Cr2O7 at 1000 and 1600 mg/L, respectively, and they completely reduced the Cr(VI) in LB medium containing K2Cr2O7 at 200 mg/L within 72 h. Further analyses revealed that permeabilized K1 and D6 cells reduced Cr(VI) more effectively than did the resting cells. Triton X-100 was the best permeabilizing agent that was tested. The permeabilized cells of both strains could completely reduce Cr(VI) in industrial wastewater twice before needing to be replenished. The results suggested that these chromate-reducing bacteria are potential candidates for practical use biotreating industrial effluents containing Cr(VI) with Stenotrophomonas sp. D6 being the more effective bacterium. PMID:25881152

  16. Teichoic, teichulosonic and teichuronic acids in the cell wall of Brevibacterium aurantiacum VKM Ac-2111(Т).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Potekhina, Natalia V; Senchenkova, Sofya N; Evtushenko, Lyudmila I

    2016-02-01

    Two different teichoic acids, along with a teichulosonic and a teichuronic acids, were identified in the cell wall of Brevibacterium aurantiacum VKM Ac-2111(Т). One teichoic acid is 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate) with 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranose and L-glutamic acid as non-stoichiometric substituents at O-2 of the glycerol residue. The second one is a poly(glycosylglycerol phosphate) with -4)-α-D-Galp-(1 → 2)-sn-Gro-(3-P- and/or -6)-α-D-Galp-(1 → 2)-sn-Gro-(3-P- units in the main chain. The structure of the first has not been reported so far, while the latter one is new for actinobacteria. The teichulosonic acid with α-3-deoxy-β-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulopyranosonic acid (Kdn) and β-D-glucopyranose residues in the backbone represents a novel polymer: → 8)-α-Kdn-(2 → 6)-β-D-Glcp-(1 →. The teichuronic acid has also hitherto unknown structure: → 3)-β-D-Galf(2OAc)0.3-(1 → 3)-β-D-GlcpА-(1 → and is found in members of the genus Brevibacterium for the first time. The polymer structures were elucidated using 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy: (1)H,(1)H COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, (1)H,(13)C HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY, and (1)H,(13)C and (1)H,(31)P HMBC. PMID:26765252

  17. Changes in fatty acid branching and unsaturation of Streptomyces griseus and Brevibacterium fermentans as a response to growth temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Suutari, M; Laakso, S

    1992-01-01

    Streptomyces griseus showed three different modes of changing fatty acids in response to temperature change. In Brevibacterium fermentans, two such responses were found. The responses involved changes in fatty acid branching, unsaturation, or chain length, depending on growth temperature range. Changes in unsaturation of branched-chain acids were characteristic at low growth temperatures.

  18. Optimization of trehalase production by Brevibacterium sp WX-10%短杆菌(Brevibacterium sp WX-10)产酶条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪静; 柏新富; 黄清荣; 董洪新; 屈慧鸽; 卜庆梅

    2004-01-01

    研究了碳源、氮源、无机盐、金属离子等培养基组成和初始pH、通风量、温度等发酵条件对短杆菌(Brevibacterium sp WX-10)产酶的影响,通过正校试验优化得到的产酶培养基组成及发酵条件:蔗糖1%,NaCl 2.5%,牛肉膏0.05%,NaNO3 0.05%,pH 7.5,500 mL三角瓶装培养基50 mL,30℃于220 r/min旋转式摇床上培养72 h.在该培养条件下WX-10产酶量是原培养条件下的1.85倍.

  19. Medium optimization of protease production by Brevibacterium linens DSM 20158, using statistical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Shabbiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Various cultivation parameters were optimized for the production of extra cellular protease by Brevibacterium linens DSM 20158 grown in solid state fermentation conditions using statistical approach. The cultivation variables were screened by the Plackett-Burman design and four significant variables (soybean meal, wheat bran, (NH42SO4 and inoculum size were further optimized via central composite design (CCD using a response surface methodological approach. Using the optimal factors (soybean meal 12.0g, wheat bran 8.50g, (NH42SO4 0.45g and inoculum size 3.50%, the rate of protease production was found to be twofold higher in the optimized medium as compared to the unoptimized reference medium.

  20. Enhanced dibenzothiophene biodesulfurization by immobilized cells of Brevibacterium lutescens in n-octane-water biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yong; Shao, Rong; Qi, Gang; Ding, Bin-Bin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, it was the first report that the Brevibacterium lutescens CCZU12-1 was employed as a sulfur removing bacteria. Using dibenzothiophene (DBT) as the sole sulfur source, B. lutescens could selectively degrade DBT into 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) via the "4S" pathway. In the basal salt medium (BSM) supplemented with 0.25 mM DBT and 0.5 g/L Tween-80, high desulfurization rate (100 %) was obtained by growth cells after 60 h. Furthermore, the n-octane-water (10:90, v/v) biphasic system was built for the biodesulfurization by resting cells. Moreover, a combination of magnetic nano Fe3O4 particles with calcium alginate immobilization was used for enhancing biodesulfurization. In this n-octane-water biphasic system, immobilized B. lutescens cells could be reused for not less than four times. Therefore, B. lutescens CCZU12-1 shows high potential in the biodesulfurization. PMID:25173674

  1. Brevibacterium frigoritolerans as a Novel Organism for the Bioremediation of Phorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyal, Monu; Gupta, V K; Mandal, Kousik; Jindal, Vikas

    2015-11-01

    Phorate, an organophosphorus insecticide, has been found effective for the control of various insect pests. However, it is an extremely hazardous insecticide and causes a potential threat to ecosystem. Bioremediation is a promising approach to degrade the pesticide from the soil. The screening of soil from sugarcane fields resulted in identification of Brevibacterium frigoritolerans, a microorganism with potential for phorate bioremediation was determined. B. frigoritolerans strain Imbl 2.1 resulted in the active metabolization of phorate by between 89.81% and 92.32% from soils amended with phorate at different levels (100, 200, 300 mg kg(-1) soil). But in case of control soil, 33.76%-40.92% degradation were observed. Among metabolites, sulfone was found as the main metabolite followed by sulfoxide. Total phorate residues were not found to follow the first order kinetics. This demonstrated that B. frigoritolerans has potential for bioremediation of phorate both in liquid cultures and agricultural soils. PMID:26205232

  2. Brevibacterium frigoritolerans as a Novel Organism for the Bioremediation of Phorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyal, Monu; Gupta, V K; Mandal, Kousik; Jindal, Vikas

    2015-11-01

    Phorate, an organophosphorus insecticide, has been found effective for the control of various insect pests. However, it is an extremely hazardous insecticide and causes a potential threat to ecosystem. Bioremediation is a promising approach to degrade the pesticide from the soil. The screening of soil from sugarcane fields resulted in identification of Brevibacterium frigoritolerans, a microorganism with potential for phorate bioremediation was determined. B. frigoritolerans strain Imbl 2.1 resulted in the active metabolization of phorate by between 89.81% and 92.32% from soils amended with phorate at different levels (100, 200, 300 mg kg(-1) soil). But in case of control soil, 33.76%-40.92% degradation were observed. Among metabolites, sulfone was found as the main metabolite followed by sulfoxide. Total phorate residues were not found to follow the first order kinetics. This demonstrated that B. frigoritolerans has potential for bioremediation of phorate both in liquid cultures and agricultural soils.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of pAP13, a Large Linear Plasmid of a Brevibacterium Strain Isolated from a Saline Lake at 4,200 Meters above Sea Level in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Dib, J. R.; Schuldes, J.; Thurmer, A.; Farias, M. E.; Daniel, R.; F. Meinhardt

    2013-01-01

    pAP13 is an 89-kb linear plasmid hosted by Brevibacterium sp. strain Ap13, an actinobacterium isolated from the feces of a flamingo from an extremely high-altitude lake in Argentina. Because of the ecological importance of the genus Brevibacterium, the absolute lack of information concerning Brevibacterium linear plasmids, and the possible ecological significance of this unusual plasmid, pAP13 was completely sequenced, including the inversely oriented termini.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of pAP13, a Large Linear Plasmid of a Brevibacterium Strain Isolated from a Saline Lake at 4,200 Meters above Sea Level in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Julian Rafael; Schuldes, Jörg; Thürmer, Andrea; Farias, María E; Daniel, Rolf; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    pAP13 is an 89-kb linear plasmid hosted by Brevibacterium sp. strain Ap13, an actinobacterium isolated from the feces of a flamingo from an extremely high-altitude lake in Argentina. Because of the ecological importance of the genus Brevibacterium, the absolute lack of information concerning Brevibacterium linear plasmids, and the possible ecological significance of this unusual plasmid, pAP13 was completely sequenced, including the inversely oriented termini. PMID:24285657

  5. Biosynthesis of benzoylformic acid from benzoyl cyanide with a new bacterial isolate of Brevibacterium sp. CCZU12-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-Cai; Pan, Xue-He; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Li-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Brevibacterium sp. CCZU12-1 with high nitrilase activity could effectively hydrolyze benzoyl cyanide into benzoylformic acid. After the culture optimization, the preferred carbon sources, nitrogen sources, and inducer were glucose (10 g/L), a composite of peptone (10 g/L) plus yeast extract (2.5 g/L), and ε-caprolactam (2.0 mM), respectively. After the reaction optimization, the optimum reaction temperature, reaction pH, organic cosolvent, and metal ion were 30 °C, 7.0, ethanol (2%, v/v), and Ca(2+) (0.1 mM), respectively. At biotransformation of 120-mM benzoyl cyanide for 24 h, the yield of benzoylformic acid reached 91.8%. Moreover, the microbial nitrilase from Brevibacterium sp. CCZU12-1 could hydrolyze various nitriles, and it significantly exhibited high nitrilase activity against benzoyl cyanide, 3-cyanopyridine, and α-cyclohexyl-mandelonitrile. PMID:24504691

  6. Some enzymatic properties of cholesterol oxidase produced by Brevibacterium sp Algumas propriedades enzimáticas da colesterol oxidase produzida por Brevibacterium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha J.G. Salva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we determined some properties of the cholesterol oxidase from a Brevibacterium strain isolated from buffalo's milk and identified the cholesterol degradation products by the bacterial cell. A small fraction of the enzyme synthesized by cells cultured in liquid medium for 7days was released into the medium whereas a larger fraction remained bound to the cell membrane. The extraction of this fraction was efficiently accomplished in 1 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, containing 0.7% Triton X-100. The enzyme stability under freezing and at 45oC was improved by addition of 20% glycerol. The optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme activity were 53°C and 7.5, respectively. The only steroidal product from cholesterol oxidation by the microbial cell and by the crude extract of the membrane-bound enzyme was 4-colesten-3-one. Chromatographic analysis showed that minor no steroidal compounds as well as 4-colesten-3-one found in the reaction media arose during fermentation process and were extracted together with the enzyme in the buffer solution. Cholesterol oxidation by the membrane-bound enzyme was a first order reaction type.Neste trabalho foram definidas algumas propriedades da enzima colesterol oxidase produzida por uma linhagem de Brevibacterium sp. isolada de leite de búfala e foram identificados os compostos resultantes da degradação do colesterol pela bactéria. Uma pequena fração da enzima sintetizada pelas células cultivadas em meio líquido por 7 dias foi liberada no meio de cultura e uma fração maior permaneceu ligada à membrana celular. A extração desta fração foi eficientemente efetuada em tampão fosfato 1mM, pH 7,0, contendo 0,7% de triton X-100. A estabilidade da enzima congelada e a 45oC foi aumentada pela adição de 20% de glicerol. A temperatura ótima para a atividade enzimática esteve ao redor de 53(0C e o pH ótimo esteve ao redor de 7,5. O único produto da degradação do colesterol, causada pela a

  7. Heterologous production of methionine-γ-lyase from brevibacterium linens in lactococcus lactis and formation of volatile sulfur compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Hanniffy, Sean; Philo, Mark; Peláez, Carmen; Gasson, M. J.; Requena, Teresa; Martínez-Cuesta, M. Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of methionine to volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) is of great importance in flavor formation during cheese ripening and is the focus of biotechnological approaches toward flavor improvement. A synthetic mgl gene encoding methionine-γ-lyase (MGL) from Brevibacterium linens BL2 was cloned into a Lactococcus lactis expression plasmid under the control of the nisin-inducible promoter PnisA. When expressed in L. lactis and purified as a recombinant protein, MGL was shown to degrade ...

  8. Simultaneous Identification of Two Cyclohexanone Oxidation Genes from an Environmental Brevibacterium Isolate Using mRNA Differential Display

    OpenAIRE

    Brzostowicz, Patricia C.; Gibson, Katharine L.; Thomas, Stuart M.; Blasko, Mary Sue; Rouvière, Pierre E.

    2000-01-01

    The technique of mRNA differential display was used to identify simultaneously two metabolic genes involved in the degradation of cyclohexanone in a new halotolerant Brevibacterium environmental isolate. In a strategy based only on the knowledge that cyclohexanone oxidation was inducible in this strain, the mRNA population of cells exposed to cyclohexanone was compared to that of control cells using reverse transcription-PCR reactions primed with a collection of 81 arbitrary oligonucleotides....

  9. Rhizospheric Bacterial Strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a Colonizes Plant Tissues and Enhances Cd, Zn, Cu Phytoextraction by White Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Płociniczak, Tomasz; Sinkkonen, Aki; Romantschuk, Martin; Sułowicz, Sławomir; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn, and Cu uptake ...

  10. Molecular cloning, DNA sequence analysis, and characterization of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae dtxR homolog from Brevibacterium lactofermentum.

    OpenAIRE

    Oguiza, J A; Tao, X; Marcos, A T; Martín, J F; Murphy, J R

    1995-01-01

    A homolog of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae dtxR gene was isolated from Brevibacterium lactofermentum. The product of the B. lactofermentum dtxR gene was immunoreactive with polyclonal anti-DtxR antibodies and functioned as an iron-activated repressor capable of regulating the expression of beta-galactosidase from a diphtheria tox promoter/operator transcriptional fusion in recombinant Escherichia coli. The extents of induction by increasing concentrations of the chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl were...

  11. Purification and characterization of R-stereospecific amidase from Brevibacterium epidermidis ZJB-07021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Li-Tao; Zheng, Ren-Chao; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2016-05-01

    A R-stereospecific amidase was purified from Brevibacterium epidermidis ZJB-07021 and characterized in detail. The amidase was purified to homogeneity by three chromatographic steps for up to 328.9-fold with specific activity of 31.9 U mg(-1). The enzyme was a homodimer with a molecular mass of 94 kDa. It exhibited maximum activity at 40 °C and pH 7.5. The enzyme was strongly inactivated by serine protease inhibitor PMSF. The values of Km and Vmax for racemic 2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxamide (DMCPCA) were 4.58 mM and 35.03 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively. The amidase showed a broad substrate spectrum toward aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic amides, but could hardly hydrolyze the bulky side-chain-containing amides. Furthermore, kinetic resolution of racemic DMCPCA by the amidase afforded S-DMCPCA in 46.3% yield and 99% ee with an average E-value of 67. These unique properties of the amidase imply that it is a promising biocatalyst for the production of chiral amides and carboxylic acids. PMID:26868191

  12. Growth characteristics of Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Microbacterium, and Staphylococcus spp. isolated from surface-ripened cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, Jérôme; Rea, Mary C; O'Connor, Paula M; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cogan, Timothy M

    2007-12-01

    The growth characteristics of five bacteria, Brevibacterium aurantiacum 1-16-58, Corynebacterium casei DPC 5298(T), Corynebacterium variabile DPC 5310, Microbacterium gubbeenense DPC 5286(T), and Staphylococcus saprophyticus 4E61, all of which were isolated from the surface of smear cheese, were studied in complex and chemically defined media. All of the coryneforms, except M. gubbeenense, grew in 12% salt, while B. aurantiacum and S. saprophyticus grew in 15% salt. All five bacteria assimilated lactate in a semisynthetic medium, and none of the coryneform bacteria assimilated lactose. Glucose assimilation was poor, except by S. saprophyticus and C. casei. Five to seven amino acids were assimilated by the coryneforms and 12 by S. saprophyticus. Glutamate, phenylalanine, and proline were utilized by all five bacteria, whereas utilization of serine, threonine, aspartate, histidine, alanine, arginine, leucine, isoleucine, and glycine depended on the organism. Growth of C. casei restarted after addition of glutamate, proline, serine, and lactate at the end of the exponential phase, indicating that these amino acids and lactate can be used as energy sources. Pantothenic acid was essential for the growth of C. casei and M. gubbeenense. Omission of biotin reduced the growth of B. aurantiacum, C. casei, and M. gubbeenense. All of the bacteria contained lactate dehydrogenase activity (with both pyruvate and lactate as substrates) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase activity but not urease activity.

  13. New cyclic tetrapeptide from the coral-derived endophytic bacteria Brevibacterium sp. L-4 collected from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Xin; Guo, Qiong; Peng, Guang-Tian; He, Xi-Xin; Chen, Xiao-Jie; Lei, Ling-Fang; Deng, Yun; Jun Su, Xian; Zhang, Cui-Xian

    2016-01-01

    One new cyclic tetrapeptide cyclic-(Tyr-Ala-Leu-Ser) (1) along with four natural compounds firstly obtained 3H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid (2), 2-methyl-3H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid (3), 3-ethylidene-6-isopropyl-piperazine-2,5-dione (4), and 3-isobutylidene-6-methyl piperazine-2,5-dione (5) have been isolated from the coral derived endophytic bacteria Brevibacterium sp. L-4 collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated through spectroscopic techniques including NMR (1D and 2D), MS, and EA, and their relative configurations were also assigned by NMR analysis. PMID:26214049

  14. Influence of Oxygen and pH on Methanethiol Production from l-Methionine by Brevibacterium linens CNRZ 918

    OpenAIRE

    Ferchichi, Mohamed; Hemme, Denis; Bouillanne, Christian

    1986-01-01

    The effects of dissolved oxygen concentration and pH on the growth of Brevibacterium linens CNRZ 918 and its production of methanethiol from l-methionine were investigated. Optimal specific methanethiol production was obtained at 25% saturation of dissolved oxygen and at a pH between 8 and 9, whereas optimal cell growth occurred at 50% oxygen saturation and when the pH was maintained constantly at 7. Methanethiol production by nonproliferating bacteria required the presence of l-methionine (7...

  15. Mining and characterization of two amidase signature family amidases from Brevibacterium epidermidis ZJB-07021 by an efficient genome mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Li-Tao; Zheng, Ren-Chao; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Amidases have received increasing attention for their significant potential in the production of valuable carboxylic acids. In this study, two amidases belonging to amidase signature family (BeAmi2 and BeAmi4) were identified and mined from genomic DNA of Brevibacterium epidermidis ZJB-07021 by an efficient strategy combining comparative analysis of genomes and identification of unknown region by high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (HiTAIL-PCR). The deduced amino acid sequences of BeAmi2 and BeAmi4 showed low identity (derivatives. PMID:27180252

  16. Co-expression of five genes in E coli for L-phenylalanine in Brevibacterium fiavum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qing Wu; Pei-Hong Jiang; Chang-Sheng Fan; Jian-Gang Wang; Liang Shang; Wei-Da Huang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of co-expression of ppsA, pckA,aroG, pheA and tyrB genes on the production of L-phenylalanine, and to construct a genetic engineering strainfor L-phenylalanine.METHODS: ppsA and pckA genes were amplified fromgenomic DNA of E. coli by polymerase chain reaction, andthen introduced into shuttle vectors between E coli andBrevibacterium flavumto generate constructs pJN2 and pJN5.pJN2 was generated by inserting ppsA and pckA genes intovector pCZ; whereas pJN5 was obtained by introducing ppsAand pckA genes into pCZ-GAB, which was originallyconstructed for co-expression of aroG, pheA and tyrB genes.The recombinant plasmids were then introduced into B.flavum by electroporation and the transformants were usedfor L-phenylalanine fermentation.RESULTS: Compared with the original B. flavum cells, all the transformants were showed to have increased five enzyme activities specifically, and have enhanced Lphenylalanine biosynthesis ability variably. pJN5 transformant was observed to have the highest elevation of Lphenylalanine production by a 3.4-fold. Co-expression of ppsA and pckA increased activity of DAHP synthetase significantly.CONCLUSION: Co-expression of ppsA and pckA genes in B. flavum could remarkably increase the expression of DAHP synthetase; Co-expression of ppsA, pckA, aroG, pheA and tyrB of E. coli in B. flavum was a feasible approach toconstruct a strain for phenylalanine production.

  17. Structural analysis of a novel cyclohexylamine oxidase from Brevibacterium oxydans IH-35A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ahmad Mirza

    Full Text Available Cyclohexylamine oxidase (CHAO is a flavoprotein first described in Brevibacterium oxydans strain IH-35A that carries out the initial step of the degradation of the industrial chemical cyclohexylamine to cyclohexanone. We have cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli the CHAO-encoding gene (chaA from B. oxydans, purified CHAO and determined the structures of both the holoenzyme form of the enzyme and a product complex with cyclohexanone. CHAO is a 50 kDa monomer with a PHBH fold topology. It belongs to the flavin monooxygenase family of enzymes and exhibits high substrate specificity for alicyclic amines and sec-alkylamines. The overall structure is similar to that of other members of the flavin monooxygenase family, but lacks either of the C- or N-terminal extensions observed in these enzymes. Active site features of the flavin monooxygenase family are conserved in CHAO, including the characteristic aromatic cage. Differences in the orientations of residues of the CHAO aromatic cage result in a substrate-binding site that is more open than those of its structural relatives. Since CHAO has a buried hydrophobic active site with no obvious route for substrates and products, a random acceleration molecular dynamics simulation has been used to identify a potential egress route. The path identified includes an intermediate cavity and requires transient conformation changes in a shielding loop and a residue at the border of the substrate-binding cavity. These results provide a foundation for further studies with CHAO aimed at identifying features determining substrate specificity and for developing the biocatalytic potential of this enzyme.

  18. The Production of Cholesterol Oxidase by Brevibacterium sp.DGCDC-82 in Fermentor%Brevibacterium sp.DGCDC-82发酵罐中生产胆固醇氧化酶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王龙刚; 吕陈峰; 杨海麟; 王武

    2003-01-01

    Brevibacterium sp.DGCDC-82在7 L发酵罐中分批培养.分别对添加剂吐温-80、培养温度、培养基的pH、通风量和搅拌速度在胆固醇氧化酶的生产中的影响进行了研究.结果显示以上条件均对产酶有影响.在不同的发酵阶段改变发酵操作条件,发酵20 h最高酶活可达1 203U/L,生产强度可达60 U/(L·h).既有效地提高了胆固醇氧化酶的产量,又防止了发酵过程中的泡沫外溢.

  19. Production of (R)-Mandelic Acid by Asymmetric Degradation of the Racemate with Brevibacterium sp. CCSYU10011%微生物短杆菌(Brevibacterium sp.)选择性降解制备(R)-扁桃酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 徐岩

    2006-01-01

    以外消旋扁桃酸为底物,筛选出一株短杆菌Brevibacterium sp. CCSYU 10011,该菌能转化外消旋扁桃酸为(R)-扁桃酸. 用全细胞转化法研究发现,其转化过程是不对称降解过程,即选择性降解了(S)-扁桃酸,进而获得(R)-扁桃酸. 考察了温度、pH、底物浓度及细胞量等因素对(S)-扁桃酸降解的影响,转化结束后,收率为48.7%,对映体过量值(e.e.)可达99%.

  20. Étude de Brevibacterium aurantiacum, une bactérie d'affinage de fromage : de son métabolisme du soufre à son interaction avec Kluyveromyces lactis

    OpenAIRE

    Forquin, Marie-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study a cheese-ripening bacterium: Brevibacterium aurantiacum (BA). Molecular tools were developed to study the biodiversity of the genus Brevibacterium. The MLST approach with 9 housekeeping genes is a promising new tool for identifying Brevibacteriaceae. We have found a new species belonging to the strains of technological interest: B. antiquum. Using DNA microarray, the results show that 13% and 15% of the genome sequenced strain ATCC 9174 are absent and /...

  1. Phenylalanine biosynthesis in Brevibacterium lactofermentum using Escherichia coli genes pheA, aroG and tyrB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Genetic engineering technology to increase the production of L-phenylalanine was used in the study.Three genes encoding the key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of L-phenylalanine were utilized, in which the gene aroG encodes 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthetase (DS); the gene pheA encodes bifunctional enzyme of chorisate mutase (CM) and prephenate dehydratase (PD); and the gene tyrb encodes aminotransferase (AT).The three genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the genome of the E. coli mutant strains resistant to fluro-DL-phenylalanine and inserted into the cloning vectors. Then, they were expressed in E. coli and Brevibacterium lactofermentum in a tandem arrangement. The expressed enzymes had high activities in the host cells.

  2. Simultaneous identification of two cyclohexanone oxidation genes from an environmental Brevibacterium isolate using mRNA differential display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzostowicz, P C; Gibson, K L; Thomas, S M; Blasko, M S; Rouvière, P E

    2000-08-01

    The technique of mRNA differential display was used to identify simultaneously two metabolic genes involved in the degradation of cyclohexanone in a new halotolerant Brevibacterium environmental isolate. In a strategy based only on the knowledge that cyclohexanone oxidation was inducible in this strain, the mRNA population of cells exposed to cyclohexanone was compared to that of control cells using reverse transcription-PCR reactions primed with a collection of 81 arbitrary oligonucleotides. Three DNA fragments encoding segments of flavin monooxygenases were isolated with this technique, leading to the identification of the genes of two distinct cyclohexanone monooxygenases, the enzymes responsible for the oxidation of cyclohexanone. Each monooxygenase was expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. This work validates the application of mRNA differential display for the discovery of new microbial metabolic genes.

  3. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided.

  4. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided. PMID:27030978

  5. Brevibacterium metallicus sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from roots of Prosopis laegivata grown at the edge of a mine tailing in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Ponce, Brenda; Li, Yong Hua; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Feng; Estrada-de Los Santos, Paulina; Wang, En Tao

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile strain, NM2E3(T) was identified as Brevibacterium based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and had the highest similarities to Brevibacterium jeotgali SJ5-8(T) (97.3 %). This novel bacterium was isolated from root tissue of Prosopis laegivata grown at the edge of a mine tailing in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Its cells were non-spore-forming rods, showing catalase and oxidase activities and were able to grow in LB medium added with 40 mM Cu(2+), 72 mM As(5+) and various other toxic elements. Anteiso-C15:0 (41.6 %), anteiso-C17:0 (30 %) and iso-C15:0 (9.5 %) were the major fatty acids. MK-8(H2) (88.4 %) and MK-7(H2) (11.6 %) were the major menaquinones. The DNA G + C content of the strain NM2E3(T) was 70.8 mol % (Tm). DNA-DNA hybridization showed that the strain NM2E3(T) had 39.8, 21.7 and 20.3 % relatedness with B. yomogidense JCM 17779(T), B. jeotgali JCM 18571(T) and B. salitolerans TRM 45(T), respectively. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic analyses, the strain NM2E3(T) (=CCBAU 101093(T) = HAMBI 3627(T) = LMG 8673(T)) is reported as a novel species of the genus Brevibacterium, for which the name Brevibacterium metallicus sp. nov., is proposed. PMID:26429721

  6. Improvement of an l-Leucine-Producing Mutant of Brevibacterium lactofermentum 2256 by Genetically Desensitizing It to α-Acetohydroxy Acid Synthetase

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchida, Takayasu; Momose,Haruo

    1986-01-01

    Genetic improvement of l-leucine productivity in strain 218, an ile− 2-thiazolealanine-resistant mutant of Brevibacterium lactofermentum 2256, was attempted. In strain 218, which produced 28 mg of l-leucine per ml from 13% glucose, α-isopropylmalate synthetase was genetically desensitized and derepressed to the effect of l-leucine, whereas α-acetohydroxy acid synthetase remained unaltered, although it could be derepressed phenotypically by limiting the isoleucine concentration in the culture....

  7. The first reported catheter-related Brevibacterium casei bloodstream infection in a child with acute leukemia and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Zumrut Sahbudak; Sen, Semra; Karapinar, Deniz Yilmaz; Aydemir, Sohret; Vardar, Fadil

    2015-01-01

    Brevibacterium spp. are catalase-positive, non-spore-forming, non motile, aerobic Gram-positive rods that were considered apathogenic until a few reports of infections in immunocompromised patients had been published. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of B. casei catheter-related bloodstream infection in a child with acute leukemia. We aim to enhance the awareness of pediatric hematology and infectious disease specialists about this pathogen and review of the literature. PMID:25636191

  8. Construction of a Xylanase-Producing Strain of Brevibacterium lactofermentum by Stable Integration of an Engineered xysA Gene from Streptomyces halstedii JM8

    OpenAIRE

    Adham, Sirin A.I.; Campelo, Ana B.; Ramos, Angelina; Gil, José A.

    2001-01-01

    A xylanolytic strain of Brevibacterium lactofermentum containing the Streptomyces halstedii His-tagged xysA gene was generated. The new strain contains DNA derived from S. halstedii, expresses xylanolytic activity, and was obtained by an integrative process mediated by a conjugative plasmid targeted to a dispensable chromosomal region located downstream from the essential cell division gene ftsZ. The His-tagged Xys1 enzyme was constitutively expressed under the control of the kan promoter fro...

  9. Degradation of fluorene by Brevibacterium sp. strain DPO 1361: a novel C-C bond cleavage mechanism via 1,10-dihydro-1,10-dihydroxyfluoren-9-one

    OpenAIRE

    Trenz, Stefan Peter; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich; Fischer, Peter; Knackmuss, Hans-Joachim

    1994-01-01

    Angular dioxygenation has been established as the crucial step in dibenzofuran degradation by Brevibacterium sp. strain DPO 1361 (V. Strubel, K. H. Engesser, P. Fischer, and H.-J. Knackmuss, J. Bacteriol. 173:1932-1937, 1991). The same strain utilizes biphenyl and fluorene as sole sources of carbon and energy. The fluorene degradation sequence is proposed to be initiated by oxidation of the fluorene methylene group to 9-fluorenol. Cells grown on fluorene exhibit pronounced 9-fluorenol dehydro...

  10. Purification, cloning, and primary structure of an enantiomer-selective amidase from Brevibacterium sp. strain R312: structural evidence for genetic coupling with nitrile hydratase.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayaux, J F; Cerebelaud, E; Soubrier, F.; Faucher, D; Pétré, D

    1990-01-01

    An enantiomer-selective amidase active on several 2-aryl and 2-aryloxy propionamides was identified and purified from Brevibacterium sp. strain R312. Oligonucleotide probes were designed from limited peptide sequence information and were used to clone the corresponding gene, named amdA. Highly significant homologies were found at the amino acid level between the deduced sequence of the enantiomer-selective amidase and the sequences of known amidases such as indoleacetamide hydrolases from Pse...

  11. 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)catechol as substrate for proximal meta ring cleavage in dibenzofuran degradation by Brevibacterium sp. strain DPO 1361.

    OpenAIRE

    Strubel, Volker; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich; Fischer, Peter; Knackmuss, Hans-Joachim

    1991-01-01

    Brevibacterium sp. strain DPO 1361 oxygenates dibenzofuran in the unusual angular position. The 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)catechol thus generated is subject to meta ring cleavage in the proximal position, yielding 2-hydroxy-6-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2,4-hexadienoic acid, which is hydrolyzed to 2-oxo-4-pentenoate and salicylate by 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenyl-2,4-hexadienoic acid hydrolase. The proximal mode of ring cleavage is definitely established by isolation and unequivocal structural characterizati...

  12. Brevibacterium metallicus sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from roots of Prosopis laegivata grown at the edge of a mine tailing in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Ponce, Brenda; Li, Yong Hua; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Feng; Estrada-de Los Santos, Paulina; Wang, En Tao

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile strain, NM2E3(T) was identified as Brevibacterium based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and had the highest similarities to Brevibacterium jeotgali SJ5-8(T) (97.3 %). This novel bacterium was isolated from root tissue of Prosopis laegivata grown at the edge of a mine tailing in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Its cells were non-spore-forming rods, showing catalase and oxidase activities and were able to grow in LB medium added with 40 mM Cu(2+), 72 mM As(5+) and various other toxic elements. Anteiso-C15:0 (41.6 %), anteiso-C17:0 (30 %) and iso-C15:0 (9.5 %) were the major fatty acids. MK-8(H2) (88.4 %) and MK-7(H2) (11.6 %) were the major menaquinones. The DNA G + C content of the strain NM2E3(T) was 70.8 mol % (Tm). DNA-DNA hybridization showed that the strain NM2E3(T) had 39.8, 21.7 and 20.3 % relatedness with B. yomogidense JCM 17779(T), B. jeotgali JCM 18571(T) and B. salitolerans TRM 45(T), respectively. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic analyses, the strain NM2E3(T) (=CCBAU 101093(T) = HAMBI 3627(T) = LMG 8673(T)) is reported as a novel species of the genus Brevibacterium, for which the name Brevibacterium metallicus sp. nov., is proposed.

  13. Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive sulfonated azo dyes by a newly isolated Brevibacterium sp. strain VN-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciscon, Elisangela; Grossman, Matthew James; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato; Reyes, Felix Guillermo Reyes; Durrant, Lucia Regina

    2012-12-01

    Azo dyes constitute the largest and most versatile class of synthetic dyes used in the textile, pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries and represent major components in wastewater from these industrial dying processes. Biological decolorization of azo dyes occurs efficiently under low oxygen to anaerobic conditions. However, this process results in the formation of toxic and carcinogenic amines that are resistant to further detoxification under low oxygen conditions. Moreover, the ability to detoxify these amines under aerobic conditions is not a wide spread metabolic activity. In this study we describe the use of Brevibacterium sp. strain VN-15, isolated from an activated sludge process of a textile company, for the sequential decolorization and detoxification of the azo dyes Reactive Yellow 107 (RY107), Reactive Black 5 (RB5), Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Direct Blue 71 (DB71). Tyrosinase activity was observed during the biotreatment process suggesting the role of this enzyme in the decolorization and degradation process, but no-activity was observed for laccase and peroxidase. Toxicity, measured using Daphnia magna, was completely eliminated.

  14. Interaction between phage BFK20 helicase gp41 and its host Brevibacterium flavum primase DnaG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solteszova, Barbora; Halgasova, Nora; Bukovska, Gabriela

    2015-01-22

    Protein-protein interactions have been identified between the replication proteins of corynephage BFK20 and its host Brevibacterium flavum CCM 251. We tested the interactions between phage proteins gp40, gp41, gp42, gp43 and gp44 and between these phage proteins and host replication proteins DnaZX, DnaN, Dnaδ, DnaG, DnaA, RecF, TrxC, TrxB1 and SSB using a bacterial two-hybrid system. Phage proteins gp41, gp42 and gp43 self-associated, demonstrating that these proteins are oligomers in vivo. Interactions were also detected between phage protein gp41 and host proteins DnaZX, DnaN, Dnaδ, DnaG and SSB. β-galactosidase activity measurements showed that the strongest interaction was between gp41 and DnaG. The interaction was studied further using 2-dimensional blue native SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis. PMID:25463056

  15. Studies on a microbial exopolysaccharide produced by Brevibacterium viscogenes 74-230 as a drilling mud additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; (Inst. of Microbiology, Beijing, China); Cui, W.; Liu, X.; Zhang, K.; Liu, Y.; Li, L.

    1982-10-01

    A new drilling mud additive produced as a microbial exopolysaccharide by Brevibacterium viscogenes 74-230 from a heavy liquid paraffin is discussed. Addition of the surfactants of Tweens or Span-80 to the medium can promote polysaccharide biosynthesis, but penicillin G and potassium ion has no advantageous effects on it. Corn steep liquor can be used as a substitute of yeast extract, but with poorer results. After removal of cells by centrifugation, over 12g/l of polysaccharide can be obtained by ethanol precipitation, at a conversion rate based on liquid paraffin in excess of 40%. Its rheological property, shear thinning effect, water loss, sensitivity to salts as well to as temperature, etc. are determined and compared with xanthan, partially hydrolysis polyacrylamide and carboxylmethylcellulose. The results indicate that the properties of this polysaccharide as a drilling mud additive are almost comparable with those of xanthan, and far better than those of the other two. It is noteworthy that this polysaccharide is produced from crude oil or its product, while xanthan is from carbohydrate. Field experiments are still going on.

  16. Production and properties of a surface-active lipopeptide produced by a new marine Brevibacterium luteolum strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, W F D; Fonseca, S G; Fantinatti-Garboggini, F; Oliveira, V M; Nitschke, M

    2014-11-01

    Microbial-derived surfactants are molecules of great interest due to their environmentally friendly nature and low toxicity; however, their production cost is not competitive when compared to synthetics. Marine microorganisms are exposed to extremes of pressure, temperature, and salinity; hence, they can produce stable compounds under such conditions that are useful for industrial applications. A screening program to select marine bacteria able to produce biosurfactant using low-cost substrates (mineral oil, sucrose, soybean oil, and glycerol) was conducted. The selected bacterial strain showed potential to synthesize biosurfactants using mineral oil as carbon source and was identified as Brevibacterium luteolum. The surface-active compound reduced the surface tension of water to 27 mN m(-1) and the interfacial tension (water/hexadecane) to 0.84 mN m(-1) and showed a critical micelle concentration of 40 mg L(-1). The biosurfactant was stable over a range of temperature, pH, and salt concentration and the emulsification index (E24) with different hydrocarbons ranging from 60 to 79 %. Structural characterization revealed that the biosurfactant has a lipopeptide nature. Sand washing removed 83 % of crude oil demonstrating the potential of the biosurfactants (BS) for bioremediation purposes. The new marine B. luteolum strain showed potential to produce high surface-active and stable molecule using a low-cost substrate. PMID:25173677

  17. Growth enhancement of the halotolerant Brevibacterium sp. JCM 6894 by methionine externally added to a chemically defined medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Haruo

    2014-01-01

    We examined amino acid requirements for the growth of the halotolerant Brevibacterium sp. JCM 6894 in the absence and presence of 1.2 M NaCl in a chemically defined medium. The experiment was also carried out in the presence of 1.2 M KCl. As a result, growth was highly enhanced by methionine in the absence and presence of KCl as well as NaCl up to 1.2 M. However, growth in the presence of 150 mM methionine was repressed by leucine (up to 100 mM)and valine (up to 100 mM). Concentration-dependent growth inhibition was observed in the presence of isoleucine (up to 150 mM) and threonine (up to 300 mM). When the cells were incubated in the absence of externally added K+, growth was strongly repressed, even in the presence of 150 mM methionine. The growth, however, recovered drastically by the addition of 1 mM KCl, regardless of the presence and absence of 1.2 M NaCl. These results indicate that methionine, which seems to be symported into cytoplasm with K+, plays an important role in the growth of the strain under salt stress. PMID:25252648

  18. A novel amidase from Brevibacterium epidermidis ZJB-07021: gene cloning, refolding and application in butyrylhydroxamic acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Li-Tao; Zheng, Ren-Chao; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-08-01

    A novel amidase gene (bami) was cloned from Brevibacterium epidermidis ZJB-07021 by combination of degenerate PCR and high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (hiTAIL-PCR). The deduced amino acid sequence showed low identity (≤55 %) with other reported amidases. The bami gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the resultant inclusion bodies were refolded and purified to homogeneity with a recovery of 22.6 %. Bami exhibited a broad substrate spectrum towards aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic amides, and showed the highest acyl transfer activity towards butyramide with specific activity of 1331.0 ± 24.0 U mg(-1). Kinetic analysis demonstrated that purified Bami exhibited high catalytic efficiency (414.9 mM(-1) s(-1)) for acyl transfer of butyramide, with turnover number (K cat) of 3569.0 s(-1). Key parameters including pH, substrate/co-substrate concentration, reaction temperature and catalyst loading were investigated and the Bami showed maximum acyl transfer activity at 50 °C, pH 7.5. Enzymatic catalysis of 200 mM butyramide with 15 μg mL(-1) purified Bami was completed in 15 min with a BHA yield of 88.1 % under optimized conditions. The results demonstrated the great potential of Bami for the production of a variety of hydroxamic acids. PMID:27276936

  19. Influence of oxygen and pH on methanethiol production from L-methionine by Brevibacterium lines CNRZ 918

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferchichi, M.; Hemme, D.; Bouillanne, C.

    1986-04-01

    The effects of dissolved oxygen concentration and pH on the growth of Brevibacterium linens CNRZ 918 and its production of methanethiol from L-methionine were investigated. Optimal specific methanethiol production was obtained at 25% saturation of dissolved oxygen and at a pH between 8 and 9, whereas optimal cell growth occurred at 50% oxygen saturation and when the pH was maintained constantly at 7. Methanethiol production by nonproliferating bacteria required the presence of L-methionine (7 mM) in the culture medium. This was probably due to the induction of enzyme systems involved in the process. The intracellular concentration of L-methionine seemed to play a key role in this process. B. linens CNRZ 918 tolerated alkaline pHs with a maximal growth pH of approximately 9. Its orange pigmentation seemed to depend on the presence of L-methionine in the culture medium and on the concentration of dissolved oxygen.

  20. An investigation into membrane bound redox carriers involved in energy transduction mechanism in Brevibacterium linens DSM 20158 with unsequenced genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbiri, Khadija; Botting, Catherine H; Adnan, Ahmad; Fuszard, Matthew; Naseem, Shahid; Ahmed, Safeer; Shujaat, Shahida; Syed, Quratulain; Ahmad, Waqar

    2014-04-01

    Brevibacterium linens (B. linens) DSM 20158 with an unsequenced genome can be used as a non-pathogenic model to study features it has in common with other unsequenced pathogens of the same genus on the basis of comparative proteome analysis. The most efficient way to kill a pathogen is to target its energy transduction mechanism. In the present study, we have identified the redox protein complexes involved in the electron transport chain of B. linens DSM 20158 from their clear homology with the shot-gun genome sequenced strain BL2 of B. linens by using the SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with nano LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry. B. linens is found to have a branched electron transport chain (Respiratory chain), in which electrons can enter the respiratory chain either at NADH (Complex I) or at Complex II level or at the cytochrome level. Moreover, we are able to isolate, purify, and characterize the membrane bound Complex II (succinate dehydrogenase), Complex III (menaquinone cytochrome c reductase cytochrome c subunit, Complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase), and Complex V (ATP synthase) of B. linens strain DSM 20158. PMID:24573306

  1. Improvement of L-valine production at high temperature in Brevibacterium flavum by overexpressing ilvEBNrC genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaohu; Ge, Xiangyang; Wu, Di; Qian, He; Zhang, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    Brevibacterium flavum ATCC14067 was engineered for L: -valine production by overexpression of different ilv genes; the ilvEBN(r)C genes from B. flavum NV128 provided the best candidate for L: -valine production. In traditional fermentation, L: -valine production reached 30.08 ± 0.92 g/L at 31°C in 72 h with a low conversion efficiency of 0.129 g/g. To further improve the L: -valine production and conversion efficiency based on the optimum temperatures of L: -valine biosynthesis enzymes (above 35°C) and the thermotolerance of B. flavum, the fermentation temperature was increased to 34, 37, and 40°C. As a result, higher metabolic rate and L: -valine biosynthesis enzymes activity were obtained at high temperature, and the maximum L: -valine production, conversion efficiency, and specific L: -valine production rate reached 38.08 ± 1.32 g/L, 0.241 g/g, and 0.133 g g(-1) h(-1), respectively, at 37°C in 48 h fermentation. The strategy for enhancing L: -valine production by overexpression of key enzymes in thermotolerant strains may provide an alternative approach to enhance branched-chain amino acids production with other strains.

  2. Biosynthetic preparation of L-(/sup 13/C)- and (/sup 15/N)glutamate by Brevibacterium flavum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, T.E.; London, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The biosynthesis of isotopically labeled L-glutamic acid by the microorganism Brevibacterium flavum was studied with a variety of carbon-13-enriched precursors. The purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to develop techniques for the efficient preparation of labeled L-glutamate with a variety of useful labeling patterns which can be used for other metabolic studies, and (ii) to better understand the metabolic events leading to label scrambling in these strains. B. flavum, which is used commercially for the production of monosodium glutamate, has the capability of utilizing glucose or acetate as a sole carbon source, and important criterion from the standpoint of developing labeling strategies. Unfortunately, singly labeled glucose precursors lead to excessive isotopic dilution which reduces their usefulness. Studies with (3-/sup 13/C)pyruvate indicate that this problem can in principle be overcome by using labeled three-carbon precursors; however, conditions could not be found which would lead to an acceptable yield of isotopically labeled L-glutamate. In contrast, (1-/sup 13/C)- or (2-/sup 13/C)acetate provides relatively inexpensive, readily available precursors for the production of selectively labeled, high enriched L-glutamate. The preparation of L-(/sup 15/N)glutamate from (/sup 15/N)ammonium sulfate was carried out and is a very effective labeling strategy. Analysis of the isotopic distribution in labeled glutamate provides details about the metabolic pathways in these interesting organisms.

  3. Simultaneous chromate reduction and azo dye decolourization by Brevibacterium casei: Azo dye as electron donor for chromate reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromate [Cr(VI)] and azo dyes are common pollutants which may co-exist in some industrial effluents. Hence studies of biological treatment of industrial wastewater should include investigation of the co-removal of these two pollutants. Brevibacterium casei, which can reduce Cr(VI) in the presence of the azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) under nutrient-limiting condition, was isolated from a sewage sludge sample of a dyeing factory. Response surface methodology, which is commonly used to optimize growth conditions for food microorganisms to maximize product(s) yield, was used to determine the optimal conditions for chromate reduction and dye decolourization by B. casei. The optimal conditions were 0.24 g/L glucose, 3.0 g/L (NH4)2SO4 and 0.2 g/L peptone at pH 7 and 35 deg. C. The predicted maximum chromate reduction efficiencies and dye decolourization were 83.4 ± 0.6 and 40.7 ± 1.7%, respectively. A new mechanism was proposed for chromate reduction coupling with AO7 decolourization by B. casei. Under nutrient-limiting condition, AO7 was used as an e- donor by the reduction enzyme(s) of B. casei for the reduction of Cr(VI). The resulted Cr(III) then complexed with the oxidized AO7 to form a purple coloured intermediate.

  4. Simultaneous chromate reduction and azo dye decolourization by Brevibacterium casei: Azo dye as electron donor for chromate reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Tsz Wai; Cai Qinhong [Department of Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong); Wong, Chong-Kim [Department of Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong); Environmental Science Programme, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong); Chow, Alex T. [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Clemson University, SC 29634 (United States); Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Clemson University, SC 29634 (United States); Wong, Po-Keung, E-mail: pkwong@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong); Environmental Science Programme, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong)

    2010-10-15

    Chromate [Cr(VI)] and azo dyes are common pollutants which may co-exist in some industrial effluents. Hence studies of biological treatment of industrial wastewater should include investigation of the co-removal of these two pollutants. Brevibacterium casei, which can reduce Cr(VI) in the presence of the azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) under nutrient-limiting condition, was isolated from a sewage sludge sample of a dyeing factory. Response surface methodology, which is commonly used to optimize growth conditions for food microorganisms to maximize product(s) yield, was used to determine the optimal conditions for chromate reduction and dye decolourization by B. casei. The optimal conditions were 0.24 g/L glucose, 3.0 g/L (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.2 g/L peptone at pH 7 and 35 deg. C. The predicted maximum chromate reduction efficiencies and dye decolourization were 83.4 {+-} 0.6 and 40.7 {+-} 1.7%, respectively. A new mechanism was proposed for chromate reduction coupling with AO7 decolourization by B. casei. Under nutrient-limiting condition, AO7 was used as an e{sup -} donor by the reduction enzyme(s) of B. casei for the reduction of Cr(VI). The resulted Cr(III) then complexed with the oxidized AO7 to form a purple coloured intermediate.

  5. Catabolism of volatile sulfur compounds precursors by Brevibacterium linens and Geotrichum candidum, two microorganisms of the cheese ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfi, Kenza; Amárita, Felix; Spinnler, Henry-Eric; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2003-11-01

    Two Brevibacterium linens strains and the cheese-ripening yeast Geotrichum candidum were compared with regard to their ability to produce volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) from three different precursors namely L-methionine, 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (KMBA) and 4-methylthio-2-hydroxybutyric acid (HMBA). All microorganisms were able to convert these precursors to VSCs. However, although all were able to produce VSCs from L-methionine, only G. candidum accumulated KMBA when cultivated on this amino acid, contrary to B. linens suggesting that the transamination pathway is not active in this microorganism. Conversely, a L-methionine gamma-lyase activity--which catalyses the one step L-methionine to methanethiol (MTL) degradation route--was only found in B. linens strains. Several other enzymatic activities involved in the catabolism of the precursors tested were investigated. KMBA transiently accumulated in G. candidum cultures, and was then reduced to HMBA by a KMBA dehydrogenase (KDH) activity. This activity was not detected in B. linens. Despite no HMBA dehydrogenase (HDH) was found in G. candidum, a strong HMBA oxidase (HOX) activity was measured in this microorganism. This latter activity was weakly active in B. linens. KMBA and HMBA demethiolating activities were found in all the microorganisms. Our results illustrate the metabolic diversity between cheese-ripening microorganisms of the cheese ecosystem.

  6. 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)catechol as substrate for proximal meta ring cleavage in dibenzofuran degradation by Brevibacterium sp. strain DPO 1361

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strubel, V.; Engesser, K.H.; Fischer, P.; Knackmuss, H.J. (Univ. Stuttgart (West Germany))

    1991-03-01

    Dibenzofuran (DBF) has been used in some recent studies as a model compound for investigating the microbial degradation of cyclic biaryl ethers. Public attention has focused on this class of compounds, since it comprises some of the most pernicious and persistent molecules, such as TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). For DBF, the most simple cyclic biaryl ether, a novel degradation mechanism involving angular dioxygenation has been described with 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)catechol (HPC) as a central intermediate. Definite proof for this mechanism is presented in this paper, and the total degradation of DBF by Brevibacterium is described.

  7. Preparation of /sup 14/C-labelled AMP, ADP and ATP from adenine-8-/sup 14/C by using Brevibacterium ammoniagenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, V.N. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.)

    1985-04-01

    High radiochemical yields of /sup 14/C-labelled adenine nucleotides (AMP, 4.6%, ADP, 15.5% and ATP 59.5%) could be obtained by growing the cells of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes in the presence of /sup 14/C-adenine. The specific radioactivity of the adenine nucleotides almost reached that of /sup 14/C-adenine indicating negligible dilution of the label. The procedure is convenient and especially suited for commercial preparation of the radiolabelled nucleotides directly from labelled adenine. Preliminary results indicate that the organism could also be used for the preparation of radiolabelled guanine nucleotides.

  8. Bioconversion of Agricultural By-Products to Lysin by brevibacterium flavum and physico-chemical optimization for hyper-production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poultry and agriculture industry has a great role in the development of food sector in Pakistan. Whole of the Lysine required for poultry feed is imported to fulfil the desired dietary needs. Present study was designed to utilize different agricultural by-products like molasses, wheat bran, rice polishing and corn steep liquor. Different Physico-Chemical parameters were optimized to have hyper-production of Lysine through fermentation by using Brevibacterium flavum as a fermentative agent. From wheat bran, rice polishing and molasses (as best carbon source), significantly high concentrations of lysine (10.4 g/L) after 72h of incubation was observed with molasses (4 percentage) with 3 percentage (v/v) inoculum size at 30 degree C and pH 7. Among different nitrogen sources, 0.25 percentage (NH/sub 4/)2SO/sub 4/ showed significantly (P< 0.05) high yield of Lysine (16.89 g/L). Addition of different optimum levels of ionic salts; 4 percentage CaCO/sub 3/, 0.4 percentage MgSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O, 0.1 percentage NaCl and 0.2 percentage KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ gave significantly (P< 0.05) higher quantity of Lysine 19.01 g/L. Inclusion of 0.6 percentage corn steep liquor and 0.4 mg/100mL biotin significantly (P< 0.05) raised the Lysine from 19.4 g/L - 19.45 g/L. The presence of Lysine in fermented broth was detected by TLC. Thus a cheap and practical bioprocess of Lysine production was concluded, that can be exploited commercially to save foreign exchange. (author)

  9. Rhizospheric Bacterial Strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a Colonizes Plant Tissues and Enhances Cd, Zn, Cu Phytoextraction by White Mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płociniczak, Tomasz; Sinkkonen, Aki; Romantschuk, Martin; Sułowicz, Sławomir; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn, and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%), Zn (86%), and Cu (39%) in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:26909087

  10. Rhizospheric bacterial strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a colonizes plant tissues and enhances Cd, Zn, Cu phytoextraction by white mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz ePłociniczak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants.The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%, Zn (86% and Cu (39% in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  11. (L)-Valine production with minimization of by-products' synthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum and Brevibacterium flavum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaohu; Chen, Xinde; Zhang, Yue; Qian, He; Zhang, Weiguo

    2012-12-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 and Brevibacterium flavum JV16 were engineered for L-valine production by over-expressing ilvEBN ( r ) C genes at 31 °C in 72 h fermentation. Different strategies were carried out to reduce the by-products' accumulation in L-valine fermentation and also to increase the availability of precursor for L-valine biosynthesis. The native promoter of ilvA of C. glutamicum was replaced with a weak promoter MPilvA (P-ilvAM1CG) to reduce the biosynthetic rate of L-isoleucine. Effect of different relative dissolved oxygen on L-valine production and by-products' formation was recorded, indicating that 15 % saturation may be the most appropriate relative dissolved oxygen for L-valine fermentation with almost no L-lactic acid and L-glutamate formed. To minimize L-alanine accumulation, alaT and/or avtA was inactivated in C. glutamicum and B. flavum, respectively. Compared to high concentration of L-alanine accumulated by alaT inactivated strains harboring ilvEBN ( r ) C genes, L-alanine concentration was reduced to 0.18 g/L by C. glutamicum ATCC13032MPilvA△avtA pDXW-8-ilvEBN ( r ) C, and 0.22 g/L by B. flavum JV16avtA::Cm pDXW-8-ilvEBN ( r ) C. Meanwhile, L-valine production and conversion efficiency were enhanced to 31.15 g/L and 0.173 g/g by C. glutamicum ATCC13032MPilvA△avtA pDXW-8-ilvEBN ( r ) C, 38.82 g/L and 0.252 g/g by B. flavum JV16avtA::Cm pDXW-8-ilvEBN ( r ) C. This study provides combined strategies to improve L-valine yield by minimization of by-products' production.

  12. Cyclic dipeptides in actinomycete Brevibacterium sp.associated with sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka: isolation and identification%仿刺参共附生放线菌Brevibacterium sp.中的环二肽成分的分离和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫俊; 汤华; 耿婉丽; 刘宝姝; 孙鹏; 李玲; 李志勇; 张文

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the secondary metabolites of actinomycete Brevibacterium sp. associated with the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka. Methods The ethyl acetate extract of the actinomycete was purified by repeated column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to obtain pure compounds; and the compound structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis (nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR; mass spectrometry, MS) and the results were compared with the previously reported data. Results Seven compounds were isolated: cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) (1), cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Met) (2), cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Tyr) (3), cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Val) (4), cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Pro) (5), cyclo-(L-Val-Gly) (6), and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu) (7). Conclusion This is the first report on the secondary metabolites of microorganisms associated with the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka, and all the seven compounds have been reported from the actinomycete Brevibacterium sp. for the first time.%目的 对仿刺参共附生放线菌Brevibacterium sp.的次生代谢产物进行研究.方法 运用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱色谱、高效液相色谱(HPLC)等现代色谱技术对放线菌的乙酸乙酯提取物进行分离纯化,在核磁共振(NMR)、质谱(MS)等现代波谱技术及与文献比对的基础上对其结构进行鉴定.结果 共分离得到7个环二肽类化合物,分别鉴定为:环-(L-脯氨酸-L-苯丙氨酸)(1)、环-(L-脯氨酸-L-甲硫氨酸)(2)、环-(L-脯氨酸-L-酪氨酸)(3)、环-(L-脯氨酸-L-缬氨酸)(4)、环-(L-脯氨酸-L-脯氨酸)(5)、环(L-缬氨酸-甘氨酸)(6)、环-(L-脯氨酸-L-亮氨酸)(7).结论 本研究是对仿刺参共附生微生物次生代谢产物研究的首次报道,这7个化合物均为首次从放线菌Brevibacterium sp.中分离得到.

  13. Study on the Purification of Trehalose Phosphorylase from a Rich Trehalose-producing Strain Brevibacterium sp SY361%海藻糖高产株Brevibacterium sp SY361海藻糖磷酸化酶(EC 2.4.1.64)的纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾; 黄瑞; 顾冠彬; 万海燕

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究分离纯化海藻糖高产株Brevibacterium sp SY361中海藻糖磷酸化酶的工艺,获得高纯度的海藻糖磷酸化酶.方法 大量培养细菌Brevibacterium sp SY361,超声粉碎细胞,通过硫酸铵分级沉淀、DEAE-Sephadex A-25柱层析和Sephadex G-200凝胶过滤等步骤纯化其海藻糖磷酸化酶,并通过SDS-PAGE检测纯化效果.结果 经纯化后的海藻糖磷酸化酶纯度提高了35.6倍,比活力达到7.48 U/mg,SDS-PAGE呈1条带.结论 纯化后的海藻糖磷酸化酶已达到纯度要求,可用于酶性质的研究.

  14. 胆固醇氧化酶基因的克隆及在E.coli中的表达%Cloning and Expression of Brevibacterium sp. DGCDC-82 Cholesterol Oxidase Gene in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王龙刚; 邬敏辰; 王武

    2006-01-01

    根据NCBI中报道的Brevibacterium sterolicum ATCC21387胆固醇氧化酶基因序列,采用PCR方法以Brevibacterium sp.DGCDC-82的基因组为模板,扩增得到了编码胆固醇氧化酶的基因,该基因与来源于Brevibacterium sterolicum ATCC21387的胆固醇氧化酶基因(choB)同源性为98%.将得到的基因定向克隆到pET28a载体中,转化至含有编码argU和proL基因的大肠杆菌BL21-CodonPlus(DE3)-RP中表达.经过IPTG诱导后,经SDS-PAGE检测在约55kD处有一蛋白表达条带,目的蛋白表达量约占总蛋白的16%,经测定酶活为340U/L.

  15. Research on cyclo-dipeptides from the Coral-derived bacteria Brevibacterium sp. Of South China Sea (Ⅱ)%南海珊瑚montipora sp.内生细菌Brevibacterium sp.中的环二肽成分研究Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琼; 彭光天; 刘炳新; 雷玲芳; 陈小洁; 邓芸; 苏贤君; 张翠仙

    2014-01-01

    目的 对南海珊瑚montipora sp.内生细菌Brevibacterium sp.化学成分进行研究.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱,Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱色谱,高效液相柱层析等分离手段对珊瑚内生细菌Brevibacterium sp.发酵液的乙酸乙酯提取物进行分离纯化,采用NMR、质谱(MS)等现代波谱解析手段,并与文献对照,鉴定化合物结构.结果 分离得到12个已知的环二肽类化合物,其结构分别为环(色-苏)二肽(1)、环(4-羟基-脯-酪)二肽(2)、环(亮-酪)二肽(3)、环(苯丙-丙)二肽(4)、环(异亮-甘)二肽(5)、环(亮-甘)二肽(6)、环(亮-脯)二肽(7)、环(亮-丙)二肽(8)、环(异亮-丙)二肽(9)、环(亮-苏)二肽(10)、环(异亮-缬)二肽(11)、环(异亮-异亮)二肽(12).结论 所有化合物均首次从Brevibacterium属中分离得到.

  16. Fermentation production of cholesterol oxidase by Brevibacterium sp%短杆菌属产胆固醇氧化酶的发酵条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锐; 许晓燕; 孟尧; 卢戌; 武翠玲; 姚明明; 孟延发

    2006-01-01

    短杆菌属(Brevibacterium sp.)是胆固醇氧化酶高产菌,对其进行底物诱导及发酵条件的优化,其最适培养基为蔗糖0.3%,酵母膏0.2%,蛋白胨0.3%,牛肉膏0.3%,K2HPO40.1%,MgSO4 0.05%,pH6.8.最适培养条件为接种量5%,24℃培养20h,通气量为50mL培养基/250mL三角瓶,200r/min.结果表明,胆固醇氧化酶的酶活力可达到2439U/L,比未优化前195U/L提高了12倍.在pH6.5和温度54℃条件下测得酶米氏常数Km值为7.1×10-5mol/L.

  17. Breeding of L-Isoleucine Producing Strain of Brevibacterium Flavum%L-异亮氨酸产生菌黄色短杆菌的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈加彬; 罗磊; 施碧红; 施巧琴; 黄祥峰; 吴松刚

    2011-01-01

    Brevibacterium flavum BF420 was used as a starting strain and treated with ultraviolet (UV) and nitrosoguanidine (NTG) ,a mutant strain named as B. flavum BM2610,which was a methionine auxotroph and DL-α-aminobutyric acid resistance bacterium,was screened. The L-Isoleucine production of the mutant BM2610 was reached t0 7. 12 g·L-1 under the initial fermentation conditions,which was increased 122. 5% compared to its parental strain BF420.%以黄色短杆菌BF420为出发菌株,经过紫外线和亚硝基胍(NTG)复合诱变处理后,获得一株甲硫氨酸缺陷(Met-)及抗α-氨基丁酸(α-AB)的 L-异亮氨酸产生菌BM2610,该菌株在未进行优化的发酵条件下能够积累L-异亮氨酸的量为7.12g·L-1,比出发菌株BF420提高了122.5%.

  18. Report: Bioconversion of agriculture waste to lysine with UV mutated strain of brevibacterium flavum and its biological evaluation in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Alia; Hashmi, Abu Saeed; Masood, Faiza; Iqbal, Muhammad Aamir; Tayyab, Muhammad; Nawab, Amber; Nadeem, Asif; Sadeghi, Zahra; Mahmood, Adeel

    2015-07-01

    Lysine executes imperative structural and functional roles in body and its supplementation in diet beneficial to prevent the escalating threat of protein deficiency. The physical mutagenesis offers new fascinating avenues of research for overproduction of lysine through surplus carbohydrate containing agriculture waste especially in developing countries. The current study was aimed to investigate the potential of UV mutated strain of Brevibacterium flavum at 254 nm for lysine production. The physical and nutritional parameters were optimized and maximum lysine production was observed with molasses (4% substrate water ratio). Moreover, supplementation of culture medium with metal cations (i.e. 0.4% CaSO₄, 0.3% NaCl, 0.3% KH₂PO₄, 0.4% MgSO₄, and 0.2% (NH₄) ₂SO₄w/v) together with 0.75% v/v corn steep liquor significantly enhanced the lysine production up to 26.71 ± 0.31 g/L. Though, concentrations of urea, ammonium nitrate and yeast sludge did not exhibit any profound effect on lysine production. Biological evaluation of lysine enriched biomass in terms of weight gain and feed conversion ratio reflected non-significant difference for experimental and control (+ve) groups. Conclusively, lysine produced in the form of biomass was compatible to market lysine in its effectiveness and have potential to utilize at commercial scale. PMID:26142531

  19. Characterization of the extremely arsenic-resistant Brevibacterium linens strain AE038-8 isolated from contaminated groundwater in Tucumán, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizel, Daniela; Blum, Jodi S.; Ferrero, Marcela A.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Brown, Steven D.; Rosen, Barry P.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Brevibacterium linens AE038-8, isolated from As-contaminated groundwater in Tucumán (Argentina), is highly resistant to arsenic oxyanions, being able to tolerate up to 1 M As(V) and 75 mM As(III) in a complex medium. Strain AE038-8 was also able to reduce As(V) to As(III) when grown in complex medium but paradoxically it could not do this in a defined minimal medium with sodium acetate and ammonium sulfate as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. No oxidation of As(III) to As(V) was observed under any conditions. Three copies of the ars operon comprising arsenic resistance genes were found on B. linens AE038-8 genome. In addition to the well known arsC, ACR3 andarsR, two copies of the arsO gene of unknown function were detected.

  20. Immunodetection and N-terminal sequencing of DNA replication proteins of bacteriophage BFK20 - lytic phage of Brevibacterium flavum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovská, G; Halgašová, N; Hromadová, L; Koščová, H; Bukovský, M

    2014-01-01

    Phages are excellent models for studying the mechanism of DNA replication in prokaryotes. Identification of phage proteins involved in phage DNA replication is the first prerequisite for elucidation of the phage replication module. We focused on replication proteins gp41 (a putative helicase from SF2 superfamily), gp43 (a RepA-like protein), and gp44 (a putative DNA polymerase A) of phage BFK20 grown in Brevibacterium flavum. To identify them in the phage-host system, we prepared antibodies to these proteins which were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as his-tagged recombinant proteins. After purification to homogeneity the recombinant proteins served for raising specific polyclonal antibodies in mice. Using these antibodies in Western blot analysis the phage proteins gp41, gp43 and gp44 were detected during the phage growth cycle. The proteins gp41 and gp43, prepared from cell lysate by ammonium sulphate precipitation, were N-terminally sequenced and found to contain the sequences N-SVKPRELR-C and N-MLGSTML-C, respectively. This means that gp41 starts with serine but not with common methionine. We consider these findings an initial but important step towards more thorough characterization of replication proteins of phage BFK20. PMID:24957720

  1. Evaluation of Biosynthetic Pathways of 2Н- and 13С-Labeled Amino Acids by an Obligate Methylotrophic Bacterium Methylobacillus Flagellatum and a Facultative Methylotrophic Bacterium Brevibacterium Methylicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available By the method of electron impact mass-spectrometry was studied the pathways of biosynthesis of 2H, 13C-labeled amino acids of a facultative methylotrophic bacterium Brevibacterium methylicum and an obligate methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacillus flagellatum obtained on growth media containing as a source of stable isotopes [2H]methanol, [13C]methanol and 2H2O. For mass-spectrometric analysis the multicomponential mixtures of 2H- and 13C-labeled amino acids, derived from cultural media and protein hydrolysates after hydrolysis in 6 M 2HСl (3 % phenol and 2 M Ва(OH2 were modified into N-benzyloxycarbonyl-derivatives of amino acids as well as into methyl esters of N-5-(dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl chloride (dansyl derivatives of [2H, 13С]amino acids, which were preparative separated using a method of reverse-phase HCLP. Biosynthetically obtained 2H- and 13C-labeled amino acids represented the mixtures differing in quantities of isotopes incorporated into molecule. The levels of 2H and 13С enrichment of secreted amino acids and amino acid resigues of protein were found to vary from 20,0 atom % to L-leucine/isoleucine up to 97,5 atom % for L-alanine depending on concentration of 2H- and 13C-labelled substrates.

  2. Report: Bioconversion of agriculture waste to lysine with UV mutated strain of brevibacterium flavum and its biological evaluation in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Alia; Hashmi, Abu Saeed; Masood, Faiza; Iqbal, Muhammad Aamir; Tayyab, Muhammad; Nawab, Amber; Nadeem, Asif; Sadeghi, Zahra; Mahmood, Adeel

    2015-07-01

    Lysine executes imperative structural and functional roles in body and its supplementation in diet beneficial to prevent the escalating threat of protein deficiency. The physical mutagenesis offers new fascinating avenues of research for overproduction of lysine through surplus carbohydrate containing agriculture waste especially in developing countries. The current study was aimed to investigate the potential of UV mutated strain of Brevibacterium flavum at 254 nm for lysine production. The physical and nutritional parameters were optimized and maximum lysine production was observed with molasses (4% substrate water ratio). Moreover, supplementation of culture medium with metal cations (i.e. 0.4% CaSO₄, 0.3% NaCl, 0.3% KH₂PO₄, 0.4% MgSO₄, and 0.2% (NH₄) ₂SO₄w/v) together with 0.75% v/v corn steep liquor significantly enhanced the lysine production up to 26.71 ± 0.31 g/L. Though, concentrations of urea, ammonium nitrate and yeast sludge did not exhibit any profound effect on lysine production. Biological evaluation of lysine enriched biomass in terms of weight gain and feed conversion ratio reflected non-significant difference for experimental and control (+ve) groups. Conclusively, lysine produced in the form of biomass was compatible to market lysine in its effectiveness and have potential to utilize at commercial scale.

  3. Correlation of Quantitative PCR for a Poultry-Specific Brevibacterium Marker Gene with Bacterial and Chemical Indicators of Water Pollution in a Watershed Impacted by Land Application of Poultry Litter▿

    OpenAIRE

    Weidhaas, Jennifer L.; Macbeth, Tamzen W.; Olsen, Roger L.; Harwood, Valerie J.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of fecal contamination from human and agricultural animal waste on water quality is a major public health concern. Identification of the dominant source(s) of fecal pollution in a watershed is necessary for assessing the safety of recreational water and protecting water resources. A field study was conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium sp. LA35 to track feces-contaminated poultry litter in environmental samples. Based on sensitivity and spe...

  4. A cluster of three genes (dapA, orf2, and dapB) of Brevibacterium lactofermentum encodes dihydrodipicolinate synthase, dihydrodipicolinate reductase, and a third polypeptide of unknown function.

    OpenAIRE

    Pisabarro, A; Malumbres, M; Mateos, L M; Oguiza, J A; Martín, J F

    1993-01-01

    The dapA and dapB genes, encoding, respectively, dihydrodipicolinate synthase and dihydrodipicolinate reductase, the two first enzymes of the lysine branch of the aspartic amino acid family, were cloned from the DNA of the amino acid-producing bacterium Brevibacterium lactofermentum. The two genes were clustered in a 3.5-kb Sau3AI-BamHI fragment but were separated by an open reading frame of 750 nucleotides. The protein encoded by this open reading frame had little similarity to any protein i...

  5. [Microbial synthesis of deuterium labelled L-phenylalanine with different levels of isotopic enrichment by facultative methylotrophic bacterium Brevibacterium methylicum with RMP assimilation of carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosin, O V; Shvets, V I; Skladnev, D A; Ignatov, I

    2014-01-01

    The preparative microbial synthesis of amino acids labelled with stable isotopes, including deuterium ( 2 H), suitable for biomedical applications by methylotrophic bacteria was studied using L-phenylalanine as example. This amino acid is secreted by Gram-negative aerobic facultative methylotrophic bacteria Brevibacterium methylicum, assimilating methanol via ribulose-5-monophosphate (RMP) cycle of assimilation of carbon, The data on adaptation of L-phenylalanine secreted by methylotrophic bacterium В. methylicum to the maximal concentration of deuterium in the growth medium with 98% 2 Н 2 O and 2% [ 2 Н]methanol, and biosynthesis of deuterium labelled L-phenylalanine With different levels of enrichment are presented. The strain was adapted by means of plating initial cells on firm (2% agarose) minimal growth media with an increasing gradient of 2 Н 2 O concentration from 0; 24.5; 49.0; 73.5 up to 98% 2 Н 2 O followed by subsequent selection of separate colonies stable to the action of 2 Н 2 O. These colonies were capable to produce L-phenylalanine. L-phenylalanine was extracted from growth medium by extraction with isopropanol with the subsequent crystallization in ethanol (output 0.65 g/l). The developed method of microbial synthesis allows to obtain deuterium labelled L-phenylalanine with different levels of isotopic enrichment, depending on concentration of 2 Н 2 O in growth media, from 17% (on growth medium with 24,5% 2 Н 2 O) up to 75% (on growth medium with 98% 2 Н 2 O) of deuterium in the molecule that is confirmed with the data of the electron impact (EI) mass- spectrometry analysis of methyl ethers of N-dimethylamino(naphthalene)-5-sulfochloride (dansyl) phenylalanine in these experimental conditions.

  6. Genotypic and technological diversity of Brevibacterium linens strains for use as adjunct starter cultures in 'Pecorino di Filiano' cheese ripened in two different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, Maria Grazia; Cafaro, Caterina; Salzano, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two Brevibacterium linens strains isolated from 'Pecorino di Filiano' cheese ripened in two different environments (natural cave and storeroom) were characterized and differentiated for features of technological interest and by genotypic methods, in order to select strains with specific features to be used as surface starter cultures. Results showed significant differences among strains on the basis of physiological and technological features, indicating heterogeneity within the species. A middle-low level of proteolytic activity was observed in 27.3 % of strains, while a small group (9.1 %) showed a high ability. Lipolytic activity was observed at three different temperatures and the highest value was detected at 20 °C with 13.6 % of strains, while an increase in temperature produced a slightly lower lipolysis in all strains. The evaluation of diacetyl production revealed that only 22.8 % of strains showed this ability, and most of them were isolated from product ripened in the natural cave. All strains exhibited only leu-aminopeptidase activity, with values more elevated in strains coming from the natural cave product. The combined analysis of genotypic results with the data obtained by the features of technological interest study established that the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) clusters obtained were composed not only of different genotypes but of different profiles based on technological properties too. This study demonstrated the importance of the ripening environment that affects the typical features of the artisanal product, leading to the selection of a specific surface microflora. Characterized strains could be associated within surface starters to standardize the production process of cheese, but preserving its typical organoleptic and sensory characteristics and improving the quality of the final product. PMID:25147054

  7. Enzymatic Synthesis of 2'- Deoxyguanosine by Brevibacterium Acetylium%乙酰短杆菌酶法合成2'-脱氧鸟苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李喻; 窦洁; 曹静; 邱蔚然; 周长林

    2011-01-01

    胸苷和鸟苷酸在乙酰短杆菌的核苷磷酸化酶和磷酸单酯酶作用下转化成鸟嘌呤、胸腺嘧啶、鸟苷和产物2'-脱氧鸟苷.通过考察菌体量、反应温度、反应pH值、底物浓度和磷酸盐浓度等参数,得到反应最适条件为20 mmol/L的胸苷和鸟苷酸,30 mmol/L的磷酸盐缓冲液(pH7.0),5%游离乙酰短杆菌在60℃下进行反应,经6 h胸苷转化率就可达到最高为56.4%.反应液通过离子交换的方法进行分离,可以得到纯度90.2%的2'-脱氧鸟苷.%Thymine, guanine, guanosine and the objective product, 2'- deoxyguanosine, were enzymatically transferred from thymidine and guanosine monophosphate by nucleoside phosphorylase and phosphomonoesterase from Brevibacterium acetylium By investigating the factors such as biomass, reaction temperature, reaction pH value, substrate concentration and phosphates concentration, optimum condition is 20 mmol/L thymidine and guanosine monophosphate, 30 mmol/L phosphate buffer pH7 the 5%intact cell at 60 ℃, and 56. 4% thymidine was biotransformed to 2'- deoxyguanosine for 6 hours. Ion exchange was used for the purification of 2'- deoxyguanosine from enzymatic reaction mixture, and its purity reached 90. 2%.

  8. [Microbial synthesis of deuterium labelled L-phenylalanine with different levels of isotopic enrichment by facultative methylotrophic bacterium Brevibacterium methylicum with RMP assimilation of carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosin, O V; Shvets, V I; Skladnev, D A; Ignatov, I

    2014-01-01

    The preparative microbial synthesis of amino acids labelled with stable isotopes, including deuterium ( 2 H), suitable for biomedical applications by methylotrophic bacteria was studied using L-phenylalanine as example. This amino acid is secreted by Gram-negative aerobic facultative methylotrophic bacteria Brevibacterium methylicum, assimilating methanol via ribulose-5-monophosphate (RMP) cycle of assimilation of carbon, The data on adaptation of L-phenylalanine secreted by methylotrophic bacterium В. methylicum to the maximal concentration of deuterium in the growth medium with 98% 2 Н 2 O and 2% [ 2 Н]methanol, and biosynthesis of deuterium labelled L-phenylalanine With different levels of enrichment are presented. The strain was adapted by means of plating initial cells on firm (2% agarose) minimal growth media with an increasing gradient of 2 Н 2 O concentration from 0; 24.5; 49.0; 73.5 up to 98% 2 Н 2 O followed by subsequent selection of separate colonies stable to the action of 2 Н 2 O. These colonies were capable to produce L-phenylalanine. L-phenylalanine was extracted from growth medium by extraction with isopropanol with the subsequent crystallization in ethanol (output 0.65 g/l). The developed method of microbial synthesis allows to obtain deuterium labelled L-phenylalanine with different levels of isotopic enrichment, depending on concentration of 2 Н 2 O in growth media, from 17% (on growth medium with 24,5% 2 Н 2 O) up to 75% (on growth medium with 98% 2 Н 2 O) of deuterium in the molecule that is confirmed with the data of the electron impact (EI) mass- spectrometry analysis of methyl ethers of N-dimethylamino(naphthalene)-5-sulfochloride (dansyl) phenylalanine in these experimental conditions. PMID:25249528

  9. 黄色短杆菌原生质体制备与再生条件的研究%Study on Protoplast Preparation and Regeneration of Brevibacterium flavum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁咏春; 徐军庆; 高艳华; 李峰; 袁建国

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the optimal conditions of protoplast preparation and regeneration of Brevibacterium flavum which produces glutamine highly.Methods we used lysozyme to hydrolyze Brevibacterium flavum which had been pretreated with penicillin and glycine,then researched the effects of cell age,concentration and pretreatment time of penicillin and glycine,enzyme concentration,enzymolysis time,enzymolysis temperature on protoplast preparation and regeneration.Results The optimal conditions of protoplast preparation and regeneration were as follows:pretreating Brevibacteriumflavum at the early time of exponential phase,the optimum concentration of penicillin of 0.4 u/mL,2 % glycine,preconditioning time of 2 h,enzyme concentration of 1 mg/mL,enzymolysis time of 12 h,enzymolysis temperature of 37 ℃.Conclusion Under the optimal conditions,the protoplast formation rate can be 99.71%,the regeneration rate can be 16.52 %.%目的 研究高产谷氨酰胺的黄色短杆菌原生质体制备和再生的最佳条件.方法 用青霉素和甘氨酸预处理黄色短杆菌后,用溶菌酶酶解,研究菌龄、青霉素和甘氨酸预处理浓度及时间、酶浓度、酶解时间、酶解温度等条件对原生质体制备和再生的影响.结果 原生质体制备和再生的最佳条件为:预处理处于对数生长早期的黄色短杆菌,青霉素最适浓度0.4 u/mL,甘氨酸浓度2%,预处理时间2h,酶浓度1 mg/mL,酶解时间12h,酶解温度37℃.结论 在最佳条件下原生质体形成率达99.71%,再生率达16.52%.

  10. Expression of cholesterol oxidase gene from Brevibacterium sp. DGCDC-82 in E. coli%甾短杆菌胆固醇氧化酶基因在大肠杆菌中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 霍惠芝; 沈微; 杨海麟; 邬敏辰; 王武

    2008-01-01

    为了实现胆固醇氧化酶在大肠杆菌中的表达,将甾短杆菌 Brevibacterium sp.DGCDC-82胆固醇氧化酶基因用PCR的方法去掉信号肽序列,连接到质粒pTrc99a,通过筛选得到了表达胆固醇氧化酶的重组菌JM109/pTrc99a-COD.经IPTG诱导后表达出相对分子质量约为5.5×104的蛋白质.分别考察了诱导温度、时间、IPTG浓度等因素对重组菌表达的胆固醇氧化酶的影响.在优化条件下,该胆固醇氧化酶的酶活可以达到700U/L.酶学特性分析表明其反应的最适pH为7.5,最适温度为40 ℃.

  11. 海洋氧化短杆菌15E产碱性蛋白酶的发酵条件%Fermentation conditions of alkaline protease from marine bacterium strain 15E (Brevibacterium oxydans)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路炳声; 黄志强; 林白雪; 谢联辉

    2007-01-01

    对氧化短杆菌15E菌株(Brevibacterium oxydans)产碱性蛋白酶的发酵条件进行研究,结果表明,培养基初始pH值9.0、培养温度28 ℃、摇床转速200 r·min-1条件下培养40 h,菌体生长最适且总酶活力达到最大;菌株在添加5 g·L-1牛肉膏、1 g·L-1葡萄糖的酪蛋白培养基中生长和产酶均达到最佳;人工海水中的K+、Ca2+和Mg2+浓度较为适合15E菌株生长和产酶,其中K+对菌株产酶起关键作用.

  12. 黄色短杆菌TK0303的L-亮氨酸生物合成途径分析%Pathway analysis for production of L-leucine by Brevibacterium flavum TK0303

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 陈宁; 温廷益

    2007-01-01

    应用途径分析方法分析了在拟稳态时黄色短杆菌( Brevibacterium flavum )TK0303由葡萄糖发酵生产L-亮氨酸的代谢途径,确定了L-亮氨酸合成的最佳途径和最大理论产率.通过比较途径分析所获得的反应模型,确定了丙酮酸和乙酰辅酶A是L-亮氨酸合成途径的关键节点.在此基础上改变外界环境因子,强化L-亮氨酸生物合成途径中丙酮酸和乙酰辅酶A两个关键节点的代谢流,以期进一步提高L-亮氨酸产率.结果表明,经过谷氨酸以及醋酸铵的调节,代谢途径流量发生显著变化,L-亮氨酸产量有明显提高.

  13. Enzyme properties of alkaline protease produced by marine bacterium strain 15E (Brevibacterium oxydans)%海洋氧化短杆菌15E碱性蛋白酶的酶学性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林白雪; 黄志强; 谢联辉

    2008-01-01

    对氧化短杆菌15E菌株(Brevibacterium oxydans)所产的碱性蛋白酶酶学性质研究表明,15E菌株所分泌的碱性蛋白酶分子质量为49.0 ku、等电点为9.3.该酶的最适作用温度为60 ℃,最适pH值为7.0-9.0;Ca2+、Mg2+、K+对酶有激活作用.酶对一些变性剂如SDS、尿素、盐酸胍具有一定的耐受性;PMSF和AEBSF能抑制该蛋白酶,表明该酶属于丝氨酸蛋白酶;EDTA对该蛋白酶有抑制作用,说明该蛋白可能含有金属离子.

  14. 胆固醇氧化酶的发酵条件及酶学性质研究%The Fermentation Condition and Characterization of Cholesterol Oxidase from Brevibacterium sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓燕; 张锐; 谭晓晶; 余彩霞; 辛渝; 杨波; 孟延发

    2006-01-01

    Brevibacterium sp.可以发酵生产胆固醇氧化酶,实验中对该菌种进行了底物诱导及发酵条件的优化,确定其最适培养基为(%):蔗糖0.3,酵母膏0.2,蛋白胨0.3,牛肉膏0.3,K2HPO4 0.1,MgSO4 0.05,pH6.8.最适培养条件为:接种量5%,24℃培养20 h,通气量为50 mL培养基/250 mL三角瓶,200 r/min.在最适培养基及最适条件下,胆固醇氧化酶的酶活力可达到24.01U/mg,比未优化前1.71 U/mg提高了14倍.该酶具有较强的酸碱稳定性和热稳定性,最适pH为6.5,最适温度为54℃.在最适pH和温度条件下测得该酶km值为7.1×10-5mol/L.

  15. Preservation method for L-arginine-producing strainof Brevibacterium flavum%产精氨酸的黄色短杆菌菌种保藏方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏令鸣; 李爽

    2009-01-01

    采用甘油防冻营养液对产精氨酸的黄色短杆菌(Brevibacterium flavum)变异株AN78 在普通冰箱冷冻室(-18℃~-20℃)进行冷冻保藏试验,4年中分别进行了AN78菌株的产L- 精氨酸试验,在500mL摇瓶试验中产精氨酸30~35g/L;保藏2年的菌种在20L发酵罐试验中产精氨酸63.1g/L, 转化率22.8%,发酵周期81h.试验结果好于以前的报道.该方法可作为氨基酸生产行业中一种简便有效的菌种冷冻保藏方法.

  16. Cloning of Phosphoserine Aminotransferase (SerB) Gene of Escherichia coli and Expression in Brevibacterium flavum%大肠杆菌SerB基因的克隆及其在黄色短杆菌中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷丽霞; 崔春生; 简子健; 谭慧林; 包慧芳

    2006-01-01

    磷酸丝氨酸转氨酶(Phosphoserine aminotransferase,SerB)是L-丝氨酸生物合成中的关键酶,应用PCR技术从大肠杆菌JM109(E.Coli JM109)中扩增出磷酸丝氨酸转氨酶基因,将其与表达载体pEC 7连接.通过电转化方法,将重组质粒转入黄色短杆菌(Brevibacterium flavum C-11,BfC-11)中,经酶活检测和摇瓶发酵培养,含有重组表达质粒的BfC-11B的磷酸丝氨酸转氨酶的活力和L-丝氨酸产率均比原宿主菌BfC-11有所提高,为构建L-丝氨酸高产基因工程菌的研究奠定了基础.

  17. Using of Facultative Methylotrophic Bacterium Brevibacterium Methylicum В-5652 With RMP-cycle of Carbon Assimilation for Microbiological Synthesis of [2H]phenylalanine With Different Levels of Deuterium Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With using of a strain of of L-phenylalanine secreted Gram-positive aerobic facultative methylotrophic bacteria Brevibacterium methylicum В-5652, assimilating methanol via ribulose-5-monophosphate (RMP cycle of carbon assimilation it was carried out the preparative microbiological synthesis of phenylalanine and metabolically related amino acids (alanine, valine, leucine/isoleucine in the amount of 5–6 mmol/l, labelled with deuterium (2H. The data on adaptation of L-phenylalanine secreted methylotrophic bacterium В. methylicum to the maximal concentration of deuterium in minimal growth medium M9 with 98 % 2Н2O and 2 % [2Н]methanol, and data on biosynthesis of deuterium labelled L-phenylalanine with different levels of enrichment are submitted. The developed method for biosynthesis allows to obtain [2Н]phenylalanine with different levels of isotopic enrichment, depending on 2Н2O concentration in growth media M9, from 17 % (2 deuterium atoms (on growth medium with 24,5 % 2Н2О right up to 75 % (6 deuterium atoms (on growth medium with 98 % 2Н2О with introduction of deuterium to benzyl С6Н5СН2-fragment of molecule that is confirmed with the data of the electron impact (EI mass-spectrometry analysis of methyl ethers of N-dimethylamino(naphthalene-5-sulfochloride (dansyl derivatives of [2Н]phenylalanine, isolated from the liquid culture after its separation by RP HPLC

  18. 表皮短杆菌ZJB-07021产R-酰胺酶培养条件的优化%Optimization of Culture Conditions of R-Amidase-Producing Brevibacterium epidermidis Strain ZJB-07021

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金少军; 梁璐怡; 郑仁朝; 郑裕国; 沈寅初

    2008-01-01

    采用响应面分析法(RSM)对R-酰胺酶产生菌Brevibacterium epidermidis ZJB-07021的发酵培养基进行了优化.首先运用了单因子试验筛选出了发酵培养的最佳pH与温度,在此基础上采用Plackett-Burman(PB)设计法,对 8 种影响产酶的因素进行评价,实验结果表明,葡萄糖、酵母粉与乙酰胺含量对菌株产酰胺酶的活力具有显著的影响.通过旋转中心组合实验考察了葡萄糖、酵母粉和乙酰胺这三个主要因素对菌株所产酰胺酶活力的影响.发酵培养基优化结果为葡萄糖 17.00 g/L,酵母粉 15.74 g/L,乙酰胺 7.05 g/L,采用优化后的发酵培养条件进行摇瓶发酵培养,酰胺酶的酶活达到 72.14 U/L,比优化前的初始发酵培养条件下的酶活提高了73.3%.

  19. NH4+浓度对黄色短杆菌XV0505发酵生产L-缬氨酸的影响%Effect of NH4+concentration on L-valine fermentation by Brevibacterium flavum XV0505

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宁; 白亚磊; 徐庆阳; 谢希贤; 陈宁

    2011-01-01

    以L-缬氨酸(L-Val)生产菌黄色短杆菌XV0505为供试菌株,以(NH4)2SO4为唯一添加N源,考察不同NH4+浓度对发酵过程中菌体干质量、L-Val产量和葡萄糖消耗速率以及菌体内代谢流量的影响.研究表明:NH4+浓度过高或不足都会影响发酵水平,降低L-Val的产量.合适的初始NH4+浓度为225 mmol/L,产酸期NH4+维持浓度为35mmol/L时,有利菌体产酸.在此NH4+浓度下,在30L发酵罐发酵60h,发酵液中菌体生物量和L-Val质量浓度分别可达22.35和59.12g/L.%The ammonium sulfate was selected as the only feeding nitrogen source in the L-valine fermentation process by Brevibacterium flavum XV0505. Effects of different N H4+ concentrations on biomass,yield of L-valine,glucose consumption rate and the metabolic flux were studied in a 30 L fermentor. Results showed that excessive or insufficient concentrations of NH4+ would adversely affect the yield of L-valine and bacterial growth. Therefore,the appropriate additive dosage of NH4+ (225 mmol/l) was determined,and L-valine production was increased by keeping low NH4+ concentration(35 mmol/L) in the synthesis period of L-valine. With the optimum additional dosage of NH4+ , the yields of L-valine and DCW were up to 59. 12 and 22. 35 g/L (60 h) in the 30 L fermentor.

  20. The Effect of Nitrogen Sources and Its Additional Strategies on L-valine Fermentation by Brevibacterium flavum XV0505%氮源及其补加策略对L-缬氨酸发酵的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宁; 白亚磊; 徐庆阳; 谢希贤; 陈宁

    2011-01-01

    通过分析黄色短杆菌xv0505发酵生产L-缬氨酸的过程,得知在菌体生长期和快速产酸期氮源对L-缬氨酸发酵的影响不同.以黄色短杆菌XV0505为供试菌株,研究了不同氮源种类及不同氮源浓度对L-缬氨酸发酵过程的影响,选定了以豆饼水解液和硫酸铵为氮源,并确定了合适的初始氮源浓度.在初始氮源浓度相同的情况下,考察了间歇流加补氮策略、恒氮源浓度补氮策略和幂函数流加补氮策略对L-缬氨酸发酵的影响,研究发现,幂指数补氮策略可减少频繁的取样及铵浓度检测,在缺乏在线监测系统和反馈自控系统的情况下,将发酵体系中氮源浓度维持在合适值,既可适度促进菌体生长,又可使L-缬氨酸的产量得到进一步提高.在最优的氮源添加策略下,在30 L发酵罐发酵60 h,发酵液中L-缬氨酸可达63.17 g/L,糖酸转化率24.69%.%By analyzing the L-valine fermentation process by Brevibacterium flavum XV0505, one of important factors influenced on the bacterial productivity and L-valine yield is nitrogen source and its additional strategies. The effect of nitrogen sources on the fermentation of L-valine was studied by adding different nitrogen sources with different concentrations. Therefore, soybean hydrolysates and ammonium sulfate were selected as the appropriate nitrogen source, and the best L-valine yield was obtained with the medium supplemented low initial concentration of 225 mmol/L. In the case of the same initial nitrogen concentration, the effects of three nitrogen feeding strategies (intermittent nitrogen feeding,constant concentration feeding and power function feeding) on biomass, yield of L-valine,concentration of byproduct and conversion rate were studied in the 30L fermentor. The result showed that the concentration and the feed rate of nitrogen source were effectively and timely manipulated by power function feeding, while lacking of online monitoring and feedback

  1. 黄色短杆菌GDK-9谷氨酸脱氢酶基因的克隆、序列分析及表达%Cloning, Sequence Analysis and Expression of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Brevibacterium flavum GDK-9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓培生; 苏静; 谢希贤; 徐庆阳; 陈宁

    2009-01-01

    The glutamate dehydrogenase(EC.1.4.1.4) gene which amplified from the genome of Brevibacteriumflavum GDK-9 by polymerase chain reaction was linked with pUCm-T for sequence alignment. Analysis of gdh sequences revealed that the whole sequence is 1927 bp, only one ORF existed, which used ATG as the initiation codon and coded a peptide of 448 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 48 kD.The comparability between the cloned gdh sequence to the reported sequence is high to 99.55%. Only the 1190th base mutation (C→A) lead to the change of amino acid sequence (Thr→Asn), the others are not. The recombinant plasmid pXG was then transformed into E. coli XL-Blue and Brevibacterium flavum GDK-9 which was induced by IPTG SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that there was a clear induced protein band with molecular mass of 48.7 kD on expected position. Standard glutamate fermentations indicated that although the level of GDH increases the intracellular glutamate pool, the level of GDH has no influence on glutamate secretion.%利用PCR技术从黄色短杆菌GDK-9的基因组DNA中扩增出谷氨酸脱氢酶基因(gdh)片段(EC.1.4.1.4),连到pUCm-T载体上测序.核酸序列分析结果表明,该片段全长1927 bp.包含一个ORE推测此ORF区编码一条448个氨基酸的多肽,分子量约为48 kD.与已报道的gdh序列相似性为99.55%,其中1190位碱基(C→A)突变导致了编码氨基酸的变化(Thr→Asn),其它的碱基变化不影响编码的氨基酸.将gdh基因克隆入穿梭质粒pXMJ19中,并转化E.coli XL-Blue和Brevibacterium flavum GDK-9,经IPTG诱导后,SDS-PAGE电泳结果显示,在预计位置出现明显的诱导蛋白条带,分子量约为48.7 kD.谷氨酸发酵实验表明,尽管谷氨酸脱氢酶GDH能明显提高胞内的谷氨酸含量,但其不影响谷氨酸的分泌.

  2. 黄色短杆菌 ilvN 基因定点突变和 ilvBN、ilvC 串联表达对L-缬氨酸产量的影响%Effects of Brevibacterium flavum with directed mutagenesis of ilvN and co-expression of ilvBNC cluster on L-valine production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾邦定; 黄钦耿; 梁玲; 郭小雷; 王明兹; 施巧琴; 吴松刚

    2016-01-01

    由 ilvBN、ilvC 基因编码的乙酰羟酸合成酶(AHAS)和乙酰羟酸异构还原酶(AHAIR)是 L-缬氨酸合成途径的两个关键酶。本实验以黄色短杆菌 Brevibacterium flavum MD515为出发菌株,通过 PCR 技术扩增其 ilvBN和 ilvC 基因,对调节亚基 ilvN 进行定点突变,获得抗反馈抑制突变型编码基因 ilvBNrC;然后将其插入穿梭表达载体 pZ8-1中,构建串联表达质粒 pZ8-1-ilvBNrC 并转化出发菌株,筛选获得工程菌株 B.flavum MD515/pZ8-1-ilvBNrC。摇瓶发酵该工程菌株 L-缬氨酸产量达29.5 g·L−1,较出发菌株提高27.7%,同时生长速度和生物量也比出发菌株有所提高,丙氨酸含量降低,L-亮氨酸及 L-异亮氨酸含量提高。在30 L 发酵罐连续补料发酵60 h 后 L-缬氨酸产量达61.7 g·L−1,糖酸转化率为39.2%。菌株 MD515/pZ8-1-ilvBNrC 发酵液透光率较出发菌株高且蛋白含量低,这些特性有利于发酵液后期的分离提取。%Acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) and acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase (AHAIR) encoded by ilvBN and ilvC are two key enzymes which play important roles in the biosynthetic pathway of L-valine. Brevibacterium flavum MD515 was used as the origin strain and site-specific mutagenesis was performed in its ilvN gene which coded for the regulatory subunit of AHAS, resulting in the obtainment of an anti-feedback inhibition gene, named ilvBN'C. Then, the ilvBNrC gene was ligased to plasmid pZ8-1 for construction of the recombinant plasmid pZ8-1-ilvBNrC, which was subsequently transfored into B. flavum MD515. With this method, the targeted transformant B. flavum MD515/pZ8-1-ilvBNrC showed better L-valine producing capacity of 29.5 g·L−1, 27.7% increase than that of original strain when it was cultured in 250 ml shake flasks. Meanwhile, the yield of leucine and isoleucine also increased while the alanine decreased. The biomass and growth rate were also increased. Moreover

  3. Generalized Net Model of Brevibacterium flavul 22LD Fermentation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Olympia Roeva; Tania Pencheva

    2005-01-01

    In order to render the specific peculiarities of the fermentation processes, as well as to avoid the complexity of mathematical description with systems of differential equations, the elaboration of some new methods and approaches for their modelling and control is predetermined. As a new, alternative approach for modelling of fermentation processes, an application of generalized nets is presented in this paper. The theory of generalized nets is applied to the fermentation process of Brevibac...

  4. Brevibacterium oceanic sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment of the Chagos Trench, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhadra, B.; Raghukumar, C.; Pindi, P.K.; Shivaji, S.

    -galactose, fructose, mannose, rhamnose, D-orL-arabinose, D-xylose, D-cellobiose, D- melibiose, D-raffinose, maltose, lactose, D-ribose, trehalose, sucrose, D-mannitol, dulcitol, adonitol or inositol. Utilizes malonate, L-proline, L-tyrosine, L-serine, L-arginine, L...

  5. Brevibacterium siliguriense sp nov., a facultatively oligotrophic bacterium isolated from river water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.; Ince, I.A.; Kati, A.; Chakraborty, R.

    2013-01-01

    A Gram-positive-staining, rod-shaped, facultatively oligotrophic bacterial strain, designated MB18(T), was isolated from a water sample collected from the River Mahananda at Siliguri (26 degrees 44' 23.20' N, 88 degrees 25' 22.89' a West-Bengal, India. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similari

  6. Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive sulfonated azo dyes by a newly isolated Brevibacterium sp. strain VN-15

    OpenAIRE

    Franciscon, Elisangela; Grossman, Matthew James; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato; Felix Guillermo Reyes REYES; Durrant, Lucia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Azo dyes constitute the largest and most versatile class of synthetic dyes used in the textile, pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries and represent major components in wastewater from these industrial dying processes. Biological decolorization of azo dyes occurs efficiently under low oxygen to anaerobic conditions. However, this process results in the formation of toxic and carcinogenic amines that are resistant to further detoxification under low oxygen conditions. Moreover, the abil...

  7. Comparison of two poultry litter qPCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken feces are vectors of human pathogens and are also important sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters. Consequently, methods that can detect chicken fecal pollution are needed in public health and environmental monitoring studies. In this study, we compared a pre...

  8. Effect of oxidative stress induced by Brevibacterium sp. BS01 on a HAB causing species--Alexandrium tamarense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun Zhang

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms occur all over the world, destroying aquatic ecosystems and threatening other organisms. The culture supernatant of the marine algicidal actinomycete BS01 was able to lysis dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense ATGD98-006. Physiological and biochemical responses to oxidative stress in A. tamarense were investigated to elucidate the mechanism involved in BS01 inhibition of algal growth. Transmission electron microscope analysis revealed that there were some chloroplast abnormalities in response to BS01 supernatant. The decrease in cellular-soluble protein content suggested that cell growth was greatly inhibited at high concentration of BS01 supernatant. The increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde contents following exposure to BS01 supernatant indicated that algal cells suffered from oxidative damage. The content of pigment was significantly decreased after 12 h treatment, which indicated that the accumulation of ROS destroyed pigment synthesis. Moreover, the decrease of Fv/Fm ratio suggested that in the photosynthetic system, the dominant sites producing ROS were destroyed by the supernatant of the BS01 culture. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase and peroxidase increased in a short time and decreased slightly with increasing exposure time. A real-time PCR assay showed changes in the transcript abundances of two photosynthetic genes, psbA and psbD. The results showed that BS01 supernatant reduced the expression of the psbA gene after 2 h exposure, but the expression of the psbD gene was increased at concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5%. Our results demonstrated that the expression of the psbA gene was inhibited by the BS01 supernatant, which might block the electron transport chain, significantly enhancing ROS level and excess activity of the antioxidant system. The accumulation of ROS destoryed pigment synthesis and membrane integrity, and inhibited or ultimately killed the algal cells.

  9. Degradación biológica de ocratoxina a en ocratoxina a

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Rosario; Rodríguez López, Héctor; Rivas, Blanca de las; Reverón, Inés; García-Moruno, Emilia; Doria, Francesca; Costantini, Antonella

    2010-01-01

    [ES] La presente invención se refiere al uso de un microorganismo del género Brevibacterium para la degradación biológica de ocratoxina A, preferiblemente el microorganismo es Brevibacterium casei, Brevibacterium linens, Brevibacterium iodinum o Brevibacterium epidermidis. Además, la presente invención se refiere a un método para la producción de ocratoxina a, mediante el uso de dicho microorganismo.

  10. Discovery of an algicidal compound from Brevibacterium sp. BS01 and its effect on a harmful algal bloom-causing species, Alexandrium tamarense

    OpenAIRE

    An, Xinli; Zhang, Bangzhou; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Yu, Zhiming; Fu, Lijun; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense have become worldwide phenomena and have detrimental impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human health. In this study, a culture supernatant of the marine actinomycete BS01 exerted a strong algicidal effect on A. tamarense (ATGD98-006). The target algicide from BS01 was separated by adsorption chromatography and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and NMR analysis. The results suggested that the purified algicidal component corresponded to a hydrophobic ...

  11. 谷氨酸产生菌——短杆菌(Brevibacterium sp.)的液氮保藏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方呈祥; 段乃先

    1996-01-01

    以甘油作保护剂,用程序控制降温仪控制降温速率,对谷氨酸 生菌短杆菌F9114衍生菌株进行液氮保藏。分别取保藏3-5个月的菌种进行形态观察,未见明显改变。经液氮的菌种和按常规分纯的菌种进行发酵生产的比较,结果表明液氮保藏的菌种较常规的菌种发酵周期短1.47,产酸水平和转化率分别高2%和3.9%,出于液氮保藏能使菌种的主要特性稳定,不需再次分纯,保证随时提供优良菌种用于发酵生产,同时,这种方法避免传过

  12. Discovery of an algicidal compound from Brevibacterium sp. BS01 and its effect on a harmful algal bloom-causing species, Alexandrium tamarense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli eAn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense have become worldwide phenomena and have detrimental impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human health. In this study, a culture supernatant of the marine actinomycete BS01 exerted a strong algicidal effect on A. tamarense (ATGD98-006. The target algicide from BS01 was separated by adsorption chromatography and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and NMR analysis. The results suggested that the purified algicidal component corresponded to a hydrophobic compound (2-isobutoxyphenylamine (C10H15NO with a molecular weight of 165 Da, which exhibited a significant algicidal effect (64.5% on A. tamarense. After incubation in 5 μg/mL of (2-isobutoxyphenylamine for 24 h, the algae lost mobility and sank to the bottom of the flasks, and 56.5% of the algae cells lost vitality at a concentration of 20 μg/mL (p < 0.01 despite having intact cell profiles. Morphological analysis revealed that the cell structure of A. tamarense was altered by (2-isobutoxyphenylamine resulting in cytoplasm degradation and the loss of organelle integrity. The images following propidium iodide staining suggested that the algal nucleus was also severely damaged and eventually degraded due to exposure to the algicidal compound. All of the results indicate that (2-isobutoxyphenylamine from the actinomycete might be a candidate for the control of bloom-forming A. tamarense.

  13. Discovery of an algicidal compound from Brevibacterium sp. BS01 and its effect on a harmful algal bloom-causing species, Alexandrium tamarense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xinli; Zhang, Bangzhou; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Yu, Zhiming; Fu, Lijun; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense have become worldwide phenomena and have detrimental impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human health. In this study, a culture supernatant of the marine actinomycete BS01 exerted a strong algicidal effect on A. tamarense (ATGD98-006). The target algicide from BS01 was separated by adsorption chromatography and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and NMR analysis. The results suggested that the purified algicidal component corresponded to a hydrophobic compound (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine (C10H15NO) with a molecular weight of 165 Da, which exhibited a significant algicidal effect (64.5%) on A. tamarense. After incubation in 5 μg/mL of (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine for 24 h, the algae lost mobility and sank to the bottom of the flasks, and 56.5% of the algae cells lost vitality at a concentration of 20 μg/mL (p < 0.01) despite having intact cell profiles. Morphological analysis revealed that the cell structure of A. tamarense was altered by (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine resulting in cytoplasm degradation and the loss of organelle integrity. The images following propidium iodide staining suggested that the algal nucleus was also severely damaged and eventually degraded due to exposure to the algicidal compound. All of the results indicate that (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine from the actinomycete might be a candidate for the control of bloom-forming A. tamarense. PMID:26594205

  14. The first reported catheter-related Brevibacterium casei bloodstream infection in a child with acute leukemia and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumrut Sahbudak Bal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Brevibacteriumspp. are catalase-positive, non-spore-forming, non motile, aerobic Gram- positive rods that were considered apathogenic until a few reports of infections in immunocompromised patients had been published. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of B. caseicatheter-related bloodstream infection in a child with acute leukemia. We aim to enhance the awareness of pediatric hematology and infectious disease specialists about this pathogen and review of the literature.

  15. МУТАНТНЫЕ ШТАММЫ МИКРООРГАНИЗМОВ ПРОДУЦЕНТОВ ЛИЗИНА И ТРЕОНИНА

    OpenAIRE

    Андрияш, Г.; Заболотная, Г.; Шульга, С.

    2014-01-01

    Strains-producers of essential amino acids of aspartate family such as Corynebacterium glutamicum, Brevibacterium flavum, Brevibacterium sp. 90, Brevibacterium sp. 90H, Brevibacterium sp. E531 from «Collections strains and lines of plants for food and agricultural biotechnology» of «Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine» for biosynthetic activity for lysine and threonine were investigated. Active strains-producers of amino acids were obtai...

  16. Study on the Kinetics of Immobilized Cells of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes MA-2 and Brevibacterium flavum MA-3%固定化产氨短杆菌MA-2、黄色短杆菌MA-3反应动力学的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永红; 沈树宝; 欧阳平凯

    2002-01-01

    @@ 多年来虽然有不少学者对固定化细胞生产L-苹果酸的方法进行过探讨[1-6],但对过程动力学的研究报道并不多见[2,7],在富马酸铵转化体系中的表观动力学及本征动力学模型还未见报道,本文对富马酸铵转化体系中固定化产氨短杆菌MA-2、黄色短杆菌MA-3细胞的动力学进行了探讨,测定了两种固定化细胞的表观动力学常数,并进一步求解了相应的本征动力学常数,这一结果便于从理论上指导富马酸铵转化过程的工业化生产.

  17. GENE 16S RRNA SEQUENCE PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF LYSINE PRODUCERS STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Andriiash

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships of strainsproducers of essential amino acids of aspartate family Brevibacterium sp. UCM Ac-674 (Brevibacterium sp. 90, Brevibacterium sp. IMV Ac-5004 (Brevibacterium sp. 90H, Brevibacterium sp. UCM Ac-675 (Brevibacterium sp. E531, mutant strain Brevibacterium sp. IMV B-7447 from the «Collections strains and lines of plants for food and agricultural biotechnology SO “Institute for Food Biotechnology and Genomics” of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine were investigated. The affiliation strain Brevibacterium sp. IMV B-7447 to the genus Brevibacterium within the sequences of the genes based on 16S rRNA was confirmed. The dendogram of phylogenetic relationships of studied strains and related strains Brevibacterium from database GenBank was constructed. It was shown that by the criterion of homology gene sequences based on 16S rRNA the investigated strains-producers belong to three phylogenetic groups. It was established that the mutant strain Brevibacterium sp. ІMV B-7447 has no analogues in the database GenBank.

  18. The Metabolism Controlled Fermentation of Lysine in Brevibacterium Lactofermentum%乳酸发酵短杆菌中的赖氨酸代谢控制发酵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘中明; 徐昀; 应向贤; 张星元

    2000-01-01

    以本室选育的赖氨酸产生菌AL 039为出发菌株,以亚硝基胍诱变,筛选到一株氟丙酮酸敏感型突变株FP 094,其赖氨酸产量比出发菌株提高37.5%.进而研究了生物素、醋酸钙对该菌产赖氨酸的影响.

  19. 产氨短杆菌GMA-2802 1.2L罐肌苷发酵试验%The fermentation tests of inosine in 1.2L scale by Brevibacterium ammoniagenes mutant GMA-2802

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施庆珊; 李良秋; 林小平; 邱玉棠

    2002-01-01

    采用诱变得来的产氨短杆菌GMA-2802,在1.2L自控发酵罐上进行5批发酵肌苷试验,发酵周期54小时,平均产肌苷20.4g/L.结果表明该菌株是一株具有较多优良特性的肌苷产生菌.

  20. Cloning and Expression of the α-acetolactate Decarboxylase Gene from Brevibacterium Actylium in E. coli%乙酰短杆菌α-乙酰乳酸脱羧酶基因的克隆及其表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈亮

    2005-01-01

    用PCR方法扩增乙酰短杆菌α-乙酰乳酸脱羧酶基因(ALDC),得到0.78 kb的DNA片段,扩增片段重组到表达载体pQE-9中,在大肠杆菌中得到高效表达,酶活性可达100 U/mL发酵液.

  1. Autoinducer-2 activity produced by bacteria found in smear of surface ripened cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh; Purrotti, Micol;

    2011-01-01

    -2) activity using the Vibrio harveyi (BB170) bioluminescence assay. In contrast, Brevibacterium casei and Brevibacterium linens strains were not found to have AI-2 activity. When exposed to low pH and high NaCl concentrations, AI-2 activities increased between 5.0 and 11.6× for C. casei 44701, M...

  2. Diversity of l-Ieucine catabolism in various microorganisms involved in dairy fermentations, and identification on the rate-controlling step in the formation of the potent flavour component 3-methylbutanal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, B.A.; Engels, W.J.M.; Wouters, J.T.M.; Smit, G.

    2004-01-01

    Various microorganisms, belonging to the genera Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Propionibacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium and Arthrobacter, used in dairy fermentations such as cheese making, were analysed for their potential to convert leucine into f

  3. Identification of plasmid partition function in coryneform bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurusu, Y; Satoh, Y.; Inui, M.; Kohama, K; Kobayashi, M.; Terasawa, M.; Yukawa, H

    1991-01-01

    We have identified and characterized a partition function that is required for stable maintenance of plasmids in the coryneform bacteria Brevibacterium flavum MJ233 and Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 31831. This function is localized to a HindIII-NspV fragment (673 bp) adjacent to the replication region of the plasmid, named pBY503, from Brevibacterium stationis IFO 12144. The function was independent of copy number control and was not associated directly with plasmid replication functions. ...

  4. THE MUTANT STRAINS OF MICROORGANISMS ‒ PRODUCERS OF LYSINE AND THREONINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Andriiash

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strains-producers of essential amino acids of aspartate family such as Corynebacterium glutamicum, Brevibacterium flavum, Brevibacterium sp. 90, Brevibacterium sp. 90H, Brevibacterium sp. E531 from «Collections strains and lines of plants for food and agricultural biotechnology» of «Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine» for biosynthetic activity for lysine and threonine were investigated. Active strains-producers of amino acids were obtained after UV irradiation, biological characteristics of these organisms were studied and their biosynthetic efficiency was estimated. New mutant strains of threonine and lysine were selected using analysis of regulatory and analogorezistent auxotrophy. Sensitivity of output and mutant strain-producers to penicillins, macrolides, cephalosporins, tetracyclines, and other groups of antibiotics was investigated. Biosynthetic activity of obtained threonine producers – Brevibacterium flavum IMВ B-7446 and lysine – Brevibacterium sp. IMВ B-7447 on the production of target amino acids was determined. Strains are deposited in the «National Depository microorganisms» of the Institute of Microbiology and Virology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

  5. ИНТЕНСИФИКАЦИЯ БИОСИНТЕЗА ТРЕОНИНА ШТАММОМ BREVIBACTERIUM FLAVUM ТН-7

    OpenAIRE

    Шульга, С.; Тигунова, О.; Ткаченко, А.; Бейко, Н.; Андрияш, Г.; Приемов, С.

    2011-01-01

    Научные разработки в области биотехнологии незаменимых аминокислот направлены как на селекцию более продуктивных штаммов микроорганизмов, так и на создание оптимальных условий культивирования продуцентов и подбор экономически целесообразного сырья для этих технологий. Проведен поиск штаммапродуцента треонина среди бактериальных культур из «Коллекции штаммов микроорганизмов и линий растений для пищевой и сельскохозяйственной биотехнологии» ГУ «Институт пищевой биотехнологии и геномики» НАН Укр...

  6. Isolation and Identification of an Agarase-Producing Marine Gram Positive Bacteria%一株琼胶酶高产菌株的筛选鉴定及产酶条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽; 刘江涛; 蔡俊鹏

    2006-01-01

    本研究从海水中分离筛选到一株琼胶酶高产菌,编号是2.2-g,革兰氏染色为阳性,呈细杆状.通过DNS法测定,其分泌琼胶酶的酶活为0.066U.通过16S rDNA的PCR扩增、序列测定,测序结果(AY949021)与Genebank数据库进行比较,发现它与Brevibacterium aureum (AY299093)和Brevibacterium linens (AY243345)同源性高达99%,因此可以判断其为短杆菌(Brevibacterium sp).

  7. COLONIZATION OF VIGNA RADIATA ROOTS BY CHROMIUM RESISTANT BACTERIAL STRAINS OF OCHROBACTRUM INTERMEDIUM, BACILLUS CEREUS AND BREVIBA CTERIUM SP.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MUHAMMAD Faisal; SHAHIDA Hasnain

    2005-01-01

    The present study deals with colonization potential of plant growth promoting bacterial strains ( Ochrobactrum intermedium, Bacillus cereus and Brevibacterium sp. ) on Vigna radiata roots. The roots were heavily colonized with O. intermedium and B. cereus as compared to Brevibacterium sp. O. intermedium mainly colonized rhizoplane while B. cereus occurred both on the rhizoplane and near root zone. O. intermedium and B. cereus were found to be present both on the rhizoplane and near root zone, while Brevibacterium only in the rhizosphere in the form of groups. The cells of B. cereus were found more in the sites where root exudates were existed. From the above results it was observed that the number of O. intermedium cells were large at root exudate site. Fig 2, Tab 1, Ref 15

  8. Identification of plasmid partition function in coryneform bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurusu, Yasurou; Satoh, Yukie; Inui, Masayuki; Kohama, Keiko; Kobayashi, Miki; Terasawa, Masato; Yukawa, Hideaki (Mitsubishi Petrochemical Co., Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan))

    1991-03-01

    The authors have identified and characterized a partition function that is required for stable maintenance of plasmids in the coryneform bacteria Brevibacterium flavum MJ233 and Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 31831. This function is localized to a HindIII-NspV fragment (673 bp) adjacent to the replication region of the plasmid, named pBY503, from Brevibacterium stationis IFO 12144. The function was independent of copy number control and was not associated directly with plasmid replication functions. This fragment was able to stabilize the unstable plasmids in cis but not in trans.

  9. A comparative study of the anti-listerial activity of smear bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Mortensen, Christina; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Cell-free supernatants from Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus warneri and Brevibacterium linens were found to possess anti-listerial activities. Anti-listerial activities were increased during exponential growth phase and reached a maximum during stationary growth phase. S. epidermidis (SE...

  10. Development of Multi-Component Transplant Mixes for Suppression of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

    OpenAIRE

    Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Martinez-Ochoa, N; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Kloepper, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of combinations of organic amendments, phytochemicals, and plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) germination, transplant growth, and infectivity of Meloidogyne incognita were evaluated. Two phytochemicals (citral and benzaldehyde), three organic amendments (pine bark, chitin, and hemicellulose), and three bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Brevibacterium iodinum, and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were assessed. Increasing rates of benzaldehyde and citral ...

  11. Identification of Brevibacteriaceae by Multilocus Sequence Typing and Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analyses▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Forquin, Marie-Pierre; Duvergey, Hugo; Proux, Caroline; Loux, Valentin; Mounier, Jerome; Landaud, Sophie; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Gibrat, Jean-François; Bonnarme, Pascal; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle; Vallaeys, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing with nine selected genes is shown to be a promising new tool for accurate identifications of Brevibacteriaceae at the species level. A developed microarray also allows intraspecific diversity investigations of Brevibacterium aurantiacum showing that 13% to 15% of the genes of strain ATCC 9174 were absent or divergent in strain BL2 or ATCC 9175.

  12. Augmentation of NKT and NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity by peptidoglycan monomer linked with zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Mrakovcic-Šutic

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptidoglycan monomer (PGM, which was originally prepared by biosynthesis from culture fluids of penicillin-treated Brevibacterium divaricatum, is an immunostimulator, the activities of which might be improved by addition of zinc (Zn to the basic molecule.

  13. In Vitro Activities of Ketolide HMR 3647, Macrolides, and Clindamycin against Coryneform Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Pascual, Alvaro; Suárez, Ana Isabel; Perea, Evelio J.

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro activity of ketolide HMR 3647 against coryneform bacteria isolated from clinical samples was evaluated. Except against Corynebacterium jeikeium and C. urealyticum, HMR 3647 showed high activity against Corynebacterium spp., being more active than 14- and 16-membered macrolides, azithromycin, or clindamycin. HMR 3647 also had high in vitro activity against Brevibacterium spp. and Listeria monocytogenes.

  14. Polyamine Distribution Patterns in Coryneform Bacteria and Related Gram-Positive Eubacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Hamana, Koei

    1996-01-01

    Polyamines of the nine genera of coryneform and related Gram-positive eubacteria were analyzed by HPLC. Authentic species of Microbacterium, Aureobacterium, Cellulomonas and Corynebacterium were devoid of polyamines. Arthrobacter species were divided into polyamine-absent, putrescine, cadaverine and putrescine-cadaverine types. Clavibacter contained putrescine and cadaverine. Spermidine was detected in some species of Brevibacterium, Exiguobacterium and Curtobacterium and diaminopropane in so...

  15. Isolation and Identification of Novel Microcystin-Degrading Bacteria▿

    OpenAIRE

    Manage, Pathmalal M.; Edwards, Christine; Singh, Brajesh K.; Lawton, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    Of 31 freshwater bacterial isolates screened using the Biolog MT2 assay to determine their metabolism of the microcystin LR, 10 were positive. Phylogenetic analysis (16S rRNA) identified them as Arthrobacter spp., Brevibacterium sp., and Rhodococcus sp. This is the first report of microcystin degraders that do not belong to the Proteobacteria.

  16. Immobilization of microbial cells containing NAD-kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Kawashima, K.

    1979-06-01

    Microbial cells having NAD-kinase activity, Brevibacterium ammoniagenes, were immobilized by the radiation-copolymerization method under low temperature with the activity recovery of more than 80%. Compared to the native microbial cells the immobilized cells were more stable against heat and pH change. The immobilized cells were subjected to the 5 hr reaction repeatedly 20 times without any activity loss.

  17. Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 14067, Which Provides Insight into Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Coryneform Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Yangyong; Liao, Juanjun; Wu, Zhanhong; Han, Shuangyan; Lin, Ying; Zheng, Suiping

    2012-01-01

    We report the genome sequence of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 14067 (once named Brevibacterium flavum), which is useful for taxonomy research and further molecular breeding in amino acid production. Preliminary comparison with those of the reported coryneform strains revealed some notable differences that might be related to the difficulties in molecular manipulation.

  18. Studying of Phenomenon of Biological Adaptation to Heavy Water

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Mosin; Ignat Ignatov; Dmitry Skladnev; Vitaly Shvets

    2014-01-01

    Biological influence of deuterium on cells of various taxonomic groups of prokaryotic and eucaryotic microorganisms realizing methylotrophic, chemoheterotrophic, photo-organotrophic, and photosynthetic ways of assimilation of carbon substrates (methylotrophic bacteria Brevibacterium methylicum, chemoheterotrophic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, photo-organotrophic halobacteria Halobacterium halobium, and green micro algae Chlorella vulgaris) was investigated at the growth on media with heavy wate...

  19. Identification and characterization of a 29-kilodalton protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate recognized by mouse memory effector cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrands, I; Rasmussen, P.B.; Carnio, M;

    1998-01-01

    , Determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence allowed cloning and sequencing of the cfp29 gene. The nucleotide sequence showed 62% identity to the bacteriocin Linocin from Brevibacterium linens, Purified recombinant histidine-tagged CFP29 and native CFP29 had similar T-cell stimulatory properties...

  20. ФІЛОГЕНЕТИЧНИЙ АНАЛІЗ ШТАМІВ-ПРОДУЦЕНТІВ ЛІЗИНУ ПОРІВНЯННЯМ ПОСЛІДОВНОСТЕЙ ГЕНА 16S рРНК

    OpenAIRE

    Г. С. Андріяш; Заболотна, Г. М.; В.С. Бондаренко; С. М. Шульга

    2014-01-01

    Исследованы филогенетические связи штаммов-продуцентов незаменимых аминокислот аспартатноого семейства Brevi bacte rium sp. УКМ Ас-674 (Brevibacterium sp. 90), Brevibacterium sp. ИМВ Ас-5004 (Brevibacterium sp. 90Н), Brevibacterium sp. УКМ Ас-675 (Brevibacterium sp. Е531) и мутантного штамма Brevibacterium sp. ИМВ В-7447 из «Коллекции штаммов микроорганизмов и линий растений для пищевой и сельскохозяйственной биотехнологии» ГУ «Институт пищевой биотехнологии и геномики НАН Украины». По секвен...

  1. Identification and analysis of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)--biodegrading bacterial strains from refinery soil of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; Sahay, Harmesh; Sharma, Richa; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Singh, Shashi Bala; Saxena, A K; Nain, Lata

    2015-06-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) utilizing bacteria were isolated from soils of seven sites of Mathura refinery, India. Twenty-six bacterial strains with different morphotypes were isolated. These strains were acclimatized to utilize a mixture of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e., anthracene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, each at 50 mg/L concentration as sole carbon source. Out of total isolates, 15 potent isolates were subjected to 16S rDNA sequencing and identified as a member of diverse genera, i.e., Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Alcaligenes, Lysinibacillus, Brevibacterium, Serratia, and Streptomyces. Consortium of four promising isolates (Acinetobacter, Brevibacterium, Serratia, and Streptomyces) were also investigated for bioremediation of PAH mixture. This consortium was proved to be efficient PAH degrader resulting in 40-70 % degradation of PAH within 7 days. Results of this study indicated that these genera may play an active role in bioremediation of PAHs. PMID:26026847

  2. Isolation and catalytic characteristics of ethylene glycol-oxidizing strain%一株乙二醇氧化酶菌株的筛选及催化特性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉财; 徐晓锋; 潘雪鹤; 巫淼鑫

    2013-01-01

    利用富集培养技术从土壤中筛选获得1株高活性二醇氧化活性菌株Brevibacterium sp.CCZU12-1.以Brevibacterium sp.CCZU12-1静息细胞为催化剂,最适催化反应温度、反应pH和金属离子添加量分别为30℃、6.5和Mn2+0.1 mmol/L.在最佳条件下,转化200 mmol/L乙二醇24 h,羟基乙酸的产率为94.6%,分批补料乙二醇5批,羟基乙酸的累积浓度为972 mmol/L.

  3. 超声波提高工业微生物代谢产物生成量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海麟; 杨胜利; 王武

    2005-01-01

    以产胆固醇氧化酶短杆菌DGCD2(Brevibacterium sp.)、红曲霉YHQ70(Monascus sp.)、虎奶菇和乳酸脱氢酶菌株为出发菌株,研究超声处理对菌体生产和代谢产物合成的影响,分析了超声处理影响菌体代谢的原因.

  4. Influence of changing temperature on growth rate and competition between two psychrotolerant Antarctic bacteria: competition and survival in non-steady-state temperature environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Rutter, M; Nedwell, D B

    1994-01-01

    Competition between two psychrotolerant bacteria was examined in glycerol-limited chemostat experiments subjected to non-steady-state conditions of temperature. One bacterium, a Brevibacterium sp. strain designated CR3/1/15, responded rapidly to temperature change, while a second, Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava, designated CR3/2/10, exhibited a lag in growth after a shift-down during a square-wave temperature cycle but not after a shift-up. The effects on competition and survival by these bacteri...

  5. Isolation and characterization of bacterial strains with the ability to utilize high concentrations of levulinic acid, a platform chemical from inedible biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habe, Hiroshi; Sato, Shun; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kirimura, Kohtaro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen levulinic acid (LA)-utilizing bacteria were isolated from environmental samples. Following examination of the use of 80 g/L LA by some isolated strains, Brevibacterium epidermidis LA39-2 consumed 62.6 g/L LA following 8 days incubation. The strain also utilized both 90 and 100 g/L LA, with consumption ratio of 84.3 and 53.3%, respectively, after 10 days incubation. PMID:25851167

  6. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Purnima Dhall; Rita Kumar; Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated t...

  7. Bacterial Reduction of Toxic Cr(Ⅵ)into Cr(Ⅲ)%利用细菌还原有毒Cr(Ⅵ)为Cr(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Faisal; Shahida Hasnain

    2004-01-01

    Two chromium-resistant bacterial strains CrT-1 and CrT-13,which can tolerate K2 CrO4 up to 40 mg·mL-1 on nutrient agar,25 mg·mL-1 K2 CrO4 in nutrient broth,and up to 10 mg·mL-1 in acetate-minimal media,were used in this study.On the basis of 16S rRNA,strain CrT-1 was identified as Ochrobactrum intermedium and CrT-13 as Brevibacterium sp..Uptake of chromate was greater in living cells than in heat-killed cells.Ochrobactrum intermedium CrT-1 reduced 73% and 41% of Cr(Ⅵ)while Brevibacterium CrT-13 reduced 62% and 48% Cr(Ⅵ) at an initial chromate concentration of 750,and 1500 μg·mL-1,after 96 hours with an inoculum size of 9.6×107 cells·mL-1.Different heavy metals at low concentrations did not affect the reduction potential of the strains significantly.Ochrobactrum intermedium CrT-1 reduced 84% and 65% while Brevibacterium CrT-13 reduced 60% and 44% of Cr(Ⅵ)at an initial Cr(Ⅵ)concentration of 250 and 500 μg·mL-1,espectively,in an industrial effluent sample.

  8. 杆菌JSM1601发酵产核酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶勋艳

    2005-01-01

    确定了杆菌(Brevibacterium ammoniagenes)JMS1601发酵产核酸的最佳发酵培养基:葡萄糖12%,酵母浸膏1.5%,磷酸二氢钾0.3%。最佳摇瓶培养条件:温度32℃,摇床转速160r/min,接种量(v/v)5%,装液量100ml/500ml。

  9. Screening and Identification of Cholesterol Oxidase-producing Strains with High Activity%胆固醇氧化酶高产菌株的筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡丹; 张娜娜; 刘景圣

    2010-01-01

    将从不同地点采集到的9个样品进行分离筛选,从中分离到23株以胆固醇为唯一碳源的菌株,确定其中1株胞外胆固醇氧化酶高产菌株A3,其胆固醇氧化酶的活力为525U/L.经过形态学和生理生化实验初步鉴定,该菌株属于短杆菌属(Brevibacterium sp.).

  10. Optimization of L-isoleucine Fermentation Medium Using Response Surface Methodology%L-异亮氨酸发酵培养基的响应面法优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宁; 常高峰; 张克旭

    2004-01-01

    借助于SAS软件,采用Plackett-Burman试验设计法及响应面法分析,对L-异亮氨酸产生菌Brevibacterium flavum TC-21进行了发酵培养基的优化研究.在初始发酵培养基的基础上寻优,优化后的发酵培养基使TC-21菌株的L-异亮氨酸产率提高了22.52%.

  11. OPTIMIZATION CONDITIONS OF L-ISOLEUCINE FERMENTA TION BY UNIFORM DESIGN AND MATLAB SOFTWARE%利用均匀设计和MATLAB软件优化L-异亮氨酸发酵条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏春; 宋文军; 陈宁; 蒲凌龙; 张克旭

    2003-01-01

    采用均匀设计法考查了L-异亮氨酸生产菌黄色短杆菌Brevibacterium flavum的种子培养基和发酵培养基中几种主要成分对L-异亮氨酸发酵的影响,通过MATLAB软件分析获得最佳种子培养基和发酵培养基配比,在此条件下该菌株可产L-异亮氨酸15.1g/L.

  12. Optimization of L-Serine Flask-shaking Fermentation Condition%L-丝氨酸摇瓶条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭慧林; 崔春生; 杨海燕; 殷丽霞

    2006-01-01

    以基因工程菌株Brevibacterium flavm C-11A 为L-丝氨酸产生菌,研究L-丝氨酸的摇瓶发酵条件,确定了菌体活化方式,并通过单因素确定了摇瓶发酵条件为:酵母膏浓度为14 g/L, 缓冲剂为KH2PO4,碳氮比为10:3.

  13. Drying trials and protein enrichment by microbial growth on cane and beet molasses distillery stillage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteuzzi, D.; Rosa, M.D.; Brigidi, P.; Lerici, C.R.; Sina, P.

    1985-02-01

    It is well known that molasses stillage is difficult to dry because of its high hygroscopicity. This investigation was made to try to affect the drying capacity of beet molasses stillage by the addition of gelling agents. Increase in crude protein and essential amino acid content of beet molasses was obtained by growing Brevibacterium flavum and Candida utilis. The results obtained showed that drying performance is probably due to an optimum combination of the chemico-physical properties of the raw material. 7 references.

  14. Eco-friendly approach towards green synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals and its potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Yi, Young-Joo; Cho, Min; Jang, Jum-Suk; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated a novel green route for synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals using Prunus × yedoensis Matsumura leaf extract as a reducing agent without using any surfactant or external energy. Standard characterization studies were carried out to confirm the obtained product using UV-Vis spectra, SEM-EDS, FTIR, TEM, and XRD. In addition, the synthesized ZnO nanocrystals were coated onto fabric and leather samples to study their bacteriostatic effect against odor-causing bacteria Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Zinc oxide nanocrystal-coated fabric and leather showed good activity against both bacteria. PMID:26135054

  15. L一精氨酸产生菌的选育及其发酵条件的研究%Studies on the breeding of L-arginine-producing mutant and its fermentation conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏令鸣; 王宜敏; 刘铁敏; 李象洪

    2002-01-01

    以黄色短杆菌(Brevibacterium flerupt)ATl74(AHVr,TAr)为诱变出发株,经亚硝基胍(NTG)诱变处理,获得一株能够积累大量L一精氨酸的菌株AG77(AHVr,TAr,SGr).在20L发酵罐中,以葡萄糖为碳源,以硫酸铵等为氮源的培养基中培养4 d,产酸率可达31.3g/L.

  16. L-缬氨酸摇瓶发酵条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑

    2011-01-01

    通过对选育出的L-缬氨酸高产菌XH-378(Brevibacterium flavum,Leu^-+a-AB′+AHV′)的摇瓶发酵条件的研究,试验结果表明:发酵培养基中葡萄糖、玉米浆和生物素的最适用量分别为15%、0.8%和20mg/100mL,32℃发酵培养72小时,L-缬氨酸积累可达58g/L。

  17. Selective inhibition of type 2 fatty acid synthetase by the antibiotic thiolactomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Ikuo; Kawaguchi, Akihiko; Yamada, Mitsuhiro (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1984-03-01

    The antibiotic thiolactomycin inhibits the fatty acid synthesis from both (1-/sup 14/C)-acetate and (2/sup 14/C) malonyl-CoA of spinach leaves, developing castor bean endosperms and avocado mesocarp. On the other hand, fatty acid synthetases of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes and Corynebacterium glutamicum are much less sensitive to this antibiotic. As Hayashi et al. have indicated in their paper that thiolactomycin inhibits fatty acid synthetase of Escherichia coli but has little effect on the synthetases of yeast and rat liver, thiolactomycin is suggested to be a selective inhibitor of type 2 fatty acid synthetases.

  18. Recombinant expression and purification of "virus-like" bacterial encapsulin protein cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurup, W Frederik; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Koay, Melissa S T

    2015-01-01

    Ultracentrifugation, particularly the use of sucrose or cesium chloride density gradients, is a highly reliable and efficient technique for the purification of virus-like particles and protein cages. Since virus-like particles and protein cages have a unique size compared to cellular macromolecules and organelles, the rate of migration can be used as a tool for purification. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the purification of recently discovered virus-like assemblies called bacterial encapsulins from Thermotoga maritima and Brevibacterium linens. PMID:25358773

  19. Screening of diesel degradable bacteria and its oil removal ability%柴油降解菌的筛选及其除油能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏玚玚; 徐虹; 杨文忠

    2009-01-01

    从含油活性污泥中筛选得到目标菌株,纯化后通过Biolog微生物鉴定系统确定为Brevibacterium otitidis.该茵最适生长温度为35℃,最适pH值为7.0,能在以柴油为唯一碳源的无机盐培养基中生长.在模拟的漏油循环水中,除油率最高可达57.33%,COD去除率可达51.93%.

  20. Enzymatic surface modification of acrylonitrile fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistel, Ezio; Morra, Marco; Marinetti, Massimo

    2001-06-01

    The surface of polyacrylonitrile polymer (containing 10% acetate groups) as fibers and finely ground powder have been modified by enzymatic treatment. The enzyme used was a nitrile hydratase, member of the class of nitrile converting enzymes, present in the microorganisms Brevibacterium imperiale and Corynebacterium nitrilophilus. The pendant nitrile groups were selectively converted into the corresponding amides as assessed by XPS analysis. As indicated by the increase of the O/C atomic ratio, the fiber surface showed a significant increase in hydrophilicity. The newly formed amide groups were then able to react with the acid dyes typically used to stain natural fibers, conferring the coloring properties to the otherwise inert polymer surface.

  1. Microbiological studies on petroleum and natural gas. I. Determination of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, H.; Komagata, K.

    1964-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria were isolated from oil-brine, soils etc. sampled in oil fields in Japan during 1956, and the following species were identified: Corynebacterium hydrocarboclastus nov. sp., 11 strains; Pseudomonas nitroreducens nov. sp., 1 strain; Pseudomonas maltophila Hugh and Ryschenkow, 5 strains: Brevibacterium lipolyticum (Huss) Breed, 2 strains; Pseudomonas desmolytica Gray and Thornton, 5 strains; Flavobacterium ferrugineum Sickles and Shaw, 1 strain; and Alcaligenes faecalis Chastellani and Chalmers, 1 strain. One difference between Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria was described on the basis of the ability of assimilating hydrocarbons.

  2. Preliminary Study on Directional Breeding of L- Glutamine Producing Strain and Its Fermentation Condition%L-谷氨酰胺生产菌的定向选育及其发酵条件的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雪薇; 罗晓明

    2002-01-01

    以TG-866( Brevibacterium Tianjin )为出发菌株,利用硫酸二乙酯(DES)诱变,定向选育出一株谷氨酰胺生产菌GMS-44(MSOr、(NH4)2SO4r、SGr),在适宜的条件下平均积累谷氨酰胺27.0 g/L.并对种子培养基及发酵培养基配方作了优化设计.

  3. Structural Basis for Substrate and Oxygen Activation in Homoprotocatechuate 2,3-Dioxygenase: Roles of Conserved Active Site Histidine-200

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaleva, Elena G.; Rogers, Melanie S.; Lipscomb, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Kinetic and spectroscopic studies have shown that the conserved active site residue His200 of the extradiol ring-cleaving homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase (FeHPCD) from Brevibacterium fuscum is critical for efficient catalysis. The roles played by this residue are probed here by analysis of the steady state kinetics, pH dependence, and X-ray crystal structures of the FeHPCD position 200 variants His200Asn, His200Gln, and His200Glu alone and in complex with three catecholic substrates (homo...

  4. Actinomycetes in Karstic caves of northern Spain (Altamira and Tito Bustillo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, I; Vettermann, R; Schuetze, B; Schumann, P; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    1999-05-01

    A variety of isolation procedures were carried out to study the involvement of bacteria in the colonisation and biodeterioration of Spanish caves with paleolithic rock art (Altamira and Tito Bustillo). The applied techniques mainly aimed to isolate heterotrophic bacteria such as streptomycetes, nocardioform and coryneform actinomycetes, and other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results demonstrated that actinomycetes were the most abundant gram-positive bacteria in the caves. Actinomycetes revealed a great taxonomic diversity with the predominant isolates belonging to the genus Streptomyces. Members of the genera Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Nocardioides, Amycolatopsis, Saccharothrix, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and coccoid actinomycetes (family Micrococcaceae) were also found. PMID:10353805

  5. Selective inhibition of type 2 fatty acid synthetase by the antibiotic thiolactomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antibiotic thiolactomycin inhibits the fatty acid synthesis from both [1-14C]-acetate and [214C] malonyl-CoA of spinach leaves, developing castor bean endosperms and avocado mesocarp. On the other hand, fatty acid synthetases of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes and Corynebacterium glutamicum are much less sensitive to this antibiotic. As Hayashi et al. have indicated in their paper that thiolactomycin inhibits fatty acid synthetase of Escherichia coli but has little effect on the synthetases of yeast and rat liver, thiolactomycin is suggested to be a selective inhibitor of type 2 fatty acid synthetases. (author)

  6. Host-parasite interactions in closed and open microbial cultivation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisman, T. I.; Pechurkin, N. S.

    We studied interaction between bacteria and phages within a host-parasite system the members of the system being continuously and closely cultivated The objects of our research were auxotrophic strain Brevibacterium 22L and bacteriophage Brevibacterium sp strain A discovered in the soil of the Soviet Union Republic of Latvia using enrichment method 1 Closed system We investigated the dependence of bacteriolysis time upon the multiplicity of phage infection It was shown that reduction of phage amount by one bacterium leads to increase of marked lysis Another important factor determining cytolysis in fluid medium is the physiological state of bacterial population Specific growth rate of bacteria at the moment of phage infection was chosen as the index of the physiological state of bacteria It was revealed that the shortest latent period and the maximal phage burst is observed when the bacteria located in a favorable nutrient medium are in the logarithmic phase If the bacterial population has already passed from the logarithmic phase to the stationary one the cells become a bad host for phage reproduction and lysis occurs very slowly or even never starts at all 2 Open system In the process of continuous cultivation the members of the host-parasite system showed an ability to coexist over a long period of time After phage infection there were variations in the size of both populations and then the density of the host population reached the level close to that of the uninfected culture In this situation the phage population

  7. 细菌不规则生长的计算机模拟%Simulating of Poorly-Behaved Growth of Bacteria with Computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周今朝; 冯胜彦; 艾建宇

    2005-01-01

    用改进的R.May方程(X′n+1 = r X′ n(1-X′n))研究了乙酰短杆菌(Brevibacterium acetylicum)发酵过程中细菌浓度的变化.在R.May方程的基础上,引入r1和r2两个特征参数,以确定体系的混沌特征是否明显.结果表明,实验曲线的r1和r2的值约为3.7.此时,理论曲线和实验曲线吻合较好.由于实验曲线的r1和r2略大于混沌临界值3.55,说明细菌发酵过程中存在混沌.这表明在目前工艺条件下无法对Brevibacterium acetylicum菌株发酵过程进行精确控制.

  8. Identification of Main Strains in the Rice Cake and Analysis on the Series of the Bacteria%年糕腐败菌的鉴定和菌系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡庆松; 刘青梅; 杨性民; 郁志芳; 袁勇军

    2009-01-01

    作者采用VITEK-32自动化微生物分析仪鉴定系统、API微生物鉴定系统和手工法鉴定年糕中的微生物.研究结果表明:引起年糕腐败的典型菌株有6株,所占比例分别为:波茨坦短芽胞杆菌(Brevibacillus borstelensis)为1%、巨大芽孢杆菌(Bacillus megaterium)为21%、乙酰短杆菌(Brevibacterium acetylicum)为8%、希氏短杆菌(Brevibacterium healii)为7%、曲霉菌属(Aspergillus)为49%、茁芽丝孢酵母(Trichosporon pullulans)为9%.在这些菌株中,曲霉菌是造成年糕腐败的优势菌株,在生产车间、摊凉板中污染较多.而巨大芽孢杆菌主要来源于原料粳米中,在年糕中主要以芽孢的形式存在,若控制不当,在贮藏后期很容易爆发.

  9. Heavy metal biosorption by bacterial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchio, A.; Finoli, C.; Di Simine, D.; Andreoni, V. [Department of Food Science and Microbiology, State University, Milan (Italy)

    1998-06-01

    Microbial biomass provides available ligand groups on which metal ions bind by different mechanisms. Biosorption of these elements from aqueous solutions represents a remediation technology suitable for the treatment of metal-contaminated effluents. The purpose of the present investigation was the assessment of the capability of Brevibacterium sp. cells to remove bivalent ions, when present alone or in pairs, from aqueous solutions, using immobilized polyacrylamide cells of the microorganism in a flow-through system. The biosorption capacity of Brevibacterium cells was studied for lead, cadmium and copper. The metal cell binding capacity followed the order Cu > Pb > Cd, based on estimated q{sub max}. These values, expressed as mmol metal/g dry weight cells, were 0.54 for Cu, 0.36 for Pb and 0.14 for Cd. Polyacrylamide-gel immobilized cells were effective in Pb, Cu and Cd removal. Lead removal was not affected by the presence of Cd and Cu; lead instead inhibited Cd and Cu removal. The desorption of the metal, by fluxing a chelating solution, restored the metal binding capacity of the cells, thus affording the multiple use of the same biomass in the remediation treatment. (orig.) (orig.) With 5 figs., 4 tabs., 23 refs.

  10. 1株湿地稀有放线菌的多相分类鉴定%Polyphasic Taxonomy of a Rare Marine Actinomycetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐树戈; 张柳; 于基成; 刘秋; 齐小辉

    2014-01-01

    Strain S402003 was isolated from marine sediment collected from Yalu River in Dandong, Liaoning Province. Based on the polyphasic studies, including the morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics, chemotaxonomy and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the results showed that strain S402003 had lipase activity and was capable to reduce nitrate, belongs to the mild salt-tolerant and basophilic bacteria. It was primarily identified as Brevibacterium linens with the similarity 98.834%.%从鸭绿江滨海湿地样品中分离得到1株稀有海洋放线菌S402003,通过形态观察、培养特征、生理生化特征、化学组分鉴定以及16S rRNA基因序列分析对其进行多相分类鉴定。结果表明:该菌株具有脂酶活性,能还原硝酸盐,属于轻度耐盐、嗜碱菌。该菌株属于Brevibacterium linens,相似性为98.834%。

  11. 龙葵内生细菌的分离鉴定和多样性研究%Diversities of Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Medical Plant Solanum nigrum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 安阳; 刘振山; 陈卫民; 韦革宏

    2013-01-01

    采用16S rDNA PCR-RFLP和16 S rDNA基因全序列分析的方法,对从龙葵植株中分离得到的37株内生细菌进行多相分类和系统发育研究,结果显示共有18种16 S rDNA基因型,在系统分类上归属于8个属,分别为短杆菌属(Brevibacterium)、芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、葡萄球菌属(Staphylococcus)、类芽孢杆菌属(Paenibacillus)、土壤杆菌属(Agrobacterium)、短波单胞菌属(Brevundimonas)、不动杆菌属(Acinetobacter)和鞘脂杆菌属(Sphingobacterium).其中,菌株S-30与模式菌株Brevibacterium frigoritolerans DSM8801T的相似度仅为94.9%,是一个潜在的新种.试验结果揭示了龙葵根、茎、叶组织中内生细菌的多样性及其系统发育地位.

  12. Molecular detection and sensitivity to antibiotics and bacteriocins of pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis in family dairy herds of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Galván, Ma Fabiola; Barboza-Corona, José E; Lechuga-Arana, A Arianna; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; Aguayo, Daniel D; Cedillo-Pelaez, Carlos; Martínez-Ortega, Erika A; Gutierrez-Chavez, Abner J

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two farms (n = 535 cows) located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CLM) were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) (≥3) and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY), lactation number (LN), herd size (HS), and number of days in milk (DM) were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH), LN, HS, and DM (P Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study. PMID:25815326

  13. Effects of signal peptide on cholesterol oxidase expression in E.coil%信号肽对短杆菌胆固醇氧化酶基因在大肠杆菌中表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 杨海麟; 王龙刚; 沈微; 邬敏辰; 王武

    2009-01-01

    Brevibacterium sp. DGCDC-82染色体DNA中扩增出含信号肽序列的胆固醇氧化酶结构基因,插入大肠杆菌表达载体pET28a(+)中,构建重组质粒pET28a-COD(s+).以pET28a-COD(s+)为底物,扩增出不含信号肽的胆固醇氧化酶结构基因,构建成重组质粒pET28a-COD(s-).两种重组载体转化大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)通过IPTG诱导均获得活性表达,SDS-PAGE分析,目的产物表达量都占到了细胞总蛋白的50%以上, Brevibacterium sp. DGCDC-82胆固醇氧化酶的信号肽对重组酶的空间构象和表达量并没有太大的影响.

  14. Isolation and identification of intestinal bacteria of Haemaphysalis longicornis%长角血蜱肠道细菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春红; 周勇志; 赵素华; 刘毅; 张厚双; 曹杰; 周金林

    2011-01-01

    The hard tick Haemaphysalis longicomis is an exclusively hematophagous ectoparasites of mammals, which is regarded as one of vectors for disease spread. To study the effect of intestinal bacteria on the physiology of tick and transmission of pathogen by ticks, seven intestinal bacteria were isolated from tick H. Longicomis. These bacteria were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as fine genera, Caryophanon sp., Kocuria sp., Staphylococcus sp., Microbacterium sp. And Brevibacterium sp.%为深入研究肠道细菌在蜱的生理学和传播病原上的作用,本研究进行了长角血蜱肠道细菌的分离鉴定.按照细菌传统分离方法并结合16S rDNA测序鉴定,获得7个分离株,这些菌株分别属于显核菌属(Caryophanon sp.)、考克氏菌属(Kocuria sp.)、葡萄球菌属(Staphylococcus sp.)、微杆菌属(Microbacterium sp.)和短杆菌属(Brevibacterium sp.)5个菌属.

  15. Study on Optimal Conditions of NPase%核苷磷酸化酶的产酶条件优化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫蓬勃; 邱蔚然; 丁庆豹

    2001-01-01

    以鸟苷和5-氟尿嘧啶为底物,乙酰短杆菌菌体为酶源酶法合成5-氟尿苷。采用酵母浸膏培养基(酵母浸膏4.0%,葡萄糖0.4%,NaCl 0.3%, pH7.0),较高的溶氧量,同时添加0.6%的豆油,培养12h, 产酶量可提高30%。%5-Fluorouride was enzymatically synthes ized from guanosine and 5-fluor ouracil by brevibacterium acetylicum. The suitable culture medium contained 40g yeast extract, 4g glucose, 3g NaCl in 1 liter while pH was adjusted to 7.0 with NaOH. After brevibacterium acetylicum was cultured for 12 h in the conditi on of the higher dissolve oxygen and 0.6% soybean oil supplied , the amount of enzym produced can be increased by 30%.

  16. A Novel Screening Method for Isolating High Cholesterol Oxidase Producing Strain%一种胆固醇氧化酶高产菌株筛选方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍惠芝; 张玲; 孙艳; 杨海麟; 王武

    2008-01-01

    用亚硝基胍(1 mg.mL)与超声波(200 W,50 kHz)复合诱变的方法,对产胆固醇氧化酶短杆菌 Brevibacterium sp.DGCDC-82 进行诱变处理.得到一株桔红色突变株其产胆固醇氧化酶能力提高140%,酶活达到1.24 U/mL,又用同样的方法对桔红色突变株进行回复突变处理,得到一株白色回复突变株和一株淡粉色回复突变株,两株回复突变株产胆固醇氧化酶的能力又明显下降,酶活分别为0.17 U/mL和0.69 U/mL.说明短杆茵 Brevibacterium sp.产胆固醇氧化酶能力与其产红色素成正相关偶联关系,这种相关性模型的建立可以作为以后诱变或定向进化研究的筛子.

  17. Halotolerant bacteria in the São Paulo Zoo composting process and their hydrolases and bioproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lilian C G; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Marem, Alyne; Kondo, Marcia Y; Rocha, Rafael C S; Bertolini, Thiago; Silveira, Marghuel A V; da Cruz, João Batista; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto; Juliano, Luiz; Okamoto, Debora N

    2015-06-01

    Halophilic microorganisms are able to grow in the presence of salt and are also excellent source of enzymes and biotechnological products, such as exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Salt-tolerant bacteria were screened in the Organic Composting Production Unit (OCPU) of São Paulo Zoological Park Foundation, which processes 4 ton/day of organic residues including plant matter from the Atlantic Rain Forest, animal manure and carcasses and mud from water treatment. Among the screened microorganisms, eight halotolerant bacteria grew at NaCl concentrations up to 4 M. These cultures were classified based on phylogenetic characteristics and comparative partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as belonging to the genera Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Brevibacterium. The results of this study describe the ability of these halotolerant bacteria to produce some classes of hydrolases, namely, lipases, proteases, amylases and cellulases, and biopolymers. The strain characterized as of Brevibacterium avium presented cellulase and amylase activities up to 4 M NaCl and also produced EPSs and PHAs. These results indicate the biotechnological potential of certain microorganisms recovered from the composting process, including halotolerant species, which have the ability to produce enzymes and biopolymers, offering new perspectives for environmental and industrial applications. PMID:26273248

  18. Halotolerant bacteria in the São Paulo Zoo composting process and their hydrolases and bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian C.G. Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Halophilic microorganisms are able to grow in the presence of salt and are also excellent source of enzymes and biotechnological products, such as exopolysaccharides (EPSs and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs. Salt-tolerant bacteria were screened in the Organic Composting Production Unit (OCPU of São Paulo Zoological Park Foundation, which processes 4 ton/day of organic residues including plant matter from the Atlantic Rain Forest, animal manure and carcasses and mud from water treatment. Among the screened microorganisms, eight halotolerant bacteria grew at NaCl concentrations up to 4 M. These cultures were classified based on phylogenetic characteristics and comparative partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as belonging to the genera Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Brevibacterium. The results of this study describe the ability of these halotolerant bacteria to produce some classes of hydrolases, namely, lipases, proteases, amylases and cellulases, and biopolymers. The strain characterized as of Brevibacterium avium presented cellulase and amylase activities up to 4 M NaCl and also produced EPSs and PHAs. These results indicate the biotechnological potential of certain microorganisms recovered from the composting process, including halotolerant species, which have the ability to produce enzymes and biopolymers, offering new perspectives for environmental and industrial applications.

  19. Coral-Associated Actinobacteria: Diversity, Abundance, and Biotechnological Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Huda M; Kalendar, Aisha A

    2016-01-01

    Marine Actinobacteria, particularly coral-associated Actinobacteria, have attracted attention recently. In this study, the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria associated with three types of coral thriving in a thermally stressed coral reef system north of the Arabian Gulf were investigated. Coscinaraea columna, Platygyra daedalea and Porites harrisoni have been found to harbor equivalent numbers of culturable Actinobacteria in their tissues but not in their mucus. However, different culturable actinobacterial communities have been found to be associated with different coral hosts. Differences in the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria were detected between the mucus and tissue of the same coral host. In addition, temporal and spatial variations in the abundance and diversity of the cultivable actinobacterial communities were detected. In total, 19 different actinobacterial genera, namely Micrococcus, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Renibacterium, Nocardia, Microbacterium, Dietzia, Cellulomonas, Ornithinimicrobium, Rhodococcus, Agrococcus, Kineococcus, Dermacoccus, Devriesea, Kocuria, Marmoricola, and Arthrobacter, were isolated from the coral tissue and mucus samples. Furthermore, 82 isolates related to Micromonospora, Brachybacterium, Nocardia, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, and Streptomyces showed antimicrobial activities against representative Gram-positive and/or Gram-negative bacteria. Even though Brevibacterium and Kocuria were the most dominant actinobacterial isolates, they failed to show any antimicrobial activity, whereas less dominant genera, such as Streptomyces, did show antimicrobial activity. Focusing on the diversity of coral-associated Actinobacteria may help to understand how corals thrive under harsh environmental conditions and may lead to the discovery of novel antimicrobial metabolites with potential biotechnological applications. PMID:26973601

  20. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Fabiola León-Galván

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two farms (n=535 cows located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM and clinical mastitis (CLM were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT (≥3 and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY, lactation number (LN, herd size (HS, and number of days in milk (DM were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH, LN, HS, and DM P<0.01, and correlations between udder quarters from the CMT were around 0.49 P<0.01. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were mainly identified, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study.

  1. AУКСОТРОФНОСТЬ ПРОДУЦЕНТОВ ЛИЗИНА

    OpenAIRE

    Андрияш, А.; Заболотная, Г.; Шульга, С.

    2012-01-01

    Проведено исследование штаммовпродуцентов лизина из «Коллекции штаммов микроорганизмов и линий растений для пищевой и сельскохозяйственной биотехнологии» ГУ «Институт пищевой биотехнологии и геномики» НАН Украины. Осуществлен клоновый анализ штаммов после периодического культивирования продуцентов на мелассных средах. Установлено, что штаммы Brevibacterium sp. 90, Brevibacterium sp. 90Н, Brevibacterium sp. ХI дают расщепление колоний на два типа. Все клоны оценены по биосинтетической активнос...

  2. Host parasite interactions in closed and open microbial cultivation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisman, T. I.; Pechurkin, N. S.

    The study addresses interaction of bacteria and phages in the host parasite system in batch and continuous cultures. The study system consists of the auxotrophic strain of Brevibacterium Brevibacterium sp. 22L and the bacteriophage of Brevibacterium sp., isolated from the soil by the enrichment method.Closed system. In the investigation of the relationship between the time of bacterial lysis and multiplicity of phage infection it has been found that at a lower phage amount per cell it takes a longer time for the lysis of the culture to become discernible. Another important factor determining cytolysis in liquid medium is the physiological state of bacterial population. Specific growth rate of bacteria at the moment of phage infection has been chosen as an indicator of the physiological state of bacteria. It has been shown that the shortest latent period and the largest output of the phage are observed during the logarithmic growth phase of bacteria grown under favorable nutrient conditions. In the stationary phase, bacterial cells become “a bad host” for the phage, whose reproduction rate decreases, and the lysis either slows down significantly or does not occur at all.Open system. It has been found that in continuous culture, the components of the host parasite system can coexist over a long period of time. After phage infection, the sizes of the both populations vary for some time and then the density of the host population reaches the level close to that of the uninfected culture. The phage population copies the variations in the density of the host population, but in antiphase. It has been proven that the bacterium becomes resistant to the phage rather soon. It has been supposed that primary resistance is of physiological origin, because the percentage of cells that have survived lysis about 0.2% of the initial bacterial population is too high for phage-resistant mutants. Bacteria and phages cultured over extended periods of time in the host parasite system

  3. 几株城市污水优势降解细菌的初步鉴定%Preliminary Identification of Several Predominant Degradation Strains for Municipal Sewage Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正学; 刘云峰; 李德舜; 张英

    2007-01-01

    通过革兰氏等染色、个体及菌苔形态特征观察、生理生化反应等研究方法,对6株分离自城市污水的优势高效降解细菌,即9、X-18、M-28、M-6、X-39和X-58进行了分类鉴定.结果表明:它们分别隶属于色杆菌属(Chromobacterium sp.)、假单细胞菌属(Pseudomonas sp.)、短杆菌属(Brevibacterium sp.)、节杆菌属(Arthobacter sp.)、棒杆菌属(Corynebacterium sp.)、棒杆菌属(Corynebacterium sp.).

  4. 2-Nitrophenol degredation of strain SL43%细菌SL43降解硝基酚的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭峰; 张苓花; 王运吉; 张亚楠

    2006-01-01

    从盐池泥中筛选出一株中度耐盐菌SL43.16S rDNA鉴定结果表明,菌株SL43与Brevibacterium aureum的核苷酸的同源性高达100%.SL43对邻硝基酚的降解作用实验证明,菌株SL43在以邻硝基酚为唯一氮源且浓度为0.06 g/L时,对邻硝基酚的降解率为88.2%,在邻硝基酚浓度高达0.12 g/L时降解率为28.7%.

  5. Microbial desulfurization of dibenzothiophene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Afferden, M.; Schacht, S.; Beyer, M.; Klein, J.

    1988-01-01

    Concerning the sulfur removal from coal before combustion there is considerable interest in microbial methods as pyrite oxidation and elimination of organically bound sulfur from coal. Using organic sulfur compounds relevant for coal the mechanism of desulfurization was investigated. The authors isolated a defined mixed culture (FODO) able to utilize dibenzothiophene as sole sulfur source for growth, while benzoate was used as carbon source. The mixed culture FODO consists of an Alcaligenes denitrificans subspecies and a Brevibacterium species. Two metabolites of the degradation and dibenzothiophene-5-dioxide. The subsequent degradation of dibenzothiophene-5-dioxide used as sole sulfur source results in a release of sulfate ions into the medium. The results suggest a sulfur specific oxidative mechanism for removal of sulfur from dibenzothiophene.

  6. In situ global method for measurement of oxygen demand and mass transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Lundbaeck, K.M.O.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-05-01

    Two aerobic microorganisms, Saccharomycopsis lipolytica and Brevibacterium lactofermentum, have been used in a study of mass transfer and oxygen uptake from a global perspective using a closed gas system. Oxygen concentrations in the gas and liquid were followed using oxygen electrodes, and the results allowed for easy calculation of in situ oxygen transport. The cell yields on oxygen for S. lipolytica and B. lactofermentum were 1.01 and 1.53 g/g respectively. The mass transfer coefficient was estimated as 10 h{sup {minus}1} at 500 rpm for both fermentations. The advantages with this method are noticeable since the use of model systems may be avoided, and the in situ measurements of oxygen demand assure reliable data for scale-up.

  7. L-异亮氨酸产生菌XQ-4在连续培养中的动力学特性%Studies on kinetic of L-isoleucine producer XQ-4 in continuous culture process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟国; 陈坚; 伦世仪

    2001-01-01

    以黄色短杆菌( Brevibacterium flavum ) ATCC14067诱变选育获得的L-异亮氨酸高产菌XQ-4(AHVrAECr Sucg SGrEthrα-ABr IleHxr)在连续培养中进行动力学特性研究.以葡萄糖为限制性底物时,XQ-4菌株的生长符合Monod方程,其最大比生长速率μmax=0.265h-1,饱和常数Ks=0.789g/L.XQ-4菌株L-异亮氨酸发酵时菌体最大实际转化率Yx=0.499g/g,产物最大实际转化率Yp=0.379g/g.

  8. Microbial polysaccharide produced from crude oil and its applicability in secondary oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China); Wang, C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with a strain of bacterium Brevibacterium viscogenes nov. sp. 74-230, which produces extracellular polysaccharide from curde oil and its fractions. The effects of ages of the inoculum, several kinds of crude oil and its fractions, and contents of crude oil on the synthesis of polysaccharide were investigated. When crude oil was used as the sole carbon source (12%, w/v) in 50 or 240 1 fermentors, 8.0 g/1 of polysaccharide was obtained. The changes of hydrocarbon components after fermentation were analysed. They indicated that the bacterium strain mainly had utilized n-alkane. The fermented gummy solution was diluted and used as a driving fluid in laboratory scale model experiments. When the injection volume corresponds to 20% of the pore volume, the secondary oil recovery was enhanced to about 9% of the initial reserves.

  9. Isolation and identification of alkaline protease-producing marine bacteria%产碱性蛋白酶海洋细菌的筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志强; 林白雪; 谢联辉

    2006-01-01

    从福建海域的海水、海泥及海藻样品中分离到3株产碱性蛋白酶的海洋细菌菌株3B、6CW、15E,采用16S rDNA分子生物学鉴定结合细菌的常规鉴定方法,确认分离到的3株产蛋白酶的海洋细菌菌株分别是荧光假单胞菌(Pseudomonas fluorescens)、粘质沙雷菌(Serratia marcescens)和氧化短杆菌(Brevibacterium oxydans),并对其发酵液中的蛋白酶活力做了初步研究.

  10. 利用纸层析法分离谷氨酸产生菌及摇瓶发酵条件的研究%Screening glutamic acid producing strain by chromatography and its identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫春波; 程立坤; 程敏

    2009-01-01

    通过对几份土样的初筛比较研究发现,活禽摊土是谷氨酸产生菌的较好的生长环境.利用纸层析法对初筛菌株进行复筛,定向筛选到1株谷氨酸产生菌,初步鉴定为1株短杆菌(Brevibacterium sp.).比浊法测定其生长规律为:延滞期为0h~6h,数生长期为6h~16h,稳定期为16h~20h,20h以后进入衰亡期.

  11. Effet des polyamines sur la réduction du chrome hexavalent par des souches bactériennes et leur résistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahri Joutey, N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of polyamines on the reduction of hexavalent chromium by bacterial strains and their resistance. Polyamines are involved in several functions in bacteria. In this study, we examined the role of polyamines in hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI] reduction by three bacterial strains isolated from sites contaminated by tannery effluents. The strains were identified as Serratia proteamaculans, Leucobacter chromiireducens and Brevibacterium frigoritolerans. The inhibition of polyamine synthesis by α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO caused a decrease in Cr(VI tolerance in the bacterial isolates, indicating the role of endogenous polyamines in resistance to Cr(VI. The exogenous application of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, cadaverine was found to stimulate growth and Cr(VI reduction by the bacterial strains in Luria-Bertani medium. The results show the importance of polyamines in response to heavy metal stresses, especially Cr(VI toxicity.

  12. Labelling Bacterial Nanocages with Photo-switchable Fluorophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Rindia M; Fredy, Jean Wilfried; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Koay, Melissa S T; Katsonis, Nathalie

    2016-06-17

    The robustness and biocompatibility of bacterial nanocages holds promise for bio-nanotechnologies. The propensity of these nano-carriers to penetrate cells has been demonstrated, which calls for the development of tracking strategies, both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we label bacterial nanocages with photo-switchable fluorophores, to facilitate their imaging by super-resolution microscopy. We demonstrate the functionalization of the encapsulin from Brevibacterium linens with a spiropyran, which is not fluorescent, by covalent attachment to the amine residues at the outer encapsulin shell. Upon alternating irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light, the spiropyran switches forth and back to its fluorescent merocyanine photo-isomer and thus the fluorescence can be switched on and off, reversibly. We also show that the bacterial compartments preserve their structural integrity upon covalent modification and over at least five irradiation cycles. PMID:26854330

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF SHAKE-FLASK CULTURE CONDITIONS OF L -PROLINE FERMENTATION%L-脯氨酸摇瓶发酵条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑素慧; 李文军; 娄恺

    2008-01-01

    以黄色短杆菌(Brevibacterium flavum)AP117为出发菌进行了摇瓶条件下的脯氨酸发酵条件研究.正交试验结果表明,发酵培养基中蔗糖、乙酸铵、L-异亮氨酸、生物素和硫胺素的最适用量分别为4.0%、4.0%、300 mg/L400 μg/L和600 μg/L,发酵培养72 h后,L-脯氨酸积累可达57.12 g/L.同时考察了硫酸镁磷酸二氢钾不同装液量接种量和初始pH对菌株AP117积累L-脯氨酸的影响.

  14. Possibility of using strain F9 ( Serratia marcescens) as a bio-collector for hematite flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-fen; Li, Tian; Chang, Yan-hong; Luo, Hui; Tang, Qiong-yao

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we characterized strain F9 and evaluated the interaction between strain F9 and hematite by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), zeta potential, flotation, and other methods. The results showed that strain F9 belongs to Serratia marcescens. This brevibacterium had CH2, CH3, and hydroxyl groups on its cell wall, which imparted a strong hydrophobic and negative charge. Adsorption of strain F9 reduced the zeta potential of the hematite surface and increased the hydrophobicity of the hematite surface, thereby generating hydrophobic hematite agglomerates. At least four groups on strain F9 interacted with the hematite surface, which contributed to chemical interactions of carboxylic groups and hydrophobic association among hydrophobic hematite particles. The possible use of strain F9 as a bio-collector for hematite flotation was proved.

  15. A STAlNING METHOD USED FOR OBSERVING PROTOPLASTSUNDER THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE%一种光学显微镜下观察原生质体的染色方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世辉; 方呈祥; 张珞珍

    2000-01-01

    Brevibacterium lactofermentum菌液经溶菌酶处理后分别与4种微生物染色液混合,在光学显微镜比较观察原生质体形态的效果.结果表明:染色样品中的原生质体比未经染色的形态清晰易观察,而且显微照相效果好;其中使用草酸铵结晶紫和复红染色液的效果更佳.该方法程序简单、操作方便、效果明显,还适用于悬滴法观察菌体形态和细菌运动方式.

  16. Breeding of L- Serine- Producing Strain and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions%L-丝氨酸高产菌株的选育和摇瓶发酵条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏东; 谭慧林; 杨海燕; 崔春生; 殷丽霞

    2006-01-01

    采用Brevibacterium flavmC-11A为出发菌株,经紫外线照射和亚硝基胍诱变处理,选育出一株L-丝氨酸高产菌株C32为目的突变株,使摇瓶产酸率由12.1 g·L-1增加到16.4 g·L-1,然后对其进行摇瓶发酵条件优化,使菌株C32的L-丝氨酸产率提高到30.1 g·L-1.

  17. Microbial fermentative preparation of L-(/sup 15/N/sub 2/)lysine and its tracer: application to serum amino acid kinetic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, C.S.; Cooney, C.L.; Brown, L.T.; Gold, D.; Gordon, J.; Klein, P.D.

    1983-05-01

    The microorganism Brevibacterium flavium 21129 has been used to produce multigram batches of L-(/sup 15/N/sub 2/)lysine of high purity and isotopic enrichment by supplementation of the growth medium with (/sup 15/NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ of 98.0 atom% excess. The doubly /sup 15/N-labeled lysine can be detected at dilutions 10 times greater than singly labeled lysine when isotope dilution curves are analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This enhanced sensitivity permits kinetic measurements of plasma free-lysine isotope content over a 300-fold dilution during 6 h following a single oral bolus of 5 mg/kg body wt. This inexpensive preparation method lends itself to the production of highly useful biochemical compounds for kinetic studies of human nutrition.

  18. Actinobacterial Flora in Feces of Healthy Cottontail Rabbits (Sylvilagus auduboni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Tan, Hongming; Deng, Qingli; Cao, Lixiang

    2015-03-01

    Most known antibiotics from bacteria are produced by Actinobacteria. However, little is known about the community structure and diversity of fecal actinobacteria from rabbit feces. To investigate the actinobacterial community structure in rabbit feces, different actinobacterial-specific primer sets were used to amplify the overlap regions of 16S rRNA genes from the same DNA. At the genus level, 12 actinobacterial genera were detected by the L and S libraries. Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Dietzia, Leucobacter, Microbacterium, Promicromonospora and Rhodococcus were detected by L and S libraries. The Nocardioides, Streptomyces and Williamsia were only detected by L library; the Oerskovia and Brevibacterium were only detected by S library. The results indicated that rabbit feces contain diverse nonpathogenic actinobacterial taxa and PCR primer sets could underestimate the actinobacterial diversity besides the DNA extract efficiency. PMID:25424303

  19. Identification of Two Protease-Producing Strains%两株蛋白酶产生菌的分类鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秋菊

    2010-01-01

    前期试验筛选出两株具有产蛋白酶能力的菌株H1和H2.通过形态学观察及生理生化特征实验对这两株微生物进行了鉴定,初步确定H1属于短杆菌属(Brevibacterium),H2属于葡萄球菌属(Staphylococcus).进一步测定了两株蛋白酶产生菌的产蛋白酶能力.H1在25℃条件下酶活为每毫升566 U,H2在25℃条件下酶活为每毫升628 U.

  20. L-异亮氨酸发酵工艺条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浦军平; 陈刚; 王开国

    2003-01-01

    研究了L-异亮氨酸产生菌Apsm533128(Brevibacterium flavum)菌体的生长规律.讨论了葡萄糖、玉米浆的浓度对L-异亮氨酸的积累的影响,并且在30t发酵罐上进行发酵工艺条件的研究,通过对通气量、温度、pH值等外环境发酵条件的控制,在30t发酵罐工业化大生产中,L-异亮氨酸发酵产酸率达2.3~2.5%.并对其发酵动力学进行了初步的研究.

  1. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnima Dhall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand, BOD (biochemical oxygen demand MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids, and TSS (total suspended solids was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1 : 2 (effluent : biomass at 200 rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 162 mg/L, and 190 mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants.

  2. Two Approaches to Control of Fed-batch Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ilkova

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available L-lysine is one of the irreplaceable aminoacids whose content in the animal protein is relatively high in comparison to plants, where the content is relatively low. The insufficiently L-lysine quantity in the fodders reduces the biological value of the fodder doses, reduces the weight increase and the further productiveness of the agricultural animals, it increases the fodder quantity, used for a kilogram growth and decreases the product quantity of animal origin. The most effective and cheapest method for the L-lysine biosynthesis (in biological active form is the microbiological method via a direct fermentation. In this paper it is used an optimization method at the L-lysine production from strain Brevibacterium flavum 22LD - Neuro-dynamic programming. For receiving a feedback and robustness of the optimal control profile the Model predictive control of the L-lysine production is developed.

  3. L-缬氨酸菌种的选育及其发酵条件%Selective breeding and fermentation conditions of L-Val

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 何英; 贺小伟; 浦军平

    2002-01-01

    以产L-谷氨酸菌乳糖发酵短杆菌(Brevibacterium lactofermenturn)ATCC13058为出发菌株,经过亚硝基胍和硫酸二乙酯多次诱变处理,获得一株产L-缬氨酸的多重标记菌株 ,其遗传标记为Leu±+Ileu-+Met-+AHVr+α-ABr+2-TAr,在10%的葡萄糖培养基中产酸达2.8%~3.0%,在14%的葡萄糖培养基上产酸达3.5%以上,且副生杂酸少. 主要报道了该菌种的诱变过程及其摇瓶的发酵条件.

  4. L-缬氨酸发酵影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆阳; 刘树海; 陈宁

    2006-01-01

    以黄色短杆菌(Brevibacterium flavum)XV0505为生产菌株,研究了发酵培养基和发酵控制条件对L-缬氨酸的产量和糖酸转化率的影响.应用单因素实验确定发酵的工艺条件,利用纸层析-色班洗脱比色法测定发酵液中L-缬氨酸含量.在最优发酵条件下,通过10L罐流加发酵72h,产酸可达53.4g/L,糖酸转化率为26.7%,分别比补料分批发酵提高11.9%和3.5%.

  5. Identification and characterisation of potential biofertilizer bacterial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Kenan; Kotan, Recep; Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Dadaşoǧlu, Esin

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed that isolation, identification and characterizations of PGPR strains from rhizosphere of legume plants. 188 bacterial strains isolated from different legume plants like clover, sainfoin and vetch in Erzurum province of Turkey. These three plants are cultivated commonly in the Erzurum province. It was screen that 50 out of 188 strains can fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphate. These strains were identified via MIS (Microbial identification system). According to MIS identification results, 40 out of 50 strains were identified as Bacillus, 5 as Pseudomonas, 3 as Paenibacillus, 1 as Acinetobacter, 1 as Brevibacterium. According to classical test results, while the catalase test result of all isolates are positive, oxidase, KOH and starch hydrolysis rest results are variable.

  6. Actinobacterial Flora in Feces of Healthy Cottontail Rabbits (Sylvilagus auduboni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Tan, Hongming; Deng, Qingli; Cao, Lixiang

    2015-03-01

    Most known antibiotics from bacteria are produced by Actinobacteria. However, little is known about the community structure and diversity of fecal actinobacteria from rabbit feces. To investigate the actinobacterial community structure in rabbit feces, different actinobacterial-specific primer sets were used to amplify the overlap regions of 16S rRNA genes from the same DNA. At the genus level, 12 actinobacterial genera were detected by the L and S libraries. Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Dietzia, Leucobacter, Microbacterium, Promicromonospora and Rhodococcus were detected by L and S libraries. The Nocardioides, Streptomyces and Williamsia were only detected by L library; the Oerskovia and Brevibacterium were only detected by S library. The results indicated that rabbit feces contain diverse nonpathogenic actinobacterial taxa and PCR primer sets could underestimate the actinobacterial diversity besides the DNA extract efficiency.

  7. Cloning and expression of glucose 3-dehydrogenase from Halomonas sp. alpha-15 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, K; Tsugawa, W; Sode, K

    2001-03-23

    The gene encoding glucose 3-dehydrogenase (G3DH) from Halomonas sp. alpha-15 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. An open reading frame of 1686 nucleotides was shown to encode G3DH. The flavine adenine dinucleotide binding motif was found in the N-terminal region of G3DH. The deduced primary structure of G3DH showed about 30% identity to sorbitol dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter oxydans and 2-keto-d-gluconate dehydrogenases from Erwinia herbicola and Pantoea citrea. The folding prediction of G3DH suggested that the 3D structure of G3DH was similar with cholesterol oxidase from Brevibacterium sterolicum or glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger. PMID:11263965

  8. Possibility of using strain F9 (Serratia marcescens) as a bio-collector for hema-tite flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-fen Yang; Tian Li; Yan-hong Chang; Hui Luo; Qiong-yao Tang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we characterized strain F9 and evaluated the interaction between strain F9 and hematite by scanning electron micros-copy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), zeta potential, flotation, and other methods. The results showed that strain F9 belongs to Serratia marcescens. This brevibacterium had CH2, CH3, and hydroxyl groups on its cell wall, which imparted a strong hy-drophobic and negative charge. Adsorption of strain F9 reduced the zeta potential of the hematite surface and increased the hydrophobicity of the hematite surface, thereby generating hydrophobic hematite agglomerates. At least four groups on strain F9 interacted with the hematite surface, which contributed to chemical interactions of carboxylic groups and hydrophobic association among hydrophobic hematite particles. The possible use of strain F9 as a bio-collector for hematite flotation was proved.

  9. Research and Analysis of Cultivate Bacteria in Captive Gibbons Faeces in the Kunming Zoo%昆明动物园圈养长臂猿粪便可培养细菌分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莲; 马国强; 刘丽; 刘安荣; 师婧; 周杰珑; 王秀艳

    2016-01-01

    It took seven captive Gibbons of Kuming Zoo as the research object,adopted a combination of tradi-tional microbiological and molecular biological methods,isolated,identified and analyzed the cultivate bacteria of fresh feces.The results showed that nine strains could identify to spicies among the 15 isolated strains of bacteria, which were belonged to Bacillus methylotrophicus,Enterococcus hirae,Brevibacterium halotolerans and Shigella flex-neri 4 species,respectively.The other six strains could identify to genus,which were belonged to the genus Neisse-ria and Escherichia coli 2 genus,respectively.Which the brevibacterium halotolerans and Escherichia coli were the dominant bacteria.%以昆明动物园7只圈养长臂猿为研究对象,通过传统微生物检测和分子生物学方法相结合,对其新鲜粪便可培养细菌进行分离、鉴定与分析。结果表明:分离得到的15株细菌中,有9株细菌可鉴定到种,分别属于甲基营养型芽孢杆菌、海氏肠球菌、耐盐短杆菌和弗氏志贺菌4个种;有6株细菌可以鉴定到属,分别属于奈瑟菌属和大肠杆菌2个属;其中优势菌为耐盐短杆菌和大肠杆菌。

  10. L-缬氨酸产生菌的原生质体融合及抗高糖融合株的筛选%Protoplast Fusion of L-Valine Producer and Screening of Fusants by Improving High-Glucose Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁丹丹; 张伟国

    2011-01-01

    通过原生质体融合技术选育出一株抗高糖的融合株.以黄色短杆菌(Brevibacterium lavum)NV128和黄色短杆菌(B.flavum)JV16(Leu- Ile- Met-)为亲本菌株,通过单灭活原生质体融合、高糖梯度平板筛选及进一步的硫酸二乙酯(DES)诱变,获得了一株L-缬氨酸高产菌NJ-237.同时研究了影响原生质体形成、再生的3种重要条件(青霉素、酶和渗透压稳定剂),并确定了其最佳处理浓度和时间.该融合株经7L发酵罐培养72 hL-缬氨酸达到46.8 g/L,糖酸转化率为27.7%,比两亲株都有显著提高.%A fusant which could be resistant to high concentration of glucose was screened by fusing protoplasts in this study. The L-valine overproducing fusant was derived from Brevibacterium flavum NV128 and JV16 (Leu- Ile- Met-), and was screened on high-glucose gradient plates by means of fusing the single inactivated protoplasts and diethylsulfate(DES) treatment. At the same time? Three different conditions (penicillin, lysozyme and osmotic stabilizer)affecting the formation and regeneration of protoplasts were studied and the optimum conditions were determined. Under the optimum conditions, the titer of L-valine achieved at 46. 8g/L after 72h culture, and the yield of L-valine on glucose was 27. 7%.

  11. Isolation, abundance and phylogenetic affiliation of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants and screening for their in vitro antimicrobial biosynthetic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passari, Ajit K; Mishra, Vineet K; Saikia, Ratul; Gupta, Vijai K; Singh, Bhim P

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are of interest as the producers of important bioactive compounds. To date, the diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants is in its initial phase of exploration. In this study, 42 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from different organs of seven selected medicinal plants. The highest number of isolates (n = 22, 52.3%) of actinomycetes was isolated from roots, followed by stems (n = 9, 21.4%), leaves (n = 6, 14.2%), flowers (n = 3, 7.1%), and petioles (n = 2, 4.7%). The genus Streptomyces was the most dominant among the isolates (66.6%) in both the locations (Dampa TRF and Phawngpuii NP, Mizoram, India). From a total of 42 isolates, 22 isolates were selected for further studies based on their ability to inhibit one of the tested human bacterial or fungal pathogen. Selected isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and subsequently the isolates were grouped to four different genera; Streptomyces, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and Leifsonia. Antibiotic sensitivity assay was performed to understand the responsible antimicrobials present in the isolates showing the antimicrobial activities and revealed that the isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Further, antimicrobial properties and antibiotic sensitivity assay in combination with the results of amplification of biosynthetic genes polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) showed that the endophytic actinomycetes associated with the selected medicinal plants have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This is the first report of the isolation of Brevibacterium sp., Microbacterium sp., and Leifsonia xyli from endophytic environments of medicinal plants, Mirabilis jalapa and Clerodendrum colebrookianum. Our results emphasize that endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants are an unexplored resource for the discovery of biologically active

  12. Using the Surface Mature Bacteria and Enzyme Preparation Cheese the Research of the Agent that Flavor%利用表面成熟菌和酶制备干酪风味剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹春玲; 刘会平; 季玲; 卫风汝; 陈苓

    2012-01-01

    利用表面成熟菌(Brevibacterium linens和Debaryomyces hansenii),与蛋白酶Flavourzyme和脂肪酶Pal-atase20000L结合的方法制备干酪风味剂(菌酶组),并与仅用蛋白酶和脂肪酶酶解干酪的方法制备出的干酪风味剂(双酶组)进行比较。利用固相微萃取(SPME)结合GC—MS的方法检测两组干酪风味剂中的挥发性风味物质的种类和含量,并对两者进行比较。结果表明,菌酶组中含有45种风味物质,其中含量最多的酸类,其次是混杂类、酯类和含硫化物;双酶组含有27种风味物质,其中含量最多的是酯类,其次是酸类、酮醛类。%We used two surface mature bacterium (Brevibacterium linens and Debaryomyces hansenii) , and Fla- vourzyme protease, Palatase20000L lipase to prepare cheese flavoring agent (bacteria enzyme group). Besides, only proteinase and lipase were used to make cheese flavoring agent (double enzymes group). The volatile flavor sub- stances of the two groups of cheese flavoring agents were tested by solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with GC-MS technology. The results showed that bacteria enzyme group contained 45 flavor substances, most of which were acids, miscellaneous, esters and sulfur compounds. Double enzymes group contained 27 kinds of flavor substances, most of them were esters, followed by acids, aldehydes and ketones.

  13. Studies on the Screening of Chitinase Producing Strain from Ocean and Its Optimization on Fermentation%海洋产几丁质酶菌株的筛选及发酵条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灿; 黄德智; 李丰硕; 王硕; 薛永常

    2012-01-01

    A strain with high productivity of chitinase was screened through transparent circle method from sea mud of Dalian seaside and was identified as species Brevibacterium linens. After medium optimization and orthogonal experiments, which include carbon sources, nitrogen sources, temperature and pH, the chitinase activity was improved. The results showed that the optimized conditions for chitinase production were 1 g/L peptone, 10 g/L Colloidal chitin, the NaCl of 20 g/L, culture at 28 ?and pH 7.0. Under these conditions the chitinase activity can reach 0.508 U/mL,9 times higher than that of par ent strain.%通过透明圈法初筛、DNS复筛,从大连近海海域的海泥中分离出一株高产几丁质酶的菌株,经初步鉴定为扩展短杆菌(Brevibacterium linens).采用不同碳源、氮源、温度、pH值等对培养条件进行了优化及正交试验.结果表明:该菌产酶最适条件是在28℃、pH7.0、蛋白胨1g/L、胶体几丁质10g/L、NaCl 20g/L条件下,几丁质酶活力可达0.508 U/mL,比优化前其产酶活力提高了9倍.

  14. 梯度温度法提高L-赖氨酸发酵水平的研究%Study on the conditions of L-lysine acid production with gradient temperature fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉少杰; 张伟国

    2012-01-01

    对黄色短杆菌(Brevibacterium flavum)XQ90发酵生产赖氨酸的条件进行了研究。结果表明:两阶段温度控制策略(0~18h31℃,18h~结束34℃)更有利于提高产量和发酵强度;在控温的基础上发酵周期缩短至60h;同时通过连续流加葡萄糖和硫酸铵确定了最佳残糖维持浓度5~10g/L和最佳氨氮浓度1.0~2.0g/L;在最优条件下,赖氨酸盐酸盐的产量从111g/L提高到151g/L,糖酸转化率达50.2%。%Abstract.Fermentation conditions of Brevibacterium flavum XQ90 for lysine acid production were studied. It was found that the two-stage temperature strategy was better for fermentation (0-18h 31℃, 18h-end 34℃), and fermentation time was decreased to 60h in the new process. At the same time the optimal residual sugar concentration was 5-10g/L, and ammomia nitrogen was 1.0-2.0g/L.As a result, under the optimum fermentation conditions,Lys. HCI productivity was enhanced from 111g/L to 151 g/L, and conversation rate from glucose to lysine acid was 50.2%.

  15. Biochemical mechanisms for the desulfurization of coal-relevant organic sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afferden, M. van; Tappe, D.; Beyer, M.; Trueper, H.G.; Klein, J. (DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany))

    1993-12-01

    Two microbial strains ([ital Brevibacterium] sp. DO, [ital Pseudomonas aeruginosa] OS1) were isolated for their ability to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT) and benzyl methyl sulfide (BMS). Enrichment was achieved by a sulfur-selective screening system using the model compounds as the sole source of sulfur for bacterial growth. [ital Brevibacterium] sp. DO utilizes DBT as a sole source of sulfur, carbon and energy for growth, whereas [ital Pseudomonas aeruginosa] OS1 metabolizes BMS to only a small extent under sulfur-selective conditions. Investigations of the regulation of enzymes involved in the desulfurization of coal-relevant sulfur compounds indicate that in nature at least two mechanisms exist: 'carbon regulation' and 'sulfur regulation'. The biochemical mechanisms leading to the desulfurization of BMS and DBT are similar. The sulfur atom of both compounds is initially oxidized to the corresponding sulfone, and cleavage of the C-S bond proceeds via the formation of a chemically unstable hemimercaptal (S-oxidized form) by oxidation of the carbon atom adjacent to the sulfur atom. These results indicate that oxidation of sulfur to its highest oxidation state may be the precondition for the oxidative cleavage of the covalent C-S bonds. By isotope-labelling experiments using [sup 18]O[sub 2], the initial enzymes were identified as sulfoxygenases that use molecular oxygen. Cleavage of the C-S bond of DBT and BMS leads to the formation of organic sulfinic acids as intermediates. With DBT the sulfinic acid is desulfurized probably by hydrolysis; this results in the formation of sulfite and benzoate. The desulfurization of BMS proceeds by sulfonic acid-oxidation. The applicability of these biochemical mechanisms to the microbial desulfurization of coal is discussed. 39 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Coral-associated Actinobacteria from the Arabian Gulf: diversity, abundance and biotechnological potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Mahmoud Mahmoud

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinobacteria are widely distributed in terrestrial environments, where they are considered a significant source of bioactive compounds, mainly antibiotics. Marine Actinobacteria, particularly coral-associated Actinobacteria, have attracted attention recently. In this study, the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria associated with Coscinaraea columna, Platygyra daedalea and Porites harrisoni, north of the Arabian Gulf were investigated. The corals of the Arabian Gulf, one of the world’s hottest seas, are thriving under extreme water temperatures that exceed 39°C during the summer. Similar water temperatures cause coral bleaching and death in other water bodies. For this reason, the corals of the Gulf are living models for investigating how corals in other settings may survive at the end of the current century.Different coral hosts have been found to harbor equivalent numbers of culturable Actinobacteria in their tissues but not in their mucus. However, different culturable actinobacterial communities have been found to be associated with different coral hosts. Differences in the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria were detected between the mucus and tissue of the same coral host. In addition, temporal and spatial variations in the abundance and diversity of the cultivable actinobacterial communities were detected. In total, 19 different actinobacterial genera, namely Micrococcus, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Renibacterium, Nocardia, Microbacterium, Dietzia, Cellulomonas, Ornithinimicrobium, Rhodococcus, Agrococcus, Kineococcus, Dermacoccus, Devriesea, Kocuria, Marmoricola and Arthrobacter, were isolated from the coral tissue and mucus samples. Furthermore, 82 isolates related to Micromonospora, Brachybacterium, Nocardia, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus and Streptomyces showed antimicrobial activities against representative Gram-positive and/or Gram-negative bacteria. Even though

  17. Breeding of L-valine producer and optimization of its fermentation medium%L-缬氨酸产生菌的选育及其发酵培养基的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁丹丹; 侯小虎; 张伟国

    2011-01-01

    以黄色短杆菌(Brevibacterium flavum)NJ-237为出发菌株,通过梯度传代适应性培养及同浓度药物平板富集培养的方式,逐步提高菌体的抗药物性能,获得了1株耐高糖和耐高浓度α-氨基丁酸(α-AB)的菌株NJ-2372.在单因素实验的基础上,利用响应面分析法对影响该菌株L-缬氨酸(L-Val)产量的3个重要因素玉米浆、生物素(VH)、硫胺素(VB1)的添加量进行优化.结果表明:当玉米浆、VH、VB1最佳添加量分别为11 g/L、35 μg/L和101 μg/L时,摇瓶发酵72 h,L-Val摇瓶发酵产量达到52.9 g/L.%Using Brevibacterium flavum NJ-237 as the original strain by gradual adaptive culture and synchronized enrichment culture on the same concentration of additives, a L-valine producing mutant NJ2372 was obtained.It was resistant to high concentration of glucose and α-aminobutyric acid.On the basis of single-factor experiments, the optimal concentrations of the three important factors including corn steep liquor, VH, VB1 were obtained by response surface methodology.The concentrations of corn steep liquor, VH, VB1 were 11 g/L, 35 μg/L, and 101 μg/L, respectively, and L-valine production of the strain was 52.9 g/L for 72 h in shaker flask.

  18. L-缬氨酸高产菌诱变育种的研究%Studies on the Breeding of L-Valine Hyper-Producing Mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟国; 钱和

    2011-01-01

    Using Brevibacterium flavum XQ-2 ( Leu1 (-ABr AHVr 2-TAr) as a starting strain for stepwise mutagenesis by diethylsulfate (DES), N-methyl-N '-nitro-soguanidine (NTG) treatment, a L-valine hyper-producing mutant XQ-8 (Leu1 (-ABhr2-TAhrAHVhr) was obtained,which could be resistant to high concentration a-amino-butyric acid (α-AB), 2-thiazole-DLalanaine (2-TA) and a-amino-β- hydroxy-valeric acid (AHV). As a result, high L-valine concentration (64~66g/L) was obtained with shaking at 31 ±1℃ for 72h in the medium containing 135g/L glucose and 50g/L (NH4)2SO4.%以黄色短杆茵(Brevibacterium flavum)L-缬氨酸产生菌XQ-2为出发菌株,经硫酸二乙酯(DES)和亚硝基胍(NTG)逐级诱变处理,氨基酸结构类似物α-氨基丁酸(α-AB)、2-噻唑丙氨酸(2-TA)和α一氨基-β-羟基戊酸(AHV)定向筛选,获得一株L-缬氨酸高产茵XQ-8(Leu1(-ABhr2-TAhrAHVht).在以135 g/L葡萄糖为碳源和50 g/L硫酸铵为氮源的培养基中摇瓶发酵72 h,产酸达64~66 g/L.

  19. Effects of lipid concentration on anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yifei, E-mail: sunif@buaa.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Dian; Yan, Jiao [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Qiao, Wei [College of Chemical Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Wang, Wei [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhu, Tianle [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Lipid in municipal biomass would not inhibited the anaerobic digestion process. • A lipid concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. • The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with the increasing of the lipid contents. • Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process. - Abstract: The influence of the lipid concentration on the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste-activated sludge was assessed by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and by bench-scale tests in a mesophilic semi-continuous stirred tank reactor. The effect of increasing the volatile solid (VS) concentration of lipid from 0% to 75% was investigated. BMP tests showed that lipids in municipal biomass waste could enhance the methane production. The results of bench-scale tests showed that a lipids concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. Methane yields increased with increasing lipid concentration when lipid concentrations were below 60%, but when lipid concentration was set as 65% or higher, methane yields decreased sharply. When lipid concentrations were below 60%, the pH values were in the optimum range for the growth of methanogenic bacteria and the ratios of volatile fatty acid (VFA)/alkalinity were in the range of 0.2–0.6. When lipid concentrations exceeded 65%, the pH values were below 5.2, the reactor was acidized and the values of VFA/alkalinity rose to 2.0. The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with increasing lipid content. Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process, thereby inhibiting anaerobic digestion.

  20. Isolation, abundance and phylogenetic affiliation of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants and screening for their in vitro antimicrobial biosynthetic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Kumar Passari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are of interest as the producers of important bioactive compounds. To date, the diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants is in its initial phase of exploration. In this study, 42 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from different organs of seven selected medicinal plants. The highest number of isolates (n=22, 52.3% of actinomycetes was isolated from roots, followed by stems (n=9, 21.4%, leaves (n=6, 14.2%, flowers (n=3, 7.1% and petioles (n=2, 4.7%. The genus Streptomyces was the most dominant among the isolates (66.6% in both the locations (Dampa TRF and Phawngpuii NP, Mizoram, India. From a total of 42 isolates, 22 isolates were selected for further studies based on their ability to inhibit one of the tested human bacterial or fungal pathogen. Selected isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and subsequently the isolates were grouped to four different genera; Streptomyces, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium and Leifsonia. Antibiotic sensitivity assay was performed to understand the responsible antimicrobials present in the isolates showing the antimicrobial activities and revealed that the isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Further, antimicrobial properties and antibiotic sensitivity assay in combination with the results of amplification of biosynthetic genes polyketide synthase (PKS-I and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS showed that the endophytic actinomycetes associated with the selected medicinal plants have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This is the first report of the isolation of Brevibacterium sp., Microbacterium sp. and Leifsonia xyli from endophytic environments of medicinal plants, Mirabilis jalapa and Clerodendrum colebrookianum. Our results emphasize that endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants are an unexplored resource for the discovery of biologically active

  1. Biosynthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial applications of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh P

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Priyanka Singh,1 Yeon Ju Kim,2 Hina Singh,1 Chao Wang,2 Kyu Hyon Hwang,3 Mohamed El-Agamy Farh,1 Deok Chun Yang1,2 1Department of Oriental Medicinal Material and Processing, 2Graduate School of Biotechnology and Ginseng Bank, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 3Gyeonggi-Do Agricultural Research & Extension Services, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea Abstract: In the present study, the strain Brevibacterium frigoritolerans DC2 was explored for the efficient and extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles. These biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, which detected the formation of silver nanoparticles in the reaction mixture and showed a maximum absorbance at 420 nm. In addition, field emission transmission electron microscopy revealed the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. The dynamic light scattering results indicated the average particle size of the product was 97 nm with a 0.191 polydispersity index. Furthermore, the product was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and elemental mapping, which displayed the presence of elemental silver in the product. Moreover, on a medical platform, the product was checked against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The nanoparticles demonstrated antimicrobial activity against all of these pathogenic microorganisms. Additionally, the silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their combined effects with the commercial antibiotics lincomycin, oleandomycin, vancomycin, novobiocin, penicillin G, and rifampicin against these pathogenic microorganisms. These results indicated that the combination of antibiotics with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles enhanced the antimicrobial effects of antibiotics. Therefore, the current study is a demonstration of an efficient biological synthesis

  2. Rizobactérias no controle da mancha angular do algodoeiro Rhizobacteria to control cotton bacterial blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Keiko Nakasone Ishida

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o potencial de rizobactérias na indução de resistência do algodoeiro à Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum. Após o isolamento das rizobactérias, foram selecionados os isolados capazes de reduzir os sintomas da mancha angular bacteriana em casa de vegetação, os quais foram aplicados espacialmente separados do patógeno desafiador. Os melhores isolados foram testados quanto à capacidade de reduzir os sintomas da ramulose e da murcha de Verticillium e de inibir diretamente os patógenos in vitro. Do total de 123 isolados de rizobactérias foram selecionados cinco, L2-1 (Bacillus cereus, MT5-6 (Bacillus cereus, L2-2 (Achromobacter xylosoxidans, MT5-5 (Bacillus cereus e MT5-11 (Brevibacterium sp., os quais apresentaram controle da mancha angular acima de 40%, em relação à testemunha. Nenhum isolado reduziu a severidade da ramulose e da murcha de Verticillium em relação à testemunha, nem apresentou efeito inibitório direto in vitro a X. axonopodis pv. malvacearum e Colletotrichum gossypii var. cephalosporioides. Para V. dahliae, apenas o isolado L2-1 apresentou efeito inibitório.The potential of rhizobacteria was evaluated for resistance induction against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum. After isolation, the rhizobacteria were screened for the reduction of angular leaf spot severity under greenhouse conditions. They were spatially separated from the challenging pathogen. The best isolates were tested for the capacity to reduce ramulose and Verticillium wilt severity and directly inhibit pathogens in vitro. From a total of 123 rhizobacterial isolates, five were selected, L2-1 (Bacillus cereus, MT5-6 (Bacillus cereus, L2-2 (Achromobacter xylosoxidans, MT5-5 (Bacillus cereus and MT5-11 (Brevibacterium sp., which showed angular leaf spot control above 40% as compared to the control. The tested isolates neither reduced the severity of ramulose and verticillium wilt compared to the control nor showed in vitro direct

  3. 兴安落叶松林土壤微生物分布%THE DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL MICROORGANISM IN Larix gmelinii FOREST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓彤; 姜海燕; 闰伟; 赵洪凯; 董内涵

    2011-01-01

    本研究利用选择性培养基,研究了原始林中的草类-落叶松林(HLV)、柴桦-落叶松林(BLV),被干扰林中的皆伐-落叶松林(CL)、渐伐-落叶松林(SL)的土壤微生物的数量和种群组成.结果表明:土壤微生物随季节的变化是7月大于5月、9月,微生物的垂直变化是随着土层深度的增加,微生物数量呈递减趋势.从原始林与干扰林中共分离到细菌18属,优势菌属为短杆菌属(Brevibacterium)、芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、棒杆菌属(Corynebacterium)、微球菌属(Micrococcus);放线菌8属,优势属为链霉菌属(Streptomyces)、诺卡氏菌属(Nocardia);真菌18属,优势菌属为青霉属(Penicillium)和头孢属(Cephalosporium).%The population structure and numbers of soil microorganisms in different forest types were studied in Ledwn palustre -Herbage -L. Gmelinii virgin forest, Betula -L gmelinii virgin forest of the primary forest and clear cutting L. Gmelinii forest .successive cutting L. Gmelinii forest of the disturbed forest in the national forestry ecosystems station of Inner Mongolia Great Xingan Mountains by selective media. The results showed that the quantity of total microorganisms were July > May and September, the quantity of soil microorganisms were gradual lower with the increasing in vertical depth, follow orders: 0 - 10cm layer > 10 -20cm layer >20 -30cm layer. Bacteria isolated from plots belonged to 18 genera, Brevibacterium,Bacillus,Corynebacterium and Micrococcus were main genera; actinomycetes were composed of 8 genera, Streptomyces and Nocardia were the main genera; fungi were composed of 18 genera, Peni-cillium and Cephalosporium were the dominant genera from the primary forest and disturbed forest.

  4. 水磨年糕中微生物的分离纯化与鉴定%Purification and Identification of Microbes in Water Mill Rice Cake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈挺; 娄永江; 庞林江; 王茜茜

    2015-01-01

    通过对年糕内部和表面的微生物进行分离纯化,并通过形态观察、生化测定的方法来鉴定微生物的组成,结果表明:年糕表面的微生物主要有6种细菌、3种霉菌和2种酵母菌。细菌中4种是芽孢杆菌,分别为巨大芽孢杆菌(Bacillus megaterium)、枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、蜡状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus)和短芽孢杆菌(Bacillus brevis),2种是非芽孢杆菌,分别为乙酰短杆菌(Brevibacterium acetylicum)和乙酸钙不动杆菌(Acinetobacter calcoaceticus);霉菌分别为米根霉(Rhizopus oryzae)、构巢曲霉(Aspergillus nidulans)和米曲霉(As⁃pergillus oryzae);酵母菌分别为茁芽丝孢酵母(Trichosporon pullulans)和白色假丝酵母(Candida albicans)。年糕内部的微生物有巨大芽孢杆菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、短芽孢杆菌和白色假丝酵母,无霉菌。%Through the morphology observation and the physiological and biochemical of microorganisms which were separated and purified from the interior and the surface of the rice cake,we can get that there were 6 kinds of bacteri⁃um(involving 4 kinds of Bacillus which were Bacillus megaterium,Bacillus subtilis,Bacillus cereus and Bacillus bre⁃vis,2 kinds of non-Bacillus were Brevibacterium acetylicum and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus),3 kinds of molds(Rhizo⁃pus oryzae,Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus nidulans),and 2 kinds of Yeast(they were respectively Candida albi⁃cans and Trichosporon pullulans)on the surface of rice cake.The inside microorganisms of Rice cake were Bacillus megaterium,Bacillus subtilis,Bacillus brevis and trichosporon pullulans without mold.

  5. Investigation of the activity of the microorganisms in a Reblochon-style cheese by metatranscriptomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eMonnet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbial communities in cheeses are composed of varying bacteria, yeasts, and molds, which contribute to the development of their typical sensory properties. In situ studies are needed to better understand their growth and activity during cheese ripening. Our objective was to investigate the activity of the microorganisms used for manufacturing a surface-ripened cheese by means of metatranscriptomic analysis. The cheeses were produced using two lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, one ripening bacterium (Brevibacterium aurantiacum, and two yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii and Geotrichum candidum. RNA was extracted from the cheese rinds and, after depletion of most ribosomal RNA, sequencing was performed using a short-read sequencing technology that generated approximately 75 million reads per sample. Except for Brevibacterium aurantiacum, which failed to grow in the cheeses, a large number of CDS reads were generated for the inoculated species, making it possible to investigate their individual transcriptome over time. From day 5 to day 35, G. candidum accounted for the largest proportion of CDS reads, suggesting that this species was the most active. Only minor changes occurred in the transcriptomes of the lactic acid bacteria. For the two yeasts, we compared the expression of genes involved in the catabolism of lactose, galactose, lactate, amino acids and free fatty acids. During ripening, genes involved in ammonia assimilation and galactose catabolism were down-regulated in the two species. Genes involved in amino acid catabolism were up-regulated in G. candidum from day 14 to day 35, whereas in D. hansenii, they were up-regulated mainly at day 35, suggesting that this species catabolized the cheese amino acids later. In addition, after 35 days of ripening, there was a down-regulation of genes involved in the electron transport chain, suggesting a lower cellular activity. The

  6. New recombinant cyclohexylamine oxidase variants for deracemization of secondary amines by orthogonally assaying designed mutants with structurally diverse substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyue; Yao, Peiyuan; Cong, Peiqian; Ren, Jie; Wang, Lei; Feng, Jinhui; Lau, Peter C. K.; Wu, Qiaqing; Zhu, Dunming

    2016-05-01

    To further expand the substrate range of the cyclohexylamine oxidase (CHAO) from Brevibacterium oxydans, a library of diverse mutants was created and assayed toward a group of structurally diverse substrates. Among them, mutants T198A and M226A exhibited enhanced activity relative to wt CHAO for most (S)-enantiomers of primary amines and some secondary amines. While mutants T198I, L199I, L199F, M226I and M226T were more active than wt CHAO toward the primary amines, mutants T198F, L199T, Y321A, Y321T, Y321I and Y321F enhanced the enzyme activity toward the secondary amines. In particular, mutant Y321I displayed an enhanced catalytic efficiency toward 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8-octahydroisoquinoline (13). Whereas a double mutant, Y321I/M226T, acted on (S)-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-2, 3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine [(S)-8]. Since (R)-8 is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase and (S)-13 is an intermediate of dextromethorphan, a cough suppressant drug, deracemizations of 8 and 13 were carried out with crude enzyme extracts of the respective mutants. This resulted in 51% and 78% isolated yields of (R)-8 and (S)-13, respectively, each with high enantiomeric excess (93% and 99% ee). The results demonstrated the application potential of the evolved CHAO mutants in drug synthesis requiring chiral secondary amines.

  7. Heterologous carotenoid-biosynthetic enzymes: functional complementation and effects on carotenoid profiles in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gyu Hyeon; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Choi, Bo Hyun; Han, Se Jong; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2013-01-01

    A limited number of carotenoid pathway genes from microbial sources have been studied for analyzing the pathway complementation in the heterologous host Escherichia coli. In order to systematically investigate the functionality of carotenoid pathway enzymes in E. coli, the pathway genes of carotenogenic microorganisms (Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, Rhodopirellula baltica, and Pantoea ananatis) were modified to form synthetic expression modules and then were complemented with Pantoea agglomerans pathway enzymes (CrtE, CrtB, CrtI, CrtY, and CrtZ). The carotenogenic pathway enzymes in the synthetic modules showed unusual activities when complemented with E. coli. For example, the expression of heterologous CrtEs of B. linens, C. glutamicum, and R. baltica influenced P. agglomerans CrtI to convert its substrate phytoene into a rare product-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene-along with lycopene, which was an expected product, indicating that CrtE, the first enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, can influence carotenoid profiles. In addition, CrtIs of R. sphaeroides and R. capsulatus converted phytoene into an unusual lycopene as well as into neurosporene. Thus, this study shows that the functional complementation of pathway enzymes from different sources is a useful methodology for diversifying biosynthesis as nature does. PMID:23144136

  8. [Competitive Microbial Oxidation and Reduction of Arsenic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting-ting; Bai, Yao-hui; Liang, Jin-song; Huo, Yang; Wang, Ming-xing; Yuan, Lin-ijang

    2016-02-15

    Filters are widely applied in drinking water treatment plants. Our previous study, which explored the asenic redox in a filter of drinking water plant treating underground water, found that As3+ could be oxidized to As5+ by biogenic manganese oxides, while As5+ could be reduced to As3+ by some microbial arsenic reductases in the biofilter system. This microbial competition could influence the system stability and treatment efficiency. To explore its mechanism, this study selected a manganese-oxidizing bacterial strain (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) and a arsenic-reducing strain (Brevibacterium sp. LSJ-9) to investigate their competitive relationship in nutrient acquisition and arsenic redox in the presence of Mn2+, As3+ or As5+ The results revealed that the concentration and valence of Mn and As varied with different reaction time; biological manganese oxides dominated the arsenic redox by rapidly oxidizing the As3+ in the existing system and the As3+ generated by arsenic reductase into As. PCR and RT-PCR results indicated that the arsenic reductase (arsC) was inhibited by the manganese oxidase (cumA). The expression of 16S rRNA in QJX-1 was two orders of magnitude higher than that in LSJ-9, which implied QJX-1 was dominant in the bacterial growth. Our data revealed that hydraulic retention time was critical to the valence of arsenic in the effluent of filter in drinking water treatment plant.

  9. Antimicrobial fabrication of cotton fabric and leather using green-synthesized nanosilver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Cho, Min; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Jung-Hee; Bae, Sunyoung; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-06-15

    This study aims to investigate the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Erigeron annuus (L.) pers flower extract as reducing and capping agent, and evaluation of their antibacterial activities for the first time. The obtained product was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrum, high resolution-transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The optimum AgNPs production was achieved at pH 7, metal silver (Ag(+) ion) concentration of 2.0mM, flower extract concentration 4%, and time 335 min. In addition, the antibacterial activity of cotton fabrics and tanned leather loaded with AgNPs, commercial AgNPs, flower extract, Ag(+) ion and blend of flower extract with AgNPs were evaluated against Gram-positive odor causing bacteria Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results showed maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI) by the cotton fabrics embedded with blend of flower extract and AgNPs against B. linens. The structure and morphology of cotton fabric and leather samples embedded with AgNPs, Ag(+) ion and blend of flower extract with AgNPs were examined under field emission scanning electron microscope.

  10. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticle-coated fabric and leather against odor and skin infection causing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Cho, Min; Park, Jung-Hee; Seo, Sang-Ki; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-10-01

    We present a simple, eco-friendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using a natural polymer pine gum solution as the reducing and capping agent. The pine gum solution was combined with silver nitrate (AgNO3) or a chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), respectively. The reaction process was simple; formation of the nanoparticles was achieved by autoclaving the silver and gold ions with the pine gum. UV-Vis spectra showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for silver and gold nanoparticles at 432 and 539 nm, respectively. The elemental forms of AgNPs and AuNPs were confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed the biomolecules present in the pine gum, AgNPs, and AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed the shape and size of AgNPs and AuNPs. The crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs was confirmed by X-ray crystallography [X-ray diffraction (XRD)]. Application of synthesized AgNPs onto cotton fabrics and leather, in order to evaluate their antibacterial properties against odor- or skin infection-causing bacteria, is also discussed. Among the four tested bacteria, AgNP-coated cotton fabric and leather samples displayed excellent antibacterial activity against Brevibacterium linens.

  11. Gold nanoparticles mediated coloring of fabrics and leather for antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Shim, Jaehong; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2016-07-01

    Metal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized in situ onto leather, silk and cotton fabrics by three different modules, including green, chemical, and a composite of green and chemical synthesis. Green synthesis was employed using Ginkgo biloba Linn leaf powder extract and HAuCl4 with the fabrics, and chemical synthesis was done with KBH4 and HAuCl4. For composite synthesis, G. biloba extract and KBH4 were used to color and embed AuNPs in the fabrics. The colored fabrics were tested for color coordination and fastness properties. To validate the green synthesis of AuNPs, various instrumental techniques were used including UV-Vis spectrophotometry, HR-TEM, FTIR, and XRD. The chemical and composite methods reduce Au(+) onto leather, silk and cotton fabrics upon heating, and alkaline conditions are required for bonding to fibers; these conditions are not used in the green synthesis protocol. FE-SEM image revealed the binding nature of the AuNPs to the fabrics. The AuNPs that were synthesized in situ on the fabrics were tested against a skin pathogen, Brevibacterium linens using LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability testing. This study represents an initial route for coloring and bio-functionalization of various fabrics with green technologies, and, accordingly, should open new avenues for innovation in the textile and garment sectors.

  12. Isolation and characterization of lipase-producing bacteria in the intestine of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, reared on different forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Guang-Ying; Wan, Yong-Ji

    2011-01-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), an oligophagous insect that mainly feeds on mulberry leaves, is susceptible to entomopathogen infection when reared with tricuspid cudrania leaves. A total of 56 dominant bacterial strains, classified into 12 phylotypes based on bacteriological properties and analysis of 16S rRNA genes, were isolated from the intestine of the fourth and fifth instar silkworm larvae. Ten and seven phylotypes exist in the intestine of the silkworm larvae reared with mulberry leaves and tricuspid cudrania leaves, respectively. Four of them are common in the intestine of the two treatment groups. By screening their lipolytic ability on a Rhodamine B agar plate, nine lipase-producing bacterial strains were obtained and classified into six genera, including Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Stenotrophomonas. Except for Stenotrophomonas, which is common in both, the other genera only exist in the intestine of the silkworm larvae fed with mulberry leaves. In addition, by culture and fermentation in vitro, the maximum cell density and lipase activity of lipase-producing bacteria were examined at about 48 hours. The results indicate that diet has a significant impact on the gut bacterial community, especially lipase-producing bacteria. We suggest that the difference of lipase-producing bacterial diversity might be related to disease resistance of the silkworm. PMID:22243438

  13. Degradation and mineralization of petroleum by two bacteria isolated from coastal waters. Degradation and mineralization of petroleum in sea water: limitation by nitrogen and phosphorus. Technical report No. 2, January-December 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R.M.; Bartha, R.

    1971-12-31

    Within the framework of a study on the oil biodegradation potential of the sea the ability of a Flavobacterium sp. and Brevibacterium sp. to metabolize a paraffinic crude oil and a chemically defined hydrocarbon mixture was investigated. Major components of the crude oil were identified by combination gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The rate and extent of total hydrocarbon biodegradation was measured. Degradation started after a 2 to 4 day lag period, and reached its maximum within two weeks. At this time up to 60% of the crude oil was degraded. n-Paraffins were preferentially degraded as compared to branched chain hydrocarbons. Biodegradation and mineralization of petroleum, added at 1% (v/v) to freshly collected sea water, were measured using gas-liquid chromatographic, residual weight, and CO/sub 2/-evolution techniques. Only 3% of the added petroleum was biodegraded and 1% was mineralized in unamended sea water after 18 days and incubation. Added nitrate, phosphate supplements in combination increased petroleum biodegradation and mineralization. Attempts to clean up oil spills with the aid of microorganisms should take into consideration the nutritional deficiencies of sea water.

  14. Phylogenetic Diversity and Biological Activity of Actinobacteria Isolated from the Chukchi Shelf Marine Sediments in the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are a rich source of Actinobacteria and have the potential to produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we used four selective isolation media to culture Actinobacteria from the sediments collected from the Chukchi Shelf in the Arctic Ocean. A total of 73 actinobacterial strains were isolated. Based on repetitive DNA fingerprinting analysis, we selected 30 representatives for partial characterization according to their phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial activities and secondary-metabolite biosynthesis genes. Results from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the 30 strains could be sorted into 18 phylotypes belonging to 14 different genera: Agrococcus, Arsenicicoccus, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Citricoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Microlunatus, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinibacterium and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the isolation of Microlunatus genus members from marine habitats. Of the 30 isolates, 11 strains exhibited antibacterial and/or antifungal activity, seven of which have activities against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. All 30 strains have at least two biosynthetic genes, one-third of which possess more than four biosynthetic genes. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the Chukchi Shelf sediment and their potential for producing biologically active compounds and novel material for genetic manipulation or combinatorial biosynthesis.

  15. Increase in Bacterial Colony Formation from a Permafrost Ice Wedge Dosed with a Tomitella biformata Recombinant Resuscitation-Promoting Factor Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspita, Indun Dewi; Kitagawa, Wataru; Kamagata, Yoichi; Tanaka, Michiko; Nakatsu, Cindy H

    2015-01-01

    Resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) is a protein that has been found in a number of different Actinobacteria species and has been shown to promote the growth of active cells and resuscitate dormant (non-dividing) cells. We previously reported the biological activity of an Rpf protein in Tomitella biformata AHU 1821(T), an Actinobacteria isolated from a permafrost ice wedge. This protein is excreted outside the cell; however, few studies have investigated its contribution in environmental samples to the growth or resuscitation of bacteria other than the original host. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether Rpf from T. biformata impacted the cultivation of other bacteria from the permafrost ice wedge from which it was originally isolated. All experiments used recombinant Rpf proteins produced using a Rhodococcus erythropolis expression system. Dilutions of melted surface sterilized ice wedge samples mixed with different doses of the purified recombinant Rpf (rRpf) protein indicated that the highest concentration tested, 1250 pM, had a significantly (p Brevibacterium antiquum strain VKM Ac-2118 (AY243344), with 98-99% sequence identity. This species is also a member of the phylum Actinobacteria and was originally isolated from Siberian permafrost sediments. The results of the present study demonstrated that rRpf not only promoted the growth of T. biformata from which it was isolated, but also enhanced colony formation by another Actinobacteria in an environmental sample. PMID:25843055

  16. Use of Gram-positive Chemoheterotrophic Bacterium Basillus subtilis В-3157 with HMP-cycle of Carbon Assimilation for Microbiological Synthesis of [2H]riboxine with High Level of Deuterium Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the growth and biosynthetic properties of a strain of Gram-positive chemoheterotriphic bacterium Bacillus subtilis В-3157 producer of 2H-labeled purine ribonucleoside riboxine (outcome is 3,9 g/l in heavy hydrogen (HH medium with high level of deuterium enrichment (99,8 at.% 2H2O with 2 % hydrolysate of deuterated biomass of methylotrophic bacterium Brevibacterium methylicum B-5662 as a source of 2H-labeled growth substrates, obtained in the minimal М9 growth medium of 98 % 2Н2О and 2 % [2H]methanol. Isolation of riboxine from liquid culture of riboxine producer strain was carried out by adsorption/resorption on a surface of activated carbon coal, extraction by 0.3 M NH4-formiate buffer (рН = 8.9 with the subsequent crystallization in 80 % of ethanol and column ion exchange chromatography on cation exchanger AG50WX 4, counterbalanced with 0.3 M NH4-formiate with 0.045 M NH4Cl (outcome of riboxine is 3.1 g/l (80 %. The level of deuterium enrichment of biosynthetically prepared riboxine, analyzed by a method of fast atom bombardment (FAB mass-spectrometry makes up 5 deuterium atoms with incorporation of 3 deuterium atoms into ribose and 2 deuterium atoms into hypoxantine fragments of the molecule.

  17. Modification of chimeric (2S, 3S)-butanediol dehydrogenase based on structural information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimegi, Tomohito; Mochizuki, Kaito; Oyama, Takuji; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Kusunoki, Masami; Ui, Sadaharu

    2014-01-01

    A chimeric (2S, 3S)-butanediol dehydrogenase (cLBDH) was engineered to have the strict (S)-configuration specificity of the (2S, 3S)-BDH (BsLBDH) derived from Brevibacterium saccharolyticum as well as the enzymatic stability of the (2R, 3S)-BDH (KpMBDH) from Klebsiella pneumonia by swapping the domains of two native BDHs. However, while cLBDH possesses the stability, it lacks the specificity. In order to assist in the design a BDH having strict substrate specificity, an X-ray structural analysis of a cLBDH crystal was conducted at 1.58 Å. The results obtained show some readily apparent differences around the active sites of cLBDH and BsLBDH. Based on this structural information, a novel (2S, 3S)-BDH having a preferred specificity was developed by introducing a V254L mutation into cLBDH. The influence of this mutation on the stability of cLBDH was not evaluated. Nevertheless, the technique described herein is an effective method for the production of a tailor-made BDH. PMID:25612804

  18. 牛乳中产耐高温蛋白酶嗜冷菌的分离及鉴定研究%Study on Isolation and Identification of Thermotolerant Protease-producing Psychrophiles in Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 曹志军; 母智深; 李艳梅

    2009-01-01

    本实验采用单一性底物甲板分离法和Folin法,通过观察蛋白酶水解圈大小和测定该酶活力,从牛乳中共获得10株产耐高温蛋白酶的嗜冷菌.对菌体形态、染色反应、培养性状、生理生化性状进行系统研究.鉴定结果表明,上述10个细菌菌株分别属于气单胞菌属(Aeromonas)、巴斯德氏菌属(Pasteurella)、黄杆菌属(Flavobacterium)、变形菌属(Proteus)、节杆菌属(Arthrobacter)、短杆菌属(Brevibacterium)、微球菌属(Micrococcus)、片球菌属(Pediococcus)、乳球菌属(Lactococcus)和明串球菌属(Trichococcus).

  19. 支链氨基酸生物合成及其代谢工程育种研究进展%Advances in Metabolic Engineering of Branched-Chain Amino Acids Producer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟国; 郭燕风

    2014-01-01

    支链氨基酸(亮氨酸、异亮氨酸和缬氨酸)主要由细菌、真菌和植物合成,是人体必需氨基酸.因其特殊的结构和功能,在人类生命代谢中占有特别重要的地位,支链氨基酸在医药、食品及饲料领域中有着广泛的用途.目前支链氨基酸主要采用发酵法生产,生产菌种主要为Corynebacterium glutamicum(包括黄色短杆菌Brevibacterium flavum).作者主要分析了Corynebacterium glutamicum中支链氨基酸生物合成途径及其代谢调控,并对支链氨基酸代谢工程育种情况进行了综述.

  20. Degradation of pyridine by Micrococcus luteus isolated from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, G.K.; Sommers, L.E.; Konopka, A.

    1986-05-01

    An organism capable of growth on pyridine was isolated from soil by enrichment culture techniques and identified as Micrococcus luteus. The organism oxidized pyridine for energy and released N contained in the pyridine ring as ammonium. The organism could not grow on mono- or disubstituted pyridinecarboxylic acids or hydroxy-, chloro-, amino-, or methylpyridines. Cell extracts of M. luteus could not degrade pyridine, 2-, 3-, or 4-hydroxypyridines or 2,3-dihydroxypyridine, regardless of added cofactors or cell particulate fraction. The organism had a NAD-linked succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase which was induced by pyridine. Cell extracts of M. luteus had constitutive amidase activity, and washed cells degraded formate and formamide without a lag. These data are consistent with a previously reported pathway for pyridine metabolism by species of Bacillus, Brevibacterium, and Corynebacterium. Cells of M. luteus were permeable to pyridinecarboxylic acids, monohydroxypyridines, 2,3-dihydroxypyridine, and monoamino- and methylpyridines. The results provide new evidence that the metabolism of pyridine by microorganisms does not require initial hydroxylation of the ring and that permeability barriers do not account for the extremely limited range of substrate isomers used by pyridine degraders.

  1. Paratrechina longicornis ants in a tropical dry forest harbor specific Actinobacteria diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Ruth D Hernández; Cafaro, Matías J

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of Actinobacteria associated with Paratrechina longicornis, an ant species that prefers a high protein diet, in a subtropical dry forest (Guánica, Puerto Rico) was determined by culture methods and by 16S rDNA clone libraries. The results of both methodologies were integrated to obtain a broader view of the diversity. Streptomyces, Actinomadura, Nocardia, Ornithinimicrobium, Tsukamurella, Brevibacterium, Saccharopolyspora, Nocardioides, Microbacterium, Leifsonia, Pseudonocardia, Corynebacterium, Geodermatophilus, Amycolatopsis, and Nonomuraea were found associated with the ants. The genera Streptomyces and Actinomadura were the most abundant. Also, the diversity of Actinobacteria associated with the soil surrounding the nest was determined using 16S rDNA clone libraries. In total, 27 genera of Actinobacteria were associated with the nest soils. A dominant genus was not observed in any of the soil samples. We compared statistically the Actinobacteria communities among P. longicornis nests and each nest with its surrounding soil using the clone libraries data. We established that the communities associated with the ants were consistent and significantly different from those found in the soil in which the ants live. PMID:24771570

  2. Parameter Change in Growth Cycle of Compound Bioflocculant Product Bacterium%复合型微生物絮凝剂产生菌生长周期中参数变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宝山; 张玉玲; 张兰英; 姚军

    2007-01-01

    研究复合型微生物絮凝剂产生菌的生长曲线变化在不同时期的pH值、基质-葡萄糖、硫酸铵含量、絮凝活性、产量变化、细胞絮凝效果变化等. 结果表明, 在整个生长周期中, pH值基本不变; 碳氮源变化显著, 并存在相关性; 进入稳定期后, 60 h时, 絮凝活性达到最大值97.35%, 此后, 絮凝活性数值下降, 但不明显, 絮凝剂产量最大值为3.02 g/L; 细胞絮凝效果与细胞生长呈正相关性. 鉴定结果表明, 3种单菌分别为Brevibacterium mcbrellneri, Burkholderia glumae, Cryptococcus albidus var aerius.

  3. X-ray spectroscopy of nitrile hydratase at pH 7 and 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarrow, R.C.; Duong, D.J.; Kindt, J.T. [Haverford College, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-06

    The iron K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum of Rhodococcus sp. R312 (formerly Brevibacterium sp. R312) nitrile hydratase in frozen solutions at pH 7 and 9 has been analyzed to determine details of the iron coordination. EXAFS analysis implies two or three sulfur ligands per iron and overall six coordination; together with previous EPR and ENDOR results, this implies an N{sub 3}S{sub 2}O ligation sphere. The bond lengths from EXAFS analysis [r{sub av}(Fe-S) = 2.21 {angstrom} at pH 7.3; r{sub av}(Fe-N/O) = 1.99 {angstrom}] support cis coordination of two cysteine ligands and conclusively rule out nitric oxide coordination to the iron, a possibility proposed on the basis of an FTIR difference experiment. The higher-frequency EXAFS can be simulated well by inclusion of multiple scattering from two or three imidazole ligands; the fit to the data is improved if first-sphere multiple scattering pathways are also included. A slight shortening (by 0.02 {plus_minus} 0.01 {angstrom}) of one or both Fe-S bonds when the pH is raised from 7.3 to 9.0 is consistent with shifts observed in the Raman spectrum. 67 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. 牛乳中产耐高温蛋白酶嗜冷菌的分离及鉴定研究%Studies on Isolating of Identification of Psychrophilies Producing Thermotolerant Protease in Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 曹志军; 李艳梅

    2008-01-01

    本文采用单一性底物平板分离法和Folin法,观察其水解圈大小和测酶活力.从牛乳中共获得10株产耐高温蛋白酶的嗜冷菌.对菌体形态、染色反应、培养性状、生理生化性状进行了系统研究.鉴定结果表明.上述10个细菌菌株分别属于气单胞菌属(Aeromonas)、巴斯德氏菌属(Pasteurella)、黄杆菌属(Flavobacteriurn)、变形菌属(Proteus)、节杆菌属(Arthrobacter)、短杆菌属(Brevibacterium)、微球菌属(Micrococcus)、片球菌属(Pediococcus)、乳球菌属(Lactococcus)和明串球菌属(Trichococcus).

  5. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant producing bacteria from Persian Gulf (Bushehr provenance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2014-09-15

    Biosurfactants are surface active materials that are produced by some microorganisms. These molecules increase biodegradation of insoluble pollutants. In this study sediments and seawater samples were collected from the coastline of Bushehr provenance in the Persian Gulf and their biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated. Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated by using an enrichment method in Bushnell-Hass medium with diesel oil as the sole carbon source. Five screening tests were used for selection of Biosurfactant producing bacteria: hemolysis in blood agar, oil spreading, drop collapse, emulsification activity and Bacterial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon test (BATH). These bacteria were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Eighty different colonies were isolated from the collected samples. The most biosurfactant producing isolates related to petrochemical plants of Khark Island. Fourteen biosurfactant producing bacteria were selected between these isolates and 7 isolates were screened as these were predominant producers that belong to Shewanella alga, Shewanella upenei, Vibrio furnissii, Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans, Brevibacterium epidermidis, Psychrobacter namhaensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The largest clear zone diameters in oil spreading were observed for G. pentaromativorans strain O15. Also, this strain has the best emulsification activity and reduction of surface tension, suggesting it is the best of thee isolated strains. The results of this study confirmed that there is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in marine ecosystem of Iran and by application of these bacteria in petrochemical waste water environmental problems can be assisted. PMID:25037876

  6. Responses of heterotrophic bacterial populations to pH changes in coal ash effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, R.K. (Univ. of Texas, Houston); Cherry, D.S.; Singleton, F.L.

    1978-08-01

    Total culturable heterotrophic bacteria in a coal ash basin and drainage system were monitored over a period of two years. In the first year heavy (bottom) ash was sluiced to the basin resulting in a pH of 6.5. During the second year fly ash was precipitated and added to the sluice lowering the basin pH to 4.6. Sulfate concentrations during 1975 ranged from 16 to 73 ppM (mean 33) and in 1976 from 44 to 88 ppM (mean 72). Mean annual basin temperatures were 28.8 and 26.0/sup 0/C, respectively. Approximately 1500 m in the receiving swamp below the basin, mean pH and temperature were 6.8 and 22.2/sup 0/C for the first year, and 5.4 and 22.1/sup 0/C for the second. Total culturable bacteria and diversity (colony types) were reduced at all sampling stations by 44 and 30%, respectively, whereas the percentage of the population comprised of chromagenic bacteria increased by 51% at the lower pH. Data indicated the pH had a greater effect than did water temperature when temperature was within the range of 15 to 25/sup 0/C. The predominant genera within the system in the first year were Bacillus, Sarcina, Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, and Pseudomonas. In the second year, at the lower pH, predominant genera were Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Chromobacterium, Bacillus, and Brevibacterium.

  7. Phylogenetic diversity and biological activity of actinobacteria isolated from the Chukchi Shelf marine sediments in the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Meng; Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Dong, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-03-01

    Marine environments are a rich source of Actinobacteria and have the potential to produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we used four selective isolation media to culture Actinobacteria from the sediments collected from the Chukchi Shelf in the Arctic Ocean. A total of 73 actinobacterial strains were isolated. Based on repetitive DNA fingerprinting analysis, we selected 30 representatives for partial characterization according to their phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial activities and secondary-metabolite biosynthesis genes. Results from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the 30 strains could be sorted into 18 phylotypes belonging to 14 different genera: Agrococcus, Arsenicicoccus, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Citricoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Microlunatus, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinibacterium and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the isolation of Microlunatus genus members from marine habitats. Of the 30 isolates, 11 strains exhibited antibacterial and/or antifungal activity, seven of which have activities against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. All 30 strains have at least two biosynthetic genes, one-third of which possess more than four biosynthetic genes. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the Chukchi Shelf sediment and their potential for producing biologically active compounds and novel material for genetic manipulation or combinatorial biosynthesis. PMID:24663116

  8. Diversity of endophytic bacteria associated with nodules of two indigenous legumes at different altitudes of the Qilian Mountains in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Li; Chen, Weimin; Wei, Gehong

    2014-09-01

    A total of 201 endophytic root nodule-associated bacteria collected from two legumes indigenous to different Qilian Mountain altitudes (Hexi Corridor) were characterized through 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR clustering. The isolates phylogenetically belonged to 35 species in the Phyllobacterium, Ensifer, Rhizobium, Microvirga, Sphingomonas, Paracoccus, Mycobacterium, Paenibacillus, Cohnella, Sporosarcina, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Brevibacterium, Xenophilus, Erwinia, Leclercia, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas genera. Phylogenetic nodA sequence analysis showed higher similarity to Sinorhizobium meliloti with strains related to the Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, and Acinetobacter genera. Sequence analysis of the nifH gene revealed that the strains belonging to Xenophilus, Acinetobacter, Phyllobacterium, and Rhizobium had genes similar to those of Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium. The results indicated that horizontal gene transfer could have occurred between rhizobia and non-rhizobial endophytes. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that altitude and host plant species contributed more to the bacterial endosymbiont separation than other ecological factors. This study provided valuable information on the interactions between symbiotic bacteria, non-symbiotic bacteria and their habitats, and thus provided knowledge on their genetic diversity and ecology. PMID:24985194

  9. Fermentation and recovery of L-glutamic acid from cassava starch hydrolysate by ion-exchange resin column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nampoothiri K. Madhavan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out with the aim of producing L-glutamic acid from Brevibacterium sp. by utilizing a locally available starchy substrate, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. Initial studies were carried out in shake flasks, which showed that even though the yield was high with 85-90 DE (Dextrose Equivalent value, the maximum conversion yield (~34% was obtained by using only partially digested starch hydrolysate, i.e. 45-50 DE. Fermentations were carried out in batch mode in a 5 L fermenter, using suitably diluted cassava starch hydrolysate, using a 85-90 DE value hydrolysate. Media supplemented with nutrients resulted in an accumulation of 21 g/L glutamic acid with a fairly high (66.3% conversation yield of glucose to glutamic acid (based on glucose consumed and on 81.74% theoretical conversion rate. The bioreactor conditions most conducive for maximum production were pH 7.5, temperature 30°C and an agitation of 180 rpm. When fermentation was conducted in fed-batch mode by keeping the residual reducing sugar concentration at 5% w/v, 25.0 g/L of glutamate was obtained after 40 h fermentation (16% more the batch mode. Chromatographic separation by ion-exchange resin was used for the recovery and purification of glutamic acid. It was further crystallized and separated by making use of its low solubility at the isoelectric point (pH 3.2.

  10. The effect of prolonged flooding of an oil deposit on the special composition and the activity of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdichevskaya, M.V.

    1982-07-01

    The special composition of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria was studied in terrigenous and carbonate oil-bearing strata from several deposits of the Permian Cis-Ural region. We isolated 43 strains and assigned them to the following genera: Mycobacterium, Micrococcus, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Flavobacterium, Achromobacter and Pseudomonas. The special composition of the hydrocarbon-oxidizing microflora was shown to depend on the flooding of an oil stratum, as a result of which the ecological environment in a deposit changed. Gram-positive coryneform bacteria were found in stratal salinized waters and in diluted stratal waters. Gram-negative hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria were isolated from pumped-in river waters and from stratal waters diluted by 70-100% as the result of flooding. The metabolic activity of Corynebacterium fascians (2 strains), Mycobacterium rubrum (1 strain), Pseudomonas mira (1 strain) and Flavobacterium perigrinum (1 strain) was assayed in stratal waters with different concentrations of salts. The coryneform hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria were shown to be very halotolerant as the result of adaptation; that is why the incidence of these microorganisms is very great in highly mineralized stratal water of oil deposits.

  11. Thermal death of a hydrocarbon bacterium in a nonaqueous fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severance, M. M.; Larock, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    A hydrocarbon-utilizing Brevibacterium which grew into the oil phase of an oil-water system was tested for survival at elevated temperature. Cells suspended in oil and cells that had been resuspended in aqueous solution were tested by placing 1-ml samples of the cell suspension in small test tubes immersed in a controlled-temperature water bath. The resultant survival curves in oil consisted of two parts, a flat shoulder obtained in the first half of the heating period, followed by a break indicating rapid die-off. The break in the curves occurred after 50% of the cells were killed. This occurred at exposures of 25, 15, and 8 min for 78, 88.6, and 96.2 C, respectively. The survival curve for 63.5 C in the aqueous solution was a rapid, exponential die-off. The actual increase in survival of the organism in oil is reflected by the length of the shoulder portion. The shoulder occurs only in an oil medium and is increased by decreasing temperature and increasing age of the culture.

  12. [Competitive Microbial Oxidation and Reduction of Arsenic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting-ting; Bai, Yao-hui; Liang, Jin-song; Huo, Yang; Wang, Ming-xing; Yuan, Lin-ijang

    2016-02-15

    Filters are widely applied in drinking water treatment plants. Our previous study, which explored the asenic redox in a filter of drinking water plant treating underground water, found that As3+ could be oxidized to As5+ by biogenic manganese oxides, while As5+ could be reduced to As3+ by some microbial arsenic reductases in the biofilter system. This microbial competition could influence the system stability and treatment efficiency. To explore its mechanism, this study selected a manganese-oxidizing bacterial strain (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) and a arsenic-reducing strain (Brevibacterium sp. LSJ-9) to investigate their competitive relationship in nutrient acquisition and arsenic redox in the presence of Mn2+, As3+ or As5+ The results revealed that the concentration and valence of Mn and As varied with different reaction time; biological manganese oxides dominated the arsenic redox by rapidly oxidizing the As3+ in the existing system and the As3+ generated by arsenic reductase into As. PCR and RT-PCR results indicated that the arsenic reductase (arsC) was inhibited by the manganese oxidase (cumA). The expression of 16S rRNA in QJX-1 was two orders of magnitude higher than that in LSJ-9, which implied QJX-1 was dominant in the bacterial growth. Our data revealed that hydraulic retention time was critical to the valence of arsenic in the effluent of filter in drinking water treatment plant. PMID:27363151

  13. Over-expression of BvMTSH, a fusion gene for maltooligosyltrehalose synthase and maltooligosyltrehalose trehalohydrolase, enhances drought tolerance in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Joungsu; Choi, Hae Jong; Lee, Youn Hab; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Chung Ho; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Choi, Yang Do; Song, Sang Ik

    2014-01-01

    Plant abiotic stress tolerance has been modulated by engineering the trehalose synthesis pathway. However, many stress-tolerant plants that have been genetically engineered for the trehalose synthesis pathway also show abnormal development. The metabolic intermediate trehalose 6-phosphate has the potential to cause aberrations in growth. To avoid growth inhibition by trehalose 6-phosphate, we used a gene that encodes a bifunctional in-frame fusion (BvMTSH) of maltooligosyltrehalose synthase (BvMTS) and maltooligosyltrehalose trehalohydrolase (BvMTH) from the nonpathogenic bacterium Brevibacterium helvolum. BvMTS converts maltooligosaccharides into maltooligosyltrehalose and BvMTH releases trehalose. Transgenic rice plants that over-express BvMTSH under the control of the constitutive rice cytochrome c promoter (101MTSH) or the ABA-inducible Ai promoter (105MTSH) show enhanced drought tolerance without growth inhibition. Moreover, 101MTSH and 105MTSH showed an ABA-hyposensitive phenotype in the roots. Our results suggest that over-expression of BvMTSH enhances drought-stress tolerance without any abnormal growth and showes ABA hyposensitive phenotype in the roots. PMID:24209631

  14. A novel alkyne cholesterol to trace cellular cholesterol metabolism and localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Kristina; Thiele, Christoph; Schött, Hans-Frieder; Gaebler, Anne; Schoene, Mario; Kiver, Yuriy; Friedrichs, Silvia; Lütjohann, Dieter; Kuerschner, Lars

    2014-03-01

    Cholesterol is an important lipid of mammalian cells and plays a fundamental role in many biological processes. Its concentration in the various cellular membranes differs and is tightly regulated. Here, we present a novel alkyne cholesterol analog suitable for tracing both cholesterol metabolism and localization. This probe can be detected by click chemistry employing various reporter azides. Alkyne cholesterol is accepted by cellular enzymes from different biological species (Brevibacterium, yeast, rat, human) and these enzymes include cholesterol oxidases, hydroxylases, and acyl transferases that generate the expected metabolites in in vitro and in vivo assays. Using fluorescence microscopy, we studied the distribution of cholesterol at subcellular resolution, detecting the lipid in the Golgi and at the plasma membrane, but also in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. In summary, alkyne cholesterol represents a versatile, sensitive, and easy-to-use tool for tracking cellular cholesterol metabolism and localization as it allows for manifold detection methods including mass spectrometry, thin-layer chromatography/fluorography, and fluorescence microscopy. PMID:24334219

  15. Antioxidant/Prooxidant and antibacterial/probacterial effects of a grape seed extract in complex with lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedea, Veronica Sanda; Braicu, Cornelia; Chirilă, Flore; Ogola, Henry Joseph Oduor; Pelmuş, Rodica Ştefania; Călin, Loredana Georgeta; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS), and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE), were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS) or in extract (LE) to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli B 41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3 h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects. PMID:25313359

  16. 1株净水贫营养细菌的筛选及其低营养特性的初步研究%Screening and Preliminary Study of an Oligotrophic Bacteria for Water Purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏辉; 梁运祥

    2006-01-01

    从不同环境中分离出38株贫营养细菌.经16S rDNA序列分析,主要为不动杆菌属(Acinetobact-er)、产卟啉杆菌属(Porphyrobacter)和短杆菌属(Brevibacterium)等18个属.采用化学需氧量(CODMn)和总有机碳(TOC)2种检测指标从中筛选到1株对微污染水源有较好净化效果的菌株Yll,其对水体CODMn和TOC的降解率分别为48.01%和46.83%.该菌株经生理生化反应进一步鉴定为短小芽孢杆菌(Bacillus pumilus).饥饿试验表明,Yll在低营养的环境下能长期存活.

  17. Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Dawn T; HamediRad, Mohammad; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-17

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a form of biodiesel that can be microbially produced via a transesterification reaction of fatty acids with ethanol. The titer of microbially produced FAEEs can be greatly reduced by unbalanced metabolism and an insufficient supply of fatty acids, resulting in a commercially inviable process. Here, we report on a pathway engineering strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhancing the titer of microbially produced FAEEs by providing the cells with an orthogonal route for fatty acid synthesis. The fatty acids generated from this heterologous pathway would supply the FAEE production, safeguarding endogenous fatty acids for cellular metabolism and growth. We investigated the heterologous expression of a Type-I fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes coupled with WS/DGAT, the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme that catalyzes the transesterification reaction with ethanol. Strains harboring the orthologous fatty acid synthesis yielded a 6.3-fold increase in FAEE titer compared to strains without the heterologous FAS. Variations in fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation can affect the quality of the biodiesel; therefore, we also investigated the diversity of the fatty acid production profile of FAS enzymes from other Actinomyces organisms. PMID:25594225

  18. Queijos de casca lavada – uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Golin Bueno Costa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Os queijos de casca lavada (maturados por microrganismos de superfície representam uma variedade de queijos no qual bactérias crescem na sua superfície durante a maturação originando a cor alaranjada na sua casca e aroma característico. São queijos maturados sob condições especiais de temperatura e umidade relativa elevada (acima de 95%, e propícias ao crescimento dessa microbiota. Durante a maturação, os queijos são esfregados várias vezes com uma solução salina (morge iniciando-se pelos fabricados há mais tempo para os mais recentes, com o intuito de propagar o Brevibacterium linens, microrganismo principal presente nos queijos de casca lavada. Este artigo objetiva apresentar uma revisão de literatura sobre os queijos de casca lavada, de modo a incentivar a fabricação desses em laticínios brasileiros, em face da dificuldade destas informações em língua portuguesa e que muitas vezes torna-se um obstáculo para a indústria e ou seus técnicos.

  19. L-缬氨酸高产菌选育及营养需求研究%Study on the breeding of L-valine hyper-producer and its requirement for nutrients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟国; 钱和

    2001-01-01

    以黄色短杆菌(Brevibacterium flavum)L-缬氨酸产生菌ZQ-2为出发菌株,经硫酸二乙酯(DES)和亚硝基胍(NTG)诱变处理,氨基酸结构类似物定向筛选,获得一株L-缬氨酸高产菌XQ-6(Leul AHVr α-ABhr 2-TAhr).在以14%葡萄糖为碳源、5%硫酸铵为氮源的培养基中直接发酵72 h,产酸达58~62 g/L.同时添加Fe2+和Mn2+比单独添加Fe2+更有效.还进行了氨基酸、核酸、维生素和其它营养对L-缬氨酸发酵影响的试验.

  20. [Bacteria that degrade low-molecular linear epsilon-caprolactam olygomers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esikova, T Z; Akatova, E V; Taran, S A

    2014-01-01

    Five bacterial strains with the unique ability to utilize low-molecular linear caprolactam olygomers (nylon olygomers) were isolated from soil samples contaminated with industrial wastes of epsilon-caprolactam. Based on the properties studied and also on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences, the strains BS2,BS3, BS9, BS38, and BS57 were classified to the general Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Microbacteriun, Gulosibacter, and Achromobacter, respectively. All of the strains also utilized 6-aminohexanoic and adipic acids, which are intermidiates of the epsilon-caprolactam catabolism. This indirectly points to the fact that degradation of olygomers in these bacteria occurs via the monomer degradation pathway. The BS9 and BS57 strains utilized only olygomers of the epsilon-caprolactam, while BS2, BS3, and BS38 also degraded epsilon-caprolactam and its homologs, enantolactam and caprylolactam, which differentiates the latter from the previously known degraders of olygomers and suggests the presence in these strains of enzymes with lactam hydrolase activity, in addition to 6-aminohexanoate-dimer hydrolase. PMID:25707105

  1. Survival of cheese-ripening microorganisms in a dynamic simulator of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adouard, Nadège; Magne, Laurent; Cattenoz, Thomas; Guillemin, Hervé; Foligné, Benoît; Picque, Daniel; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    A mixture of nine microorganisms (six bacteria and three yeasts) from the microflora of surface-ripened cheeses were subjected to in vitro digestive stress in a three-compartment "dynamic gastrointestinal digester" (DIDGI). We studied the microorganisms (i) grown separately in culture medium only (ii) grown separately in culture medium and then mixed, (iii) grown separately in culture medium and then included in a rennet gel and (iv) grown together in smear-ripened cheese. The yeasts Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces lactis and Debaryomyces hansenii, were strongly resistant to the whole DIDGI process (with a drop in viable cell counts of less than Brevibacterium aurantiacum and Arthrobacter arilaitensis were clearly more sensitive to the overall digestive process than when grown in pure cultures. Lactococcus lactis displayed poorer survival in gastric and duodenal compartments when it had been grown in cheese. In vivo experiments in BALB/c mice agreed with the DIDGI experiments and confirmed the latter's reliability. PMID:26611167

  2. Study on the Conditions of L-valine Fermentation by Low-Glucose Addition%低糖流加法生产L-缬氨酸发酵工艺条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浦军平; 庄国英; 顾岳良; 陈刚

    2003-01-01

    研究了糖浓度对L-缬氨酸产生菌(Brevibacterium flavum)Apv-2 菌积累L-缬氨酸的影响,通过三十吨发酵罐发酵工艺条件的试验,在合适的外界条件下,确定了该菌种发酵L-缬氨酸的最佳初糖浓度和补糖浓度,在初糖质量浓度为3.5%~4.5%时,发酵至16h开始连续流加葡萄糖,维持发酵培养基中残糖质量浓度为1.2%~1.5%,经过48h左右发酵,L-缬氨酸发酵产酸率3.3%~3.5%.

  3. Comparation of the Flavor of Different Cheese Flavouring Agents Produced by Using Surface Ripening Bacterium and/or Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To accelerate cheese ripening, enhance its flavor types and intensity and make cheese flavoring agent in shorter time, surface ripening bacterium (Brevibacterium linens and Debaryomyces hansenii and/or enzymes (Flavorzyme 500 MG and Palatase 20000 L were used in cheese curd. In this study, aroma compounds generated by using ripening cultures and/or enzymes were analyzed. The control l was made by inoculating ripening cultures, while the control 2 was made through enzymes-modified only. Results showed that cheese flavoring agent made by using ripening strains in combination with enzymes had more volatile flavor compounds (at least 44 than that used just ripening bacterium (26 or just two enzymes (27. Then, through Solid-phase microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis, we knew that sample 1, which was made through proteolysis first, next sprayed ripening cultures and last lipolysis, generated 54 flavor compounds. Sample 2, which enzymed cheese curd first, then incubated ripening cultures, had 44 aroma compounds. However, the controls 1, incubated ripening strains only, had 26 volatile compounds, while the control 2, enzymed only, had 27 volatile compounds. This study reveals that ripening bacterium could contribute more to the generation of acids, sulphur compounds, miscellaneous compounds and alcohols, it has a good potential to be used in cheese flavoring agents making. Besides, the combination of surface strains and enzymes, especially using Flavorzyme 500 MG first, then sprayed ripening cultures and at last Palatase 20000 L, could get more volatile compounds.

  4. Study of the Production Conditions and Bacteriolytic Specificity of Bacteriolytic Enzyme RX-17 Produced by Streptomyces sp%链霉菌RX-17溶菌酶的产生条件及溶菌特异性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昕; 任光文; 屠晓平; 张玉臻

    2003-01-01

    通过液体及平板溶菌活性测定,证明了灰色链霉菌(Streptomyces griseus)RX-17发酵液中存在对变链球菌(Streptococcus mutans)Ingbritt有强力溶解作用的物质-RX-17溶菌酶.产酶培养基碳、氮源最适配比为蔗糖3%、大豆蛋白胨1.25%、牛肉膏0.2%;最适产酶温度为33℃;高溶氧水平对酶的产生有利.溶菌特异性试验证实了RX-17溶菌酶对金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)、乳脂链球菌(S.cremoris)、保加利亚乳杆菌(Lactoba-cillus bulgaricus)、短乳杆菌(L.brevis)、产氨短杆菌(Brevibacterium ammoniagenes)及铜绿假单胞菌(Pseudomonasaeruginosa)等多种G+、G-细菌均有良好的溶解作用.

  5. Isolation and characterisation of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid-tolerant and biodegrading marine bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Megaw

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate and identify marine-derived bacteria which exhibited high tolerance to, and an ability to biodegrade, 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids. The salinity and hydrocarbon load of some marine environments may induce selective pressures which enhance the ability of microbes to grow in the presence of these liquid salts. The isolates obtained in this study generally showed a greater ability to grow in the presence of the selected ionic liquids compared to microorganisms described previously, with two marine-derived bacteria, Rhodococcus erythropolis and Brevibacterium sanguinis growing in concentrations exceeding 1 M 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. The ability of these bacteria to degrade the selected ionic liquids was assessed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and three were shown to degrade the selected ionic liquids by up to 59% over a 63-day test period. These bacterial isolates represent excellent candidates for further potential applications in the bioremediation of ionic liquid-containing waste or following accidental environmental exposure.

  6. Assessment of Bacterial Communities in Thirteen Species of Laboratory-Cultured Domestic Mites (Acari: Acaridida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Kopecky, Jan; Sagova-Mareckova, Marketa; Nesvorna, Marta; Zurek, Ludek; Erban, Tomas

    2016-08-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) and stored-product mites (SPMs) of various species inhabit human homes and stored agricultural products. These mites are carriers and hosts of microorganisms that enable their survival. The bacteriome from 13 species of SPMs and HDMs was analyzed and compared by 454 pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Altogether 128,052 sequences were obtained and assigned to 71 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% identity level. The number of sequences in the OTUs between species of mites ranged from 6 to 31 in the individual mite species. We did not find any significant effect of diet or evolutionary origin of mites or their interaction on the composition of the mite bacteriome. In mite species with low bacterial diversity, the bacterial communities were dominated by potential symbiotic or parasitic bacteria, i.e., Cardinium in Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes, 1961) and Aeroglyphus robustus (Banks 1906) and the enteric bacteria Erwinia in Blomia tropicalis Van Bronswijk, de Cock & Oshima, 1974 and Xenorhabdus in Tyroborus lini (Oudemans, 1924). Among the bacterial species identified, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Kocuria, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, and Brachybacterium likely serve as food sources for the mites. The domestic acaridid mites carried high numbers of various bacteria that are potential threats to human health. These results contribute to the general understanding of the ecology of mite adaptation to human-made habitats. PMID:27122496

  7. 川西北某铀矿区微生物分布规律及核素固化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳芳; 陈晓明; 王晓刚; 钟红梅

    2013-01-01

    为了更好的发挥微生物在放射性污染环境中的环境净化作用,本研究选择川西北某铀矿区为研究对象,利用生物学方法研究其中两个代表性铀废矿石堆中的微生物多样性及其在放射性污染环境中的分布规律.结果表明:在该铀矿区中主要赋存着细菌、放线菌及霉菌三种菌,其中以细菌占绝对优势;对优势微生物——细菌分离鉴定获得3种优势菌株,鉴定结果为玫瑰色库克菌(Kocuria rosea strain)、短杆菌(Brevibacterium sanguinis)和枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subilis/ atropheaus),研究认为玫瑰色库克菌(Kocuria rosea strain)在当地的放射性核素耐受性最好.

  8. 支链氨基酸生物合成及其代谢工程育种研究进展%Advances in Metabolic Engineering of Branched-Chain Amino Acids Producer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟国; 郭燕风

    2014-01-01

    支链氨基酸(亮氨酸、异亮氨酸和缬氨酸)主要由细菌、真菌和植物合成,是人体必需氨基酸.因其特殊的结构和功能,在人类生命代谢中占有特别重要的地位,所以支链氨基酸在医药、食品及饲料领域中有着广泛的用途.目前支链氨基酸主要采用发酵法生产,生产菌种主要为Corynebacterium glutamicum(包括黄色短杆菌Brevibacterium flavum).作者主要分析了Corynebacterium glutamicum中支链氨基酸生物合成途径及其代谢调控,并对支链氨基酸代谢工程育种情况进行了综述.

  9. Antimicrobial fabrication of cotton fabric and leather using green-synthesized nanosilver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Cho, Min; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Jung-Hee; Bae, Sunyoung; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-06-15

    This study aims to investigate the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Erigeron annuus (L.) pers flower extract as reducing and capping agent, and evaluation of their antibacterial activities for the first time. The obtained product was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrum, high resolution-transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The optimum AgNPs production was achieved at pH 7, metal silver (Ag(+) ion) concentration of 2.0mM, flower extract concentration 4%, and time 335 min. In addition, the antibacterial activity of cotton fabrics and tanned leather loaded with AgNPs, commercial AgNPs, flower extract, Ag(+) ion and blend of flower extract with AgNPs were evaluated against Gram-positive odor causing bacteria Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results showed maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI) by the cotton fabrics embedded with blend of flower extract and AgNPs against B. linens. The structure and morphology of cotton fabric and leather samples embedded with AgNPs, Ag(+) ion and blend of flower extract with AgNPs were examined under field emission scanning electron microscope. PMID:24721085

  10. Diversity, ecological distribution and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria inhabiting seamounts and non-seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettoumi, Besma; Chouchane, Habib; Guesmi, Amel; Mahjoubi, Mouna; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Neifar, Mohamed; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele; Cherif, Ameur

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the ecological distribution of marine Actinobacteria isolated from seamount and non-seamount stations in the Tyrrhenian Sea was investigated. A collection of 110 isolates was analyzed by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of representatives for each ARISA haplotype (n=49). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences showed a wide diversity of marine isolates and clustered the strains into 11 different genera, Janibacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Kocuria, Dietzia, Curtobacterium, Micrococcus, Citricoccus, Brevibacterium, Brachybacterium and Nocardioides. Interestingly, Janibacter limosus was the most encountered species particularly in seamounts stations, suggesting that it represents an endemic species of this particular ecosystem. The application of BOX-PCR fingerprinting on J. limosus sub-collection (n=22), allowed their separation into seven distinct BOX-genotypes suggesting a high intraspecific microdiversity among the collection. Furthermore, by screening the biotechnological potential of selected actinobacterial strains, J. limosus was shown to exhibit the most important biosurfactant activity. Our overall data indicates that Janibacter is a major and active component of seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea adapted to low nutrient ecological niche. PMID:27242145

  11. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticle-coated fabric and leather against odor and skin infection causing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Cho, Min; Park, Jung-Hee; Seo, Sang-Ki; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-10-01

    We present a simple, eco-friendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using a natural polymer pine gum solution as the reducing and capping agent. The pine gum solution was combined with silver nitrate (AgNO3) or a chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), respectively. The reaction process was simple; formation of the nanoparticles was achieved by autoclaving the silver and gold ions with the pine gum. UV-Vis spectra showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for silver and gold nanoparticles at 432 and 539 nm, respectively. The elemental forms of AgNPs and AuNPs were confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed the biomolecules present in the pine gum, AgNPs, and AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed the shape and size of AgNPs and AuNPs. The crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs was confirmed by X-ray crystallography [X-ray diffraction (XRD)]. Application of synthesized AgNPs onto cotton fabrics and leather, in order to evaluate their antibacterial properties against odor- or skin infection-causing bacteria, is also discussed. Among the four tested bacteria, AgNP-coated cotton fabric and leather samples displayed excellent antibacterial activity against Brevibacterium linens. PMID:25073519

  12. Characterization of a selenium-tolerant rhizosphere strain from a novel Se-hyperaccumulating plant Cardamine hupingshanesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xinzhao; Yuan, Linxi; Luo, Lei; Yin, Xuebin

    2014-01-01

    A novel selenium- (Se-) hyperaccumulating plant, Cardamine hupingshanesis, accumulating Se as a form of SeCys2, was discovered in Enshi, Hubei, China, which could not be explained by present selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) theory. However, it is interesting to investigate if rhizosphere bacteria play some roles during SeCys2 accumulation. Here, one Se-tolerant rhizosphere strain, Microbacterium oxydans, was isolated from C. hupingshanesis. Phylogenetic analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequences determined the strain as a kind of Gram positive bacillus and belonged to the family Brevibacterium frigoritolerans. Furthermore, Se tolerance test indicated the strain could grow in extreme high Se level of 15.0 mg Se L(-1). When exposed to 1.5 mg Se L(-1), SeCys2 was the predominant Se species in the bacteria, consistent with the Se species in C. hupingshanesis. This coincidence might reveal that this strain played some positive effect in SeCys2 accumulation of C. hupingshanesis. Moreover, when exposed to 1.5 mg Se L(-1) or 15.0 mg Se L(-1), As absorption diminished in the logarithmic phase. In contrast, As absorption increased when exposed to 7.5 mg Se L(-1), indicating As metabolism processes could be affected by Se on this strain. The present study provided a sight on the role of rhizosphere bacteria during Se accumulation for Se-hyperaccumulating plant. PMID:25478582

  13. Diversity and novelty of actinobacteria in Arctic marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaiyun; Cao, Tingfeng; Ying, Jianxi; Yang, Yanliu; Ma, Lingqi

    2014-04-01

    The actinobacterial diversity of Arctic marine sediments was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. A total of 152 strains were isolated from seven different media; 18 isolates were selected for phylogenetic analysis on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Results showed that the 18 isolates belonged to a potential novel genus and 10 known genera including Actinotalea, Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, Kocuria, Kytococcus, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, and Pseudonocardia. Subsequently, 172 rDNA clones were selected by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis from 692 positive clones within four actinobacteria-specific 16S rDNA libraries of Arctic marine sediments, and then these 172 clones were sequenced. In total, 67 phylotypes were clustered in 11 known genera of actinobacteria including Agrococcus, Cellulomonas, Demequina, Iamia, Ilumatobacter, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Phycicoccus, Propionibacterium, and Pseudonocardia, along with other, unidentified actinobacterial clones. Based on the detection of a substantial number of uncultured phylotypes showing low BLAST identities (<95 %), this study confirms that Arctic marine environments harbour highly diverse actinobacterial communities, many of which appear to be novel, uncultured species. PMID:24519808

  14. Effects of lipid concentration on anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yifei; Wang, Dian; Yan, Jiao; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Tianle

    2014-06-01

    The influence of the lipid concentration on the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste-activated sludge was assessed by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and by bench-scale tests in a mesophilic semi-continuous stirred tank reactor. The effect of increasing the volatile solid (VS) concentration of lipid from 0% to 75% was investigated. BMP tests showed that lipids in municipal biomass waste could enhance the methane production. The results of bench-scale tests showed that a lipids concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. Methane yields increased with increasing lipid concentration when lipid concentrations were below 60%, but when lipid concentration was set as 65% or higher, methane yields decreased sharply. When lipid concentrations were below 60%, the pH values were in the optimum range for the growth of methanogenic bacteria and the ratios of volatile fatty acid (VFA)/alkalinity were in the range of 0.2-0.6. When lipid concentrations exceeded 65%, the pH values were below 5.2, the reactor was acidized and the values of VFA/alkalinity rose to 2.0. The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with increasing lipid content. Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process, thereby inhibiting anaerobic digestion. PMID:24075452

  15. Characterization of 15 selected coccal bacteria isolated from Antarctic rock and soil samples from the McMurdo-Dry Valleys (South-Victoria Land)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, J.; Hirsch, P.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Approximately 1500 cultures of microorganisms were isolated from rocks and soils of the Ross Desert (McMurdo-Dry Valleys). From these, 15 coccoid strains were chosen for more detailed investigation. They were characterized by morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomical properties. All isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-positive and nonmotile. Six strains showed red pigmentation and could be identified as members of the genera Micrococcus (M. roseus, M. agilis) or Deinococcus. In spite of their coccoid morphology, the remaining nine strains had to be associated with coryneform bacteria (Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium), because of their cell wall composition and G+C ratios. Most of the strains were psychrotrophic, but one strain was even obligately psychrophilic, with a temperature maximum below 20 degrees C. Red cocci had in vitro pH optima above 9.0 although they generally originated from acid samples. Most isolates showed a preference for sugar alcohols and organic acids, compounds which are commonly known to be released by lichens, molds and algae, the other components of the cryptoendolithic ecosystem. These properties indicate that our strains are autochthonous members of the natural Antarctic microbial population.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of nanosilver with antibacterial properties using Pinus densiflora young cone extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Jang, Jum-Suk; Lee, Kui-Jae; Han, Sang-Sub; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Min; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2015-06-01

    This study describes an eco-friendly, rapid method for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) from an aqueous solution of silver nitrate using Pinus densiflora for. multicaulis Uyeki young cone extract in a single-pot process. Color changes, ultraviolet-visible spectra (444.5 nm), X-ray diffraction peaks (2θ=39.68, 46.92, 68.12, and 79.10), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the presence of Ag NPs and phytochemicals. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were mostly oval in shape, with a few triangular-shaped particles. Average particle size was 30-80 nm. Phytochemicals present in the young pine cone extract were likely responsible for the reduction of Ag(+) ions. The synthesized Ag NPs (40 μg) had a 7 mm larger zone of inhibition against the skin pathogen Brevibacterium linens than commercial Ag NPs, Propionibacterium acnes (14 mm), Bacillus cereus (9 mm) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (10mm). PMID:25846578

  17. 川西北某铀矿区微生物分布规律及核素固化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳芳; 陈晓明; 王晓刚; 钟红梅

    2013-01-01

    为了更好的发挥微生物在放射性污染环境中的环境净化作用,本研究选择川西北某铀矿区为研究对象,利用生物学方法研究其中两个代表性铀废矿石堆中的微生物多样性及其在放射性污染环境中的分布规律。结果表明:在该铀矿区中主要赋存着细茵、放线茵及霉菌三种茵,其中以细菌占绝对优势;对优势微生物——细茵分离鉴定获得3种优势菌株,鉴定结果为玫瑰色库克茵(Kocuria rosea strain)、短杆菌(Brevibacterium sanguinis,)和枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subilis/atropheaus),研究认为玫瑰色库克茵(Kocuria rosea strain夕在当地的放射性核素耐受性最好。

  18. L-谷氨酸生产菌的选育及其发酵条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宁; 张克旭; 王东洋; 李建河

    2002-01-01

    采用黄色短杆菌(Brevibacterium flavum)T1为始发菌株,根据代谢控制发酵原理,利用紫外线、硫酸二乙酯进行诱变,定向选育出具有寡霉素抗性、谷氨酸氧肟酸盐抗性的温度敏感突变株TM106。然后,以温度敏感突变株TM106和产酸率高(10.5%以上)的天津短杆TG961为亲株。通过原生质体融合技术,成功地选育出了产酸率高的融合子CM021,并且该菌株系温度敏感型菌株,可用于谷氨酸强制发酵。在摇瓶条件下,产酸达13.6g/dl;在6m3发酵罐上进行中试,产酸达14.6g/dl,转化率达62%。

  19. Gold nanoparticles mediated coloring of fabrics and leather for antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Shim, Jaehong; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2016-07-01

    Metal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized in situ onto leather, silk and cotton fabrics by three different modules, including green, chemical, and a composite of green and chemical synthesis. Green synthesis was employed using Ginkgo biloba Linn leaf powder extract and HAuCl4 with the fabrics, and chemical synthesis was done with KBH4 and HAuCl4. For composite synthesis, G. biloba extract and KBH4 were used to color and embed AuNPs in the fabrics. The colored fabrics were tested for color coordination and fastness properties. To validate the green synthesis of AuNPs, various instrumental techniques were used including UV-Vis spectrophotometry, HR-TEM, FTIR, and XRD. The chemical and composite methods reduce Au(+) onto leather, silk and cotton fabrics upon heating, and alkaline conditions are required for bonding to fibers; these conditions are not used in the green synthesis protocol. FE-SEM image revealed the binding nature of the AuNPs to the fabrics. The AuNPs that were synthesized in situ on the fabrics were tested against a skin pathogen, Brevibacterium linens using LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability testing. This study represents an initial route for coloring and bio-functionalization of various fabrics with green technologies, and, accordingly, should open new avenues for innovation in the textile and garment sectors. PMID:27104665

  20. 高效液相色谱法快速检测海藻糖%A Rapid HPLC Method for the Detection of Trehalose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成君; 林建平; 岑沛霖

    2005-01-01

    旨在建立一种利用高效液相色谱法检测海藻糖的方法.实验采用Brevibacterium helvolum菌转化液化淀粉生产海藻糖.在反应混合物中,麦芽糖对海藻糖的检测有显著影响.通过改变乙腈和水的比例,麦芽糖和海藻糖最终被完全分开.高效液相色谱条件为:碳水化合物分析柱;洗脱剂为V(乙腈):V(水)=80:20;体积流量1 mL/min;进样量20 μL;柱温为室温.麦芽糖和海藻糖的保留时间分别为11.3 min和13.8 min.

  1. Characterization of a Selenium-Tolerant Rhizosphere Strain from a Novel Se-Hyperaccumulating Plant Cardamine hupingshanesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhao Tong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel selenium- (Se- hyperaccumulating plant, Cardamine hupingshanesis, accumulating Se as a form of SeCys2, was discovered in Enshi, Hubei, China, which could not be explained by present selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT theory. However, it is interesting to investigate if rhizosphere bacteria play some roles during SeCys2 accumulation. Here, one Se-tolerant rhizosphere strain, Microbacterium oxydans, was isolated from C. hupingshanesis. Phylogenetic analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequences determined the strain as a kind of Gram positive bacillus and belonged to the family Brevibacterium frigoritolerans. Furthermore, Se tolerance test indicated the strain could grow in extreme high Se level of 15.0 mg Se L−1. When exposed to 1.5 mg Se L−1, SeCys2 was the predominant Se species in the bacteria, consistent with the Se species in C. hupingshanesis. This coincidence might reveal that this strain played some positive effect in SeCys2 accumulation of C. hupingshanesis. Moreover, when exposed to 1.5 mg Se L−1 or 15.0 mg Se L−1, As absorption diminished in the logarithmic phase. In contrast, As absorption increased when exposed to 7.5 mg Se L−1, indicating As metabolism processes could be affected by Se on this strain. The present study provided a sight on the role of rhizosphere bacteria during Se accumulation for Se-hyperaccumulating plant.

  2. Determination of Peptidase System of Microorganisms in Ripening of Chinese Sufu%腐乳后发酵阶段微生物肽酶系统的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨佐毅; 李理; 梁世中; 杨晓泉

    2006-01-01

    采用合成底物对华南地区腐乳后发酵阶段分离得到的细菌短杆菌属(Brevibacterium)菌株DH1、JS3、GH4、DG6和酵母菌SCY1、JSBB2的胞内和胞外肽酶系统进行了测定.实验结果表明,分离得到的细菌菌株具有较高的内肽酶活力,其亮氨酸氨肽酶、精氨酸氨肽酶、二肽酶和羧肽酶的活力很高.而分离出的酵母菌的谷氨酸氨肽酶、赖氨酸氨肽酶活力较高,同时具有很高的二肽酶与羧肽酶活力.

  3. Coenzyme-like ligands for affinity isolation of cholesterol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yu; Lu, Liushen; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Ling; Tong, Yanjun; Wang, Wu

    2016-05-15

    Two coenzyme-like chemical ligands were designed and synthesized for affinity isolation of cholesterol oxidase (COD). To simulate the structure of natural coenzyme of COD (flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)), on Sepharose beads, 5-aminouracil, cyanuric chloride and 1, 4-butanediamine were composed and then modified. The COD gene from Brevibacterium sp. (DQ345780) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and then the sorbents were applied to adsorption analysis with the pure enzyme. Subsequently, the captured enzyme was applied to SDS-PAGE and activity analysis. As calculated, the theoretical maximum adsorption (Qmax) of the two affinity sorbents (RL-1 and RL-2) were ∼83.5 and 46.3mg/g wet gel; and the desorption constant Kd of the two sorbents were ∼6.02×10(-4) and 1.19×10(-4)μM. The proteins after cell lysis were applied to affinity isolation, and then after one step of affinity binding on the two sorbents, the protein recoveries of RL-1 and RL-2 were 9.2% and 9.7%; the bioactivity recoveries were 92.7% and 91.3%, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the purities of COD isolated with the two affinity sorbents were approximately 95%. PMID:26856529

  4. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of microbial community in soy-daddawa, a Nigerian fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) condiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeokoli, Obinna T; Gupta, Arvind K; Mienie, Charlotte; Popoola, Temitope O S; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius C

    2016-03-01

    Soy-daddawa, a fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) condiment, plays a significant role in the culinary practice of West Africa. It is essential to understand the microbial community of soy-daddawa for a successful starter culture application. This study investigated the microbial community structure of soy-daddawa samples collected from Nigerian markets, by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of fungi. Six bacterial and 16 fungal (nine yeasts and seven molds) operational taxonomic units (OTUs)/species were obtained at 97% sequence similarity. Taxonomic assignments revealed that bacterial OTUs belonged to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and included species from the genera Atopostipes, Bacillus, Brevibacterium and Nosocomiicoccus. Densitometric analysis of DGGE image/bands revealed that Bacillus spp. were the dominant OTU/species in terms of population numbers. Fungal OTUs belonged to the phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota, and included species from the genera, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Candida, Cladosporium, Dokmaia, Issatchenkia, Kodamaea, Lecythophora, Phoma, Pichia, Rhizopus, Saccharomyces and Starmerella. The majority of fungal species have not been previously reported in soy-daddawa. Potential opportunistic human pathogens such as Atopostipes suicloacalis, Candida rugosa, Candida tropicalis, and Kodamaea ohmeri were detected. Variation in soy-daddawa microbial communities amongst samples and presence of potential opportunistic pathogens emphasises the need for starter culture employment and good handling practices in soy-daddawa processing. PMID:26796580

  5. 黄色短杆菌变异株AN78的发酵生产L-精氨酸的研究%Fermentative production of L-arginine by mutant AN78

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏令鸣; 王宜敏; 李爽

    2003-01-01

    以黄色短杆菌(Brevibacterium flavum)AG77(AHVr,TAr,SGr)为诱变出发菌株,经亚硝基胍(NIG)诱变处理和选育,获得一株能够积累大量L-精氨酸的菌株AN78(AHVr,TAr,SGr,His-)。AN78菌株在20L发酵罐中,以葡萄糖为碳源,以玉米浆、硫酸铵等为氮源的培养基中培养4d,产酸率可达61.1g/L,对糖转化率20.2%,与AG77菌株相比较,分别提高了95%和39.3%。发酵液中L-精氨酸的提取收率为71%。

  6. Biosynthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial applications of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Singh, Hina; Wang, Chao; Hwang, Kyu Hyon; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Yang, Deok Chun

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the strain Brevibacterium frigoritolerans DC2 was explored for the efficient and extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles. These biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, which detected the formation of silver nanoparticles in the reaction mixture and showed a maximum absorbance at 420 nm. In addition, field emission transmission electron microscopy revealed the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. The dynamic light scattering results indicated the average particle size of the product was 97 nm with a 0.191 polydispersity index. Furthermore, the product was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and elemental mapping, which displayed the presence of elemental silver in the product. Moreover, on a medical platform, the product was checked against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The nanoparticles demonstrated antimicrobial activity against all of these pathogenic microorganisms. Additionally, the silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their combined effects with the commercial antibiotics lincomycin, oleandomycin, vancomycin, novobiocin, penicillin G, and rifampicin against these pathogenic microorganisms. These results indicated that the combination of antibiotics with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles enhanced the antimicrobial effects of antibiotics. Therefore, the current study is a demonstration of an efficient biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles by B. frigoritolerans DC2 and its effect on the enhancement of the antimicrobial efficacy of well-known commercial antibiotics. PMID:25848272

  7. 发酵法生产L-异亮氨酸的溶氧控制策略%Microbial production of L-isoleucine by dissolved oxygen control strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭志坚; 房峻; 李江华; 堵国成; 陈坚; 宁健飞; 蔡立明

    2009-01-01

    研究了溶氧对Brevibacterium lactofermentation 分批发酵生产L-异亮氨酸(Ile)的影响,提出了前10 h 恒700 r/min 以维持溶氧在35% 以上,10 h 后调至600 r/min 以维持溶氧在15%~20% 的两阶段供氧控制模式.与对照相比,获得了较高的产率(0.094 g/g)和糖耗速度(4.76 g/L·h),在较短时间内(52 h)获得较高的Ile产量(23.3 g/L),比结果最好的单一搅拌转速(600 r/min)提高11.6% .生产强度(0.448 g/L·h)比恒定搅拌转速(500、600、700、800 r/min)控制下的过程分别提高了83.6%、28.7%、44.9%、35.7%.最后采用代谢通量分析对该结果产生的原因进行了定量解释.

  8. Studying of Phenomenon of Biological Adaptation to Heavy Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological influence of deuterium on cells of various taxonomic groups of prokaryotic and eucaryotic microorganisms realizing methylotrophic, chemoheterotrophic, photo-organotrophic, and photosynthetic ways of assimilation of carbon substrates (methylotrophic bacteria Brevibacterium methylicum, chemoheterotrophic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, photo-organotrophic halobacteria Halobacterium halobium, and green micro algae Chlorella vulgaris was investigated at the growth on media with heavy water (2H2O. For investigated microorganisms are submitted the data on growth and adaptation on the growth media containing as sources of deuterated substrates 2H2O, [2H]methanol and hydrolisates of deutero-biomass of methylotrophic bacteria B. methylicum, obtained after multistage adaptation to 2H2O. The qualitative and quantitative composition of intra- and endocellular amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates and fatty acids in conditions of adaptation to 2H2O is investigated. It is shown, that the effects observed at adaptation to 2H2O, possess a complex multifactorial character and connected to cytological, morphological and physiological changes – the magnitude of the lag- period, time of cellular generation, output of biomass, a parity ratio of synthesized amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, and also with an evolutionary level of the organization of the investigated object and the pathways of assimilation of carbon substrates as well.

  9. A methodological approach to screen diverse cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogačić, Tomislav; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Leclerc, Aurélie; Hervé, Christophe; Chuat, Victoria; Yee, Alyson L; Valence, Florence; Thierry, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in the development of cheese flavor. The aim of this study was to develop an approach to facilitate screening of various cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds. We combined i) curd-based slurry medium incubated under conditions mimicking cheese manufacturing and ripening, ii) powerful method of extraction of volatiles, headspace trap, coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-trap-GC-MS), and iii) metabolomics-based method of data processing using the XCMS package of R software and multivariate analysis. This approach was applied to eleven species: five lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc lactis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus helveticus), four actinobacteria (Brachybacterium articum, Brachybacterium tyrofermentans, Brevibacterium aurantiacum, and Microbacterium gubbeenense), Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Hafnia alvei. All the strains grew, with maximal populations ranging from 7.4 to 9.2 log (CFU/mL). In total, 52 volatile aroma compounds were identified, of which 49 varied significantly in abundance between bacteria. Principal component analysis of volatile profiles differentiated species by their ability to produce ethyl esters (associated with Brachybacteria), sulfur compounds and branched-chain alcohols (H. alvei), branched-chain acids (H. alvei, P. freudenreichii and L. paracasei), diacetyl and related carbonyl compounds (M. gubbeenense and L. paracasei), among others. PMID:25475278

  10. Antioxidant Activity, Polyphenols Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Several Native Pteridophytes of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cristina SOARE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to test the antioxidant activity, polyphenols content and antimicrobial activity of crude extracts obtained from leaves of pteridophyte species commonly found in Romania. The ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity of the investigated ferns varied between 421.90 ?mol TE (Trolox equivalents/g FW (fresh weight in Dryopteris filix-mas and 128.18 ?mol TE/g FW in D. affinis. Methanolic extracts obtained from leaves of ferns have similar antioxidant activity to that of some medicinal plants. Polyphenols content in the leaves of ferns varies between 2340 mg Gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 g FW in D. filix-mas and 887 mg GAE/100 g FW in D. affinis. The correlation coefficient between ORAC and the total polyphenol content was R=0.985. This correlation suggests that phenolic compounds are major contributors to the antioxidant activity. The methanolic extract obtained from ferns inhibits the growth of Gram negative Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa NBJMCC1390, Salmonella abony and Gram positive Staphyllococcus aureus ATCC 25093 and Enterococcus faecalis. The highest antimicrobial activity was determined for the Dryopteris extract. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts obtained from leaves of D. filix-mas and D. affinis is better than the A. filix-femina in the case of Brevibacterium flavum ATCC 14067, Sarcina sp., Bacillus cereus ATCC 1390, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. The tested ferns could be used as cosmetic ingredients, as preservatives in food or in antimicrobial therapy.

  11. Combination of culture-independent and culture-dependent molecular methods for the determination of bacterial community of iru, a fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewumi, Gbenga A; Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A; Keisam, Santosh; Romi, Wahengbam; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2012-01-01

    In this study, bacterial composition of iru produced by natural, uncontrolled fermentation of Parkia biglobosa seeds was assessed using culture-independent method in combination with culture-based genotypic typing techniques. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed similarity in DNA fragments with the two DNA extraction methods used and confirmed bacterial diversity in the 16 iru samples from different production regions. DNA sequencing of the highly variable V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes obtained from PCR-DGGE identified species related to Bacillus subtilis as consistent bacterial species in the fermented samples, while other major bands were identified as close relatives of Staphylococcus vitulinus, Morganella morganii, B. thuringiensis, S. saprophyticus, Tetragenococcus halophilus, Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Brevibacillus parabrevis, Salinicoccus jeotgali, Brevibacterium sp. and uncultured bacteria clones. Bacillus species were cultured as potential starter cultures and clonal relationship of different isolates determined using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) combined with 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR amplification, restriction analysis (ITS-PCR-RFLP), and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR). This further discriminated B. subtilis and its variants from food-borne pathogens such as B. cereus and suggested the need for development of controlled fermentation processes and good manufacturing practices (GMP) for iru production to achieve product consistency, safety quality, and improved shelf life. PMID:23316189

  12. Isolation and identification of high-activity flocculation bacteria in potato starch wastewater%马铃薯淀粉废水高活性絮凝菌的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵起政; 路宏科; 彭涛; 马文锦; 陈兴叶; 殷欣; 张小燕; 杨旭星; 金红

    2015-01-01

    从马铃薯淀粉废水和黄河污水排放口附近的污泥中分离得到300株菌,对所分离的菌株进行分离纯化,初筛和复筛,得到6株絮凝活性在60%以上的细菌,对6株细菌进行形态特征分析,将复筛的6株细菌悬液按照等体积的比例进行复配,絮凝率最高的混合菌为N1和N2,达到96.41%,选取絮凝率80%以上的4组构建菌中的5株细菌,对其进行16S rDNA序列分析,鉴定结果为N1短杆菌属(Brevibacterium sp.)、N2短小芽孢杆菌(Bacillus pumilus)、N3希瓦氏菌属(Shewanella sp.)、N4赖氨酸芽孢杆茵(Lysinibacillus fusiformis)、N5解鸟氨酸拉乌尔菌(Raoultella omithinolytica).

  13. 降解除草剂异噁草酮细菌的分离、鉴定及生长特性%Studies on screening, identification and growth characters of the herbicide clomazone degrading-bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚光; 闫春秀; 赵滨

    2007-01-01

    利用长期施用长残留除草剂的土壤,采用高压富集的方法,从两种培养液中共分离出3株细菌,根据菌株的形态特性和生理生化特征,对此3个菌株进行了初步鉴定:W2为短杆菌属(Brevibacterium);Y1和X同为芽胞杆菌属(Bacillus);W2、Y1和X的最适生长温度分别是30℃、35℃和30℃;W2培养基的pH值为6.0~9.0,Y1和X的最适pH值为6.0~8.0;W2生长最适异噁草酮的浓度是200mg a.i.·L-1,Y1和X生长最适异噁草酮的浓度是100mg a..i.·L-1.

  14. Non-spore forming eubacteria isolated at an altitude of 20,000 m in Earth's atmosphere: extended incubation periods needed for culture-based assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.

    2008-01-01

    On 13 August 2004, an atmospheric sample was collected at an altitude of 20,000 m along a west to east transect over the continental United States by NASA’s Stratospheric and Cosmic Dust Program. This sample was then shipped to the US Geological Survey’s Global Desert Dust program for microbiological analyses. This sample, which was plated on a low nutrient agar to determine if cultivable microorganisms were present, produced 590 small yellow to off-white colonies after approximately 7 weeks of incubation at room-temperature. Of 50 colonies selected for identification using 16S rRNA sequencing, 41 belonged to the family Micrococcaceae, seven to the family Microbacteriaceae, one to the genus Staphylococcus, and one to the genus Brevibacterium. All of the isolates identified were non-spore-forming pigmented bacteria, and their presence in this sample illustrate that it is not unusual to recover viable microbes at extreme altitudes. Additionally, the extended period required to initiate growth demonstrates the need for lengthy incubation periods when analyzing high-altitude samples for cultivable microorganisms.

  15. Combination of culture-independent and culture-dependent molecular methods for the determination of bacterial community of iru, a fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga Adedeji Adewumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bacterial composition of iru produced by natural, uncontrolled fermentation of Parkia biglobosa seeds was assessed using culture-independent method in combination with culture-based genotypic typing techniques. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE revealed similarity in DNA fragments with the two DNA extraction methods used and confirmed bacterial diversity in the sixteen iru samples from different production regions. DNA sequencing of the highly variable V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes obtained from PCR-DGGE identified species related to Bacillus subtilis as consistent bacterial species in the fermented samples, while other major bands were identified as close relatives of Staphylococcus vitulinus, Morganella morganii, B. thuringiensis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Tetragenococcus halophilus, Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Brevibacillus parabrevis, Salinicoccus jeotgali, Brevibacterium sp. and Uncultured bacteria clones. Bacillus species were cultured as potential starter cultures and clonal relationship of different isolates determined using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA combined with 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS PCR amplification, restriction analysis (ITS-PCR-RFLP and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR. This further discriminated Bacillus subtilis and its variants from food-borne pathogens such as Bacillus cereus and suggested the need for development of controlled fermentation processes and good manufacturing practices (GMP for iru production to achieve product consistency, safety quality and improved shelf life.

  16. A methodological approach to screen diverse cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogačić, Tomislav; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Leclerc, Aurélie; Hervé, Christophe; Chuat, Victoria; Yee, Alyson L; Valence, Florence; Thierry, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in the development of cheese flavor. The aim of this study was to develop an approach to facilitate screening of various cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds. We combined i) curd-based slurry medium incubated under conditions mimicking cheese manufacturing and ripening, ii) powerful method of extraction of volatiles, headspace trap, coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-trap-GC-MS), and iii) metabolomics-based method of data processing using the XCMS package of R software and multivariate analysis. This approach was applied to eleven species: five lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc lactis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus helveticus), four actinobacteria (Brachybacterium articum, Brachybacterium tyrofermentans, Brevibacterium aurantiacum, and Microbacterium gubbeenense), Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Hafnia alvei. All the strains grew, with maximal populations ranging from 7.4 to 9.2 log (CFU/mL). In total, 52 volatile aroma compounds were identified, of which 49 varied significantly in abundance between bacteria. Principal component analysis of volatile profiles differentiated species by their ability to produce ethyl esters (associated with Brachybacteria), sulfur compounds and branched-chain alcohols (H. alvei), branched-chain acids (H. alvei, P. freudenreichii and L. paracasei), diacetyl and related carbonyl compounds (M. gubbeenense and L. paracasei), among others.

  17. Survival of cheese-ripening microorganisms in a dynamic simulator of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adouard, Nadège; Magne, Laurent; Cattenoz, Thomas; Guillemin, Hervé; Foligné, Benoît; Picque, Daniel; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    A mixture of nine microorganisms (six bacteria and three yeasts) from the microflora of surface-ripened cheeses were subjected to in vitro digestive stress in a three-compartment "dynamic gastrointestinal digester" (DIDGI). We studied the microorganisms (i) grown separately in culture medium only (ii) grown separately in culture medium and then mixed, (iii) grown separately in culture medium and then included in a rennet gel and (iv) grown together in smear-ripened cheese. The yeasts Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces lactis and Debaryomyces hansenii, were strongly resistant to the whole DIDGI process (with a drop in viable cell counts of less than cheese-grown cultures. Ripening bacteria such as Hafnia alvei survived gastric stress less well when grown in cheese (with no viable cells after 90 min of exposure of the cheese matrix, compared with 6 CFU mL(-1) in lab cultures). The ability of Corynebacterium casei and Staphylococcus equorum to withstand digestive stress was similar for cheese and pure culture conditions. When grow in a cheese matrix, Brevibacterium aurantiacum and Arthrobacter arilaitensis were clearly more sensitive to the overall digestive process than when grown in pure cultures. Lactococcus lactis displayed poorer survival in gastric and duodenal compartments when it had been grown in cheese. In vivo experiments in BALB/c mice agreed with the DIDGI experiments and confirmed the latter's reliability.

  18. Antioxidant/Prooxidant and Antibacterial/Probacterial Effects of a Grape Seed Extract in Complex with Lipoxygenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Sanda Chedea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS, and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE, were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS or in extract (LE to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli B41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3 h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects.

  19. Diversity, ecological distribution and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria inhabiting seamounts and non-seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ettoumi, Besma

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the ecological distribution of marine Actinobacteria isolated from seamount and non-seamount stations in the Tyrrhenian Sea was investigated. A collection of 110 isolates was analyzed by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of representatives for each ARISA haplotype (n = 49). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences showed a wide diversity of marine isolates and clustered the strains into 11 different genera, Janibacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Kocuria, Dietzia, Curtobacterium, Micrococcus, Citricoccus, Brevibacterium, Brachybacterium and Nocardioides. Interestingly, Janibacter limosus was the most encountered species particularly in seamounts stations, suggesting that it represents an endemic species of this particular ecosystem. The application of BOX-PCR fingerprinting on J. limosus sub-collection (n = 22), allowed their separation into seven distinct BOX-genotypes suggesting a high intraspecific microdiversity among the collection. Furthermore, by screening the biotechnological potential of selected actinobacterial strains, J. limosus was shown to exhibit the most important biosurfactant activity. Our overall data indicates that Janibacter is a major and active component of seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea adapted to low nutrient ecological niche.

  20. Biosynthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial applications of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Singh, Hina; Wang, Chao; Hwang, Kyu Hyon; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Yang, Deok Chun

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the strain Brevibacterium frigoritolerans DC2 was explored for the efficient and extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles. These biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, which detected the formation of silver nanoparticles in the reaction mixture and showed a maximum absorbance at 420 nm. In addition, field emission transmission electron microscopy revealed the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. The dynamic light scattering results indicated the average particle size of the product was 97 nm with a 0.191 polydispersity index. Furthermore, the product was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and elemental mapping, which displayed the presence of elemental silver in the product. Moreover, on a medical platform, the product was checked against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The nanoparticles demonstrated antimicrobial activity against all of these pathogenic microorganisms. Additionally, the silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their combined effects with the commercial antibiotics lincomycin, oleandomycin, vancomycin, novobiocin, penicillin G, and rifampicin against these pathogenic microorganisms. These results indicated that the combination of antibiotics with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles enhanced the antimicrobial effects of antibiotics. Therefore, the current study is a demonstration of an efficient biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles by B. frigoritolerans DC2 and its effect on the enhancement of the antimicrobial efficacy of well-known commercial antibiotics.

  1. Combination of culture-independent and culture-dependent molecular methods for the determination of bacterial community of iru, a fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewumi, Gbenga A; Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A; Keisam, Santosh; Romi, Wahengbam; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2012-01-01

    In this study, bacterial composition of iru produced by natural, uncontrolled fermentation of Parkia biglobosa seeds was assessed using culture-independent method in combination with culture-based genotypic typing techniques. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed similarity in DNA fragments with the two DNA extraction methods used and confirmed bacterial diversity in the 16 iru samples from different production regions. DNA sequencing of the highly variable V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes obtained from PCR-DGGE identified species related to Bacillus subtilis as consistent bacterial species in the fermented samples, while other major bands were identified as close relatives of Staphylococcus vitulinus, Morganella morganii, B. thuringiensis, S. saprophyticus, Tetragenococcus halophilus, Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Brevibacillus parabrevis, Salinicoccus jeotgali, Brevibacterium sp. and uncultured bacteria clones. Bacillus species were cultured as potential starter cultures and clonal relationship of different isolates determined using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) combined with 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR amplification, restriction analysis (ITS-PCR-RFLP), and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR). This further discriminated B. subtilis and its variants from food-borne pathogens such as B. cereus and suggested the need for development of controlled fermentation processes and good manufacturing practices (GMP) for iru production to achieve product consistency, safety quality, and improved shelf life.

  2. Bacterial flora concurrent with Helicobacter pylori in the stomach of patients with upper gastrointestinal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Hu; Li-Hua He; Di Xiao; Guo-Dong Liu; Yi-Xin Gu; Xiao-Xia Tao; Jian-Zhong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the non-Helicobacter pylori (H.pylorl) bacterial flora concurrent with H.py/ori infection.METHODS:A total of 103 gastric biopsy specimens from H.py/ori positive patients were selected for bacterial culture.All the non-H.py/ori bacterial isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).RESULTS:A total of 201 non-H.py/ori bacterial isolates were cultivated from 67 (65.0%) of the 103 gastric samples,including 153 isolates identified successfully at species level and 48 at genus level by MALDI-TOF MS.The dominant species were Streptococcus,Neisseria,Rothia and Staphylococcus,which differed from the predominantly acid resistant species reported previously in healthy volunteers.The prevalence of non-H.pylori bacteria was higher in non-ulcer dyspepsia group than in gastric ulcer group (100% vs 42.9%,P < 0.001).Six bacterial species with urease activity (Staphylococcus epidermidis,Staphylococcus warneri,Staphylococcus capitis,Staphylococcus aureus,Brevibacterium spp.and Klebsiella pneumoniae) were also isolated.CONCLUSION:There is a high prevalence of the non-H.pylori bacteria concurrent with H.pylori infection,and the non-H.pylori bacteria may also play important as-yet-undiscovered roles in the pathogenesis of stomach disorders.

  3. Contagem, isolamento e caracterização de bactérias psicrotróficas contaminantes de leite cru refrigerado Counting, isolation and characterization of psychrotrophic bacteria from refrigerated raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Froeder Arcuri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Com os objetivos de quantificar, isolar e caracterizar bactérias psicrotróficas contaminantes de leite cru refrigerado, produzido na região da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais e Sudeste do Rio de Janeiro, foram analisadas amostras de leite coletadas de 20 tanques coletivos e 23 tanques individuais. As contagens de bactérias psicrotróficas nas amostras de leite para os dois tipos de tanques de refrigeração variaram entre 10² e 10(7 Unidades Formadoras de Colônias (UFC ml-1, porém, um maior número de tanques coletivos apresentou contagens acima de 1 x 10(5 UFC ml-1. Foi verificada a predominância de bactérias psicrotróficas gram-negativas (81,2%, que foram identificadas pelos sistemas API 20E e API 20NE nos gêneros: Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Acinetobacter, Burkholderia,Chryseomonas, Enterobacter, Ewingella, Klebsiella, Hafnia, Methylobacterium, Moraxella, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Sphingomonas e Yersinia. As bactérias gram-positivas (18,8% foram identificadas com API 50 CH, API Coryne e API Staph, nos gêneros: Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Cellum/Microbacterium, Kurthia e Staphylococcus. Os sistemas API utilizados não identificaram todos os isolados bacterianos. Pseudomonas foi o gênero mais isolado e P. fluorescens foi a espécie predominante. A maioria dos isolados bacterianos apresentou atividade proteolítica e/ou lipolítica a temperaturas de refrigeração de 4°C, 7°C e 10°C, evidenciando seu alto potencial de deterioração do leite e dos produtos lácteos. Os resultados ressaltam que maior atenção deve ser dada aos procedimentos que impeçam a contaminação do leite por esses microrganismos.This study aimed to quantify, isolate and characterize psychrotrophic bacteria from refrigerated raw milk produced at the ‘Mata’ Region of Minas Gerais State and Southeast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Raw milk samples, were collected at the farms, from 20 collective refrigerated tanks and 23 individual refrigerated tanks

  4. Diversity and Seasonal Fluctuations of Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from the Root Tissues of Cymbidium faberi%蕙兰根部内生细菌多样性及季节动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜; 杨波

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigated the seasonal variations in the community structure of endophytic bacteria in the root tissues of Cymbidium faberi Rolfe. A total of 207 bacterial isolates were obtained in different seasons. Based on the pattern of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using restriction enzyme Alu I,the bacteria were grouped into 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA gene homological data showed that all isolates affiliated to nine genera, consisting of Bacillus, Burkholderia,Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Microbacterium, Rhizobium, L ysinibacillus, Cohnella and Brevibacterium. Bacillus dominated among the bacterial isolates, followed by Paenibacillus and Burkholderia. Isolate diversity was lowest in summer and highest in September. The correlation between the community structure of endophytic bacteria and seasonal factors reached a highly significant level (p <0.001 ). However,the dominant species of the bacterial communities in Cymbidium faberi did not change significantly.%为了研究蕙兰(Cymbidium faberi)根部内生细菌群落结构在不同季节里的变化,于不同季节从蕙兰根部分离出内生细菌207株,采用核糖体DNA扩增片段限制性分析(ARDRA)研究了蕙兰根部内生细菌群落组成的季节动态变化.将内生细菌纯培养物扩增近全长的16S rDNA,并用ARDRA对所分离的菌株进行分型,根据酶切图谱的差异,将其分成25个ARDRA型,并选取代表性菌株进行16S rDNA序列测定.结果表明,分离出来的内生细菌分为9个属,包括芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、伯克氏属(Burkholderia)、类芽孢杆菌属(Paenibacillus)、假单胞属(Pseudomonas)、微杆菌属(Microbacterium)、根瘤菌属(Rhizobium)、Lysinibacillus、Cohnella和短杆菌属(Brevibacterium),其中优势种群为Bacillus,次优势种群为Paenibacillus和Burkholderia.秋季分离出的内生细菌种类最多,夏季分离出的种类最少.在不同季节蕙

  5. Diversidade e potencial biotecnológico da comunidade bacteriana endofítica de sementes de soja Diversity and biotechnological potential of endophytic bacterial community of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura de Castro Assumpção

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar, caracterizar e identificar a comunidade bacteriana endofítica de sementes de soja e avaliar o seu potencial biotecnológico. Foram utilizadas sementes de 12 cultivares de soja. Os isolados bacterianos endofíticos obtidos foram avaliados in vitro quanto ao antagonismo a fungos fitopatogênicos, síntese de ácido indolacético (AIA e solubilização de fosfato. A caracterização foi realizada com técnicas de isolamento, análise de restrição do DNA ribossomal amplificado (ARDRA e sequenciamento parcial do gene 16S rDNA. Os isolados com maior potencial biotecnológico foram inoculados em sementes de soja, para se avaliar a capacidade de promoção de crescimento de plantas. Foi possível identificar 12 ribótipos por meio da ARDRA, que foram classificados como: Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Chryseobacterium, Citrobacter, Curtobacterium, Enterobacter, Methylobacterium, Microbacterium, Micromonospora, Pantoea, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum, Streptomyces e Tsukamurella. Quanto ao potencial biotecnológico da comunidade, 18% dos isolados controlaram o crescimento de fungos fitopatogênicos, 100% produziram AIA, e 39% solubilizaram fosfato. O isolado 67A(57 de Enterobacter sp. aumentou significativamente a massa de matéria seca da raiz. A inoculação de isolados com elevado potencial biotecnológico em avaliações in vitro não promoveu o crescimento de plantas de soja na maioria dos casos.The objectives of this work were to isolate, characterize and identify the endophytic bacterial community of soybean seeds, and to test the biotechnological potential of this community. Seeds from 12 soybean cultivars were used. The endophytic bacterial isolates were evaluated for in vitro antagonism against phytopathogenic fungi, synthesis of indoleacetic acid (IAA, and capacity to solubilize phosphate. Isolation techniques, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA grouping, and

  6. Bacterial Communities in Crude Oil Gathering and Transferring System%石油集输系统中微生物群落结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永军; 郑昕; 金鹏康

    2009-01-01

    采用16S rRNA基因克隆-变性梯度凝胶电泳分析方法研究了石油集输系统原油和油田产水中的微生物群落结构.变性梯度凝胶电泳图谱显示:油田产水中微生物群落远比原油中的菌群丰富.所有的油田水样和原油样本中都存在与Ochrobactrum sp. 和Stenotrophomonas sp. 相关的细菌;原油样本中检测出与Burkholderia sp.、Brevundimonas sp.和Propionibacterium sp.相关的细菌,而这些细菌在油田水样中未检出;在油田水样中检出与Hippea sp.、Acidovorax sp.、Arcobacter sp.、Pseudomonas sp.、Thiomicrospira sp.、Brevibacterium sp.、Tissierella sp.和Peptostreptococcus sp.相关的细菌,而这些细菌在原油样本中未检出.用古细菌特异性引物进行检测发现在油田水样中存在与Methanomicrobials和Methanosarcinales相关的产甲烷菌,而这些细菌在原油样本中未检出.在石油集输过程中,油田水样和原油中微生物群落的相似性分别为83.3%和88.2%,说明微生物群落结构较为稳定.%Microbial community's structure of crude oil and oil field production water from an oil gathering and transferring system were studied adopting 16S rRNA gene cloning-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The atlas of DGGE showed that microbial communities in oilfield production water were far more richer than those in crude oil. All samples from oilfield production water and crude oil existed bacteria related to Ochrobacterium sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. While samples from crude oil bacteria related to Burkholderia sp., Brevundimonas sp. and Propionibacterium sp. were detected, but none from oilfield production water samples. Bacteria related to Hippea sp., Acidovorax sp., Arcobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Thiomicrospira sp., Brevibacterium sp., Tissierella sp. and Peptostreptococcus sp. were detected from oilfield water samples, but none from crude oil samples. It were found Methanomicrobials and Methanosarcinales methane

  7. 生鲜罗非鱼片在冷藏过程中细菌群落演替的PCR-DGGE分析%PCR-DGGE analysis of bacterial community succession in fresh tilapia fillets during cold storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟晓华; 段杉

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed at analyzing the succession of bacterial communities in fresh tilapia fillets in the process of putrefaction. Fresh tilapia fillets were stored at 4%; under aerobic condition. The bacterial communities were periodically analyzed by 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE method. The main DNA bands of DGGE electrophoresis were sliced and used for 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The phylogenetic tree of these bands was constructed base on the results of sequence analysis. Results showed that 9 of the total main DNA bands of DGGE electrophoresis were from the following genera.Shewane//a,Achromobacter,Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, Pseudomonas, Brevibacterium, Dietzia,Janthinobacterium and Flavobacterium. At earlier stage of cold storage, i.e. the period from 0 to 6th day,the bacterial communities in tilapia fillets consisted of 8 genera,including Achromobacter, Shewanella, Psychrobacter, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Brevibacterium, Dietzia and Janthinobacterium. After 9 days cold storage the tilapia fillets putrefied,meanwhile Achromobacter, Shewanella, Psychrobacter and Pseudornonas became the dominant species in tilapia fillets. After 12 days cold storage Flavobacterium appeared in fillets.%分析了生鲜罗非鱼片在腐败过程中细菌群落的演替规律。以4℃有氧冷藏条件下的生鲜罗非鱼片为研究对象,定期提取鱼片上的细菌总DNA,采用16S rDNA PCR-DGGE技术连续分析细菌群落演替,对DGGE电泳胶片上的主要DNA条带进行序列分析并构建系统发生树。结果表明:9个主要的DNA条带所代表的细菌来源于以下几个属:希瓦氏菌属(Shewanella)、无色杆菌属(Achromobacter)、不动杆菌属(Acinetobacter)、嗜冷杆菌属(Psychrobacter)、假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas)、短杆菌属(Brevibacterium)、迪茨氏菌属(Dietzia)、紫色杆菌属(Janthinobacterium)、黄杆菌属(Flavobacterium)。在冷藏初期即第0~6d鱼片上的细菌包括8个属,即无色杆菌

  8. The Research of Two Affinity Mediums for the Purification of a Cholesterol Oxidase (COD) Expression in Escherichia coli%纯化大肠杆菌表达胆固醇氧化酶的两种亲和分离介质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛瑜; 张玲; 张玉然; 陈亦; 仝艳军; 王武

    2012-01-01

    建立了从重组菌中高效亲和制备胆固醇氧化酶的方法,将一种源自Brevibacterium sp.(DQ345780)的胆固醇氧化酶基因转入Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)表达,,选择核黄素-5' 磷酸(FMN)及7-氯-异咯嗪作为亲和配体,构建胆固醇氧化酶亲和制备介质.通过两种介质的一步亲和吸附,获得纯度较高的胆固醇氧化酶样本,蛋白回收率分别为9.4%与9.9%(质量百分比),活性回收率分别为85.2%与93.4%(活性百分比).使用SDS-PAGE分析,纯化得到蛋白分子量为约50000,纯度分别为98.0%与97.5%(纯度百分比).通过静态吸附分析,胆固醇氧化酶相对两种亲和介质的最大理论吸附值分别为71.0与78.5 mg/g介质;解离常数分别为12.8和7.3 μg/g介质.%In this study, affinity protocols were developed for the preparation of cholesterol oxidase (COD) from recombinant bacteria, a COD gene from Brevibacterium sp. (DQ345780) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), Riboflavin 5'-phosphate and 7-chroroalloxazine were chosen as the affinity ligands, and they were coupled with Sepharose CL 4B through spacers. After one step of affinity binding with the two mediums, the enzyme could be extracted with high purity. The yields of the enzyme purified with the two mediums were 9. 4% and 9. 9%, respectively, and the recoveries of typical cholesterol oxidase activity were 85. 2% and 93. 4%. The purified cholesterol oxidases were 98. 0% and 97. 5% pure with SDS-PAGE analysis. On SDS-PAGE gel, the enzyme was a single polypeptide with the mass of -50 kDa. The theoretical maximum absorption Qmax were 71.0 and 78. 5 mg/g medium; the desorption constant Kd of the two mediums on the mediums were 12. 8 and 7. 3 g/g medium.

  9. Polyphasic approach to characterize heterotrophic bacteria of biofilms and patina on walls of the Suburban Bath of the Herculaneum's archaeological excavations in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, V.; Pepe, O.; Sannino, L.; Blaiotta, G.; Palomba, S.

    2012-04-01

    plates were purified in the same growth medium by streaking and differentiated by assessing their morphological (phase-contrast microscopy) and biochemical characteristics (Gram-stains KOH-lysis and catalase activity). Cultural-based method allow us to identify by 16S and 26S rRNA partial sequence analysis, heterotrophic bacteria belonging to different genera as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas and Microbacterium. By using this approach, Bacillus-related species (B. benzoevorans, B. megaterium and B. pumilis and B. megaterium/B. simplex group) as well as Aeromonas sobria/Aeromonas salmonicida/Aeromonas hydrophila group, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida and Microbacterium esteraromaticum were isolated in different sample points analysed. DGGE analysis of PCR amplified V3 region of rDNA from DNA directly recovered from samples of biofilms and patina, enabled identification of bacterial species not found using culturable technology, as those closest related to Aeromonas, Paenibacillus, Brevibacterium, Exiguobacterium, Microbacterium, Brevibacterium, Stenothophomonas and Streptomyces. Combination of culture-dependent and independent methods provide a better characterization of heterotrophic microbiota that colonize the surface of ancient decorated walls and can contribute to understand the potential of biodeterioration activity by heterotrophic microorganisms.

  10. 冷海水保藏下鲐鱼(Pneumatophorus japonicus)菌相变化规律及优势腐败菌的分离鉴定%Microflora Composition Variation in Mackerel (Pneumatophorus japonicas) Stored in Refrigerated Seawater, and Isolation and Identification of the Dominant Spoilage Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑振霄; 周聃; 冯俊丽; 金仁耀; 戴志远

    2016-01-01

    以冷海水保鲜的鲐鱼为研究对象,通过选择性生培养基和16S rDNA序列分析法探究其在冷海水保鲜过程中的菌相变化,确定了鲐鱼在冷海水保鲜条件下的优势腐败菌,并通过MEGA5.2软件构建了贮藏末期代表菌株的系统发育树.结果表明:冷海水保鲜鲐鱼样品在贮藏初期(第0d)的微生物比较复杂,优势种群是假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas sp.)和嗜冷菌属(Psychrobacter sp.),还有少量的类芽孢杆菌属(Paenibacillus sp.)、希瓦氏菌属(Shewanella sp.)、蜡状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus anthracis)、枯草芽孢杆菌属(Brevibacterium sp.);随着贮藏时间的延长,鲐鱼样品中的菌相逐渐变的单一,假单胞菌属迅速下降,希瓦氏菌属迅速增加;贮藏末期希瓦氏菌属和肠杆菌属(Enterobacter sp.)的比例迅速增加,其中希瓦氏菌属呈上升趋势且到贮藏后期数量占绝对优势,被确定为鲐鱼冷海水保鲜条件下的优势腐败菌.

  11. 宜宾芽菜低盐腌渍工艺研究%Study on the Low-salt Pickling Technology of Yibin Sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹礼国; 庄婷; 凌跃; 游玲; 王松; 徐洲; 张超

    2015-01-01

    从宜宾芽菜腌渍产品中筛选到5株产酸能力强的乳酸菌,降亚硝酸盐能力均在90%以上.通过16S rDNA分子生物学鉴定初步确定LAB-YC-2为Bacillus tequilensis,LAB-YC-8,LBA-YC-23为Brevibacterium halotolerans,LAB-YC-22,LAB-YC-28为Bacillus subtilis subsp.subtilis.LAB-Yc28较其他4株菌更适于制作低盐芽菜.研究确定芽菜低盐腌渍工艺条件是在25℃条件下,接种5%的以LAB-YC-28制作的发酵剂,腌渍6天,添加6%的食盐,腌渍产品色泽鲜艳,香气纯正,脆嫩可口,pH值为3.46~3.64,总酸度(以乳酸计)为0.75%±0.08%,亚硝酸盐含量为(1.528士0.122)mg/kg.低盐腌渍工艺是降低工厂废水排放量,减少人体食盐撮入量的有效措施.

  12. 嗜铁细菌CAS17的分离鉴定及其对毒死蜱的降解特性研究%Isolation, identification and chlorpyrifos-degradation characteristics of siderophore producing bacterial strain CAS17

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于婷; 董庆龙; 刘嘉芬; 安淼; 王海荣; 余贤美

    2014-01-01

    采用改良定向培育法,从获得的几株嗜铁细菌菌株中经过驯化筛选,获得1株对毒死蜱有较高降解作用的细菌CAS17.结合其生理生化特性及16SrRNA序列分析,将其鉴定为耐盐短杆菌(Brevibacterium halotolerans).生长特性和毒死蜱降解试验结果表明,该菌株对毒死蜱有较高的耐受性,在毒死蜱浓度达到800 mg·L-1时仍可生长.最适毒死蜱降解浓度为≤100 mg·L-1,降解率可达67%左右,浓度继续升高时降解效果明显降低;最适降解温度为30 ℃,对高温敏感;对pH值有着较强的适应范围,pH值在5~9之间的降解率波动不大;最适降解时间为48 h,振荡速率为150r·min-1,接种量为4%;适合其降解的最佳外加碳源为葡萄糖,最佳氮源为酵母粉,最佳无机盐为CaCl2.

  13. Identification and characterisation of oil sludge degrading bacteria isolated from compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubani Onyedikachi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Compounds present in oil sludge such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are known to be cytotoxic, mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic. Microorganisms including bacteria and fungi have been reported to degrade oil sludge components to innocuous compounds such as carbon dioxide, water and salts. In the present study, we isolated different bacteria with PAH-degrading capabilities from compost prepared from oil sludge and animal manures. These bacteria were isolated on a mineral base medium and mineral salt agar plates. A total of 31 morphologically distinct isolates were carefully selected from 5 different compost treatments for identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR of the 16S rRNA gene with specific primers (universal forward 16S-P1 PCR and reverse 16S-P2 PCR. The amplicons were sequenced and sequences were compared with the known nucleotides from the GenBank. The phylogenetic analyses of the isolates showed that they belong to 3 different clades; Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. These bacteria identified were closely related to the genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Staphylococcus, Brevibacterium, Variovorax, Paenibacillus, Ralstonia and Geobacillus. The results showed that Bacillus species were predominant in all composts. Based on the results of the degradation of the PAHs in the composts and results of previous studies on bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons in oil, the characteristics of these bacterial isolates suggests that they may be responsible for the breakdown of PAHs of different molecular weights in the composts. Thus, they may be potentially useful for bioremediation of oil sludge during compost bioremediation.

  14. L-亮氨酸生物合成关键酶基因的克隆和表达%Cloning and expression of key enzymes genes in biosynthesis of L-leucine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张跃; 张伟国

    2013-01-01

    通过PCR获得黄色短杆菌ATCC14067基因组上编码L-亮氨酸合成途径中关键酶的基因.连接大肠杆菌-谷氨酸棒状杆菌穿梭表达质粒pDXW-8构建多种重组质粒,分别转化模式菌株C.glutamicum ATCC13032考察对其发酵生产L-亮氨酸的影响.经摇瓶发酵实验显示:C.glutamicum ATCC13032发酵液中没有L-亮氨酸的积累而基因工程菌ATCC13032/pDXW-8-leuA-ilvBNC中L-亮氨酸的产量达4.75g/L.%The gene encoding the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of L-leucine from Brevibacterium flavum ATCC14067 genome was obtained by PCR.The gene inserted into E.coli-C glutamicum shuttle expression plasmid pDXW-8 to construct a variety of recombinant plasmid,which was transformed into type strain C.glutamicum ATCC13032 and investigated its fermentation production of L-leucine.The shake flask fermentation experiment showed that L-leucine was not accumulated in the fermentation broth of the control strain,while L-leucine accumulation of 4.75g/L was detected in the fermentation broth of the genetically engineered strain ATCC13032/pDXW-8-leuA-ilvBNC.)11-0170-05

  15. Diverse effects of a biosurfactant from Rhodococcus ruber IEGM 231 on the adhesion of resting and growing bacteria to polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyukina, Maria S; Ivshina, Irena B; Korshunova, Irina O; Stukova, Galina I; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya V

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a trehalolipid biosurfactant produced by Rhodococcus ruber IEGM 231 on the bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on the surface of polystyrene microplates. The adhesion of Gram-positive (Arthrobacter simplex, Bacillus subtilis, Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescencens) bacteria correlated differently with the cell hydrophobicity and surface charge. In particular, exponentially growing bacterial cells with increased hydrophobicities adhered stronger to polystyrene compared to more hydrophilic stationary phase cells. Also, a moderate correlation (0.56) was found between zeta potential and adhesion values of actively growing bacteria, suggesting that less negatively charged cells adhered stronger to polystyrene. Efficient biosurfactant concentrations (10-100 mg/L) were determined, which selectively inhibited (up to 76 %) the adhesion of tested bacterial cultures, however without inhibiting their growth. The biosurfactant was more active against growing bacteria rather than resting cells, thus showing high biofilm-preventing properties. Contact angle measurements revealed more hydrophilic surface of the biosurfactant-covered polystyrene compared to bare polystyrene, which allowed less adhesion of hydrophobic bacteria. Furthermore, surface free-energy calculations showed a decrease in the Wan der Waals (γ(LW)) component and an increase in the acid-based (γ(AB)) component caused by the biosurfactant coating of polysterene. However, our results suggested that the biosurfactant inhibited the adhesion of bacteria independently on their surface charges. AFM scanning revealed three-type biosurfactant structures (micelles, cord-like assemblies and large vesicles) formed on glass, depending on concentrations used, that could lead to diverse anti-adhesive effects against different bacterial species. PMID:26888203

  16. Oligonucleotide recombination in corynebacteria without the expression of exogenous recombinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Alexander A; Kolontaevsky, Egor E; Mashko, Sergey V

    2014-10-01

    Brevibacterium lactofermentum and Corynebacterium glutamicum are important biotechnology species of the genus Corynebacterium. The single-strand DNA annealing protein (SSAP)-independent oligonucleotide-mediated recombination procedure was successfully applied to the commonly used wild-type strains B. lactofermentum AJ1511 and C. glutamicum ATCC13032. When the rpsL gene was used as a target, the optimized protocol yielded up to (1.4±0.3)×10(3) and (6.7±1.3)×10(3) streptomycin-resistant colonies per 10(8) viable cells for the corresponding strains. We tested the influence of several parameters that are known to enhance the efficiency of oligonucleotide-mediated recombination in other bacterial species. Among them, increasing the concentration of oligonucleotides and targeting the lagging strand of the chromosome have proven to have positive effects on both of the tested species. No difference in the efficiency of recombination was observed between the oligonucleotides phosphorothiorated at the 5' ends and the unmodified oligonucleotides or between the oligonucleotides with four mutated nucleotides and those with one mutated nucleotide. The described approach demonstrates that during the adaptation of the recombineering technique, testing SSAP-independent oligonucleotide-mediated recombination could be a good starting point. Such testing could decrease the probability of an incorrect interpretation of the effect of exogenous protein factors (such as SSAP and/or corresponding exonucleases) due to non-optimal experimental conditions. In addition, SSAP-independent recombination itself could be useful in combination with suitable selection/enrichment methods. PMID:25087479

  17. Exploring the Diversity and Antimicrobial Potential of Marine Actinobacteria from the Comau Fjord in Northern Patagonia, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Claverías, Fernanda P; González, Myriam; Moore, Edward R B; Seeger, Michael; Cámara, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Bioprospecting natural products in marine bacteria from fjord environments are attractive due to their unique geographical features. Although, Actinobacteria are well known for producing a myriad of bioactive compounds, investigations regarding fjord-derived marine Actinobacteria are scarce. In this study, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria isolated from marine sediments within the Comau fjord, in Northern Chilean Patagonia, were assessed by culture-based approaches. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that members phylogenetically related to the Micrococcaceae, Dermabacteraceae, Brevibacteriaceae, Corynebacteriaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Dietziaceae, Nocardiaceae, and Streptomycetaceae families were present at the Comau fjord. A high diversity of cultivable Actinobacteria (10 genera) was retrieved by using only five different isolation media. Four isolates belonging to Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium and Kocuria genera showed 16S rRNA gene identity <98.7% suggesting that they are novel species. Physiological features such as salt tolerance, artificial sea water requirement, growth temperature, pigmentation and antimicrobial activity were evaluated. Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Curtobacterium, Rhodococcus, and Streptomyces isolates showed strong inhibition against both Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes. Antimicrobial activities in Brachybacterium, Curtobacterium, and Rhodococcus have been scarcely reported, suggesting that non-mycelial strains are a suitable source of bioactive compounds. In addition, all strains bear at least one of the biosynthetic genes coding for NRPS (91%), PKS I (18%), and PKS II (73%). Our results indicate that the Comau fjord is a promising source of novel Actinobacteria with biotechnological potential for producing biologically active compounds. PMID:27486455

  18. An EXAFS study of the interaction of substrate with the ferric active site of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    True, A.E.; Orville, A.M.; Pearce, L.L.; Lipscomb, J.D.; Que, L. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA))

    1990-12-01

    X-ray crystallographic studies of the intradiol cleaving protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa have shown that the enzyme has a trigonal bipyramidal ferric active site with two histidines, two tyrosines, and a solvent molecule as ligands. Fe K-edge EXAFS studies of the spectroscopically similar protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase from Brevibacterium fuscum are consistent with a pentacoordinate geometry of the iron active site with 3 O/N ligands at 1.90 {angstrom} and 2 O/N ligands at 2.08 {angstrom}. The 2.08-{angstrom} bonds are assigned to the two histidines, while the 1.90-{angstrom} bonds are associated with the two tyrosines and the coordinated solvent. The short Fe-O distance for the solvent suggests that it coordinates as hydroxide rather than water. When the inhibitor terephthalate is bound to the enzyme, the XANES data indicate that the ferric site becomes 6-coordinate and the EXAFS data show a beat pattern which can only be simulated with an additional Fe-O/N interaction at 2.46 {angstrom}. Together, the data suggest that the oxygens of the carboxylate group in terephthalate displace the hydroxide and chelate to the ferric site but in an asymmetric fashion. In contrast, protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase remains 5-coordinate upon the addition of the slow substrate homoprotocatechuic acid (HPCA). Previous EPR data have indicated that HPCA forms an iron chelate via the two hydroxyl functions. For the iron site to remain 5-coordinate and the HPCA to be chelated to the iron, the substrate must displace not only the hydroxide but also a ligand from the protein backbone, probably a histidine. The mechanistic implications of the displacement of hydroxide and a protein ligand in the active site are discussed.

  19. Cultivation-independent analysis of microbial communities on Austrian raw milk hard cheese rinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schornsteiner, Elisa; Mann, Evelyne; Bereuter, Othmar; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2014-06-16

    "Vorarlberger Bergkäse" (VB) is an Austrian artisanal hard cheese produced from raw cow's milk. The composition of its rind microbiota and the changes in the microbial communities during ripening have not previously been investigated. This study used 16S and 18S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing to characterize the bacterial and fungal communities of seven pooled cheese rind samples taken in seven different ripening cellars of three Austrian dairy facilities. A total of 408 clones for 16S and 322 clones for 18S rRNA gene libraries were used for taxonomic classification, revealing 39 bacterial and seven fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Bacterial OTUs belonged to four different phyla. Most OTUs were affiliated to genera often found in cheese, including high numbers of coryneforms. The most abundant OTU from 16S rRNA gene libraries showed highest similarity to Halomonas. Young cheese rinds were dominated by Actinobacteria or Proteobacteria, particularly by Halomonas and Brevibacterium aurantiacum, while Staphyloccocus equorum was most abundant in old cheeses. The most abundant 18S rRNA OTU had highest similarity to the filamentous fungus Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Pairwise correlation analyses revealed putative co-occurrences between a number of OTUs. It was possible to discriminate the different cheese rind microbiota at the community-level by facility affiliation and ripening time. This work provides insights into the microbial composition of VB cheese rinds and might allow the processing- and ripening conditions to be improved to enhance the quality of the product. PMID:24794620

  20. Effect of proteolitic enzymes with probiotic of lactic acid bacteria on characteristics of cow milk dadih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskiyah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Texture of dadih from cow milk tends to be soft, while dadih from buffalo milk have more compact and solid texture. Enzyme is one of food additives that may produce fermented products made from cow milk that has same charcteristic as dadih’s from buffalo milk. Lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk affect product characteristics. This study aimed to determine the effect of combination of enzyme and probiotic lactic acid bacteria on the characteristics of cow's milk dadih. The study was aime designed using completely randomized design (CRD with 9 treatments, A: renin 2 ppm + 3% Lactobacillus casei; B: renin 2 ppm + 3% B. longum; C: renin 2 ppm + 1.5% L. casei + 1.5% B. longum; D: crude extract of Mucor sp. 0.5 ppm + 3% L. casei; E: crude extract of Mucor sp. 0.5 ppm + 3% Brevibacterium longum; F: crude enzyme extract of Mucor sp. 0.5 ppm + 1.5% L. casei + 1.5% B. longum; G: papain 100 ppm + 3% L. casei; H: papain 100 ppm + 3% B. longum; and F: papain 100 ppm + 1.5% L. casei + 1.5% B. longum. Each treatment was repeated two times. Results showed that combination of renin 2 ppm with 3% of L. casei resulted in the best characteristics of cow milk dadih with viscosity 2278 cP; pH 5.63; titrable acidity 0.56%; moisture 75.03%; protein 6.80%; fat 3.35%; carbohydrate 13.21%; LAB total 6.90 x 1010 cfu/g; it also had a flavor, aroma, texture, and general acceptance that mostly preferred by panelists.

  1. 原料乳中嗜冷菌的分离鉴定及Nisin,EDTA对其抑制作用%THE STUDY ON ISOLATION、IDENTIFICATION OF PSYCHROPHLIC BACTERIA IN RAW MILK AND HOW NISIN AND EDTA TO RESTRAIN IT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳喜庆; 李鹏

    2008-01-01

    嗜冷菌是引起低温食品多种致害的主要原因之一.选用LA培养基从低温贮藏原料乳中分离出14株具有典型特性的嗜冷菌,并时的嗜冷菌进行了分离鉴定.通过形态学及生理生化特性的研究,对筛选的14株嗜冷菌进行了鉴定.一共得到9种嗜冷菌的菌种,分别是:气单胞菌属(Aeromonas)3株、黄杆菌属(Flavobacterium)1株、巴斯德氏菌属(Pasteurella)2株、节杆菌属(Arthrobacter)3株、短杆菌属(Brevibacterium)1株、片球菌属(Pediococcus)1株、乳球菌属(Lactococcus)1株,明串珠菌属(Trichococcus)1株,微球菌属(Micrococcus)1株.同时研究了不同浓度的Nisin,EDTA协同对牛乳中嗜冷菌的抑制作用,结果表明在牛乳中加入40ms/ks~100mg/kg的Nisin和等量的EDTA,对嗜冷菌有较好的抑制作用.

  2. Chlor-alkali plant contamination of Aussa River sediments induced a large Hg-resistant bacterial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Franco; Marchetto, Davide; Gallo, Michele; Fani, Renato; Maida, Isabel; Covelli, Stefano; Fajon, Vesna; Zizek, Suzana; Hines, Mark; Horvat, Milena

    2012-11-01

    A closed chlor-alkali plant (CAP) discharged Hg for decades into the Aussa River, which flows into Marano Lagoon, resulting in the large-scale pollution of the lagoon. In order to get information on the role of bacteria as mercury detoxifying agents, analyses of anions in the superficial part (0-1 cm) of sediments were conducted at four stations in the Aussa River. In addition, measurements of biopolymeric carbon (BPC) as a sum of the carbon equivalent of proteins (PRT), lipids (LIP), and carbohydrates (CHO) were performed to correlate with bacterial biomass such as the number of aerobic heterotrophic cultivable bacteria and their percentage of Hg-resistant bacteria. All these parameters were used to assess the bioavailable Hg fraction in sediments and the potential detoxification activity of bacteria. In addition, fifteen isolates were characterized by a combination of molecular techniques, which permitted their assignment into six different genera. Four out of fifteen were Gram negative with two strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, one Enterobacter sp., and one strain of Brevibacterium frigoritolerans. The remaining strains (11) were Gram positive belonging to the genera Bacillus and Staphylococcus. We found merA genes in only a few isolates. Mercury volatilization from added HgCl2 and the presence of plasmids with the merA gene were also used to confirm Hg reductase activity. We found the highest number of aerobic heterotrophic Hg-resistant bacteria (one order magnitude higher) and the highest number of Hg-resistant species (11 species out of 15) at the confluence of the River Aussa and Banduzzi's channel, which transport Hg from the CAP, suggesting that Hg is strongly detoxified [reduced to Hg(0)] at this location.

  3. Structural Basis for Substrate and Oxygen Activation in Homoprotocatechuate 2,3-Dioxygenase: Roles of Conserved Active Site Histidine 200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elena G; Rogers, Melanie S; Lipscomb, John D

    2015-09-01

    Kinetic and spectroscopic studies have shown that the conserved active site residue His200 of the extradiol ring-cleaving homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase (FeHPCD) from Brevibacterium fuscum is critical for efficient catalysis. The roles played by this residue are probed here by analysis of the steady-state kinetics, pH dependence, and X-ray crystal structures of the FeHPCD position 200 variants His200Asn, His200Gln, and His200Glu alone and in complex with three catecholic substrates (homoprotocatechuate, 4-sulfonylcatechol, and 4-nitrocatechol) possessing substituents with different inductive capacity. Structures determined at 1.35-1.75 Å resolution show that there is essentially no change in overall active site architecture or substrate binding mode for these variants when compared to the structures of the wild-type enzyme and its analogous complexes. This shows that the maximal 50-fold decrease in kcat for ring cleavage, the dramatic changes in pH dependence, and the switch from ring cleavage to ring oxidation of 4-nitrocatechol by the FeHPCD variants can be attributed specifically to the properties of the altered second-sphere residue and the substrate. The results suggest that proton transfer is necessary for catalysis, and that it occurs most efficiently when the substrate provides the proton and His200 serves as a catalyst. However, in the absence of an available substrate proton, a defined proton-transfer pathway in the protein can be utilized. Changes in the steric bulk and charge of the residue at position 200 appear to be capable of altering the rate-limiting step in catalysis and, perhaps, the nature of the reactive species. PMID:26267790

  4. LA35 Poultry Fecal Marker Persistence Is Correlated with That of Indicators and Pathogens in Environmental Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Bina; Weidhaas, Jennifer; Harwood, Valerie J

    2015-07-01

    Disposal of fecally contaminated poultry litter by land application can deliver pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) into receiving waters via runoff. While water quality is regulated by FIB enumeration, FIB testing provides inadequate information about contamination source and health risk. This microbial source tracking (MST) study compared the persistence of the Brevibacterium sp. strain LA35 16S rRNA gene (marker) for poultry litter with that of pathogens and FIB under outdoor, environmentally relevant conditions in freshwater, marine water, and sediments over 7 days. Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Bacteroidales, and LA35 were enumerated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and Enterococcus spp. and E. coli were quantified by culture and qPCR. Unlike the other bacteria, C. jejuni was not detectable after 48 h. Bacterial levels in the water column consistently declined over time and were highly correlated among species. Survival in sediments ranged from a slow decrease over time to growth, particularly in marine microcosms and for Bacteroidales. S. enterica also grew in marine sediments. Linear decay rates in water (k) ranged from -0.17 day(-1) for LA35 to -3.12 day(-1) for C. coli. LA35 levels correlated well with those of other bacteria in the water column but not in sediments. These observations suggest that, particularly in the water column, the fate of LA35 in aquatic environments is similar to that of FIB, C. coli, and Salmonella, supporting the hypothesis that the LA35 marker gene can be a useful tool for evaluating the impact of poultry litter on water quality and human health risk. PMID:25934617

  5. Arsenic-tolerant plant-growth-promoting bacteria isolated from arsenic-polluted soils in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagol, Charlotte C; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Kim, Kiyoon; Sundaram, Subbiah; Sa, Tongmin

    2014-01-01

    The Janghang smelter in Chungnam, South Korea started in 1936 was subsequently shutdown in 1989 due to heavy metal (loid) pollution concerns in the vicinity. Thus, there is a need for the soil in the area to be remediated to make it usable again especially for agricultural purposes. The present study was conducted to exploit the potential of arsenic (As)-tolerant bacteria thriving in the vicinity of the smelter-polluted soils to enhance phytoremediation of hazardous As. We studied the genetic and taxonomic diversity of 21 As-tolerant bacteria isolated from soils nearer to and away from the smelter. These isolates belonging to the genera Brevibacterium, Pseudomonas, Microbacterium, Rhodococcus, Rahnella, and Paenibacillus, could tolerate high concentrations of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) with the minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 3 to >20 mM for NaAsO2 and 140 to 310 mM NaH2AsO4 · 7H2O, respectively. All isolates exhibited As(V) reduction except Pseudomonas koreensis JS123, which exhibited both oxidation and reduction of As. Moreover, all the 21 isolates produced indole acetic acid (IAA), 13 isolates exhibited 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, 12 produced siderophore, 17 solubilized phosphate, and 13 were putative nitrogen fixers under in vitro conditions. Particularly, Rhodococcus aetherivorans JS2210, P. koreensis JS2214, and Pseudomonas sp. JS238 consistently increased root length of maize in the presence of 100 and 200 μM As(V). Possible utilization of these As-tolerant plant-growth-promoting bacteria can be a potential strategy in increasing the efficiency of phytoremediation in As-polluted soils. PMID:24737020

  6. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Wallisch, Stefanie; Engel, Marion; Welzl, Gerhard; Havranek, Jasmina; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all cheese types to a

  7. Identification of a novel gene product that promotes survival of Mycobacterium smegmatis in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Pelosi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacteria of the suborder Corynebacterineae include significant human pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae. Drug resistance in mycobacteria is increasingly common making identification of new antimicrobials a priority. Mycobacteria replicate intracellularly, most commonly within the phagosomes of macrophages, and bacterial proteins essential for intracellular survival and persistence are particularly attractive targets for intervention with new generations of anti-mycobacterial drugs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified a novel gene that, when inactivated, leads to accelerated death of M. smegmatis within a macrophage cell line in the first eight hours following infection. Complementation of the mutant with an intact copy of the gene restored survival to near wild type levels. Gene disruption did not affect growth compared to wild type M. smegmatis in axenic culture or in the presence of low pH or reactive oxygen intermediates, suggesting the growth defect is not related to increased susceptibility to these stresses. The disrupted gene, MSMEG_5817, is conserved in all mycobacteria for which genome sequence information is available, and designated Rv0807 in M. tuberculosis. Although homology searches suggest that MSMEG_5817 is similar to the serine:pyruvate aminotransferase of Brevibacterium linens suggesting a possible role in glyoxylate metabolism, enzymatic assays comparing activity in wild type and mutant strains demonstrated no differences in the capacity to metabolize glyoxylate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MSMEG_5817 is a previously uncharacterized gene that facilitates intracellular survival of mycobacteria. Interference with the function of MSMEG_5817 may provide a novel therapeutic approach for control of mycobacterial pathogens by assisting the host immune system in clearance of persistent intracellular bacteria.

  8. Swapping metals in Fe- and Mn-dependent dioxygenases: Evidence for oxygen activation without a change in metal redox state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Joseph P.; Kovaleva, Elena G.; Farquhar, Erik R.; Lipscomb, John D.; Oue, Jr., Lawrence (UMM)

    2008-07-21

    Biological O{sub 2} activation often occurs after binding to a reduced metal [e.g., M(II)] in an enzyme active site. Subsequent M(II)-to-O{sub 2} electron transfer results in a reactive M(III)-superoxo species. For the extradiol aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenases, we have proposed a different model where an electron is transferred from substrate to O{sub 2} via the M(II) center to which they are both bound, thereby obviating the need for an integral change in metal redox state. This model is tested by using homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenases from Brevibacterium fuscum (Fe-HPCD) and Arthrobacter globiformis (Mn-MndD) that share high sequence identity and very similar structures. Despite these similarities, Fe-HPCD binds Fe(II) whereas Mn-MndD incorporates Mn(II). Methods are described to incorporate the nonphysiological metal into each enzyme (Mn-HPCD and Fe-MndD). The x-ray crystal structure of Mn-HPCD at 1.7 {angstrom} is found to be indistinguishable from that of Fe-HPCD, while EPR studies show that the Mn(II) sites of Mn-MndD and Mn-HPCD, and the Fe(II) sites of the NO complexes of Fe-HPCD and Fe-MndD, are very similar. The uniform metal site structures of these enzymes suggest that extradiol dioxygenases cannot differentially compensate for the 0.7-V gap in the redox potentials of free iron and manganese. Nonetheless, all four enzymes exhibit nearly the same K{sub M} and V{sub max} values. These enzymes constitute an unusual pair of metallo-oxygenases that remain fully active after a metal swap, implicating a different way by which metals are used to promote oxygen activation without an integral change in metal redox state.

  9. Pyrethroid-Degrading Microorganisms and Their Potential for the Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been used to control pests in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, public health and for indoor home use for more than 20 years. Because pyrethroids were considered to be a safer alternative to organophosphate pesticides (OPs), their applications significantly increased when the use of OPs was banned or limited. Although, pyrethroids have agricultural benefits, their widespread and continuous use is a major problem as they pollute the terrestrial and aquatic environments and affect non-target organisms. Since pyrethroids are not degraded immediately after application and because their residues are detected in soils, there is an urgent need to remediate pyrethroid-polluted environments. Various remediation technologies have been developed for this purpose; however, bioremediation, which involves bioaugmentation and/or biostimulation and is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach, has emerged as the most advantageous method for cleaning-up pesticide-contaminated soils. This review presents an overview of the microorganisms that have been isolated from pyrethroid-polluted sites, characterized and applied for the degradation of pyrethroids in liquid and soil media. The paper is focused on the microbial degradation of the pyrethroids that have been most commonly used for many years such as allethrin, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, and permethrin. Special attention is given to the bacterial strains from the genera Achromobacter, Acidomonas, Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Catellibacterium, Clostridium, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Sphingobium, Streptomyces, and the fungal strains from the genera Aspergillus, Candida, Cladosporium, and Trichoderma, which are characterized by their ability to degrade various pyrethroids. Moreover, the current knowledge on the degradation pathways of pyrethroids, the enzymes that are involved in the cleavage of

  10. Production of recombinant cholesterol oxidase containing covalently bound FAD in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molla Gianluca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol oxidase is an alcohol dehydrogenase/oxidase flavoprotein that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of C(3-OH of cholesterol. It has two major biotechnological applications, i.e. in the determination of serum (and food cholesterol levels and as biocatalyst providing valuable intermediates for industrial steroid drug production. Cholesterol oxidases of type I are those containing the FAD cofactor tightly but not covalently bound to the protein moiety, whereas type II members contain covalently bound FAD. This is the first report on the over-expression in Escherichia coli of type II cholesterol oxidase from Brevibacterium sterolicum (BCO. Results Design of the plasmid construct encoding the mature BCO, optimization of medium composition and identification of the best cultivation/induction conditions for growing and expressing the active protein in recombinant E. coli cells, concurred to achieve a valuable improvement: BCO volumetric productivity was increased from ~500 up to ~25000 U/L and its crude extract specific activity from 0.5 up to 7.0 U/mg protein. Interestingly, under optimal expression conditions, nearly 55% of the soluble recombinant BCO is produced as covalently FAD bound form, whereas the protein containing non-covalently bound FAD is preferentially accumulated in insoluble inclusion bodies. Conclusions Comparison of our results with those published on non-covalent (type I COs expressed in recombinant form (either in E. coli or Streptomyces spp., shows that the fully active type II BCO can be produced in E. coli at valuable expression levels. The improved over-production of the FAD-bound cholesterol oxidase will support its development as a novel biotool to be exploited in biotechnological applications.

  11. Structural Basis for Substrate and Oxygen Activation in Homoprotocatechuate 2,3-Dioxygenase: Roles of Conserved Active Site Histidine-200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elena G.; Rogers, Melanie S.; Lipscomb, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Kinetic and spectroscopic studies have shown that the conserved active site residue His200 of the extradiol ring-cleaving homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase (FeHPCD) from Brevibacterium fuscum is critical for efficient catalysis. The roles played by this residue are probed here by analysis of the steady state kinetics, pH dependence, and X-ray crystal structures of the FeHPCD position 200 variants His200Asn, His200Gln, and His200Glu alone and in complex with three catecholic substrates (homoprotocatechuate, 4-sulfonylcatechol, and 4-nitrocatechol) possessing substituents with different inductive capacity. Structures solved at 1.35 –1.75 Å resolution show that there is essentially no change in overall active site architecture or substrate binding mode for these variants when compared to the structures of the wild type enzyme and its analogous complexes. This shows that the maximal 50-fold decrease in kcat for ring cleavage, the dramatic changes in pH dependence, and the switch from ring cleavage to ring oxidation of 4-nitrocatechol by the FeHPCD variants can be attributed specifically to the properties of the altered second sphere residue and the substrate. The results suggest that proton transfer is necessary for catalysis, and that it occurs most efficiently when the substrate provides the proton and His200 serves as a catalyst. However, in the absence of an available substrate proton, a defined proton-transfer pathway in the protein can be utilized. Changes in steric bulk and charge of the residue at position 200 appear capable of altering the rate-limiting step in catalysis, and perhaps, the nature of the reactive species. PMID:26267790

  12. Structural Basis for Substrate and Oxygen Activation in Homoprotocatechuate 2,3-Dioxygenase: Roles of Conserved Active Site Histidine 200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elena G; Rogers, Melanie S; Lipscomb, John D

    2015-09-01

    Kinetic and spectroscopic studies have shown that the conserved active site residue His200 of the extradiol ring-cleaving homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase (FeHPCD) from Brevibacterium fuscum is critical for efficient catalysis. The roles played by this residue are probed here by analysis of the steady-state kinetics, pH dependence, and X-ray crystal structures of the FeHPCD position 200 variants His200Asn, His200Gln, and His200Glu alone and in complex with three catecholic substrates (homoprotocatechuate, 4-sulfonylcatechol, and 4-nitrocatechol) possessing substituents with different inductive capacity. Structures determined at 1.35-1.75 Å resolution show that there is essentially no change in overall active site architecture or substrate binding mode for these variants when compared to the structures of the wild-type enzyme and its analogous complexes. This shows that the maximal 50-fold decrease in kcat for ring cleavage, the dramatic changes in pH dependence, and the switch from ring cleavage to ring oxidation of 4-nitrocatechol by the FeHPCD variants can be attributed specifically to the properties of the altered second-sphere residue and the substrate. The results suggest that proton transfer is necessary for catalysis, and that it occurs most efficiently when the substrate provides the proton and His200 serves as a catalyst. However, in the absence of an available substrate proton, a defined proton-transfer pathway in the protein can be utilized. Changes in the steric bulk and charge of the residue at position 200 appear to be capable of altering the rate-limiting step in catalysis and, perhaps, the nature of the reactive species.

  13. 新疆罗布泊地区可培养嗜盐细菌多样性%Diversity of culturable halophilic bacteria isolated from Lop Nur region in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗明; 韩剑; 蒋平安; 武红旗

    2009-01-01

    采用纯培养方法从新疆罗布泊盐湖中分离得到168株嗜盐细菌,采用核糖体DNA扩增片段限制性酶切分析(ARDRA)研究了罗布泊嗜盐细菌的群落结构和多样性.通过限制性内切酶HinfI对108个菌株的16SrDNA进行酶切分型.根据ARDRA的酶切图谱,将其划分为12个操作分类单元.16S rDNA序列测定和系统发育分析结果显示,分离菌株分布于喜盐芽孢杆菌属(Halobacillus)、芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、短杆菌属(Brevibacterium)、嗜盐单胞菌属(Halomonas)、色盐杆菌属(Chromohalobacter)、盐水球菌属(Salinicoccus)、库克菌属(Kocuria)、葡萄球菌属(Staphylococcus)、微球菌属(Micrococcus)等9个属及1个可能的新分类单元.其中Halomonas为优势菌群,Chromohalobacter、Halobacillus为次优势菌群.采用ERIC-PCR分析优势菌群Halomonas各菌株的基因组特征,显示出有21种指纹图谱.研究结果揭示,罗布泊嗜盐细菌不仅具有丰富的多样性,还蕴藏着具有地域特点的新菌种资源.

  14. Phosphate Solubilizing Ability and Phylogenetic Diversity of Bacteria from P-Rich Soils Around Dianchi Lake Drainage Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Pei-Xiang; YANG Fa-Xiang; MA Li; CHEN Ming-Hui; XI Jia-Qin; HE Feng; DUAN Chang-Qun; MO Ming-He; FANG Dun-Huang; DUAN Yan-Qing

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) distributed in P-rich soils in the Dianchi Lake drainage area of China was characterized,and the tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilizing activities of isolated PSB were determined.Among 1328 bacteria isolated from 100 P-rich soil samples,377 isolates (28.39% of the total) that exhibited TCP solubilization activity were taken as PSB.These PSB showed different abilities to solubilize TCP,with the concentrations of solubilized P in bacterial cultures varying from 33.48 to 69.63 mg L -1.A total of 123 PSB isolates,with relatively high TCP solubilization activity (> 54.00mg L-1),were submitted for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis,which revealed 32 unique RFLP patterns.Based on these patterns,62 representative isolates,one to three from each RFLP pattern,were selected for 16S rRNA sequencing Phylogenetic analysis placed the 123 PSB into three bacterial phyla,namely proteobacteria,Actinobacteria and Firrnicutes.Members of proteobacteria were the dominant PSB,where 107 isolates represented by 26 RFLP patterns were associated with the genera of Burkholdema,Pseudomonas,Acinetobacter,Enterobacter,Pantoea,Serratia,Klebsiella,Leclercia,Raoultella and Cedecea.Firmicutes were the subdominant group,in which 13 isolates were affiliated with the genera of Bacillus and Brevibacterium.The remaining 3 isolates were identified as three species of the genus Arthrobacter.This research extends the knowledge on PSB in P-rich soils and broadens the spectrum of PSB for the development of environmentally friendly biophosphate fertilizers.

  15. The Biosynthesis of Deuterium Labeled Amino Acids Using a Strain of Facultative Methylotrophic Bacterium Вrevibacterium Methylicum 5662 With RuMP Cycle of Carbon Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We used Gram-positive aerobic facultative methylotrophic bacterium, Brevibacterium methylicum, L-phenylalanine producer with ribulose-5-monophosphate (RuMP cycle for carbon assimilation for microbiological preparation of [2H]phenylalanine via conversion of low molecular weight substrates ([U-2H]MeOH and 2H2O. For this purpose, the cells of the methylotroph with improved growth characteristics were used on minimal salt media M9 supplemented with 2 % (v/v [U-2H]MeOH and increasing gradient of 2Н2O concentration from 0; 24,5; 49,0; 73,5 up to 98 % (v/v 2Н2O. L-phenylalanine was isolated from the growth medium after adding 5 M 2HCl (in 2Н2О, pH = 2,0 by extraction with isopropanol and subsequent crystallization in ethanol (output 0,65 g/l. Alanine, valine, and leucine/isoleucine were produced and accumulated exogenously in amounts of 5–6 mol in addition to the main product of biosynthesis. The method allows to obtain [2Н]amino acids with different levels of deuterium enrichment, depending on 2Н2O concentration in growth media, from 17 atom% 2Н (2 deuterium atoms (on the growth medium with 24,5 % (v/v 2Н2О up to 75 atom% 2Н (6 deuterium atoms (on the growth medium with 98 % (v/v 2Н2О with introduction of deuterium to benzyl С6Н5СН2-fragment of molecule that is confirmed with the data of electron impact (EI mass spectrometry analysis of methyl ethers of N-5-dimethylamino(naphthalene-1-sulfochloride [2H]amino acids after the separation by reverse-phase HPLC.

  16. Microbiological Synthesis of 2H-Labeled Phenylalanine, Alanine, Valine, and Leucine/Isoleucine with Different Degrees of Deuterium Enrichment by the Gram-Positive Facultative Methylotrophic Bacterium Вrevibacterium Methylicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Mosin, PhD¹

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological synthesis of [2H]amino acids was performed by the conversion of low molecular weight substrates ([U-2H]MeOH and 2H2O using the Gram-positive aerobic facultative methylotrophic bacterium Brevibacterium methylicum, an L-phenylalanine producer, realizing the NAD+ dependent methanol dehydrogenase (EC 1.6.99.3 variant of the ribulose-5-monophosphate (RuMP cycle of carbon assimilation. In this process, the adapted cells of the methylotroph with enhanced growth characteristics were used on a minimal salt medium M9, supplemented with 2% (v/v [U-2H]MeOH and an increasing gradient of 2Н2O concentration from 0; 24.5, 49.0; 73.5 up to 98% (v/v 2Н2O. Alanine, valine, and leucine/isoleucine were produced and accumulated exogeneously in quantities of 5–6 mol, in addition to the main product of biosynthesis. This method enables the production of [2Н]amino acids with different degrees of deuterium enrichment, depending on the 2Н2O concentration in the growth medium, from 17 at.% 2Н (on the growth medium with 24.5 % (v/v 2Н2О up to 75 at.% 2Н (on the growth medium with 98 % (v/v 2Н2О. This has been confirmed with the data from the electron impact (EI mass spectrometry analysis of the methyl ethers of N-dimethylamino(naphthalene-5-sulfochloride [2H]amino acids under these experimental conditions.

  17. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka

    Full Text Available Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB, mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all

  18. Plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambardar, Sheetal; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2013-12-01

    Present study deals with the isolation of rhizobacteria and selection of plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus (Saffron) rhizosphere during its flowering period (October-November). Bacterial load was compared between rhizosphere and bulk soil by counting CFU/gm of roots and soil respectively, and was found to be ~40 times more in rhizosphere. In total 100 bacterial isolates were selected randomly from rhizosphere and bulk soil (50 each) and screened for in-vitro and in vivo plant growth promoting properties. The randomly isolated bacteria were identified by microscopy, biochemical tests and sequence homology of V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA gene. Polyphasic identification categorized Saffron rhizobacteria and bulk soil bacteria into sixteen different bacterial species with Bacillus aryabhattai (WRF5-rhizosphere; WBF3, WBF4A and WBF4B-bulk soil) common to both rhizosphere as well as bulk soil. Pseudomonas sp. in rhizosphere and Bacillus and Brevibacterium sp. in the bulk soil were the predominant genera respectively. The isolated rhizobacteria were screened for plant growth promotion activity like phosphate solubilization, siderophore and indole acetic acid production. 50 % produced siderophore and 33 % were able to solubilize phosphate whereas all the rhizobacterial isolates produced indole acetic acid. The six potential PGPR showing in vitro activities were used in pot trial to check their efficacy in vivo. These bacteria consortia demonstrated in vivo PGP activity and can be used as PGPR in Saffron as biofertilizers.This is the first report on the isolation of rhizobacteria from the Saffron rhizosphere, screening for plant growth promoting bacteria and their effect on the growth of Saffron plant.

  19. Discussion on Ecological Remediation for Water and Soil Conservation of Hanjiang Watershed in Shiquan%汉江(石泉段)流域水保生态修复探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春娟; 刘强

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to identify phenol-degrading bacterium SW34. [Method] The bacteria species was identified through analyzing morphology, physiological and biochemical traits of degrading bacteria SW34 and 16S rRNA gene sequence. [ Result ] A bacterial strain capable of degrading phenol, designated SW34, was isolated from activated sludge of wastewater treatment plant of a coking chemical factory. Strain SW34 was identified as Brevibacteriaceae according to its morphological, physiological and biochemical properties, and the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence that showed more than 99% similarity to several strains of Brevibacterium epidermidis. A strain of B. epidermidis able to degrade phenol had never been reported. Phenol could be decomposed effectively by strain SW34 when its concentration was lower than 3.0 g/L. It is a valid strain used for the treatment of high concentration of phenol wastewater. [ Conclusion ] The study could provide a new method for treatment of high concentration phenol wastewater.%以汉江(石泉段)流域生态修复为研究对象,对流域生态修复的必要性、可行性、方案、目标进行了探讨,为流域区全面建设小康社会奠定牢固生态基础.该流域水保生态修复,不仅控制了区内水土流失,有效保护了水资源,为汉江干流下游提供优质无污染的一江清水,而且充分体现治理水土流失、农民增收、环境保护等多种效益,具有典型性和示范性.

  20. L-methionine degradation potentialities of cheese-ripening microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnarme, P; Lapadatescu, C; Yvon, M; Spinnler, H E

    2001-11-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds are major flavouring compounds in many traditional fermented foods including cheeses. These compounds are products of the catabolism of L-methionine by cheese-ripening microorganisms. The diversity of L-methionine degradation by such microorganisms, however, remains to be characterized. The objective of this work was to compare the capacities to produce volatile sulphur compounds by five yeasts, Geotrichum candidum, Yarrowia lipolytica, Kluyveromyces lactis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and five bacteria, Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Arthrobacter sp., Micrococcus lutens and Staphylococcus equorum of technological interest for cheese-ripening. The ability of whole cells of these microorganisms to generate volatile sulphur compounds from L-methionine was compared. The microorganisms produced a wide spectrum of sulphur compounds including methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide, dimethyltrisulfide and also S-methylthioesters, which varied in amount and type according to strain. Most of the yeasts produced methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide and dimethyltrisulfide but did not produce S-methylthioesters, apart from G. candidum that produced S-methyl thioacetate. Bacteria, especially Arth. sp. and Brevi. linens, produced the highest amounts and the greatest variety of volatile sulphur compounds includling methanethiol, sulfides and S-methylthioesters, e.g. S-methyl thioacetate, S-methyl thiobutyrate, S-methyl thiopropionate and S-methyl thioisovalerate. Cell-free extracts of all the yeasts and bacteria were examined for the activity of enzymes possibly involved in L-methionine catabolism, i.e. L-methionine demethiolase, L-methionine aminotransferase and L-methionine deaminase. They all possessed L-methionine demethiolase activity, while some (K. lactis, Deb. hansenii, Arth. sp., Staph. equorum) were deficient in L-methionine aminotransferase, and none produced L-methionine deaminase

  1. Microbial diversity and dynamics throughout manufacturing and ripening of surface ripened semi-hard Danish Danbo cheeses investigated by culture-independent techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryssel, Mia; Johansen, Pernille; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Sørensen, Søren; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-12-23

    Microbial successions on the surface and in the interior of surface ripened semi-hard Danish Danbo cheeses were investigated by culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Culture-independent detection of microorganisms was obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing, using amplicons of 16S and 26S rRNA genes for prokaryotes and eukaryotes, respectively. With minor exceptions, the results from the culture-independent analyses correlated to the culture-dependent plating results. Even though the predominant microorganisms detected with the two culture-independent techniques correlated, a higher number of genera were detected by pyrosequencing compared to DGGE. Additionally, minor parts of the microbiota, i.e. comprising cheeses diverged. During cheese production pyrosequencing determined Lactococcus as the dominating genus on cheese surfaces, representing on average 94.7%±2.1% of the OTUs. At day 6 Lactococcus spp. declined to 10.0% of the OTUs, whereas Staphylococcus spp. went from 0.0% during cheese production to 75.5% of the OTUs at smearing. During ripening, i.e. from 4 to 18 weeks, Corynebacterium was the dominant genus on the cheese surface (55.1%±9.8% of the OTUs), with Staphylococcus (17.9%±11.2% of the OTUs) and Brevibacterium (10.4%±8.3% of the OTUs) being the second and third most abundant genera. Other detected bacterial genera included Clostridiisalibacter (5.0%±4.0% of the OTUs), as well as Pseudoclavibacter, Alkalibacterium and Marinilactibacillus, which represented cheeses was dominated by Lactococcus spp. comprising on average 93.9%±7.8% of the OTUs throughout the cheese processing. The microbial dynamics described at genus level in this study add to a comprehensive understanding of the complex microbiota existing especially on surface ripened semi-hard cheeses.

  2. Commercial ripening starter microorganisms inoculated into cheese milk do not successfully establish themselves in the resident microbial ripening consortia of a South german red smear cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerges, Stefanie; Mounier, Jérôme; Rea, Mary C; Gelsomino, Roberto; Heise, Valeska; Beduhn, Rüdiger; Cogan, Timothy M; Vancanneyt, Marc; Scherer, Siegfried

    2008-04-01

    Production of smear-ripened cheese critically depends on the surface growth of multispecies microbial consortia comprising bacteria and yeasts. These microorganisms often originate from the cheese-making facility and, over many years, have developed into rather stable, dairy-specific associations. While commercial smear starters are frequently used, it is unclear to what degree these are able to establish successfully within the resident microbial consortia. Thus, the fate of the smear starters of a German Limburger cheese subjected to the "old-young" smearing technique was investigated during ripening. The cheese milk was supplemented with a commercial smear starter culture containing Debaryomyces hansenii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. Additionally, the cheese surface was inoculated with an extremely stable in-house microbial consortium. A total of 1,114 yeast and 1,201 bacterial isolates were identified and differentiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, repetitive PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis analyses were used to type selected isolates below the species level. The D. hansenii starter strain was primarily found early in the ripening process. The G. geotrichum starter strain in particular established itself after relocation to a new ripening room. Otherwise, it occurred at low frequencies. The bacterial smear starters could not be reisolated from the cheese surface at all. It is concluded that none of the smear starter strains were able to compete significantly and in a stable fashion against the resident microbial consortia, a result which might have been linked to the method of application. This finding raises the issue of whether addition of starter microorganisms during production of this type of cheese is actually necessary.

  3. Accumulation of Rare Earth Elements in Various Microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The removal of rare earth elements (REEs) from solution in various microorganisms was examined. Seventy-six strains from 69 species (22 bacteria, 20 actinomycetes, 18 fungi, and 16 yeasts) were tested. Initially, Sm was used to test the removal capabilities of the various organisms. Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, Brevibacterium helovolum, and Rhodococcus elythropolis, exhibited a particularly high capacity for accumulating Sm. In particular, the B. lichemiformis cells accumulated approximately 316 μmol Sm per gram dry wt. of microbial cells. A full suite of screenings was then conducted to compare the abilities of the organisms to remove Sc, Y, La, Er, and, Lu from solution. Tests were done with solutions containing one REE at a time. Accumulation was nearly identical for the various metals and organisms. However, when solutions with equimolar amounts of two REEs were used, preferential removal from solution was observed. When an Eu/Gd solution was used, gram-positive bacteria removed more Eu and Gd as compared to actinomycetes. When Eu/Sm combination was used, gram-positive bacteria removed equal mounts of both metals and some actinomycetes removed more Eu. The selective removal was quantified by calculating separation factors (S. F.), which indicated that Streptomyces levoris cells accumulated the greatest proportion of Eu. The removal of REEs from a solution containing five metals (Y, La, Sm, Er, and Lu) was then examined. Mucor javanicus preferentially accumulated Sm and S. flavoviridis preferentially accumulated Lu. The effects of pH and Sm concentration on the accumulation of Sm by B. licheniformis were also examined. Accumulation increased at higher pH and at greater solution concentrations.

  4. Mobilization of manganese by basalt associated Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria from the Indian Ridge System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujith, P P; Mourya, B S; Krishnamurthi, S; Meena, R M; Loka Bharathi, P A

    2014-01-01

    The Indian Ridge System basalt bearing Mn-oxide coatings had todorokite as the major and birnesite as the minor mineral. We posit that microorganisms associated with these basalts participate in the oxidation of Mn and contribute to mineral deposition. We also hypothesized that, the Mn-oxidizing microbes may respond reversibly to pulses of fresh organic carbon introduced into the water column by mobilizing the Mn in Mn-oxides. To test these two hypotheses, we enumerated the number of Mn-oxidizers and -reducers and carried out studies on the mobilization of Mn by microbial communities associated with basalt. In medium containing 100 μM Mn(2+), 10(3) colony forming units (CFU) were recovered with undetectable number of reducers on Mn-oxide amended medium, suggesting that the community was more oxidative. Experiments were then conducted with basalt fragments at 4±2 °C in the presence 'G(+)' and absence 'G(-)' of glucose (0.1%). Controls included set-ups, some of which were poisoned with 15 mM azide and the others of which were heat-killed. The mobilization of Mn in the presence of glucose was 1.76 μg g(-1) d(-1) and in the absence, it was 0.17 μg g(-1) d(-1) after 150 d. Mn mobilization with and without added glucose was 13 and 4 times greater than the corresponding azide treated controls. However, rates in 'G(+)' were 16 times and 'G(-)' 24 times more than the respective heat killed controls. The corresponding total counts in the presence of added glucose increased from 1.63×10(6) to 6.71×10(7) cells g(-1) and from 1.41×10(7) to 3.52×10(7) cells g(-1) in its absence. Thus, the addition of glucose as a proxy for organic carbon changed the community's response from Mn(II)-oxidizing to Mn(IV)-reducing activity. The results confirm the participation of Mn oxidizing bacteria in the mobilization of Mn. Identification of culturable bacteria by 16S rRNA gene analysis showed taxonomic affiliations to Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Staphylococcus, Brevibacterium and

  5. Investigation of the Activity of the Microorganisms in a Reblochon-Style Cheese by Metatranscriptomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnet, Christophe; Dugat-Bony, Eric; Swennen, Dominique; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Irlinger, Françoise; Fraud, Sébastien; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The microbial communities in cheeses are composed of varying bacteria, yeasts, and molds, which contribute to the development of their typical sensory properties. In situ studies are needed to better understand their growth and activity during cheese ripening. Our objective was to investigate the activity of the microorganisms used for manufacturing a surface-ripened cheese by means of metatranscriptomic analysis. The cheeses were produced using two lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus), one ripening bacterium (Brevibacterium aurantiacum), and two yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii and Geotrichum candidum). RNA was extracted from the cheese rinds and, after depletion of most ribosomal RNA, sequencing was performed using a short-read sequencing technology that generated ~75 million reads per sample. Except for B. aurantiacum, which failed to grow in the cheeses, a large number of CDS reads were generated for the inoculated species, making it possible to investigate their individual transcriptome over time. From day 5 to 35, G. candidum accounted for the largest proportion of CDS reads, suggesting that this species was the most active. Only minor changes occurred in the transcriptomes of the lactic acid bacteria. For the two yeasts, we compared the expression of genes involved in the catabolism of lactose, galactose, lactate, amino acids, and free fatty acids. During ripening, genes involved in ammonia assimilation and galactose catabolism were down-regulated in the two species. Genes involved in amino acid catabolism were up-regulated in G. candidum from day 14 to day 35, whereas in D. hansenii, they were up-regulated mainly at day 35, suggesting that this species catabolized the cheese amino acids later. In addition, after 35 days of ripening, there was a down-regulation of genes involved in the electron transport chain, suggesting a lower cellular activity. The present study has exemplified how

  6. Microbiota characterization of a Belgian protected designation of origin cheese, Herve cheese, using metagenomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcenserie, V; Taminiau, B; Delhalle, L; Nezer, C; Doyen, P; Crevecoeur, S; Roussey, D; Korsak, N; Daube, G

    2014-10-01

    Herve cheese is a Belgian soft cheese with a washed rind, and is made from raw or pasteurized milk. The specific microbiota of this cheese has never previously been fully explored and the use of raw or pasteurized milk in addition to starters is assumed to affect the microbiota of the rind and the heart. The aim of the study was to analyze the bacterial microbiota of Herve cheese using classical microbiology and a metagenomic approach based on 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing. Using classical microbiology, the total counts of bacteria were comparable for the 11 samples of tested raw and pasteurized milk cheeses, reaching almost 8 log cfu/g. Using the metagenomic approach, 207 different phylotypes were identified. The rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses was found to be highly diversified. However, 96.3 and 97.9% of the total microbiota of the raw milk and pasteurized cheese rind, respectively, were composed of species present in both types of cheese, such as Corynebacterium casei, Psychrobacter spp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Staphylococcus equorum, Vagococcus salmoninarum, and other species present at levels below 5%. Brevibacterium linens were present at low levels (0.5 and 1.6%, respectively) on the rind of both the raw and the pasteurized milk cheeses, even though this bacterium had been inoculated during the manufacturing process. Interestingly, Psychroflexus casei, also described as giving a red smear to Raclette-type cheese, was identified in small proportions in the composition of the rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses (0.17 and 0.5%, respectively). In the heart of the cheeses, the common species of bacteria reached more than 99%. The main species identified were Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Psychrobacter spp., and Staphylococcus equorum ssp. equorum. Interestingly, 93 phylotypes were present only in the raw milk cheeses and 29 only in the pasteurized milk cheeses, showing the high diversity of the microbiota

  7. Microbial biodiversity in cheese consortia and comparative Listeria growth on surfaces of uncooked pressed cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callon, Cécile; Retureau, Emilie; Didienne, Robert; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2014-03-17

    psychrotolerans and Gram positive catalase positive bacteria represented by Staphylococcus vitulinus, Brevibacterium linens, Microbacterium gubbeenense and Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. The results show that the species composition of consortium is more important than the number of species. It is likely that inhibition mechanisms differ from one consortium to another; investigating gene expression will be an effective way to elucidate microbial interactions in cheese. PMID:24463156

  8. Spectroscopic studies, thermal analyses and biological evaluation of new V(IV), Zr(IV) and U(VI) moxifloxacin complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.; Zordok, Wael A.; Kotb, Essam

    2011-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of the new solid complexes [VO(MOX) 2H 2O]SO 4·11H 2O, [ZrO(MOX) 2Cl]Cl·15H 2O and [UO 2(MOX) 3](NO 3) 2·3H 2O formed in the interaction of moxifloxacin (MOX) with VOSO 4·H 2O, ZrOCl 2·8H 2O and UO 2(NO 3) 2·6H 2O in methanol and acetone as a solvents at room temperature were reported. The isolated solid complexes have been characterized with melting points, elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moments studies, spectral (UV-Visible, IR and 1HNMR) as well as thermal analyses (TGA and DTG). The results support the formation of the complexes and indicate that moxifloxacin reacts as a bidentate ligand chelate to the metal ion through the pyridone oxygen and one carboxylato oxygen. The kinetic parameters of thermogravimetric (TGA) and its differential (DTG), such as activation energies, E*, enthalpies, Δ H*, entropies, Δ S* and Gibbs free energies, Δ G*, have been evaluated by using Coats-Redfern (CR) and Horowitz-Metzeger (HM) methods. The proposed structure of the ligand and their complexes were detected by using the density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/CEP-31G level of theory. The bond stretching force constant and length of the U dbnd O for the [UO 2(MOX) 3](NO 3) 2·3H 2O complex were calculated. The antibacterial activity of the free moxifloxacin ligand and their metal complexes have been tested against some selected bacterial strains such as: Streptococcus aureus K1, Bacillus subtilis K22, Brevibacterium otitidis K76, Escherichia coli K32, Pseudomonas aeruginosa SW1 and Klebsiella oxytoca K42. The complexes showed good antibacterial effect to the selected bacterial strains as compared to the free ligand and Zr(IV) complex is very highly significant compared with the other two complexes.

  9. Studying of Biosynthetic Pathways of 2H-labeled Purine Ribonucleoside Inosine in a Chemoheterotrophic Bacterium Bacillus subtilis B-3157 by FAB Mass-Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with studying biosynthetic pathways of 2H-labeled purine ribonucleoside inosine excreted into liquid microbial culture (LC by Gram-positive chemoheterotrophic bacterium Bacillus subtilis B-3157 while growing of this bacterium on heavy water (HW medium with 2% (v/v hydrolysate of deuterated biomass of the methylotrophic bacterium Brevibacterium methylicum B-5662 as a source of 2H-labeled growth substrates. Isolation of 2H-labeled inosine from LC was performed by adsorption/desorption on activated carbon with following extraction by 0,3 M ammonium–formate buffer (pH = 8,9, crystallization in 80% (v/v EtOH, and ion exchange chromatography (IEC on a column with AG50WX 4 cation exchange resin equilibrated with 0,3 M ammonium–formate buffer and 0,045 M NH4Cl. The investigation of deuterium incorporation into the inosine molecule by FAB method demonstrated incorporation of 5 deuterium atoms into the molecule (the total level of deuterium enrichment – 65,5 atom% 2H with 3 deuterium atoms being included into the ribose and 2 deuterium atoms – into the hypoxanthine residue of the molecule. Three non-exchangeable deuterium atoms were incorporated into the ribose residue owing to the preservation in this bacterium the minor pathways of de novo glucose biosynthesis in 2H2O-medium. These non-exchangeable deuterium atoms in the ribose residue were originated from HMP shunt reactions, while two other deuterium atoms at C2, C8-positions in the hypoxanthine residue were synthesized from [2H]amino acids, primarily glutamine and glycine, that originated from deuterated hydrolysate. A glycoside proton at -N9-glycosidic bond could be replaced with deuterium via the reaction of СО2 elimination at the stage of ribulose-5-monophosphate formation from 3-keto-6-phosphogluconic acid with subsequent proton (deuteron attachment at the С1-position of ribulose-5-monophosphate. Two other protons at C2(C3 and C4 positions in ribose residue could be

  10. Mobilization of manganese by basalt associated Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria from the Indian Ridge System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujith, P P; Mourya, B S; Krishnamurthi, S; Meena, R M; Loka Bharathi, P A

    2014-01-01

    The Indian Ridge System basalt bearing Mn-oxide coatings had todorokite as the major and birnesite as the minor mineral. We posit that microorganisms associated with these basalts participate in the oxidation of Mn and contribute to mineral deposition. We also hypothesized that, the Mn-oxidizing microbes may respond reversibly to pulses of fresh organic carbon introduced into the water column by mobilizing the Mn in Mn-oxides. To test these two hypotheses, we enumerated the number of Mn-oxidizers and -reducers and carried out studies on the mobilization of Mn by microbial communities associated with basalt. In medium containing 100 μM Mn(2+), 10(3) colony forming units (CFU) were recovered with undetectable number of reducers on Mn-oxide amended medium, suggesting that the community was more oxidative. Experiments were then conducted with basalt fragments at 4±2 °C in the presence 'G(+)' and absence 'G(-)' of glucose (0.1%). Controls included set-ups, some of which were poisoned with 15 mM azide and the others of which were heat-killed. The mobilization of Mn in the presence of glucose was 1.76 μg g(-1) d(-1) and in the absence, it was 0.17 μg g(-1) d(-1) after 150 d. Mn mobilization with and without added glucose was 13 and 4 times greater than the corresponding azide treated controls. However, rates in 'G(+)' were 16 times and 'G(-)' 24 times more than the respective heat killed controls. The corresponding total counts in the presence of added glucose increased from 1.63×10(6) to 6.71×10(7) cells g(-1) and from 1.41×10(7) to 3.52×10(7) cells g(-1) in its absence. Thus, the addition of glucose as a proxy for organic carbon changed the community's response from Mn(II)-oxidizing to Mn(IV)-reducing activity. The results confirm the participation of Mn oxidizing bacteria in the mobilization of Mn. Identification of culturable bacteria by 16S rRNA gene analysis showed taxonomic affiliations to Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Staphylococcus, Brevibacterium and

  11. 4-nitrocatechol as a probe of a Mn(II)-dependent extradiol-cleaving catechol dioxygenase (MndD): comparison with relevant Fe(II) and Mn(II) model complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mark F; Costas, Miquel; Ito, Masami; Jo, Du-Hwan; Tipton, A Alex; Whiting, Adam K; Que, Lawrence

    2003-02-01

    Mn(II)-dependent 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate 2,3-dioxygenase (MndD) is an extradiol-cleaving catechol dioxygenase from Arthrobacter globiformis that has 82% sequence identity to and cleaves the same substrate (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) as Fe(II)-dependent 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate 2,3-dioxygenase (HPCD) from Brevibacterium fuscum. We have observed that MndD binds the chromophoric 4-nitrocatechol (4-NCH(2)) substrate as a dianion and cleaves it extremely slowly, in contrast to the Fe(II)-dependent enzymes which bind 4-NCH(2) mostly as a monoanion and cleave 4-NCH(2) 4-5 orders of magnitude faster. These results suggest that the monoanionic binding state of 4-NC is essential for extradiol cleavage. In order to address the differences in 4-NCH(2) binding to these enzymes, we synthesized and characterized the first mononuclear monoanionic and dianionic Mn(II)-(4-NC) model complexes as well as their Fe(II)-(4-NC) analogs. The structures of [(6-Me(2)-bpmcn)Fe(II)(4-NCH)](+), [(6-Me(3)-TPA)Mn(II)(DBCH)](+), and [(6-Me(2)-bpmcn)Mn(II)(4-NCH)](+) reveal that the monoanionic catecholate is bound in an asymmetric fashion (Delta r(metal-O(catecholate))=0.25-0.35 A), as found in the crystal structures of the E(.)S complexes of extradiol-cleaving catechol dioxygenases. Acid-base titrations of [(L)M(II)(4-NCH)](+) complexes in aprotic solvents show that the p K(a) of the second catecholate proton of 4-NCH bound to the metal center is half a p K(a) unit higher for the Mn(II) complexes than for the Fe(II) complexes. These results are in line with the Lewis acidities of the two divalent metal ions but are the opposite of the trend observed for 4-NCH(2) binding to the Mn(II)- and Fe(II)-catechol dioxygenases. These results suggest that the MndD active site decreases the second p K(a) of the bound 4-NCH(2) relative to the HPCD active site.

  12. Biodiversity of the Surface Microbial Consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Timothy M; Goerges, Stefanie; Gelsomino, Roberto; Larpin, Sandra; Hohenegger, Markus; Bora, Nagamani; Jamet, Emmanuel; Rea, Mary C; Mounier, Jérôme; Vancanneyt, Marc; Guéguen, Micheline; Desmasures, Nathalie; Swings, Jean; Goodfellow, Mike; Ward, Alan C; Sebastiani, Hans; Irlinger, Françoise; Chamba, Jean-Francois; Beduhn, Ruediger; Scherer, Siegfried

    2014-02-01

    Comprehensive collaborative studies from our laboratories reveal the extensive biodiversity of the microflora of the surfaces of smear-ripened cheeses. Two thousand five hundred ninety-seven strains of bacteria and 2,446 strains of yeasts from the surface of the smear-ripened cheeses Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen, isolated at three or four times during ripening, were identified; 55 species of bacteria and 30 species of yeast were found. The microfloras of the five cheeses showed many similarities but also many differences and interbatch variation. Very few of the commercial smear microorganisms, deliberately inoculated onto the cheese surface, were reisolated and then mainly from the initial stages of ripening, implying that smear cheese production units must have an adventitious "house" flora. Limburger cheese had the simplest microflora, containing two yeasts, Debaryomyces hansenii and Geotrichum candidum, and two bacteria, Arthrobacter arilaitensis and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. The microflora of Livarot was the most complicated, comprising 10 yeasts and 38 bacteria, including many gram-negative organisms. Reblochon also had a very diverse microflora containing 8 yeasts and 13 bacteria (excluding gram-negative organisms which were not identified), while Gubbeen had 7 yeasts and 18 bacteria and Tilsit had 5 yeasts and 9 bacteria. D. hansenii was by far the dominant yeast, followed in order by G. candidum, Candida catenulata, and Kluyveromyces lactis. B. aurantiacum was the dominant bacterium and was found in every batch of the 5 cheeses. The next most common bacteria, in order, were Staphylococcus saprophyticus, A. arilaitensis, Corynebacterium casei, Corynebacterium variabile, and Microbacterium gubbeenense. S. saprophyticus was mainly found in Gubbeen, and A. arilaitensis was found in all cheeses but not in every batch. C. casei was found in most batches of Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen. C. variabile was found in all batches of

  13. Investigation of the Activity of the Microorganisms in a Reblochon-Style Cheese by Metatranscriptomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnet, Christophe; Dugat-Bony, Eric; Swennen, Dominique; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Irlinger, Françoise; Fraud, Sébastien; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The microbial communities in cheeses are composed of varying bacteria, yeasts, and molds, which contribute to the development of their typical sensory properties. In situ studies are needed to better understand their growth and activity during cheese ripening. Our objective was to investigate the activity of the microorganisms used for manufacturing a surface-ripened cheese by means of metatranscriptomic analysis. The cheeses were produced using two lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus), one ripening bacterium (Brevibacterium aurantiacum), and two yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii and Geotrichum candidum). RNA was extracted from the cheese rinds and, after depletion of most ribosomal RNA, sequencing was performed using a short-read sequencing technology that generated ~75 million reads per sample. Except for B. aurantiacum, which failed to grow in the cheeses, a large number of CDS reads were generated for the inoculated species, making it possible to investigate their individual transcriptome over time. From day 5 to 35, G. candidum accounted for the largest proportion of CDS reads, suggesting that this species was the most active. Only minor changes occurred in the transcriptomes of the lactic acid bacteria. For the two yeasts, we compared the expression of genes involved in the catabolism of lactose, galactose, lactate, amino acids, and free fatty acids. During ripening, genes involved in ammonia assimilation and galactose catabolism were down-regulated in the two species. Genes involved in amino acid catabolism were up-regulated in G. candidum from day 14 to day 35, whereas in D. hansenii, they were up-regulated mainly at day 35, suggesting that this species catabolized the cheese amino acids later. In addition, after 35 days of ripening, there was a down-regulation of genes involved in the electron transport chain, suggesting a lower cellular activity. The present study has exemplified how

  14. Population dynamics of two antilisterial cheese surface consortia revealed by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasler Madlen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surface contamination of smear cheese by Listeria spp. is of major concern for the industry. Complex smear ecosystems have been shown to harbor antilisterial potential but the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in the inhibition mostly remain unclear, and are likely related to complex interactions than to production of single antimicrobial compounds. Bacterial biodiversity and population dynamics of complex smear ecosystems exhibiting antilisterial properties in situ were investigated by Temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE, a culture independent technique, for two microbial consortia isolated from commercial Raclette type cheeses inoculated with defined commercial ripening cultures (F or produced with an old-young smearing process (M. Results TTGE revealed nine bacterial species common to both F and M consortia, but consortium F exhibited a higher diversity than consortium M, with thirteen and ten species, respectively. Population dynamics were studied after application of the consortia on fresh-produced Raclette cheeses. TTGE analyses revealed a similar sequential development of the nine species common to both consortia. Beside common cheese surface bacteria (Staphylococcus equorum, Corynebacterium spp., Brevibacterium linens, Microbacterium gubbeenense, Agrococcus casei, the two consortia contained marine lactic acid bacteria (Alkalibacterium kapii, Marinilactibacillus psychrotolerans that developed early in ripening (day 14 to 20, shortly after the growth of staphylococci (day 7. A decrease of Listeria counts was observed on cheese surface inoculated at day 7 with 0.1-1 × 102 CFU cm-2, when cheeses were smeared with consortium F or M. Listeria counts went below the detection limit of the method between day 14 and 28 and no subsequent regrowth was detected over 60 to 80 ripening days. In contrast, Listeria grew to high counts (105 CFU cm-2 on cheeses smeared with a defined surface culture

  15. Assessment of the Microbial Constituents of the Home Environment of Individuals with Cystic Fibrosis (CF and Their Association with Lower Airways Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alya Heirali

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF airways are colonized by a polymicrobial community of organisms, termed the CF microbiota. We sought to define the microbial constituents of the home environment of individuals with CF and determine if it may serve as a latent reservoir for infection.Six patients with newly identified CF pathogens were included. An investigator collected repeat sputum and multiple environmental samples from their homes. Bacteria were cultured under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Morphologically distinct colonies were selected, purified and identified to the genus and species level through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. When concordant organisms were identified in sputum and environment, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was performed to determine relatedness. Culture-independent bacterial profiling of each sample was carried out by Illumina sequencing of the V3 region of the 16s RNA gene.New respiratory pathogens prompting investigation included: Mycobacterium abscessus(2, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia(3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa(3, Pseudomonas fluorescens(1, Nocardia spp.(1, and Achromobacter xylosoxidans(1. A median 25 organisms/patient were cultured from sputum. A median 125 organisms/home were cultured from environmental sites. Several organisms commonly found in the CF lung microbiome were identified within the home environments of these patients. Concordant species included members of the following genera: Brevibacterium(1, Microbacterium(1, Staphylococcus(3, Stenotrophomonas(2, Streptococcus(2, Sphingomonas(1, and Pseudomonas(4. PFGE confirmed related strains (one episode each of Sphinogomonas and P. aeruginosa from the environment and airways were identified in two patients. Culture-independent assessment confirmed that many organisms were not identified using culture-dependent techniques.Members of the CF microbiota can be found as constituents of the home environment in individuals with CF. While the majority of isolates from

  16. Microbial diversity and dynamics throughout manufacturing and ripening of surface ripened semi-hard Danish Danbo cheeses investigated by culture-independent techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryssel, Mia; Johansen, Pernille; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Sørensen, Søren; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-12-23

    Microbial successions on the surface and in the interior of surface ripened semi-hard Danish Danbo cheeses were investigated by culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Culture-independent detection of microorganisms was obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing, using amplicons of 16S and 26S rRNA genes for prokaryotes and eukaryotes, respectively. With minor exceptions, the results from the culture-independent analyses correlated to the culture-dependent plating results. Even though the predominant microorganisms detected with the two culture-independent techniques correlated, a higher number of genera were detected by pyrosequencing compared to DGGE. Additionally, minor parts of the microbiota, i.e. comprising <10.0% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs), were detected by pyrosequencing, resulting in more detailed information on the microbial succession. As expected, microbial profiles of the surface and the interior of the cheeses diverged. During cheese production pyrosequencing determined Lactococcus as the dominating genus on cheese surfaces, representing on average 94.7%±2.1% of the OTUs. At day 6 Lactococcus spp. declined to 10.0% of the OTUs, whereas Staphylococcus spp. went from 0.0% during cheese production to 75.5% of the OTUs at smearing. During ripening, i.e. from 4 to 18 weeks, Corynebacterium was the dominant genus on the cheese surface (55.1%±9.8% of the OTUs), with Staphylococcus (17.9%±11.2% of the OTUs) and Brevibacterium (10.4%±8.3% of the OTUs) being the second and third most abundant genera. Other detected bacterial genera included Clostridiisalibacter (5.0%±4.0% of the OTUs), as well as Pseudoclavibacter, Alkalibacterium and Marinilactibacillus, which represented <2% of the OTUs. At smearing, yeast counts were low with Debaryomyces being the dominant genus accounting for 46.5% of the OTUs. During ripening the yeast counts increased significantly with Debaryomyces being the predominant genus

  17. Study on the Phylogeny and Growth Promoting Effect of Endophytes Isolated from Legume Root Nodules in Hoh Xil%可可西里豆科植物根瘤内生细菌系统发育及促生特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金平; 齐雅琳; 韩素贞

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to study the phylogeny,antimicrobial activity and secreting IAA capacity of endophytes isolated from legume root nodules in Hoh Xil.[Method] The endophyte strains isolated from the nodules of Oxytropis falcate Bunge in Hoh Xil were used to do the 16s sequences analysis,antimicrobial test and IAA detection.[Result] The result of 16s rDNA sequence analysis showed that 12 of 17 test strains be-long to Bacillus.CNU097903 and Brevibacterium halotolerans,CNU097916 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens were at the same branch respectively , which similarity were as high as 99.9%and 99.8%.CNU097914 and CNU097915 were in a separate branch and their system development status remained to be further confirmed.The antimicrobial experiment result showed that 10 strains had the different degrees of resistance to Xan-thomonas campestris,Staphylococcus aureus,Botrytis cinerea,and Pythium aphanidermatum.CNU097906 had the highest resistant spectrum which could resist to all 4 indicator bacteria.CNU097902 and CNU097908 had the strongest resistance to Botrytis cinerea,Xanthomonas campestris re-spectively and the bacteriostatic circle of 38 mm in diameter.CNU097901 had the strongest resistance for Staphylococcus aureus,and the bacterio-static circle of 41 mm in diameter.The Salkowski colorimetric method showed that all the 10 selected strains had the ability to secrete IAA.[Con-clusion] The study lays a foundation for further research on prevention mechanism and ways of endophytic bacteria ,provides theoretical basis for research of endophytic bacteria in Hoh Xil and rational decelopment .%[目的]研究可可西里豆科植物根瘤内生细菌系统发育、抗菌特性和分泌IAA能力。[方法]对分离自可可西里的豆科植物Oxyt-ropis falcate Bunge的根瘤内生细菌进行了16S rDNA全序列分析、抗菌试验以及IAA分泌能力检测。[结果]16S rDNA全序列分析结果表明,17株供试菌有12株属于芽孢杆菌属( Bacillus);有1

  18. 湖南衡阳铀尾矿库中微生物分布调查及优势菌鉴定%Investigation of the microbial distribution and identification of single isolates of uranium tailings impoundment in Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱捷; 何微; 陈晓明; 刘梅; 张娥; 柳芳; 陈浩

    2013-01-01

    identified as Bacillus, Ub for Enterobacter, Uc for Arthrobacter, Ud for Brevibacterium, Uh for Paenibacillus, and Uj for Kocuria strains, though the results of similarity proved by using Biolog method seem to be lower than that probed by using 16S rDNA method.%为了考察铀尾矿库中微生物的分布情况,筛选优势菌株,通过稀释涂布法对湖南衡阳铀尾矿库3个不同坝体(N坝、E坝、S坝)的矿渣样品进行研究,利用16S rDNA及Biolog系统鉴定微生物.结果表明,铀尾矿中微生物的数量和种类均明显少于普通土壤,不同菌群数量从多到少为细菌、放线菌、霉菌.不同坝体微生物总量从多到少为S坝、N坝、E坝.N坝细菌的数量较多,占微生物总量的99%;S坝放线菌及霉菌数量最多.E坝和S坝中微生物的数量和种类较为相似.E坝放线菌数量随矿渣深度增加而增加,霉菌数量则相反;S坝中细菌数量随矿渣深度递增.分离出12株优势菌株,经16S rDNA比对,可分为芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、肠杆菌属(Enterobacter)、节杆菌属(Arthrobacter)、短杆菌属(Brevibacterium)、类芽孢杆菌属(Paenibacillus)及库克菌属(Kocuria rosea);与Biolog鉴定结果相似,但Biolog结果相似度较低.

  19. 微生物对砷的氧化还原竞争%Competitive Microbial Oxidation and Reduction of Arsenic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婷婷; 柏耀辉; 梁金松; 霍旸; 王明星; 袁林江

    2016-01-01

    Filters are widely applied in drinking water treatment plants. Our previous study, which explored the asenic redox in a filter of drinking water plant treating underground water, found that As3 + could be oxidized to As5 + by biogenic manganese oxides, while As5 + could be reduced to As3 + by some microbial arsenic reductases in the biofilter system. This microbial competition could influence the system stability and treatment efficiency. To explore its mechanism, this study selected a manganese-oxidizing bacterial strain (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) and a arsenic-reducing strain ( Brevibacterium sp. LSJ-9) to investigate their competitive relationship in nutrient acquisition and arsenic redox in the presence of Mn2 + , As3 + or As5 + . The results revealed that the concentration and valence of Mn and As varied with different reaction time; biological manganese oxides dominated the arsenic redox by rapidly oxidizing the As3 +in the existing system and the As3 + generated by arsenic reductase into As5 + . PCR and RT-PCR results indicated that the arsenic reductase (arsC) was inhibited by the manganese oxidase (cumA). The expression of 16S rRNA in QJX-1 was two orders of magnitude higher than that in LSJ-9, which implied QJX-1 was dominant in the bacterial growth. Our data revealed that hydraulic retention time was critical to the valence of arsenic in the effluent of filter in drinking water treatment plant.%滤池被广泛运用于饮用水厂中,前期研究发现某水厂生物滤池处理含砷地下水时,一方面三价砷可被生物氧化锰氧化为五价砷,另一方面滤池系统中存在的微生物砷还原酶可促使五价砷还原为三价砷,而滤池表面存在的这种微生物竞争关系会影响滤池的稳定性及处理效率.为探讨其内在机制,本研究选取1株锰氧化模式菌(Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1)和1株砷还原模式菌(Brevibacterium sp. LSJ-9),考察在 Mn2+、 As(As3+、 As5+)共存时,两菌株对空间、营养物质以及

  20. Marine actinomycetes from Madeira Archipelago preliminary taxonomic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilda Santos Sanches

    2014-06-01

    region and suggesting a more globally distribution of this genus than previously supposed (unplublished results. In this study further 82 strains from Madeira Archipelago (out of 421 were selected for taxonomic identification, taking into account small groups of strains (1-4 evidencing very diverse morphological appearances, as exemplified in Figure 2. Using the same experimental microbiology identification tools, 8 genera were identified. However it was perceived that, the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis and Actinomycetospora were predominant (93%, Figure 3. The phylogenetic trees built for the 82 taxonomically identified strains performed in this study are presented in Figures 4, 5 and 6. To date, having into account the present work and previous studies, our research group have identified from the actinomycetes isolated from Madeira´s ocean sediments, genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Salinispora, Nocardiopsis, Verrucosispora, Kocuria, Nonomuraea, Nocardia, Brevibacterium, Mycobacterium, Marinobacter, Actinomadura, Micrococcus, Actinomycetospora, Pseudonocardia, Gordonia and Millisia. From which genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Salinispora evidence a major representation. Crude extracts were obtained from all 421 strains and tested for their ability to produce natural products with bioactive properties: (i antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE and Candida albicans strains; and (ii cytotoxic activity against the HCT-116 cell line. A screening positive rate of 2.4% for antimicrobial MRSA and VRE assays and 3.2% for cytotoxic HCT-116 assay was obtained (submitted manuscripts. These studies demonstrate that the Macaronesian Atlantic Ocean region is a rich source of marine actinomycete biodiversity with potential industrial applications. Figure 1. Marine actinomycetes sediment sampling locations at Madeira Archipelago. Figure 2. Morphological diversity characteristics of

  1. Diagnosis of fowlpox virus and Pasteurella co-infection in Ma chicken%一起麻鸡鸡痘病毒与巴氏杆菌混合感染病例的诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平; 赵魁; 高丰; 何叶; 孙秀萍; 苏高莉; 丁宁; 王丽; 包英夫; 潘伟; 解胜男

    2012-01-01

    In October 2011 ,more than 150 Ma chickens with only 60 day-old were dead because of the outbreak of an acute deaths in Changchun. The chickens were loss of appetite,apathetic and steak yellow green thin stool. A large of pox eruptions having different sizes and nodular lesions were observed in the skins of crista galli and the smoothness and few feather of the back. In order to diagnose the disease,a sys- tematic analysis of the etiology and pathology was conducted by bacteriology, virus isolation and identifica- tion, animal regression test, and histopathological observation. A typical bipolar stain brevibacterium can be seen in the liver contacts of dead birds. PCR detection results showed that the fowlpox virus 4b core protein gene with specific primers amplified was positive. The processing supernatant of pox eruptions was inocula- ted on the surface of chorioallantoic membrane of SPF embryonated egg in 9-day-old. After 7 days,grayish- white variola were observed on the surface of chorioallantoic membrane. Also typical poxvirus particles could be seen under electron microscopy of negatively stained. The histopathological results showed that partial liver cell suffered from congestion, degeneration, necrosis, and a large number of heterophil granulo- cyte infiltration. It was confirmed that the cases were caused by fowlpox virus and Pasteurella mixed infec- tion according to the above-mentioned laboratory test results and clinical symptoms.%为了对2011年10月长春市某鸡场的150多只60日龄麻鸡发生急性死亡,病死鸡在临床上出现食欲不振、精神委靡,鸡冠以及背部皮肤有结节状痘疹以及排黄绿色稀粪等临床症状的疾病进行确诊,通过细菌学检查、病毒分离鉴定、动物回归试验以及病理组织学观察等方法从病原学和病理学角度进行了系统的分析。病死鸡肝触片可见有典型的两极浓染的短杆菌;应用鸡痘病毒4b核心蛋白基因特异性引物的扩增

  2. Preparation and Immunomodulatory Properties of Modified Peptidoglycan Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunostimulators, known also as adjuvants, are added to vaccines to accelerate, extend or amplify the specific immune reaction to a specific antigen. One well known class of immuno- modulating compounds is based on muramylpeptides which are fragments of peptidoglycans, natural polymers that build up the cell wall of bacteria. Muramyldipeptide, N-acetyl- muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP, Fig. 1 is the smallest structural unit of the peptidoglycan monomer (PGM, Fig. 2 which shows immunostimulating activity. PGM isolated from Brevibacterium divaricatum, acts in itself as an effective adjuvant, and several derivatives were prepared to study the possible influence of different substituents on the immunomodulatory activity. Thus, lipophilic derivativestert-butyloxycarbonyl-L-tyrosyl-PGM and (adamant- 1-ylacetyl-PGM (Fig. 3 were prepared and their activities studied. They were also shown to be good substrates for N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase from human serum (Scheme 1 which specifically hydrolyzes the lactylamide bond. MDP which is an integral part of PGM and proven to be an effective adjuvant was further synthetically modified and obtained derivatives tested as possible immunomodulators. Romutide (MDP-Lys(L18, approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA, and mifamurtide (L-MTP-PE, approved by European Medicines Agency (EMA, highlight among many other MDP derivatives (Fig. 4. Since N-acetylglucosamine in the structure of MDP is not essential for the immunostimulating effect, desmuramyldipeptides (Fig. 5 with different acyl groups at N-terminus of L-Ala-D-isoGln dipeptide were prepared. In ada mantyl desmuramyldipeptides such as adamantylamide dipeptide (Fig 6, adamantyl tripeptides (Fig. 7 and desmuramylpeptides with (adamant-1-ylcarboxyamido group (Fig. 8, lipophilic adamantane moiety is bound to the dipeptide part. Binding of some specific sugars to immune active substances may help their targeted delivery. An example is mannose which

  3. 臭氧-接种生物滤池组合工艺去除饮用水中典型致嗅物质%Ozonation-Inoculated Biofiltration for Removal of the Typical Taste and Odor Compounds in Drinking Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁蓉芳; 周北海; 施春红; 顾军农; 李玉仙

    2013-01-01

    通过在生物滤池表面接种MIB(2-甲基异茨醇)及geosmin(土臭素)降解菌,增强生物滤池的作用,并探讨臭氧-生物滤池组合工艺对MIB和geosmin的处理效果.结果表明:单独接种生物滤池可使ρ(MIB)和ρ(geosmin)从初始的500 ng/L分别降至125和112 ng/L,MIB和geosmin的去除效果先随EBCT(空床停留时间)的延长而显著增加,但当EBCT大于20 min后无明显变化;随着滤料深度的增加,滤池生物量逐渐降低,对污染物的去除率增加缓慢.在接种生物滤池前增加臭氧单元,当EBCT为20min、臭氧投加量为2 mg/L时,臭氧-接种生物滤池组合工艺可去除84%的MIB和94%的geosmin,其中接种生物滤池单元中生物量随滤池深度的增加呈先增后减的趋势,滤料深度为100~200 mm时,单位高度滤料的去除率最高.采用臭氧-接种生物滤池组合工艺可有效去除水中的MIB和geosmin.%2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin are two of the most common taste and odor compounds which can not be readily removed by conventional drinking water treatment processes.The objective of this study was to enhance the biofiltration of MIB and geosmin by inoculating the sand filter with MIB and geosmin degraders,and to examine the removal efficiencies of MIB and geosmin using inoculated filter and non-inoculated filter in the presence and absence of ozonation.The degraders were Micrococcus sp.,Flavobacterium sp.,Brevibacterium sp.and Pseudomonas sp.as MIB degraders,and Chryseobacterium sp.,Sinorhizobium sp.,and Stenotrophomonas sp.as geosmin degraders.These bacteria were isolated from granular activated carbon in a commercial water plant.For the filter inoculated with a consortium of MIB and geosmin biodegraders,MIB and geosmin contents were decreased to 125 and 112 ng/L from 500 ng/L,respectively.Initially,removal efficiencies of MIB and geosmin rapidly increased with the extension of empty bed contact time (EBCT),and resulted in no obvious change when EBCT

  4. Effect of Trichoderma harzianum T4 on Bacterial Community in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Rhizosphere Soil%生防菌哈茨木霉Trichoderma harzianum T4对西瓜根围土壤细菌群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏飞; 张于; 旭热; 王伟

    2013-01-01

      采用平板培养、末端限制性片段长度多态性(terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, T-RFLP)以及变性梯度凝胶电泳(denatured gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE)的方法相结合探讨生防菌哈茨木霉 Trichoderma harzianum T4对大棚西瓜根围土壤细菌群落及氨氧化细菌群落的影响,为其在田间应用的生态安全性的评估提供支撑。末端限制性片段长度多态性以及变性梯度凝胶电泳的结果均表明哈茨木霉 T4施入田间约四周内对根围土壤细菌群落产生明显的影响,随后这种扰动现象逐渐减小。对 DGGE中受影响条带的测序结果表明,生防菌 T4促进了假单胞菌 Pseudomonas,芽孢杆菌 Bacillus,苍白杆菌Ochrobactrum 以及中慢生根瘤菌 Mesorhizobium 等细菌类群的生长,对短杆菌 Brevibacterium,克雷白氏肺炎杆菌 Klebsiella pneumoniae,根瘤菌 Rhizobium sp 等表现出抑制作用。生防菌 T4对根围土壤中氨氧化细菌群落并没有产生明显的影响。可见,生防菌木霉 T4引入初期对根围土壤中细菌群落产生明显的扰动,但这种干扰是短暂的,并没有对根围土壤细菌群落形成持续的影响。%The effects of biocontrol strain Trichoderma harzianum T4 on bacterial and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) rhizosphere soil were studied using plate colony calculation, T-RFLP and DGGE method, in order to provide a theoretical basis and technique for assessing the microbial ecology risk of biocontrol agents application. Both T-RFLP and DGGE method demonstrated that T. harzianum T4 had short-term influence on rhizosphere soil bacterial communities which lasted about four weeks. Biocontrol strain T. harzianum T4 increased population of some bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Ochrobactrum and Mesorhizobium. Meanwhile population of other bacteria such as Brevibacterium and Klebsiella pneumoniae were

  5. Optimization of medium components and culture conditions of algicidal actinomycetes BS01%高效溶藻放线茵BS01发酵培养基及发酵条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽君; 安新丽; 李东; 许丽霞; 田蕴; 郑天凌

    2011-01-01

    从漳江口红树林区采集的沉积物样品中分离到1株放线菌菌株BS01 Brevibacterium sp.,其胞外活性产物对塔玛亚历山大藻Alexandrium tamarense具有明显的溶藻作用.采用单因素及均匀设计,通过摇瓶培养对BS01产溶藻活性物质的发酵培养基及发酵条件进行优化.结果表明,在可溶性淀粉为碳源、硝酸钠为氮源、装液量为40%、起始pH值为7.5、培养温度为28℃、转速为150r·min-1、振荡培养时间为48h的条件时,BS01发酵产物的杀藻活性最强.通过均匀设计进行最佳发酵培养基及培养条件优化的结果为:可溶性淀粉为20g·L-1,硝酸钠为0.5g·L-1,pH为7.7,温度为27.2℃.研究结果为杀藻活性物质高效提取及杀藻机制研究奠定了基础.%A strain of actinomycetes BS01 capable of lysing the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense was isolated from mangrove area of Zhangjiangkou in Fujian province. The medium components and cultural conditions for algicidal activity of actinomycete strain BS01 were optimized by single-factor and uniform tests in shake-flask. The initial pH, fermentation temperature, fermentation time, and inoculum were optimized through single-factor tests. Results showed that BS01 exhibited the best algicidal activity by using soluble starch as carbon source, sodium nitrate as nitrogen source, initial pH at 7.7, temperature at 27.2℃, and shaking at 150r.min-1 in 100mL of 250mL conical flask for 48h. The optimal fermentation parameters of BS01 were: soluble starch 20g·L-1, sodium nitrate 0.5g.L-1, pH value 7.7, and temperature 27.2℃by using uniform design experiments.

  6. 放线菌Act12与腐植酸钾配施对丹参生长及其根域微生态的影响%Effects of combined application of actinomycetes Act12 bio-control agents and potassium humate on growth and microbial flora in rooting zone of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段佳丽; 薛泉宏; 舒志明; 王东胜; 何斐

    2015-01-01

    探讨生防放线菌菌剂与腐植酸钾配施对丹参生长及其根域微生态的影响.以常规移栽处理为对照,研究小区试验中放线菌菌剂与腐植酸钾不同配施比例下对丹参生长、产量及抗根结线虫侵染的影响;并采用稀释平皿涂抹法测定丹参根区土壤、根表土壤、根外土壤及根系中细菌(B)、真菌(F)与放线菌(A)的数量,同时对优势细菌、真菌和放线菌进行了分子生物学鉴定,研究放线菌菌剂与腐植酸钾配施处理下丹参根域微生态变化.研究结果表明:①配施能增强菌剂对丹参的促生效果.菌剂与腐植酸钾配施T20处理丹参出苗率较对照提高8.7%,收获时的死亡率较对照减少39.0%;茎叶鲜质量、根鲜质量、单株根鲜质量、根干质量以及单株根干质量分别较对照增加6.1%、28.6%、11.1%、36.3%以及9.0%.②可以调整丹参植株根域土壤微生态平衡,降低有害微生物数量,增加有益微生物数量,改善微生物区系.在丹参根表土壤中,菌剂与腐植酸钾配施处理B/A值较对照降低78.4%,A/F值较对照增加95.0%.在丹参根系内,菌剂与腐植酸钾配施处理细菌数量较对照增加195.0%,未检测到真菌和放线菌存在.③在放线菌处理丹参根区、根表土壤中,有6株优势菌可能对丹参生长及抗病有益:3株优势细菌分别为硝基愈疮木胶节杆菌(Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus)、放射型根瘤菌(Rhizobium radiobacter)和弗雷德里克斯堡假单胞菌(Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis);3株优势放线菌分别为淀粉酶产色链霉菌(Streptomyces diastatochromogenes)、砖红链霉菌(S.lateritius)和卡伍尔链霉菌(S.cavourensis).有2株优势菌疑为有害微生物:优势细菌为耐寒短杆菌(Brevibacterium frigoritolerans),优势放线菌为肿痂链霉菌(S.turgidiscabies).这2种菌对其他作物的有害作用已有报道.④对丹参根结线虫侵染有强烈抑制作用,可使田

  7. Diversity of culturable bacteria associated with the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus from Naozhou Island%硇洲岛海胆可培养细菌的多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄苛; 张丽; 刘祝祥; 陈奇辉; 彭清忠; 李文均; 崔晓龙; 陈义光

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the diversity of culturable bacteria isolated from the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus collected from a tidal flat of Naozhou Island(20°52'N~20°56'N 110°33'E~110°38'E),Leizhou Bay,South China Sea,China. [Methods] Bacteria were isolated from the sample by using conventional culture-dependent method and then investigated by using phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons.[Results ]We isolated 106 bacterial strains from the sample on media (Difco marine 2216;International Streotomyces Project medium 2;nutrient;sea water and humic acid agars) supplemented with 0~2 mol/L NaCl.On the basis of morphological;physiological and biochemical characteristics;we selected 34 strains to perform a phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences.Our results showed that 34 isolates represented 21 species; belonging to 17 genera (Alteromonas, Bacillus, Brachybacterium , Brevibacterium, Halobacillus,Halomonas, Nocardiopsis , Oceanobacillus, Piscibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibadllus, Pseudoalteromonas, Pseudonocardia,Sahnicoccus, Sahnwibrio, Staphylococcus, Vibrio, Virgibacillus) of 10 families (Alteromonadaceae, Bacillaceae,Brevibactenaceae, Dermabacteraceae,Halomonadaceae,Planococcaceae,Pseudoalteromonadaceae,Pseudonocardiaceae;Nocardiopsaceae,Staphylococcaceae,Vibnonaceae)in three phylogenetic groups (Actinobactena,Firmicutes,GammaProteobactena).The most abundant and diverse isolates were within the phylum Firmicutes (58.8%)and the subphylum Gamma-Proteobactena (26.5% ).The phylogenetic distance matrix results suggested that there were obvious genetic divergences between most isolates and their closestly related type strains (16S rRNA gene sequence similarities ranged from 99.6 to 99.9%), and that, out of 34 isolates, at least 5 strains (JSM 076033, JSM 076056, JSM 076093, JSM 078063, JSM 078169) could represent 5 potential new species within 5 characterized genera (Jeotgalicoccus