WorldWideScience

Sample records for breteau index threshold

  1. A flash flood early warning system based on rainfall thresholds and daily soil moisture indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandì, Giuseppina; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Main focus of the paper is to present a flash flood early warning system, developed for Civil Protection Agency for the Sicily Region, for alerting extreme hydrometeorological events by using a methodology based on the combined use of rainfall thresholds and soil moisture indexes. As matter of fact, flash flood warning is a key element to improve the Civil Protection achievements to mitigate damages and safeguard the security of people. It is a rather complicated task, particularly in those catchments with flashy response where even brief anticipations are important and welcomed. In this context, some kind of hydrological precursors can be considered to improve the effectiveness of the emergency actions (i.e. early flood warning). Now, it is well known how soil moisture is an important factor in flood formation, because the runoff generation is strongly influenced by the antecedent soil moisture conditions of the catchment. The basic idea of the work here presented is to use soil moisture indexes derived in a continuous form to define a first alert phase in a flash flood forecasting chain and then define a unique rainfall threshold for a given day for the subsequent alarm phases activation, derived as a function of the soil moisture conditions at the beginning of the day. Daily soil moisture indexes, representative of the moisture condition of the catchment, were derived by using a parsimonious and simply to use approach based on the IHACRES model application in a modified form developed by the authors. It is a simple, spatially-lumped rainfall-streamflow model, based on the SCS-CN method and on the unit hydrograph approach that requires only rainfall, streamflow and air temperature data. It consists of two modules. In the first a non linear loss model, based on the SCS-CN method, was used to transform total rainfall into effective rainfall. In the second, a linear convolution of effective rainfall was performed using a total unit hydrograph with a configuration of

  2. Accuracy of different thresholds for the anti-HIV avidity index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Galli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance programs for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection are based on the reporting of newly diagnosed cases. In order to guarantee a more accurate estimate of the trends and behaviours of infected people, simple and reliable methods aimed at identifying recent (< 6 months HIV infections are needed. We evaluated the accuracy of the avidity index (AI of anti-HIV antibodies on 357 serum samples obtained from 127 subjects for whom an estimated date of seroconversion was calculated on the basis of the interval between the last negative and first positive anti-HIV test result.The ROC curve analysis performed at different thresholds of the AI showed that a cutoff of 0.80 (93.0% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity yields the best overall accuracy (95.8% and should be employed for surveillance purposes, whereas the application of the anti-HIV AI on individual cases is not recommended.

  3. Marsh collapse thresholds for coastal Louisiana estimated using elevation and vegetation index data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillion, Brady R.; Beck, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting marsh collapse in coastal Louisiana as a result of changes in sea-level rise, subsidence, and accretion deficits necessitates an understanding of thresholds beyond which inundation stress impedes marsh survival. The variability in thresholds at which different marsh types cease to occur (i.e., marsh collapse) is not well understood. We utilized remotely sensed imagery, field data, and elevation data to help gain insight into the relationships between vegetation health and inundation. A Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset was calculated using remotely sensed data at peak biomass (August) and used as a proxy for vegetation health and productivity. Statistics were calculated for NDVI values by marsh type for intermediate, brackish, and saline marsh in coastal Louisiana. Marsh-type specific NDVI values of 1.5 and 2 standard deviations below the mean were used as upper and lower limits to identify conditions indicative of collapse. As marshes seldom occur beyond these values, they are believed to represent a range within which marsh collapse is likely to occur. Inundation depth was selected as the primary candidate for evaluation of marsh collapse thresholds. Elevation relative to mean water level (MWL) was calculated by subtracting MWL from an elevation dataset compiled from multiple data types including light detection and ranging (lidar) and bathymetry. A polynomial cubic regression was used to examine a random subset of pixels to determine the relationship between elevation (relative to MWL) and NDVI. The marsh collapse uncertainty range values were found by locating the intercept of the regression line with the 1.5 and 2 standard deviations below the mean NDVI value for each marsh type. Results indicate marsh collapse uncertainty ranges of 30.7–35.8 cm below MWL for intermediate marsh, 20–25.6 cm below MWL for brackish marsh, and 16.9–23.5 cm below MWL for saline marsh. These values are thought to represent the ranges of

  4. Identification of a threshold for biomass exposure index for chronic bronchitis in rural women of Mysore district, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P A Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Exposure to air pollution due to combustion of biomass fuels remains one of the significant risk factors for chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis. There is a need to identify the minimum threshold level of biomass index that is significantly associated with chronic bronchitis. This study was undertaken to identify a threshold for biomass exposure index in a rural women population in Mysore district, south India. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative population of Mysore and Nanjangud taluks. Eight villages each from Mysore and Nanjangud were randomly selected based on the list of villages from census 2001. A house-to-house survey was carried out by trained field workers using the Burden of Obstructive Diseases questionnaire, which evaluated the biomass smoke exposure and chronic bronchitis. All the women aged above 30 yr were included in the study. Results: A total of 2011 women from Mysore and 1942 women from Nanjangud participated in the study. All women were non-smoking and used biomass fuels as the primary fuel for cooking. A threshold of biomass fuel exposure of 60 was identified on multivariate analysis in Mysore district after adjusting for age, passive smoking and working in a occupational exposure to dust, as the minimum required for a significant association with chronic bronchitis. One in every 20 women in Mysore district exposed to biomass fuel exposure index of 110 or more developed chronic bronchitis. Interpretation & conclusions: The minimum threshold of biomass exposure index of 60 is necessary to have a significant risk of developing chronic bronchitis in women. The number needed to harm to develop chronic bronchitis reduces with increasing biomass exposure index and women residing in rural Nanjangud have a higher risk for developing chronic bronchitis as compared to women in Mysore.

  5. Identification of a threshold for biomass exposure index for chronic bronchitis in rural women of Mysore district, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P A; Jayaraj, B S; Prabhakar, A K; Chaya, S K; Vijaysimha, R

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution due to combustion of biomass fuels remains one of the significant risk factors for chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis. There is a need to identify the minimum threshold level of biomass index that is significantly associated with chronic bronchitis. This study was undertaken to identify a threshold for biomass exposure index in a rural women population in Mysore district, south India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative population of Mysore and Nanjangud taluks. Eight villages each from Mysore and Nanjangud were randomly selected based on the list of villages from census 2001. A house-to-house survey was carried out by trained field workers using the Burden of Obstructive Diseases questionnaire, which evaluated the biomass smoke exposure and chronic bronchitis. All the women aged above 30 yr were included in the study. A total of 2011 women from Mysore and 1942 women from Nanjangud participated in the study. All women were non-smoking and used biomass fuels as the primary fuel for cooking. A threshold of biomass fuel exposure of 60 was identified on multivariate analysis in Mysore district after adjusting for age, passive smoking and working in a occupational exposure to dust, as the minimum required for a significant association with chronic bronchitis. One in every 20 women in Mysore district exposed to biomass fuel exposure index of 110 or more developed chronic bronchitis. The minimum threshold of biomass exposure index of 60 is necessary to have a significant risk of developing chronic bronchitis in women. The number needed to harm to develop chronic bronchitis reduces with increasing biomass exposure index and women residing in rural Nanjangud have a higher risk for developing chronic bronchitis as compared to women in Mysore.

  6. Evaluating climate variables, indexes and thresholds governing Arctic urban sustainability: case study of Russian permafrost regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, O. A.; Kokorev, V.

    2013-12-01

    Addressing Arctic urban sustainability today forces planners to deal with the complex interplay of multiple factors, including governance and economic development, demography and migration, environmental changes and land use, changes in the ecosystems and their services, and climate change. While the latter can be seen as a factor that exacerbates the existing vulnerabilities to other stressors, changes in temperature, precipitation, snow, river and lake ice, and the hydrological regime also have direct implications for the cities in the North. Climate change leads to reduced demand for heating energy, on one hand, and heightened concerns about the fate of the infrastructure built upon thawing permafrost, on the other. Changes in snowfall are particularly important and have direct implications for the urban economy, as together with heating costs, expenses for snow removal from streets, airport runways, roofs and ventilation corridors underneath buildings erected on pile foundations on permafrost constitute the bulk of the city's maintenance budget. Many cities are located in river valleys and are prone to flooding that leads to enormous economic losses and casualties, including human deaths. The severity of the northern climate has direct implications for demographic changes governed by regional migration and labor flows. Climate could thus be viewed as an inexhaustible public resource that creates opportunities for sustainable urban development. Long-term trends show that climate as a resource is becoming more readily available in the Russian North, notwithstanding the general perception that globally climate change is one of the challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In this study we explore the sustainability of the Arctic urban environment under changing climatic conditions. We identify key governing variables and indexes and study the thresholds beyond which changes in the governing climatic parameters have significant impact on the economy

  7. 77 FR 9925 - Price Index Adjustments for Expenditure Limitations and Lobbyist Bundling Disclosure Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION [Notice 2012-02] Price Index Adjustments for Expenditure Limitations...)(A)) are adjusted periodically to reflect changes in the consumer price index. See 2 U.S.C. 434(i)(3... difference between the price index, as certified to the Commission by the Secretary of Labor, for the 12...

  8. 75 FR 8353 - Price Index Adjustments for Expenditure Limitations and Lobbyist Bundling Disclosure Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION [Notice 2010-02] Price Index Adjustments for Expenditure Limitations... price index. See 2 U.S.C. 434(i)(3) and 441a(c)(1), and 11 CFR 109.32 and 110.17(a), (f). The Commission... is increased by 4.35110, which reflects the difference between the price index, as certified to the...

  9. Flood and landslide warning based on rainfall thresholds and soil moisture indexes: the HEWS (Hydrohazards Early Warning System) for Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandì, Giuseppina; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Brunella; Gueli, Roberto; Basile, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    The main focus of the paper is to present a flood and landslide early warning system, named HEWS (Hydrohazards Early Warning System), specifically developed for the Civil Protection Department of Sicily, based on the combined use of rainfall thresholds, soil moisture modelling and quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF). The warning system is referred to 9 different Alert Zones in which Sicily has been divided into and based on a threshold system of three different increasing critical levels: ordinary, moderate and high. In this system, for early flood warning, a Soil Moisture Accounting (SMA) model provides daily soil moisture conditions, which allow to select a specific set of three rainfall thresholds, one for each critical level considered, to be used for issue the alert bulletin. Wetness indexes, representative of the soil moisture conditions of a catchment, are calculated using a simple, spatially-lumped rainfall-streamflow model, based on the SCS-CN method, and on the unit hydrograph approach, that require daily observed and/or predicted rainfall, and temperature data as input. For the calibration of this model daily continuous time series of rainfall, streamflow and air temperature data are used. An event based lumped rainfall-runoff model has been, instead, used for the derivation of the rainfall thresholds for each catchment in Sicily characterised by an area larger than 50 km2. In particular, a Kinematic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph based lumped rainfall-runoff model with the SCS-CN routine for net rainfall was developed for this purpose. For rainfall-induced shallow landslide warning, empirical rainfall thresholds provided by Gariano et al. (2015) have been included in the system. They were derived on an empirical basis starting from a catalogue of 265 shallow landslides in Sicily in the period 2002-2012. Finally, Delft-FEWS operational forecasting platform has been applied to link input data, SMA model and rainfall threshold models to produce

  10. Threshold pump intensity effect on the refractive index changes in InGaN SQD: Internal constitution and size effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [Special Mathematics, CPGE Rabat (Morocco); LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar El Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); A John Peter [P.G. & Research Department of Physics, Goverment Arts and Science College, Melur 625106, Madurai (India)

    2015-04-01

    In the present paper, internal composition and size-dependent threshold pump intensity effects on on-center impurity-related linear, third-order nonlinear and total refractive index changes are investigated in wurtzite (In,Ga)N/GaN unstrained spherical quantum dot. The calculation is performed within the framework of parabolic band and single band effective-mass approximations using a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan (HFR) method. According to the results obtained, (i) a significant red-shift (blue shift) is obtained as the dot size (potential barrier) increases and (ii) a threshold optical pump intensity depending strongly on the size and the internal composition is obtained which constitutes the limit between two behaviors.

  11. [Effect of bone marrow mediator myelopeptides on the summation-threshold index and behavioral reactions of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, A M; Barashkov, G N; Zakharova, L A

    1984-12-01

    Transmitter peptides having immunostimulant and endorphine-like properties were isolated from supernatant of medullary cell culture. Bioregulatory peptides were called myelopeptides. Myelopeptides provoked changes of the summation-threshold index in rats, which augmented in time. These changes pointed to the realization of the analgetic effect of myelopeptides via the spinal-stem structures of the central nervous system. Having a remarkable analgesic effect myelopeptides administered in the doses tested did not produce any action on the behavioral responses. The latter circumstance makes them differ from narcotic analgesics and known endorphines.

  12. Citation Indexing and Threshold Concepts: An Essential Ah-Ha in Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jeremy L.; Tucker, Virginia M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding information organization is a key component to navigating digital library environments as an information professional. While traditionally thought of within the areas of assessment and evaluation, citation indexing is another form of organization and navigation, and learning about it can transform one's knowledge of the information…

  13. Flood and landslide warning based on rainfall thresholds and soil moisture indexes: the HEWS (Hydrohazards Early Warning System for Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brigandì

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the paper is to present a flood and landslide early warning system, named HEWS (Hydrohazards Early Warning System, specifically developed for the Civil Protection Department of Sicily, based on the combined use of rainfall thresholds, soil moisture modelling and quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF. The warning system is referred to 9 different Alert Zones in which Sicily has been divided into and based on a threshold system of three different increasing critical levels: ordinary, moderate and high. In this system, for early flood warning, a Soil Moisture Accounting (SMA model provides daily soil moisture conditions, which allow to select a specific set of three rainfall thresholds, one for each critical level considered, to be used for issue the alert bulletin. Wetness indexes, representative of the soil moisture conditions of a catchment, are calculated using a simple, spatially-lumped rainfall–streamflow model, based on the SCS-CN method, and on the unit hydrograph approach, that require daily observed and/or predicted rainfall, and temperature data as input. For the calibration of this model daily continuous time series of rainfall, streamflow and air temperature data are used. An event based lumped rainfall–runoff model has been, instead, used for the derivation of the rainfall thresholds for each catchment in Sicily characterised by an area larger than 50 km2. In particular, a Kinematic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph based lumped rainfall–runoff model with the SCS-CN routine for net rainfall was developed for this purpose. For rainfall-induced shallow landslide warning, empirical rainfall thresholds provided by Gariano et al. (2015 have been included in the system. They were derived on an empirical basis starting from a catalogue of 265 shallow landslides in Sicily in the period 2002–2012. Finally, Delft-FEWS operational forecasting platform has been applied to link input data, SMA model and rainfall

  14. Shelter Index and a simple wind speed parameter to characterize vegetation control of sand transport threshold and Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, J. A.; Nield, J. M.; Nickling, W. G.; Furtak-Cole, E.

    2014-12-01

    Wind erosion and dust emissions occur in many dryland environments from a range of surfaces with different types and amounts of vegetation. Understanding how vegetation modulates these processes remains a research challenge. Here we present results from a study that examines the relationship between an index of shelter (SI=distance from a point to the nearest upwind vegetation/vegetation height) and particle threshold expressed as the ratio of wind speed measured at 0.45 times the mean plant height divided by the wind speed at 17 m when saltation commences, and saltation flux. The results are used to evaluate SI as a parameter to characterize the influence of vegetation on local winds and sediment transport conditions. Wind speed, wind direction, saltation activity and point saltation flux were measured at 35 locations in defined test areas (~13,000 m2) in two vegetation communities: mature streets of mesquite covered nebkhas and incipient nebkhas dominated by low mesquite plants. Measurement positions represent the most open areas, and hence those places most susceptible to wind erosion among the vegetation elements. Shelter index was calculated for each measurement position for each 10° wind direction bin using digital elevation models for each site acquired using terrestrial laser scanning. SI can show the susceptibility to wind erosion at different time scales, i.e., event, seasonal, or annual, but in a supply-limited system it can fail to define actual flux amounts due to a lack of knowledge of the distribution of sediment across the surface of interest with respect to the patterns of SI.

  15. Sooting limit in counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene/propane fuels and implication to threshold soot index

    KAUST Repository

    Joo, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Sooting limits in counterflow diffusion flames of propane/ethylene fuels have been studied experimentally using a light scattering technique, including the effects of dilution, fuel mixing, and strain rate. The results are discussed in view of the threshold soot index (TSI). In soot-formation (SF) flames, where the flame is located on the oxidizer side of the stagnation plane, the sooting limit depends critically on fuel type and subsequently on flame temperature. The sooting limit has a non-linear dependence on the fuel-mixing ratio, which is similar to the non-linear mixing rule for TSI observed experimentally in rich premixed flames, where soot oxidation is absent for both SF and rich premixed flames. In soot-formation-oxidation (SFO) flames, where the flame is located on the fuel side, the sooting limit depends critically on flame temperature, while it is relatively independent on fuel type. This result suggests a linear mixing rule for sooting limits in SFO flames, which is similar to the TSI behavior for coflow diffusion flames. Soot oxidation takes place for both types of flames. The aerodynamic strain effect on the sooting limits has also been studied and an appreciable influence has been observed. Under sooting conditions, soot volume fraction was measured using a light extinction technique. The soot loadings in SF flames of the mixture fuels demonstrated a synergistic effect, i.e., soot production increased for certain mixture fuels as compared to the respective singlecomponent fuels. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

  16. A NEW MULTI-SPECTRAL THRESHOLD NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE WATER INDEX (MST-NDWI WATER EXTRACTION METHOD – A CASE STUDY IN YANHE WATERSHED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate remote sensing water extraction is one of the primary tasks of watershed ecological environment study. Since the Yanhe water system has typical characteristics of a small water volume and narrow river channel, which leads to the difficulty for conventional water extraction methods such as Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI. A new Multi-Spectral Threshold segmentation of the NDWI (MST-NDWI water extraction method is proposed to achieve the accurate water extraction in Yanhe watershed. In the MST-NDWI method, the spectral characteristics of water bodies and typical backgrounds on the Landsat/TM images have been evaluated in Yanhe watershed. The multi-spectral thresholds (TM1, TM4, TM5 based on maximum-likelihood have been utilized before NDWI water extraction to realize segmentation for a division of built-up lands and small linear rivers. With the proposed method, a water map is extracted from the Landsat/TM images in 2010 in China. An accuracy assessment is conducted to compare the proposed method with the conventional water indexes such as NDWI, Modified NDWI (MNDWI, Enhanced Water Index (EWI, and Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI. The result shows that the MST-NDWI method generates better water extraction accuracy in Yanhe watershed and can effectively diminish the confusing background objects compared to the conventional water indexes. The MST-NDWI method integrates NDWI and Multi-Spectral Threshold segmentation algorithms, with richer valuable information and remarkable results in accurate water extraction in Yanhe watershed.

  17. The relationship between high-frequency pure-tone hearing loss, hearing in noise test (HINT) thresholds, and the articulation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermiglio, Andrew J; Soli, Sigfrid D; Freed, Daniel J; Fisher, Laurel M

    2012-01-01

    Speech recognition in noise testing has been conducted at least since the 1940s (Dickson et al, 1946). The ability to recognize speech in noise is a distinct function of the auditory system (Plomp, 1978). According to Kochkin (2002), difficulty recognizing speech in noise is the primary complaint of hearing aid users. However, speech recognition in noise testing has not found widespread use in the field of audiology (Mueller, 2003; Strom, 2003; Tannenbaum and Rosenfeld, 1996). The audiogram has been used as the "gold standard" for hearing ability. However, the audiogram is a poor indicator of speech recognition in noise ability. This study investigates the relationship between pure-tone thresholds, the articulation index, and the ability to recognize speech in quiet and in noise. Pure-tone thresholds were measured for audiometric frequencies 250-6000 Hz. Pure-tone threshold groups were created. These included a normal threshold group and slight, mild, severe, and profound high-frequency pure-tone threshold groups. Speech recognition thresholds in quiet and in noise were obtained using the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) (Nilsson et al, 1994; Vermiglio, 2008). The articulation index was determined by using Pavlovic's method with pure-tone thresholds (Pavlovic, 1989, 1991). Two hundred seventy-eight participants were tested. All participants were native speakers of American English. Sixty-three of the original participants were removed in order to create groups of participants with normal low-frequency pure-tone thresholds and relatively symmetrical high-frequency pure-tone threshold groups. The final set of 215 participants had a mean age of 33 yr with a range of 17-59 yr. Pure-tone threshold data were collected using the Hughson-Weslake procedure. Speech recognition data were collected using a Windows-based HINT software system. Statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive, correlational, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) statistics. The

  18. Evaluation of the most suitable threshold value for modelling snow glacier melt through T- index approach: the case study of Forni Glacier (Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Antonella; Maugeri, Maurizio; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina

    2014-05-01

    Glacier melt occurs whenever the surface temperature is null (273.15 K) and the net energy budget is positive. These conditions can be assessed by analyzing meteorological and energy data acquired by a supraglacial Automatic Weather Station (AWS). In the case this latter is not present at the glacier surface the assessment of actual melting conditions and the evaluation of melt amount is difficult and degree-day (also named T-index) models are applied. These approaches require the choice of a correct temperature threshold. In fact, melt does not necessarily occur at daily air temperatures higher than 273.15 K, since it is determined by the energy budget which in turn is only indirectly affected by air temperature. This is the case of the late spring period when ablation processes start at the glacier surface thus progressively reducing snow thickness. In this study, to detect the most indicative air temperature threshold witnessing melt conditions in the April-June period, we analyzed air temperature data recorded from 2006 to 2012 by a supraglacial AWS (at 2631 m a.s.l.) on the ablation tongue of the Forni Glacier (Italy), and by a weather station located nearby the studied glacier (at Bormio, 1225 m a.s.l.). Moreover we evaluated the glacier energy budget (which gives the actual melt, Senese et al., 2012) and the snow water equivalent values during this time-frame. Then the ablation amount was estimated both from the surface energy balance (MEB from supraglacial AWS data) and from degree-day method (MT-INDEX, in this latter case applying the mean tropospheric lapse rate to temperature data acquired at Bormio changing the air temperature threshold) and the results were compared. We found that the mean tropospheric lapse rate permits a good and reliable reconstruction of daily glacier air temperature conditions and the major uncertainty in the computation of snow melt from degree-day models is driven by the choice of an appropriate air temperature threshold. Then

  19. A Proposed Legislative Bill to Economically Index the Small Purchase Thresholds Within the Federal Government Procurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    to others. IF, For example, avocados are two dollars each, a consumer may choose to have cucumber, at twenty-Five cents each, in his salad instead...in 1986, after the revision of the home ownership aspect of the CPI in 1983. The CPI is a Familiar index and despite its overly general market basket...loans by the government to enable producers to continue to produce items whose market price is less than the production price. In other words, commodity

  20. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  1. The Strain Index (SI) and Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for Hand Activity Level (HAL): risk of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A; Kapellusch, J; Hegmann, K; Wertsch, J; Merryweather, A; Deckow-Schaefer, G; Malloy, E J

    2012-01-01

    A cohort of 536 workers was enrolled from 10 diverse manufacturing facilities and was followed monthly for six years. Job physical exposures were individually measured. Worker demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, current musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) were obtained. Point and lifetime prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) at baseline (symptoms + abnormal NCS) were 10.3% and 19.8%. During follow-up, there were 35 new CTS cases (left, right or both hands). Factors predicting development of CTS included: job physical exposure (American conference of governmental industrial hygienists Threshold Limit Value (ACGIH TLV) for Hand Activity Level (HAL) and the Strain Index (SI)), age, BMI, other MSDs, inflammatory arthritis, gardening outside of work and feelings of depression. In the adjusted models, the TLV for HAL and the SI were both significant per unit increase in exposure with hazard ratios (HR) increasing up to a maximum of 5.4 (p = 0.05) and 5.3 (p = 0.03), respectively; however, similar to other reports, both suggested lower risk at higher exposures. Data suggest that the TLV for HAL and the SI are useful metrics for estimating exposure to biomechanical stressors. This study was conducted to determine how well the TLV for HAL and the SI predict risk of CTS using a prospective cohort design with survival analysis. Both the TLV for HAL and the SI were found to predict risk of CTS when adjusted for relevant covariates.

  2. Thresholds for pulse wave velocity, urine albumin creatinine ratio and left ventricular mass index using SCORE, Framingham and ESH/ESC risk charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas Berend; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine Willum

    2012-01-01

    Markers of subclinical target organ damage (TOD) increase cardiovascular (CV) risk prediction beyond traditional risk factors. We wanted to establish thresholds for three markers of TOD based on absolute CV risk in different risk chart categories....

  3. Impact of heat stress on conception rate of dairy cows in the moderate climate considering different temperature-humidity index thresholds, periods relative to breeding, and heat load indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, L K; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this retrospective study were to investigate the relationship between temperature-humidity index (THI) and conception rate (CR) of lactating dairy cows, to estimate a threshold for this relationship, and to identify periods of exposure to heat stress relative to breeding in an area of moderate climate. In addition, we compared three different heat load indices related to CR: mean THI, maximum THI, and number of hours above the mean THI threshold. The THI threshold for the influence of heat stress on CR was 73. It was statistically chosen based on the observed relationship between the mean THI at the day of breeding and the resulting CR. Negative effects of heat stress, however, were already apparent at lower levels of THI, and 1 hour of mean THI of 73 or more decreased the CR significantly. The CR of lactating dairy cows was negatively affected by heat stress both before and after the day of breeding. The greatest negative impact of heat stress on CR was observed 21 to 1 day before breeding. When the mean THI was 73 or more in this period, CR decreased from 31% to 12%. Compared with the average maximum THI and the total number of hours above a threshold of more than or 9 hours, the mean THI was the most sensitive heat load index relating to CR. These results indicate that the CR of dairy cows raised in the moderate climates is highly affected by heat stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 河流水生态修复阈值界定指标体系初步构建%The preliminary structure of definition index system for river water ecological restoration threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于鲁冀; 吕晓燕; 宋思远; 梁静; 王小青

    2013-01-01

    pollution load, there were very few study on the threshold of ecological restoration. The studies on index system of river ecological restoration threshold had yet appeared. By analyzing the importance of threshold in river ecological restoration, it pointed out that the determination of the river restoration threshold was the basis of degraded river ecological restoration and provided a scientific basis and decision support for the area to restore the river ecosystem. What’s more, it was urgent needs for the development of the water environment management. On the basis, it put forward the river ecological restoration threshold concept which was to define to which degradation extent should the river ecological systems need to be restored according to river ecosystem natural properties and functions of river and needs of regional socio-economic development, If the degree of degradation were more than the ecological restoration threshold, it will need manual restoration. Otherwise, it will not need restoration. Through summarizing index system construction principles, screening methods and threshold calculation methods, this paper put forward the technical route of river ecological restoration threshold. Combining frequency analysis method with theory analysis method, index system and threshold calculation method system of river ecological restoration threshold were initially built on six elements (physical structure, hydrological conditions, water quality, aquatic organisms, stream function and social economic) which influenced river restoration. This laid the foundation for next quantitative screening and threshold calculation of river ecological restoration threshold index system.

  5. Wine grape cultivar influence on the performance of models that predict the lower threshold canopy temperature of a water stress index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The calculation of a thermal based Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) requires an estimate of canopy temperature under non-water stressed conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different wine grape cultivars on the performance of models that predict canopy temperature non...

  6. Diagnostic thresholds for quantitative REM sleep phasic burst duration, phasic and tonic muscle activity, and REM atonia index in REM sleep behavior disorder with and without comorbid obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Duwell, Ethan J; Timm, Paul C; Sandness, David J; Boeve, Bradley F; Silber, Michael H

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to determine whether phasic burst duration and conventional REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) methods could accurately diagnose REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients with comorbid OSA. We visually analyzed RSWA phasic burst durations, phasic, "any," and tonic muscle activity by 3-s mini-epochs, phasic activity by 30-s (AASM rules) epochs, and conducted automated REM atonia index (RAI) analysis. Group RSWA metrics were analyzed and regression models fit, with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determining the best diagnostic cutoff thresholds for RBD. Both split-night and full-night polysomnographic studies were analyzed. N/A. Parkinson disease (PD)-RBD (n = 20) and matched controls with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) OSA. N/A. All mean RSWA phasic burst durations and muscle activities were higher in PD-RBD patients than controls (P sleep without atonia diagnostic thresholds applicable in Parkinson disease-REM sleep behavior disorder (PD-RBD) patient populations with comorbid OSA that may be useful toward distinguishing PD-RBD in typical outpatient populations. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Re-assess Vector Indices Threshold as an Early Warning Tool for Predicting Dengue Epidemic in a Dengue Non-endemic Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong-Shue Chang

    Full Text Available Despite dengue dynamics being driven by complex interactions between human hosts, mosquito vectors and viruses that are influenced by climate factors, an operational model that will enable health authorities to anticipate the outbreak risk in a dengue non-endemic area has not been developed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the temporal relationship between meteorological variables, entomological surveillance indices and confirmed dengue cases; and to establish the threshold for entomological surveillance indices including three mosquito larval indices [Breteau (BI, Container (CI and House indices (HI] and one adult index (AI as an early warning tool for dengue epidemic.Epidemiological, entomological and meteorological data were analyzed from 2005 to 2012 in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. The successive waves of dengue outbreaks with different magnitudes were recorded in Kaohsiung City, and involved a dominant serotype during each epidemic. The annual indigenous dengue cases usually started from May to June and reached a peak in October to November. Vector data from 2005-2012 showed that the peak of the adult mosquito population was followed by a peak in the corresponding dengue activity with a lag period of 1-2 months. Therefore, we focused the analysis on the data from May to December and the high risk district, where the inspection of the immature and mature mosquitoes was carried out on a weekly basis and about 97.9% dengue cases occurred. The two-stage model was utilized here to estimate the risk and time-lag effect of annual dengue outbreaks in Taiwan. First, Poisson regression was used to select the optimal subset of variables and time-lags for predicting the number of dengue cases, and the final results of the multivariate analysis were selected based on the smallest AIC value. Next, each vector index models with selected variables were subjected to multiple logistic regression models to examine the accuracy of predicting the

  8. Optimization Problems on Threshold Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nechita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades, different types of decompositions have been processed in the field of graph theory. Among these we mention: decompositions based on the additivity of some characteristics of the graph, decompositions where the adjacency law between the subsets of the partition is known, decompositions where the subgraph induced by every subset of the partition must have predeterminate properties, as well as combinations of such decompositions. In this paper we characterize threshold graphs using the weakly decomposition, determine: density and stability number, Wiener index and Wiener polynomial for threshold graphs.

  9. CARA Risk Assessment Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Warning remediation threshold (Red threshold): Pc level at which warnings are issued, and active remediation considered and usually executed. Analysis threshold (Green to Yellow threshold): Pc level at which analysis of event is indicated, including seeking additional information if warranted. Post-remediation threshold: Pc level to which remediation maneuvers are sized in order to achieve event remediation and obviate any need for immediate follow-up maneuvers. Maneuver screening threshold: Pc compliance level for routine maneuver screenings (more demanding than regular Red threshold due to additional maneuver uncertainty).

  10. Threshold quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Yuuki; Okamoto, Tatsuaki; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept of threshold collaborative unitary transformation or threshold quantum cryptography, which is a kind of quantum version of threshold cryptography. Threshold quantum cryptography states that classical shared secrets are distributed to several parties and a subset of them, whose number is greater than a threshold, collaborates to compute a quantum cryptographic function, while keeping each share secretly inside each party. The shared secrets are reusable if no cheating is detected. As a concrete example of this concept, we show a distributed protocol (with threshold) of conjugate coding

  11. Theory of threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2002-01-01

    Theory of Threshold Phenomena in Quantum Scattering is developed in terms of Reduced Scattering Matrix. Relationships of different types of threshold anomalies both to nuclear reaction mechanisms and to nuclear reaction models are established. Magnitude of threshold effect is related to spectroscopic factor of zero-energy neutron state. The Theory of Threshold Phenomena, based on Reduced Scattering Matrix, does establish relationships between different types of threshold effects and nuclear reaction mechanisms: the cusp and non-resonant potential scattering, s-wave threshold anomaly and compound nucleus resonant scattering, p-wave anomaly and quasi-resonant scattering. A threshold anomaly related to resonant or quasi resonant scattering is enhanced provided the neutron threshold state has large spectroscopic amplitude. The Theory contains, as limit cases, Cusp Theories and also results of different nuclear reactions models as Charge Exchange, Weak Coupling, Bohr and Hauser-Feshbach models. (author)

  12. THE MAYA INDEX ANALYSIS ON DENGUE PATIENT HOUSEHOLD IN BANJAR CITY, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandji Wibawa Dhewantara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu faktor risiko kejadian DBD di antaranya adalah ketersediaan kontainer tempat perkembangbiakan vektor. Tahun2012 dilakukan survei observasional analitik dengan pendekatan potong lintang pada 100 rumah penderita DBD di KotaBanjar. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui tingkat risiko penularan DBD melalui pendekatan analisis Maya Index. Datayang dikumpulkan meliputi jenis, jumlah kontainer, dan jumlah kontainer mengandung larva Aedes sp. Kontainer yangditemukan dikategorikan menjadi Controllable Container dan Disposable Container untuk mengetahui Breeding Risk Index(BRI dan Hygene Risk Index (HRI. Analisis deskriptif digunakan untuk mengetahui proporsi jumlah dan jenis kontainer.Maya index diperoleh dari hasil pengkategorian rasio BRI dan HRI. Container Index dan Breteau Index dihitung untukmengetahui kepadatan larva. Hasil pengamatan ditemukan sebanyak 915 kontainer yang terdiri dari jenis controllablecontainers (93% dan disposable containers (7%. Jenis kontainer yang dominan adalah tempayan tanah liat (15,52%, bakair (14,35%, pot bunga (48,47%, dan penampung air pada dispenser (7%. Larva Aedes sp. banyak ditemukan pada bak air(48,57% dan penampung air pada dispenser (22,86%. Sementara, botol bekas (35,3% dan kaleng bekas (26,1%merupakan jenis disposable container yang paling banyak ditemukan. Analisis menunjukkan sebagian besar rumahberkategori BRI tinggi (93% dan HRI rendah (92%. Berdasarkan Maya Index, rumah penderita termasuk dalam kategoririsiko sedang (97% dengan CI dan BI masing-masing sebesar 3,85% dan 35. Studi ini menyimpulkan bahwa sebagian besarrumah penderita masih memiliki potensi penularan infeksi virus Dengue.Kata kunci: DBD, risiko perkembangbiakan larva, kontainer, indeks risiko kebersihan, Maya Index

  13. Threshold Signature Schemes Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to an investigation of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, elliptic curves and bilinear pairings were examined. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, the availability of practical usage of threshold schemes in mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency was shown. The topics of further investigation were given and it could reduce a level of counterfeit electronic documents signed by a group of users.

  14. Particles near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Willenbrock, S.

    1993-01-01

    We propose returning to the definition of the width of a particle in terms of the pole in the particle's propagator. Away from thresholds, this definition of width is equivalent to the standard perturbative definition, up to next-to-leading order; however, near a threshold, the two definitions differ significantly. The width as defined by the pole position provides more information in the threshold region than the standard perturbative definition and, in contrast with the perturbative definition, does not vanish when a two-particle s-wave threshold is approached from below

  15. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  16. Double Photoionization Near Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehlitz, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The threshold region of the double-photoionization cross section is of particular interest because both ejected electrons move slowly in the Coulomb field of the residual ion. Near threshold both electrons have time to interact with each other and with the residual ion. Also, different theoretical models compete to describe the double-photoionization cross section in the threshold region. We have investigated that cross section for lithium and beryllium and have analyzed our data with respect to the latest results in the Coulomb-dipole theory. We find that our data support the idea of a Coulomb-dipole interaction.

  17. Thresholds in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Hofmann, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interpretations of biological radiation effects frequently use the word 'threshold'. The meaning of this word is explored together with its relationship to the fundamental character of radiation effects and to the question of perception. It is emphasised that although the existence of either a dose or an LET threshold can never be settled by experimental radiobiological investigations, it may be argued on fundamental statistical grounds that for all statistical processes, and especially where the number of observed events is small, the concept of a threshold is logically invalid. (U.K.)

  18. Regional Seismic Threshold Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kvaerna, Tormod

    2006-01-01

    ... model to be used for predicting the travel times of regional phases. We have applied these attenuation relations to develop and assess a regional threshold monitoring scheme for selected subregions of the European Arctic...

  19. 20 CFR 418.1105 - What is the threshold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the threshold? 418.1105 Section 418.1105 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part B Income... in the Consumer Price Index rounded to the nearest $1,000. CMS will publish the threshold amounts...

  20. Threshold guidance update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials must be handled as radioactive waste and which may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste at its sites. Waste above this concentration level would be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. Last years' activities (1984) included the development of a threshold guidance dose, the development of threshold concentrations corresponding to the guidance dose, the development of supporting documentation, review by a technical peer review committee, and review by the DOE community. As a result of the comments, areas have been identified for more extensive analysis, including an alternative basis for selection of the guidance dose and the development of quality assurance guidelines. Development of quality assurance guidelines will provide a reasonable basis for determining that a given waste stream qualifies as a threshold waste stream and can then be the basis for a more extensive cost-benefit analysis. The threshold guidance and supporting documentation will be revised, based on the comments received. The revised documents will be provided to DOE by early November. DOE-HQ has indicated that the revised documents will be available for review by DOE field offices and their contractors

  1. Near threshold fatigue testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D. C.; Strum, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) behavior provides a basis for the design and evaluation of components subjected to high cycle fatigue. Typically, the near-threshold fatigue regime describes crack growth rates below approximately 10(exp -5) mm/cycle (4 x 10(exp -7) inch/cycle). One such evaluation was recently performed for the binary alloy U-6Nb. The procedures developed for this evaluation are described in detail to provide a general test method for near-threshold FCGR testing. In particular, techniques for high-resolution measurements of crack length performed in-situ through a direct current, potential drop (DCPD) apparatus, and a method which eliminates crack closure effects through the use of loading cycles with constant maximum stress intensity are described.

  2. Threshold factorization redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul

    2018-05-01

    We reanalyze the factorization theorems for the Drell-Yan process and for deep inelastic scattering near threshold, as constructed in the framework of the soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), from a new, consistent perspective. In order to formulate the factorization near threshold in SCET, we should include an additional degree of freedom with small energy, collinear to the beam direction. The corresponding collinear-soft mode is included to describe the parton distribution function (PDF) near threshold. The soft function is modified by subtracting the contribution of the collinear-soft modes in order to avoid double counting on the overlap region. As a result, the proper soft function becomes infrared finite, and all the factorized parts are free of rapidity divergence. Furthermore, the separation of the relevant scales in each factorized part becomes manifest. We apply the same idea to the dihadron production in e+e- annihilation near threshold, and show that the resultant soft function is also free of infrared and rapidity divergences.

  3. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  4. THRESHOLD PARAMETER OF THE EXPECTED LOSSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Arnerić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of extreme value analysis is to quantify the probabilistic behavior of unusually large losses using only extreme values above some high threshold rather than using all of the data which gives better fit to tail distribution in comparison to traditional methods with assumption of normality. In our case we estimate market risk using daily returns of the CROBEX index at the Zagreb Stock Exchange. Therefore, it’s necessary to define the excess distribution above some threshold, i.e. Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD is used as much more reliable than the normal distribution due to the fact that gives the accent on the extreme values. Parameters of GPD distribution will be estimated using maximum likelihood method (MLE. The contribution of this paper is to specify threshold which is large enough so that GPD approximation valid but low enough so that a sufficient number of observations are available for a precise fit.

  5. Norm based Threshold Selection for Fault Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well as the uncertain FDI...... problem are considered. Based on this analysis, a performance index based on norms of the involved transfer functions is given. The performance index allows us also to optimize the structure of the fault detection filter directly...

  6. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  7. Hadron production near threshold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Final state interaction effects in pp → pΛK+ and pd → 3He η reactions are explored near threshold to study the sensitivity of the cross-sections to the pΛ potential and the ηN scattering matrix. The final state scattering wave functions between Λ and p and η and 3He are described rigorously. The Λ production is ...

  8. Casualties and threshold effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.W.; National Cancer Inst., Bethesda

    1988-01-01

    Radiation effects like cancer are denoted as casualties. Other radiation effects occur almost in everyone when the radiation dose is sufficiently high. One then speaks of radiation effects with a threshold dose. In this article the author puts his doubt about this classification of radiation effects. He argues that some effects of exposure to radiation do not fit in this classification. (H.W.). 19 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Resonance phenomena near thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, E.; Mueller, M.; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden

    1995-12-01

    The trapping effect is investigated close to the elastic threshold. The nucleus is described as an open quantum mechanical many-body system embedded in the continuum of decay channels. An ensemble of compound nucleus states with both discrete and resonance states is investigated in an energy-dependent formalism. It is shown that the discrete states can trap the resonance ones and also that the discrete states can directly influence the scattering cross section. (orig.)

  10. Intermediate structure and threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2004-01-01

    The Intermediate Structure, evidenced through microstructures of the neutron strength function, is reflected in open reaction channels as fluctuations in excitation function of nuclear threshold effects. The intermediate state supporting both neutron strength function and nuclear threshold effect is a micro-giant neutron threshold state. (author)

  11. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  12. Crossing the Petawatt threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, M.

    1996-01-01

    A revolutionary new laser called the Petawatt, developed by Lawrence Livermore researchers after an intensive three-year development effort, has produced more than 1,000 trillion (open-quotes petaclose quotes) watts of power, a world record. By crossing the petawatt threshold, the extraordinarily powerful laser heralds a new age in laser research. Lasers that provide a petawatt of power or more in a picosecond may make it possible to achieve fusion using significantly less energy than currently envisioned, through a novel Livermore concept called open-quotes fast ignition.close quotes The petawatt laser will also enable researchers to study the fundamental properties of matter, thereby aiding the Department of Energy's Stockpile Stewardship efforts and opening entirely new physical regimes to study. The technology developed for the Petawatt has also provided several spinoff technologies, including a new approach to laser material processing

  13. Crossing the threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, John; Tambasco, Lucas

    2017-11-01

    First, we summarize the circumstances in which chaotic pilot-wave dynamics gives rise to quantum-like statistical behavior. For ``closed'' systems, in which the droplet is confined to a finite domain either by boundaries or applied forces, quantum-like features arise when the persistence time of the waves exceeds the time required for the droplet to cross its domain. Second, motivated by the similarities between this hydrodynamic system and stochastic electrodynamics, we examine the behavior of a bouncing droplet above the Faraday threshold, where a stochastic element is introduced into the drop dynamics by virtue of its interaction with a background Faraday wave field. With a view to extending the dynamical range of pilot-wave systems to capture more quantum-like features, we consider a generalized theoretical framework for stochastic pilot-wave dynamics in which the relative magnitudes of the drop-generated pilot-wave field and a stochastic background field may be varied continuously. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF through their CMMI and DMS divisions.

  14. Albania - Thresholds I and II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — From 2006 to 2011, the government of Albania (GOA) received two Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Programs totaling $29.6 million. Albania received...

  15. Threshold Concepts and Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lori; Brunetti, Korey; Hofer, Amy R.

    2011-01-01

    What do we teach when we teach information literacy in higher education? This paper describes a pedagogical approach to information literacy that helps instructors focus content around transformative learning thresholds. The threshold concept framework holds promise for librarians because it grounds the instructor in the big ideas and underlying…

  16. Walkability Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of the built environment that influence the likelihood of walking being used as a mode of travel. The Walkability Index is based on the EPA's previous data product, the Smart Location Database (SLD). Block group data from the SLD was the only input into the Walkability Index, and consisted of four variables from the SLD weighted in a formula to create the new Walkability Index. This dataset shares the SLD's block group boundary definitions from Census 2010. The methodology describing the process of creating the Walkability Index can be found in the documents located at ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/OP/WalkabilityIndex.zip. You can also learn more about the Smart Location Database at https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/OP/Smart_Location_DB_v02b.zip.

  17. Femtosecond laser damage threshold and nonlinear characterization in bulk transparent SiC materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DesAutels, G. Logan; Finet, Marc; Ristich, Scott; Whitaker, Matt; Brewer, Chris; Juhl, Shane; Walker, Mark; Powers, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Semi-insulating and conducting SiC crystalline transparent substrates were studied after being processed by femtosecond (fs) laser radiation (780 nm at 160 fs). Z-scan and damage threshold experiments were performed on both SiC bulk materials to determine each sample's nonlinear and threshold parameters. 'Damage' in this text refers to an index of refraction modification as observed visually under an optical microscope. In addition, a study was performed to understand the damage threshold as a function of numerical aperture. Presented here for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, are the damage threshold, nonlinear index of refraction, and nonlinear absorption measured values

  18. Is the diagnostic threshold for bulimia nervosa clinically meaningful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Danielle A N; Bohrer, Brittany K; Forbush, Kelsie T

    2018-01-01

    The DSM-5 differentiates full- and sub-threshold bulimia nervosa (BN) according to average weekly frequencies of binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. This study was the first to evaluate the modified frequency criterion for BN published in the DSM-5. The purpose of this study was to test whether community-recruited adults (N=125; 83.2% women) with current full-threshold (n=77) or sub-threshold BN (n=48) differed in comorbid psychopathology and eating disorder (ED) illness duration, symptom severity, and clinical impairment. Participants completed the Clinical Impairment Assessment and participated in semi-structured clinical interviews of ED- and non-ED psychopathology. Differences between the sub- and full-threshold BN groups were assessed using MANOVA and Chi-square analyses. ED illness duration, age-of-onset, body mass index (BMI), alcohol and drug misuse, and the presence of current and lifetime mood or anxiety disorders did not differ between participants with sub- and full-threshold BN. Participants with full-threshold BN had higher levels of clinical impairment and weight concern than those with sub-threshold BN. However, minimal clinically important difference analyses suggested that statistically significant differences between participants with sub- and full-threshold BN on clinical impairment and weight concern were not clinically significant. In conclusion, sub-threshold BN did not differ from full-threshold BN in clinically meaningful ways. Future studies are needed to identify an improved frequency criterion for BN that better distinguishes individuals in ways that will more validly inform prognosis and effective treatment planning for BN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  20. Music effect on pain threshold evaluated with current perception threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Music relieves anxiety and psychotic tension. This effect of music is applied to surgical operation in the hospital and dental office. It is still unclear whether this music effect is only limited to the psychological aspect but not to the physical aspect or whether its music effect is influenced by the mood or emotion of audience. To elucidate these issues, we evaluated the music effect on pain threshold by current perception threshold (CPT) and profile of mood states (POMC) test. METHODS: Healthy 30 subjects (12 men, 18 women, 25-49 years old, mean age 34.9) were tested. (1)After POMC test, all subjects were evaluated pain threshold with CPT by Neurometer (Radionics, USA) under 6 conditions, silence, listening to the slow tempo classic music, nursery music, hard rock music, classic paino music and relaxation music with 30 seconds interval. (2)After Stroop color word test as the stresser, pain threshold was evaluated with CPT under 2 conditions, silence and listening to the slow tempo classic music. RESULTS: Under litening to the music, CPT sores increased, especially 2 000 Hz level related with compression, warm and pain sensation. Type of music, preference of music and stress also affected CPT score. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the concentration on the music raise the pain threshold and that stress and mood influence the music effect on pain threshold.

  1. Parton distributions with threshold resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvini, Marco; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca; Ubiali, Maria; Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Hartland, Nathan P.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a set of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in which fixed-order NLO and NNLO calculations are supplemented with soft-gluon (threshold) resummation up to NLL and NNLL accuracy respectively, suitable for use in conjunction with any QCD calculation in which threshold resummation is included at the level of partonic cross sections. These resummed PDF sets, based on the NNPDF3.0 analysis, are extracted from deep-inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan, and top quark pair production data, for which resummed calculations can be consistently used. We find that, close to threshold, the inclusion of resummed PDFs can partially compensate the enhancement in resummed matrix elements, leading to resummed hadronic cross-sections closer to the fixed-order calculation. On the other hand, far from threshold, resummed PDFs reduce to their fixed-order counterparts. Our results demonstrate the need for a consistent use of resummed PDFs in resummed calculations.

  2. Conceptions of nuclear threshold status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quester, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews some alternative definitions of nuclear threshold status. Each of them is important, and major analytical confusions would result if one sense of the term is mistaken for another. The motives for nations entering into such threshold status are a blend of civilian and military gains, and of national interests versus parochial or bureaucratic interests. A portion of the rationale for threshold status emerges inevitably from the pursuit of economic goals, and another portion is made more attraction by the derives of the domestic political process. Yet the impact on international security cannot be dismissed, especially where conflicts among the states remain real. Among the military or national security motives are basic deterrence, psychological warfare, war-fighting and, more generally, national prestige. In the end, as the threshold phenomenon is assayed for lessons concerning the role of nuclear weapons more generally in international relations and security, one might conclude that threshold status and outright proliferation coverage to a degree in the motives for all of the states involved and in the advantages attained. As this paper has illustrated, nuclear threshold status is more subtle and more ambiguous than outright proliferation, and it takes considerable time to sort out the complexities. Yet the world has now had a substantial amount of time to deal with this ambiguous status, and this may tempt more states to exploit it

  3. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  4. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  5. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  6. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a granitic terrain of southern India using factor analysis and GIS. 1059. Radhakrishna M see Dev Sheena V .... Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic. Certainty Factor ... index via entropy-difference analysis. 687. Yidana Sandow ...

  7. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  8. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Defining indoor heat thresholds for health in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mindy; Carmichael, Catriona; Murray, Virginia; Dengel, Andy; Swainson, Michael

    2013-05-01

    language and an index for indoor heat and health thresholds in a changing climate.

  10. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  11. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  12. Doubler system quench detection threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuepke, K.; Kuchnir, M.; Martin, P.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental study leading to the determination of the sensitivity needed for protecting the Fermilab Doubler from damage during quenches is presented. The quench voltage thresholds involved were obtained from measurements made on Doubler cable of resistance x temperature and voltage x time during quenches under several currents and from data collected during operation of the Doubler Quench Protection System as implemented in the B-12 string of 20 magnets. At 4kA, a quench voltage threshold in excess of 5.OV will limit the peak Doubler cable temperature to 452K for quenches originating in the magnet coils whereas a threshold of 0.5V is required for quenches originating outside of coils

  13. Thermotactile perception thresholds measurement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Setsuo; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of posture, push force and rate of temperature change on thermotactile thresholds and to clarify suitable measuring conditions for Japanese people. Thermotactile (warm and cold) thresholds on the right middle finger were measured with an HVLab thermal aesthesiometer. Subjects were eight healthy male Japanese students. The effects of posture in measurement were examined in the posture of a straight hand and forearm placed on a support, the same posture without a support, and the fingers and hand flexed at the wrist with the elbow placed on a desk. The finger push force applied to the applicator of the thermal aesthesiometer was controlled at a 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 N. The applicator temperature was changed to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 degrees C/s. After each measurement, subjects were asked about comfort under the measuring conditions. Three series of experiments were conducted on different days to evaluate repeatability. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that warm thresholds were affected by the push force and the rate of temperature change and that cold thresholds were influenced by posture and push force. The comfort assessment indicated that the measurement posture of a straight hand and forearm laid on a support was the most comfortable for the subjects. Relatively high repeatability was obtained under measurement conditions of a 1 degrees C/s temperature change rate and a 0.5 N push force. Measurement posture, push force and rate of temperature change can affect the thermal threshold. Judging from the repeatability, a push force of 0.5 N and a temperature change of 1.0 degrees C/s in the posture with the straight hand and forearm laid on a support are recommended for warm and cold threshold measurements.

  14. DOE approach to threshold quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Kluk, A.F.; Department of Energy, Washington, DC)

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials must be handled as radioactive waste and which may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste at its sites. Waste above this concentration level would be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. Ideally, the threshold must be set high enough to significantly reduce the amount of waste requiring special handling. It must also be low enough so that waste at the threshold quantity poses a very small health risk and multiple exposures to such waste would still constitute a small health risk. It should also be practical to segregate waste above or below the threshold quantity using available instrumentation. Guidance is being prepared to aid DOE sites in establishing threshold quantity values based on pathways analysis using site-specific parameters (waste stream characteristics, maximum exposed individual, population considerations, and site specific parameters such as rainfall, etc.). A guidance dose of between 0.001 to 1.0 mSv/y (0.1 to 100 mrem/y) was recommended with 0.3 mSv/y (30 mrem/y) selected as the guidance dose upon which to base calculations. Several tasks were identified, beginning with the selection of a suitable pathway model for relating dose to the concentration of radioactivity in the waste. Threshold concentrations corresponding to the guidance dose were determined for waste disposal sites at a selected humid and arid site. Finally, cost-benefit considerations at the example sites were addressed. The results of the various tasks are summarized and the relationship of this effort with related developments at other agencies discussed

  15. A threshold for dissipative fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoennessen, M.; Bertsch, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The empirical domain of validity of statistical theory is examined as applied to fission data on pre-fission data on pre-fission neutron, charged particle, and γ-ray multiplicities. Systematics are found of the threshold excitation energy for the appearance of nonstatistical fission. From the data on systems with not too high fissility, the relevant phenomenological parameter is the ratio of the threshold temperature T thresh to the (temperature-dependent) fission barrier height E Bar (T). The statistical model reproduces the data for T thresh /E Bar (T) thresh /E Bar (T) independent of mass and fissility of the systems

  16. Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Stella A; Arts, Josje H E; Ehnes, Colin; Hindle, Stuart; Hollnagel, Heli M; Poole, Alan; Suto, Hidenori; Kimber, Ian

    2015-07-03

    There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological priming and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The second (elicitation) phase is triggered if a sensitised subject is exposed subsequently to the same chemical allergen via inhalation. A secondary immune response will be provoked in the respiratory tract resulting in inflammation and the signs and symptoms of a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction. In this article attention has focused on the identification of threshold values during the acquisition of sensitisation. Current mechanistic understanding of allergy is such that it can be assumed that the development of sensitisation (and also the elicitation of an allergic reaction) is a threshold phenomenon; there will be levels of exposure below which sensitisation will not be acquired. That is, all immune responses, including allergic sensitisation, have threshold requirement for the availability of antigen/allergen, below which a response will fail to develop. The issue addressed here is whether there are methods available or clinical/epidemiological data that permit the identification of such thresholds. This document reviews briefly relevant human studies of occupational asthma, and experimental models that have been developed (or are being developed) for the identification and characterisation of chemical respiratory allergens. The main conclusion drawn is that although there is evidence that the

  17. Threshold current for fireball generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuis, Geert C.

    1982-05-01

    Fireball generation from a high-intensity circuit breaker arc is interpreted here as a quantum-mechanical phenomenon caused by severe cooling of electrode material evaporating from contact surfaces. According to the proposed mechanism, quantum effects appear in the arc plasma when the radius of one magnetic flux quantum inside solid electrode material has shrunk to one London penetration length. A formula derived for the threshold discharge current preceding fireball generation is found compatible with data reported by Silberg. This formula predicts linear scaling of the threshold current with the circuit breaker's electrode radius and concentration of conduction electrons.

  18. Nuclear threshold effects and neutron strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia

    2003-01-01

    One proves that a Nuclear Threshold Effect is dependent, via Neutron Strength Function, on Spectroscopy of Ancestral Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the Nuclear Threshold Effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function. Evidence for relation of Nuclear Threshold Effects to Neutron Strength Functions is obtained from Isotopic Threshold Effect and Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly. The empirical and computational analysis of the Isotopic Threshold Effect and of the Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly demonstrate their close relationship to Neutron Strength Functions. It was established that the Nuclear Threshold Effects depend, in addition to genuine Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms, on Spectroscopy of (Ancestral) Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function, in their dependence on mass number. This result constitutes also a proof that the origins of these threshold effects are Neutron Single Particle States at zero energy. (author)

  19. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Astr. (2012) 33, 419–420. Author Index. 419. AGGARWAL SUNNY. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron, 291. AMBASTHA ASHOK see Das, A. C., 1. ARAKIDA HIDEYOSHI. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally. Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in.

  20. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    automorphic solutions to fractional order abstract integro-differential equations. 323. Afrouzi G A see Ala Samira ... 521. Agarwal Praveen. Certain fractional integral operators and the generalized multi-index Mittag- ... of positive solutions for sys- tems of second order multi-point bound- ary value problems on time scales 353.

  1. Relationship of extinction to perceptual thresholds for single stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, K J; Ray, P G; Day, L J; Loring, D W

    2001-04-24

    To demonstrate the effects of target stimulus intensity on extinction to double simultaneous stimuli. Attentional deficits contribute to extinction in patients with brain lesions, but extinction (i.e., masking) can also be produced in healthy subjects. The relationship of extinction to perceptual thresholds for single stimuli remains uncertain. Brief electrical pulses were applied simultaneously to the left and right index fingers of 16 healthy volunteers (8 young and 8 elderly adults) and 4 patients with right brain stroke (RBS). The stimulus to be perceived (i.e., target stimulus) was given at the lowest perceptual threshold to perceive any single stimulus (i.e., Minimal) and at the threshold to perceive 100% of single stimuli. The mask stimulus (i.e., stimulus given to block the target) was applied to the contralateral hand at intensities just below discomfort. Extinction was less for target stimuli at 100% than Minimal threshold for healthy subjects. Extinction of left targets was greater in patients with RBS than elderly control subjects. Left targets were extinguished less than right in healthy subjects. In contrast, the majority of left targets were extinguished in patients with RBS even when right mask intensity was reduced below right 100% threshold for single stimuli. RBS patients had less extinction for right targets despite having greater left mask - threshold difference than control subjects. In patients with RBS, right "targets" at 100% threshold extinguished left "masks" (20%) almost as frequently as left masks extinguished right targets (32%). Subtle changes in target intensity affect extinction in healthy adults. Asymmetries in mask and target intensities (relative to single-stimulus perceptual thresholds) affect extinction in RBS patients less for left targets but more for right targets as compared with control subjects.

  2. Compressively sampled MR image reconstruction using generalized thresholding iterative algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Sana; kaleem, Muhammad; Omer, Hammad

    2018-01-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) is an emerging area of interest in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CS is used for the reconstruction of the images from a very limited number of samples in k-space. This significantly reduces the MRI data acquisition time. One important requirement for signal recovery in CS is the use of an appropriate non-linear reconstruction algorithm. It is a challenging task to choose a reconstruction algorithm that would accurately reconstruct the MR images from the under-sampled k-space data. Various algorithms have been used to solve the system of non-linear equations for better image quality and reconstruction speed in CS. In the recent past, iterative soft thresholding algorithm (ISTA) has been introduced in CS-MRI. This algorithm directly cancels the incoherent artifacts produced because of the undersampling in k -space. This paper introduces an improved iterative algorithm based on p -thresholding technique for CS-MRI image reconstruction. The use of p -thresholding function promotes sparsity in the image which is a key factor for CS based image reconstruction. The p -thresholding based iterative algorithm is a modification of ISTA, and minimizes non-convex functions. It has been shown that the proposed p -thresholding iterative algorithm can be used effectively to recover fully sampled image from the under-sampled data in MRI. The performance of the proposed method is verified using simulated and actual MRI data taken at St. Mary's Hospital, London. The quality of the reconstructed images is measured in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), artifact power (AP), and structural similarity index measure (SSIM). The proposed approach shows improved performance when compared to other iterative algorithms based on log thresholding, soft thresholding and hard thresholding techniques at different reduction factors.

  3. Robust optimization of the laser induced damage threshold of dielectric mirrors for high power lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorel, Marine; Lanternier, Thomas; Lavastre, Éric; Bonod, Nicolas; Bousquet, Bruno; Néauport, Jérôme

    2018-04-30

    We report on a numerical optimization of the laser induced damage threshold of multi-dielectric high reflection mirrors in the sub-picosecond regime. We highlight the interplay between the electric field distribution, refractive index and intrinsic laser induced damage threshold of the materials on the overall laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the multilayer. We describe an optimization method of the multilayer that minimizes the field enhancement in high refractive index materials while preserving a near perfect reflectivity. This method yields a significant improvement of the damage resistance since a maximum increase of 40% can be achieved on the overall LIDT of the multilayer.

  4. Percolation Threshold Parameters of Fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škvor, J.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2009), 041141-041147 ISSN 1539-3755 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : percolation threshold * universality * infinite cluster Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.400, year: 2009

  5. Threshold analyses and Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, Ralf

    2003-01-01

    In the context of threshold investigations of Lorentz violation, we discuss the fundamental principle of coordinate independence, the role of an effective dynamical framework, and the conditions of positivity and causality. Our analysis excludes a variety of previously considered Lorentz-breaking parameters and opens an avenue for viable dispersion-relation investigations of Lorentz violation

  6. Threshold enhancement of diphoton resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Bharucha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We revisit a mechanism to enhance the decay width of (pseudo-scalar resonances to photon pairs when the process is mediated by loops of charged fermions produced near threshold. Motivated by the recent LHC data, indicating the presence of an excess in the diphoton spectrum at approximately 750 GeV, we illustrate this threshold enhancement mechanism in the case of a 750 GeV pseudoscalar boson A with a two-photon decay mediated by a charged and uncolored fermion having a mass at the 12MA threshold and a small decay width, <1 MeV. The implications of such a threshold enhancement are discussed in two explicit scenarios: i the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in which the A state is produced via the top quark mediated gluon fusion process and decays into photons predominantly through loops of charginos with masses close to 12MA and ii a two Higgs doublet model in which A is again produced by gluon fusion but decays into photons through loops of vector-like charged heavy leptons. In both these scenarios, while the mass of the charged fermion has to be adjusted to be extremely close to half of the A resonance mass, the small total widths are naturally obtained if only suppressed three-body decay channels occur. Finally, the implications of some of these scenarios for dark matter are discussed.

  7. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    basis. The data are divided into different indicators such as security, polls, drug, social, economic, refugees etc. This represents a practical division and does not indicate that a picture as to for instance security can be obtained by solely looking at the data under security. In order to obtain...... a more valid picture on security this must incorporate an integrated look on all data meaning that for instance the economic data provides an element as to the whole picture of security.......The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...

  8. A New Wavelet Threshold Determination Method Considering Interscale Correlation in Signal Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to simple calculation and good denoising effect, wavelet threshold denoising method has been widely used in signal denoising. In this method, the threshold is an important parameter that affects the denoising effect. In order to improve the denoising effect of the existing methods, a new threshold considering interscale correlation is presented. Firstly, a new correlation index is proposed based on the propagation characteristics of the wavelet coefficients. Then, a threshold determination strategy is obtained using the new index. At the end of the paper, a simulation experiment is given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. In the experiment, four benchmark signals are used as test signals. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve a good denoising effect under various signal types, noise intensities, and thresholding functions.

  9. Indexing Motion Detection Data for Surveillance Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Søren Juhl; Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We show how to compactly index video data to support fast motion detection queries. A query specifies a time interval T, a area A in the video and two thresholds v and p. The answer to a query is a list of timestamps in T where ≥ p% of A has changed by ≥ v values. Our results show that by building...... a small index, we can support queries with a speedup of two to three orders of magnitude compared to motion detection without an index. For high resolution video, the index size is about 20% of the compressed video size....

  10. Determining cardiac vagal threshold from short term heart rate complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Rami Abou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating individual aerobic exercise capacity is fundamental in sports and exercise medicine but associated with organizational and instrumental effort. Here, we extract an index related to common performance markers, the aerobic and anaerobic thresholds enabling the estimation of exercise capacity from a conventional sports watch supporting beatwise heart rate tracking. Therefore, cardiac vagal threshold (CVT was determined in 19 male subjects performing an incremental maximum exercise test. CVT varied around the anaerobic threshold AnT with mean deviation of 7.9 ± 17.7 W. A high correspondence of the two thresholds was indicated by Bland-Altman plots with limits of agreement −27.5 W and 43.4 W. Additionally, CVT was strongly correlated AnT (rp = 0.86, p < 0.001 and reproduced this marker well (rc = 0.81. We conclude, that cardiac vagal threshold derived from compression entropy time course can be useful to assess physical fitness in an uncomplicated way.

  11. The issue of threshold states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, L.

    1994-01-01

    The states which have not joined the Non-proliferation Treaty nor have undertaken any other internationally binding commitment not to develop or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons are considered a threshold states. Their nuclear status is rendered opaque as a conscious policy. Nuclear threshold status remains a key disarmament issue. For those few states, as India, Pakistan, Israel, who have put themselves in this position, the security returns have been transitory and largely illusory. The cost to them, and to the international community committed to the norm of non-proliferation, has been huge. The decisions which could lead to recovery from the situation in which they find themselves are essentially at their own hands. Whatever assistance the rest of international community is able to extend, it will need to be accompanied by a vital political signal

  12. Multiscalar production amplitudes beyond threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, E N; Kleiss, R H

    1993-01-01

    We present exact tree-order amplitudes for $H^* \\to n~H$, for final states containing one or two particles with non-zero three-momentum, for various interaction potentials. We show that there are potentials leading to tree amplitudes that satisfy unitarity, not only at threshold but also in the above kinematical configurations and probably beyond. As a by-product, we also calculate $2\\to n$ tree amplitudes at threshold and show that for the unbroken $\\phi^4$ theory they vanish for $n>4~$, for the Standard Model Higgs they vanish for $n\\ge 3~$ and for a model potential, respecting tree-order unitarity, for $n$ even and $n>4~$. Finally, we calculate the imaginary part of the one-loop $1\\to n$ amplitude in both symmetric and spontaneously broken $\\phi^4$ theory.

  13. Threshold network of a financial market using the P-value of correlation coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Gyeong-Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo; Nobi, Ashadun

    2015-06-01

    Threshold methods in financial networks are important tools for obtaining important information about the financial state of a market. Previously, absolute thresholds of correlation coefficients have been used; however, they have no relation to the length of time. We assign a threshold value depending on the size of the time window by using the P-value concept of statistics. We construct a threshold network (TN) at the same threshold value for two different time window sizes in the Korean Composite Stock Price Index (KOSPI). We measure network properties, such as the edge density, clustering coefficient, assortativity coefficient, and modularity. We determine that a significant difference exists between the network properties of the two time windows at the same threshold, especially during crises. This implies that the market information depends on the length of the time window when constructing the TN. We apply the same technique to Standard and Poor's 500 (S&P500) and observe similar results.

  14. Realistic Realizations Of Threshold Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Hassan M.

    1987-08-01

    Threshold logic, in which each input is weighted, has many theoretical advantages over the standard gate realization, such as reducing the number of gates, interconnections, and power dissipation. However, because of the difficult synthesis procedure and complicated circuit implementation, their use in the design of digital systems is almost nonexistant. In this study, three methods of NMOS realizations are discussed, and their advantages and shortcomings are explored. Also, the possibility of using the methods to realize multi-valued logic is examined.

  15. Root finding with threshold circuits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 462, Nov 30 (2012), s. 59-69 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : root finding * threshold circuit * power series Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.489, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397512008006#

  16. Design proposal for door thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolka Radim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Panels for openings in structures have always been an essential and integral part of buildings. Their importance in terms of a building´s functionality was not recognised. However, the general view on this issue has changed from focusing on big planar segments and critical details to sub-elements of these structures. This does not only focus on the forms of connecting joints but also on the supporting systems that keep the panels in the right position and ensure they function properly. One of the most strained segments is the threshold structure, especially the entrance door threshold structure. It is the part where substantial defects in construction occur in terms of waterproofing, as well as in the static, thermal and technical functions thereof. In conventional buildings, this problem is solved by pulling the floor structure under the entrance door structure and subsequently covering it with waterproofing material. This system cannot work effectively over the long term so local defects occur. A proposal is put forward to solve this problem by installing a sub-threshold door coupler made of composite materials. The coupler is designed so that its variability complies with the required parameters for most door structures on the European market.

  17. Color difference thresholds in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravina, Rade D; Ghinea, Razvan; Herrera, Luis J; Bona, Alvaro D; Igiel, Christopher; Linninger, Mercedes; Sakai, Maiko; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Tashkandi, Esam; Perez, Maria del Mar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to determine 50:50% perceptibility threshold (PT) and 50:50% acceptability threshold (AT) of dental ceramic under simulated clinical settings. The spectral radiance of 63 monochromatic ceramic specimens was determined using a non-contact spectroradiometer. A total of 60 specimen pairs, divided into 3 sets of 20 specimen pairs (medium to light shades, medium to dark shades, and dark shades), were selected for psychophysical experiment. The coordinating center and seven research sites obtained the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approvals prior the beginning of the experiment. Each research site had 25 observers, divided into five groups of five observers: dentists-D, dental students-S, dental auxiliaries-A, dental technicians-T, and lay persons-L. There were 35 observers per group (five observers per group at each site ×7 sites), for a total of 175 observers. Visual color comparisons were performed using a viewing booth. Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy approximation was used for fitting the data points. The 50:50% PT and 50:50% AT were determined in CIELAB and CIEDE2000. The t-test was used to evaluate the statistical significance in thresholds differences. The CIELAB 50:50% PT was ΔEab  = 1.2, whereas 50:50% AT was ΔEab  = 2.7. Corresponding CIEDE2000 (ΔE00 ) values were 0.8 and 1.8, respectively. 50:50% PT by the observer group revealed differences among groups D, A, T, and L as compared with 50:50% PT for all observers. The 50:50% AT for all observers was statistically different than 50:50% AT in groups T and L. A 50:50% perceptibility and ATs were significantly different. The same is true for differences between two color difference formulas ΔE00 /ΔEab . Observer groups and sites showed high level of statistical difference in all thresholds. Visual color difference thresholds can serve as a quality control tool to guide the selection of esthetic dental materials, evaluate clinical performance, and

  18. Bedding material affects mechanical thresholds, heat thresholds and texture preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehring, Francie; O’Hara, Crystal L.; Stucky, Cheryl L.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that the bedding type animals are housed on can affect breeding behavior and cage environment. Yet little is known about its effects on evoked behavior responses or non-reflexive behaviors. C57BL/6 mice were housed for two weeks on one of five bedding types: Aspen Sani Chips® (standard bedding for our institute), ALPHA-Dri®, Cellu-Dri™, Pure-o’Cel™ or TEK-Fresh. Mice housed on Aspen exhibited the lowest (most sensitive) mechanical thresholds while those on TEK-Fresh exhibited 3-fold higher thresholds. While bedding type had no effect on responses to punctate or dynamic light touch stimuli, TEK-Fresh housed animals exhibited greater responsiveness in a noxious needle assay, than those housed on the other bedding types. Heat sensitivity was also affected by bedding as animals housed on Aspen exhibited the shortest (most sensitive) latencies to withdrawal whereas those housed on TEK-Fresh had the longest (least sensitive) latencies to response. Slight differences between bedding types were also seen in a moderate cold temperature preference assay. A modified tactile conditioned place preference chamber assay revealed that animals preferred TEK-Fresh to Aspen bedding. Bedding type had no effect in a non-reflexive wheel running assay. In both acute (two day) and chronic (5 week) inflammation induced by injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant in the hindpaw, mechanical thresholds were reduced in all groups regardless of bedding type, but TEK-Fresh and Pure-o’Cel™ groups exhibited a greater dynamic range between controls and inflamed cohorts than Aspen housed mice. PMID:26456764

  19. Optimizing Systems of Threshold Detection Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banschbach, David C

    2008-01-01

    .... Below the threshold all signals are ignored. We develop a mathematical model for setting individual sensor thresholds to obtain optimal probability of detecting a significant event, given a limit on the total number of false positives allowed...

  20. 11 CFR 9036.1 - Threshold submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... credit or debit card, including one made over the Internet, the candidate shall provide sufficient... section shall not count toward the threshold amount. (c) Threshold certification by Commission. (1) After...

  1. Nuclear thermodynamics below particle threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Algin, E.; Bagheri, A.; Chankova, R.; Guttormsen, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Sunde, A. C.; Voinov, A.

    2005-01-01

    From a starting point of experimentally measured nuclear level densities, we discuss thermodynamical properties of nuclei below the particle emission threshold. Since nuclei are essentially mesoscopic systems, a straightforward generalization of macroscopic ensemble theory often yields unphysical results. A careful critique of traditional thermodynamical concepts reveals problems commonly encountered in mesoscopic systems. One of which is the fact that microcanonical and canonical ensemble theory yield different results, another concerns the introduction of temperature for small, closed systems. Finally, the concept of phase transitions is investigated for mesoscopic systems

  2. Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Farooqi, Rahmatullah; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-01-01

    Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates 'good' glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from 'bad' glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region

  3. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Kyng, Tim; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.

    2015-01-01

    Finance threshold concepts are the essential conceptual knowledge that underpin well-developed financial capabilities and are central to the mastery of finance. In this paper we investigate threshold concepts in finance from the point of view of students, by establishing the extent to which students are aware of threshold concepts identified by…

  4. Epidemic threshold in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Wang, Huijuan; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2013-12-01

    Epidemics have so far been mostly studied in undirected networks. However, many real-world networks, such as the online social network Twitter and the world wide web, on which information, emotion, or malware spreads, are directed networks, composed of both unidirectional links and bidirectional links. We define the directionality ξ as the percentage of unidirectional links. The epidemic threshold τc for the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic is lower bounded by 1/λ1 in directed networks, where λ1, also called the spectral radius, is the largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix. In this work, we propose two algorithms to generate directed networks with a given directionality ξ. The effect of ξ on the spectral radius λ1, principal eigenvector x1, spectral gap (λ1-λ2), and algebraic connectivity μN-1 is studied. Important findings are that the spectral radius λ1 decreases with the directionality ξ, whereas the spectral gap and the algebraic connectivity increase with the directionality ξ. The extent of the decrease of the spectral radius depends on both the degree distribution and the degree-degree correlation ρD. Hence, in directed networks, the epidemic threshold is larger and a random walk converges to its steady state faster than that in undirected networks with the same degree distribution.

  5. Computational gestalts and perception thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desolneux, Agnès; Moisan, Lionel; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    In 1923, Max Wertheimer proposed a research programme and method in visual perception. He conjectured the existence of a small set of geometric grouping laws governing the perceptual synthesis of phenomenal objects, or "gestalt" from the atomic retina input. In this paper, we review this set of geometric grouping laws, using the works of Metzger, Kanizsa and their schools. In continuation, we explain why the Gestalt theory research programme can be translated into a Computer Vision programme. This translation is not straightforward, since Gestalt theory never addressed two fundamental matters: image sampling and image information measurements. Using these advances, we shall show that gestalt grouping laws can be translated into quantitative laws allowing the automatic computation of gestalts in digital images. From the psychophysical viewpoint, a main issue is raised: the computer vision gestalt detection methods deliver predictable perception thresholds. Thus, we are set in a position where we can build artificial images and check whether some kind of agreement can be found between the computationally predicted thresholds and the psychophysical ones. We describe and discuss two preliminary sets of experiments, where we compared the gestalt detection performance of several subjects with the predictable detection curve. In our opinion, the results of this experimental comparison support the idea of a much more systematic interaction between computational predictions in Computer Vision and psychophysical experiments.

  6. Threshold enhancement of diphoton resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Bharucha, Aoife; Goudelis, Andreas

    2016-10-10

    The data collected by the LHC collaborations at an energy of 13 TeV indicates the presence of an excess in the diphoton spectrum that would correspond to a resonance of a 750 GeV mass. The apparently large production cross section is nevertheless very difficult to explain in minimal models. We consider the possibility that the resonance is a pseudoscalar boson $A$ with a two--photon decay mediated by a charged and uncolored fermion having a mass at the $\\frac12 M_A$ threshold and a very small decay width, $\\ll 1$ MeV; one can then generate a large enhancement of the $A\\gamma\\gamma$ amplitude which explains the excess without invoking a large multiplicity of particles propagating in the loop, large electric charges and/or very strong Yukawa couplings. The implications of such a threshold enhancement are discussed in two explicit scenarios: i) the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in which the $A$ state is produced via the top quark mediated gluon fusion process and decays into photons predominantly through...

  7. Immobilization thresholds of electrofishing relative to fish size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, C.R.; Miranda, L.E.

    2003-01-01

    Fish size and electrical waveforms have frequently been associated with variation in electrofishing effectiveness. Under controlled laboratory conditions, we measured the electrical power required by five electrical waveforms to immobilize eight fish species of diverse sizes and shapes. Fish size was indexed by total body length, surface area, volume, and weight; shape was indexed by the ratio of body length to body depth. Our objectives were to identify immobilization thresholds, elucidate the descriptors of fish size that were best associated with those immobilization thresholds, and determine whether the vulnerability of a species relative to other species remained constant across electrical treatments. The results confirmed that fish size is a key variable controlling the immobilization threshold and further suggested that the size descriptor best related to immobilization is fish volume. The peak power needed to immobilize fish decreased rapidly with increasing fish volume in small fish but decreased slowly for fish larger than 75-100 cm 3. Furthermore, when we controlled for size and shape, different waveforms did not favor particular species, possibly because of the overwhelming effect of body size. Many of the immobilization inconsistencies previously attributed to species might simply represent the effect of disparities in body size.

  8. The renal arterial resistive index and stage of chronic kidney disease in patients with renal allograft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Stine O; Thiesson, Helle C; Poulsen, Lene N

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the optimal threshold value of renal arterial resistive index as assessed by Doppler ultrasonography determining chronic kidney disease stage 4 or higher in patients with renal allograft.......The study investigated the optimal threshold value of renal arterial resistive index as assessed by Doppler ultrasonography determining chronic kidney disease stage 4 or higher in patients with renal allograft....

  9. Dating currency crises with ad hoc and extreme value-based thresholds : East Asia 1970-2002 [dating currency crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestano, L; Jacobs, Jan P. A. M.

    2007-01-01

    Generally a currency crisis is defined to occur if an index of currency pressure exceeds a threshold. This paper compares currency crisis dating methods. For two definitions of currency pressure we contrast ad hoc and extreme value-based thresholds. We illustrate the methods with data of six East

  10. Is Malaysian Stock Market Efficient? Evidence from Threshold Unit Root Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Qaiser Munir; Kasim Mansur

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the behavior of Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange Composite Index (KLCI) for the period from 1980:1 to 2008:8 using a two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) model with an autoregressive unit root developed by Caner and Hansen [Threshold autoregression with a unit roots, Econometrics 69 (6) (2001) 1555-1596] which allows testing nonlinearity and nonstationarity simultaneously. Our finding indicates that the KLCI is a nonlinear series that is characterized by a unit root pr...

  11. Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Angela M; Kaptoge, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam S

    2018-01-01

    previous cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We did a combined analysis of individual-participant data from three large-scale data sources in 19 high-income countries (the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD, and the UK Biobank). We characterised dose-response associations and calculated hazard......BACKGROUND: Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without......·4 million person-years of follow-up. For all-cause mortality, we recorded a positive and curvilinear association with the level of alcohol consumption, with the minimum mortality risk around or below 100 g per week. Alcohol consumption was roughly linearly associated with a higher risk of stroke (HR per 100...

  12. Detection thresholds of macaque otolith afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiong-Jie; Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E

    2012-06-13

    The vestibular system is our sixth sense and is important for spatial perception functions, yet the sensory detection and discrimination properties of vestibular neurons remain relatively unexplored. Here we have used signal detection theory to measure detection thresholds of otolith afferents using 1 Hz linear accelerations delivered along three cardinal axes. Direction detection thresholds were measured by comparing mean firing rates centered on response peak and trough (full-cycle thresholds) or by comparing peak/trough firing rates with spontaneous activity (half-cycle thresholds). Thresholds were similar for utricular and saccular afferents, as well as for lateral, fore/aft, and vertical motion directions. When computed along the preferred direction, full-cycle direction detection thresholds were 7.54 and 3.01 cm/s(2) for regular and irregular firing otolith afferents, respectively. Half-cycle thresholds were approximately double, with excitatory thresholds being half as large as inhibitory thresholds. The variability in threshold among afferents was directly related to neuronal gain and did not depend on spike count variance. The exact threshold values depended on both the time window used for spike count analysis and the filtering method used to calculate mean firing rate, although differences between regular and irregular afferent thresholds were independent of analysis parameters. The fact that minimum thresholds measured in macaque otolith afferents are of the same order of magnitude as human behavioral thresholds suggests that the vestibular periphery might determine the limit on our ability to detect or discriminate small differences in head movement, with little noise added during downstream processing.

  13. Color-discrimination threshold determination using pseudoisochromatic test plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiva eJurasevska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We produced a set of pseudoisochromatic plates for determining individual color-difference thresholds to assess test performance and test properties, and analyzed the results. We report a high test validity and classification ability for the deficiency type and severity level (comparable to that of the fourth edition of the Hardy–Rand–Rittler (HRR test. We discuss changes of the acceptable chromatic shifts from the protan and deutan confusion lines along the CIE xy diagram, and the high correlation of individual color-difference thresholds and the red–green discrimination index. Color vision was tested using an Oculus HMC anomaloscope, a Farnsworth D15, and an HRR test on 273 schoolchildren, and 57 other subjects with previously diagnosed red–green color-vision deficiency.

  14. Otsu Based Optimal Multilevel Image Thresholding Using Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sri Madhava Raja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Histogram based multilevel thresholding approach is proposed using Brownian distribution (BD guided firefly algorithm (FA. A bounded search technique is also presented to improve the optimization accuracy with lesser search iterations. Otsu’s between-class variance function is maximized to obtain optimal threshold level for gray scale images. The performances of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated by considering twelve benchmark images and are compared with the existing FA algorithms such as Lévy flight (LF guided FA and random operator guided FA. The performance assessment comparison between the proposed and existing firefly algorithms is carried using prevailing parameters such as objective function, standard deviation, peak-to-signal ratio (PSNR, structural similarity (SSIM index, and search time of CPU. The results show that BD guided FA provides better objective function, PSNR, and SSIM, whereas LF based FA provides faster convergence with relatively lower CPU time.

  15. Threshold behavior in electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghpour, H.R.; Greene, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    Ever since the classic work of Wannier in 1953, the process of treating two threshold electrons in the continuum of a positively charged ion has been an active field of study. The authors have developed a treatment motivated by the physics below the double ionization threshold. By modeling the double ionization as a series of Landau-Zener transitions, they obtain an analytical formulation of the absolute threshold probability which has a leading power law behavior, akin to Wannier's law. Some of the noteworthy aspects of this derivation are that the derivation can be conveniently continued below threshold giving rise to a open-quotes cuspclose quotes at threshold, and that on both sides of the threshold, absolute values of the cross sections are obtained

  16. A numerical study of threshold states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ata, M.S.; Grama, C.; Grama, N.; Hategan, C.

    1979-01-01

    There are some experimental evidences of charged particle threshold states. On the statistical background of levels, some simple structures were observed in excitation spectrum. They occur near the coulombian threshold and have a large reduced width for the decay in the threshold channel. These states were identified as charged cluster threshold states. Such threshold states were observed in sup(15,16,17,18)O, sup(18,19)F, sup(19,20)Ne, sup(24)Mg, sup(32)S. The types of clusters involved were d, t, 3 He, α and even 12 C. They were observed in heavy-ions transfer reactions in the residual nucleus as strong excited levels. The charged particle threshold states occur as simple structures at high excitation energy. They could be interesting both from nuclear structure as well as nuclear reaction mechanism point of view. They could be excited as simple structures both in compound and residual nucleus. (author)

  17. Iran: the next nuclear threshold state?

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A nuclear threshold state is one that could quickly operationalize its peaceful nuclear program into one capable of producing a nuclear weapon. This thesis compares two known threshold states, Japan and Brazil, with Iran to determine if the Islamic Republic could also be labeled a threshold state. Furthermore, it highlights the implications such a status could have on U.S. nonproliferation policy. Although Iran's nuclear program is mir...

  18. Dynamical thresholds for complete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.; Sierk, A.J.; Nix, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    It is our purpose here to study the effect of nuclear dissipation and shape parametrization on dynamical thresholds for compound-nucleus formation in symmetric heavy-ion reactions. This is done by solving numerically classical equations of motion for head-on collisions to determine whether the dynamical trajectory in a multidimensional deformation space passes inside the fission saddle point and forms a compound nucleus, or whether it passes outside the fission saddle point and reseparates in a fast-fission or deep-inelastic reaction. Specifying the nuclear shape in terms of smoothly joined portions of three quadratic surfaces of revolution, we take into account three symmetric deformation coordinates. However, in some cases we reduce the number of coordinates to two by requiring the ends of the fusing system to be spherical in shape. The nuclear potential energy of deformation is determined in terms of a Coulomb energy and a double volume energy of a Yukawa-plus-exponential folding function. The collective kinetic energy is calculated for incompressible, nearly irrotational flow by means of the Werner-Wheeler approximation. Four possibilities are studied for the transfer of collective kinetic energy into internal single-particle excitation energy: zero dissipation, ordinary two body viscosity, one-body wall-formula dissipation, and one-body wall-and-window dissipation

  19. Witten index for noncompact dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Joo [Department of Physics, Robeson Hall, Virginia Tech,Robeson Hall, 0435, 850 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Yi, Piljin [School of Physics and Quantum Universe Center, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,85 Hoegi-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-16

    Among gauged dynamics motivated by string theory, we find many with gapless asymptotic directions. Although the natural boundary condition for ground states is L{sup 2}, one often turns on chemical potentials or supersymmetric mass terms to regulate the infrared issues, instead, and computes the twisted partition function. We point out how this procedure generically fails to capture physical L{sup 2} Witten index with often misleading results. We also explore how, nevertheless, the Witten index is sometimes intricately embedded in such twisted partition functions. For d=1 theories with gapless continuum sector from gauge multiplets, such as non-primitive quivers and pure Yang-Mills, a further subtlety exists, leading to fractional expressions. Quite unexpectedly, however, the integral L{sup 2} Witten index can be extracted directly and easily from the twisted partition function of such theories. This phenomenon is tied to the notion of the rational invariant that appears naturally in the wall-crossing formulae, and offers a general mechanism of reading off Witten index directly from the twisted partition function. Along the way, we correct early numerical results for some of N=4,8,16 pure Yang-Mills quantum mechanics, and count threshold bound states for general gauge groups beyond SU(N).

  20. Witten index for noncompact dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Yi, Piljin

    2016-06-01

    Among gauged dynamics motivated by string theory, we find many with gapless asymptotic directions. Although the natural boundary condition for ground states is L 2, one often turns on chemical potentials or supersymmetric mass terms to regulate the infrared issues, instead, and computes the twisted partition function. We point out how this procedure generically fails to capture physical L 2 Witten index with often misleading results. We also explore how, nevertheless, the Witten index is sometimes intricately embedded in such twisted partition functions. For d = 1 theories with gapless continuum sector from gauge multiplets, such as non-primitive quivers and pure Yang-Mills, a further subtlety exists, leading to fractional expressions. Quite unexpectedly, however, the integral L 2 Witten index can be extracted directly and easily from the twisted partition function of such theories. This phenomenon is tied to the notion of the rational invariant that appears naturally in the wall-crossing formulae, and offers a general mechanism of reading off Witten index directly from the twisted partition function. Along the way, we correct early numerical results for some of mathcal{N} = 4 , 8 , 16 pure Yang-Mills quantum mechanics, and count threshold bound states for general gauge groups beyond SU( N ).

  1. Witten index for noncompact dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Yi, Piljin

    2016-01-01

    Among gauged dynamics motivated by string theory, we find many with gapless asymptotic directions. Although the natural boundary condition for ground states is L"2, one often turns on chemical potentials or supersymmetric mass terms to regulate the infrared issues, instead, and computes the twisted partition function. We point out how this procedure generically fails to capture physical L"2 Witten index with often misleading results. We also explore how, nevertheless, the Witten index is sometimes intricately embedded in such twisted partition functions. For d=1 theories with gapless continuum sector from gauge multiplets, such as non-primitive quivers and pure Yang-Mills, a further subtlety exists, leading to fractional expressions. Quite unexpectedly, however, the integral L"2 Witten index can be extracted directly and easily from the twisted partition function of such theories. This phenomenon is tied to the notion of the rational invariant that appears naturally in the wall-crossing formulae, and offers a general mechanism of reading off Witten index directly from the twisted partition function. Along the way, we correct early numerical results for some of N=4,8,16 pure Yang-Mills quantum mechanics, and count threshold bound states for general gauge groups beyond SU(N).

  2. Threshold Evaluation of Emergency Risk Communication for Health Risks Related to Hazardous Ambient Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Hoppe, Brenda O; Convertino, Matteo

    2018-04-10

    Emergency risk communication (ERC) programs that activate when the ambient temperature is expected to cross certain extreme thresholds are widely used to manage relevant public health risks. In practice, however, the effectiveness of these thresholds has rarely been examined. The goal of this study is to test if the activation criteria based on extreme temperature thresholds, both cold and heat, capture elevated health risks for all-cause and cause-specific mortality and morbidity in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. A distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) combined with a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model is used to derive the exposure-response functions between daily maximum heat index and mortality (1998-2014) and morbidity (emergency department visits; 2007-2014). Specific causes considered include cardiovascular, respiratory, renal diseases, and diabetes. Six extreme temperature thresholds, corresponding to 1st-3rd and 97th-99th percentiles of local exposure history, are examined. All six extreme temperature thresholds capture significantly increased relative risks for all-cause mortality and morbidity. However, the cause-specific analyses reveal heterogeneity. Extreme cold thresholds capture increased mortality and morbidity risks for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and extreme heat thresholds for renal disease. Percentile-based extreme temperature thresholds are appropriate for initiating ERC targeting the general population. Tailoring ERC by specific causes may protect some but not all individuals with health conditions exacerbated by hazardous ambient temperature exposure. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Study of thermal threshold and counter-measures for human body in oceanic working environment. 1st Report. Heat balance model and heat storage index; Shonetsu kankyoka no kaiyo sagyo ni okeru netsuteki genkai to onnetsu taisaku ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Netsu shushi model to onnetsu shisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M. [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, M.

    1996-12-31

    Identification was intended on effects of such thermal factors as metabolic amount, environmental temperature and humidity, and clothing resistance on human body temperatures during works under hot environments. Therefore, measurements were carried out on human skin temperatures, rectum temperatures and humidity inside clothing, while amount of motion, environmental temperature, and clothing are changed in a constant temperature room and under a sun irradiation environment. Furthermore, a heat balance model was prepared, which divides the objects into an outer shell layer whose temperature changes depending on the result of this experiment and into a core having constant temperature characteristics. An equation to derive skin temperatures was introduced from the model. The equation formulated a calculation formula for heat accumulation in human body, which can be used as a hot heat index. Relationship between thermal factors and heat storage amount was investigated to consider a thermal limit for a physical work. An equation to derive skin temperatures was confirmed capable of expressing general change in skin temperatures, being proved by comparison with experiments. Calculation formulas for amount of heat stored in human body were shown capable of expressing influence of different thermal factors, the expression being useful as a hot heat index. Calculating the human body heat storage is very largely affected by effect of sweat to dissipate heat, hence it is necessary to improve the accuracy including that for body temperature adjusting reactions. 17 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Study of thermal threshold and counter-measures for human body in oceanic working environment. 1st Report. Heat balance model and heat storage index; Shonetsu kankyoka no kaiyo sagyo ni okeru netsuteki genkai to onnetsu taisaku ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Netsu shushi model to onnetsu shisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, N [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, M

    1997-12-31

    Identification was intended on effects of such thermal factors as metabolic amount, environmental temperature and humidity, and clothing resistance on human body temperatures during works under hot environments. Therefore, measurements were carried out on human skin temperatures, rectum temperatures and humidity inside clothing, while amount of motion, environmental temperature, and clothing are changed in a constant temperature room and under a sun irradiation environment. Furthermore, a heat balance model was prepared, which divides the objects into an outer shell layer whose temperature changes depending on the result of this experiment and into a core having constant temperature characteristics. An equation to derive skin temperatures was introduced from the model. The equation formulated a calculation formula for heat accumulation in human body, which can be used as a hot heat index. Relationship between thermal factors and heat storage amount was investigated to consider a thermal limit for a physical work. An equation to derive skin temperatures was confirmed capable of expressing general change in skin temperatures, being proved by comparison with experiments. Calculation formulas for amount of heat stored in human body were shown capable of expressing influence of different thermal factors, the expression being useful as a hot heat index. Calculating the human body heat storage is very largely affected by effect of sweat to dissipate heat, hence it is necessary to improve the accuracy including that for body temperature adjusting reactions. 17 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheltsov, Ivan A; Shramov, Konstantin A

    2008-01-01

    The complex singularity exponent is a local invariant of a holomorphic function determined by the integrability of fractional powers of the function. The log canonical thresholds of effective Q-divisors on normal algebraic varieties are algebraic counterparts of complex singularity exponents. For a Fano variety, these invariants have global analogues. In the former case, it is the so-called α-invariant of Tian; in the latter case, it is the global log canonical threshold of the Fano variety, which is the infimum of log canonical thresholds of all effective Q-divisors numerically equivalent to the anticanonical divisor. An appendix to this paper contains a proof that the global log canonical threshold of a smooth Fano variety coincides with its α-invariant of Tian. The purpose of the paper is to compute the global log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds (altogether, there are 105 deformation families of such threefolds). The global log canonical thresholds are computed for every smooth threefold in 64 deformation families, and the global log canonical thresholds are computed for a general threefold in 20 deformation families. Some bounds for the global log canonical thresholds are computed for 14 deformation families. Appendix A is due to J.-P. Demailly.

  6. Thresholding magnetic resonance images of human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-mao HU; Wieslaw L NOWINSKI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, methods are proposed and validated to determine low and high thresholds to segment out gray matter and white matter for MR images of different pulse sequences of human brain. First, a two-dimensional reference image is determined to represent the intensity characteristics of the original three-dimensional data. Then a region of interest of the reference image is determined where brain tissues are present. The non-supervised fuzzy c-means clustering is employed to determine: the threshold for obtaining head mask, the low threshold for T2-weighted and PD-weighted images, and the high threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Supervised range-constrained thresholding is employed to determine the low threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Thresholding based on pairs of boundary pixels is proposed to determine the high threshold for T2- and PD-weighted images. Quantification against public data sets with various noise and inhomogeneity levels shows that the proposed methods can yield segmentation robust to noise and intensity inhomogeneity. Qualitatively the proposed methods work well with real clinical data.

  7. Time-efficient multidimensional threshold tracking method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Kowalewski, Borys; Dau, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, adaptive methods have been used to reduce the time it takes to estimate psychoacoustic thresholds. However, even with adaptive methods, there are many cases where the testing time is too long to be clinically feasible, particularly when estimating thresholds as a function of anothe...

  8. 40 CFR 68.115 - Threshold determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Regulated Substances for Accidental Release Prevention... process exceeds the threshold. (b) For the purposes of determining whether more than a threshold quantity... portion of the process is less than 10 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), the amount of the substance in the...

  9. Applying Threshold Concepts to Finance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Wood, Leigh N.; Tickle, Leonie; Kyng, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and identify threshold concepts that are the essential conceptual content of finance programmes. Design/Methodology/Approach: Conducted in three stages with finance academics and students, the study uses threshold concepts as both a theoretical framework and a research methodology. Findings: The…

  10. Summary of DOE threshold limits efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste in DOE sanitary landfills. Waste above a threshold level could be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. After extensive review of a draft threshold guidance document in 1985, a second draft threshold background document was produced in March 1986. The second draft included a preliminary cost-benefit analysis and quality assurance considerations. The review of the second draft has been completed. Final changes to be incorporated include an in-depth cost-benefit analysis of two example sites and recommendations of how to further pursue (i.e. employ) the concept of threshold quantities within the DOE. 3 references

  11. A Threshold Continuum for Aeolian Sand Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport marks the initial entrainment of sand particles by the force of the wind. This is typically defined and modeled as a singular wind speed for a given grain size and is based on field and laboratory experimental data. However, the definition of threshold varies significantly between these empirical models, largely because the definition is based on visual-observations of initial grain movement. For example, in his seminal experiments, Bagnold defined threshold of motion when he observed that 100% of the bed was in motion. Others have used 50% and lesser values. Differences in threshold models, in turn, result is large errors in predicting the fluxes associated with sand and dust transport. Here we use a wind tunnel and novel sediment trap to capture the fractions of sand in creep, reptation and saltation at Earth and Mars pressures and show that the threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport is best defined as a continuum in which grains progress through stages defined by the proportion of grains in creep and saltation. We propose the use of scale dependent thresholds modeled by distinct probability distribution functions that differentiate the threshold based on micro to macro scale applications. For example, a geologic timescale application corresponds to a threshold when 100% of the bed in motion whereas a sub-second application corresponds to a threshold when a single particle is set in motion. We provide quantitative measurements (number and mode of particle movement) corresponding to visual observations, percent of bed in motion and degrees of transport intermittency for Earth and Mars. Understanding transport as a continuum provides a basis for revaluating sand transport thresholds on Earth, Mars and Titan.

  12. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  13. EJSCREEN Indexes 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  14. Effects of visual erotic stimulation on vibrotactile detection thresholds in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Chuanshu; Knight, Peter K; Weerakoon, Patricia; Turman, A Bulent

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the effects of sexual arousal on vibration detection thresholds in the right index finger of 30 healthy, heterosexual males who reported no sexual dysfunction. Vibrotactile detection thresholds at frequencies of 30, 60, and 100 Hz were assessed before and after watching erotic and control videos using a forced-choice, staircase method. A mechanical stimulator was used to produce the vibratory stimulus. Results were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. After watching the erotic video, the vibrotactile detection thresholds at 30, 60, and 100 Hz were significantly reduced (p erotic stimulus. The results show that sexual arousal resulted in an increase in vibrotactile sensitivity to low frequency stimuli in the index finger of sexually functional men.

  15. The impact of pre-selected variance inflation factor thresholds on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is basically an index that measures how much the variance of an estimated ... the literature were not considered, such as penalised regularisation methods like the Lasso ... Y = 1 if a customer has defaulted, otherwise Y = 0). ..... method- ology is applied, but different VIF-thresholds have to be satisfied during the collinearity.

  16. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  17. NEUTRON SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS USING MULTIPLE THRESHOLD DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, William W.; Duffey, Dick

    1963-11-15

    From American Nuclear Society Meeting, New York, Nov. 1963. The use of threshold detectors, which simultaneously undergo reactions with thermal neutrons and two or more fast neutron threshold reactions, was applied to measurements of the neutron spectrum in a reactor. A number of different materials were irradiated to determine the most practical ones for use as multiple threshold detectors. These results, as well as counting techniques and corrections, are presented. Some materials used include aluminum, alloys of Al -Ni, aluminum-- nickel oxides, and magesium orthophosphates. (auth)

  18. Reaction thresholds in doubly special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, Daniel; Major, Seth; Hinteleitner, Franz

    2004-01-01

    Two theories of special relativity with an additional invariant scale, 'doubly special relativity', are tested with calculations of particle process kinematics. Using the Judes-Visser modified conservation laws, thresholds are studied in both theories. In contrast with some linear approximations, which allow for particle processes forbidden in special relativity, both the Amelino-Camelia and Magueijo-Smolin frameworks allow no additional processes. To first order, the Amelino-Camelia framework thresholds are lowered and the Magueijo-Smolin framework thresholds may be raised or lowered

  19. Approach to DOE threshold guidance limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuman, R.D.; Wickham, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    The need for less restrictive criteria governing disposal of extremely low-level radioactive waste has long been recognized. The Low-Level Waste Management Program has been directed by the Department of Energy (DOE) to aid in the development of a threshold guidance limit for DOE low-level waste facilities. Project objectives are concernd with the definition of a threshold limit dose and pathway analysis of radionuclide transport within selected exposure scenarios at DOE sites. Results of the pathway analysis will be used to determine waste radionuclide concentration guidelines that meet the defined threshold limit dose. Methods of measurement and verification of concentration limits round out the project's goals. Work on defining a threshold limit dose is nearing completion. Pathway analysis of sanitary landfill operations at the Savannah River Plant and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is in progress using the DOSTOMAN computer code. Concentration limit calculations and determination of implementation procedures shall follow completion of the pathways work. 4 references

  20. Pion photoproduction on the nucleon at threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, I.T.; Jeong, M.T.

    1989-08-01

    Electric dipole amplitudes of pion photoproduction on the nucleon at threshold have been calculated in the framework of the chiral bag model. Our results are in good agreement with the existing experimental data

  1. Effect of dissipation on dynamical fusion thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierk, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The existence of dynamical thresholds to fusion in heavy nuclei (A greater than or equal to 200) due to the nature of the potential-energy surface is shown. These thresholds exist even in the absence of dissipative forces, due to the coupling between the various collective deformation degrees of freedom. Using a macroscopic model of nuclear shape dynamics, It is shown how three different suggested dissipation mechanisms increase by varying amounts the excitation energy over the one-dimensional barrier required to cause compound-nucleus formation. The recently introduced surface-plus-window dissipation may give a reasonable representation of experimental data on fusion thresholds, in addition to properly describing fission-fragment kinetic energies and isoscalar giant multipole widths. Scaling of threshold results to asymmetric systems is discussed. 48 refs., 10 figs

  2. 40 CFR 98.411 - Reporting threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.411 Reporting threshold. Any supplier of industrial greenhouse gases who meets the requirements of § 98.2(a)(4) must report GHG...

  3. Melanin microcavitation threshold in the near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Morgan S.; Kennedy, Paul K.; Vincelette, Rebecca L.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Wharmby, Andrew W.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2014-02-01

    Thresholds for microcavitation of isolated bovine and porcine melanosomes were determined using single nanosecond (ns) laser pulses in the NIR (1000 - 1319 nm) wavelength regime. Average fluence thresholds for microcavitation increased non-linearly with increasing wavelength. Average fluence thresholds were also measured for 10-ns pulses at 532 nm, and found to be comparable to visible ns pulse values published in previous reports. Fluence thresholds were used to calculate melanosome absorption coefficients, which decreased with increasing wavelength. This trend was found to be comparable to the decrease in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) layer absorption coefficients reported over the same wavelength region. Estimated corneal total intraocular energy (TIE) values were determined and compared to the current and proposed maximum permissible exposure (MPE) safe exposure levels. Results from this study support the proposed changes to the MPE levels.

  4. Secure information management using linguistic threshold approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ogiela, Marek R

    2013-01-01

    This book details linguistic threshold schemes for information sharing. It examines the opportunities of using these techniques to create new models of managing strategic information shared within a commercial organisation or a state institution.

  5. Robust Adaptive Thresholder For Document Scanning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, To R.

    1982-12-01

    In document scanning applications, thresholding is used to obtain binary data from a scanner. However, due to: (1) a wide range of different color backgrounds; (2) density variations of printed text information; and (3) the shading effect caused by the optical systems, the use of adaptive thresholding to enhance the useful information is highly desired. This paper describes a new robust adaptive thresholder for obtaining valid binary images. It is basically a memory type algorithm which can dynamically update the black and white reference level to optimize a local adaptive threshold function. The results of high image quality from different types of simulate test patterns can be obtained by this algorithm. The software algorithm is described and experiment results are present to describe the procedures. Results also show that the techniques described here can be used for real-time signal processing in the varied applications.

  6. Recent progress in understanding climate thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Good, Peter; Bamber, Jonathan; Halladay, Kate; Harper, Anna B.; Jackson, Laura C.; Kay, Gillian; Kruijt, Bart; Lowe, Jason A.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Ridley, Jeff; Srokosz, Meric; Turley, Carol; Williamson, Phillip

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews recent scientific progress, relating to four major systems that could exhibit threshold behaviour: ice sheets, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), tropical forests and ecosystem responses to ocean acidification. The focus is on advances since the

  7. Verifiable Secret Redistribution for Threshold Sharing Schemes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Theodore M; Wang, Chenxi; Wing, Jeannette M

    2002-01-01

    .... Our protocol guards against dynamic adversaries. We observe that existing protocols either cannot be readily extended to allow redistribution between different threshold schemes, or have vulnerabilities that allow faulty old shareholders...

  8. Thresholding projection estimators in functional linear models

    OpenAIRE

    Cardot, Hervé; Johannes, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the regression function in functional linear regression models by proposing a new type of projection estimators which combine dimension reduction and thresholding. The introduction of a threshold rule allows to get consistency under broad assumptions as well as minimax rates of convergence under additional regularity hypotheses. We also consider the particular case of Sobolev spaces generated by the trigonometric basis which permits to get easily mean squ...

  9. Noise thresholds for optical quantum computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Christopher M; Haselgrove, Henry L; Nielsen, Michael A

    2006-01-20

    In this Letter we numerically investigate the fault-tolerant threshold for optical cluster-state quantum computing. We allow both photon loss noise and depolarizing noise (as a general proxy for all local noise), and obtain a threshold region of allowed pairs of values for the two types of noise. Roughly speaking, our results show that scalable optical quantum computing is possible for photon loss probabilities <3 x 10(-3), and for depolarization probabilities <10(-4).

  10. Design of Threshold Controller Based Chaotic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, I. Raja; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2010-01-01

    We propose a very simple implementation of a second-order nonautonomous chaotic oscillator, using a threshold controller as the only source of nonlinearity. We demonstrate the efficacy and simplicity of our design through numerical and experimental results. Further, we show that this approach...... of using a threshold controller as a nonlinear element, can be extended to obtain autonomous and multiscroll chaotic attractor circuits as well....

  11. A New Wavelet Threshold Function and Denoising Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jing-yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the effects of denoising, this paper introduces the basic principles of wavelet threshold denoising and traditional structures threshold functions. Meanwhile, it proposes wavelet threshold function and fixed threshold formula which are both improved here. First, this paper studies the problems existing in the traditional wavelet threshold functions and introduces the adjustment factors to construct the new threshold function basis on soft threshold function. Then, it studies the fixed threshold and introduces the logarithmic function of layer number of wavelet decomposition to design the new fixed threshold formula. Finally, this paper uses hard threshold, soft threshold, Garrote threshold, and improved threshold function to denoise different signals. And the paper also calculates signal-to-noise (SNR and mean square errors (MSE of the hard threshold functions, soft thresholding functions, Garrote threshold functions, and the improved threshold function after denoising. Theoretical analysis and experimental results showed that the proposed approach could improve soft threshold functions with constant deviation and hard threshold with discontinuous function problems. The proposed approach could improve the different decomposition scales that adopt the same threshold value to deal with the noise problems, also effectively filter the noise in the signals, and improve the SNR and reduce the MSE of output signals.

  12. Validation and evaluation of epistemic uncertainty in rainfall thresholds for regional scale landslide forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Brunetti, Maria Teresa; Iovine, Giulio; Melillo, Massimo; Peruccacci, Silvia; Terranova, Oreste Giuseppe; Vennari, Carmela; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Prediction of rainfall-induced landslides can rely on empirical rainfall thresholds. These are obtained from the analysis of past rainfall events that have (or have not) resulted in slope failures. Accurate prediction requires reliable thresholds, which need to be validated before their use in operational landslide warning systems. Despite the clear relevance of validation, only a few studies have addressed the problem, and have proposed and tested robust validation procedures. We propose a validation procedure that allows for the definition of optimal thresholds for early warning purposes. The validation is based on contingency table, skill scores, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. To establish the optimal threshold, which maximizes the correct landslide predictions and minimizes the incorrect predictions, we propose an index that results from the linear combination of three weighted skill scores. Selection of the optimal threshold depends on the scope and the operational characteristics of the early warning system. The choice is made by selecting appropriately the weights, and by searching for the optimal (maximum) value of the index. We discuss weakness in the validation procedure caused by the inherent lack of information (epistemic uncertainty) on landslide occurrence typical of large study areas. When working at the regional scale, landslides may have occurred and may have not been reported. This results in biases and variations in the contingencies and the skill scores. We introduce two parameters to represent the unknown proportion of rainfall events (above and below the threshold) for which landslides occurred and went unreported. We show that even a very small underestimation in the number of landslides can result in a significant decrease in the performance of a threshold measured by the skill scores. We show that the variations in the skill scores are different for different uncertainty of events above or below the threshold. This

  13. How indexes have changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    The accompanying table compares refinery construction and operating wages monthly for the years 1990 and 1991. The Nelson-Farrar refinery construction cost indexes are inflation indexes, while the operating indexes incorporate a productivity which shows improvement with experience and the increasing size of operations. The refinery construction wage indexes in the table show a steady advance over the 2-year period. Common labor indexes moved up faster than skilled indexes. Refinery operating wages showed a steady increase, while productivities averaged higher near the end of the period. Net result is that labor costs remained steady for the period

  14. Development of Thresholds and Exceedance Probabilities for Influent Water Quality to Meet Drinking Water Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, K. L.; Samson, C.; Summers, R. S.; Balaji, R.

    2017-12-01

    Drinking water treatment utilities (DWTU) are tasked with the challenge of meeting disinfection and disinfection byproduct (DBP) regulations to provide safe, reliable drinking water under changing climate and land surface characteristics. DBPs form in drinking water when disinfectants, commonly chlorine, react with organic matter as measured by total organic carbon (TOC), and physical removal of pathogen microorganisms are achieved by filtration and monitored by turbidity removal. Turbidity and TOC in influent waters to DWTUs are expected to increase due to variable climate and more frequent fires and droughts. Traditional methods for forecasting turbidity and TOC require catchment specific data (i.e. streamflow) and have difficulties predicting them under non-stationary climate. A modelling framework was developed to assist DWTUs with assessing their risk for future compliance with disinfection and DBP regulations under changing climate. A local polynomial method was developed to predict surface water TOC using climate data collected from NOAA, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the IRI Data Library, and historical TOC data from three DWTUs in diverse geographic locations. Characteristics from the DWTUs were used in the EPA Water Treatment Plant model to determine thresholds for influent TOC that resulted in DBP concentrations within compliance. Lastly, extreme value theory was used to predict probabilities of threshold exceedances under the current climate. Results from the utilities were used to produce a generalized TOC threshold approach that only requires water temperature and bromide concentration. The threshold exceedance model will be used to estimate probabilities of exceedances under projected climate scenarios. Initial results show that TOC can be forecasted using widely available data via statistical methods, where temperature, precipitation, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and NDVI with various lags were shown to be important

  15. Identifying Threshold Concepts for Information Literacy: A Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Townsend

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used the Delphi method to engage expert practitioners on the topic of threshold concepts for information literacy. A panel of experts considered two questions. First, is the threshold concept approach useful for information literacy instruction? The panel unanimously agreed that the threshold concept approach holds potential for information literacy instruction. Second, what are the threshold concepts for information literacy instruction? The panel proposed and discussed over fifty potential threshold concepts, finally settling on six information literacy threshold concepts.

  16. Spectral singularities, threshold gain, and output intensity for a slab laser with mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Keremcan; Mostafazadeh, Ali; Sarısaman, Mustafa

    2018-05-01

    We explore the consequences of the emergence of linear and nonlinear spectral singularities in TE modes of a homogeneous slab of active optical material that is placed between two mirrors. We use the results together with two basic postulates regarding the behavior of laser light emission to derive explicit expressions for the laser threshold condition and output intensity for these modes of the slab and discuss their physical implications. In particular, we reveal the details of the dependence of the threshold gain and output intensity on the position and properties of the mirrors and on the real part of the refractive index of the gain material.

  17. QRS Detection Based on Improved Adaptive Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanyu Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the first cause of death around the world. In accomplishing quick and accurate diagnosis, automatic electrocardiogram (ECG analysis algorithm plays an important role, whose first step is QRS detection. The threshold algorithm of QRS complex detection is known for its high-speed computation and minimized memory storage. In this mobile era, threshold algorithm can be easily transported into portable, wearable, and wireless ECG systems. However, the detection rate of the threshold algorithm still calls for improvement. An improved adaptive threshold algorithm for QRS detection is reported in this paper. The main steps of this algorithm are preprocessing, peak finding, and adaptive threshold QRS detecting. The detection rate is 99.41%, the sensitivity (Se is 99.72%, and the specificity (Sp is 99.69% on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. A comparison is also made with two other algorithms, to prove our superiority. The suspicious abnormal area is shown at the end of the algorithm and RR-Lorenz plot drawn for doctors and cardiologists to use as aid for diagnosis.

  18. Cost-effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Melanie Y; Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost-effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost-effectiveness thresholds allow cost-effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost-effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country's per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this - in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost-effectiveness ratios - can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost-effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations - e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations - in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost-effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair.

  19. At-Risk-of-Poverty Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táňa Dvornáková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC is a survey on households’ living conditions. The main aim of the survey is to get long-term comparable data on social and economic situation of households. Data collected in the survey are used mainly in connection with the evaluation of income poverty and determinationof at-risk-of-poverty rate. This article deals with the calculation of the at risk-of-poverty threshold based on data from EU-SILC 2009. The main task is to compare two approaches to the computation of at riskof-poverty threshold. The first approach is based on the calculation of the threshold for each country separately,while the second one is based on the calculation of the threshold for all states together. The introduction summarizes common attributes in the calculation of the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, such as disposable household income, equivalised household income. Further, different approaches to both calculations are introduced andadvantages and disadvantages of these approaches are stated. Finally, the at-risk-of-poverty rate calculation is described and comparison of the at-risk-of-poverty rates based on these two different approaches is made.

  20. Threshold concepts in finance: student perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Kyng, Tim; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.

    2015-10-01

    Finance threshold concepts are the essential conceptual knowledge that underpin well-developed financial capabilities and are central to the mastery of finance. In this paper we investigate threshold concepts in finance from the point of view of students, by establishing the extent to which students are aware of threshold concepts identified by finance academics. In addition, we investigate the potential of a framework of different types of knowledge to differentiate the delivery of the finance curriculum and the role of modelling in finance. Our purpose is to identify ways to improve curriculum design and delivery, leading to better student outcomes. Whilst we find that there is significant overlap between what students identify as important in finance and the threshold concepts identified by academics, much of this overlap is expressed by indirect reference to the concepts. Further, whilst different types of knowledge are apparent in the student data, there is evidence that students do not necessarily distinguish conceptual from other types of knowledge. As well as investigating the finance curriculum, the research demonstrates the use of threshold concepts to compare and contrast student and academic perceptions of a discipline and, as such, is of interest to researchers in education and other disciplines.

  1. Comparison of Thresholds for Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage Induced by Pulsed-wave and B-mode Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas L.; Dou, Chunyan; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    Pulsed ultrasound was found to induce pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) in mice about 25 years ago but remains a poorly understood risk factor for pulmonary diagnostic ultrasound. In early research using laboratory fixed beam ultrasound, thresholds for PCH had frequency variation from 1-4 MHz similar to the Mechanical Index. In recent research, thresholds for B mode diagnostic ultrasound from 1.5-12 MHz had little dependence on frequency. To compare the diagnostic ultrasound method to laboratory pulsed exposure, thresholds for fixed beam ultrasound were determined using comparable methods at 1.5 and 7.5 MHz. PCH thresholds were lower for simple fixed-beam pulse modes than for B mode and in approximate agreement with early research. However, for comparable timing parameters, PCH thresholds had little dependence on ultrasonic frequency. These findings suggest that the MI may not be directly useful as a dosimetric parameter for safety guidance in pulmonary ultrasound.

  2. Western Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  3. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  4. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  5. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  6. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  7. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  8. Psychophysical thresholds of face visibility during infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelskov, Sofie; Kouider, Sid

    2010-01-01

    The ability to detect and focus on faces is a fundamental prerequisite for developing social skills. But how well can infants detect faces? Here, we address this question by studying the minimum duration at which faces must appear to trigger a behavioral response in infants. We used a preferential...... looking method in conjunction with masking and brief presentations (300 ms and below) to establish the temporal thresholds of visibility at different stages of development. We found that 5 and 10 month-old infants have remarkably similar visibility thresholds about three times higher than those of adults....... By contrast, 15 month-olds not only revealed adult-like thresholds, but also improved their performance through memory-based strategies. Our results imply that the development of face visibility follows a non-linear course and is determined by a radical improvement occurring between 10 and 15 months....

  9. Stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in fiber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Liping; Chang Liping

    2011-01-01

    Based on the wave coupling theory and the evolution model of the critical pump power (or Brillouin threshold) for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in double-clad fiber amplifiers, the influence of signal bandwidth, fiber-core diameter and amplifier gain on SBS threshold is simulated theoretically. And experimental measurements of SBS are presented in ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifiers with single-frequency hundred nanosecond pulse amplification. Under different input signal pulses, the forward amplified pulse distortion is observed when the pulse energy is up to 660 nJ and the peak power is up to 3.3 W in the pulse amplification with pulse duration of 200 ns and repetition rate of 1 Hz. And the backward SBS narrow pulse appears. The pulse peak power equals to SBS threshold. Good agreement is shown between the modeled and experimental data. (authors)

  10. Threshold Theory Tested in an Organizational Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo T.; Hartmann, Peter V. W.; Hedegaard Rasmussen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A large sample of leaders (N = 4257) was used to test the link between leader innovativeness and intelligence. The threshold theory of the link between creativity and intelligence assumes that below a certain IQ level (approximately IQ 120), there is some correlation between IQ and creative...... potential, but above this cutoff point, there is no correlation. Support for the threshold theory of creativity was found, in that the correlation between IQ and innovativeness was positive and significant below a cutoff point of IQ 120. Above the cutoff, no significant relation was identified, and the two...... correlations differed significantly. The finding was stable across distinct parts of the sample, providing support for the theory, although the correlations in all subsamples were small. The findings lend support to the existence of threshold effects using perceptual measures of behavior in real...

  11. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saritas, Emine U., E-mail: saritas@ee.bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); National Magnetic Resonance Research Center (UMRAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Goodwill, Patrick W. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Conolly, Steven M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Department of EECS, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  12. Thresholds of ion turbulence in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Laurent, L.; Mourgues, F.; Roubin, J.P.; Samain, A.; Zou, X.L.

    1991-01-01

    The linear thresholds of ionic turbulence are numerically calculated for the Tokamaks JET and TORE SUPRA. It is proved that the stability domain at η i >0 is determined by trapped ion modes and is characterized by η i ≥1 and a threshold L Ti /R of order (0.2/0.3)/(1+T i /T e ). The latter value is significantly smaller than what has been previously predicted. Experimental temperature profiles in heated discharges are usually marginal with respect to this criterium. It is also shown that the eigenmodes are low frequency, low wavenumber ballooned modes, which may produce a very large transport once the threshold ion temperature gradient is reached

  13. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  14. Determining lower threshold concentrations for synergistic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergager, Maj-Britt Andersen; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Kretschmann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    which proven synergists cease to act as synergists towards the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna. To do this, we compared several approaches and test-setups to evaluate which approach gives the most conservative estimate for the lower threshold for synergy for three known azole synergists. We focus...... on synergistic interactions between the pyrethroid insecticide, alpha-cypermethrin, and one of the three azole fungicides prochloraz, propiconazole or epoxiconazole measured on Daphnia magna immobilization. Three different experimental setups were applied: A standard 48h acute toxicity test, an adapted 48h test...... of immobile organisms increased more than two-fold above what was predicted by independent action (vertical assessment). All three tests confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of a lower azole threshold concentration below which no synergistic interaction was observed. The lower threshold concentration...

  15. Shifts in the relationship between motor unit recruitment thresholds versus derecruitment thresholds during fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Mota, Jacob A

    2017-12-01

    Muscle fatigue is associated with diminished twitch force amplitude. We examined changes in the motor unit recruitment versus derecruitment threshold relationship during fatigue. Nine men (mean age = 26 years) performed repeated isometric contractions at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) knee extensor force until exhaustion. Surface electromyographic signals were detected from the vastus lateralis, and were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains. Motor unit recruitment and derecruitment thresholds and firing rates at recruitment and derecruitment were evaluated at the beginning, middle, and end of the protocol. On average, 15 motor units were studied per contraction. For the initial contraction, three subjects showed greater recruitment thresholds than derecruitment thresholds for all motor units. Five subjects showed greater recruitment thresholds than derecruitment thresholds for only low-threshold motor units at the beginning, with a mean cross-over of 31.6% MVC. As the muscle fatigued, many motor units were derecruited at progressively higher forces. In turn, decreased slopes and increased y-intercepts were observed. These shifts were complemented by increased firing rates at derecruitment relative to recruitment. As the vastus lateralis fatigued, the central nervous system's compensatory adjustments resulted in a shift of the regression line of the recruitment versus derecruitment threshold relationship. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The threshold photoelectron spectrum of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, H; Dawber, G; Gulley, N; King, G C; Bowring, N; Ward, R

    2013-01-01

    The threshold photoelectron spectrum of mercury has been recorded over the energy range (10–40 eV) which covers the region from the lowest state of the singly charged ion, 5d 10 6s( 2 S 1/2 ), to the double charged ionic state, 5d 9 ( 2 D 3/2 )6s( 1 D 2 ). Synchrotron radiation has been used in conjunction with the penetrating-field threshold-electron technique to obtain the spectrum with high resolution. The spectrum shows many more features than observed in previous photoemission measurements with many of these assigned to satellite states converging to the double ionization limit. (paper)

  17. Near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendels, E.

    2005-01-01

    The near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams is derived from their configuration space representation, by performing all x integrations. The general scalar Feynman diagram is considered, with an arbitrary number of external momenta, an arbitrary number of internal lines and an arbitrary number of loops, in n dimensions and all masses may be different. The expansions are considered both below and above threshold. Rules, giving real and imaginary part, are derived. Unitarity of a sunset diagram with I internal lines is checked in a direct way by showing that its imaginary part is equal to the phase space integral of I particles

  18. Thresholds in Xeric Hydrology and Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.; Simpson, S. C.; Soto, C. D.; Yuan, F.; Turner, D.; Richter, H.

    2011-12-01

    Due to water limitation, thresholds in hydrologic and biogeochemical processes are common in arid and semi-arid systems. Some of these thresholds such as those focused on rainfall runoff relationships have been well studied. However to gain a full picture of the role that thresholds play in driving the hydrology and biogeochemistry of xeric systems a full view of the entire array of processes at work is needed. Here a walk through the landscape of xeric systems will be conducted illustrating the powerful role of hydrologic thresholds on xeric system biogeochemistry. To understand xeric hydro-biogeochemistry two key ideas need to be focused on. First, it is important to start from a framework of reaction and transport. Second an understanding of the temporal and spatial components of thresholds that have a large impact on hydrologic and biogeochemical fluxes needs to be offered. In the uplands themselves episodic rewetting and drying of soils permits accelerated biogeochemical processing but also more gradual drainage of water through the subsurface than expected in simple conceptions of biogeochemical processes. Hydrologic thresholds (water content above hygroscopic) results in a stop start nutrient spiral of material across the landscape since runoff connecting uplands to xeric perennial riparian is episodic and often only transports materials a short distance (100's of m). This episodic movement results in important and counter-intuitive nutrient inputs to riparian zones but also significant processing and uptake of nutrients. The floods that transport these biogeochemicals also result in significant input to riparian groundwater and may be key to sustaining these critical ecosystems. Importantly the flood driven recharge process itself is a threshold process dependent on flood characteristics (floods greater than 100 cubic meters per second) and antecedent conditions (losing to near neutral gradients). Floods also appear to influence where arid and semi

  19. Double photoionization of helium near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.; Armen, G.B.; Sellin, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    There has been substantial recent experimental interest in the ratio of double-to-single photoionization of He near threshold following several theoretical observations that earlier measurements appear to overestimate the ratio, perhaps by as much as 25%, in the first several hundred eV above threshold. The authors recent measurements are 10%-15% below these earlier results and more recent results of Doerner et al. and Samson et al. are yet another 10% lower. The authors will compare these measurement with new data, not yet analyzed, and available theory

  20. Color image Segmentation using automatic thresholding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrabi, R.; Ben Braiek, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, entropy and between-class variance based thresholding methods for color images segmentation are studied. The maximization of the between-class variance (MVI) and the entropy (ME) have been used as a criterion functions to determine an optimal threshold to segment images into nearly homogenous regions. Segmentation results from the two methods are validated and the segmentation sensitivity for the test data available is evaluated, and a comparative study between these methods in different color spaces is presented. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the MVI method for color image segmentation.

  1. Rainfall threshold calculation for debris flow early warning in areas with scarcity of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hua-Li; Jiang, Yuan-Jun; Wang, Jun; Ou, Guo-Qiang

    2018-05-01

    Debris flows are natural disasters that frequently occur in mountainous areas, usually accompanied by serious loss of lives and properties. One of the most commonly used approaches to mitigate the risk associated with debris flows is the implementation of early warning systems based on well-calibrated rainfall thresholds. However, many mountainous areas have little data regarding rainfall and hazards, especially in debris-flow-forming regions. Therefore, the traditional statistical analysis method that determines the empirical relationship between rainstorms and debris flow events cannot be effectively used to calculate reliable rainfall thresholds in these areas. After the severe Wenchuan earthquake, there were plenty of deposits deposited in the gullies, which resulted in several debris flow events. The triggering rainfall threshold has decreased obviously. To get a reliable and accurate rainfall threshold and improve the accuracy of debris flow early warning, this paper developed a quantitative method, which is suitable for debris flow triggering mechanisms in meizoseismal areas, to identify rainfall threshold for debris flow early warning in areas with a scarcity of data based on the initiation mechanism of hydraulic-driven debris flow. First, we studied the characteristics of the study area, including meteorology, hydrology, topography and physical characteristics of the loose solid materials. Then, the rainfall threshold was calculated by the initiation mechanism of the hydraulic debris flow. The comparison with other models and with alternate configurations demonstrates that the proposed rainfall threshold curve is a function of the antecedent precipitation index (API) and 1 h rainfall. To test the proposed method, we selected the Guojuanyan gully, a typical debris flow valley that during the 2008-2013 period experienced several debris flow events, located in the meizoseismal areas of the Wenchuan earthquake, as a case study. The comparison with other

  2. Comparison between intensity- duration thresholds and cumulative rainfall thresholds for the forecasting of landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomarsino, Daniela; Rosi, Ascanio; Rossi, Guglielmo; Segoni, Samuele; Catani, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    This work makes a quantitative comparison between the results of landslide forecasting obtained using two different rainfall threshold models, one using intensity-duration thresholds and the other based on cumulative rainfall thresholds in an area of northern Tuscany of 116 km2. The first methodology identifies rainfall intensity-duration thresholds by means a software called MaCumBA (Massive CUMulative Brisk Analyzer) that analyzes rain-gauge records, extracts the intensities (I) and durations (D) of the rainstorms associated with the initiation of landslides, plots these values on a diagram, and identifies thresholds that define the lower bounds of the I-D values. A back analysis using data from past events can be used to identify the threshold conditions associated with the least amount of false alarms. The second method (SIGMA) is based on the hypothesis that anomalous or extreme values of rainfall are responsible for landslide triggering: the statistical distribution of the rainfall series is analyzed, and multiples of the standard deviation (σ) are used as thresholds to discriminate between ordinary and extraordinary rainfall events. The name of the model, SIGMA, reflects the central role of the standard deviations in the proposed methodology. The definition of intensity-duration rainfall thresholds requires the combined use of rainfall measurements and an inventory of dated landslides, whereas SIGMA model can be implemented using only rainfall data. These two methodologies were applied in an area of 116 km2 where a database of 1200 landslides was available for the period 2000-2012. The results obtained are compared and discussed. Although several examples of visual comparisons between different intensity-duration rainfall thresholds are reported in the international literature, a quantitative comparison between thresholds obtained in the same area using different techniques and approaches is a relatively undebated research topic.

  3. Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner

    2010-01-01

    The influence of index contrast variations for obtaining single-mode operation and low threshold in dye doped polymer two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) lasers is investigated. We consider lasers made from Pyrromethene 597 doped Ormocore imprinted with a rectangular lattice PhC having a cavity...

  4. Heritability estimates derived from threshold analyses for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    reproductive traits in a composite multibreed beef cattle herd using a threshold model. A GFCAT set of ..... pressure for longevity include low heritabilities, the increased generation interval necessary to obtain survival information, and automatic selection because long-lived cows contribute more offspring to subsequent ...

  5. Regression Discontinuity Designs Based on Population Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggers, Andrew C.; Freier, Ronny; Grembi, Veronica

    In many countries, important features of municipal government (such as the electoral system, mayors' salaries, and the number of councillors) depend on whether the municipality is above or below arbitrary population thresholds. Several papers have used a regression discontinuity design (RDD...

  6. Thresholding methods for PET imaging: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewalle-Vignion, A.S.; Betrouni, N.; Huglo, D.; Vermandel, M.; Dewalle-Vignion, A.S.; Hossein-Foucher, C.; Huglo, D.; Vermandel, M.; Dewalle-Vignion, A.S.; Hossein-Foucher, C.; Huglo, D.; Vermandel, M.; El Abiad, A.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with positron emission tomography segmentation methods for tumor volume determination. We propose a state of art techniques based on fixed or adaptive threshold. Methods found in literature are analysed with an objective point of view on their methodology, advantages and limitations. Finally, a comparative study is presented. (authors)

  7. Identification of Threshold Concepts for Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertscher, Jennifer; Green, David; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Lin, Sara; Minderhout, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    Threshold concepts (TCs) are concepts that, when mastered, represent a transformed understanding of a discipline without which the learner cannot progress. We have undertaken a process involving more than 75 faculty members and 50 undergraduate students to identify a working list of TCs for biochemistry. The process of identifying TCs for…

  8. The Resting Motor Threshold - Restless or Resting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Raffin, Estelle Emeline; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2015-01-01

    , the RMT of the right first dorsal interosseus muscle was repeatedly determined using a threshold-hunting procedure while participants performed motor imagery and visual attention tasks with the right or left hand. Data were analyzed using repeated-measure ANOVA. Results RMT differed depending on which...

  9. The gradual nature of threshold switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmer, M; Salinga, M

    2014-01-01

    The recent commercialization of electronic memories based on phase change materials proved the usability of this peculiar family of materials for application purposes. More advanced data storage and computing concepts, however, demand a deeper understanding especially of the electrical properties of the amorphous phase and the switching behaviour. In this work, we investigate the temporal evolution of the current through the amorphous state of the prototypical phase change material, Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 , under constant voltage. A custom-made electrical tester allows the measurement of delay times over five orders of magnitude, as well as the transient states of electrical excitation prior to the actual threshold switching. We recognize a continuous current increase over time prior to the actual threshold-switching event to be a good measure for the electrical excitation. A clear correlation between a significant rise in pre-switching-current and the later occurrence of threshold switching can be observed. This way, we found experimental evidence for the existence of an absolute minimum for the threshold voltage (or electric field respectively) holding also for time scales far beyond the measurement range. (paper)

  10. Multiparty Computation from Threshold Homomorphic Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to multiparty computation (MPC) basing it on homomorphic threshold crypto-systems. We show that given keys for any sufficiently efficient system of this type, general MPC protocols for n parties can be devised which are secure against an active adversary that corrupts...

  11. Classification error of the thresholded independence rule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Britta Anker; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    We consider classification in the situation of two groups with normally distributed data in the ‘large p small n’ framework. To counterbalance the high number of variables we consider the thresholded independence rule. An upper bound on the classification error is established which is taylored...

  12. Intraoperative transfusion threshold and tissue oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Dahl, B; Johansson, P I

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion with allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) may be needed to maintain oxygen delivery during major surgery, but the appropriate haemoglobin (Hb) concentration threshold has not been well established. We hypothesised that a higher level of Hb would be associated with improved subcutaneous...... oxygen tension during major spinal surgery....

  13. Handwriting Automaticity: The Search for Performance Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medwell, Jane; Wray, David

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that handwriting has an important role in written composition. In particular, handwriting automaticity appears to relate to success in composition. This relationship has been little explored in British contexts and we currently have little idea of what threshold performance levels might be. In this paper, we report on two…

  14. Grid - a fast threshold tracking procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Dau, Torsten; MacDonald, Ewen

    2016-01-01

    A new procedure, called “grid”, is evaluated that allows rapid acquisition of threshold curves for psychophysics and, in particular, psychoacoustic, experiments. In this method, the parameterresponse space is sampled in two dimensions within a single run. This allows the procedure to focus more e...

  15. 49 CFR 80.13 - Threshold criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed $30 million); (4) Project financing shall be repayable, in whole or in part, from tolls, user fees... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CREDIT ASSISTANCE FOR SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS... project shall meet the following five threshold criteria: (1) The project shall be consistent with the...

  16. Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossmann, Tobias; Schleede, Simone; Hauser, Mario

    2010-01-01

    element simulations confirm that lasing occurs in whispering gallery modes which corresponds well to the measured multimode laser-emission. The effect of dye concentration on lasing threshold and lasing wavelength is investigated and can be explained using a standard dye laser model....

  17. Microplastic effect thresholds for freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redondo Hasselerharm, P.E.; Dede Falahudin, Dede; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Now that microplastics have been detected in lakes, rivers and estuaries all over the globe, evaluating their effects on biota has become an urgent research priority. This is the first study that aims at determining the effect thresholds for a battery of six freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates

  18. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Conceptualizing the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.; Kyng, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Graduates with well-developed capabilities in finance are invaluable to our society and in increasing demand. Universities face the challenge of designing finance programmes to develop these capabilities and the essential knowledge that underpins them. Our research responds to this challenge by identifying threshold concepts that are central to…

  19. Distribution of sensory taste thresholds for phenylthiocarbamide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability to taste Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), a bitter organic compound has been described as a bimodal autosomal trait in both genetic and anthropological studies. This study is based on the ability of a person to taste PTC. The present study reports the threshold distribution of PTC taste sensitivity among some Muslim ...

  20. The acoustic reflex threshold in aging ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, C A; Silman, S; Miller, M H

    1983-01-01

    This study investigates the controversy regarding the influence of age on the acoustic reflex threshold for broadband noise, 500-, 1000-, 2000-, and 4000-Hz activators between Jerger et al. [Mono. Contemp. Audiol. 1 (1978)] and Jerger [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66 (1979)] on the one hand and Silman [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66 (1979)] and others on the other. The acoustic reflex thresholds for broadband noise, 500-, 1000-, 2000-, and 4000-Hz activators were evaluated under two measurement conditions. Seventy-two normal-hearing ears were drawn from 72 subjects ranging in age from 20-69 years. The results revealed that age was correlated with the acoustic reflex threshold for BBN activator but not for any of the tonal activators; the correlation was stronger under the 1-dB than under the 5-dB measurement condition. Also, the mean acoustic reflex thresholds for broadband noise activator were essentially similar to those reported by Jerger et al. (1978) but differed from those obtained in this study under the 1-dB measurement condition.

  1. Atherogenic Risk Factors and Hearing Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from c...

  2. Near threshold behavior of photoelectron satellite intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.; Becker, U.; Heimann, P.A.; Langer, B.

    1987-09-01

    The historical background and understanding of photoelectron satellite peaks is reviewed, using He(n), Ne(1s), Ne(2p), Ar(1s), and Ar(3s) as case studies. Threshold studies are emphasized. The classification of electron correlation effects as either ''intrinsic'' or ''dynamic'' is recommended. 30 refs., 7 figs

  3. Cost–effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cost–effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost–effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost–effectiveness thresholds allow cost–effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization’s Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost–effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country’s per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this – in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost–effectiveness ratios – can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost–effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations – e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations – in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost–effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair. PMID:27994285

  4. Multimodal distribution of human cold pain thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Dimova, Violeta; Lieb, Isabel; Zimmermann, Michael; Oertel, Bruno G; Ultsch, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    It is assumed that different pain phenotypes are based on varying molecular pathomechanisms. Distinct ion channels seem to be associated with the perception of cold pain, in particular TRPM8 and TRPA1 have been highlighted previously. The present study analyzed the distribution of cold pain thresholds with focus at describing the multimodality based on the hypothesis that it reflects a contribution of distinct ion channels. Cold pain thresholds (CPT) were available from 329 healthy volunteers (aged 18 - 37 years; 159 men) enrolled in previous studies. The distribution of the pooled and log-transformed threshold data was described using a kernel density estimation (Pareto Density Estimation (PDE)) and subsequently, the log data was modeled as a mixture of Gaussian distributions using the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to optimize the fit. CPTs were clearly multi-modally distributed. Fitting a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to the log-transformed threshold data revealed that the best fit is obtained when applying a three-model distribution pattern. The modes of the identified three Gaussian distributions, retransformed from the log domain to the mean stimulation temperatures at which the subjects had indicated pain thresholds, were obtained at 23.7 °C, 13.2 °C and 1.5 °C for Gaussian #1, #2 and #3, respectively. The localization of the first and second Gaussians was interpreted as reflecting the contribution of two different cold sensors. From the calculated localization of the modes of the first two Gaussians, the hypothesis of an involvement of TRPM8, sensing temperatures from 25 - 24 °C, and TRPA1, sensing cold from 17 °C can be derived. In that case, subjects belonging to either Gaussian would possess a dominance of the one or the other receptor at the skin area where the cold stimuli had been applied. The findings therefore support a suitability of complex analytical approaches to detect mechanistically determined patterns from pain phenotype data.

  5. Identifying thresholds for ecosystem-based management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameal F Samhouri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the greatest obstacles to moving ecosystem-based management (EBM from concept to practice is the lack of a systematic approach to defining ecosystem-level decision criteria, or reference points that trigger management action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assist resource managers and policymakers in developing EBM decision criteria, we introduce a quantitative, transferable method for identifying utility thresholds. A utility threshold is the level of human-induced pressure (e.g., pollution at which small changes produce substantial improvements toward the EBM goal of protecting an ecosystem's structural (e.g., diversity and functional (e.g., resilience attributes. The analytical approach is based on the detection of nonlinearities in relationships between ecosystem attributes and pressures. We illustrate the method with a hypothetical case study of (1 fishing and (2 nearshore habitat pressure using an empirically-validated marine ecosystem model for British Columbia, Canada, and derive numerical threshold values in terms of the density of two empirically-tractable indicator groups, sablefish and jellyfish. We also describe how to incorporate uncertainty into the estimation of utility thresholds and highlight their value in the context of understanding EBM trade-offs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For any policy scenario, an understanding of utility thresholds provides insight into the amount and type of management intervention required to make significant progress toward improved ecosystem structure and function. The approach outlined in this paper can be applied in the context of single or multiple human-induced pressures, to any marine, freshwater, or terrestrial ecosystem, and should facilitate more effective management.

  6. Do multiple body modifications alter pain threshold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamotová, A; Hrabák, P; Hříbek, P; Rokyta, R

    2017-12-30

    In recent years, epidemiological data has shown an increasing number of young people who deliberately self-injure. There have also been parallel increases in the number of people with tattoos and those who voluntarily undergo painful procedures associated with piercing, scarification, and tattooing. People with self-injury behaviors often say that they do not feel the pain. However, there is no information regarding pain perception in those that visit tattoo parlors and piercing studios compared to those who don't. The aim of this study was to compare nociceptive sensitivity in four groups of subjects (n=105, mean age 26 years, 48 women and 57 men) with different motivations to experience pain (i.e., with and without multiple body modifications) in two different situations; (1) in controlled, emotionally neutral conditions, and (2) at a "Hell Party" (HP), an event organized by a piercing and tattoo parlor, with a main event featuring a public demonstration of painful techniques (burn scars, hanging on hooks, etc.). Pain thresholds of the fingers of the hand were measured using a thermal stimulator and mechanical algometer. In HP participants, information about alcohol intake, self-harming behavior, and psychiatric history were used in the analysis as intervening variables. Individuals with body modifications as well as without body modifications had higher thermal pain thresholds at Hell Party, compared to thresholds measured at control neutral conditions. No such differences were found relative to mechanical pain thresholds. Increased pain threshold in all HP participants, irrespectively of body modification, cannot be simply explained by a decrease in the sensory component of pain; instead, we found that the environment significantly influenced the cognitive and affective component of pain.

  7. Body Mass Index below Obesity Threshold Implies Similar Cardiovascular Risk among Various Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagir, Gulay Simsek; Bakiner, Okan S; Bozkirli, Emre; Cavlak, Gulhan; Serinsoz, Hulya; Ertorer, M Eda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cardiometabolic risk factors in different polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes. This cross-sectional study was performed between 2010 and 2011. Eighty-nine patients with PCOS and 25 age- and weight-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Patients were grouped using the Rotterdam 2003 criteria as: group 1, oligomenorrhea and/or anovulation (ANOV) and hyperandrogenemia (HA) and/or hyperandrogenism (n = 23); group 2, ANOV and polycystic ovaries (PCO; n = 22); group 3, HA and PCO (n = 22); group 4, ANOV, HA and PCO (n = 22); group 5, controls (n = 25). Laboratory blood tests for diagnosis and cardiometabolic risk assessments were performed. Insulin resistance (IR) was calculated in all patients with the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) formula. An euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp test was performed on 5 randomly selected cases in each subgroup, making 25 cases in total, and indicated as the 'M' value (mg/kg/min), which is the total body glucose disposal rate. The mean BMl values of the groups were: group 1, 26.1 ± 5.3; group 2, 27.9 ± 5.2; group 3, 24.3 ± 4.2; group 4, 27.9 ± 7.5; group 5, 24.7 ± 5.2 (p > 0.05). There were no differences in the lipid profile, plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, insulin and M values between the groups (p > 0.05). Phenotypes with oligomenorrhea/anovulation (groups 1, 2 and 4) were more obese than group 3 (p = 0.039). The cardiometabolic risk profile was similar among the PCOS subgroups. This finding could be attributed to the mean BMl values, which, being below 30, were not within the obesity range. Obesity appeared to be an important determinant of high cardiovascular risk in PCOS. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  9. Supplement: Commodity Index Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — Shows index traders in selected agricultural markets. These traders are drawn from the noncommercial and commercial categories. The noncommercial category includes...

  10. Indexing mergers and acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Jianhua; Guo, Jie (Michael); Hu, Nan; Li, Xi

    2017-01-01

    We measure the efficiency of mergers and acquisitions by putting forward an index (the ‘M&A Index’) based on stochastic frontier analysis. The M&A Index is calculated for each takeover deal and is standardized between 0 and 1. An acquisition with a higher index encompasses higher efficiency. We find that takeover bids with higher M&A Indices are more likely to succeed. Moreover, the M&A Index shows a strong and positive relation with the acquirers’ post-acquisition stock perfo...

  11. Computer simulation study of the displacement threshold-energy surface in Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.E.; Benedek, R.

    1981-01-01

    Computer simulations were performed using the molecular-dynamics technique to determine the directional dependence of the threshold energy for production of stable Frenkel pairs in copper. Sharp peaks were observed in the simulated threshold energy surface in between the low-index directions. Threshold energies ranged from approx.25 eV for directions near or to 180 eV at the position of the peak between and . The general topographical features of the simulated threshold-energy surface are in good agreement with those determined from an analysis of recent experiments by King et al. on the basis of a Frenkel-pair resistivity rho/sub F/ = 2.85 x 10 -4 Ω cm. Evidence is presented in favor of this number as opposed to the usually assumed value, rho/sub F/ = 2.00 x 10 -4 Ω cm. The energy dependence of defect production in a number of directions was investigated to determine the importance of nonproductive events above threshold

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 501 - 550 of 644 ... Vol 27, No 3 (2015), Supra-treatment threshold neonatal jaundice: Incidence in HIV-exposed compared to non-exposed neonates at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi, Abstract PDF. W Nakanga, P Patel, S Panjwani, N Kennedy, K Kawaza. Vol 13, No 3 (2001), Surgical bacterial ...

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 643 ... Vol 7, No 3 (2004), glycemic control and pain threshold in alloxan diabetic rats, Abstract PDF. GF Ibironke, OJ Saba, FO Olopade ... Vol 7, No 3 (2004), Heavy metal contamination of Clarias gariepinus from a lake and fish farm in Ibadan, Nigeria, Abstract PDF. FE Olaifa, AK Olaifa, AA Adelaja, AG ...

  14. Differential equation models for sharp threshold dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harrison C; Dimitrov, Nedialko B

    2014-01-01

    We develop an extension to differential equation models of dynamical systems to allow us to analyze probabilistic threshold dynamics that fundamentally and globally change system behavior. We apply our novel modeling approach to two cases of interest: a model of infectious disease modified for malware where a detection event drastically changes dynamics by introducing a new class in competition with the original infection; and the Lanchester model of armed conflict, where the loss of a key capability drastically changes the effectiveness of one of the sides. We derive and demonstrate a step-by-step, repeatable method for applying our novel modeling approach to an arbitrary system, and we compare the resulting differential equations to simulations of the system's random progression. Our work leads to a simple and easily implemented method for analyzing probabilistic threshold dynamics using differential equations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Gamin partable radiation meter with alarm threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payat, Rene.

    1981-10-01

    The Gamin Radiation meter is a direct reading, portable, battery-powered gamma doserate meter featuring alarm thresholds. Doserate is read on a micro-ammeter with a millirad-per-hour logarithmic scale, covering a range of 0,1 to 1000 millirads/hour. The instrument issues an audible warning signal when dose-rate level exceeds a threshold value, which can be selected. The detector tube is of the Geiger-Muller counter, energy compensated type. Because of its low battery drain, the instrument can be operated continously for 1000 hours. It is powered by four 1.5 volt alcaline batteries of the R6 type. The electronic circuitry is housed in a small lightweight case made of impact resistant plastic. Applications of the Gamin portable radiation monitor are found in health physics, safety departments, medical facilities, teaching, civil defense [fr

  16. Rayleigh scattering from ions near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.C.; Gupta, S.K.S.; Kissel, L.; Pratt, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical studies of Rayleigh scattering of photons from neon atoms with different degrees of ionization, for energies both below and above the K-edges of the ions, are presented. Some unexpected structures both in Rayleigh scattering and in photoionization from neutral and weakly ionized atoms, very close to threshold, have been reported. It has recently been realized that some of the predicted structures may have a nonphysical origin and are due to the limitation of the independent-particle model and also to the use of a Coulombic Latter tail. Use of a K-shell vacancy potential - in which an electron is assumed to be removed from the K-shell - in calculating K-shell Rayleigh scattering amplitudes removes some of the structure effects near threshold. We present in this work a discussion of scattering angular distributions and total cross sections, obtained utilizing vacancy potentials, and compare these predictions with those previously obtained in other potential model. (author) [pt

  17. Edith Wharton's threshold phobia and two worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Deanna; Kulish, Nancy

    2014-08-01

    The American novelist Edith Wharton suffered an unusual childhood neurotic symptom, a fear of crossing thresholds, a condition that might be called a "threshold phobia." This symptom is identified and examined in autobiographical material, letters, diaries, and selected literary fiction and nonfiction left by Wharton to arrive at a formulation not previously drawn together. A fascinating theme-living or being trapped between "two worlds"-runs through much of the writer's life and work. The phobia is related to this theme, and both can be linked more broadly to certain sexual conflicts in women. This understanding of Wharton's phobia, it is argued, throws new light on the developmental issues and conflicts related to the female "oedipal" or triadic phase, characterized by the need to negotiate the two worlds of mother and of father. © 2014 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  18. Ultracompact low-threshold organic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deotare, Parag B; Mahony, Thomas S; Bulović, Vladimir

    2014-11-25

    We report an ultracompact low-threshold laser with an Alq3:DCM host:guest molecular organic thin film gain layer. The device uses a photonic crystal nanobeam cavity which provides a high quality factor to mode volume (Q/V) ratio and increased spontaneous emission factor along with a small footprint. Lasing is observed with a threshold of 4.2 μJ/cm(2) when pumped by femtosecond pulses of λ = 400 nm wavelength light. We also model the dynamics of the laser and show good agreement with the experimental data. The inherent waveguide geometry of the structure enables easy on-chip integration with potential applications in biochemical sensing, inertial sensors, and data communication.

  19. Predicting visual acuity from detection thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newacheck, J S; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G; Adams, A J

    1990-03-01

    Visual performance based exclusively on high luminance and high contrast letter acuity measures often fails to predict individual performance at low contrast and low luminance. Here we measured visual acuity over a wide range of contrasts and luminances (low mesopic to photopic) for 17 young normal observers. Acuity vs. contrast functions appear to fit a single template which can be displaced laterally along the log contrast axis. The magnitude of this lateral displacement for different luminances was well predicted by the contrast threshold difference for a 4 min arc spot. The acuity vs. contrast template, taken from the mean of all 17 subjects, was used in conjunction with individual spot contrast threshold measures to predict an individual's visual acuity over a wide range of luminance and contrast levels. The accuracy of the visual acuity predictions from this simple procedure closely approximates test-retest accuracy for both positive (projected Landolt rings) and negative contrast (Bailey-Lovie charts).

  20. The monolithic double-threshold discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baturitsky, M.A.; Dvornikov, O.V.

    1999-01-01

    A double-threshold discriminator capable of processing input signals of different duration is described. Simplicity of the discriminator circuitry makes it possible to embody the discriminator in multichannel ICs using microwave bipolar-JFET technology. Time walk is calculated to be less than 0.35 ns for the input ramp signals with rise times 25-100 ns and amplitudes 50 mV-1 V

  1. Factors affecting mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Descriptive, prospective cohort. Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and clinical settings. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  2. Threshold Learning Dynamics in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Avella, Juan Carlos; Eguíluz, Victor M.; Marsili, Matteo; Vega-Redondo, Fernado; San Miguel, Maxi

    2011-01-01

    Social learning is defined as the ability of a population to aggregate information, a process which must crucially depend on the mechanisms of social interaction. Consumers choosing which product to buy, or voters deciding which option to take with respect to an important issue, typically confront external signals to the information gathered from their contacts. Economic models typically predict that correct social learning occurs in large populations unless some individuals display unbounded influence. We challenge this conclusion by showing that an intuitive threshold process of individual adjustment does not always lead to such social learning. We find, specifically, that three generic regimes exist separated by sharp discontinuous transitions. And only in one of them, where the threshold is within a suitable intermediate range, the population learns the correct information. In the other two, where the threshold is either too high or too low, the system either freezes or enters into persistent flux, respectively. These regimes are generally observed in different social networks (both complex or regular), but limited interaction is found to promote correct learning by enlarging the parameter region where it occurs. PMID:21637714

  3. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease. (paper)

  4. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-06-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease.

  5. Treatment of threshold retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Dhanashree

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with our experience in the management of threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. A total of 45 eyes of 23 infants were subjected to treatment of threshold ROP. 26.1% of these infants had a birth weight of >l,500 gm. The preferred modality of treatment was laser indirect photocoagulation, which was facilitated by scleral depression. Cryopexy was done in cases with nondilating pupils or medial haze and was always under general anaesthesia. Retreatment with either modality was needed in 42.2% eyes; in this the skip areas were covered. Total regression of diseases was achieved in 91.1% eyes with no sequelae. All the 4 eyes that progressed to stage 5 despite treatment had zone 1 disease. Major treatment-induced complications did not occur in this series. This study underscores the importance of routine screening of infants upto 2,000 gm birth weight for ROP and the excellent response that is achieved with laser photocoagulation in inducing regression of threshold ROP. Laser is the preferred method of treatment in view of the absence of treatment-related morbidity to the premature infants.

  6. Acoustic emission sensor radiation damage threshold experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeson, K.M.; Pepper, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Determination of the threshold for damage to acoustic emission sensors exposed to radiation is important in their application to leak detection in radioactive waste transport and storage. Proper response to system leaks is necessary to ensure the safe operation of these systems. A radiation impaired sensor could provide ''false negative or false positive'' indication of acoustic signals from leaks within the system. Research was carried out in the Radiochemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the beta/gamma radiation damage threshold for acoustic emission sensor systems. The individual system consisted of an acoustic sensor mounted with a two part epoxy onto a stainless steel waveguide. The systems were placed in an irradiation fixture and exposed to a Cobalt-60 source. After each irradiation, the sensors were recalibrated by Physical Acoustics Corporation. The results were compared to the initial calibrations performed prior to irradiation and a control group, not exposed to radiation, was used to validate the results. This experiment determines the radiation damage threshold of each acoustic sensor system and verifies its life expectancy, usefulness and reliability for many applications in radioactive environments

  7. Threshold photoelectron spectroscopy of acetaldehyde and acrolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yencha, Andrew J.; Siggel-King, Michele R.F.; King, George C.; Malins, Andrew E.R.; Eypper, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •High-resolution threshold photoelectron spectrum of acetaldehyde. •High-resolution threshold photoelectron spectrum of acrolein. •High-resolution total photoion yield spectrum of acetaldehyde. •High-resolution total photoion yield spectrum of acrolein. •Determination of vertical ionization potentials in acetaldehyde and acrolein. -- Abstract: High-resolution (6 meV and 12 meV) threshold photoelectron (TPE) spectra of acetaldehyde and acrolein (2-propenal) have been recorded over the valence binding energy region 10–20 eV, employing synchrotron radiation and a penetrating-field electron spectrometer. These TPE spectra are presented here for the first time. All of the band structures observed in the TPE spectra replicate those found in their conventional HeI photoelectron (PE) spectra. However, the relative band intensities are found to be dramatically different in the two types of spectra that are attributed to the different dominant operative formation mechanisms. In addition, some band shapes and their vertical ionization potentials are found to differ in the two types of spectra that are associated with the autoionization of Rydberg states in the two molecules

  8. Perspective: Uses and misuses of thresholds in diagnostic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jeremy L; Najarian, Robert M; Tierney, Lawrence M

    2010-03-01

    The concept of thresholds plays a vital role in decisions involving the initiation, continuation, and completion of diagnostic testing. Much research has focused on the development of explicit thresholds, in the form of practice guidelines and decision analyses. However, these tools are used infrequently; most medical decisions are made at the bedside, using implicit thresholds. Study of these thresholds can lead to a deeper understanding of clinical decision making. The authors examine some factors constituting individual clinicians' implicit thresholds. They propose a model for static thresholds using the concept of situational gravity to explain why some thresholds are high, and some low. Next, they consider the hypothetical effects of incorrect placement of thresholds (miscalibration) and changes to thresholds during diagnosis (manipulation). They demonstrate these concepts using common clinical scenarios. Through analysis of miscalibration of thresholds, the authors demonstrate some common maladaptive clinical behaviors, which are nevertheless internally consistent. They then explain how manipulation of thresholds gives rise to common cognitive heuristics including premature closure and anchoring. They also discuss the case where no threshold has been exceeded despite exhaustive collection of data, which commonly leads to application of the availability or representativeness heuristics. Awareness of implicit thresholds allows for a more effective understanding of the processes of medical decision making and, possibly, to the avoidance of detrimental heuristics and their associated medical errors. Research toward accurately defining these thresholds for individual physicians and toward determining their dynamic properties during the diagnostic process may yield valuable insights.

  9. Analysis in indexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2005-01-01

    is presented as an alternative and the paper discusses how this approach includes a broader range of analyses and how it requires a new set of actions from using this approach; analysis of the domain, users and indexers. The paper concludes that the two-step procedure to indexing is insufficient to explain...

  10. Rethinking image indexing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Dam

    2017-01-01

    Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785......Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785...

  11. GRI Index 2017

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This World Bank GRI Index 2017 provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting, the GRI Standards: Core option (https://www.globalreporting.org). T...

  12. 2016 GRI Index

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    This 2016 World Bank Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Index provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting GRI guidelines (https://www.globalrepo...

  13. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  14. EJSCREEN Supplementary Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 40 supplementary EJSCREEN indexes that are divided into 5 categories: EJ Index with supplementary demographic index, Supplementary EJ Index 1 with...

  15. Development of a Novel Quality Improvement Indicator Based on the Hemolysis Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Han Sung; Park, Min Jeong; Lee, Young Kyung; Kang, Hee Jung

    2016-11-01

    Hemolysis frequently causes preanalytical errors in laboratory measurements. We aimed to develop a quality improvement indicator for evaluating the extent of inappropriate procedures causing hemolysis in clinical samples collected in medical care units. We defined the threshold value of the hemolysis index (H index) causing significant interference with analyte measurement and analyzed the H index values of clinical samples in relation to the threshold. The H index threshold value causing a 10% bias in the measurement of lactate dehydrogenase was found to be 25. The monthly mean H index and monthly frequency of samples with an H index >25 were significantly different among the types of ward (P=0.001, respectively), and significantly decreased after replacement of a laboratory centrifuge lacking temperature control (20.6±0.58 vs 23.30±1.08, P=0.01; 23.4±1.69% vs 32.6±1.78%, P=0.01). The monthly mean H index and the monthly frequency of samples with an H index above a threshold value may be useful quality improvement indicators for detection of inappropriate procedures in the acquisition and handling of blood samples in medical care units.

  16. A Robust Threshold for Iterative Channel Estimation in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kalaycioglu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel threshold computation method for pilot symbol assisted iterative channel estimation in OFDM systems is considered. As the bits are transmitted in packets, the proposed technique is based on calculating a particular threshold for each data packet in order to select the reliable decoder output symbols to improve the channel estimation performance. Iteratively, additional pilot symbols are established according to the threshold and the channel is re-estimated with the new pilots inserted to the known channel estimation pilot set. The proposed threshold calculation method for selecting additional pilots performs better than non-iterative channel estimation, no threshold and fixed threshold techniques in poor HF channel simulations.

  17. Hydrometeorological threshold conditions for debris flow initiation in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Meyer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows, triggered by extreme precipitation events and rapid snow melt, cause considerable damage to the Norwegian infrastructure every year. To define intensity-duration (ID thresholds for debris flow initiation critical water supply conditions arising from intensive rainfall or snow melt were assessed on the basis of daily hydro-meteorological information for 502 documented debris flow events. Two threshold types were computed: one based on absolute ID relationships and one using ID relationships normalized by the local precipitation day normal (PDN. For each threshold type, minimum, medium and maximum threshold values were defined by fitting power law curves along the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the data population. Depending on the duration of the event, the absolute threshold intensities needed for debris flow initiation vary between 15 and 107 mm day−1. Since the PDN changes locally, the normalized thresholds show spatial variations. Depending on location, duration and threshold level, the normalized threshold intensities vary between 6 and 250 mm day−1. The thresholds obtained were used for a frequency analysis of over-threshold events giving an estimation of the exceedance probability and thus potential for debris flow events in different parts of Norway. The absolute thresholds are most often exceeded along the west coast, while the normalized thresholds are most frequently exceeded on the west-facing slopes of the Norwegian mountain ranges. The minimum thresholds derived in this study are in the range of other thresholds obtained for regions with a climate comparable to Norway. Statistics reveal that the normalized threshold is more reliable than the absolute threshold as the former shows no spatial clustering of debris flows related to water supply events captured by the threshold.

  18. Investment threshold and management reflection for industrial system cleaning: a case for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yiping

    2012-03-01

    The recognition that industrial activity plays an essential role in a sustainable society is now widespread. To understand the causal relationship between industrial pollution abatement expenditure and industrial system cleaning level in China is of considerable importance, especially under extremely rapid industrial growth and serious pressure of industrial pollutants abatement context. We use composite index assessment method and regression analysis in this paper. We establish the mathematical model between composite industrial cleaner index and investment intensity for industrial pollutants abatement, and analyze the effects of industrial pollutants treatment and discharge indicators on composite industrial cleaner index in China. Results show that: (1) There is significant nonlinear relationship between composite industrial cleaner index and investment intensity for industrial pollutants abatement. (2) From single indicator perspective, the effect of investment intensity on pollutants treatment indicators is positively, on the contrary, the effect of investment intensity on pollutants discharge indicators is negatively; (3) From decomposition cleaner index perspective, the effect of pollutants discharge level (process control) is higher than pollutants treatment capacity (end-of-pipe) on composite industrial cleaner index; (4) There is threshold between investment intensity and composite cleaner industrial index, it is a crucial reference scale for industrial environmental management in selected period.

  19. A new supersymmetric index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecotti, S.; Fendley, P.; Intriligator, K.; Vafa, C.

    1992-01-01

    We show that Tr(-1) F F e -βH is an index for N = 2 supersymmetric theories in two dimensions, in the sense that it is independent of almost all deformations of the theory. This index is related to the geometry of the vacua (Berry's curvature) and satisfies an exact differential equation as a function of β. For integrable theories we can also compute the index thermodynamically, using the exact S-matrix. The equivalence of these two results implies a highly non-trivial equivalence of a set of coupled integral equations with these differential equations, among them Painleve III and the affine Toda equations. (orig.)

  20. Wafer plane inspection with soft resist thresholding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Carl; Shi, Rui-fang; Wihl, Mark; Xiong, Yalin; Pang, Song

    2008-10-01

    Wafer Plane Inspection (WPI) is an inspection mode on the KLA-Tencor TeraScaTM platform that uses the high signalto- noise ratio images from the high numerical aperture microscope, and then models the entire lithographic process to enable defect detection on the wafer plane[1]. This technology meets the needs of some advanced mask manufacturers to identify the lithographically-significant defects while ignoring the other non-lithographically-significant defects. WPI accomplishes this goal by performing defect detection based on a modeled image of how the mask features would actually print in the photoresist. There are several advantages to this approach: (1) the high fidelity of the images provide a sensitivity advantage over competing approaches; (2) the ability to perform defect detection on the wafer plane allows one to only see those defects that have a printing impact on the wafer; (3) the use of modeling on the lithographic portion of the flow enables unprecedented flexibility to support arbitrary illumination profiles, process-window inspection in unit time, and combination modes to find both printing and non-printing defects. WPI is proving to be a valuable addition to the KLA-Tencor detection algorithm suite. The modeling portion of WPI uses a single resist threshold as the final step in the processing. This has been shown to be adequate on several advanced customer layers, but is not ideal for all layers. Actual resist chemistry has complicated processes including acid and base-diffusion and quench that are not consistently well-modeled with a single resist threshold. We have considered the use of an advanced resist model for WPI, but rejected it because the burdensome requirements for the calibration of the model were not practical for reticle inspection. This paper describes an alternative approach that allows for a "soft" resist threshold to be applied that provides a more robust solution for the most challenging processes. This approach is just

  1. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  2. Effect of threshold quantization in opportunistic splitting algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses algorithms to find the optimal threshold and also investigates the impact of threshold quantization on the scheduling outage performance of the opportunistic splitting scheduling algorithm. Since this algorithm aims at finding

  3. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling systems with per-user threshold

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2010-05-01

    A multiuser switched diversity scheduling scheme with per-user feedback threshold is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The conventional multiuser switched diversity scheduling scheme uses a single feedback threshold for every user, where the threshold is a function of the average signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the users as well as the number of users involved in the scheduling process. The proposed scheme, however, constructs a sequence of feedback thresholds instead of a single feedback threshold such that each user compares its channel quality with the corresponding feedback threshold in the sequence. Numerical and simulation results show that thanks to the flexibility of threshold selection, where a potentially different threshold can be used for each user, the proposed scheme provides a higher system capacity than that for the conventional scheme. © 2006 IEEE.

  4. Superstring threshold corrections to Yukawa couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Taylor, T.R.

    1992-12-01

    A general method of computing string corrections to the Kaehler metric and Yukawa couplings is developed at the one-loop level for a general compactification of the heterotic superstring theory. It also provides a direct determination of the so-called Green-Schwarz term. The matter metric has an infrared divergent part which reproduces the field-theoretical anomalous dimensions, and a moduli-dependent part which gives rise to threshold corrections in the physical Yukawa couplings. Explicit expressions are derived for symmetric orbifold compactifications. (author). 20 refs

  5. Double threshold discriminator for timing measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, A.R.; Oslopova, T.V.; Pestov, Yu.N.

    1995-01-01

    The new type of a discriminator is based on the idea of simultaneous time measurements at two different thresholds for each pulse. Instead of using two independent electronic TDC channels this discriminator produces an output pulse with the timing taking into account the information from two time measurements ''on-line''. The operation principle, analytical calculations and experimental results are presented. The time walk of the discriminator at the level of 10 ps in the range of the input pulse height of 0.2-1.5 V has been obtained. ((orig.))

  6. Near threshold absolute TDCS: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesel, T.; Schlemmer, P.; Roeder, J.; Frost, L.; Jung, K.; Ehrhardt, H.

    1992-01-01

    A new method, and first results for an impact energy 2 eV above the threshold of ionisation of helium, are presented for the measurement of absolute triple differential cross sections (TDCS) in a crossed beam experiment. The method is based upon measurement of beam/target overlap densities using known absolute total ionisation cross sections and of detection efficiencies using known absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS). For the present work the necessary absolute DDCS for 1 eV electrons had also to be measured. Results are presented for several different coplanar kinematics and are compared with recent DWBA calculations. (orig.)

  7. Computational analysis of thresholds for magnetophosphenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2012-01-01

    In international guidelines, basic restriction limits on the exposure of humans to low-frequency magnetic and electric fields are set with the objective of preventing the generation of phosphenes, visual sensations of flashing light not caused by light. Measured data on magnetophosphenes, i.e. phosphenes caused by a magnetically induced electric field on the retina, are available from volunteer studies. However, there is no simple way for determining the retinal threshold electric field or current density from the measured threshold magnetic flux density. In this study, the experimental field configuration of a previous study, in which phosphenes were generated in volunteers by exposing their heads to a magnetic field between the poles of an electromagnet, is computationally reproduced. The finite-element method is used for determining the induced electric field and current in five different MRI-based anatomical models of the head. The direction of the induced current density on the retina is dominantly radial to the eyeball, and the maximum induced current density is observed at the superior and inferior sides of the retina, which agrees with literature data on the location of magnetophosphenes at the periphery of the visual field. On the basis of computed data, the macroscopic retinal threshold current density for phosphenes at 20 Hz can be estimated as 10 mA m −2 (−20% to  + 30%, depending on the anatomical model); this current density corresponds to an induced eddy current of 14 μA (−20% to  + 10%), and about 20% of this eddy current flows through each eye. The ICNIRP basic restriction limit for the induced electric field in the case of occupational exposure is not exceeded until the magnetic flux density is about two to three times the measured threshold for magnetophosphenes, so the basic restriction limit does not seem to be conservative. However, the reasons for the non-conservativeness are purely technical: removal of the highest 1% of

  8. Threshold quantum cryptograph based on Grover's algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jianzhong; Qin Sujuan; Wen Qiaoyan; Zhu Fuchen

    2007-01-01

    We propose a threshold quantum protocol based on Grover's operator and permutation operator on one two-qubit signal. The protocol is secure because the dishonest parties can only extract 2 bits from 3 bits information of operation on one two-qubit signal while they have to introduce error probability 3/8. The protocol includes a detection scheme to resist Trojan horse attack. With probability 1/2, the detection scheme can detect a multi-qubit signal that is used to replace a single-qubit signal, while it makes every legitimate qubit invariant

  9. Tunable femtosecond lasers with low pump thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppo, Karen

    The work in this thesis is concerned with the development of tunable, femtosecond laser systems, exhibiting low pump threshold powers. The main motive for this work was the development of a low threshold, self-modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser in order to replace the conventional large-frame argon-ion pump laser with a more compact and efficient all-solid-state alternative. Results are also presented for an all-solid-state, self-modelocked Cr:LiSAF laser, however most of this work is concerned with self-modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser systems. In chapter 2, the operation of a regeneratively-initiated, and a hard-aperture self- modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser, pumped by an argon-ion laser, is discussed. Continuous- wave oscillation thresholds as low as 160mW have been demonstrated, along with self-modelocked threshold powers as low as 500mW. The measurement and suppression of phase noise on modelocked lasers is discussed in chapter 3. This is followed by a comparison of the phase noise characteristics of the regeneratively-initiated, and hard-aperture self-modelocked Ti:Al2O3 lasers. The use of a synchronously-operating, high resolution electron-optical streak camera in the evaluation of timing jitter is also presented. In chapter 4, the construction and self-modelocked operation of an all-solid-state Ti:Al2O3 laser is described. The all-solid-state alternative to the conventional argon-ion pump laser was a continuous-wave, intracavity-frequency doubled, diode-laser pumped Nd:YLF ring laser. At a total diode-laser pump power of 10W, this minilaser was capable of producing a single frequency output of 1W, at 523.5nm in a TEM00 beam. The remainder of this thesis looks at the operation of a self-modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser generating ultrashort pulses at wavelengths as long as 1053nm. The motive for this work was the development of an all-solid-state, self- modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser operating at 1053nm, for use as a master oscillator in a Nd:glass power chain.

  10. Indexes to Volume 75

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUBJECT INDEX. Mathematical .... A 10-Hz terawatt class Ti:sapphire laser system: Development and ... Indigenous development of a 2 kW RF-excited fast axial flow CO2 .... Polarized spectral features of human breast tissues through wavelet.

  11. Glycemic index and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Most snack foods Potatoes White rice Watermelon Meal Planning with the Glycemic Index When planning your meals: ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  12. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 1034 ... Vol 49, No 2 (2007), African Index Medicus: Improving access to African ... insulin therapy initiation among patients with type 2 diabetes attending a ... Risk Factors Implicated in Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), Abstract PDF.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 194 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 14, No 1 (2000), A functional categoriality of adjectives in ... Vol 1, No 1 (1987), Alienation and affirmation: The humanistic vision of Bessie Head, Abstract PDF.

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    Items 151 - 200 of 879 ... South African Journal of Higher Education. ... Browse Title Index ... in a USA school setting: Merging transition theory with a narrative approach, Abstract ... Citation analysis of theses and dissertations submitted at the ...

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    Items 601 - 650 of 879 ... South African Journal of Higher Education. ... Browse Title Index .... The challenge of thesis supervision in an art university, Abstract ... No 2 (2004), Robert Sternberg's mental self-government theory and its contribution to ...

  17. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  18. Browse Title Index

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    Items 51 - 100 of 346 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... and hygiene promotion services in Rungwe district, Tanzania, Abstract .... as seen in NIgerian teaching hospital: pattern and a simple classification, Abstract.

  19. Browse Title Index

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    Items 151 - 200 of 437 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... prospects and realistic strategies to its implementation in Nigeria\\'s Institute of ... and Communication Technology (ICT) in information dissemination, Abstract.

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 901 - 950 of 1355 ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... Vol 22, No 2 (2018), Performance evaluation of a locally fabricated sawdust fired oven for ...

  1. Browse Title Index

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    Items 301 - 350 of 788 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 26, No 1 (2018), Gender differentials in the perception of .... Vol 25, No 1 (2017), Impact of total quality management on students' academic performance in ...

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    Items 101 - 150 of 465 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... and twinning data of an igbo kindred during the Nigerian Civil War, Abstract ... on laboratory estimations with special reference to clinical chemistry, Abstract.

  3. National Death Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Death Index (NDI) is a centralized database of death record information on file in state vital statistics offices. Working with these state offices, the...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 1260 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Consumption of ammonia-nitrogen by aob in immobilized batch culture, Abstract PDF .... Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue, Design an automatic temperature ...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 294 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or .... S Edwards, M Hlongwane, J Thwala, N Robinson ... Vol 16, No 1 (2017), Infancy of internet cafe: The substitute of ubuntu-padare pedagogy, Abstract.

  6. Browse Title Index

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    Items 1 - 50 of 130 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... using the technological pedagogical content knowledge(TPACK) framework, Abstract PDF ... Tamara N. Hrin, Dušica D. Milenković, Mirjana D. Segedinac.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 278 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... drie paradigmas beskou: 'n eenheid, of 'n veelheid van perspektiewe? ... Vol 45, No 1 (2011), Genre pedagogy in the mediation of socially-situated literacies ...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 551 - 600 of 879 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... A James, E Ralfe, L van Laren, N Ngcobo ... 1 (2011), Recognition of prior learning in promoting lifelong learning: A pedagogy of hope or a shattering of dreams?

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 451 - 500 of 533 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... for past tense forms in Northern Sotho: verb stems with final 'm' and 'n', Abstract ... in an academic writing class: Implications for a dialogic pedagogy, Abstract.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 183 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 61 (2017), New interventions and sustainable solutions: .... Vol 35 (2011), Resurgence of tribal levies: Double taxation for the rural poor, Abstract PDF.

  11. Regional Snowfall Index (RSI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is now producing the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two thirds of the U.S. The...

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    Items 1 - 50 of 736 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 5 (2008), A Contagious Malady: The Human Quest for Truth through Religion, Abstract ... A Study of Politeness Strategies Used by the National University of ...

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 414 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... of an algebraic function for the permutation of truth table columns, Abstract ... appraisal and productivity levels in selected Nigerian universities, Abstract.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 879 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 20, No 4 (2006), Assessing academic potential for university admission: ... Vol 16, No 2 (2002), Book Review: Rethinking truth by Higgs, P & Smith, J, Details.

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    Items 1 - 50 of 165 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 43 (2011), Assessment of the Learning Commons takeoff at the University of ... the archive of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Abstract.

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    Items 1 - 50 of 644 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... Ethics review n international health research: quality assurance or bureaucratic nightmare? Details ... Audit of Management of Open Fractures, Details PDF.

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    Items 1 - 50 of 449 ... Vol 1, No 3 (2012), Adult Functional Literacy Curriculum: Effective Strategy for Human ... and Exchange Rate Influence on the Nigerian Stock Market Index ... for the Stimulation and Attraction of Foreign Direct Investments ...

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    Items 1 - 50 of 98 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... model for the continued professionalisation of student affairs in Africa, Abstract PDF ... Vol 2, No 2 (2014), Book Review: How College Affects Students, A Third decade ...

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    Items 1 - 50 of 76 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 4, No 1 (2011), Automation of AutoCAD for Detailing of Reinforced .... Vol 10, No 1 (2017), Housing data base for sustainable housing provision, Abstract PDF.

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    Items 1 - 50 of 147 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... Library (TEEAL) Database among faculty members in Federal University, ... Vol 5, No 2 (2014), Effects of corporate culture on the implementation of automation in ...

  1. Browse Title Index

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    Items 851 - 900 of 1255 ... Vol 16, No 4 (2010), Origin and generation mechanisms of ... Vol 13, No 4 (2007), Osmotic fragility index of HBAA red blood cells in the presence of ... (2004), Photovoltaic cells, efficiency and optimization, Abstract PDF.

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    Items 401 - 450 of 985 ... Vol 17 (2010), Flood Frequency Analysis of Ikpoba River ... and the corresponding Refractive Index in Uniaxial Crystals, Abstract ... Vol 8 (2004), Further on stokes expansions for the finite amplitude water waves, Abstract.

  3. Transportation Services Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The TSI is a monthly measure of the volume of services performed by the for-hire transportation sector. The index covers the activities of for-hire freight carriers,...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 531 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... thermal conductivity and viscosity in a flat plate solar collector, Abstract PDF .... similarity method in unsteady two-dimensional MHD boundary layer on the body ...

  5. Statistical Algorithm for the Adaptation of Detection Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stotsky, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    Many event detection mechanisms in spark ignition automotive engines are based on the comparison of the engine signals to the detection threshold values. Different signal qualities for new and aged engines necessitate the development of an adaptation algorithm for the detection thresholds...... remains constant regardless of engine age and changing detection threshold values. This, in turn, guarantees the same event detection performance for new and aged engines/sensors. Adaptation of the engine knock detection threshold is given as an example. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  6. When Do Price Thresholds Matter in Retail Categories?

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Pauwels; Shuba Srinivasan; Philip Hans Franses

    2007-01-01

    Marketing literature has long recognized that brand price elasticity need not be monotonic and symmetric, but has yet to provide generalizable market-level insights on threshold-based price elasticity, asymmetric thresholds, and the sign and magnitude of elasticity transitions. This paper introduces smooth transition regression models to study threshold-based price elasticity of the top 4 brands across 20 fast-moving consumer good categories. Threshold-based price elasticity is found for 76% ...

  7. When do price thresholds matter in retail categories?

    OpenAIRE

    Pauwels, Koen; Srinivasan, Shuba; Franses, Philip Hans

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMarketing literature has long recognized that brand price elasticity need not be monotonic and symmetric, but has yet to provide generalizable market-level insights on threshold-based price elasticity, asymmetric thresholds, and the sign and magnitude of elasticity transitions. This paper introduces smooth transition regression models to study threshold-based price elasticity of the top 4 brands across 20 fast-moving consumer good categories. Threshold-based price elasticity is fo...

  8. Identifying Threshold Concepts for Information Literacy: A Delphi Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lori Townsend; Amy R. Hofer; Silvia Lin Hanick; Korey Brunetti

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Delphi method to engage expert practitioners on the topic of threshold concepts for information literacy. A panel of experts considered two questions. First, is the threshold concept approach useful for information literacy instruction? The panel unanimously agreed that the threshold concept approach holds potential for information literacy instruction. Second, what are the threshold concepts for information literacy instruction? The panel proposed and discussed over fift...

  9. Estimating the Threshold Level of Inflation for Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jiranyakul, Komain

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. This paper analyzes the relationship between inflation and economic growth in Thailand using annual dataset during 1990 and 2015. The threshold model is estimated for different levels of threshold inflation rate. The results suggest that the threshold level of inflation above which inflation significantly slow growth is estimated at 3 percent. The negative relationship between inflation and growth is apparent above this threshold level of inflation. In other words, the inflation rat...

  10. Small-threshold behaviour of two-loop self-energy diagrams: two-particle thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berends, F.A.; Davydychev, A.I.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow; Smirnov, V.A.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow

    1996-01-01

    The behaviour of two-loop two-point diagrams at non-zero thresholds corresponding to two-particle cuts is analyzed. The masses involved in a cut and the external momentum are assumed to be small as compared to some of the other masses of the diagram. By employing general formulae of asymptotic expansions of Feynman diagrams in momenta and masses, we construct an algorithm to derive analytic approximations to the diagrams. In such a way, we calculate several first coefficients of the expansion. Since no conditions on relative values of the small masses and the external momentum are imposed, the threshold irregularities are described analytically. Numerical examples, using diagrams occurring in the standard model, illustrate the convergence of the expansion below the first large threshold. (orig.)

  11. Lattice Index Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Lakshmi; Hong, Yi; Viterbo, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The index coding problem involves a sender with K messages to be transmitted across a broadcast channel, and a set of receivers each of which demands a subset of the K messages while having prior knowledge of a different subset as side information. We consider the specific case of noisy index coding where the broadcast channel is Gaussian and every receiver demands all the messages from the source. Instances of this communication problem arise in wireless relay networks, sensor networks, and ...

  12. Impacts of DEM resolution and area threshold value uncertainty on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that DEM resolution influences the selected flow accumulation threshold value; the suitable flow accumulation threshold value increases as the DEM resolution increases, and shows greater variability for basins with lower drainage densities. The link between drainage area threshold value and stream network extraction ...

  13. Circuit and method for controlling the threshold voltage of transistors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A control unit, for controlling a threshold voltage of a circuit unit having transistor devices, includes a reference circuit and a measuring unit. The measuring unit is configured to measure a threshold voltage of at least one sensing transistor of the circuit unit, and to measure a threshold

  14. Is action potential threshold lowest in the axon?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, Maarten H. P.; Stuart, Greg J.

    2008-01-01

    Action potential threshold is thought to be lowest in the axon, but when measured using conventional techniques, we found that action potential voltage threshold of rat cortical pyramidal neurons was higher in the axon than at other neuronal locations. In contrast, both current threshold and voltage

  15. Colour thresholding and objective quantification in bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Gerber, M. A.; Torre-Bueno, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Computer imaging is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for the quantification of variables in research and medicine. Whilst its use in medicine has largely been limited to qualitative observations, imaging in applied basic sciences, medical research and biotechnology demands objective quantification of the variables in question. In black and white densitometry (0-256 levels of intensity) the separation of subtle differences between closely related hues from stains is sometimes very difficult. True-colour and real-time video microscopy analysis offer choices not previously available with monochrome systems. In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of colour thresholding, which has so far proven indispensable for proper objective quantification of the products of histochemical reactions and/or subtle differences in tissue and cells. In addition, we provide interested, but untrained readers with basic information that may assist decisions regarding the most suitable set-up for a project under consideration. Data from projects in progress at Tulane are shown to illustrate the advantage of colour thresholding over monochrome densitometry and for objective quantification of subtle colour differences between experimental and control samples.

  16. Gauge threshold corrections for local orientifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, Joseph P.; Palti, Eran

    2009-01-01

    We study gauge threshold corrections for systems of fractional branes at local orientifold singularities and compare with the general Kaplunovsky-Louis expression for locally supersymmetric N = 1 gauge theories. We focus on branes at orientifolds of the C 3 /Z 4 , C 3 /Z 6 and C 3 /Z 6 ' singularities. We provide a CFT construction of these theories and compute the threshold corrections. Gauge coupling running undergoes two phases: one phase running from the bulk winding scale to the string scale, and a second phase running from the string scale to the infrared. The first phase is associated to the contribution of N = 2 sectors to the IR β functions and the second phase to the contribution of both N = 1 and N = 2 sectors. In contrast, naive application of the Kaplunovsky-Louis formula gives single running from the bulk winding mode scale. The discrepancy is resolved through 1-loop non-universality of the holomorphic gauge couplings at the singularity, induced by a 1-loop redefinition of the twisted blow-up moduli which couple differently to different gauge nodes. We also study the physics of anomalous and non-anomalous U(1)s and give a CFT description of how masses for non-anomalous U(1)s depend on the global properties of cycles.

  17. Transient threshold shift after gunshot noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, B; Ghasemi, M; Motiee, M; Mojtahed, M; Safavi, A

    2013-01-01

    Many people, such as soldiers, are routinely exposed to gunshot noise during target practice. It is suspected that this high-intensity noise may affect audition through repeated Transient Threshold Shifts (TTS); it can also mechanically alter auditory components such as waves. This study investigates the scope of gunshot noise from the AK-47 rifle (Kalashnikov) and the impact on the shooters' audition. Forty soldiers (80 ears) were recruited in this study. They were all young and being exposed to gunshot noise for the first time. Gunshot characteristics were measured before exposure. The soldiers underwent auditory evaluation with Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA) and Oto-Acoustic Emission (OAE) once before exposure and immediately (less than one hour) after exposure. The AK-47 gunshot noise pressure level varied between L(AIm) = 73.7 dBA to L(AIm) = 111.4 dBA. Fourteen participants had subclinical hearing impairment in their pre-exposure evaluation; this number increased to 16 after the exposure. Six months post-exposure and later, the number of cases with impairment had fallen to eight (improvement in 50%). Both pre- and post-exposure OAE results were within normal values, while PTA results indicated a significant threshold alteration only at 6 kHz. The results of this study confirm that exposure to gunshot noise with no ear protection can represent a significant hazard for auditory function, especially at higher frequencies.

  18. A threshold model of investor psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod; Grinfeld, Michael; Lamba, Harbir; Seaman, Tim

    2005-08-01

    We introduce a class of agent-based market models founded upon simple descriptions of investor psychology. Agents are subject to various psychological tensions induced by market conditions and endowed with a minimal ‘personality’. This personality consists of a threshold level for each of the tensions being modeled, and the agent reacts whenever a tension threshold is reached. This paper considers an elementary model including just two such tensions. The first is ‘cowardice’, which is the stress caused by remaining in a minority position with respect to overall market sentiment and leads to herding-type behavior. The second is ‘inaction’, which is the increasing desire to act or re-evaluate one's investment position. There is no inductive learning by agents and they are only coupled via the global market price and overall market sentiment. Even incorporating just these two psychological tensions, important stylized facts of real market data, including fat-tails, excess kurtosis, uncorrelated price returns and clustered volatility over the timescale of a few days are reproduced. By then introducing an additional parameter that amplifies the effect of externally generated market noise during times of extreme market sentiment, long-time volatility correlations can also be recovered.

  19. Ecosystem thresholds, tipping points, and critical transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Reed, Sasha C.; Peñuelas, Josep; McDowell, Nathan G.; Sala, Osvaldo E.

    2018-01-01

    Abrupt shifts in ecosystems are cause for concern and will likelyintensify under global change (Scheffer et al., 2001). The terms‘thresho lds’, ‘tipping points’, and ‘critical transitions’ have beenused interchangeably to refer to sudden changes in the integrityor state of an ecosystem caused by environmental drivers(Holling, 1973; May, 1977). Threshold-based concepts havesignific antly aided our capacity to predict the controls overecosystem structure and functioning (Schwinning et al., 2004;Peters et al., 2007) and have become a framework to guide themanagement of natural resources (Glick et al., 2010; Allen et al.,2011). However, our unders tanding of how biotic and abioticdrivers interact to regulate ecosystem responses and of ways toforecast th e impending responses remain limited. Terrestrialecosystems, in particular, are already responding to globalchange in ways that are both transformati onal and difficult topredict due to strong heterogeneity across temporal and spatialscales (Pe~nuelas & Filella, 2001; McDowell et al., 2011;Munson, 2013; Reed et al., 2016). Comparing approaches formeasuring ecosystem performance in response to changingenvironme ntal conditions and for detecting stress and thresholdresponses can improve tradition al tests of resilience and provideearly warning signs of ecosystem transitions. Similarly, com-paring responses across ecosystems can offer insight into themechanisms that underlie variation in threshold responses.

  20. Updated LPI Thresholds for the Nike Laser*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Afeyan, B.; Phillips, L.; Seely, J.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.; Manka, C.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E.

    2009-11-01

    Advanced implosion designs for direct drive inertial confinement fusion use high laser intensities (10^15-10^16 W/cm^2) to achieve gain (g>100) with a reduction in total laser energy (ENike laser at NRL are an attractive choice due to their combination of short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (1-2 THz), and beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence but the potential threat from laser-plasma instabilities (LPI) needs to be assessed. The 2008 LPI campaign at Nike yielded threshold intensities above 10^15 W/cm^2 for the two-plasmon instability, a value higher than reported for 351 nm glass lasers. The experiments used a planar geometry, solid polystyrene targets, and a subset of beams (E<200 J) with a reduced focal spot (d<125 μm). The 2009 campaign extended the shot parameters to higher laser energies (E<1 kJ) and larger spot sizes (d<300 μm). Spectrally-resolved and time-resolved measurements of x-rays and emission near ^1/2φo and ^3/2φo harmonics of the laser wavelength show threshold intensities consistent with the 2008 results. *Work supported by DoE/NNSA

  1. Measuring Socioeconomic Inequality in Obesity: Looking Beyond the Obesity Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, Marcel; Kruger, Eliza J; Finkelstein, Eric A

    2017-08-01

    We combine two of the most widely used measures in the inequality and poverty literature, the concentration index and Foster-Greer-Thorbecke metric to the analysis of socioeconomic inequality in obesity. This enables us to describe socioeconomic inequality not only in obesity status but also in its depth and severity. We apply our method to 1971-2012 US data and show that while the socioeconomic inequality in obesity status has now almost disappeared, this is not the case when depth and severity of obesity are considered. Such socioeconomic gradient is found to be greatest among non-Hispanic whites, but decomposition analysis also reveals an inverse relationship between income and obesity outcomes among Mexican Americans once the effect of immigrant status has been accounted for. The socioeconomic gradient is also greater among women with marital status further increasing it for severity of obesity while the opposite is true among men. Overall, the socioeconomic gradient exists as poorer individuals lie further away from the obesity threshold. Our study stresses the need for policies that jointly consider obesity and income to support those who suffer from the double burden of poverty and obesity-related health conditions. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Waist circumference threshold values for type 2 diabetes risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Karl E

    2009-07-01

    Adult gains in body weight, excess adiposity, and intra-abdominal fat have each been associated with risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), forming the basis for preventive medicine guidelines and actuarial predictions using practical indices of weight (e.g., body mass index [BMI]) and waist circumference (WC). As obesity-related disease spreads beyond affluent western countries, application of WC thresholds to other populations has highlighted issues of their generalizability. For example, U.S. national health goals based on BMI technology has provided many great insights into disease, including modern imaging technologies that have differentiated fat depots that have the greatest influence on T2DM, but ultimately, an inexpensive measuring tape provides the most useful and cost-effective preventive measure for T2DM today. At some point in the future, a Star Trek-like abdominal body fat "tricorder" noninvasive assessment of tissue composition may provide an advantage over abdominal girth. Copyright 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  3. Some considerations regarding the creep crack growth threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thouless, M.D.; Evans, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    The preceding analysis reveals that the existence of a threshold determined by the sintering stress does not influence the post threshold crack velocity. Considerations of the sintering stress can thus be conveniently excluded from analysis of the post threshold crack velocity. The presence of a crack growth threshold has been predicted, based on the existence of cavity nucleation controlled crack growth. A preliminary analysis of cavity nucleation rates within the damage zone reveals that this threshold is relatively abrupt, in accord with experimental observations. Consequently, at stress intensities below K /SUB th/ growth becomes nucleation limited and crack blunting occurs in preference to crack growth

  4. Application of Improved Wavelet Thresholding Function in Image Denoising Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qi Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet analysis is a time – frequency analysis method, time-frequency localization problems are well solved, this paper analyzes the basic principles of the wavelet transform and the relationship between the signal singularity Lipschitz exponent and the local maxima of the wavelet transform coefficients mold, the principles of wavelet transform in image denoising are analyzed, the disadvantages of traditional wavelet thresholding function are studied, wavelet threshold function, the discontinuity of hard threshold and constant deviation of soft threshold are improved, image is denoised through using the improved threshold function.

  5. [Selection of distance thresholds of urban forest landscape connectivity in Shenyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-fu; Zhou, Bin; He, Xing-yuan; Chen, Wei

    2010-10-01

    By using the QuickBird remote sensing image interpretation data of urban forests in Shenyang City in 2006, and with the help of geographical information system, this paper analyzed the landscape patches of the urban forests in the area inside the third ring-road of Shenyang. Based on the habitat availability and the dispersal potential of animal and plant species, 8 distance thresholds (50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 m) were selected to compute the integral index of connectivity, probability of connectivity, and important value of the landscape patches, and the computed values were used for analyzing and screening the distance thresholds of urban forest landscape connectivity in the City. The results showed that the appropriate distance thresholds of the urban forest landscape connectivity in Shenyang City in 2006 ranged from 100 to 400 m, with 200 m being most appropriate. It was suggested that the distance thresholds should be increased or decreased according to the performability of urban forest landscape connectivity and the different demands for landscape levels.

  6. Thresholds of Toxicological Concern - Setting a threshold for testing below which there is little concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Low dose, low risk; very low dose, no real risk. Setting a pragmatic threshold below which concerns become negligible is the purpose of thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC). The idea is that such threshold values do not need to be established for each and every chemical based on experimental data, but that by analyzing the distribution of lowest or no-effect doses of many chemicals, a TTC can be defined - typically using the 5th percentile of this distribution and lowering it by an uncertainty factor of, e.g., 100. In doing so, TTC aims to compare exposure information (dose) with a threshold below which any hazard manifestation is very unlikely to occur. The history and current developments of this concept are reviewed and the application of TTC for different regulated products and their hazards is discussed. TTC lends itself as a pragmatic filter to deprioritize testing needs whenever real-life exposures are much lower than levels where hazard manifestation would be expected, a situation that is called "negligible exposure" in the REACH legislation, though the TTC concept has not been fully incorporated in its implementation (yet). Other areas and regulations - especially in the food sector and for pharmaceutical impurities - are more proactive. Large, curated databases on toxic effects of chemicals provide us with the opportunity to set TTC for many hazards and substance classes and thus offer a precautionary second tier for risk assessments if hazard cannot be excluded. This allows focusing testing efforts better on relevant exposures to chemicals.

  7. Single event upset threshold estimation based on local laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumakov, A.I.; Egorov, A.N.; Mavritsky, O.B.; Yanenko, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    An approach for estimation of ion-induced SEU threshold based on local laser irradiation is presented. Comparative experiment and software simulation research were performed at various pulse duration and spot size. Correlation of single event threshold LET to upset threshold laser energy under local irradiation was found. The computer analysis of local laser irradiation of IC structures was developed for SEU threshold LET estimation. The correlation of local laser threshold energy with SEU threshold LET was shown. Two estimation techniques were suggested. The first one is based on the determination of local laser threshold dose taking into account the relation of sensitive area to local irradiated area. The second technique uses the photocurrent peak value instead of this relation. The agreement between the predicted and experimental results demonstrates the applicability of this approach. (authors)

  8. Sustainability index for Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-J.; Huang Chingming

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years

  9. Forward elastic scattering above the physical threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, R.F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica, Estatistica e Computacao Cientifica; Menon, M.J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2006-07-01

    Making use of the 'extended derivative dispersion relations', recently introduced by Avila and Menon, we analyze forward elastic proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering at any energy above the physical threshold ({radical}s=2m{sub p} {approx} 1,88 GeV). The analysis is based on an analytical parametrization for the total cross section with leading triple pole pomeron (high energies) and full nondegenerated secondary reggeons (intermediate and low energies). Experimental data on total cross section and the ratio r between the real and imaginary parts of the forward amplitude are simultaneously fitted with the CERN-Minuit code and energy cutoff at 4 GeV. We show that, the results are exactly the same as those obtained through standard integral dispersion relations. Physical implications of the results in the pomeron-reggeon context are also discussed. (author)

  10. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thresholds for statistical significance are insufficiently demonstrated by 95% confidence intervals or P-values when assessing results from randomised clinical trials. First, a P-value only shows the probability of getting a result assuming that the null hypothesis is true and does...... not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore...... of the probability that a given trial result is compatible with a 'null' effect (corresponding to the P-value) divided by the probability that the trial result is compatible with the intervention effect hypothesised in the sample size calculation; (3) adjust the confidence intervals and the statistical significance...

  11. Analysis of threshold curves for superconducting interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.L.; Hamilton, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Threshold curves for multijunction superconducting interferometers have been calculated previously, showing general agreement with observed features, especially in symmetric cases. We here add some more details to the analysis, paying particular attention to the effects of asymmetries in coupling, inductance, or critical currents. Feed-loop inductance and flux quantization in the feed loop can be important. A changing lobe pattern over many periods, asymmetries within a period, shifting patterns between runs spanning a warm-up, and sudden changes in pattern because of noise in the environment are all quantitatively explainable on the basis of this model. By use of a single ''calibration curve'', the inductance for symmetric two- or three-junction interferometers can be obtained immediately

  12. Deuteron threshold electrodisintegration at high momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.M.; Turchinetz, W.; Williamson, C.F.; Yates, T.C.; Zumbro, J.D.; Lee, K.S.; Baghaei, H.; Churchwell, S.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.; Peterson, G.A.; Wang, K.; Bosted, P.E.; Spengos, M.; Frois, B.; Martino, J.; Platchkov, S.; Hotta, A.

    1997-01-01

    Absolute differential cross sections for the threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron with good resolution were measured at a laboratory scattering angle of 160 degree for five values of Q 2 ranging from 8.66 to 42.4fm -2 . Comparisons of the data averaged over E np from 0 to 3 MeV and from 0 to 10 MeV are made with nonrelativistic meson exchange calculations. These calculations are sensitive to the nucleon electromagnetic form factors, nucleon-nucleon potential, and relativistic effects. The data are also compared with a hybrid quark-hadron model calculation that describes the deuteron as a six-quark cluster for the short range part of the interaction. Some of these calculations can describe the data reasonably well over certain ranges of Q 2 ; however, none of these calculations can accurately describe the data over the entire measured Q 2 range. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Deuteron threshold electrodisintegration at high momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.M.; Turchinetz, W.; Williamson, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Absolute differential cross sections for the threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron with good resolution were measured at a laboratory scattering angle of 160 degree for five values of Q 2 ranging from 8.66 to 42.4 fm -2 . Comparisons of the data averaged over E np from 0--3 MeV and 0--10 MeV are made with nonrelativistic meson-exchange calculations. These calculations are sensitive to the nucleon electromagnetic form factors, nucleon-nucleon potential, and relativistic effects. The data are also compared with a hybrid quark-hadron model calculation that describes the deuteron as a six-quark cluster for the short range part of the interaction. Some of these calculations can describe the data reasonably well over certain ranges of Q 2 ; however, none of these calculations can accurately describe the data over the entire measured Q 2 range

  14. Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, M. I.; L'vov, A. I.

    2000-07-01

    Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data.

  15. Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchuk, M.I.; L'vov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data

  16. Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levchuk, M.I. E-mail: levchuk@dragon.bas-net.by; L' vov, A.I. E-mail: lvov@x4u.lebedev.ru

    2000-07-17

    Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data.

  17. Coping with ecological catastrophe: crossing major thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The combination of human population growth and resource depletion makes catastrophes highly probable. No long-term solutions to the problems of humankind will be discovered unless sustainable use of the planet is achieved. The essential first step toward this goal is avoiding or coping with global catastrophes that result from crossing major ecological thresholds. Decreasing the number of global catastrophes will reduce the risks associated with destabilizing ecological systems, which could, in turn, destabilize societal systems. Many catastrophes will be local, regional, or national, but even these upheavals will have global consequences. Catastrophes will be the result of unsustainable practices and the misuse of technology. However, avoiding ecological catastrophes will depend on the development of eco-ethics, which is subject to progressive maturation, comments, and criticism. Some illustrative catastrophes have been selected to display some preliminary issues of eco-ethics.

  18. Threshold-based Adaptive Detection for WSN

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Abdulrahman I.

    2014-01-06

    Efficient receiver designs for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are becoming increasingly important. Cooperative WSNs communicated with the use of L sensors. As the receiver is constrained, it can only process U out of L sensors. Channel shortening and reduced-rank techniques were employed to design the preprocessing matrix. In this work, a receiver structure is proposed which combines the joint iterative optimization (JIO) algorithm and our proposed threshold selection criteria. This receiver structure assists in determining the optimal Uopt. It also provides the freedom to choose U

  19. Heavy quark threshold dynamics in higher order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piclum, J.H.

    2007-05-15

    In this work we discuss an important building block for the next-to-next-to-next-to leading order corrections to the pair production of top quarks at threshold. Specifically, we explain the calculation of the third order strong corrections to the matching coefficient of the vector current in non-relativistic Quantum Chromodynamics and provide the result for the fermionic part, containing at least one loop of massless quarks. As a byproduct, we obtain the matching coefficients of the axial-vector, pseudo-scalar and scalar current at the same order. Furthermore, we calculate the three-loop corrections to the quark renormalisation constants in the on-shell scheme in the framework of dimensional regularisation and dimensional reduction. Finally, we compute the third order strong corrections to the chromomagnetic interaction in Heavy Quark Effective Theory. The calculational methods are discussed in detail and results for the master integrals are given. (orig.)

  20. Mob control models of threshold collective behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Breer, Vladimir V; Rogatkin, Andrey D

    2017-01-01

    This book presents mathematical models of mob control with threshold (conformity) collective decision-making of the agents. Based on the results of analysis of the interconnection between the micro- and macromodels of active network structures, it considers the static (deterministic, stochastic and game-theoretic) and dynamic (discrete- and continuous-time) models of mob control, and highlights models of informational confrontation. Many of the results are applicable not only to mob control problems, but also to control problems arising in social groups, online social networks, etc. Aimed at researchers and practitioners, it is also a valuable resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as doctoral candidates specializing in the field of collective behavior modeling.

  1. Magnetic monopoles near the black hole threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, A.; Weinberg, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    We present new analytic and numerical results for self-gravitating SU(2)-Higgs magnetic monopoles approaching the black hole threshold. Our investigation extends to large Higgs self-coupling, λ, a regime heretofore unexplored. When λ is small, the critical solution where a horizon first appears is extremal Reissner-Nordstroem outside the horizon but has a nonsingular interior. When λ is large, the critical solution is an extremal black hole with non-Abelian hair and a mass less than the extremal Reissner-Nordstroem value. The transition between these two regimes is reminiscent of a first-order phase transition. We analyze in detail the approach to these critical solutions as the Higgs expectation value is varied, and compare this analysis with the numerical results. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  2. THRESHOLD OF SIGNIFICANCE IN STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress management is the individual's ability to handle any situation, external conditions, to match the demands of the external environment. The researchers revealed several stages in the stress response. A first phase was called ‘‘alert reaction'' or ‘‘immediate reaction to stress‘‘, phase in which there are physiological modifications and manifestations that occur under psychological aspect. Adaptation phase is the phase in which the reactions from the first phase diminishes or disappears. Exhaustion phase is related to the diversity of stress factors and time and may exceed the resources of the human body to adapt. Influencing factors may be: limited, cognitive, perceptual, and a priori. But there is a threshold of significance in stress management. Once the reaction to external stimuli occurs, awareness is needed. The capability effect occurs, any side effect goes away and comes out the ''I AM'' effect.

  3. Threshold-based Adaptive Detection for WSN

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Abdulrahman I.; Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    Efficient receiver designs for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are becoming increasingly important. Cooperative WSNs communicated with the use of L sensors. As the receiver is constrained, it can only process U out of L sensors. Channel shortening and reduced-rank techniques were employed to design the preprocessing matrix. In this work, a receiver structure is proposed which combines the joint iterative optimization (JIO) algorithm and our proposed threshold selection criteria. This receiver structure assists in determining the optimal Uopt. It also provides the freedom to choose U

  4. Calibration of the neutron scintillation counter threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, V.I.; Ranyuk, Yu.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    1978-01-01

    A method for calibrating the threshold of a neutron counter in the form of a 10x10x40 cm plastic scintillator is described. The method is based on the evaluation of the Compton boundary of γ-spectrum from the discrimination curve of counter loading. The results of calibration using 60 Co and 24 Na γ-sources are given. In order to eValuate the Compton edge rapidly, linear extrapolation of the linear part of the discrimination curve towards its intersection with the X axis is recommended. Special measurements have shown that the calibration results do not practically depend on the distance between the cathode of a photomultiplier and the place where collimated γ-radiation of the calibration source reaches the scintillator

  5. Gauge threshold corrections for local string models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    We study gauge threshold corrections for local brane models embedded in a large compact space. A large bulk volume gives important contributions to the Konishi and super-Weyl anomalies and the effective field theory analysis implies the unification scale should be enhanced in a model-independent way from M s to RM s . For local D3/D3 models this result is supported by the explicit string computations. In this case the scale RM s comes from the necessity of global cancellation of RR tadpoles sourced by the local model. We also study D3/D7 models and discuss discrepancies with the effective field theory analysis. We comment on phenomenological implications for gauge coupling unification and for the GUT scale.

  6. Thresholds of allergenic proteins in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B.; Knulst, Andre C.

    2005-01-01

    Threshold doses or Estimated Eliciting Doses (EEDs) represent an important new field of research in food allergy. Clinicians and regulators have embraced some toxicological concepts such as LOAEL and NOAEL and applied them to an area of significant clinical uncertainty and interest. The impact of intrinsic human factors (e.g., asthma and exercise) and extrinsic event factors (e.g., season, location and especially dose of allergen) on a future allergic reaction in the community needs to be considered carefully when interpreting results of clinical and research low-dose food challenges. The ongoing cooperation of food allergy research groups in medicine, food science and government will surely deliver results of the highest importance to the wider communities of allergology, food science and technology and the increasing number of allergic consumers

  7. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  8. Threshold Games and Cooperation on Multiplayer Graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare B Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect on cooperation in multiplayer games, when the population from which all individuals are drawn is structured-i.e. when a given individual is only competing with a small subset of the entire population.To optimize the focus on multiplayer effects, a class of games were chosen for which the payoff depends nonlinearly on the number of cooperators-this ensures that the game cannot be represented as a sum of pair-wise interactions, and increases the likelihood of observing behaviour different from that seen in two-player games. The chosen class of games are named "threshold games", and are defined by a threshold, M > 0, which describes the minimal number of cooperators in a given match required for all the participants to receive a benefit. The model was studied primarily through numerical simulations of large populations of individuals, each with interaction neighbourhoods described by various classes of networks.When comparing the level of cooperation in a structured population to the mean-field model, we find that most types of structure lead to a decrease in cooperation. This is both interesting and novel, simply due to the generality and breadth of relevance of the model-it is likely that any model with similar payoff structure exhibits related behaviour. More importantly, we find that the details of the behaviour depends to a large extent on the size of the immediate neighbourhoods of the individuals, as dictated by the network structure. In effect, the players behave as if they are part of a much smaller, fully mixed, population, which we suggest an expression for.

  9. The Cognitive Mobilization Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alaminos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how the cognitive mobilization index, designed for use in observing potential political participation, can be used as an indicator of the political climate that a particular society is going through. Following a discussion of the theoretical elaborations (and their working definitions of the concept of cognitive mobilization, a longitudinal study of various European countries is used to consider the question of how political crises influence cognitive mobilization indexes and what effects they have on the political socialization process among the youngest cohorts.

  10. ParkIndex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Schipperijn, Jasper; Hipp, J Aaron

    2016-01-01

    using ArcGIS 9.3 and the Community Park Audit Tool. Four park summary variables - distance to nearest park, and the number of parks, amount of park space, and average park quality index within 1 mile were analyzed in relation to park use using logistic regression. Coefficients for significant park......, planners, and citizens to evaluate the potential for park use for a given area. Data used for developing ParkIndex were collected in 2010 in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO). Adult study participants (n=891) reported whether they used a park within the past month, and all parks in KCMO were mapped and audited...

  11. A New Multistage Lattice Vector Quantization with Adaptive Subband Thresholding for Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soraghan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lattice vector quantization (LVQ reduces coding complexity and computation due to its regular structure. A new multistage LVQ (MLVQ using an adaptive subband thresholding technique is presented and applied to image compression. The technique concentrates on reducing the quantization error of the quantized vectors by “blowing out” the residual quantization errors with an LVQ scale factor. The significant coefficients of each subband are identified using an optimum adaptive thresholding scheme for each subband. A variable length coding procedure using Golomb codes is used to compress the codebook index which produces a very efficient and fast technique for entropy coding. Experimental results using the MLVQ are shown to be significantly better than JPEG 2000 and the recent VQ techniques for various test images.

  12. A New Multistage Lattice Vector Quantization with Adaptive Subband Thresholding for Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh MFM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lattice vector quantization (LVQ reduces coding complexity and computation due to its regular structure. A new multistage LVQ (MLVQ using an adaptive subband thresholding technique is presented and applied to image compression. The technique concentrates on reducing the quantization error of the quantized vectors by "blowing out" the residual quantization errors with an LVQ scale factor. The significant coefficients of each subband are identified using an optimum adaptive thresholding scheme for each subband. A variable length coding procedure using Golomb codes is used to compress the codebook index which produces a very efficient and fast technique for entropy coding. Experimental results using the MLVQ are shown to be significantly better than JPEG 2000 and the recent VQ techniques for various test images.

  13. Threshold values of ankle dorsiflexion and gross motor function in 60 children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle M; Svensson, Joachim; Thorning, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Background and purpose - Threshold values defining 3 categories of passive range of motion are used in the Cerebral Palsy follow-Up Program to guide clinical decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the threshold values by testing the hypothesis that passive range of motion in ankle...... dorsiflexion is associated with gross motor function and that function differs between the groups of participants in each category. Patients and methods - We analyzed data from 60 ambulatory children (aged 5-9 years) with spastic cerebral palsy. Outcomes were passive range of motion in ankle dorsiflexion...... with flexed and extended knee and gross motor function (Gait Deviation Index, Gait Variable Score of the ankle, peak dorsiflexion during gait, 1-minute walk, Gross Motor Function Measure, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Cerebral Palsy Module, and Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument). Results...

  14. 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) is a measure of overall progress towards environmental sustainability, developed for 146 countries. The index...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 391 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Efficacy of four Rodenticides on the Ghanaian Market, Abstract ... Vol 2, No 1 (2000):, Determination of some wear elements in used car engine oil and oil filter ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 46 of 46 ... Vol 4, No 1 (2015), Fiscal Federalism and Development In Nigeria, Abstract. Dorcas Akhere Odigwe, Stanley Aibieyi. Vol 1, No 1 (2011), Good Governance Analysing Performance of Economic Community of West African States and Southern African Development Community Members on Mo Ibrahim Index ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 73 of 73 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 13 (2006), The ageing eye” functional changes from cradle to gray: A ... Vol 12 (2005), The evaluation of vision in children using monocular vision acuity and ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 224 of 224 ... Vol 13, No 2 (2010), Spatial Analysis of Particle Size Distribution of Soils Formed on ... swelling index and moisture content of white and yellow garri in ... and Composition of Milk of West African Dwarf (Wad) Sheep Fed ...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 229 ... Browse Title Index ... Issue, Title. Vol 14, No 2 ... Vol 15, No 1 (2017), Qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in old age, Abstract PDF ... Vol 11, No 2 (2013), Simple Algorithm in the Management of Fetal ...

  20. Nitrate leaching index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  1. Data Citation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Pavlech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduced by Thomson Reuters in 2012 as a, ‘‘Single point of access to quality research data from repositories across disciplines and around the world’’ [1], the Data Citation Index (DCI is a searchable collection of data sets and data studies from a select list of repositories.

  2. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1215 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... Vol 12, No 1 (2018), Analysis of the effects of frequent strikes on academic performance of students in universities in Nigeria: Edo State as a focal point, Abstract PDF ... Vol 6, No 1 (2012), Appraisal as a Determinant for Adequate ...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weighted Index of Biotic Integrity (SIBI) for use in the assessment of biotic integrity in the Klip River, Gauteng, South Africa, Abstract. P J Kotze, G J Steyn, H H du Preez, C J Kleynhans. Vol 40, No 4 (2015), Diatoms as water ...

  5. Indexes to Volume 77

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: Anurag Srivastava, C. S. Praveen, H. S. Tewari. © 2015 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Contact | Site index.

  6. A Tourism Conditions Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); H-K. Hsu (Hui-Kuang); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper uses monthly data from April 2005 to August 2013 for Taiwan to propose a novel tourism indicator, namely the Tourism Conditions Index (TCI). TCI accounts for the spillover weights based on the Granger causality test and estimates of the multivariate BEKK

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 652 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 18, No 7 (2015), Introduction to virtual property: Lex virtualis ipsa ... Vol 17, No 1 (2014), Legal challenges relating to the commercial use of outer space, with ...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 100 ... Vol 5, No 1 (2010), A simple note on some empirical stochastic process ... poverty index with when the parameter is strictly between 0 and 1, Abstract PDF ... Vol 10, No 2 (2015), Bilinear regression model with Kronecker and ...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 501 - 550 of 913 ... Vol 10, No 1 (2018), Modeling and comparison of IP and fuzzy-pi ... Modeling the potential impacts of global climate change in Bangladesh: An optimal ... Vol 9, No 4S (2017): Special Issue, New flood risk index in tropical ...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 751 - 800 of 846 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue, The effect of torrefaction on oil palm ... core competency skills of IRBM tax auditors towards their performance, Abstract PDF ... of exchange rates behavior in Malaysia by using NATREX model, Abstract PDF.

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 286 of 286 ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced ... the Hire Purchase and credit sale Act - An unnecessary duplication ? ... Vol 21 (2015), The Influence of Peer Pressure on Adolescents' Social Behaviour, Abstract PDF ... quality indexing for predicting variation of water quality over time ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 1463 ... Vol 14, No 4 (2014), Association between mean platelet volume levels and inflammation in SLE patients presented with arthritis, Abstract PDF ... Vol 10, No 3 (2010), Atherogenic index of plasma as useful predictor of cardiovascular risk among postmenopausal women in Enugu, Nigeria, Abstract ...

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1117 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 13, No 3 (2007):, an edu-ethical perspecitve on the nature of truth: case studies in elite ... 2009: September: Supplement, An empirical study of university ...

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 788 ... Browse Title Index ... Issue, Title ... Vol 14, No 1 (2006), Social science research: a critique of quantitative and qualitative methods ... Vol 18, No 1 (2010), Stress among part-time business students: a study in a Ghanaian ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1732 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 10, No 3 (2007), An Audit Of Perioperative Cardiac Arrest At ... Vol 11, No 4 (2008), An Audit Of Rejected Repeated X-ray Films As A Quality Assurance ...

  16. The Index House

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Pennsylvania Radon Research and Demonstration Project. The project involved the monitoring of the Index House for indoor radon, and was one of the earliest programs involving indoor radon contamination. The history of the house, the investigation, and testing and remediation procedures are discussed

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 823 ... Vol 9, No 2 (2016), Evaluation of antiulcer activity of aqueous ... and Practices About Tsetse Fly in Muri District, Taraba State, Nigeria ... Vol 10, No 1 (2017): Special Conference Edition, Evaluation of heavy metals' health risk index in ... of phytoplankton as bioindicators of water quality in Jakara dam, ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 2005 ... Issue, Title. Vol 92, No 4 (2015), Blood Pressure and Obesity Index Assessment in a Typical Urban Slum in Enugu, Nigeria, Abstract. GI Ahaneku, CU Osuji, OC Oguejiofor, BC Anisiuba, VO Ikeh, JE Ahaneku. Vol 80, No 10 (2003):, Blood pressure control in a population where antihypertensives are ...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 661 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. .... A El-Mahdy, B Bolduc, J Upadhyay, R Shoukr, A Khoury. Vol 19, No 1 (2013), Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, Abstract PDF.

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 985 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 17 (2010), Alternating Direction Implicit Finite Difference Time Domain Acoustic Wave Algorithm, Abstract. E Ikata .... Vol 17 (2010), Analytic derivation of the wave profile and phase speed of sixth order Stokes waves in deep water, Abstract.

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 217 ... Browse Title Index. Journal Home > Advanced ... Vol 13, No 1 (2016), Access to specialized surgical care, Abstract PDF. H Saidi ... Vol 9, No 2 (2012), Clinical Assessment of the Palmaris Longus – Accuracy of common tests, Abstract PDF ... Vol 11, No 2 (2014), Clinical trials in Surgery, Abstract PDF.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 97 of 97 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 20, No 2 (2008), Research Note: Anthropometric data of the foot of ... Vol 26, No 1 (2014), Validation of the Automation Attitude Questionnaire for Airline Pilots ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 400 ... Vol 2, No 1 (2007), The effects of Aloe vera [gel] on clotting time, prothrombin time and plasma fibrinogen concentration in albino Wistar rats, Abstract. D V Dapper, P N Achinike, M D Gwotmut. Vol 8, No 3 (2014), The effects of body mass index on some electrocardiographic parameters in young adults: ...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 719 ... African Journal of Aquatic Science. ... Vol 32, No 2 (2007), Algal communities associated with aquatic macrophytes ... index to Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae) in the Vaal River system, South Africa, Abstract ... Vol 40, No 2 (2015), Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open ...

  5. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature, a chirp in the local spatial frequency of interference fringes of an interference pattern is reduced by mathematical manipulation of the recorded light intensity...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 148 ... Vol 12, No 1S (2018), Addition of anti-Toxoplasma gondii membrane immunoglobulin Y to reduce necrotic index in mice's liver, Abstract PDF. Heni Puspitasari, Lucia T. Suwanti, Mufasirin Mufasirin. Vol 6, No 2 (2012), Advances in the Diagnosis, Treatment and Control of HIV Associated Tuberculosis ...

  7. Drug Impact Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities.

    The Drug Impact Index provides a set of indicators designed to determine the extent of the local drug problem in a community. Each indicator includes a technical note on the data sources, a graph showing comparative statistics on that indicator for the Portland area and for the State of Oregon, and brief remarks on the implications of the data.…

  8. Regional rainfall thresholds for landslide occurrence using a centenary database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Teresa; Luís Zêzere, José; Pereira, Susana; Cruz Oliveira, Sérgio; Garcia, Ricardo A. C.; Quaresma, Ivânia

    2018-04-01

    This work proposes a comprehensive method to assess rainfall thresholds for landslide initiation using a centenary landslide database associated with a single centenary daily rainfall data set. The method is applied to the Lisbon region and includes the rainfall return period analysis that was used to identify the critical rainfall combination (cumulated rainfall duration) related to each landslide event. The spatial representativeness of the reference rain gauge is evaluated and the rainfall thresholds are assessed and calibrated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) metrics. Results show that landslide events located up to 10 km from the rain gauge can be used to calculate the rainfall thresholds in the study area; however, these thresholds may be used with acceptable confidence up to 50 km from the rain gauge. The rainfall thresholds obtained using linear and potential regression perform well in ROC metrics. However, the intermediate thresholds based on the probability of landslide events established in the zone between the lower-limit threshold and the upper-limit threshold are much more informative as they indicate the probability of landslide event occurrence given rainfall exceeding the threshold. This information can be easily included in landslide early warning systems, especially when combined with the probability of rainfall above each threshold.

  9. Inertial cavitation threshold of nested microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, N; Dicker, S; Lewin, Peter; Wrenn, S P

    2015-04-01

    Cavitation of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) promotes both beneficial and detrimental bioeffects in vivo (Radhakrishnan et al., 2013) [1]. The ability to determine the inertial cavitation threshold of UCA microbubbles has potential application in contrast imaging, development of therapeutic agents, and evaluation of localized effects on the body (Ammi et al., 2006) [2]. This study evaluates a novel UCA and its inertial cavitation behavior as determined by a home built cavitation detection system. Two 2.25 MHz transducers are placed at a 90° angle to one another where one transducer is driven by a high voltage pulser and the other transducer receives the signal from the oscillating microbubble. The sample chamber is placed in the overlap of the focal region of the two transducers where the microbubbles are exposed to a pulser signal consisting of 600 pulse trains per experiment at a pulse repetition frequency of 5 Hz where each train has four pulses of four cycles. The formulation being analyzed is comprised of an SF6 microbubble coated by a DSPC PEG-3000 monolayer nested within a poly-lactic acid (PLA) spherical shell. The effect of varying shell diameters and microbubble concentration on cavitation threshold profile for peak negative pressures ranging from 50 kPa to 2 MPa are presented and discussed in this paper. The nesting shell decreases inertial cavitation events from 97.96% for an un-nested microbubble to 19.09% for the same microbubbles nested within a 2.53 μm shell. As shell diameter decreases, the percentage of inertially cavitating microbubbles also decreases. For nesting formulations with average outer capsule diameters of 20.52, 14.95, 9.95, 5.55, 2.53, and 1.95 μm, the percentage of sample destroyed at 1 MPa was 51.02, 38.94, 33.25, 25.27, 19.09, and 5.37% respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Scientific Journal Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It is quite impressive the visibility of online publishing compared to offline. Lawrence (2001 computed the percentage increase across 1,494 venues containing at least five offline and five online articles. Results shown an average of 336% more citations to online articles compared to offline articles published in the same venue. If articles published in the same venue are of similar quality, then they concluded that online articles are more highly cited because of their easier access. Thomson Scientific, traditionally concerned with printed journals, announced on November 28, 2005, the launch of Web Citation Index™, the multidisciplinary citation index of scholarly content from institutional and subject-based repositories (http://scientific.thomson. com/press/2005/8298416/. The Web Citation Index from the abstracting and indexing (A&I connects together pre-print articles, institutional repositories and open access (OA journals (Chillingworth, 2005. Basically all research funds are government granted funds, tax payer’s supported and therefore, results should be made freely available to the community. Free online availability facilitates access to research findings, maximizes interaction among research groups, and optimizes efforts and research funds efficiency. Therefore, Ambi-Água is committed to provide free access to its articles. An important aspect of Ambi-Água is the publication and management system of this journal. It uses the Electronic System for Journal Publishing (SEER - http://www.ibict.br/secao.php?cat=SEER. This system was translated and customized by the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology Information (IBICT based on the software developed by the Public Knowledge Project (Open Journal Systems of the British Columbia University (http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/. The big advantage of using this system is that it is compatible with the OAI-PMH protocol for metadata harvesting what greatly promotes published articles

  11. Towards a unifying basis of auditory thresholds: binaural summation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Absolute auditory threshold decreases with increasing sound duration, a phenomenon explainable by the assumptions that the sound evokes neural events whose probabilities of occurrence are proportional to the sound's amplitude raised to an exponent of about 3 and that a constant number of events are required for threshold (Heil and Neubauer, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:6151-6156, 2003). Based on this probabilistic model and on the assumption of perfect binaural summation, an equation is derived here that provides an explicit expression of the binaural threshold as a function of the two monaural thresholds, irrespective of whether they are equal or unequal, and of the exponent in the model. For exponents >0, the predicted binaural advantage is largest when the two monaural thresholds are equal and decreases towards zero as the monaural threshold difference increases. This equation is tested and the exponent derived by comparing binaural thresholds with those predicted on the basis of the two monaural thresholds for different values of the exponent. The thresholds, measured in a large sample of human subjects with equal and unequal monaural thresholds and for stimuli with different temporal envelopes, are compatible only with an exponent close to 3. An exponent of 3 predicts a binaural advantage of 2 dB when the two ears are equally sensitive. Thus, listening with two (equally sensitive) ears rather than one has the same effect on absolute threshold as doubling duration. The data suggest that perfect binaural summation occurs at threshold and that peripheral neural signals are governed by an exponent close to 3. They might also shed new light on mechanisms underlying binaural summation of loudness.

  12. Consolidation by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with a Threshold Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Guo; Kang-He Xie; Yue-Bao Deng

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the development of an approximate analytical solution of radial consolidation by prefabricated vertical drains with a threshold gradient. To understand the effect of the threshold gradient on consolidation, a parametric analysis was performed using the present solution. The applicability of the present solution was demonstrated in two cases, wherein the comparisons with Hansbo’s results and observed data were conducted. It was found that (1) the flow with the threshold gradie...

  13. Development of threshold action criteria for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, D.; Baldewicz, W.L.

    1982-06-01

    A survey of recently threshold criteria for regulatory action on LWRs is presented together with some commentary. This is followed by a new proposal for threshold action criteria which includes some different risk attributes than are found in previous criteria. Some preliminary risk values are suggested for the criteria and then evaluated in terms of a few hypothetical accident scenarios. Finally, several licensing issues are examined in terms of various threshold action criteria

  14. Simplified Threshold RSA with Adaptive and Proactive Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almansa Guerra, Jesus Fernando; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2006-01-01

    We present the currently simplest, most efficient, optimally resilient, adaptively secure, and proactive threshold RSA scheme. A main technical contribution is a new rewinding strategy for analysing threshold signature schemes. This new rewinding strategy allows to prove adaptive security...... of a proactive threshold signature scheme which was previously assumed to be only statically secure. As a separate contribution we prove that our protocol is secure in the UC framework....

  15. Proposal of radiation exposure index, REXI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kazuaki

    2002-01-01

    As a measure of harmful effect of radiation, radiation exposure index (REXI) is proposed. It is an integer expression of logarithmic ratio of radiation dose to a standard value. REXI is a dimensionless quantity and is free from the requirement of additivity, in contrast with dose. Not a few kinds of doses are used in the field of radiation protection and among them the effective dose plays main role, since the main target of radiation control is of the so-called stochastic effect and the effective dose is used as the controlling quantity. Effective dose is a radiation dose, namely, a quantity of caused to describe the effect, but it cannot be a representation of the effect itself. It is nothing but a measure of possibility of the effect. In addition, the LNT (linearity and non threshold) Postulation adopted by ICRP makes it difficult to understand the foreseen associated effect quantitatively. (author)

  16. Pathways to extinction: beyond the error threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrubia, Susanna C; Domingo, Esteban; Lázaro, Ester

    2010-06-27

    Since the introduction of the quasispecies and the error catastrophe concepts for molecular evolution by Eigen and their subsequent application to viral populations, increased mutagenesis has become a common strategy to cause the extinction of viral infectivity. Nevertheless, the high complexity of virus populations has shown that viral extinction can occur through several other pathways apart from crossing an error threshold. Increases in the mutation rate enhance the appearance of defective forms and promote the selection of mechanisms that are able to counteract the accelerated appearance of mutations. Current models of viral evolution take into account more realistic scenarios that consider compensatory and lethal mutations, a highly redundant genotype-to-phenotype map, rough fitness landscapes relating phenotype and fitness, and where phenotype is described as a set of interdependent traits. Further, viral populations cannot be understood without specifying the characteristics of the environment where they evolve and adapt. Altogether, it turns out that the pathways through which viral quasispecies go extinct are multiple and diverse.

  17. Synergistic effects in threshold models on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Jonas S.; Porter, Mason A.

    2018-01-01

    Network structure can have a significant impact on the propagation of diseases, memes, and information on social networks. Different types of spreading processes (and other dynamical processes) are affected by network architecture in different ways, and it is important to develop tractable models of spreading processes on networks to explore such issues. In this paper, we incorporate the idea of synergy into a two-state ("active" or "passive") threshold model of social influence on networks. Our model's update rule is deterministic, and the influence of each meme-carrying (i.e., active) neighbor can—depending on a parameter—either be enhanced or inhibited by an amount that depends on the number of active neighbors of a node. Such a synergistic system models social behavior in which the willingness to adopt either accelerates or saturates in a way that depends on the number of neighbors who have adopted that behavior. We illustrate that our model's synergy parameter has a crucial effect on system dynamics, as it determines whether degree-k nodes are possible or impossible to activate. We simulate synergistic meme spreading on both random-graph models and networks constructed from empirical data. Using a heterogeneous mean-field approximation, which we derive under the assumption that a network is locally tree-like, we are able to determine which synergy-parameter values allow degree-k nodes to be activated for many networks and for a broad family of synergistic models.

  18. Threshold nonlinear absorption in Zeeman transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Andal; Hazra, Abheera; Sandhya, S N

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally study the absorption spectroscopy from a collection of gaseous 87 Rb atoms at room temperature irradiated with three fields. Two of these fields are in a pump-probe saturation absorption configuration. The third field co-propagates with the pump field. The three fields address Zeeman degenerate transitions between hyperfine levels 5S 1/2 , F = 1 and 5P 3/2 , F = 0, F = 1 around the D2 line. We find a sub-natural absorption resonance in the counter-propagating probe field for equal detunings of all three fields. This absorption arises in conjunction with the appearance of increased transmission due to electro-magnetically induced transparency in the co-propagating fields. The novel feature of this absorption is its onset only for the blue of 5P 3/2 , F = 0, as the laser frequency is scanned through the excited states 5P 3/2 , F = 0, F = 1 and F = 2. The absorption rapidly rises to near maximum values within a narrow band of frequency near 5P 3/2 , F = 0. Our experimental results are compared with a dressed atom model. We find the threshold absorption to be a result of coherent interaction between the dressed states of our system.

  19. Microplastic Effect Thresholds for Freshwater Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Now that microplastics have been detected in lakes, rivers, and estuaries all over the globe, evaluating their effects on biota has become an urgent research priority. This is the first study that aims at determining the effect thresholds for a battery of six freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates with different species traits, using a wide range of microplastic concentrations. Standardized 28 days single species bioassays were performed under environmentally relevant exposure conditions using polystyrene microplastics (20–500 μm) mixed with sediment at concentrations ranging from 0 to 40% sediment dry weight (dw). Microplastics caused no effects on the survival of Gammarus pulex, Hyalella azteca, Asellus aquaticus, Sphaerium corneum, and Tubifex spp. and no effects were found on the reproduction of Lumbriculus variegatus. No significant differences in growth were found for H. azteca, A. aquaticus, S. corneum, L. variegatus, and Tubifex spp. However, G. pulex showed a significant reduction in growth (EC10 = 1.07% sediment dw) and microplastic uptake was proportional with microplastic concentrations in sediment. These results indicate that although the risks of environmentally realistic concentrations of microplastics may be low, they still may affect the biodiversity and the functioning of aquatic communities which after all also depend on the sensitive species. PMID:29337537

  20. Dimensional threshold for fracture linkage and hooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Juliette; Chabani, Arezki; Gauthier, Bertrand D. M.

    2018-03-01

    Fracture connectivity in rocks depends on spatial properties of the pattern including length, abundance and orientation. When fractures form a single-strike set, they hardly cross-cut each other and the connectivity is limited. Linkage probability increases with increasing fracture abundance and length as small fractures connect to each other to form longer ones. A process for parallel fracture linkage is the "hooking", where two converging fracture tips mutually deviate and then converge to connect due to the interaction of their crack-tip stresses. Quantifying the processes and conditions for fracture linkage in single-strike fracture sets is crucial to better predicting fluid flow in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. For 1734 fractures in Permian shales of the Lodève Basin, SE France, we measured geometrical parameters in 2D, characterizing three stages of the hooking process: underlapping, overlapping and linkage. We deciphered the threshold values, shape ratios and limiting conditions to switch from one stage to another one. The hook set up depends on the spacing (S) and fracture length (Lh) with the relation S ≈ 0.15 Lh. Once the hooking is initiated, with the fracture deviation length (L) L ≈ 0.4 Lh, the fractures reaches the linkage stage only when the spacing is reduced to S ≈ 0.02 Lh and the convergence (C) is < 0.1 L. These conditions apply to multi-scale fractures with a shape ratio L/S = 10 and for fracture curvature of 10°-20°.

  1. Nuclear threshold countries in the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The article analyses the nuclear-technological capacities and the danger of nuclear weapons proliferation in the six nuclear threshold countries: Argentina, Brazil, India, Pakistan, Israel and South Africa. All six states have developed sensitive nuclear facilities that are not covered by IAEA-safeguards. The risk of nuclear proliferation in Argentina and Brazil is considered at present as non-existent. The economic and especially the nuclear cooperation between the two states and the mutual visits of the unsafeguarded nuclear facilities has promoted a process of confidence building and political detente between them. The risk of nuclear weapons proliferation in the Middle East is considered high. It is estimated that Israel already has built up a nuclear weapons arsenal. The growing political influence of nationalistic groups in India and Pakistan, that favour a course of confrontation between the two states, have augmented the risk of nuclear proliferation in both states. South Africa is economically and militarily clearly dominating its black ruled neighbours. The Apartheid-regime is at present negociating with the nuclear weapons states about its adherence to the NPT, but demands political, economic and military concessions in exchange for its adherence to the treaty. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. MOS Current Mode Logic Near Threshold Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shapiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Near threshold circuits (NTC are an attractive and promising technology that provides significant power savings with some delay penalty. The combination of NTC technology with MOS current mode logic (MCML is examined in this work. By combining MCML with NTC, the constant power consumption of MCML is reduced to leakage power levels that can be tolerated in certain modern applications. Additionally, the speed of NTC is improved due to the high speed nature of MCML technology. A 14 nm Fin field effect transistor (FinFET technology is used to evaluate these combined circuit techniques. A 32-bit Kogge Stone adder is chosen as a demonstration vehicle for feasibility analysis. MCML with NTC is shown to yield enhanced power efficiency when operated above 1 GHz with a 100% activity factor as compared to standard CMOS. MCML with NTC is more power efficient than standard CMOS beyond 9 GHz over a wide range of activity factors. MCML with NTC also exhibits significantly lower noise levels as compared to standard CMOS. The results of the analysis demonstrate that pairing NTC and MCML is efficient when operating at high frequencies and activity factors.

  3. Some threshold spectral problems of Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, X.

    2009-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with some spectral problems of the Schroedinger operators. We first consider the semi-classical limit of the number of bound states of unique two-cluster N-body Schroedinger operator. Then we use Dirichlet-Neumann bracket to get semi-classical limit of Riesz means of the discrete eigenvalues of N-body Schroedinger operator. The effective potential of N-body Schroedinger operator with Coulomb potential is also considered and we find that the effective potential has critical decay at infinity. Thus, the Schroedinger operator with critical potential is studied in this thesis. We study the coupling constant threshold of Schroedinger operator with critical potential and the asymptotic expansion of resolvent of Schroedinger operator with critical potential. We use that expansion to study low-energy asymptotics of derivative of spectral shift function for perturbation with critical decay. After that, we use this result and the known result for high-energy asymptotic expansion of spectral shift function to obtain the Levinson theorem. (author)

  4. Energy Threshold Hypothesis for Household Consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Samira; Castro-Sitiriche, Marcel; Amador, Isamar

    2017-01-01

    A strong positive relationship among quality of life and electricity consumption at impoverished countries is found in many studies. However, previous work has presented that the positive relationship does not hold beyond certain electricity consumption threshold. Consequently, there is a need of exploring the possibility for communities to live with sustainable level of energy consumption without sacrificing their quality of life. The Gallup-Healthways Report measures global citizen’s wellbeing. This paper provides a new outlook using these elements to explore the relationships among actual percentage of population thriving in most countries and their energy consumption. A measurement of efficiency is computed to determine an adjusted relative social value of energy considering the variability in the happy life years as a function of electric power consumption. Adjustment is performed so single components don’t dominate in the measurement. It is interesting to note that the countries with the highest relative social value of energy are in the top 10 countries of the Gallup report.

  5. Threshold states in /sup 26/Al revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, A E; McDonald, A B; Wang, T F; Howard, A J; Magnus, P V; Parker, P D

    1986-03-31

    Threshold states in /sup 26/Al have been re-examined using the /sup 27/Al(/sup 3/He,..cap alpha..)/sup 26/Al and /sup 25/Mg(/sup 3/He,d..gamma..)/sup 26/Al reactions in order to resolve apparent ambiguities in some of the previously reported properties of these states. In particular, the s-wave resonance strength reported at E=37 keV is now found to be located at E/sub c.m./=57.54 keV, and the proton width for the 374 keV resonance has been revised to GAMMA/sub p/=0.82 eV. These results have been used to calculate a new resonance strength of ..omega gamma..= 1.6 x 10/sup -13/ eV for the 57.54 keV resonance. As a result, the stellar production rate for /sup 26/Al is increased by a factor approx.=3-38 for temperatures T/sub 9/=0.05-0.1.

  6. Indexing for summary queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Ke; Wang, Lu; Wei, Zhewei

    2014-01-01

    ), of a particular attribute of these records. Aggregation queries are especially useful in business intelligence and data analysis applications where users are interested not in the actual records, but some statistics of them. They can also be executed much more efficiently than reporting queries, by embedding...... returned by reporting queries. In this article, we design indexing techniques that allow for extracting a statistical summary of all the records in the query. The summaries we support include frequent items, quantiles, and various sketches, all of which are of central importance in massive data analysis....... Our indexes require linear space and extract a summary with the optimal or near-optimal query cost. We illustrate the efficiency and usefulness of our designs through extensive experiments and a system demonstration....

  7. Conformity index: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuvret, Loic; Noel, Georges; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Bey, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    We present a critical analysis of the conformity indices described in the literature and an evaluation of their field of application. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, with or without intensity modulation, is based on medical imaging techniques, three-dimensional dosimetry software, compression accessories, and verification procedures. It consists of delineating target volumes and critical healthy tissues to select the best combination of beams. This approach allows better adaptation of the isodose to the tumor volume, while limiting irradiation of healthy tissues. Tools must be developed to evaluate the quality of proposed treatment plans. Dosimetry software provides the dose distribution in each CT section and dose-volume histograms without really indicating the degree of conformity. The conformity index is a complementary tool that attributes a score to a treatment plan or that can compare several treatment plans for the same patient. The future of conformal index in everyday practice therefore remains unclear

  8. Thresholds for Coral Bleaching: Are Synergistic Factors and Shifting Thresholds Changing the Landscape for Management? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, C.; Donner, S. D.; Logan, C. A.; Gledhill, D. K.; Liu, G.; Heron, S. F.; Christensen, T.; Rauenzahn, J.; Morgan, J.; Parker, B. A.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Skirving, W. J.; Strong, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    As carbon dioxide rises in the atmosphere, climate change and ocean acidification are modifying important physical and chemical parameters in the oceans with resulting impacts on coral reef ecosystems. Rising CO2 is warming the world’s oceans and causing corals to bleach, with both alarming frequency and severity. The frequent return of stressful temperatures has already resulted in major damage to many of the world’s coral reefs and is expected to continue in the foreseeable future. Warmer oceans also have contributed to a rise in coral infectious diseases. Both bleaching and infectious disease can result in coral mortality and threaten one of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth and the important ecosystem services they provide. Additionally, ocean acidification from rising CO2 is reducing the availability of carbonate ions needed by corals to build their skeletons and perhaps depressing the threshold for bleaching. While thresholds vary among species and locations, it is clear that corals around the world are already experiencing anomalous temperatures that are too high, too often, and that warming is exceeding the rate at which corals can adapt. This is despite a complex adaptive capacity that involves both the coral host and the zooxanthellae, including changes in the relative abundance of the latter in their coral hosts. The safe upper limit for atmospheric CO2 is probably somewhere below 350ppm, a level we passed decades ago, and for temperature is a sustained global temperature increase of less than 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. How much can corals acclimate and/or adapt to the unprecedented fast changing environmental conditions? Any change in the threshold for coral bleaching as the result of acclimation and/or adaption may help corals to survive in the future but adaptation to one stress may be maladaptive to another. There also is evidence that ocean acidification and nutrient enrichment modify this threshold. What do shifting thresholds mean

  9. Image thresholding in the high resolution target movement monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Randy H.; Watkins, Steve E.; Jones, Tristan H.; Apel, Derek B.; Bairineni, Deepti

    2009-03-01

    Image thresholding in the High Resolution Target Movement Monitor (HRTMM) is examined. The HRTMM was developed at the Missouri University of Science and Technology to detect and measure wall movements in underground mines to help reduce fatality and injury rates. The system detects the movement of a target with sub-millimeter accuracy based on the images of one or more laser dots projected on the target and viewed by a high-resolution camera. The relative position of the centroid of the laser dot (determined by software using thresholding concepts) in the images is the key factor in detecting the target movement. Prior versions of the HRTMM set the image threshold based on a manual, visual examination of the images. This work systematically examines the effect of varying threshold on the calculated centroid position and describes an algorithm for determining a threshold setting. First, the thresholding effects on the centroid position are determined for a stationary target. Plots of the centroid positions as a function of varying thresholds are obtained to identify clusters of thresholds for which the centroid position does not change for stationary targets. Second, the target is moved away from the camera in sub-millimeter increments and several images are obtained at each position and analyzed as a function of centroid position, target movement and varying threshold values. With this approach, the HRTMM can accommodate images in batch mode without the need for manual intervention. The capability for the HRTMM to provide automated, continuous monitoring of wall movement is enhanced.

  10. Determinants of Change in the Cost-effectiveness Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulden, Mike; O'Mahony, James; McCabe, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    The cost-effectiveness threshold in health care systems with a constrained budget should be determined by the cost-effectiveness of displacing health care services to fund new interventions. Using comparative statics, we review some potential determinants of the threshold, including the budget for health care, the demand for existing health care interventions, the technical efficiency of existing interventions, and the development of new health technologies. We consider the anticipated direction of impact that would affect the threshold following a change in each of these determinants. Where the health care system is technically efficient, an increase in the health care budget unambiguously raises the threshold, whereas an increase in the demand for existing, non-marginal health interventions unambiguously lowers the threshold. Improvements in the technical efficiency of existing interventions may raise or lower the threshold, depending on the cause of the improvement in efficiency, whether the intervention is already funded, and, if so, whether it is marginal. New technologies may also raise or lower the threshold, depending on whether the new technology is a substitute for an existing technology and, again, whether the existing technology is marginal. Our analysis permits health economists and decision makers to assess if and in what direction the threshold may change over time. This matters, as threshold changes impact the cost-effectiveness of interventions that require decisions now but have costs and effects that fall in future periods.

  11. Effect of threshold quantization in opportunistic splitting algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2011-12-01

    This paper discusses algorithms to find the optimal threshold and also investigates the impact of threshold quantization on the scheduling outage performance of the opportunistic splitting scheduling algorithm. Since this algorithm aims at finding the user with the highest channel quality within the minimal number of mini-slots by adjusting the threshold every mini-slot, optimizing the threshold is of paramount importance. Hence, in this paper we first discuss how to compute the optimal threshold along with two tight approximations for the optimal threshold. Closed-form expressions are provided for those approximations for simple calculations. Then, we consider linear quantization of the threshold to take the limited number of bits for signaling messages in practical systems into consideration. Due to the limited granularity for the quantized threshold value, an irreducible scheduling outage floor is observed. The numerical results show that the two approximations offer lower scheduling outage probability floors compared to the conventional algorithm when the threshold is quantized. © 2006 IEEE.

  12. Low heat pain thresholds in migraineurs between attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J; Zuniga, Leslie; Chong, Catherine D

    2015-06-01

    Between attacks, migraine is associated with hypersensitivities to sensory stimuli. The objective of this study was to investigate hypersensitivity to pain in migraineurs between attacks. Cutaneous heat pain thresholds were measured in 112 migraineurs, migraine free for ≥ 48 hours, and 75 healthy controls. Pain thresholds at the head and at the arm were compared between migraineurs and controls using two-tailed t-tests. Among migraineurs, correlations between heat pain thresholds and headache frequency, allodynia symptom severity, and time interval until next headache were calculated. Migraineurs had lower pain thresholds than controls at the head (43.9 ℃ ± 3.2 ℃ vs. 45.1 ℃ ± 3.0 ℃, p = 0.015) and arm (43.2 ℃ ± 3.4 ℃ vs. 44.8 ℃ ± 3.3 ℃, p pain thresholds and headache frequency or allodynia symptom severity. For the 41 migraineurs for whom time to next headache was known, there were positive correlations between time to next headache and pain thresholds at the head (r = 0.352, p = 0.024) and arm (r = 0.312, p = 0.047). This study provides evidence that migraineurs have low heat pain thresholds between migraine attacks. Mechanisms underlying these lower pain thresholds could also predispose migraineurs to their next migraine attack, a hypothesis supported by finding positive correlations between pain thresholds and time to next migraine attack. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 9, No 2S (2017): Special Issue, Water quality assessment of the rivers in bauxite mining area at Kuantan Pahang, Abstract PDF. N Yaakub, M.N.A. Raoff, M.N. Haris, A.A.A. Halim, M.K.A. Kamarudin. Vol 9, No 2S (2017): Special Issue, Water quality index assesment around industrial area in Kuantan, Pahang, Abstract ...

  14. Gradient-Index Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    nonimaging design capabilities to incorporate 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 12-04-2011 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views, opinions...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Imaging Optics, Nonimaging Optics, Gradient Index Optics, Camera, Concentrator...imaging and nonimaging design capabilities to incorporate manufacturable GRIN lenses can provide imaging lens systems that are compact and

  15. Index of cyber integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  16. Minimum alveolar concentration threshold of sevoflurane for postoperative dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, P; Perilli, V; Lai, C; Sacco, T; Modesti, C; Luca, E; De Santis, P; Sollazzi, L; Antonelli, M

    2015-11-01

    Many factors affect postoperative dream recall, including patient characteristics, type of anesthesia, timing of postoperative interview and stress hormone secretion. Aims of the study were to determine whether Bispectral Index (BIS)-guided anesthesia might decrease sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) when compared with hemodynamically-guided anesthesia, and to search for a MAC threshold useful for preventing arousal, dream recall and implicit memory. One hundred thirty patients undergoing elective thyroidectomy were enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with propofol 2 mg kg(-1), fentanyl 3 mcg kg(-1) and cis-atracurium 0.15 mg kg(-1). For anesthesia maintenance, patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: a BIS-guided group in which sevoflurane MAC was adjusted on the basis of BIS values, and a hemodynamic parameters (HP)-guided group in which MAC was adjusted based on HP. An auditory recording was presented to patients during anesthesia maintenance. Dream recall and explicit/implicit memory were investigated upon awakening and approximately after 24 h. Mean sevoflurane MAC during auditory presentation was similar in the two groups (0.85 ± 0.16 and 0.87 ± 0.17 [P = 0.53] in BIS-guided and HP-guided groups, respectively). Frequency of dream recall was similar in the two groups: 27% (N. = 17) in BIS-guided group, 18% (N. = 12) in HP-guided group, P = 0.37. In both groups, dream recall was less probable in patients anesthetized with MAC values ≥ 0.9 (area under ROC curve = 0.83, sensitivity = 90%, and specificity = 49%). BIS-guided anesthesia was not able to generate different MAC values compared to HP-guided anesthesia. Independent of the guide used for anesthesia, a sevoflurane MAC over 0.9 was required to prevent postoperative dream recall.

  17. Hexavalent chrome: threshold concept for carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R E

    1990-03-01

    Certain hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) compounds when administered via inhalation at high doses have the potential to induce lung tumors in humans and experimental animals. Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is an essential human and animal nutrient at levels of 50 to 200 micrograms/day. Recent data have shown that the human body is able to reduce Cr6+ to Cr3+. This reduction occurs in bodily fluids such as gastric juice, epithelial lining fluid of the respiratory tract, blood, and other fluids. Secondary reduction occurs at the cellular level by the cytosol, mitochondria, and microsomes. Thus, at low levels of exposure hexavalent chromium ions are reduced before the 6+ ions can interact with DNA unless the dose is sufficient to overwhelm the body's reduction capacity. This paper summarizes the available data concerning the reducing ability of the body and formulates the steps in the mechanism of cancer induction. These steps include: (1) only certain Cr6+ compounds have the capacity to interact with cellular components; (2) Cr6+ is reduced by body fluids and excess Cr6+ enters the cell (Cr3+ is poorly absorbed across membranes); (3) cellular organelles and the cytoplasm reduce Cr6+ to Cr3+; (4) excess Cr6+ can enter the nucleus; (5) Cr6+ reduction through 5+ and 4+ to 3+ has a potential to interact with the DNA molecule; and (6) if unrepaired, this DNA damage can lead to cancer induction. On the basis of current evidence Cr6+ has a threshold for carcinogenic potential in humans that is greater than the current TLV.

  18. Objective threshold for distinguishing complicated tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the likelihood of human error in a reliable manner is really important for enhancing the safety of a large process control system such as Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). In this regard, from the point of view of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), various kinds of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods have been used for several decades in order to systematically evaluate the effect of human error on the safety of NPPs. However, one of the recurrence issues is to determine the level of an important Performance Shaping Factor (PSF) by using a clear and objective manner with respect to the context of a given task. Unfortunately, there is no such criterion for a certain PSF such as the complexity of a task. For this reason, in this study, an objective criterion that is helpful for identifying a complicated task is suggested based on the Task Complexity (TACOM) measure. To this end, subjective difficulty scores rated by high speed train drivers are collected. After that, subjective difficulty scores are compared with the associated TACOM scores being quantified based on tasks to be conducted by high speed train drivers. As a result, it is expected that high speed train drivers feel a significant difficulty when they are faced with tasks of which the TACOM scores are greater than 4.2. Since TACOM measure is a kind of general tool to quantify the complexity of tasks to be done by human operators, it is promising to conclude that this value can be regarded as a common threshold representing what a complicated task is.

  19. Interword and intraword pause threshold in writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Florence; Pellegrino, François; Jisa, Harriet; Fayol, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Writing words in real life involves setting objectives, imagining a recipient, translating ideas into linguistic forms, managing grapho-motor gestures, etc. Understanding writing requires observation of the processes as they occur in real time. Analysis of pauses is one of the preferred methods for accessing the dynamics of writing and is based on the idea that pauses are behavioral correlates of cognitive processes. However, there is a need to clarify what we are observing when studying pause phenomena, as we will argue in the first section. This taken into account, the study of pause phenomena can be considered following two approaches. A first approach, driven by temporality, would define a threshold and observe where pauses, e.g., scriptural inactivity occurs. A second approach, linguistically driven, would define structural units and look for scriptural inactivity at the boundaries of these units or within these units. Taking a temporally driven approach, we present two methods which aim at the automatic identification of scriptural inactivity which is most likely not attributable to grapho-motor management in texts written by children and adolescents using digitizing tablets in association with Eye and Pen (©) (Chesnet and Alamargot, 2005). The first method is purely statistical and is based on the idea that the distribution of pauses exhibits different Gaussian components each of them corresponding to a different type of pause. After having reviewed the limits of this statistical method, we present a second method based on writing dynamics which attempts to identify breaking points in the writing dynamics rather than relying only on pause duration. This second method needs to be refined to overcome the fact that calculation is impossible when there is insufficient data which is often the case when working with young scriptors.

  20. Top-quark pair production near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumino, Y.; Fujii, K.; Hagiwara, K.; Murayama, H.; Ng, C.

    1993-01-01

    We present a novel formalism to calculate the total and the differential cross sections for heavy unstable top-quark pair production near threshold. Within the context of the nonrelativistic quark model, we introduce the running toponium width Γ FTHETA (E,p) in the Schroedinger equation for the three-point Green's function that governs the t bar t contribution to the e + e- annihilation process. The effect of the running of the width is found to be significant in two aspects: (i) it takes account of the phase-space volume for the decay process t bar t→bW + bar bW- and provides a consistent framework for calculating the differential cross sections; and (ii) it reduces the widths of the low-lying resonances to considerably less than 2Γ t (m t 2 ). Furthermore, the running of the width causes the total cross section to decrease significantly at c.m. energies below the first ''resonance'' enhancement, whereas it makes the ''peak'' cross section more distinct than is obtained in the fixed toponium width approximation. We use the two-loop-improved QCD potential in our calculation, and the α s (m Z ) Mbar S dependences of the total and differential cross sections are studied quantitatively, where M bar S denotes the modified minimal subtraction scheme. We find that the correlations in the α s and m t measurements are opposite in the total and differential cross sections, and the simultaneous measurements would lead to an accurate determination of both parameters

  1. Evaluation of Pressure Pain Threshold as a Measure of Perceived Stress and High Job Strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hven, Lisbeth; Frost, Poul; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2017-01-01

    pressure pain algometry measurements of PPT on the trapezius and supraspinatus muscles and the tibia. Associations of stress symptoms and job strain with PPT of each site was analyzed for men and women separately with adjustment for age body mass index, and discomfort in the anatomical region closest...... to the point of pressure algometry using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: We found significant inverse associations between perceived stress and PPT in both genders in models adjusting for age and body mass index: the higher level of perceived stress, the lower the threshold. For job strain...... associations between perceived stress and PPT, the discriminative capability of PPT to distinguish individuals with and without stress is low. PPT measured by pressure algometry seems not applicable as a diagnostic tool of a state of mental stress....

  2. The influence of grating shape formation fluctuation on DFB laser diode threshold condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shiwei; Song, Qinghai; Xie, Chunmei

    2018-03-01

    Not only the grating material refractive index itself but also the Bragg grating physical shape formation affects the coupling strength greatly. The Bragg grating shape includes three factors, namely grating depth, duty ratio and grating angle. During the lithography and wet etching process, there always will be some fluctuation between the target and real grating shape formation after fabrication process. This grating shape fluctuation will affect the DFB coupling coefficient κ , and then consequently threshold current and corresponding wavelength. This paper studied the grating shape formation fluctuation influence to improve the DFB fabrication yield. A truncated normal random distribution fluctuation is considered in this paper. The simulation results conclude that it is better to choose relative thicker grating depth with lower refractive index to obtain a better fabrication tolerance, while not quite necessary to spend too much effort on improving lithography and wet etching process to get a precisely grating duty ratio and grating angle.

  3. At the threshold to a new world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeer, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    The rapidly declining ecological health of the globe and its contributing factors are reviewed, and a global health index is defined that helps visualizing approaching danger points. The close relationship between ecologically declining health, the need for more energy per capita world-wide and the economic growth as a driving force are discussed. Large scale reforestation to counteract greenhouse gas imbalance is described as temporary aid to buy time and avoid instabilities in weather patterns until more permanent solutions can be in place that permit further economic growth of the total gross world product. The only feasible solution that does not mortgage future generations with yet unsolved, and possibly unsolvable problems is the massive deployment of solar conversion equipment. The use of photovoltaic panels is a well established technology and is described as a totally benign solution that, in conjunction with hydrogen storage, can be used as the dominant future source of energy on earth

  4. Reference hearing threshold levels for short duration signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Legarth, Søren Vase

    2008-01-01

    for the determination of reference hearing threshold levels. The results are given as peak-to-peak equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (peETSPL). The results are in good agreement with other sparse results from literature and are part of the basis for the ISO 389-6 standard from 2007....

  5. Eigen's Error Threshold and Mutational Meltdown in a Quasispecies Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnoli, F.; Bezzi, M.

    1998-01-01

    We introduce a toy model for interacting populations connected by mutations and limited by a shared resource. We study the presence of Eigen's error threshold and mutational meltdown. The phase diagram of the system shows that the extinction of the whole population due to mutational meltdown can occur well before an eventual error threshold transition.

  6. Model Threshold untuk Pembelajaran Memproduksi Pantun Kelas XI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Nura Murti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The learning pantun method in schools provided less opportunity to develop the students’ creativity in producing pantun. This situation was supported by the result of the observation conducted on eleventh graders at SMAN 2 Bondowoso. It showed that the students tend to plagiarize their pantun. The general objective of this research and development is to develop Threshold Pantun model for learning to produce pantun for elevent graders. The product was presented in guidance book for teachers entitled “Pembelajaran Memproduksi Pantun Menggunakan Model Threshold Pantun untuk Kelas XI”. This study adapted design method of Borg-Gall’s R&D procedure. The result of this study showed that Threshold Pantun model was appropriate to be implemented for learning to produce pantun. Key Words: Threshold Pantun model, produce pantun Abstrak: Pembelajaran pantun di sekolah selama ini kurang mengembangkan kreativitas siswa dalam memproduksi pantun. Hal tersebut dikuatkan oleh hasil observasi siswa kelas XI SMAN 2 Bondowoso yang menunjukkan adanya kecenderungan produk siswa bersifat plagiat. Tujuan penelitian dan pengembangan ini secara umum adalah mengembangkan model Threshold Pantun untuk pembelajaran memproduksi pantun kelas XI..Produk disajikan dalam bentuk buku panduan bagi guru dengan judul “Pembelajaran Memproduksi Pantun Menggunakan Model Threshold Pantun untuk Kelas XI”. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan penelitian yang diadaptasi dari prosedur penelitian dan pengembangan Borg dan Gall. Berdasarkan hasil validasi model Threshold Pantun untuk pembelajaran memproduksi pantun layak diimplementasikan. Kata kunci: model Threshold Pantun, memproduksi pantun

  7. Weight, Mass, and Gravity: Threshold Concepts in Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Varda; Brosh, Yaffa; Sneider, Cary

    2016-01-01

    Threshold concepts are essential ideas about the natural world that present either a barrier or a gateway to a deep understanding of science. Weight, mass, and gravity are threshold concepts that underpin students' abilities to understand important ideas in all fields of science, embodied in the performance expectations in the Next Generation…

  8. Europe's Other Poverty Measures: Absolute Thresholds Underlying Social Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavier, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The first thing many learn about international poverty measurement is that European nations apply a "relative" poverty threshold and that they also do a better job of reducing poverty. Unlike the European model, the "absolute" U.S. poverty threshold does not increase in real value when the nation's standard of living rises,…

  9. On the threshold sensitivity of low background photoneutron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakevich, G.M.; Ponomarchuk, V.A.; Filippov, E.M.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical substantiation is given of determining the sensitivity threshold for a number of photoneutron devices used in practice (Berill-2, Berill-4 etc.). It is shown that, considering various effects and a real time of measurements, the sensitivity threshold of the photoneutron devices waries within the range of 1.3x10 -3 % (Berill-3) to 2.2x10 -5 %

  10. A curve of thresholds governs plague epizootics in Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijniers, Jonas; Davis, Stephen; Begon, Mike

    2012-01-01

    , it is common to assume a threshold defined by the ratio of vector and host abundances. Here, we show in contrast, both from field data and model simulations, that for plague (Yersinia pestis) in Kazakhstan, the invasion threshold quantity is based on the product of its host (Rhombomys opimus) and vector...

  11. 49 CFR 38.99 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Floors, steps and thresholds. 38.99 Section 38.99 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.99 Floors, steps and thresholds...

  12. thresholds of gully erosion in the coastal plains sands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    estimating thresholds for gully initiation and sustenance. The entire 413. Km2 Ikpa River basin was covered with grids 1km2 and random number table was used to select 15% of the target population in the basin. The pair-wise correlation technique was employed to establish the threshold values of vegetation cover, organic ...

  13. When do price thresholds matter in retail categories?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Pauwels (Koen); S. Srinivasan (Shuba); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMarketing literature has long recognized that brand price elasticity need not be monotonic and symmetric, but has yet to provide generalizable market-level insights on threshold-based price elasticity, asymmetric thresholds, and the sign and magnitude of elasticity transitions. This

  14. Effects of data resolution and stream delineation threshold area on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results also indicate that peak flow and slope of the hydrograph rising limb obtained from the SRTM DEM at different threshold areas (ranging from 0.25% to 3%) are greater than that for the TOPO DEM. Investigating the effects of stream network delineation threshold area on the simulated peak flow shows that the ...

  15. Optimal threshold functions for fault detection and isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, J.; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Cour-Harbo, A. la

    2003-01-01

    Fault diagnosis systems usually comprises two parts: a filtering part and a decision part, the latter typically based on threshold functions. In this paper, systematic ways to choose the threshold values are proposed. Two different test functions for the filtered signals are discussed and a method...

  16. A non-parametric framework for estimating threshold limit values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulm Kurt

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate a threshold limit value for a compound known to have harmful health effects, an 'elbow' threshold model is usually applied. We are interested on non-parametric flexible alternatives. Methods We describe how a step function model fitted by isotonic regression can be used to estimate threshold limit values. This method returns a set of candidate locations, and we discuss two algorithms to select the threshold among them: the reduced isotonic regression and an algorithm considering the closed family of hypotheses. We assess the performance of these two alternative approaches under different scenarios in a simulation study. We illustrate the framework by analysing the data from a study conducted by the German Research Foundation aiming to set a threshold limit value in the exposure to total dust at workplace, as a causal agent for developing chronic bronchitis. Results In the paper we demonstrate the use and the properties of the proposed methodology along with the results from an application. The method appears to detect the threshold with satisfactory success. However, its performance can be compromised by the low power to reject the constant risk assumption when the true dose-response relationship is weak. Conclusion The estimation of thresholds based on isotonic framework is conceptually simple and sufficiently powerful. Given that in threshold value estimation context there is not a gold standard method, the proposed model provides a useful non-parametric alternative to the standard approaches and can corroborate or challenge their findings.

  17. Accelerated testing for chloride threshold of reinforcing steel in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Put, M. van; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Testing for the chloride threshold (also called critical chloride content) for corrosion initiation of steel in concrete has been found difficult and, at best, time consuming. Nevertheless, the chloride threshold is an important parameter in service life design of new structures and for evaluation

  18. An examination of fire spread thresholds in discontinuous fuel beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Jack D. Cohen; Isaac C. Grenfell; Kara M. Yedinak

    2010-01-01

    Many fuel beds, especially live vegetation canopies (conifer forests, shrub fields, bunch-grasses) contain gaps between vegetation clumps. Fires burning in these fuel types often display thresholds for spread that are observed to depend on environmental factors like wind, slope, and fuel moisture content. To investigate threshold spread behaviours, we conducted a set...

  19. Estimating the optimal growth-maximising public debt threshold for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to estimate an optimal growth-maximising public debt threshold for Zimbabwe. The public debt threshold is estimated by assessing the relationship between public debt and economic growth. The analysis is undertaken to determine the tipping point beyond which increases in public debt adversely affect ...

  20. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....

  1. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  2. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...... by the apparent shift being consistent with one of a number of numerical possibilities for the real shift which differ by 2n are resolved by combining measurements performed on the same sample using light paths therethrough of differing lengths....

  3. A critical experimental study of the classical tactile threshold theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Leonel E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tactile sense is being used in a variety of applications involving tactile human-machine interfaces. In a significant number of publications the classical threshold concept plays a central role in modelling and explaining psychophysical experimental results such as in stochastic resonance (SR phenomena. In SR, noise enhances detection of sub-threshold stimuli and the phenomenon is explained stating that the required amplitude to exceed the sensory threshold barrier can be reached by adding noise to a sub-threshold stimulus. We designed an experiment to test the validity of the classical vibrotactile threshold. Using a second choice experiment, we show that individuals can order sensorial events below the level known as the classical threshold. If the observer's sensorial system is not activated by stimuli below the threshold, then a second choice could not be above the chance level. Nevertheless, our experimental results are above that chance level contradicting the definition of the classical tactile threshold. Results We performed a three alternative forced choice detection experiment on 6 subjects asking them first and second choices. In each trial, only one of the intervals contained a stimulus and the others contained only noise. According to the classical threshold assumptions, a correct second choice response corresponds to a guess attempt with a statistical frequency of 50%. Results show an average of 67.35% (STD = 1.41% for the second choice response that is not explained by the classical threshold definition. Additionally, for low stimulus amplitudes, second choice correct detection is above chance level for any detectability level. Conclusions Using a second choice experiment, we show that individuals can order sensorial events below the level known as a classical threshold. If the observer's sensorial system is not activated by stimuli below the threshold, then a second choice could not be above the chance

  4. Hierarchical Threshold Adaptive for Point Cloud Filter Algorithm of Moving Surface Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Xiaoxiao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy,efficiency and adaptability of point cloud filtering algorithm,a hierarchical threshold adaptive for point cloud filter algorithm of moving surface fitting was proposed.Firstly,the noisy points are removed by using a statistic histogram method.Secondly,the grid index is established by grid segmentation,and the surface equation is set up through the lowest point among the neighborhood grids.The real height and fit are calculated.The difference between the elevation and the threshold can be determined.Finally,in order to improve the filtering accuracy,hierarchical filtering is used to change the grid size and automatically set the neighborhood size and threshold until the filtering result reaches the accuracy requirement.The test data provided by the International Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Society (ISPRS is used to verify the algorithm.The first and second error and the total error are 7.33%,10.64% and 6.34% respectively.The algorithm is compared with the eight classical filtering algorithms published by ISPRS.The experiment results show that the method has well-adapted and it has high accurate filtering result.

  5. Perioperative transfusion threshold and ambulation after hip revision surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kamilla; Johansson, Pär I; Dahl, Benny

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transfusion with red blood cells (RBC) may be needed during hip revision surgery but the appropriate haemoglobin concentration (Hb) threshold for transfusion has not been well established. We hypothesized that a higher transfusion threshold would improve ambulation after hip revision...... surgery. METHODS: The trial was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT00906295). Sixty-six patients aged 18 years or older undergoing hip revision surgery were randomized to receive RBC at a Hb threshold of either 7.3 g/dL (restrictive group) or 8.9 g/dL (liberal group). Postoperative ambulation...... received RBC. CONCLUSIONS: A Hb transfusion threshold of 8.9 g/dL was associated with a statistically significantly faster TUG after hip revision surgery compared to a threshold of 7.3 g/dL but the clinical importance is questionable and the groups did not differ in Hb at the time of testing....

  6. Testing for a Debt-Threshold Effect on Output Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sokbae; Park, Hyunmin; Seo, Myung Hwan; Shin, Youngki

    2017-12-01

    Using the Reinhart-Rogoff dataset, we find a debt threshold not around 90 per cent but around 30 per cent, above which the median real gross domestic product (GDP) growth falls abruptly. Our work is the first to formally test for threshold effects in the relationship between public debt and median real GDP growth. The null hypothesis of no threshold effect is rejected at the 5 per cent significance level for most cases. While we find no evidence of a threshold around 90 per cent, our findings from the post-war sample suggest that the debt threshold for economic growth may exist around a relatively small debt-to-GDP ratio of 30 per cent. Furthermore, countries with debt-to-GDP ratios above 30 per cent have GDP growth that is 1 percentage point lower at the median.

  7. 64 x 64 thresholding photodetector array for optical pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbacher, Harry; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Shaw, Timothy; Yu, Jeffrey W.

    1993-10-01

    A high performance 32 X 32 peak detector array is introduced. This detector consists of a 32 X 32 array of thresholding photo-transistor cells, manufactured with a standard MOSIS digital 2-micron CMOS process. A built-in thresholding function that is able to perform 1024 thresholding operations in parallel strongly distinguishes this chip from available CCD detectors. This high speed detector offers responses from one to 10 milliseconds that is much higher than the commercially available CCD detectors operating at a TV frame rate. The parallel multiple peaks thresholding detection capability makes it particularly suitable for optical correlator and optoelectronically implemented neural networks. The principle of operation, circuit design and the performance characteristics are described. Experimental demonstration of correlation peak detection is also provided. Recently, we have also designed and built an advanced version of a 64 X 64 thresholding photodetector array chip. Experimental investigation of using this chip for pattern recognition is ongoing.

  8. A Risk Severity Index for industrial plants and sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planas, E.; Arnaldos, J.; Silvetti, B.; Vallee, Agnes; Casal, J.

    2006-01-01

    A risk index (Risk Severity Index, S) has been devised to allow the assessment of the risk level originated by a given installation or site over the affected zone. A set of threshold levels for thermal radiation, toxic concentration and overpressure, together with the probabilities and frequencies associated to critical events and their effects have been the basis for calculating the values of S. A computer tool has been designed to perform a quick calculation of the diverse Risk Severity Indexes (for a critical event, for a dangerous phenomenon, for a type of effect and for the whole installation) and to plot a map of the risk severity levels around the site. The methodology has been applied to diverse test cases and it has proved to be useful for risk assessment, for comparative studies and for land use planning

  9. Taste perception with age: pleasantness and its relationships with threshold sensitivity and supra-threshold intensity of five taste qualities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.; Heidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between threshold sensitivity, supra-threshold intensity of NaCl, KCl, sucrose, aspartame, acetic acid, citric acid, caffeine, quinine HCl, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and inosine 5¿-monophosphate (IMP), and the pleasantness of these stimuli in products, were studied in 21 young

  10. 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsroom SEARCH Driver Behavior & Performance 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index This report presents the results of our annual Traffic Safety Culture Index survey, providing data on the attitudes and ...

  11. 2001 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2001 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) utilizes a refined methodology based on the 2000 Pilot ESI effort, to construct an index covering 122 countries...

  12. On the need for a time- and location-dependent estimation of the NDSI threshold value for reducing existing uncertainties in snow cover maps at different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härer, Stefan; Bernhardt, Matthias; Siebers, Matthias; Schulz, Karsten

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge of current snow cover extent is essential for characterizing energy and moisture fluxes at the Earth's surface. The snow-covered area (SCA) is often estimated by using optical satellite information in combination with the normalized-difference snow index (NDSI). The NDSI thereby uses a threshold for the definition if a satellite pixel is assumed to be snow covered or snow free. The spatiotemporal representativeness of the standard threshold of 0.4 is however questionable at the local scale. Here, we use local snow cover maps derived from ground-based photography to continuously calibrate the NDSI threshold values (NDSIthr) of Landsat satellite images at two European mountain sites of the period from 2010 to 2015. The Research Catchment Zugspitzplatt (RCZ, Germany) and Vernagtferner area (VF, Austria) are both located within a single Landsat scene. Nevertheless, the long-term analysis of the NDSIthr demonstrated that the NDSIthr at these sites are not correlated (r = 0.17) and different than the standard threshold of 0.4. For further comparison, a dynamic and locally optimized NDSI threshold was used as well as another locally optimized literature threshold value (0.7). It was shown that large uncertainties in the prediction of the SCA of up to 24.1 % exist in satellite snow cover maps in cases where the standard threshold of 0.4 is used, but a newly developed calibrated quadratic polynomial model which accounts for seasonal threshold dynamics can reduce this error. The model minimizes the SCA uncertainties at the calibration site VF by 50 % in the evaluation period and was also able to improve the results at RCZ in a significant way. Additionally, a scaling experiment shows that the positive effect of a locally adapted threshold diminishes using a pixel size of 500 m or larger, underlining the general applicability of the standard threshold at larger scales.

  13. Ventilatory thresholds determined from HRV: comparison of 2 methods in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinart, S; Mourot, L; Nègre, V; Simon-Rigaud, M-L; Nicolet-Guénat, M; Bertrand, A-M; Meneveau, N; Mougin, F

    2014-03-01

    The development of personalised training programmes is crucial in the management of obesity. We evaluated the ability of 2 heart rate variability analyses to determine ventilatory thresholds (VT) in obese adolescents. 20 adolescents (mean age 14.3±1.6 years and body mass index z-score 4.2±0.1) performed an incremental test to exhaustion before and after a 9-month multidisciplinary management programme. The first (VT1) and second (VT2) ventilatory thresholds were identified by the reference method (gas exchanges). We recorded RR intervals to estimate VT1 and VT2 from heart rate variability using time-domain analysis and time-varying spectral-domain analysis. The coefficient correlations between thresholds were higher with spectral-domain analysis compared to time-domain analysis: Heart rate at VT1: r=0.91 vs. =0.66 and VT2: r=0.91 vs. =0.66; power at VT1: r=0.91 vs. =0.74 and VT2: r=0.93 vs. =0.78; spectral-domain vs. time-domain analysis respectively). No systematic bias in heart rate at VT1 and VT2 with standard deviations <6 bpm were found, confirming that spectral-domain analysis could replace the reference method for the detection of ventilatory thresholds. Furthermore, this technique is sensitive to rehabilitation and re-training, which underlines its utility in clinical practice. This inexpensive and non-invasive tool is promising for prescribing physical activity programs in obese adolescents. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Inequality in dental caries distribution at noncavitated and cavitated thresholds in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Tomazoni, Fernanda; Del Fabro, Joana; Buzzati, Bruna Cássia Schmidt; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the inequality in dental caries distribution according to different thresholds assessed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and to investigate the associations of socioeconomic factors with caries lesions at both noncavitated and cavitated thresholds. Study subjects were recruited in Santa Maria, Brazil, during the National Day of Children's Vaccination, and 639 children aged 12-59 months were included. Fifteen calibrated examiners performed the examinations using ICDAS criteria. Inequality in dental caries distribution was measured using the Gini coefficient, and the Significant Caries Index was calculated for several thresholds of ICDAS. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the associations of socioeconomic factors with the highest caries scores. The inequality in the distribution of dental caries was lower when precavitated caries were included; the Gini coefficient decreased from 0.77 to 0.60 when noncavitated caries lesions were included in the analyses. Moreover, the inequalities were higher in the younger than in the older children for all thresholds. Socioeconomic factors were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with caries when an ICDAS score of 3 was considered as the cut-off point. Children whose mothers did not complete primary education (P < 0.001) and those with low household income (P < 0.001) were more likely to have increased dental caries. Caries lesions were more equally distributed when noncavitated lesions were included in the dental survey. Socioeconomic factors are found to be associated with the inequalities in caries distribution in this age group. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  15. Life quality index revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2004-01-01

    The derivation of the life quality index (LQI) is revisited for a revision. This revision takes into account the unpaid but necessary work time needed to stay alive in clean and healthy conditions to be fit for effective wealth producing work and to enjoyable free time. Dimension analysis...... at birth should not vary between countries. Finally the distributional assumptions are relaxed as compared to the assumptions made in an earlier work by the author. These assumptions concern the calculation of the life expectancy change due to the removal of an accident source. Moreover a simple public...... consistency problems with the standard power function expression of the LQI are pointed out. It is emphasized that the combination coefficient in the convex differential combination between the relative differential of the gross domestic product per capita and the relative differential of the expected life...

  16. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid is measured in an apparatus comprising a variable wavelength coherent light source (16), a sample chamber (12), a wavelength controller (24), a light sensor (20), a data recorder (26) and a computation apparatus (28), by - directing...... coherent light having a wavelength along an input light path, - producing scattering of said light from each of a plurality of interfaces within said apparatus including interfaces between said fluid and a surface bounding said fluid, said scattering producing an interference pattern formed by said...... scattered light, - cyclically varying the wavelength of said light in said input light path over a 1 nm to 20nm wide range of wavelengths a rate of from 10Hz to 50 KHz, - recording variation of intensity of the interfering light with change in wavelength of the light at an angle of observation...

  17. Indexing contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility for safely managing the Tank Farms at Hanford belongs to Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation which is part of the six company Project Hanford Management Team led by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.. These Tank Farm Facilities contain numerous outdoor contamination areas which are surveyed at a periodicity consistent with the potential radiological conditions, occupancy, and risk of changes in radiological conditions. This document describes the survey documentation and data tracking method devised to track the results of contamination surveys this process is referred to as indexing. The indexing process takes a representative data set as an indicator for the contamination status of the facility. The data are further manipulated into a single value that can be tracked and trended using standard statistical methodology. To report meaningful data, the routine contamination surveys must be performed in a manner that allows the survey method and the data collection process to be recreated. Three key criteria are necessary to accomplish this goal: Accurate maps, consistent documentation, and consistent consolidation of data meeting these criteria provides data of sufficient quality to be tracked. Tracking of survey data is accomplished by converting the individual survey results into a weighted value, corrected for the actual number of survey points. This information can be compared over time using standard statistical analysis to identify trends. At the Tank Farms, the need to track and trend the facility's radiological status presents unique challenges. Many of these Tank Farm facilities date back to the second world war. The Tank Farm Facilities are exposed to weather extremes, plant and animal intrusion, as well as all of the normal challenges associated with handling radiological waste streams. Routine radiological surveys did not provide a radiological status adequate for continuing comparisons

  18. Precipitation Thresholds for Triggering Floods in the Corgo Basin, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thresholds based on critical combinations of amount/duration of precipitation and flood events were estimated for the Corgo hydrographic basin, in northern Portugal. Thirty-one flood events in the Corgo basin were identified between 1865 and 2011 from a database of hydrometeorological disasters in Portugal. The minimum, maximum, and pre-warning thresholds that define the boundaries for flood occurrence were determined. The results show that the ratio between the total number of floods and precipitation events exceeding the minimum threshold denotes a relatively low probability of successful forecasting. This result may be due to the reduced number of flooding events in the floods database, which only include floods that caused damage as reported by the media. The estimated maximum threshold is not adequate for use in floods, since the majority of true positives are below this limit. However, and more interestingly, the retrospective verification of the estimated thresholds suggests that the minimum and pre-warning thresholds are well adjusted. Therefore, the application of these precipitation thresholds may contribute to minimize possible situations of pre-crisis or immediate crisis by reducing the flood consequences and the resources involved in emergency response to flood events.

  19. Electrocardiogram signal denoising based on a new improved wavelet thresholding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guoqiang; Xu, Zhijun

    2016-08-01

    Good quality electrocardiogram (ECG) is utilized by physicians for the interpretation and identification of physiological and pathological phenomena. In general, ECG signals may mix various noises such as baseline wander, power line interference, and electromagnetic interference in gathering and recording process. As ECG signals are non-stationary physiological signals, wavelet transform is investigated to be an effective tool to discard noises from corrupted signals. A new compromising threshold function called sigmoid function-based thresholding scheme is adopted in processing ECG signals. Compared with other methods such as hard/soft thresholding or other existing thresholding functions, the new algorithm has many advantages in the noise reduction of ECG signals. It perfectly overcomes the discontinuity at ±T of hard thresholding and reduces the fixed deviation of soft thresholding. The improved wavelet thresholding denoising can be proved to be more efficient than existing algorithms in ECG signal denoising. The signal to noise ratio, mean square error, and percent root mean square difference are calculated to verify the denoising performance as quantitative tools. The experimental results reveal that the waves including P, Q, R, and S waves of ECG signals after denoising coincide with the original ECG signals by employing the new proposed method.

  20. Smartphone threshold audiometry in underserved primary health-care contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, Josefin; Swanepoel, De Wet; Carel Myburgh, Hermanus; Laurent, Claude

    2016-01-01

    To validate a calibrated smartphone-based hearing test in a sound booth environment and in primary health-care clinics. A repeated-measure within-subject study design was employed whereby air-conduction hearing thresholds determined by smartphone-based audiometry was compared to conventional audiometry in a sound booth and a primary health-care clinic environment. A total of 94 subjects (mean age 41 years ± 17.6 SD and range 18-88; 64% female) were assessed of whom 64 were tested in the sound booth and 30 within primary health-care clinics without a booth. In the sound booth 63.4% of conventional and smartphone thresholds indicated normal hearing (≤15 dBHL). Conventional thresholds exceeding 15 dB HL corresponded to smartphone thresholds within ≤10 dB in 80.6% of cases with an average threshold difference of -1.6 dB ± 9.9 SD. In primary health-care clinics 13.7% of conventional and smartphone thresholds indicated normal hearing (≤15 dBHL). Conventional thresholds exceeding 15 dBHL corresponded to smartphone thresholds within ≤10 dB in 92.9% of cases with an average threshold difference of -1.0 dB ± 7.1 SD. Accurate air-conduction audiometry can be conducted in a sound booth and without a sound booth in an underserved community health-care clinic using a smartphone.

  1. Lower versus higher hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wernerman, Jan; Guttormsen, Anne B; Karlsson, Sari; Johansson, Pär I; Aneman, Anders; Vang, Marianne L; Winding, Robert; Nebrich, Lars; Nibro, Helle L; Rasmussen, Bodil S; Lauridsen, Johnny R M; Nielsen, Jane S; Oldner, Anders; Pettilä, Ville; Cronhjort, Maria B; Andersen, Lasse H; Pedersen, Ulf G; Reiter, Nanna; Wiis, Jørgen; White, Jonathan O; Russell, Lene; Thornberg, Klaus J; Hjortrup, Peter B; Müller, Rasmus G; Møller, Morten H; Steensen, Morten; Tjäder, Inga; Kilsand, Kristina; Odeberg-Wernerman, Suzanne; Sjøbø, Brit; Bundgaard, Helle; Thyø, Maria A; Lodahl, David; Mærkedahl, Rikke; Albeck, Carsten; Illum, Dorte; Kruse, Mary; Winkel, Per; Perner, Anders

    2014-10-09

    Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay. The primary outcome measure was death by 90 days after randomization. We analyzed data from 998 of 1005 patients (99.3%) who underwent randomization. The two intervention groups had similar baseline characteristics. In the ICU, the lower-threshold group received a median of 1 unit of blood (interquartile range, 0 to 3) and the higher-threshold group received a median of 4 units (interquartile range, 2 to 7). At 90 days after randomization, 216 of 502 patients (43.0%) assigned to the lower-threshold group, as compared with 223 of 496 (45.0%) assigned to the higher-threshold group, had died (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.09; P=0.44). The results were similar in analyses adjusted for risk factors at baseline and in analyses of the per-protocol populations. The numbers of patients who had ischemic events, who had severe adverse reactions, and who required life support were similar in the two intervention groups. Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion at a lower threshold; the latter group received fewer transfusions. (Funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council and others; TRISS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01485315.).

  2. Viva the h-index

    OpenAIRE

    Waaijers, Leo

    2011-01-01

    In their article 'The inconsistency of the h-index' Ludo Waltman and Nees Jan van Neck give three examples to demonstrate the inconsistency of the h-index. As will be explained, a little extension of their examples just illustrate the opposite, a stable feature of the h-index. For starting authors it, the h-index that is, focusses on the number of articles; for experienced authors its focus shifts towards the citation scores. This feature may be liked or not but does not make the h-index an i...

  3. Re-examination of the threshold energy surface in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.E.; Benedek, R.; Merkle, K.L.; Meshii, M.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation-induced defect production in copper has been studied using in-situ electrical resistivity damage-rate measurements in the HVEM and molecular dynamics simulations. Analysis of the results yields a threshold energy surface characterized by two isolated pockets of low threshold energy centered at and surrounded by regions of much higher threshold energy; the corresponding damage function exhibits a plateau at 0.65 Frenkel pairs. A Frenkel pair resistivity of (2.75/sub -0.2/ + 0 6 ) x 10 - 4 Ω-cm is proposed. A model damage function is constructed and compared to results from ion irradiation damage-rate measurements. 7 figures

  4. Threshold pump power of a solar-pumped dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

    1988-01-01

    Threshold solar power for dye laser pumping has been determined by measuring the gain of a rhodamine 6G dye laser amplifier at various solar-simulated irradiances on an amplifier cell. The measured threshold was 20,000 solar constants (2.7 kW/sq cm) for the dye volume of 2 x 5 x 40 cu mm and the optimum dye concentration of 0.001 M. The threshold is about one-third of that achievable with a high-intensity solar concentrator.

  5. Review and Analysis of Cryptographic Schemes Implementing Threshold Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, ellipt ic curves and bilinear pairings were investigated. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, e.g. used in a mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency. The significance of the work is determined by the reduction of the level of counterfeit electronic documents, signed by certain group of users.

  6. Faster magnet sorting with a threshold acceptance algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, S.; Carr, R.

    1995-01-01

    We introduce here a new technique for sorting magnets to minimize the field errors in permanent magnet insertion devices. Simulated annealing has been used in this role, but we find the technique of threshold acceptance produces results of equal quality in less computer time. Threshold accepting would be of special value in designing very long insertion devices, such as long free electron lasers (FELs). Our application of threshold acceptance to magnet sorting showed that it converged to equivalently low values of the cost function, but that it converged significantly faster. We present typical cases showing time to convergence for various error tolerances, magnet numbers, and temperature schedules

  7. Near-Threshold Ionization of Argon by Positron Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babij, T. J.; Machacek, J. R.; Murtagh, D. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Sullivan, J. P.

    2018-03-01

    The direct single-ionization cross section for Ar by positron impact has been measured in the region above the first ionization threshold. These measurements are compared to semiclassical calculations which give rise to a power law variation of the cross section in the threshold region. The experimental results appear to be in disagreement with extensions to the Wannier theory applied to positron impact ionization, with a smaller exponent than that calculated by most previous works. In fact, in this work, we see no difference in threshold behavior between the positron and electron cases. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  8. A light-powered sub-threshold microprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Ming; Chen Hong; Zhang Chun; Li Changmeng; Wang Zhihua, E-mail: lium02@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-11-15

    This paper presents an 8-bit sub-threshold microprocessor which can be powered by an integrated photosensitive diode. With a custom designed sub-threshold standard cell library and 1 kbit sub-threshold SRAM design, the leakage power of 58 nW, dynamic power of 385 nW - 165 kHz, EDP 13 pJ/inst and the operating voltage of 350 mV are achieved. Under a light of about 150 kLux, the microprocessor can run at a rate of up to 500 kHz. The microprocessor can be used for wireless-sensor-network nodes.

  9. Measurements of NN → dπ near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutcheon, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    New, precise measurements of the differential cross sections for np → dπ 0 and π + d → pp and of analyzing powers for pp → dπ + have been made at energies within 10 MeV (c.m.) of threshold. They allow the pion s-wave and p-wave parts of the production strength to be distinguished unambiguously, yielding an s-wave strength at threshold which is significantly smaller than the previously accepted value. There is no evidence for charge independence breaking nor for πNN resonances near threshold. (Author) (17 refs., 17 figs., tab.)

  10. Threshold Characteristics of Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Yu, Yi; Ottaviano, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The threshold properties of photonic crystal quantum dot lasers operating in the slow-light regime are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Measurements show that, in contrast to conventional lasers, the threshold gain attains a minimum value for a specific cavity length. The experimental...... results are explained by an analytical theory for the laser threshold that takes into account the effects of slow light and random disorder due to unavoidable fabrication imperfections. Longer lasers are found to operate deeper into the slow-light region, leading to a trade-off between slow-light induced...

  11. Faster magnet sorting with a threshold acceptance algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, S.

    1994-08-01

    The authors introduce here a new technique for sorting magnets to minimize the field errors in permanent magnet insertion devices. Simulated annealing has been used in this role, but they find the technique of threshold acceptance produces results of equal quality in less computer time. Threshold accepting would be of special value in designing very long insertion devices, such as long FEL's. Their application of threshold acceptance to magnet sorting showed that it converged to equivalently low values of the cost function, but that it converged significantly faster. They present typical cases showing time to convergence for various error tolerances, magnet numbers, and temperature schedules

  12. Weak production of strangeness at threshold with polarization observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, O.K.

    2002-01-01

    The differential cross section for the charged current electroweak reaction e → +p → ν → e +Λ → at threshold with polarization observables is presented. The form of the cross section at threshold for the reaction is simplified compared to higher energy. An expression is given for the invariant matrix element appropriate for the reaction when the incident electron is polarized, and the final state hyperon polarization is determined. The energy dependence of the resulting cross section is shown near threshold. Under the right kinematic conditions, there can be a sizeable enhancement in the cross section, making an experimental measurement of the weak axial-vector form factor feasible

  13. An asymptotically unbiased minimum density power divergence estimator for the Pareto-tail index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierckx, Goedele; Goegebeur, Yuri; Guillou, Armelle

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a robust and asymptotically unbiased estimator for the tail index of Pareto-type distributions. The estimator is obtained by fitting the extended Pareto distribution to the relative excesses over a high threshold with the minimum density power divergence criterion. Consistency...

  14. A Lynden-Bell integral estimator for the tail index of right-truncated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By means of a Lynden-Bell integral with deterministic threshold, Worms and Worms [A Lynden-Bell integral estimator for extremes of randomly truncated data. Statist. Probab. Lett. 2016; 109: 106-117] recently introduced an asymptotically normal estimator of the tail index for randomly right-truncated Pareto-type data.

  15. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  16. Threshold loss of discontinuous permafrost and landscape evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmer, Laura; Hopkinson, Chris

    2017-07-01

    This study demonstrates linkages between the 1997/1998 El Niño/Southern Oscillation index and a threshold shift to increased permafrost loss within a southern Taiga Plains watershed, Northwest Territories, Canada. Three-dimensional contraction of permafrost plateaus and changes in vegetation structural characteristics are determined from multitemporal airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) surveys in 2008, 2011 and 2015. Morphological changes in permafrost cover are compared with optical image analogues from 1970, 1977, 2000 and 2008 and time-series hydro-climate data. Results demonstrate that significant changes in air temperature, precipitation, runoff and a shortening of the snow-covered season by 35 days (1998-2014) and 50 days (1998 only) occurred after 1997. The albedo reduction associated with 35 and 50 days less snow cover leads to increases in shortwave energy receipt during the active thaw period of ~12% (3% annually) and ~16% (5% annually), respectively. From 2000 to 2015, sporadic permafrost loss accelerated from 0.19% (of total basin area) per year between 1970 and 2000 to 0.58% per year from 2000 to 2015, with a projected total loss of permafrost by ~2044. From ~1997 to 2011, we observe a corresponding shift to increased runoff ratio. However, observed increases in the proportion of snow precipitation and the volumetric contribution of permafrost loss to runoff post-1997 (0.6-6.4% per year) cannot fully explain this shift. This suggests increases in drainage efficiency and possible losses from long-term groundwater storage as a result of subtle terrain morphological and soil zone hydraulic conductivity changes. These hydrological changes appear coincident with high vegetation mortality at plateau margins combined with succession-related canopy growth in some bog and fen areas, which are presumed to be drying. Similar changes in runoff response were observed at adjacent Birch, Trout and Jean Marie River watersheds indicating that observations

  17. Schubert calculus and threshold polynomials of affine fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, S.E.; Walton, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    We show how the threshold level of affine fusion, the fusion of Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) conformal field theories, fits into the Schubert calculus introduced by Gepner. The Pieri rule can be modified in a simple way to include the threshold level, so that calculations may be done for all (non-negative integer) levels at once. With the usual Giambelli formula, the modified Pieri formula deforms the tensor product coefficients (and the fusion coefficients) into what we call threshold polynomials. We compare them with the q-deformed tensor product coefficients and fusion coefficients that are related to q-deformed weight multiplicities. We also discuss the meaning of the threshold level in the context of paths on graphs

  18. Stress relaxation insensitive designs for metal compliant mechanism threshold accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vilorio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present two designs for metal compliant mechanisms for use as threshold accelerometers which require zero external power. Both designs rely on long, thin flexures positioned orthogonally to a flat body. The first design involves cutting or stamping a thin spring-steel sheet and then bending elements to form the necessary thin flexors. The second design uses precut spring-steel flexure elements mounted into a mold which is then filled with molten tin to form a bimetallic device. Accelerations necessary to switch the devices between bistable states were measured using a centrifuge. Both designs showed very little variation in threshold acceleration due to stress relaxation over a period of several weeks. Relatively large variations in threshold acceleration were observed for devices of the same design, most likely due to variations in the angle of the flexor elements relative to the main body of the devices. Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Sensor, Accelerometer, Zero power, Shock, Threshold

  19. Rainfall thresholds and flood warning: an operative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Montesarchio

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An operative methodology for rainfall thresholds definition is illustrated, in order to provide at critical river section optimal flood warnings. Threshold overcoming could produce a critical situation in river sites exposed to alluvial risk and trigger the prevention and emergency system alert. The procedure for the definition of critical rainfall threshold values is based both on the quantitative precipitation observed and the hydrological response of the basin. Thresholds values specify the precipitation amount for a given duration that generates a critical discharge in a given cross section and are estimated by hydrological modelling for several scenarios (e.g.: modifying the soil moisture conditions. Some preliminary results, in terms of reliability analysis (presence of false alarms and missed alarms, evaluated using indicators like hit rate and false alarm rate for the case study of Mignone River are presented.

  20. Threshold policy for global games with noisy information sharing

    KAUST Repository

    Mahdavifar, Hessam

    2015-12-15

    It is known that global games with noisy sharing of information do not admit a certain type of threshold policies [1]. Motivated by this result, we investigate the existence of threshold-type policies on global games with noisy sharing of information and show that such equilibrium strategies exist and are unique if the sharing of information happens over a sufficiently noisy environment. To show this result, we establish that if a threshold function is an equilibrium strategy, then it will be a solution to a fixed point equation. Then, we show that for a sufficiently noisy environment, the functional fixed point equation leads to a contraction mapping, and hence, its iterations converge to a unique continuous threshold policy.

  1. The distribution choice for the threshold of solid state relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Zhou Hui; Cheng Xiangyue; Mao Congguang

    2009-01-01

    Either normal distribution or Weibull distribution can be accepted as sample distribution of the threshold of solid state relay. By goodness-of-fit method, bootstrap method and Bayesian method, the Weibull distribution is chosen later. (authors)

  2. Weighted-noise threshold based channel estimation for OFDM ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Existing optimal time-domain thresholds exhibit suboptimal behavior for completely unavailable KCS ... Compared with no truncation case, truncation improved the MSE ... channel estimation errors has been studied. ...... Consumer Electron.

  3. Higgs-Stoponium Mixing Near the Stop-Antistop Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Bodwin, Geoffrey T; Wagner, Carlos E M

    2016-01-01

    Supersymmetric extensions of the standard model contain additional heavy neutral Higgs bosons that are coupled to heavy scalar top quarks (stops). This system exhibits interesting field theoretic phenomena when the Higgs mass is close to the stop-antistop production threshold. Existing work in the literature has examined the digluon-to-diphoton cross section near threshold and has focused on enhancements in the cross section that might arise either from the perturbative contributions to the Higgs-to-digluon and Higgs-to-diphoton form factors or from mixing of the Higgs boson with stoponium states. Near threshold, enhancements in the relevant amplitudes that go as inverse powers of the stop-antistop relative velocity require resummations of perturbation theory and/or nonperturbative treatments. We present a complete formulation of threshold effects at leading order in the stop-antistop relative velocity in terms of nonrelativistic effective field theory. We give detailed numerical calculations for the case in ...

  4. Thermal Limits and Thresholds of Red Sea Biota

    KAUST Repository

    Chaidez, Veronica

    2018-01-01

    tropical systems. This has major consequences for organisms that may already find themselves at their thermal limits. The aim of this project was to define the thermal limits and thresholds of certain Red Sea species. Firstly, to better understand

  5. Dynamical fusion thresholds in macroscopic and microscopic theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.; Sierk, A.J.; Nix, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Macroscopic and microscopic results demonstrating the existence of dynamical fusion thresholds are presented. For macroscopic theories, it is shown that the extra-push dynamics is sensitive to some details of the models used, e.g. the shape parametrization and the type of viscosity. The dependence of the effect upon the charge and angular momentum of the system is also studied. Calculated macroscopic results for mass-symmetric systems are compared to experimental mass-asymmetric results by use of a tentative scaling procedure, which takes into account both the entrance-channel and the saddle-point regions of configuration space. Two types of dynamical fusion thresholds occur in TDHF studies: (1) the microscopic analogue of the macroscopic extra push threshold, and (2) the relatively high energy at which the TDHF angular momentum window opens. Both of these microscopic thresholds are found to be very sensitive to the choice of the effective two-body interaction

  6. Lower versus Higher Hemoglobin Threshold for Transfusion in Septic Shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. METHODS: In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care...... unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay...... were similar in the two intervention groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion...

  7. Rainfall characteristics and thresholds for periglacial debris flows in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mingfeng Deng

    2018-02-14

    Feb 14, 2018 ... Rainfall characteristics; runoff generated; threshold; debris flows; southeast Tibetan. Plateau. 1. ... glacier ablation water (Lu and Li 1989; Liu et al. 2013). ...... F J and Lund L J, US Department of Agriculture (River- side, CA ...

  8. Dynamics of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities near instability thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Peng-Bin

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented on the dynamics of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities near parametric instability thresholds. With upward or downward ramp of optical pump, different instability modes emerge in parameter space defined by damping and detuning. According to these modes, stationary short-wave, stationary periodic, oscillatory periodic, and oscillatory uniform parametric instabilities are distinguished. By multiple scale expansion, the dynamics near threshold can be described by a critical mode with a slowly varying amplitude for the last three instabilities. Furthermore, it is found that the evolutions of their amplitudes are governed by real or complex Ginzburg–Landau equations. -- Highlights: ► Phase diagrams for different instability in extended parameter space. ► Different instability modes near thresholds. ► Different envelop equations near thresholds obtained by multi-scale expansion.

  9. ‘Soglitude’- introducing a method of thinking thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Barazon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ‘Soglitude’ is an invitation to acknowledge the existence of thresholds in thought. A threshold in thought designates the indetermination, the passage, the evolution of every state the world is in. The creation we add to it, and the objectivity we suppose, on the border of those two ideas lies our perceptive threshold. No state will ever be permanent, and in order to stress the temporary, fluent character of the world and our perception of it, we want to introduce a new suitable method to think change and transformation, when we acknowledge our own threshold nature. The contributions gathered in this special issue come from various disciplines: anthropology, philosophy, critical theory, film studies, political science, literature and history. The variety of these insights shows the resonance of the idea of threshold in every category of thought. We hope to enlarge the notion in further issues on physics and chemistry, as well as mathematics. The articles in this issue introduce the method of threshold thinking by showing the importance of the in-between, of the changing of perspective in their respective domain. The ‘Documents’ section named INTERSTICES, includes a selection of poems, two essays, a philosophical-artistic project called ‘infraphysique’, a performance on thresholds in the soul, and a dialogue with Israel Rosenfield. This issue presents a kaleidoscope of possible threshold thinking and hopes to initiate new ways of looking at things.For every change that occurs in reality there is a subjective counterpart in our perception and this needs to be acknowledged as such. What we name objective is reflected in our own personal perception in its own personal manner, in such a way that the objectivity of an event might altogether be questioned. The absolute point of view, the view from “nowhere”, could well be the projection that causes dogmatism. By introducing the method of thinking thresholds into a system, be it

  10. Rainfall thresholds for the triggering of landslides in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Tina; Jemec Auflič, Mateja; Rosi, Ascanio; Segoni, Samuele; Komac, Marko; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Both at the worldwide level and in Slovenia, precipitation and related phenomena represent one of the most important triggering factors for the occurrence of slope mass movements. In the past decade, extreme rainfall events with a very high amount of precipitation occurs in a relatively short rainfall period have become increasingly important and more frequent, that causing numerous undesirable consequences. Intense rainstorms cause flash floods and mostly trigger shallow landslides and soil slips. On the other hand, the damage of long lasting rainstorms depends on the region's adaptation and its capacity to store or infiltrate excessive water from the rain. The amount and, consequently, the intensity of daily precipitation that can cause floods in the eastern part of Slovenia is a rather common event for the north-western part of the country. Likewise, the effect of rainfall is very dependent on the prior soil moisture, periods of full soil saturation and the creation of drifts in groundwater levels due to the slow melting of snow, growing period, etc. Landslides could be identified and to some extent also prevent with better knowledge of the relation between landslides and rainfall. In this paper the definition of rainfall thresholds for rainfall-induced landslides in Slovenia is presented. The thresholds have been calculated by collecting approximately 900 landslide data and the relative rainfall amounts, which have been collected from 41 rain gauges all over the country. The thresholds have been defined by the (1) use of an existing procedure, characterized by a high degree of objectiveness and (2) software that was developed for a test site with very different geological and climatic characteristics (Tuscany, central Italy). Firstly, a single national threshold has been defined, later the country was divided into four zones, on the basis of major the river basins and a single threshold has been calculated for each of them. Validation of the calculated

  11. Threshold reduction through photon recycling in semiconductor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigase, Y.B.; Harder, C.S.; Kesler, M.P.; Meier, H.P. (IBM Research Division, Zurich Research Laboratory, CH-8803 Rueschlikon (Switzerland)); Van Zeghbroeck, B. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (USA))

    1990-09-24

    The threshold pump power of an AlGaAs-GaAs ridge quantum well laser diode has been reduced by 42% by recycling the spontaneous emission. An integrated photodiode absorbs the spontaneous radiation emitted by the laser diode and converts it back into electrical power. The recycling of this power results in a reduction of the electrical power required to reach the lasing threshold.

  12. Threshold condition for nonlinear tearing modes in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabiego, M.F. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Callen, J.D. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1996-04-01

    Low-mode-number tearing mode nonlinear evolution is analyzed emphasizing the need for a threshold condition, to account for observations in tokamaks. The discussion is illustrated by two models recently introduced in the literature. Introducing a threshold condition in the tearing mode stability analysis is found to reveal some bifurcation points and thus domains of intrinsic stability in the island dynamics operational space. (author). 19 refs.

  13. Room Temperature Ultralow Threshold GaN Nanowire Polariton Laser

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Ayan

    2011-08-01

    We report ultralow threshold polariton lasing from a single GaN nanowire strongly coupled to a large-area dielectric microcavity. The threshold carrier density is 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of photon lasing observed in the same device, and 2 orders of magnitude lower than any existing room-temperature polariton devices. Spectral, polarization, and coherence properties of the emission were measured to confirm polariton lasing. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  14. Social psychological approach to the problem of threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayachi, Kazuya

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the threshold of carcinogen risk from the viewpoint of social psychology. First, the results of a survey suggesting that renunciation of the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis would have no influence on the public acceptance (PA) of nuclear power plants are reported. Second, the relationship between the adoption of the LNT hypothesis and the standardization of management for various risks are discussed. (author)

  15. Fuzzy Behavior Modulation with Threshold Activation for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstel, Edward

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes fuzzy logic techniques used in a hierarchical behavior-based architecture for robot navigation. An architectural feature for threshold activation of fuzzy-behaviors is emphasized, which is potentially useful for tuning navigation performance in real world applications. The target application is autonomous local navigation of a small planetary rover. Threshold activation of low-level navigation behaviors is the primary focus. A preliminary assessment of its impact on local navigation performance is provided based on computer simulations.

  16. Total water content thresholds for shallow landslides, Outer Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bil, M.; Andrašík, R.; Zahradníček, Pavel; Kubeček, J.; Sedonik, J.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 337-347 ISSN 1612-510X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19831S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : data quality -control * debris flows * rainfall thresholds * equivalent * depth * failures * example * europe * model * Landslides * Threshold * Snowmelt * Time series * Antecedent rainfall * Outer Western Carpathians Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.657, year: 2016

  17. Cochlear neuropathy and the coding of supra-threshold sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Hari M; Verhulst, Sarah; Shaheen, Luke; Liberman, M Charles; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2014-01-01

    Many listeners with hearing thresholds within the clinically normal range nonetheless complain of difficulty hearing in everyday settings and understanding speech in noise. Converging evidence from human and animal studies points to one potential source of such difficulties: differences in the fidelity with which supra-threshold sound is encoded in the early portions of the auditory pathway. Measures of auditory subcortical steady-state responses (SSSRs) in humans and animals support the idea that the temporal precision of the early auditory representation can be poor even when hearing thresholds are normal. In humans with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs), paradigms that require listeners to make use of the detailed spectro-temporal structure of supra-threshold sound, such as selective attention and discrimination of frequency modulation (FM), reveal individual differences that correlate with subcortical temporal coding precision. Animal studies show that noise exposure and aging can cause a loss of a large percentage of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) without any significant change in measured audiograms. Here, we argue that cochlear neuropathy may reduce encoding precision of supra-threshold sound, and that this manifests both behaviorally and in SSSRs in humans. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that noise-induced neuropathy may be selective for higher-threshold, lower-spontaneous-rate nerve fibers. Based on our hypothesis, we suggest some approaches that may yield particularly sensitive, objective measures of supra-threshold coding deficits that arise due to neuropathy. Finally, we comment on the potential clinical significance of these ideas and identify areas for future investigation.

  18. Alternative method for determining anaerobic threshold in rowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Dos Santos Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n4p367 In rowing, the standard breathing that athletes are trained to use makes it difficult, or even impossible, to detect ventilatory limits, due to the coupling of the breath with the technical movement. For this reason, some authors have proposed determining the anaerobic threshold from the respiratory exchange ratio (RER, but there is not yet consensus on what value of RER should be used. The objective of this study was to test what value of RER corresponds to the anaerobic threshold and whether this value can be used as an independent parameter for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers. The sample comprised 23 male rowers. They were submitted to a maximal cardiorespiratory test on a rowing ergometer with concurrent ergospirometry in order to determine VO2máx and the physiological variables corresponding to their anaerobic threshold. The anaerobic threshold was determined using the Dmax (maximal distance method. The physiological variables were classified into maximum values and anaerobic threshold values. The maximal state of these rowers reached VO2 (58.2±4.4 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (8.2±2.1 mmol.L-1, power (384±54.3 W and RER (1.26±0.1. At the anaerobic threshold they reached VO2 (46.9±7.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (4.6±1.3 mmol.L-1, power (300± 37.8 W and RER (0.99±0.1. Conclusions - the RER can be used as an independent method for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers, adopting a value of 0.99, however, RER should exhibit a non-linear increase above this figure.

  19. Cochlear Neuropathy and the Coding of Supra-threshold Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari M Bharadwaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many listeners with hearing thresholds within the clinically normal range nonetheless complain of difficulty hearing in everyday settings and understanding speech in noise. Converging evidence from human and animal studies points to one potential source of such difficulties: differences in the fidelity with which supra-threshold sound is encoded in the early portions of the auditory pathway. Measures of auditory subcortical steady-state responses in humans and animals support the idea that the temporal precision of the early auditory representation can be poor even when hearing thresholds are normal. In humans with normal hearing thresholds, behavioral ability in paradigms that require listeners to make use of the detailed spectro-temporal structure of supra-threshold sound, such as selective attention and discrimination of frequency modulation, correlate with subcortical temporal coding precision. Animal studies show that noise exposure and aging can cause a loss of a large percentage of auditory nerve fibers without any significant change in measured audiograms. Here, we argue that cochlear neuropathy may reduce encoding precision of supra-threshold sound, and that this manifests both behaviorally and in subcortical steady-state responses in humans. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that noise-induced neuropathy may be selective for higher-threshold, lower-spontaneous-rate nerve fibers. Based on our hypothesis, we suggest some approaches that may yield particularly sensitive, objective measures of supra-threshold coding deficits that arise due to neuropathy. Finally, we comment on the potential clinical significance of these ideas and identify areas for future investigation.

  20. Nonlinear threshold Boolean automata networks and phase transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Demongeot, Jacques; Sené, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we present a formal approach that addresses the problem of emergence of phase transitions in stochastic and attractive nonlinear threshold Boolean automata networks. Nonlinear networks considered are informally defined on the basis of classical stochastic threshold Boolean automata networks in which specific interaction potentials of neighbourhood coalition are taken into account. More precisely, specific nonlinear terms compose local transition functions that define locally t...

  1. Determining rainfall thresholds that trigger landslides in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayorga Marquez, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    Considering that rainfall is the natural event that more often triggers landslides, it is important to study the relationship between this phenomenon and the occurrence of earth mass movements, by determining rainfall thresholds that trigger landslides in different zones of Colombia. The research presents a methodology that allows proposing rainfall thresholds that trigger landslides in Colombia, by means of a relationship between the accumulated rain in the soil (antecedent rainfall) and the rain that falls the day of the landslide occurrence (event rainfall)

  2. Threshold condition for nonlinear tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabiego, M.F.; Callen, J.D.

    1996-04-01

    Low-mode-number tearing mode nonlinear evolution is analyzed emphasizing the need for a threshold condition, to account for observations in tokamaks. The discussion is illustrated by two models recently introduced in the literature. Introducing a threshold condition in the tearing mode stability analysis is found to reveal some bifurcation points and thus domains of intrinsic stability in the island dynamics operational space. (author)

  3. 2012 Environmental Performance Index and Pilot Trend Environmental Performance Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2012 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) ranks 132 countries on 22 performance indicators in the following 10 policy categories: environmental burden of...

  4. Midline Shift Threshold Value for Hemiparesis in Chronic Subdural Hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juković, Mirela F; Stojanović, Dejan B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) has a variety of clinical presentations, with numerous neurological symptoms and signs. Hemiparesis is one of the leading signs that potentially indicates CSDH. Purpose of this study was to determine the threshold (cut-off) value of midsagittal line (MSL) shift after which hemiparesis is likely to appear. The study evaluated 83 patients with 53 unilateral and 30 bilateral CSDHs in period of three years. Evaluated computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with CSDH were diameter of the hematoma and midsagittal line shift, measured on non-contrast CT scan in relation with occurrence of hemiparesis. Threshold values of MSL shift for both types of CSDHs were obtained as maximal (equal) sensitivity and specificity (intersection of the curves). MSL is a good predictor for hemiparesis occurrence (total sample, AUROC 0.75, p=0.0001). Unilateral and bilateral CSDHs had different threshold values of the MSL for hemiparesis development. Results suggested that in unilateral CSDH the threshold values of MSL could be at 10 mm (AUROC=0.65; p=0.07). For bilateral CSDH the threshold level of MSL shift was 4.5 mm (AUROC=0.77; p=0.01). Our study pointed on the phenomenon that midsagittal line shift can predict hemiparesis occurrence. Hemiparesis in patients with bilateral CSDH was more related to midsagittal line shift compared with unilateral CSDH. When value of midsagittal line shift exceed the threshold level, hemiparesis occurs with certain probability.

  5. ENTRIA workshop. Determine threshold values in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diener, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Threshold values affect our daily lives. Whether it concerns traffic or noise regulations, we all experience thresholds on a regular basis. But how are such values generated? The conference ''Determine Thres-hold Values in Radiation Protection'', taking place on January 27th 2015 in Braunschweig, focused on this question. The conference was undertaken in the context of the BMBF-funded interdisciplinary research project ''ENTRIA - Disposal Options for Radioactive Residues''. It aimed to stimulate a cross-disciplinary discussion. Spea-kers from different disciplinary backgrounds talked about topics like procedures of setting threshold values, standards for evaluating dosages, and public participation in the standardization of threshold values. Two major theses emerged: First, setting threshold values always requires considering contexts and protection targets. Second, existing uncertainties must be communicated in and with the public. Altogether, the conference offered lots of input and issues for discussion. In addition, it raised interesting and important questions for further and ongoing work in the research project ENTRIA.

  6. Novel Threshold Changeable Secret Sharing Schemes Based on Polynomial Interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lifeng; Li, Mingchu; Guo, Cheng; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Ren, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    After any distribution of secret sharing shadows in a threshold changeable secret sharing scheme, the threshold may need to be adjusted to deal with changes in the security policy and adversary structure. For example, when employees leave the organization, it is not realistic to expect departing employees to ensure the security of their secret shadows. Therefore, in 2012, Zhang et al. proposed (t → t', n) and ({t1, t2,⋯, tN}, n) threshold changeable secret sharing schemes. However, their schemes suffer from a number of limitations such as strict limit on the threshold values, large storage space requirement for secret shadows, and significant computation for constructing and recovering polynomials. To address these limitations, we propose two improved dealer-free threshold changeable secret sharing schemes. In our schemes, we construct polynomials to update secret shadows, and use two-variable one-way function to resist collusion attacks and secure the information stored by the combiner. We then demonstrate our schemes can adjust the threshold safely.

  7. High-order above-threshold dissociation of molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peifen; Wang, Junping; Li, Hui; Lin, Kang; Gong, Xiaochun; Song, Qiying; Ji, Qinying; Zhang, Wenbin; Ma, Junyang; Li, Hanxiao; Zeng, Heping; He, Feng; Wu, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Electrons bound to atoms or molecules can simultaneously absorb multiple photons via the above-threshold ionization featured with discrete peaks in the photoelectron spectrum on account of the quantized nature of the light energy. Analogously, the above-threshold dissociation of molecules has been proposed to address the multiple-photon energy deposition in the nuclei of molecules. In this case, nuclear energy spectra consisting of photon-energy spaced peaks exceeding the binding energy of the molecular bond are predicted. Although the observation of such phenomena is difficult, this scenario is nevertheless logical and is based on the fundamental laws. Here, we report conclusive experimental observation of high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2 in strong laser fields where the tunneling-ionized electron transfers the absorbed multiphoton energy, which is above the ionization threshold to the nuclei via the field-driven inelastic rescattering. Our results provide an unambiguous evidence that the electron and nuclei of a molecule as a whole absorb multiple photons, and thus above-threshold ionization and above-threshold dissociation must appear simultaneously, which is the cornerstone of the nowadays strong-field molecular physics.

  8. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  9. Filter indexing for spectrophotometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamran, M.M.; Scott, L.B.; Williams, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    A spectrophotometer system has an optical system for transmitting a beam from a source at select wavelengths onto a detector. A plurality of filters are positioned in a tray. A stepper mechanism indexes the tray along a path. A microcomputer controls the stepper mechanism and the optical system. The wavelength is successively changed over a range, the tray is indexed to move a select filter into the beam at a predetermined wavelength and the changing is discontinued during indexing

  10. Asset pricing with index investing

    OpenAIRE

    Georgy Chabakauri; Oleg Rytchkov

    2014-01-01

    We provide a novel theoretical analysis of how index investing affects capital market equilibrium. We consider a dynamic exchange economy with heterogeneous investors and two Lucas trees and find that indexing can either increase or decrease the correlation between stock returns and in general increases (decreases) volatilities and betas of stocks with larger (smaller) market capitalizations. Indexing also decreases market volatility and interest rates, although those effects are weak. The im...

  11. Rainfall thresholds for the possible occurrence of landslides in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Brunetti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides that frequently cause fatalities and large economic damage. Using a variety of information sources, we have compiled a catalogue listing 753 rainfall events that have resulted in landslides in Italy. For each event in the catalogue, the exact or approximate location of the landslide and the time or period of initiation of the slope failure is known, together with information on the rainfall duration D, and the rainfall mean intensity I, that have resulted in the slope failure. The catalogue represents the single largest collection of information on rainfall-induced landslides in Italy, and was exploited to determine the minimum rainfall conditions necessary for landslide occurrence in Italy, and in the Abruzzo Region, central Italy. For the purpose, new national rainfall thresholds for Italy and new regional rainfall thresholds for the Abruzzo Region were established, using two independent statistical methods, including a Bayesian inference method and a new Frequentist approach. The two methods proved complementary, with the Bayesian method more suited to analyze small data sets, and the Frequentist method performing better when applied to large data sets. The new regional thresholds for the Abruzzo Region are lower than the new national thresholds for Italy, and lower than the regional thresholds proposed in the literature for the Piedmont and Lombardy Regions in northern Italy, and for the Campania Region in southern Italy. This is important, because it shows that landslides in Italy can be triggered by less severe rainfall conditions than previously recognized. The Frequentist method experimented in this work allows for the definition of multiple minimum rainfall thresholds, each based on a different exceedance probability level. This makes the thresholds suited for the design of probabilistic schemes for the prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. A scheme based on four

  12. Complete cumulative index (1963-1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This complete cumulative index covers all regular and special issues and supplements published by Atomic Energy Review (AER) during its lifetime (1963-1983). The complete cumulative index consists of six Indexes: the Index of Abstracts, the Subject Index, the Title Index, the Author Index, the Country Index and the Table of Elements Index. The complete cumulative index supersedes the Cumulative Indexes for Volumes 1-7: 1963-1969 (1970), and for Volumes 1-10: 1963-1972 (1972); this Index also finalizes Atomic Energy Review, the publication of which has recently been terminated by the IAEA

  13. Mangrove vulnerability index using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Mohd Zulkifli Mohd; Ahmad, Fatimah Shafinaz; Ibrahim, Nuremira

    2018-02-01

    Climate change, particularly its associated sea level rise, is major threat to mangrove coastal areas, and it is essential to develop ways to reduce vulnerability through strategic management planning. Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. Mangrove vulnerability ranking using up to 14 parameters found in study area, which is in Pulau Kukup and Sg Pulai, where 1 is low vulnerability and 5 is very high vulnerability. Mangrove Vulnerability Index (MVI) is divided into 3 main categories Physical Mangrove Index (PMI), Biological Mangrove Index (BMI) and Hazard Mangrove Index (HMI).

  14. Index Bioclimatic "Wind-Chill"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoreanu Elena

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an important bioclimatic index which shows the influence of wind on the human body thermoregulation. When the air temperature is high, the wind increases thermal comfort. But more important for the body is the wind when the air temperature is low. When the air temperature is lower and wind speed higher, the human body is threatening to freeze faster. Cold wind index is used in Canada, USA, Russia (temperature "equivalent" to the facial skin etc., in the weather forecast every day in the cold season. The index can be used and for bioclimatic regionalization, in the form of skin temperature index.

  15. 2008 Environmental Performance Index (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2008 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) centers on two broad environmental protection objectives: (1) reducing environmental stresses on human health, and (2)...

  16. 2002 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2002 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) measures overall progress toward environmental sustainability for 142 countries based on environmental systems,...

  17. Nelson-Farrar cost indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Nelson-Farrar Cost Indexs. Topics covered include: economic analysis, petroleum refineries, petroleum industry, pumps, compressors, beat exchangers, cost estimation, productivity and wages

  18. Towards cheminformatics-based estimation of drug therapeutic index: Predicting the protective index of anticonvulsants using a new quantitative structure-index relationship approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangying; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Xin; Qin, Chu; Tao, Lin; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Sheng Yong; Chen, Yu Zong; Chui, Wai Keung

    2016-06-01

    The overall efficacy and safety profile of a new drug is partially evaluated by the therapeutic index in clinical studies and by the protective index (PI) in preclinical studies. In-silico predictive methods may facilitate the assessment of these indicators. Although QSAR and QSTR models can be used for predicting PI, their predictive capability has not been evaluated. To test this capability, we developed QSAR and QSTR models for predicting the activity and toxicity of anticonvulsants at accuracy levels above the literature-reported threshold (LT) of good QSAR models as tested by both the internal 5-fold cross validation and external validation method. These models showed significantly compromised PI predictive capability due to the cumulative errors of the QSAR and QSTR models. Therefore, in this investigation a new quantitative structure-index relationship (QSIR) model was devised and it showed improved PI predictive capability that superseded the LT of good QSAR models. The QSAR, QSTR and QSIR models were developed using support vector regression (SVR) method with the parameters optimized by using the greedy search method. The molecular descriptors relevant to the prediction of anticonvulsant activities, toxicities and PIs were analyzed by a recursive feature elimination method. The selected molecular descriptors are primarily associated with the drug-like, pharmacological and toxicological features and those used in the published anticonvulsant QSAR and QSTR models. This study suggested that QSIR is useful for estimating the therapeutic index of drug candidates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Malaysian Education Index (MEI): An Online Indexing and Repository System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Yaakub, Rohizani; Yusof, Najeemah Mohd; Idros, Sharifah Noraidah Syed; Umar, Irfan Naufal; Arshad, Muhammad Rafie Mohd.; Idrus, Rosnah; Rahman, Habsah Abdul

    2010-01-01

    This "Project Sheet" describes an on-going project that is being carried out by a group of educational researchers, computer science researchers and librarians from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. The Malaysian Education Index (MEI) has two main functions--(1) Online Indexing System, and (2) Online Repository System. In this brief…

  20. Sprache und Sozio-Oekonomischer Index (Speech and Socioeconomic Index)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhme, Hermann

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of the socioeconomic index of 77 speakers of Dutch, recorded in 40 places, revealed certain correlations between index and individual linguistic behavior, particularly in regard to the speed of articulation, quantity quotient (low vowels/short vowels), pitch modulation, number of relative clauses and passive construction. (Text is in…