WorldWideScience

Sample records for bremen sachsen-anhalt schleswig-holstein

  1. Energy balance for Sachsen-Anhalt 2010; Energiebilanz Sachsen-Anhalt 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The energy balance of Saxony-Anhalt is presented in physical units, in terrajoule and in coal equivalent to show supply, conversion, and consumption of primary and secondary energy sources in the year under report 2010 Energy balance for Sachsen-Anhalt.

  2. Energy study 2007 for the German state of Sachsen-Anhalt. Published on behalf of the Minister of Economy and Labour of Sachsen-Anhalt; Energiestudie 2007 fuer das Land Sachsen-Anhalt. Untersuchung im Auftrag des Ministeriums fuer Wirtschaft und Arbeit des Landes Sachsen-Anhalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, A.

    2007-06-15

    The current energy concept of Sachsen-Anhalt dates back to 2004. Since then, boundary conditions have changed. International energy markets are characterized by growing demand and rising energy prices. This has influenced Germany as well. Further, sustainable power supply and global climate change have become relevant issues during the past few years. Against this background, Sachsen-Anhalt intends to modify its energy concept. The first step will be the provision of a current information and data base on all aspects of world, national and state energy supply and all relevant boundary conditions. The 'Energiestudie 2007' was prepared by Institut fuer Energetik und Umwelt gGmbH. The contents are based on current studies and investigations. The 'Energiestudie' will provide an information base which may be maintained and updated by actors of Sachsen-Anhalt. (orig.)

  3. Environmental protection in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, N.

    1977-01-01

    With the contributions by Norbert Knauer, the Akademie Sankelmark presents one of the results of its activities. Prof. Knauer is head of the department of grassland management, cropping and landscape ecology at Kiel University. He is a member of the Experts Commission for Problems of Environmental Protection of the Schleswig-Holstein Government, of the Schleswig-Holstein Curatory for Environmental Protection as well as of the regional planning council. He is also regional supervisor for nature and landscape conservation of the state of Schleswig-Holstein. All these functions have made him an expert in the field of landscape conservation and environmental protection. (orig.) [de

  4. 1991 measurement report. Air pollution monitoring in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This article provides a report of the immission situation for 1991 in Schleswig-Holstein on the basis of the continuously processing measuring stations of the Air Hygienic Monitoring Schleswig-Holstein and the special measuring programs at selected sites. The measuring results of the Air Hygienic Monitoring determined for Schleswig-Holstein in 1991 can be summarized as follows: - The basic load of air by pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and airborne particles in relatively small in the entires region of the nation; Schleswig-Holstein is, therefore, continues to be ranked as one of the regions in the Federal Republic of Germany least burden to air contaminates. - A slight increase compared to the previous year could be determined for the components of sulphur dioxide and airborne particles. - The limit values defined by the European Community (EG) were adhered to at the time of the report; the admittance values for SO 2 and NO 2 were, however, exceeded. (orig./KW) [de

  5. Energy report 1995 for Schleswig-Holstein. Situation, focal areas, examples; Energiebericht Schleswig-Holstein 1995. Situation, Schwerpunkte, Beispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Since 1988 the Land of Schleswig Holstein has been going new ways in its energy policy. Its declared aims are energy saving in heat and electricity supply, efficient energy utilisation, a greater utilisation of renewable energy resources, and, of principal importance, the phase-out of nuclear energy. As the legislative competence of the Laender is very restricted in matters relating to energy, the new policy has primarily been designed as a means of demonstrating by way of example that there actually are considerable potentials for saving energy and that they can be exploited. The present report gives an overview of the results of Schleswig Holstein`s energy policy of the last seven years. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Seit 1988 geht das Land Schleswig-Holstein energiepolitisch neue Wege. Das erklaerte Ziel: Energieeinsparung im Waerme- und Strombereich, rationelle Energieverwendung, staerkere Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien. Und grundsaetzlich: Ausstieg aus der Kernenergie. Da die Bundeslaender nur ueber eine sehr eingeschraenkte Gesetzgebungskompetenz im Energiebereich verfuegen, zielte die neue Energiepolitik zunaechst darauf ab, durch Foerderprogramme beispielhaft zu zeigen, dass tatsaechlich erhebliche Einsparpotentiale bestehen und auch umsetzbar sind. Der Bericht gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die Ergebnisse der Energiepolitik der letzten sieben Jahre in Schleswig-Holstein. (orig./RHM)

  6. Guiding principles for energy policy in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The principles of energy policy in Schleswig-Holstein set forward in this brochure are neither an energy programme nor a descriptive report on the policy of the day. Rather, they are intended to mark the energy-political frame of action within which the government of the Land will more. At the same time their purpose is to provide a medium-term orientation for politics and the power economy, consumers and producers. They are thus consciously made to contrast with political trends conceiving energy policy first of all as a plan-dependent activity. With these guiding principles the government of the Land consistantly continues an energy policy it has exposed in detail in its answer to the Question submitted by the CDU parliamentary party on December 8, 1980. (orig./UA) [de

  7. Setting a good example: Regenerative energies play an important role in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rave, K.

    1995-01-01

    In Schleswig-Holstein the use of regenerative energies is supported more than in any other Land of Germany. Due to the fact that large regions of the Land are situated in strong breeze zones, wind power plays the most important role. Almost 50% of the overall German wind current is gained in Schleswig-Holstein. Furthermore solar energy and water power are also used directly. (orig.) [de

  8. The energy-political programmes of the parties in the State Parliament of Sachsen-Anhalt prior to the State election

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupe, H.

    1994-01-01

    This is the first in a series of articles taking a close look at the essential statements in the energy and environmental policy programmes of the politically relevant parties and comparing them with one another. The series begins with the political programmes of the parties represented in the State Parliament of Sachsen-Anhalt (where an election is forthcoming on June 26, 1994), as submitted to the editor of this journal in answer to his inquiry. The analysis is preceded by a brief summary of the most important geographical and energy-economic data and the range of political parties in this State Parliament in order to illustrate the boundary conditions. (orig./UA) [de

  9. Evaluating the atmospheric drivers leading to the December 2014 flood in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Nils H.

    2017-06-01

    Regional analyses of atmospheric conditions that may cause flooding of important transport infrastructure (railway tracks, highways/roads, rivers/channels) and subsequent adaptation measures are part of topic 1 of the network of experts initiated by the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI). As an example case study, the December 2014 flood in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, was investigated. Atmospheric conditions at the onset of the flood event are described and evaluated with respect to the general weather circulation, initial wetness, and event precipitation. Persistent, predominantly westerly general weather circulations (GWCs) directed several low-pressure systems over the North Sea to Schleswig-Holstein during December 2014, accompanied by prolonged rainfall and finally a strong precipitation event in southern Schleswig-Holstein, causing several inland gauges to exceed their, by then maximum, water levels. Results show that the antecedent precipitation index (API) is able to reflect the soil moisture conditions and, in combination with the maximum 3-day precipitation sum (R3d), to capture the two main drivers finally leading to the flood: (1) the initial wetness of north-western Schleswig-Holstein and (2) strong event precipitation in southern and eastern Schleswig-Holstein from 21 to 23 December; at the same time, both indices exceeded their respective 5-year return periods. Further, trend analyses show that both API and R3d have been increasing during recent years, while regional patterns match the north-eastward shift of cyclone pathways, leading to a higher risk of flooding in Schleswig-Holstein. Within the network of experts, investigations of these and further indices/drivers for earth system changes (e.g. wind surge and sea level rise) derived from observations, reanalyses, and regional climate model data are planned for all German coastal areas. Results can be expected to lead to improved adaptation measures to floods

  10. Uranium concentration in drinking water from small-scale water supplies in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany; Urankonzentration im Trinkwasser aus Hausbrunnen in Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostendorp, G. [Landesamt fuer soziale Dienste, Kiel (Germany). Dezernat Umweltbezogener Gesundheitsschutz

    2015-07-01

    In this study the drinking water of 212 small-scale water supplies, mainly situated in areas with intensive agriculture or fruit-growing, was analysed for uranium. The median uranium concentration amounted to 0.04 μg/lL, the 95th percentile was 2.5 μg/L. The maximum level was 14 μg/L. This sample exceeded the guideline value for uranium in drinking water. The uranium concentration in small-scale water supplies was found to be slightly higher than that in central water works in Schleswig-Holstein. Water containing more than 10 mg/L nitrate showed significantly higher uranium contents. The results indicate that the uranium burden in drinking water from small wells is mainly determined by geological factors. An additional anthropogenic effect of soil management cannot be excluded. Overall uranium concentrations were low and not causing health concerns. However, in specific cases higher concentrations may occur.

  11. German Grocery Discounters: Dynamics and Regional Impact. the Case of Schleswig-Holstein (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgens Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grocery discount stores have long dominated developments in the German food retail sector, and they continue to grow. This paper discusses the reasons for this long-term success based on internal decision-making parameters such as price, adjustment of product range, choice of location, and size of new stores. The result is significant customer acceptance, but also adverse developments viewed critically in various governance constellations. The paper is based on expert interviews and a comprehensive collection of data on grocery discount stores and supermarkets in the German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein

  12. Renaissance des Dorfladens oder Versorgungswüsten?. Erfahrungen und Lernpotenziale am Beispiel Schleswig-Holstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    It has become more and more complicated for the customers to make their food shopping in local environments because smaller shops close down and the distances to supermarkets and discount stores have increased, especially in rural areas. The paper will discuss which alternatives of food retailing exist outside the supermarket world and analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of shop formats on the micro level. The statements are based on a conscious selection of different shop formats and expert interviews in rural areas of the province of Schleswig-Holstein.

  13. Possibilities of electricity generation in Schleswig-Holstein without using nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer; Kohler; Natsch; Rossnagel; Sailer.

    1986-10-01

    The study is arranged in three main parts: Part A discusses safety reasons for backing out of nuclear energy utilisation, and the current legal situation and available scope of action. Part B investigates the technical feasibility of an immediate, complete reactor shut-down in Schleswig-Holstein (in 1987). Part C deals with the framework conditions of a nuclear power shut-off and with accompanying measures on the energy market. According to the order, the main goal of the study was to prove that a nuclear power shut-off is technically feasible. So this study presents assessments with a view to technical feasibility, legal scope of action, costs, ecological effects, and alternative strategies for efficient energy policy on the Land level. This relatively restricted framework, considering exclusively the possibilities of the Land Schleswig-Holstein, necessarily brings about a reduction of the scope of action or optimisation. It is therefore recommended to have an analysis prepared that considers the country as a whole, in order to enhance perspectives and the scope of action. The study does not deal with aspects such as political acceptability and feasibility, or concrete legal processes or procedural steps that would have to be taken in case of backing out and making the turn in energy. The study to a great part relies on assumptions and framework conditions defined in another study by the authors Mueller-Reissmann and Schaffner, entitled 'Power generation without nuclear energy - consequences of backing out of nuclear power'. A brief summary of this study is given in the appendix to the study in hand. (orig./UA) [de

  14. Mass communication for energy efficiency. Experiences from energy efficiency campaigns in Schleswig-Holstein 2000-2000. Final report; Massenkommunikation fuer Energieffizienz. Erfahrungen aus landesweiten Energieeffizienz-Kampagnen in Schleswig-Holstein 2000-2002. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortmann, K.; Moehring-Hueser, W.

    2002-10-01

    The report sums up the experience gained with energy efficiency pilot campaigns in Schleswig-Holstein (Schoeth et al., to appear, and Wortman et al., 2000, 2001). The information is to help other actors in this field to develop and optimize their own campaigns. [German] Dieser Bericht resuemiert die wesentlichen Erkenntnisse und Erfahrungen mit wirkungsvoller Umweltwerbung auf Basis der ausfuehrlichen Werbewirkungskontrollen zu den Energieeffizienz-Pilotkampagnen in Schleswig-Holstein (vgl. ausfuehrlicher Schoetz et al., im Druck sowie Wortmann et al., 2000, 2001). Die abschliessenden Abschnitte 'Empfehlungen' und 'Ausblick' kennzeichnen den aktuellen Stand des Wissens und sollen anderen Akteuren mit gleicher oder aehnlicher Zielsetzung Hilfestellung und Anregung fuer die optimierte eigene Planung von Kampagnen geben. (orig.)

  15. [The use of macrolides, lincomycin and tiamulin as animal feed drugs for pigs in Schleswig-Holstein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broll, Susanne; Kietzmann, Manfred; Bettin, Ulrich; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation of production orders for medicated feedingstuffs for pigs given in 1998 in Schleswig-Holstein showed macrolides, lincomycin and tiamulin as frequently used antibiotical ingredients. The presented study analyses the production orders which include macrolides, lincomycin or tiamulin in more detail. There were large deviations to the rules of good clinical practise for the use of antibiotics (2000). The applied dosage was often lower than suggested in the literature.

  16. [The use of sulfonamides and sulfonamide/trimethoprim combinations as animal feed drugs for pigs in Schleswig-Holstein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broll, Susanne; Kietzmann, Manfred; Bettin, Ulrich; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation of production orders for medicated feedingstuffs for pigs given in 1998 in Schleswig-Holstein showed sulphonamides and combinations of sulphonamides and trimethoprim as frequently used antibiotical ingredients. The presented study analyses the production orders which include sulphonamides and combinations of sulphonamides and trimethoprim in more detail. There were large deviations to the rules of good clinical practise for the use of antibiotics. The applied dosage was often lower than suggested in the literature.

  17. Does skin cancer screening save lives? A detailed analysis of mortality time trends in Schleswig-Holstein and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Andreas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2016-02-01

    After a pilot study on skin cancer screening was performed between 2003 and 2004 in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, the country implemented what to the authors' knowledge is the first nationwide skin cancer screening program in the world in 2008. The objective of the current study was to provide details regarding mortality trends in Schleswig-Holstein and Germany in relation to the screening. Annual age-standardized mortality rates for skin melanoma (using the 10th Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems [ICD-10] code C43) and malignant neoplasms of ill-defined, secondary, and unspecified sites (ICD-10 code C76-C80) were analyzed. The European Standard population was used for age standardization. A bias analysis was performed to estimate the number of skin melanoma deaths that may have been incorrectly counted as ICD-10 code C76-C80 when the skin melanoma mortality declined in Schleswig-Holstein. The observed mortality decline in Schleswig-Holstein 5 years after the pilot study was accompanied by a considerable increase in the number of deaths due to malignant neoplasms of ill-defined, secondary, and unspecified sites (ICD-10 code C76-C80) that is not explainable by an increase in the incidence of these neoplasms. Incorrect assignment of 8 to 35 and 12 to 23 skin melanoma deaths per year among men and women, respectively, as ICD-10 code C76-C80 during 2007 through 2010 could explain the transient skin melanoma mortality decline observed in Schleswig-Holstein. Five years after implementation of the program, the nationwide skin melanoma mortality increased (age-standardized rate change of +0.4 per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.6] in men and +0.1 per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval, -0.1 to 0.2] in women). Although the current analyses raise doubts that the skin cancer screening program in Germany can reduce the skin cancer mortality rate, the authors do not believe the program

  18. Results of the evaluation of environmental medical documentation and progress sheets in Schleswig-Holstein from 1995 to 1999. A report on behalf of the Environmental Committee of the Schleswig-Holstein Association of Health Service Physicians; Ergebnisse der Auswertung umweltmedizinischer Dokumentations- und Verlaufsboegen in Schleswig-Holstein von 1995 - 1999. Ein Bericht im Auftrage des Umweltausschusses der Kassenaerztlichen Vereinigung Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassermann, O.; Bauer, A.; Alsen-Hinrichs, C.

    2001-07-01

    A documentation of environmental medical case histories in Schleswig Holstein from 1995 to 1999 was prepared. The present documentation contains standardised reports on environmental medical case histories and their course of development. 916 documentation sheets and 508 environmental medical progress sheets were included in the evaluation. In 36% of cases a causal connection between patients' symptoms and their exposure to a noxious substance was found to be ''probable'' on the strength of the available exposure data and/or information on patients' course of development. 27% of patients' case histories were found to amount to a ''clear suspicion'' of their health complaints being attributable to environmental influences. In 13% of documented cases the existence of a causal connection was found to be ''uncertain''. In 15% of documented cases there was an allergy or hypersensitivity to agents relevant to environmental medicine. In 10% of cases the medical examination either led to a diagnosis attributing the complaints in question to other than environmental causes or gave no indication of a relevant exposure to noxious substances. In each case the patient's age, sex, symptoms as well as presumed or proven exposure factors and the course of development following remediation measures or the end of exposure were documented and evaluated both generally and specifically to the type of exposure in question. The most frequently documented exposure factors of relevance to environmental medicine were biocides (32%), fungus (27%), amalgam (22%), solvents (21%), formaldehyde (16%). In 52% of the total of the 508 patients whose course of development was documented the diagnostic assumption of an environmental cause was confirmed completely in the further course of development while in 23% of cases it was only partially confirmed. In 273 (54%) of the 508 patients whose course of development was

  19. Viscosity effects and anthropogenic impact on thermohaline flow in the Schleswig-Holstein region (Germany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magri, F.; Bayer, U. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)

    2008-10-23

    Coupled fluid flow, heat and mass transport (i.e. thermohaline flow) simulations have been carried out in order to study the interactions between shallow and deep brine flow in an aquifer system which includes a salt dome close to the surface. Particular attention has been given to the role of young processes (i.e., faults, Quaternary channels, and shallow salt structures) in affecting groundwater flow at basin scale. The results show that beside topography-driven flow, different convective regimes play a role for extensive solute exchange between shallow and deep aquifers. Particularly, heavy brines sink from the shallow salt dome crest into deeper aquifers. Furthermore, the young basin features strongly control discharge and recharge processes. At this state, the issues to be solved are the role of a transition zone along the salt flank, the effects of variable fluid viscosity in affecting the system dynamics and the impact of anthropogenic activities such as pumping stations on brine migration and heat transport. So far, viscosity effects are well described for rising hot plumes, while their influence on sinking brines are not studied yet. With regard to anthropogenic impact, pumping groundwater in saline environment can provide severe problems. For instance, brines up-coning can disturb wells and pollute the freshwater resources. Although the presented studies focus on the Schleswig-Holstein region (Germany), the results are of great interest for many sedimentary basins in which the described features are commonly encountered. Investigations concerning the potential impact of anthropogenic activities on the dynamics of deep and shallow groundwater processes will provide additional knowledge concerning key factors controlling the formation and evolution of saline waters within basins. At the same time, this research has an important practical use for water resource management. (orig.)

  20. Really off? Results of the Land-wide stand-by-function-off campaign of the energy trust Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein; Wirklich aus? Ergebnisse der landesweiten Stromsparkampagne der Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortmann, K.; Moehring-Hueser, W. [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Schoetz, D. [Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt, Osnabrueck (Germany); Krieg, O. [TNS-Emnid, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    The article refers to the energy efficiency campaign launched last year in the Land of Schleswig-Holstein (and reported in ''et'' 51 (2001)). The campaign was intended to enhance awareness of the general public of the money and energy savings that are possible by as simple a measure as to turn off the stand-by function of electric appliances. The results of the campaign in terms of feedback and change in consumer behavior are presented in full detail. (orig./CB) [German] Das Ziel der schleswig-holsteinischen Energieeffizienzkampagne 'aus. wirklich aus?' war es, auf witzig lockere Art aufzuklaeren, den Wunsch nach tieferer Information zu wecken und so schliesslich die Voraussetzung fuer ein geaendertes Nutzungs- und Nachfrageverhalten zu schaffen. Nun liegen exzellente Daten zur Werbewirkungskontrolle vor, die zeigen, dass die Kampagne ihr Ziel erreicht hat. (orig./CB)

  1. Location for new research facility determined X-ray laser XFEL to be realized in the federal states of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein starting in 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "...The site for the XFEL has now been determined by the research center DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron); it was announced today at a press conference in Hamburg. The 3.3-kilometer-long facility is to be located in the federal states of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein. It will begin on the DESY site in Hamburg-Bahrenfeld and run in a north-western direction to the town of Schenefeld (district of Pinneberg), which borders on Hamburg" (1 page).

  2. C. C. Rafn, J. J. A. Worsaae, Archaeology, History and Danish National Identity in the Schleswig-Holstein Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stephen Briggs

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Between 1789 and 1815 Europe was devastated by a series of intermittent Wars waged by the French. The first part came about through the French Revolution, the second, the Napoleonic Wars, were about Bonaparte’s thirst for conquest. Almost at the end of them, Denmark’s attempted neutrality was to cost her the loss of Norway by cessation to Sweden under the Treaty of Kiel in 1814. The Norwegians felt particularly aggrieved by this, a ploy on the part of the British to disarm the Scandinavians and retain British Naval access to the Baltic. Thus began a half a century of particular national insecurity for Denmark, during which she felt under constant threat from German ambition through an increasingly powerful, predatory Prussia. Schleswig-Holstein was particularly at risk of annexation, because though much of Slesvig was culturally and ethnically Danish, southern Jutland had been strongly infiltrated by German influences unchecked for many decades (Sandiford 1975: 21. With a small population (2,225,000 in 1848 and now detached from those potentially sympathetic in Scandinavia, Denmark would have difficulty effectively opposing any major industrial power. Britain and Germany aside, there was also Russia, still largely undeveloped, but a power with strong Baltic interests. Maintaining Denmark’s borders through this delicately balanced neutrality was not going to be easy for such a small nation state. Would it be remotely possible to achieve this passively by developing trade? Could enduring borders otherwise be protected by influencing perceptions of Denmark’s historic cultural identity and ethnicity?

  3. Development and trial of methods and design concepts for an ecological recultivation of former mining areas, located in certain littoral and terrestrial areas of the Goitzsche, district of Bitterfeld, state Sachsen-Anhalt. Final report; Entwicklung und Erprobung von Methoden und Gestaltungskonzepten zur oekologisch vertraeglichen Sanierung von Bergbaufolgelandschaften in ausgewaehlten litoralen und terrestrischen Bereichen des Tagebaus Goitzsche im Landkreis Bitterfeld. Schlussbericht und Anlagen 1-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenel, K.; Herbst, F.; Mueller, E.; Prautzsch, I.

    2000-11-01

    Methods for an ecological orientated revitalisation of former brown coal open-cast mining areas in East Germany are less developed and regarded than questions about stabilisation and economic recultivation technologies. The aim of the research work was to develop a methodical concept which includes proposals for an alternate design of shore lines considering the qualities demanded by species of flora and fauna. One of the most important issues is the use of engineer-biology rather than technical methods to stabilise and design the slopes. Soil, vegetation and species of different sections of six mining lakes were therefore analysed. Certain species of animal were selected in order to plan a current recultivation project on the island called Baerenhofinsel, part of the Goitzsche (Bitterfeld/Sachsen-Anhalt). A design concept to create conditions needed by these aim species was developed and also partly realised. Unfortunately the project could not be finished completely as there was non-predictable delay in the flooding regime. Nevertheless it is an important base for the future revitalisation process of former mining areas. (orig.) [German] Im Unterschied zu Fragen der Standsicherheit und wirtschaftlicher Sanierungstechnologien sind bei der Sanierung von Bergbaufolgelandschaften des ostdeutschen Braunkohlebergbaus Methoden fuer eine oekologisch orientierte Sanierung nur ungenuegend entwickelt. Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens war es, ein Methodenkonzept zur abwechslungsreichen Gestaltung von Uferbereichen in Tagebaufolgelandschaften des Braunkohlebergbaus unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Lebensraumansprueche ausgewaehlter Zielarten der Flora und Fauna zu entwickeln. Das Methodenkonzept beinhaltet die Boeschungsgestaltung durch Erdbau und ingenieurbiologische Bauweisen. Es wurden Uferabschnitte an sechs Tagebauseen (Vergleichsgewaesser) bezueglich Boden, Vegetation und ausgewaehlter Tierarten untersucht. Fuer eine konkrete Sanierungsaufgabe, die Baerenhofinsel in

  4. The IPM Wheat Model--results of a three-year study in North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreet, J A; Heger, M; Oerke, E; Dehne, H W; Finger, I; Busse, C; Klink, H

    2003-01-01

    Under the primary utilisation of phytosanitary production factors such as selection of variety, crop rotation and N fertilisation according to plant requirements, the IPM Wheat Model comprises the elements diagnosis (qualitative = type of pathogen, quantitative = disease severity), scientifically grounded treatment thresholds which, as critical values in pathogen development, can be applied to define the optimum time of fungicide application, and pathogen-specific effective fungicides and application amounts. This leads to the location and year-specific optimised control of the pathogen and of the associated yield performance. After several years of development in Bavaria (from 1985 on) and Schleswig-Holstein (1993-1999), the model was tested as part of a project involving the Universities of Bonn and Kiel and the plant protection services of the German states of Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein in a three-year study (1999-2001) in interregional locations (usually nine per state) with the winter wheat variety Ritmo (interregional indicator variety) and a further variety of regional importance in different variations (untreated control, three to four times growth stage-oriented variants for the determination of the absolute damage potential, IPM-variant). In exact records (approx. 12 dates per vegetation period), the disease epidemics were recorded weekly. With the genetically uniform indicator variety Ritmo, the results documented substantially differing year- and location-specific disease and yield patterns. Interregionally, a broad wheat pathogen spectrum (Puccinia striiformis, P. recondita, Septoria tritici, Stagonospora (syn. Septoria) nodorum, Blumeria (syn. Erysiphe) graminis, Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides, Drechslera tritici-repentis) in differing composition, disease severity and damage effect was demonstrated. The heterogeneity of the infection and damage patterns was increased in the case of the second variety, in

  5. [The cartographic depiction of regional variation in morbidity : Data analysis options using the example of the small-scale cancer atlas for Schleswig-Holstein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzkuleit, Ron; Eisemann, Nora; Katalinic, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    The cancer registry in Germany collects area-wide small-area data that can be presented in themes (disease mapping). Because of the occurrence of random extreme values of rates, mapping without prior spatial-statistical data analysis is problematic from a methodological and risk-communicative viewpoint - the extreme values easily mislead the card reader and obscure actual spatial patterns.The problem of data instability can generally be met by aggregation or by smoothing. The cancer atlas for Schleswig-Holstein is based on data from 1142 municipalities (median population: 721) for the diagnostic years 2001-2010. Maps for incidence (as a standardized incidence ratio), mortality (as a standardized mortality ratio), and relative survival (as a relative excess risk) were smoothed by using a Bayesian method (BYM model). The maps show that spatial differences can be made visible by smoothing.Data aggregation is the methodically simpler way, but means a loss of information. The atlas shows that small-scale mapping is possible while preserving the entire spatial information. The method of smoothing is complex, but useful for generating hypotheses. The spatial patterns found are complex, difficult to interpret, and require the collaboration of specialists from different professions, because of the diverse influencing factors (data collection, lifestyle factors, early detection, risk factors, etc.). The effort required to explain the methodology in a language easy to understand should not be underestimated.

  6. Gruppenbezogene Menschenfeindlichkeit im Sport in Sachsen-Anhalt

    OpenAIRE

    Delto, Hannes; Tzschoppe, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Mit der Querschnittsstudie „Wir und die Anderen – Gruppenbezogene Menschenfeindlichkeit im organisierten Sport in Sachsen-Anhalt“ wurde das Syndrom Gruppenbezogener Menschenfeindlichkeit im organisierten Sport untersucht. Das Konzept der Gruppenbezogenen Menschenfeindlichkeit – ausgehend von einer Ideologie der Ungleichwertigkeit – wurde von Prof. Wilhelm Heitmeyer (Universität Bielefeld) entwickelt. Die Ergebnisse ermöglichen explizite Aussagen über Ausmaß und Ursachen Gruppenbezogener Mensc...

  7. Effects of rewetting on greenhouse gas emissions in different microtopes in a cut-over drained bog in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vybornova, Olga; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria; Kutzbach, Lars

    2016-04-01

    In peatlands, all biogeochemical processes and the amount of exported carbon and nitrogen compounds are strongly influenced by changes in the water table. Peatland drainage leads to increased peat oxidization and changes peatlands from carbon sinks to net carbon sources. Especially, the emissions of the important greenhouse gases (GHG) carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are increased due to drainage. The currently ongoing restoration in the bog Himmelmoor (N 53° 44'20", E 9° 51'00", Quickborn) with an extent of about 6 km2 one of the largest raised bogs in Schleswig-Holstein, offers the possibility to characterize and to document the development of the fluxes at different sites before, during and after rewetting, using a method of small-scale closed chambers. Six subsites with differing water level and land use were identified: an area that was rewetted 30 years ago with Sphagnum vegetation, an area rewetted in 2009, an area with on-going peat extraction, deep peat cutting ditches refilled with peat with and without Eriophorum angustifolium vegetation and a comparatively dry peat dam. We determined that in the course of years 2014-2015 the measured N2O and CO2 fluxes varied between -0,1 and 1,9 mg m-2 h-1 and between -0,12 and 1,09 g m-2 h-1, respectively, and the highest nitrous oxide as well as carbon dioxide fluxes are typical for the dry peat dam study site. The measured CH4 fluxes were between -1,8 and 22,7 mg m-2 h-1, where the highest rates were found on the area rewetted 30 years ago and on the peat cutting ditches with Eriophorum angustifolium. Accounting for the different global warming potentials (GWP) of the measured greenhouse gases, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions from all study sites ranged between 5,2 and 36 t CO2-eq ha-1 year-1 and were dominated by high emissions of CO2 (2,5 up to 25,5 t CO2-eq ha-1 year-1). Highest emission rates were found at the dry peat dam site and at the area rewetted 30 years ago. The peat dams and

  8. Factors for and against establishing and working in private practice correlated with work-related behavior and experience patterns of Ferman physicians in Schleswig-Holstein: A 2-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Voltmer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify factors in favor of or against establishing and working in private practice, to determine the quality of life and work-related behavior and experience patterns of German physicians working in private practice, and to analyze the correlation of those factors. Material and Methods: A representative sample of physicians in private practice in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, was surveyed according to a 2-year longitudinal design (T1 – 2008, N = 549 and T2 – 2010, N = 414. The study included 22 items regarding the attractiveness of establishing and working in private practice, and the questionnaires: the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12, and Work-related Behavior and Experience Pattern (Arbeitsbezogenes Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster – AVEM. Results: Job satisfaction among those private practitioners decreased over time but their willingness to choose the profession once again remained unchanged. Patient care and the continuity of physician-patient relationship encouraged establishing and working in private practice; state regulation, financial risk, and administrative effort weighed against it. At both T1 and T2, physicians scored significantly lower for mental health than general population. About 20% of physicians showed a healthy behavior and experience pattern but 40% of them showed the pattern of reduced working motivation. About 20% of participants were at elevated risk for overexertion and for burnout. Physical and mental health as well as the total distribution of patterns did not change significantly during the 2-year observation period. Physicians at higher burnout risk rated tasks related to patient care considerably less positively than those with healthy pattern. Conclusions: In order to improve job satisfaction and quality of life, and to make private practice more attractive, those German physicians require a improved legislation, b educational programs that promote the attractiveness of private practice

  9. Energy crops for biogas plants. Saxony-Anhalt; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Sachsen-Anhalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boese, L.; Buttlar, C. von; Boettcher, K. (and others)

    2012-07-15

    For agriculturists in Saxony-Anhalt (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  10. Neue Funde von Atypus muralis (Araneae: Atypidae in Sachsen-Anhalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trost, Martin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new records of the spider Atypus muralis Bertkau, 1890 in the valleys of the rivers Saale and Unstrut in the south of Saxony-Anhalt in Middle Germany. All specimens were males, caught by pitfall traps in xerothermic steppic grasslands on steep slopes. The geographic distribution of Atypus muralis in the eastern parts of Germany and habitat traits are discussed with special reference to regional climate, vegetation type and soil conditions. The phenology of aboveground activity of Atypus muralis males is shown.

  11. Energy Foundation Schleswig-Holstein. Annual report 2000; Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein. Jahresbericht 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, W.; Blechschmidt, K. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    Content: Changing challenges for suppliers and customers; energy labels; investment for the future: heating by wood, power from sun, low energy consuming buildings; developments on energy efficiency and experts; who's who: colleagues and cooperators of the energy foundation.(GL)

  12. Joop van den Bremen, Streektaalmuziek in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.C. van der Hoeven (Arno)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn 1996, folk music fan Joop van den Bremen started his website Streektaalmuziek in Nederland (“Regional language music in the Netherlands”).1 On this website he collects information on Dutch musicians singing in dialect.2 As of September 2014, his still expanding database contains 6,164

  13. [Health for refugees - the Bremen model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Zahra; Jung, Felicitas; Lelgemann, Monika

    2016-05-01

    The Bremen model recognizes that refugee health care has to go beyond merely checking for the prevalence of contagious diseases. Elementary health care offered in the reception centre and transitory facilities is based on voluntary acceptance by the refugees. At the same time, legal requirements for the medical reception of refugees are observed. In addition, doctors performing the initial medical examination are enabled to cover acute care on the spot. During the preliminary phase of immigration refugees are allowed to see a doctor in their facility repeatedly. After a certain time, they are provided with a health card permitting limited access to regular care outside of their facility. The current rise of refugee numbers affects the situation of Bremen health care for adult as well as juvenile refugees. In spite of the increase, health care standards are maintained by means of the health card. From 2011 to 2014, "Factors influencing health status and contact with health services" averaged 29.6 % in the health check data. Diseases of the respiratory system (18.1 %) and "symptoms, signs and abnormal findings not elsewhere classified" (16.9 %) ranked second and third, respectively. Diseases of the digestive system (6.1 %) of the musculoskeletal system (6 %) and of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (3.6 %) followed. Infectious diseases such as HIV infections, hepatitis or tuberculosis were seldom.

  14. The Drop Tower Bremen -Experiment Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könemann, Thorben; von Kampen, Peter; Rath, Hans J.

    The idea behind the drop tower facility of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro-gravity (ZARM) in Bremen is to provide an inimitable technical opportunity of a daily access to short-term weightlessness on earth. In this way ZARM`s european unique ground-based microgravity laboratory displays an excellent economic alternative for research in space-related conditions at low costs comparable to orbital platforms. Many national and international ex-perimentalists motivated by these prospects decide to benefit from the high-quality and easy accessible microgravity environment only provided by the Drop Tower Bremen. Corresponding experiments in reduced gravity could open new perspectives of investigation methods and give scientists an impressive potential for a future technology and multidisciplinary applications on different research fields like Fundamental Physics, Astrophysics, Fluid Dynamics, Combus-tion, Material Science, Chemistry and Biology. Generally, realizing microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility meet new requirements of the experimental hardware and may lead to some technical constraints in the setups. In any case the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH) maintaining the drop tower facility is prepared to as-sist experimentalists by offering own air-conditioned laboratories, clean rooms, workshops and consulting engineers, as well as scientific personal. Furthermore, ZARM`s on-site apartment can be used for accommodations during the experiment campaigns. In terms of approaching drop tower experimenting, consulting of experimentalists is mandatory to successfully accomplish the pursued drop or catapult capsule experiment. For this purpose there will be a lot of expertise and help given by ZARM FAB mbH in strong cooperation to-gether with the experimentalists. However, in comparison to standard laboratory setups the drop or catapult capsule setup seems to be completely different at first view. While defining a

  15. Biomonitoring of lead and cadmium in women from industrial regions of eastern Germany; Biomonitoring von Blei und Cadmium bei Frauen aus industriellen Regionen Sachsen-Anhalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, I.; Wichmann, H.E. [Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Epidemiologie; GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie; Becker, K.; Lippold, U.; Meyer, E. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Heinrich, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this analysis was to detemine the body burden of lead and cadmium in women aged 50 to 59 years from a mining and smelter area (Hettstedt) and two control areas (Bitterfeld, Zerbst) in eastern Germany. In the years 1992-93 1405 women aged 50 to 59 participated in a cross-sectional survey (response rate: 41.6%). 1188 women provided blood and urine samples and in 411 of these samples blood lead levels and cadmium levels in urine (standardised by creatinine) were determined. The geometric mean of blood lead levels among the 50 to 59 year-old woman was 41.5 {mu}g/l with a 95% confidence interval (C.I.) of 39.6-43.6. The geometric mean of cadmium in urine was 0.417 {mu}g/g Cr (95% C.I. 0.390-0.447). Thus the body burden of lead and cadmium differed only slightly, if at all, from the body burden of the general population. The measured body burden did not pose a risk to the evaluated population. Compared to women from the control regions Bitterfeld and Zerbst, women from Hettstedt did not have elevated blood lead levels. Blood lead levels, which reflect mostly the current exposure to lead, were positively influenced by individual behaviours such as smoking and by the distance of the residential area of Hettstedt from the former smelters. Besides this, elevated lead concentrations in tap water and the release of lead from bone after menopause resulted in increased blood lead levels. Compared to women from the control regions women from Hettstedt had significantly increased cadmium excretion in urine. Cadmium levels in urine reflect mainly the cumulative, lifetime exposure to cadmium. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Untersuchung hatte zum Ziel, die innere Belastung von Frauen mit Blei und Cadmium in den Regionen Hettstedt (Huettenstandort), Bitterfeld und Zerbst zu untersuchen. 1992/93 nahmen 1405 50- bis 59-jaehrige Frauen an einer Querschnittsuntersuchung teil (Teilnahmerate: 41,6%). In 411 Blut- bzw. Urin-Proben wurden die Bleikonzentration im Blut und die kreatininbezogene Cadmiumkonzentration im Urin bestimmt. Es wurde eine mittlere korporale Belastung mit Blei von 41,5 {mu}g/l Blut (95% K.I.: 39,6-43,6) und eine mittlere innere Exposition mit Cadmium von 0,417 {mu}g/gKr (95% K.I.: 0,390-0,447) festgestellt. Somit unterschied sich die innere Belastung mit Blei und Cadmium nicht oder nur geringfuegig von der der Allgemeinbevoelkerung. Von der gemessenen korporalen Belastung ging keine gesundheitliche Gefaehrdung aus. Frauen aus der schwermetallbelasteten Region Hettstedt hatten im Vergleich zu Frauen aus den beiden anderen Regionen keine erhoehten Blutbleikonzentrationen. Die Blutbleikonzentration, die v.a. die aktuelle Exposition gegenueber Blei reflektiert, wurde bei Frauen im 6. Lebensjahrzehnt von individuellen Verhaltensweisen wie dem Rauchen sowie von der Distanz des Wohngebietes zu den Hettstedter Huettengebieten beeinflusst. Ausserdem fuehrte eine erhoehte Bleikonzentration im Trinkwasser sowie die Freisetzung von Blei aus den Knochen nach der Menopause zu einer erhoehten Blutbleikonzentration. Im Vergleich zu Frauen aus den Kontrollregionen wiesen Frauen aus Hettstedt eine deutlich erhoehte Cadmiumexkretion mit dem Urin auf. Die Cadmiumkonzentration im Urin spiegelt v.a. die kumulative, lebenslange Exposition gegenueber Cadmium wider. (orig.)

  16. Classical Music at a German Inner-City School: The German Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra Bremen at Comprehensive School Bremen East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Musiol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The German Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra Bremen, a world famous orchestra for classical music, and the Comprehensive School Bremen East, a school in a deprived area, in North American terms an inner-city school, are cooperating since 2007. A three-year follow-up evaluation study was conducted to find out, if projects facilitated by the presence of the orchestra have a positive impact on the self-reported well-being and the grades of students. Results showed that involvement in the projects distinctly benefited boys: They experience a better class climate and a higher satisfaction with school as well as improved German grades.

  17. Weser river water quality report 2002. Flussgebietsgemeinschaft Weser; Flussgebietsgemeinschaft Weser. Weserguetebericht 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    In July 2003, the Flussgebietsgemeinschaft Weser (FGG Weser) was founded to replace the former Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Reinhaltung der Weser (ARGE Weser). The new working group comprises members of all German states bordering on the Weser river, i.e. the former members Bremen, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, and Thuringia, as well as the new members Bavaria and Sachsen-Anhalt. The annual report will be continued for the time being, as it has been a useful instrument for informing the expert public on changes in the water quality of the Werra, Fulda, Aller and Weser rivers. [German] Im Juli 2003 hat sich aus der Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Reinhaltung der Weser (ARGE Weser) die Flussgebietsgemeinschaft Weser (FGG Weser) entwickelt. Nun arbeiten alle Bundeslaender, die Anteile an der Flussgebietseinheit Weser besitzen, zusammen. Dies sind neben den bisherigen Mitgliedern Bremen, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen und Thueringen jetzt auch Bayern und Sachsen-Anhalt. Der bisher jaehrlich erscheinende Weserguetebericht, der die Ergebnisse des Programmes zur Qualitaetsueberwachung der Weser anschaulich darstellt, hat sich in der Vergangenheit als Informationsinstrument sehr bewaehrt. Er soll vorerst erhalten bleiben und die Fachoeffentlichkeit ueber die Veraenderungen der Wasserbeschaffenheit von Werra, Fulda, Aller und Weser informieren. (orig.)

  18. 3D modelling of groundwater flow and pollutant transport in the vicinity of the phenol-polluted mining lake ''Vollert-Sued'', Sachsen-Anhalt; Dreidimensionale Grundwasserstroemungs- und Schadstofftransportmodellierung im Umkreis des phenolverseuchten Tagebaurestloches Vollert-Sued, Sachsen-Anhalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccarius, B.

    2000-07-01

    In a cooperation project of the Geoscience and Geography Department of TU Darmstadt Technical University and the Leipzig-Halle Environmental Research Center (UFZ), potential transport pathways of organic pollutants from the lake into the groundwater aquifers were investigated. Drill profiles, mining sections and maps, aerial views and hydroacoustic profiles helped to establish a digital terrain model on the basis of a Geographic Information System and, on this basis, a 3D groundwater flow model including pollutant transport using the FEFLOW code. The model parameters were derived from field tests (slug test, pumping test, seepage meter, level gauging) and laboratory tests (grain size analysis, flow meter cell and sorption tests) as well as from relevant publications. Further, the hydrochemical and isotopic properties of the groundwater and lake water were described. The 3D model was to yield the current hydrogeological knolwedge and to make predictions on the fate, transport or decomposition of the phenols. The future development of groundwater quality can be simulated in order to assess the danger to freshwater wells and provide a basis for assessing the necessity and possibility of groundwater sanitation. The project will serve as a model for the methodology to be employed in similar cases of damage. [German] Im Rahmen einer Kooperation zwischen dem Fachbereich Geowissenschaften und Geographie der Technischen Universitaet Darmstadt und dem Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (UFZ) wurden im hydrogeologischen Umfeld des Vollert-Sued potentielle Transportwege der organischen Schadstoffe aus dem See in die Grundwasserleiter beispielhaft untersucht. Anhand von Bohrprofilen, Bergbaurissen und -karten sowie durch die Auswertung von Luftbildern und hydroakustischen Profilen wurde ein digitales Gelaendemodell mit einem Geographischen Informationssystem erstellt. Hieraus wurde mit dem Programm FEFLOW ein dreidimensionales Grundwasserstroemungsmodell mit Schadstofftransport aufgebaut. Die fuer das Modell notwendigen Parameter wurden aus im Projektzeitraum durchgefuehrten Feldversuchen (Slug-Test, Pumpversuch, Seepage-Meter, Wasserstandsmessung) und Labormethoden (Korngroessenanalyse, Durchflussmesszellen- und Sorptionsversuch) sowie Literaturdaten gewonnen. Ausserdem wurden die hydrochemischen und isotopischen Eigenschafren des Grund- und Seewassers beschrieben. Mit Hilfe des 3D-Modells soll der aktuelle hydrogeologische Kenntnisstand umgesetzt und erlaeutert werden. Prognosen ueber den Verbleib, Transport oder Abbau der Phenole koennen erstellt werden. Zudem kann die zukuenftige Entwicklung der Grundwasserqualitaet simuliert werden, um eine Gefaehrdung von Trinkwasserbrunnen abzuschaetzen. Damit sollen Grundlagen fuer die Beurteilung der Notwendigkeit und die Moeglichkeit einer Grundwassersanierung gelegt werden. Das Projekt soll Modellcharakter fuer das methodische Vorgehen in analogen Schadensfaellen haben. (orig.)

  19. The Karschau ship, Schleswig-Holstein: Dendrochronological results and timber provenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Aoife

    2007-01-01

    The felling of the oak trees used to build the Karschau ship took place in or around the AD 1140s. The tree-ring curves from the oak planks from the Karschau Ship match best with site-means from Odense, a medieval town on the island of Funen, Denmark. New research being carried out by the author ...

  20. The Concept and Architecture of the Bremen Life Course Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Opitz

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bremen Life Course Archive was built up based on the recommendation from the German Research Council (DFG in 2000 to make the data material of the Special Collaborative Centre 186 "Status Passages and the Risk of Life Course" available to prospective users. Approximately 700 interview texts have been made anonymous, documented and deposited into a digital archive. Due to the sensitive nature of qualitative data, we prepared a detailed concept of anonymity and data protection. Special analyses of interviews are hardly possible without an awareness of biographical details, and as a rule it is necessary to know the whole context since the structure of the narration forms a basic requirement for text interpretation. There remains the question of clarifying under which conditions qualitative data can be given to other researchers for the purpose of secondary use. At the moment we realize a nationwide feasibility study to examine whether and to what extent social scientists are eligible as potential data providers or as future users of secondary qualitative data for research and theory. The question of feasibility should not only make us look more closely at the development of technical solutions for professional processing of the data material or the development of digitized administration and archives, but it should also take the conceptions of the secondary users seriously. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0502370

  1. The harbours in Bremen as a 'neutral zone' for nuclear fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttloff, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The federal legislator has delivered his energy policy commitment as part of the energy turnaround with the decision on the forced backing out from nuclear energy to be completed until the end of 2022 at the latest. This was obviously not enough for the parliamentary groups of the SPD and Die Gruenen (Green party) of the Bremen City Parliament. With an Act dated 25 January 2012, the Bremen Parliament decided to amend the Harbour Operation Act insofar as '..the turnover of nuclear fuels in the sense of paragraph 2 Para. 1 of the Nuclear Act is excluded..'. This means that the turnover of nuclear fuels in the Bremer harbours is principally forbidden, unless the senate grants an explicit exception. However: Can a federal legislator enforce its energy policies like that? In order to receive an answer to this question, the representatives of the CDU parliamentary group of the Bremen Parliament lodged a complaint of unconstitutionality at the Bremen State Court of Justice. The decision was delivered on 12 April 2013 (AZ: St 1/12). And what answer did the CDU parliamentary group receive to their question? None. The Bremen State Court of Justice did not make a decision on this politically controversial issue. As its position, the State Court stated that the rules of the Basic Law on the limitations for the legislative jurisdiction between the Federation and the federal states do not constitute a component of the Bremen federal state constitution. And the legal criterion of the State Court of Justice is solely the Bremen constitution, not however, the Basic Law. In short: The State Court of Justice declares itself de facto not competent. (orig.)

  2. Planning and building a gas cave store in Bremen-Lesum; Planung und Errichtung von einem Gaskavernenspeicher in Bremen-Lesum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossert, J.; Schultz, K.F. [Mobil Erdgas Erdoel GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In order to supply sufficient natural gas to the Northern part of Germany Mobil set up a gas cave storage in Bremen Lesum. Drilling- and brine engineering, plant design, electricity supply, brine plant are described. Remote control, personnel planning, operational experience and plants for gas operation as well as pipelines, compressors and gas drying are described. [Deutsch] Um kuenftig den Spitzenbedarf nach umweltfreundlichem Erdgas in Norddeutschland befriedigen zu koennen, errichtete Mobil einen Gaskavernenspeicher in Bremen Lesum. Im Folgenden wird die Bohr-und Soltechnik, die Anordnung der Anlagenteile, die Elektroversorgung der Solanlage sowie der Solbetrieb naeher erlaeutert. Ausserdem werden die Fernueberwachung, der Personaleinsatz, die Betriebserfahrungen und die Anlagen fuer den Gasbetrieb wie Verbindungsleitung, Kompressoranlage und Gastrocknungsanlage beschrieben.(msk)

  3. Hard-headedness will get you there. Matthias Eggert generates profitable solar power on a south-western roof in Schleswig-Holstein; Mit Sturheit kommt man weiter. Matthias Eggert produziert in Schleswig-Holstein auf einem Suedwestdach rentablen Solarstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Matthias B.

    2011-12-15

    Profitable generation of solar power in northern Germany, on a roof that is not facing south? Home owner Matthias Eggert of Schafstedt in the German region of Dithmarschen decided to give it a try. His solar cell arrays started power generation in 2009, and in 20 years he will have earned nearly 10,000 Euros if things go well.

  4. Grohnde. Documentation of the police operation during the demonstration against the NPP Grohnde on 19.03.1977 and the evacuation of the occupied cooling tower site on 23.08.1977; Grohnde. Dokumentation der Polizeieinsaetze anlaesslich der Demonstration gegen das Kernkraftwerk Grohnde am 19.03.1977 und der Raeumung des besetzten Kuehlturmgelaendes am 23.08.1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The documentation of the police operation during the demonstration against the NPP Grohnde on 16.03.1977 and the evacuation of the occupied cooling tower site on 23.08.1977 covers the following issues: involved action forces: police Niedersachsen, police Nordrhein-Westfalen, police Schleswig-Holstein, police Bremen and the Bundesgrenzschutz; concept of the police operation, provisions (lodging and board) for the police, operating resources, details of the operation sequence; post-processing of the operation; the Grohnde trials.

  5. Grohnde. Documentation of the police operation during the demonstration against the NPP Grohnde on 19.03.1977 and the evacuation of the occupied cooling tower site on 23.08.1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricker, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The documentation of the police operation during the demonstration against the NPP Grohnde on 16.03.1977 and the evacuation of the occupied cooling tower site on 23.08.1977 covers the following issues: involved action forces: police Niedersachsen, police Nordrhein-Westfalen, police Schleswig-Holstein, police Bremen and the Bundesgrenzschutz; concept of the police operation, provisions (lodging and board) for the police, operating resources, details of the operation sequence; post-processing of the operation; the Grohnde trials.

  6. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its effects on the Bremen area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.; Moser, D.; Urbach, M.

    1986-01-01

    Chapter 2 of the report gives an outline of the design of the RBMK-1000 reactor and its inventory of radionuclides at the time the accident happened, together with a brief scenario of possible events leading to the accident, and an assessment of total radionuclide release. Chapter 3 explains the measurement campaigns made in the Bremen area in the given period and the consequences to be drawn from measured data up to present time. The measuring campaigns are described by a full-test report, graphical illustration, and a table of measured data. The information covers all data collected from onset of radioactivity release up to the 9th of Sept. 1986. Chapter 4 describes the assessment of dose commitment by the Bremen population, on the basis of measured radionuclide concentrations in the environment. Chapter 5 discusses the possible health hazard to the population in accordance with current knowledge of radiation exposure and its effects. Chapter 6 summarizes and interprets the results, and chapter 8 presents definitions of concepts and terminology. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Digitalisierung der vollständigen deutschsprachigen Zeitungen des 17. Jahrhunderts in der SuUB Bremen: Ein Werkstattbericht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hermes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seit Mai 2013 fördert die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG Pilotprojekte zur Digitalisierung historischer Zeitungen in vier Bibliotheken Deutschlands, darunter in der Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Bremen. Zudem erfolgen der Ausbau der Zeitschriftendatenbank (ZDB und die Anpassung des DFG-Viewers für Zeitungen. Neben der signifikanten Vermehrung digitalisierter Zeitungen erarbeiten die am Rahmenprojekt teilnehmenden Bibliotheken Standards der Zeitungsdigitalisierung, die auch für zukünftige Digitalisierungsprojekte Relevanz haben. Das Pilotprojekt der SuUB Bremen hat sich zum Ziel gesetzt, den hier vorhandenen vollständigen Bestand deutschsprachiger Zeitungen des 17. Jahrhunderts zu digitalisieren, eine Sammlung, die in keiner anderen Bibliothek so vollständig vorhanden ist. Die Präsentation der Zeitungen erfolgt im Portal Digitale Sammlungen der SuUB Bremen (http://brema.suub.uni-bremen.de/ auf der Basis der Software Visual Library sowie im Viewer der DFG. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt die Zeitungsdigitalisierung im Kontext der aktuellen Förderpolitik der DFG vor. Neben der Herausstellung der standard- und strukturbildenden Ziele der Pilotprojekte mit vier teilnehmenden Bibliotheken werden die spezifische Ausrichtung und die Besonderheiten des Bremer Projekts thematisiert. Since May 2013, the German Research Foundation (DFG has been funding pilot projects which are aimed at the digitization of historical newspapers at four German university libraries, among them the State and University Library Bremen. As part of the projects, the Union Catalogue of Serials (ZDB - the world’s largest specialized database for serial titles (journals, annuals, newspapers... – will be adapted for the cataloguing and searching of digitized newspapers. The newspaper entries are fed into the ZDB and are also made available via the DFG Viewer. The projects will not only lead to a significant increase in the worldwide availability of digitized

  8. Constance Gunderson, Human Trafficking: The Trafficking of Women in Northern Germany for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation. Systematic Overview of Community Based Responses and Challenges (Bremen: Lit Verlag, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Meckl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the following book: Constance Gunderson, Human Trafficking: The Trafficking of Women in Northern Germany for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation. Systematic Overview of Community based responses and challenges (Bremen: Lit Verlag, Bremen 2012

  9. Professionalisation in Early Childhood Education: A Comparative View of Emerging Professional Profiles in Germany (Bremen) and Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrinioti, Kalliope

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a comparative approach is applied to two programmes of study for the education of early childhood pedagogues. One of the terms of our comparison is the University of Bremen's Bachelor of Arts degree in "subject related educational sciences," while the other is the programme offered by Aristotle University of…

  10. Integrating International Students into Tertiary Education Using Intercultural Peer-to-Peer Training at Jacobs University Bremen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Nadine; Schreier, Margrit; Kühnen, Ulrich; Kedzior, Karina Karolina

    2013-01-01

    Increasing internationalization of higher education raises the question of how well institutions prepare their students to integrate into and benefit from cultural diversity on any university campus. The aim of this study was to assess an intercultural peer-to-peer training at Jacobs University Bremen, Germany, that aims to facilitate the…

  11. A desire, if fulfilled... Order for reference in case of the prohibition for transhipment of nuclear fuel; Ein Wunsch, wenn er erfuellt... Zum Vorlagebeschluss des VG Bremen vom 09.07.2015 betreffend das Umschlagverbot fuer Kernbrennstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2015-10-15

    Three companies appealed against the ''Bremischen Hafengesetz'' (Bremen Port Act) before the ''Verwaltungsgericht Bremen'' (Bremen Administrative Court) regarding the ban on nuclear fuel transhipment. The court is convinced that the act is unconstitutional and referred the case to the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court).

  12. The Bremen International Graduate School for Marine Sciences (GLOMAR) - Postgraduate education with an interdisciplinary focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Christina

    2013-04-01

    The Bremen International Graduate School for Marine Sciences (GLOMAR) provides a dedicated research training programme for PhD students in all fields related the marine realm combined with an exceptional supervision and support programme in a stimulating research environment. The graduate school is part of MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences which is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the frame of the Excellence Initiative by the German federal and state governments to promote top-level research at German universities. GLOMAR hosts approx. 75 PhD students from different research institutions in Bremen and Bremerhaven. 50% of them are German, 50% have an international background. All students are a member of one of the four GLOMAR research areas: (A) Ocean & Climate, (B) Ocean & Seafloor, (C) Ocean & Life and (D) Ocean & Society. Their academic background ranges from the classical natural sciences to law, social and political sciences. The research areas are supervised by research associates who share their experience and offer advice for their younger colleagues. GLOMAR students work in an interdisciplinary and international context. They spend several months at a foreign research institution and are encouraged to actively participate in international conferences and publish their research results in international scientific journals. The services GLOMAR offers for its PhD students include team supervision by a thesis committee, a comprehensive course programme, research seminars and retreats, a family support programme, a mentoring programme for women in science, an ombudsperson and a funding system for conference trips, research residencies and publication costs. The graduate school offers different formats for interdisciplinary exchange within the PhD student community. Monthly research seminars, which are conducted by the GLOMAR research associates, provide an opportunity to discuss research results, practice oral and poster

  13. Broadcasting studios Radio Bremen becomes residence rehabilitation clinic. Energy efficient retrofitting with economic building services technology; Funkhaus Radio Bremen wird Residenz Reha-Klinik. Energieeffiziente Sanierung mit wirtschaftlicher Gebaeudetechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinz, Thomas [Siemens AG, Bremen (Germany). Building Technologies Div.

    2012-07-01

    Hardly any building project is as sustainable as the rededication of a building. A recent example: The former site of Radio Bremen in the district Schwachhausen with approximately 10,000 square meters of studios, production facilities and offices were committed to the residence rehabilitation clinic with 200 beds and 100 outpatient rehab places. In order to support the economic efficiency of this measure, the existing infrastructure of the heating technology, ventilation technology and air conditioning technology was adopted and modernized.

  14. En/countering the New Language of Exile in Uche Nduka's The Bremen Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obododimma Oha

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Many African writers have been very critical of Europe in their works, especially in relation to racism and the experience of colonization. Yet, with the conditions in African countries becoming unfriendly to the careers of these writers, many of them have had to seek refuge in Europe. The New European context of African writing (which means an entry into the space of the Other raises a number of issues about literary style in the exilic/migrant text, especially with regard to the use of literature as a means of recreating the self and articulating the way the self experiences a new cultural space. To what extent does this entry into the space of the Other imply dialogism and transformation? The present paper discusses the stylistic and discourse patterns utilized by the Nigerian poet, Uche Nduka, who has been in self-exile in Germany, in his The Bremen Poems. It analyses the images that are enlisted in the textual politics of re/identification in the poems, especially in the articulation of Europe/Germany as a productive space. It analyses the images that are enlisted in the textual politics of re/identification in the poems, especially in the articulation of Europe/Germany as a productive space.

  15. ''Transportare necesse est''. Reflections on attempts to prohibit the transport of radioactive material in Germany with special consideration of the Bremen Port Operation Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, U.

    2016-01-01

    Irrespective of the fact that about 95% of all nuclear transports are not related to the nuclear fuel cycle but are needed among others in medicine, research, agriculture, non-destructive testing of material and in the non-nuclear industry the number of protests against transports of all sorts of radioactive material have increased, especially the attempts to prohibit nuclear transports or - e.g. by delay - to hamper them. Such attempts come from citizens' initiatives as well as out of the political area. However, prohibition of nuclear transports can also be prescribed by law. A striking example for such a prohibition is the ban of loading and unloading of nuclear fuel in the ports of Bremen which was inserted in the Bremen Port Operation Act in 2012. Because of the unconstitutionality of this ban (Breach of exclusive federal competence and breach of loyalty to the federal state) but also because of the ban setting a precedent it was indispensable to take action before court against the ban. Several actions were brought to the administration court of Bremen in 2013 by three companies being active in the nuclear fuel cycle. The aim of the actions is to get a decision by the Federal Constitutional Court attesting the unconstitutionality of paragraph 2 subpara 3 of Bremens Port Operation Act.

  16. The documentation of readiness of the Landesamt of environmental protection of Saxony-Anhalt in case of intensive measuring program of IMIS. Pretension and reality; Die Einsatzdokumentation des Landesamtes fuer Umweltschutz Sachsen-Anhalt zum IMIS-Intensivmessprogramm. Anspruch und Wirklichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haensel, F. [Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz Sachsen-Anhalt, Halle/Saale (Germany)

    2014-01-20

    The documentation of readiness of the Landesamt of environmental protection of Saxony-Anhalt for the IMIS intensive measuring program was worked out since 2001 not only for preparing national and international exercises but also in the case of an accidental contamination of the environment. This documentation contains practical and organizational references for alarm, sampling, sample preparation and analytical tests in case of intensive measuring program of IMIS. The IMIS exercise in the autumn 2012 has shown the fitness of this documentation in the practice. The laboratories for environmental radioactivity of Saxony-Anhalt should be able to meet all requirements of an intensive measuring program of IMIS.

  17. Factors of influence on body lead and cadmium levels in regions of Saxony Anhalt with different pollution levels, with special consideration to heavy metal uptake via household dust; Einflussfaktoren auf die innere Blei- und Cadmiumbelastung in unterschiedlich belasteten Regionen Sachsen-Anhalts unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Schwermetallaufnahme ueber den Hausstaub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, I.

    2002-07-01

    The present study is based on data from an environmental medicine study aimed at identifying possible health impairments in the population of Hettstedt, a metallurgical industry site, as compared with those of the industrial region of Bitterfeld and Zerbst as control region. The present study was designed as a six-year longitudinal study and based on three regional cross-sectional studies performed in school years 1992/93, 1995/96 and 1998/99. In all three of these surveys the study population was recruited from children just entering school (5 to 7 years), 3rd form (8 to 10 years) and 6th form school children. The study population of the first survey also included women aged 50 to 59. The goal of the present study was to identify predictors of lead and cadmium deposition in households of children from Hettstedt and women from Hettstedt, Bitterfeld and Zerbst. Furthermore, the extent to which body lead and cadmium levels are influenced by the deposition of these heavy metals in household dust and the possibility of a change in children's lead and cadmium body levels between 1992/93 and 1998/99 were explored. Body lead levels were measured in terms of blood lead levels, which reflect the exposure over the past few weeks. The most significant determinants of lead deposition in household dust was the proximity of the home to the metallurgical plants and factors reflecting the deposition of lead-containing dust in the home. Likewise, the main determinants of body lead levels were the proximity of the home to emitters and, in the case of children, the lead content of household dust associated with this and the whirling up of dust by pets. Boys were found to have markedly higher levels than girls. Whereas drinking lead-containing water and being in the garden had no demonstrable effect on body lead levels in children, in women these factors were found to play a significant role, along with smoking and the release of lead from the bones after the menopause. Body lead levels in children decreased markedly in the time from 1992/93 to 1998/99. Cadmium is largely deposited in the kidneys and liver. Urine cadmium levels reflect the cumulative life-long exposure to cadmium. Cadmium deposition in household dust was likewise found to be governed largely by the proximity of the home to the relevant emitters as well as by the cadmium input rate into the home. The degree of cadmium deposition was reflected by the children's body cadmium levels. Older children showed higher cadmium levels than younger ones. Urine cadmium levels in children decreased markedly in the time from 1992/93 to 1998/99. In women the only significant determinant of body cadmium levels was whether or not they lived in the heavily cadmium polluted Hettstedt region. There were only a few cases in which examined children from the Hettstedt region showed a transgression of the values recommended by ''Human Biomonitoring'' Commission of the German Federal Environmental Office. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit basiert auf Daten einer umweltmedizinischen Untersuchung, die zum Ziel hatte, moegliche gesundheitliche Beeintraechtigungen der Bevoelkerung in dem Huettenstandort Hettstedt im Vergleich zu der Industrieregion Bitterfeld und dem Kontrollgebiet Zerbst zu ermitteln. Diese Studie wurde als Laengsschnittsstudie ueber sechs Jahre konzipiert, aufbauend auf drei regionalen Querschnittsuntersuchungen, die in den Schuljahren 1992/93, 1995/96 und 1998/99 durchgefuehrt wurden. Als Studienpopulation wurden in allen drei Surveys Einschulungskinder (5-7 Jahre) sowie Kinder der 3. (8-10 Jahre) und 6. Klassen (11-14 Jahre) ausgewaehlt sowie im 1. Survey zusaetzlich Frauen im Alter von 50-59 Jahren. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, die Praediktoren des Blei- bzw. Cadmiumniederschlags in den Haushalten von Kindern aus Hettstedt und von Frauen aus Hettstedt, Bitterfeld und Zerbst zu bestimmen. Ausserdem wurde untersucht, in welchem Masse die innere Belastung durch den Blei- bzw. Cadmiumniederschlag im Hausstaub beeinflusst wird und ueberprueft, ob es eine zeitliche Veraenderung der inneren Belastung bei Kindern von 1992/93 nach 1998/99 gab. Zum Nachweis einer korporalen Belastung wurde in dieser Arbeit die Blutbleikonzentration verwendet. Der Bleiniederschlag im Hausstaub wurde am staerksten von der Wohnnaehe zu den Huetten beeinflusst und von Faktoren, die den Eintrag von bleihaltigem Staub in die Wohnung reflektieren. Auch auf die innere Belastung mit Blei wirkten sich v.a. das Wohnen in Emittentennaehe und bei Kindern zusaetzlich die damit verbundene Belastung des Hausstaubes sowie eine Staubaufwirbelung durch Haustiere aus. Des weiteren hatten Jungen deutlich erhoehte Werte. Waehrend bei Kindern Blei im Trinkwasser und eine Gartennutzung keinen nachweisbaren Effekt auf die innere Belastung hatten, spielten diese Faktoren sowie das Rauchen und die Freisetzung von Blei aus den Knochen nach der Menopause bei Frauen eine wichtige Rolle. Die innere Belastung mit Blei nahm bei Kindern zwischen 1992/93 und 1998/99 deutlich ab. Cadmium wird v.a. in der Niere und Leber gespeichert. Die Cadmiumkonzentration im Urin spiegelt die kumulative, lebenslange Exposition wider. Auch der Cadmiumniederschlag im Hausstaub wurde massgeblich durch das Wohnen in den belasteten Wohngebieten und durch den Eintrag von Cadmium in die Wohnung bestimmt. Die Hoehe des Cadmiumniederschlags spiegelte sich in der korporale Belastung der Kinder wider. Aeltere Kinder wiesen eine erhoehte innere Cadmiumbelastung auf. Die Cadmiumkonzentration im Urin nahm bei Kindern aus Hettstedt von 1992/93 nach 1998/99 deutlich ab. Bei Frauen erwies sich nur das Wohnen in der Belastungsregion Hettstedt als signifikanter Einflussfaktor auf die innere Belastung. Bei den untersuchten Kindern der Region Hettstedt kam es nur in wenigen Faellen zu einer Ueberschreitung der von der Kommission fuer ''Human-Biomonitoring'' des Umweltbundesamtes empfohlenen Werte. (orig.)

  18. Los modelos de financiación de las Instituciones de Educación Superior en Alemania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ramírez Torres

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad la financiación de las Instituciones de Educación Superior Públicas, IESP, es cada vez más limitado, tanto en países desarrollados, como en países en vías de desarrollo, por esa razón en la mayoría de los países se busca diversificar los ingresos de dichas instituciones. En este trabajo se presentan los modelos de financiación de IESP de un grupo de Estados Federados alemanes, lo que se hace siguiendo una clasificación de que permita agrupar a los mismos de acuerdo a las posiciones de determinadas variables. Los modelos de financiación de las IESP desarrollados son los de Berlín, Brandemburgo, Baden-Württemberg, Baja Sajonia, Bremen, Hamburgo, Hesse y Schleswig-Holstein. Palabras clave: Instituciones Educación Superior Públicas, Alemania, Modelos de Financiación, Presupuesto, Clasificación, Berlín, Brandemburgo, Baden-Württemberg, Baja Sajonia, Bremen, Hamburgo, Hesse y Schleswig-Holstein

  19. „…ich konnte viel über mein Leben lernen“ Soziologieunterricht an der Gymnasialen Oberstufe in Bremen – Eine „Parallelwelt“?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Papke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "Largely unnoticed by both sociology and the German educational institutions and their discourse, Bremen has been offering both Advanced Placement and standard level sociology classes in its schools in grades 11 through 13 for the last 30 years. This paper deals mainly with the relevance of the school subject of sociology as seen by about 100 students recruited from five different classes. The students discuss the difference between the school subject sociology and other social sciences related subjects taught in school. Against this background, the emergence, development and formation of the new Bremen curriculum for sociology will be presented, concluding with a tentative inquiry into the “lack of interrelation” between school and university.In der deutschen Bildungslandschaft und in der Soziologie nahezu nicht wahrgenommen gibt es in Bremen seit 30 Jahren Soziologieleistungs- und -grundkurse in der Gymnasialen Oberstufe. Dieser Aufsatz beschäftigt sich schwerpunktmäßig mit der Bedeutung des Unterrichtsfaches Soziologie aus der Sicht von ca. 100 Schülerinnen und Schülern aus fünf Oberstufenkursen. Die Jugendlichen setzen sich mit dem Unterschied zwischen dem Fach Soziologie und anderen sozialwissenschaftlichen Fächern in der Schule auseinander. Vor diesem Hintergrund werden kurz die Entstehung und die Erarbeitung des neuen Bremer Bildungsplanes Soziologie dargestellt, um am Ende fragend auf die „Beziehungslosigkeit“ zwischen Universität und Schule hinzuweisen.

  20. Nur die ersten Drei zählen! Optimierung der Rankingverfahren über Popularitätsfaktoren bei der Elektronischen Bibliothek Bremen (E-LIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Haake

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seit Einführung der neuen Discovery-Kataloge stehen unseren Nutzerinnen und Nutzern zusätzlich Millionen von Dokumenten neben dem lokalen Buchbestand zur Verfügung. Diese Zielgruppe muss in die Lage versetzt werden, die für sie relevanten Titel einfach und sicher zu finden. Die Qualität von Empfehlungsfunktionen und besonders der Relevanz-Ranking-Methoden sind daher für den Erfolg eines Discovery-Systems besonders wichtig. Das Ranking bibliothekarischer Suchmaschinentechnik ignoriert bisher das Feedback durch Nutzerinnen und Nutzer. Die Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Bremen (SuUB setzt mit dem in Bremen entwickelten Discovery-System „E-LIB“ seit Sommer 2011 zusätzlich auf eine Modifikation des Treffer-Rankings über Popularitätsfaktoren der Medien wie Klickstatistik, Auflagen- und Exemplarzahl. Die maßgeschneiderte Entwicklung eines eigenen Bibliothekskataloges, den die SuUB seit 2004 mit dem Discovery-System „E-LIB“ in Bremen betreibt, erlaubt die schnelle und flexible Anpassung von Retrievalfunktionen an die Bedürfnisse der Nutzerinnen und Nutzer vor Ort. Since the introduction of modern discovery catalogues, users have been able to access millions of electronic documents in addition to local print holdings. For a search to be successful, users must be able to find relevant titles easily and reliably. The quality of recommendation functionality and especially the relevance ranking methods are essential for the success of every discovery system. Up to now, ranking methods of library catalogues have largely ignored user feedback. However, since 2011, the State and University Library Bremen (SuUB has developed modified ranking methods for its own discovery system E-LIB. These make use of popularity factors such as click statistics and information about the number of editions as well as the number of copies available for a given title. For the SuUB Bremen, the customized development of the discovery catalogue

  1. 'It suits us well'. The Weser-Stadion at Bremen gets an unusual solar power supply system; 'Das passt zu uns'. Das Bremer Weser-Stadion erhaelt eine ungewoehnliche Solarstromanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepke, R.

    2008-06-15

    Not all of the fans of German premier league football club Werder Bremen may like it, but the new solar system can well compete with any other solar system, not just in football arenas. Modules with about 1 MW capacity are being installed and will be integrated architecturally in the walls and roof of the arena. (orig.)

  2. Diode pumped solid state kilohertz disk laser system for time-resolved combustion diagnostics under microgravity at the drop tower Bremen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Volker; Paa, Wolfgang; Triebel, Wolfgang [Institute of Photonic Technology, Laser Diagnostics, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Eigenbrod, Christian; Klinkov, Konstantin [Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity, University Bremen, Am Fallturm, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Larionov, Mikhail; Giesen, Adolf; Stolzenburg, Christian [Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    We describe a specially designed diode pumped solid state laser system based on the disk laser architecture for combustion diagnostics under microgravity (μg) conditions at the drop tower in Bremen. The two-stage oscillator-amplifier-system provides an excellent beam profile (TEM{sub 00}) at narrowband operation (Δλ < 1 pm) and is tunable from 1018 nm to 1052 nm. The laser repetition rate of up to 4 kHz at pulse durations of 10 ns enables the tracking of processes on a millisecond time scale. Depending on the specific issue it is possible to convert the output radiation up to the fourth harmonic around 257 nm. The very compact laser system is integrated in a slightly modified drop capsule and withstands decelerations of up to 50 g (>11 ms). At first the concept of the two-stage disk laser is briefly explained, followed by a detailed description of the disk laser adaption to the drop tower requirements with special focus on the intended use under μg conditions. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the capsule laser as a tool for μg combustion diagnostics, we finally present an investigation of the precursor-reactions before the droplet ignition using 2D imaging of the Laser Induced Fluorescence of formaldehyde.

  3. Electrostatic Positioning System for a free fall test at drop tower Bremen and an overview of tests for the Weak Equivalence Principle in past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, Andrea; Dittus, Hansjörg

    2016-08-01

    The Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) is at the basis of General Relativity - the best theory for gravitation today. It has been and still is tested with different methods and accuracies. In this paper an overview of tests of the Weak Equivalence Principle done in the past, developed in the present and planned for the future is given. The best result up to now is derived from the data of torsion balance experiments by Schlamminger et al. (2008). An intuitive test of the WEP consists of the comparison of the accelerations of two free falling test masses of different composition. This has been carried through by Kuroda & Mio (1989, 1990) with the up to date most precise result for this setup. There is still more potential in this method, especially with a longer free fall time and sensors with a higher resolution. Providing a free fall time of 4.74 s (9.3 s using the catapult) the drop tower of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) at the University of Bremen is a perfect facility for further improvements. In 2001 a free fall experiment with high sensitive SQUID (Superconductive QUantum Interference Device) sensors tested the WEP with an accuracy of 10-7 (Nietzsche, 2001). For optimal conditions one could reach an accuracy of 10-13 with this setup (Vodel et al., 2001). A description of this experiment and its results is given in the next part of this paper. For the free fall of macroscopic test masses it is important to start with precisely defined starting conditions concerning the positions and velocities of the test masses. An Electrostatic Positioning System (EPS) has been developed to this purpose. It is described in the last part of this paper.

  4. Academic and non-academic career options for marine scientists. - Support measures for early career scientists offered at MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeln, Dierk; Klose, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Early career scientists at MARUM cover a wide range of research topics and disciplines including geosciences, biology, chemistry, social sciences and law. Just as colourful as the disciplinary background of the people, are their ideas for their personal careers. With our services and programmes, we aim to address some important career planning needs of PhD students and early career Postdocs, both, for careers in science and for careers outside academia. For PhD students aiming to stay in science, MARUM provides funding opportunities for a research stay abroad for a duration of up to 6 months. A range of courses is offered to prepare for the first Postdoc position. These include trainings in applying for research funding, proposal writing and interview skills. Following MARUM lectures which are held once a month, early career scientists are offered the opportunity to talk to senior scientists from all over the world in an informal Meet&Greet. Mentoring and coaching programmes for women in science are offered in cooperation with the office for equal opportunities at the University of Bremen. These programmes offer an additional opportunity to train interpersonal skills and to develop personal career strategies including a focus on special challenges that especially women might (have to) face in the scientific community. Early career scientists aiming for a non-academic career find support on different levels. MARUM provides funding opportunities for placements in industry, administration, consulting or similar. We offer trainings in e.g. job hunting strategies or interview skills. For a deeper insight into jobs outside the academic world, we regularly invite professionals for informal fireside chats and career days. These events are organised in cooperation with other graduate programmes in the region to broaden the focus of both, the lecturers and the participants. A fundamental component of our career programmes is the active involvement of alumni of MARUM and our

  5. Smoking ban in public areas is associated with a reduced incidence of hospital admissions due to ST-elevation myocardial infarctions in non-smokers. Results from the Bremen STEMI Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, J; Wienbergen, H; Seide, S; Fiehn, E; Fach, A; Würmann-Busch, B; Gohlke, H; Günther, K; Ahrens, W; Hambrecht, R

    2014-09-01

    Laws banning tobacco smoking from public areas have been passed in several countries, including the region of Bremen, Germany at the end of 2007. The present study analyses the incidence of hospital admissions due to ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) before and after such a smoking ban was implemented, focusing on differences between smokers and non-smokers. In this respect, data of the Bremen STEMI Registry (BSR) give a complete epidemiological overview of a region in northwest Germany with approximately 800,000 inhabitants since all STEMIs are admitted to one central heart centre. Between January 2006 and December 2010, data from the BSR was analysed focusing on date of admission, age, gender, and prior nicotine consumption. A total of 3545 patients with STEMI were admitted in the Bremen Heart Centre during this time period. Comparing 2006-2007 vs. 2008-2010, hence before and after the smoking ban, a 16% decrease of the number of STEMIs was observed: from a mean of 65 STEMI/month in 2006-2007 to 55/month in 2008-2010 (p smokers showed a constant number of STEMIs: 25/month in 2006-2007 to 26/month in 2008-2010 (+4%, p = 0.8). However, in non-smokers, a significant reduction of STEMIs over time was found: 39/month in 2006-2007 to 29/month in 2008-2010 (-26%, p non-smokers was consistently observed in all age groups and both sexes. Adjusting for potentially confounding factors like hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus did not explain the observed decline. In the BSR, a significant decline of hospital admissions due to STEMIs in non-smokers was observed after the smoking ban in public areas came into force. No reduction of STEMI-related admissions was found in smokers. These results may be explained by the protection of non-smokers from passive smoking and the absence of such an effect in smokers by the dominant effect of active smoking. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. ''Transportare necesse est''. Reflections on attempts to prohibit the transport of radioactive material in Germany with special consideration of the Bremen Port Operation Act; ''Transportare necesse est''. Zu den Versuchen in Deutschland, den Transport radioaktiver Stoffe zu unterbinden unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des bremischen Hafenbetriebsgesetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, U. [Wirtschaftsverband Kernbrennstoff-Kreislauf und Kerntechnik e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Irrespective of the fact that about 95% of all nuclear transports are not related to the nuclear fuel cycle but are needed among others in medicine, research, agriculture, non-destructive testing of material and in the non-nuclear industry the number of protests against transports of all sorts of radioactive material have increased, especially the attempts to prohibit nuclear transports or - e.g. by delay - to hamper them. Such attempts come from citizens' initiatives as well as out of the political area. However, prohibition of nuclear transports can also be prescribed by law. A striking example for such a prohibition is the ban of loading and unloading of nuclear fuel in the ports of Bremen which was inserted in the Bremen Port Operation Act in 2012. Because of the unconstitutionality of this ban (Breach of exclusive federal competence and breach of loyalty to the federal state) but also because of the ban setting a precedent it was indispensable to take action before court against the ban. Several actions were brought to the administration court of Bremen in 2013 by three companies being active in the nuclear fuel cycle. The aim of the actions is to get a decision by the Federal Constitutional Court attesting the unconstitutionality of paragraph 2 subpara 3 of Bremens Port Operation Act.

  7. Monetary Romanticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    the interrelation between monetary organisation and nationalism. In the conflict between the Danish state and the Duchies of Schleswig-Holstein in the nineteenth century, banks and currencies were mobilised as political symbols to promote an agenda of regional nationalism. The local Schleswig-Holstein currency...

  8. 18th GRS experts' meeting 1994. Seminar B: Safety of facilities and waste management. Technical papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The six papers deal with the scanning, recording and assessment of long-standing soil pollution emanating from mining activities in Saxonia, Sachsen-Anhalt and Thuringia, the computation of radioactivity levels of structural core components destined for ultimate disposal, and with safety aspects and safety criteria applied to waste repositories in Germany and abroad. Nuclide transport models used for providing evidence of safe radiological containment of waste repositories are presented and discussed. (DG) [de

  9. Fuel cells in railway systems. Project report; Brennstoffzellen im Schienenverkehr. Projektbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    The project report describes the state of the art of fuel cell technology and the specific requirements of railway systems. Potential applications in the state of Schleswig-Holstein are gone into. [German] In diesem Projektbericht wird der Stand der Brennstoffzellentechnik und die Entwicklung von Anforderungen des Schienenverkehrs an diese Technik ermittelt. Darueber hinaus wird untersucht, inwieweit eine Modellregion Schleswig-Holstein zur weiteren Entwicklung der Technik beitragen kann.

  10. Climate saver atomic energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    According to the Schleswig-Holstein Land government nuclear power phaseout is compatible with measures designed to protect world climate. Only efforts aimed at quickly reducing energy demand by means of thermal insulation, energy conservation techniques, cogeneration systems and application of renewable energies are necessary. The Schleswig-Holstein energy concept is given as an example of making possible a worldwide carbon dioxide reduction. (DG) [de

  11. Wind energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molly, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    End of June 1994 429 MW in about 2100 wind energy converters (WECs) have been installed in Germany, able to produce 1.1% of the electrical energy demand of the five German coastal states Lower Saxony, Bremen, Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Determining factor for the again increased installation rate, compared with 1993, is the new 500/600-kW-class which now dominates the market. Dramatically reduced WEC prices during the last two years now allow an economic operation in good wind speed regions even without any subsidy. The goal to reach a total of 2000 MW WEC installations in the year 2000 is suddenly near at hand. In the course of the next seven years an installation rate of 250 MW/year will be necessary, a value which could be reached already in 1994. Nevertheless, there still is a long way to go, if the 2000 MW shall be achieved in the year 2000. New obstacles have arisen due to the increasingly restrictive handling of WEC site permission by conservationists, often in discrepancy with the generally recognized global ideas of the eco-organizations. After more than two years of experience, the WEC quality dependent subsidy as applied in Lower Saxony proofs to be a very effective stimulation for the technical development. WECs are now optimized for maximum energy production and minimum noise emission. The new 500/600-kW class is only half as noisy as could be expected from an extrapolation based on smaller WEC units. The energy cost reduction with the size of the WECs is still going on, indicating that the new Megawatt-WECs in development can offer again an economic advantage for the operator. (orig.)

  12. [Regional analysis of drug treatment prevalence and medication of diabetes mellitus in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willert, T; Walker, J; Schramm, W

    2012-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a widespread chronic disease. Diabetes prevalence was already analyzed in multiple complex studies. The goal of this analysis was the determination of the regional drug treatment prevalence and medication of diabetes mellitus in Germany. Simultaneously, we examined and validated the applicability of prescription data of the German statutory health insurance (SHI) as the basis for reliable and comparable prevalence estimations. For the analysis, we used anonymized data from a prescription database as well as the member statistics of the German federal Ministry of Health. By using defined prescription profiles with anti-diabetic medication, we determined the diabetic patients and treatment schemes per Association of SHI Physicians. Subsequently, we calculated and described the drug treatment prevalence and medication. A differentiation between type 1 and type 2 diabetes was not possible. The total prevalence of drug-treated patients in Germany was 7.77%. The regional values ranged from 6.40% in Schleswig-Holstein until 11.37% in Saxony-Anhalt. The highest numbers of drug treatment prevalence were found in the East of Germany. Insulin treatment was frequent in Hamburg, but rare in Bavaria. Insulin combined with oral anti-diabetic medication was mainly dispensed in Saxony-Anhalt and Brandenburg, least in Hamburg. A treatment with one or more oral anti-diabetics was most common in Bavaria and Bremen, lowest in Rhineland-Palatinate and Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. We developed an easy to use evaluation algorithm for prescription data to estimate the drug treatment prevalence of a chronic disease. The estimated prevalence confirms the increasing trend reported from other studies and appears to be plausible in comparison. More research is required to validate and enhance the method. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Common causes of poisoning: etiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dieter; Desel, Herbert

    2013-10-01

    In 2011, German hospitals treated approximately 205 000 patients suffering from acute poisoning. Change is seen over time both in the types of poisoning that occur and in the indications for specific treatment. This article is based on a selective review of the literature, with special attention to the health reports of the German federal government, the annual reports of the GIZ-Nord Poisons Center (the poison information center for the four northwestern states of Germany, i.e. Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein), and the recommendations of international medical associations. From 1996 to 2011, the GIZ-Nord Poisons Center answered more than 450 000 inquiries, most of which involved exposures to medical drugs, chemicals, plants, foods, or cosmetics. Poisoning was clinically manifest in only a fraction of these cases. Ethanol intoxication is the commonest type of acute poisoning and suicide by medical drug overdose is the commonest type of suicide by poisoning. Death from acute poisoning is most commonly the result of either smoke inhalation or illegal drug use. Severe poisoning is only rarely due to the ingestion of chemicals (particularly detergents and cleaning products), cosmetics, or plant matter. Medical procedures that are intended to reduce the absorption of a poison or enhance its elimination are now only rarely indicated. Antidotes (e.g., atropine, 4-dimethylaminophenol, naloxone, toluidine blue) are available for only a few kinds of poisoning. Randomized clinical trials of treatment have been carried out for only a few substances. Most exposures to poisons can be treated with general emergency care and, if necessary, with symptomatic intensive-care measures. Poison information centers help ensure that cases of poisoning are dealt with efficiently. The data they collect are a useful aid to toxicological assessment and can serve as a point of departure for research projects.

  14. Monitoring and assessment of conservation status of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Bjarne; Madsen, Aksel Bo; Elmeros, Morten

    Monitoring and assessment of conservation status of the Eurasian Otter Lutra lutra in Denmark Søgaard B. ¹, Madsen A.B.¹, Elmeros M.¹ ¹Institute of Bioscience - Kaloe, Aarhus University. Keywords: Eurasian Otter; Monitoring; Conservation status According to the EU Habitats Directive Denmark has...... of the otter inside Denmark, DNA analysis of dead found otters in Schleswig-Holstein (North Germany) shows that “Danish” otter have crossed the border to Germany connecting the Danish population to the East German population, which spreads into Schleswig-Holstein from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern....

  15. GeoPower – Geothermische Potentiale im Norden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Reinhard; Hese, Fabian; Offermann, Petra

    Das INTERREG IVa Projekt GeoPower hatte zum Ziel, Planungsgrundlagen für die Nutzung hydrothermaler Energie für das nördliche Schleswig-Holstein und das südliche Jütland (Dänemark) zu schaffen. Projektpartner waren die Geologischen Dienste von Dänemark und Grönland (GEUS) und Schleswig Holstein (......-Instituts für Geowissenschaftliche Gemeinschaftsaufgaben (LIAG, Hannover) eingeflossen und werden auf der Homepage von GEUS verfügbar sein. Die Projektergebnisse sind auch in einer Projektbroschüre zusammengefasst, die vom LLUR bzw. von den Autoren kostenfrei bezogen werden kann....

  16. Practical experience with phaseout-oriented execution of law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellenschmidt, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The result of two years of experience with phaseout-oriented execution of law is that the original political target of the new head of the authorities - abandonment of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Schleswig-Holstein within 2 years on the basis of the law in force - was unachievable despite considerable efforts. This interim result can be seen as positive for the operators of nuclear power plants in Schleswig-Holstein, because despite the stringency of the nuclear supervisory authorities, which could hardly be more severe, no deficits in safety, which would have warranted decommissioning, have appeared to become obvious. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Historical horoscopes as a source of the history of science. (German Title: Historische Horoskope als Quelle der Wissenschaftsgeschichte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestmann, Günther

    The paper deals with the analysis and interpretation of historic horoscopes. The astrological activities of Count Heinrich Rantzau (1526-1598), Danish Governor of Schleswig-Holstein, who was one of the leading representatives of humanistic learning and culture in the 16th century, have been taken as an example. He corresponded with numerous scholars and was a friend of Tycho Brahe.

  18. Radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The earliest pottery in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany, was produced by the Final Mesolithic Ertebølle culture. Radiocarbon dating of food crusts on Ertebølle pottery indicated that ceramics from inland sites were substantially older than those from the coast. Therefore, a freshwater...

  19. Icelandic volcanic ash from the Late-glacial open-air archaeological site of Ahrenshöft LA 58 D, North Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Housley, R. A.; Lane, C. S.; Cullen, V. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cryptotephra of Icelandic origin from the open-air archaeological site of Ahrenshöft LA 58 D (Kr. Nordfriesland, Schleswig-Holstein), northern Germany overlies a Late-glacial Havelte lithic assemblage, hitherto dated by 14C and biostratigraphy to the earliest part of the Late-glacial interstadial...

  20. Nuclear power and places of work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoltenberg, G.

    This speech gives a detailed report on the Brokdorf happenings from the point of view of the Schleswig-Holstein government. The role and opinions of the political parties are obtained. The reasons for the violence were political and have only slight connection with the citizens' fight against nuclear power. (TK) [de

  1. Fehmarnbelt Business Barometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Endres, Jean Paulo; Jakobsen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Results from a survey made among CEO's and CFO's of large and medium sized companies in the Denmark Capital, Zealand and Scania regions and on the States of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein regarding the businnes perspectives related to the construction of the Fehmarn fixed link....

  2. Persistent pollutants in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, J.H.; Hadderingh, R.H.; Bijleveld, M.F.I.J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the possible relationship between persistent pollutants and the decline in reproductive success of the White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Schleswig Holstein, Federal Republic of Germany. Chemical analyses were made of Eagle's eggs, of one adult Eagle which was found

  3. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude...

  4. Reliability of wind turbine subassemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinato, F.; Tavner, P.J.; Bussel, van G.J.W.; Koutoulakos, E.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the reliability of more than 6000 modern onshore wind turbines and their subassemblies in Denmark and Germany over 11 years and particularly changes in reliability of generators, gearboxes and converters in a subset of 650 turbines in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. We first start

  5. Monetary Romanticism, Currency and Central Banks in the Nineteenth Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    How do monetary institutions, such as currencies and central banks, interrelate to the construction of national communities? Using the national conflict between the Danish state and the Duchies of Schleswig-Holstein in the nineteenth century as an exemplary case, this article demonstrates how both...... banks and currencies were mobilized as political symbols to promote an agenda of regional nationalism. In the article I show how the local Schleswig-Holstein currency and the local Schleswig-Holsteinische Landsbank became symbolic antagonists to the Danish central bank and the official state......-sanctioned currency – which by Danish politicians were considers key elements in the attempt to consolidate the Danish nation-state. The article highlights the symbolic qualities of monetary institutions and offers an example of the interrelation between currencies, banks and nations. Through an empirical analysis...

  6. Action against Kruemmel rejected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    In its verdict dated September 2nd, 1976 - 10 A 211/74 -, the administrative court of Schleswig-Holstein at Schleswig has rejected with costs the action of a plaintiff resident in Hessen concerning the contestation of the 2nd partial licence for the erection of a nuclear power station at Kruemmel near Hamburg. The verdict is not subject to appeal. Furthermore, the administrative court of Schleswig-Holstein at Schleswig, in its verdict dated September 2nd, 1976 - 10 A 214/74 - has rejected with costs the actions of eight plaintiffs living in Hamburg and surroundings, concerning the contestation of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd partial licence for the erection of a nuclear power station at Kruemmel near Hamburg. An appeal against this verdict has been lodged at the higher administrative court at Lueneburg. The main gounds for the two judgments are given in full text. (orig./HP) [de

  7. The Urban Cultural Heritage of the Mare Balticum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Websites about Danish and Schleswig Holstein towns and shipping database: population figures, town charters, multimedia presentation of "urban icons", town economy, town descriptions, Danish urban history bibliography, online database about Danish shipping. Websites and database about towns...... in Sweden: population statistics, urbanization process and history, business and trade, municipal elections, bibliographies. Websites about German coastal towns and historical shipping database: population statistics, national and administrative boundaries, town plans; organize the collecting of historical...

  8. 20 years of monitoring of fishes and other organisms of the ocean and inland bodies of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, W.

    1981-01-01

    The monitoring of the fishes should be done in a way enabling to determine both the real and the possible radiation exposition of the population. Therefore, the investigations are mainly centered on the ecological parameters, radiation exposition of the population due to radioactive fall-out and radio-ecological findings. The state programmes of Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony were established bearing this in mind (figures). (DG) [de

  9. Novel Preclinical Testing Strategies for Treatment of Metastatic Pheochromocytoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Schleswig-Holstein Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany Abstract There is currently no effective treatment for metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. A...Supplementary Fig. S2) and deregulated fatty acid metabolism (Fig. 2b), leading to higher levels of palmitate and linoleate, increased long chain fatty...mitochondria18. This pathway required HIF-1a, which is deregulated in SDHB-mutant tumours, and may potentially contribute to disease maintenance39. The

  10. Zur Konstruktion von ''Männlichkeit'' bei ''Ultras'' : eine empirische Untersuchung zur Fanszene in Bremen

    OpenAIRE

    Guth, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    ''Männliche'' Herrschaftsstrukturen sind innerhalb der gesamten Gesellschaft stark verbreitet. Dies spiegelt sich dementsprechend auch in Fußballfanszenen wider. Diese Arbeit untersucht daher die Konstruktion von Männlichkeit bei ''Ultras'', da diese mit ihrer starken Präsens und ihren aufwendigen Choreographien in Stadien großen Einfluss vor allem auf Jugendliche haben. Ziel der Untersuchung ist es, Mechanismen innerhalb der Fanszene aufzuzeigen um somit pädagogisch zu intervenieren, damit g...

  11. Go west : internal migration in Germany after reunification Go West : interregionale Migration in Deutschland nach der Wiedervereinigung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Glorius

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper wants to shed light on the phenomenon of internal migration in Germany after the fall of the iron curtain. Since German reunification, the eastern part of Germany lost a large share of its population due to internal migration. Whereas in the beginning, departures were spread evenly over all age and educational groups and were accompanied by a significant counter-stream, in the course of time the negative migration balance was mainly produced by younger people at the beginning of their professional career. The paper describes the development of internal east-west migration in detail and presents primary data on the profiles of young migrants drawn from a research project during the years 2004-2007 (in this research project, financed by the German Research Foundation DFG, data were gathered from 1,200 migrants aged between 18-35 who moved from the federal state Sachsen-Anhalt to the western part of Germany. Hereby, special emphasis will be given to the methodological implications of studying selective migration processes. Final conclusions are drawn regarding the regional assessment and theoretical classification of this migration process, but also on the theoretical and methodological constraints of mobility research.Seit der deutschen Wiedervereinigung hat Ostdeutschland beträchtliche Bevölkerungs­verluste aufgrund von innerdeutschen Wanderungen zu verzeichnen. Während der Migrationsstrom zunächst relativ gleichmäßig über alle Bevölkerungsgruppen hinsichtlich Alter und Bildungsstand verteilt war und überdies von einem signifikanten Gegenstrom begleitet wurde, hat er sich im Laufe der 1990er Jahre ausdifferenziert. Die negative Wanderungsbilanz ist heute vor allem durch die Abwanderung junger Menschen zu Beginn des Erwerbslebens gekennzeichnet. Der Beitrag bietet eine detaillierte Beschreibung der innerdeutschen Ost-West-Wanderung und präsentiert empirische Primärdaten zu den Profilen junger Ost-West-Migranten aus Sachsen-Anhalt

  12. INNOLAB- image guided surgery and therapy lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzsche Holger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Incremental innovation, something better or cheaper or more effective, is the standard innovation process for medical product development. Disruptive innovation is often not recognized as disruptive, because it very often starts as a simple and easy alternative to existing products with much reduced features and bad performance. Innovation is the invention multiplied with a commercial use, or in other words something that eventually provides a value to a clinical user or patient. To create such innovation not a technology push (technology delivered from a technical need perspective but rather a pull (by learning and working with the clinical users is required. Medical technology students need to understand that only through proper observation, procedure know-how and subsequent analysis and evaluation, clinically relevant and affordable innovation can be generated and possibly subsequently used for entrepreneurial ventures. The dedicated laboratory for innovation, research and entrepreneurship- INNOLAB ego.-INKUBATOR IGT (Image Guided Therapies is financed by the state of Sachsen-Anhalt as part of the European ego.-INKUBATOR program with (EFRE funds at the university clinic operated by the technical chair for catheter technologies and image guided surgeries. It forms a network node between medicine, research and economics. It teaches students to lead innovation processes, technology transfer to the user and is designed to stimulate the start-up intentions.

  13. Loads imposed on dual purpose casks in German on-site-storage facilities for long term intermediate storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, N.; Rabe, O. [TUeV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH und Co. KG, Hanover (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In accordance with recent changes of the atomic energy act and in order to secure reliable removal of spent fuel from the nuclear power plants' fuel storage ponds the German utilities filed license applications for a total of 12 onsite- storage facilities for spent fuel assemblies. By the end of 2003 the last of these storage facilities were licensed and are currently under construction. The first on-site-storage facility of that line became operational in late 2002. There are several design lines of storage facilities with different handling procedures or possible accident conditions. Short term interim storage facilities for a few casks are characterized by individual concrete hoods shielding the casks in horizontal position whereas long term intermediate storage facilities currently erected for large numbers of casks typically feature a condensed pattern of casks stored in upright position and massive structures of reinforced concrete. TUeV Hannover/Sachsen-Anhalt e. V. (now TUeV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co. KG) has been contracted as a body of independent experts for the assessment of all related safety requirements on behalf of the national licensing authority, the federal office for radiation protection (BfS).

  14. New landscapes in mining regions; Neue Landschaften in Bergbauregionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, S.; Stein, M. [Knoll Oekoplan GmbH, Leipzig-Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The authors describe their experience in mining land reclamation in Central Germany, to which they contributed as planners of new landscapes. [German] An einigen Projekten haben wir als Buero fuer Landschaftsarchitektur und Landschaftsplanung in Sachsen-Anhalt und Sachsen mitgearbeitet. Im Mittelpunkt stand dabei die Gestaltung von Bergbaufolgelandschaften des Braunkohlebergbaus. Daneben gibt es seit mehreren Jahren eine Zusammenarbeit mit der Wismut GmbH sowohl im Raum Aue-Schlema-Schneeberg als auch im ostthueringer Sanierungsraum Ronneburg. Mit dem Gruenleitplan fuer Aue-Schlema-Schneeberg haben wir 1995 den Deutschen Landschaftsarchitekturpreis erhalten. Wir, das heisst unser Buero fuer Landschaftsarchitektur und Landschaftsplanung, die beteiligten Kommunen und die Wismut GmbH, die diesen Plan gemeinsam in einem kooperativen Verfahren erarbeitet haben. Den Preis erhielten wird deshalb nicht nur fuer das Ergebnis dieses fuer Landschaftsplaner damals noch recht ungewoehnlichen Planungsprozesses, sondern auch fuer das Verfahren selbst. Vergleichbare ungewoehnliche Wege der Planung waren notwendig, um als Landschaftsarchitekten Einfluss auf die Gestaltung der Bergbaufolgelandschaft des Braunkohlebergbaus im Prozess der bergbaulichen Sanierung nehmen zu koennen. Und wir werden diese Erfahrungen brauchen, wenn wir zusammen mit den Staedten Gera und Ronneburg, dem Landkreis Greiz und der Wismut GmbH eine Bundesgartenschau in der Region Ostthueringen fuer das Jahr 2007 vorbereiten. (orig.)

  15. Creating new jobs in a former lignite mining area. Energy efficiency partnership proves helpful to the weak regional economy; Wo die Bagger stillstehen.... Energiesparpartnerschaft hilft wirtschaftlich schwacher Region dreifach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-04-01

    The contribution discusses an energy efficiency partnership in the public sector of the Land Saxony-Anhalt. The contract between the local office for school building maintenance and supplies of the Wittenberg district and the energy service provider Johnson Controls JCI Regelungstechnik GmbH is for facility and energy management of four school centers. The energy efficiency measures are calculated to achieve savings over a contractual period of seven years justifying the investment of DEM 640 000 for modern technology, and savings exceeding the money invested will go to the rural district administration. A particularly helpful effect for the region is that contracts for required work in this context are awarded to the local or regional trade and industry, thus raising the employment level. (orig./CB) [German] Die Zahl der Energiesparpartnerschaften mit der oeffentlichen Hand nimmt zu. Zuletzt hat die Johnson Controls JCI Regelungstechnik GmbH zusammen mit dem Landkreis Wittenberg in Sachsen-Anhalt den Startschuss fuer die gemeinsame Energiesparpartnerschaft fuer vier ausgewaehlte Liegenschaften der dortigen Schulverwaltung gegeben. Ueber eine Laufzeit von sieben Jahren spart der Dienstleister so viel Energie ein, dass sich Investitionen von 640.000 DM in moderne Gebaeudetechnik lohnen. Wird mehr Energie eingespart, so kommt dies dem Landkreis zugute. Eine Besonderheit in Wittenberg ist die Vergabe zahlreicher Leistungen an ortsnahe Unternehmen. Damit profitiert der Landkreis in sozialer, wirtschaftlicher und oekologischer Hinsicht. (orig.)

  16. Loads imposed on dual purpose casks in German on-site-storage facilities for long term intermediate storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, N.; Rabe, O.

    2004-01-01

    In accordance with recent changes of the atomic energy act and in order to secure reliable removal of spent fuel from the nuclear power plants' fuel storage ponds the German utilities filed license applications for a total of 12 onsite- storage facilities for spent fuel assemblies. By the end of 2003 the last of these storage facilities were licensed and are currently under construction. The first on-site-storage facility of that line became operational in late 2002. There are several design lines of storage facilities with different handling procedures or possible accident conditions. Short term interim storage facilities for a few casks are characterized by individual concrete hoods shielding the casks in horizontal position whereas long term intermediate storage facilities currently erected for large numbers of casks typically feature a condensed pattern of casks stored in upright position and massive structures of reinforced concrete. TUeV Hannover/Sachsen-Anhalt e. V. (now TUeV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co. KG) has been contracted as a body of independent experts for the assessment of all related safety requirements on behalf of the national licensing authority, the federal office for radiation protection (BfS)

  17. Webpräsenz und Katalog unter einem Dach - Relaunch des Internetauftritts der SuUB Bremen

    OpenAIRE

    Blenkle, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Der Erfolg der großen kommerziellen Internetanbieter zeigt, dass die Akzeptanz von Webdienstleistungen nicht nur von der Qualität sondern auch von der Präsentation der eigenen Dienste abhängt. Die Berücksichtigung von Erkenntnissen aus Usability Studien - klare einfache Strukturen und die Beschränkung auf das Wesentliche - machen Webangebote für Nutzer attraktiver. Die Online-Präsentation der komplexen Angebote wissenschaftlicher Bibliotheken ist allerdings bislang eher von bibliothekarischer...

  18. Water quality data of the Elbe from Schnackenburg to the Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The working pool for pollution control of the Elbe of the states Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein (ARGE ELBE) published in its annual reports 'water quality data of the Elbe' results of water quality analyses carried out within the scope of the joint ARGE ELBE measuring program in the section of the Elbe from Schnackenburg to the North Sea including the lower reaches of tributaries of the Elbe. The documentation of measuring data in numerical tables is aligned with the needs of specialized offices of the states and the government as well as of research and university institutes. (orig.) [de

  19. Statistical results 1988-1990 of the Official Personal Dosimetry Service and data compilation 1980-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, E.; Drexler, G.; Scheibe, D.; Schraube, H.

    1994-01-01

    The report consists of a summary of relevant statistical data in the official personal dosimetry in 1988-1990 for the Federal States of Bavaria, Hesse, Schleswig-Holstein, and since 1989, Baden-Wuerttemberg. The data are based on the survey of more than 8000 institutions with over 100000 occupational exposed persons and are derived from more than one million single measurements. The report covers informations on the institutions, on the persons as well as dosimetric values. The measuring method is described briefly with respect to dosimeters used, their range and the interpretation of values. Information on notional doses and the interpolation of values nearby the detection limits are given. (HP) [de

  20. Statistical results 1991-1993 of the Official Personal Dosimetry Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, E.; Drexler, G.; Wittmann, A.

    1995-01-01

    The report consists of a summary of relevant statistical data in the official personal dosimetry in 1988-1990 for the Federal States of Bavaria, Hesse, Schleswig-Holstein, and Baden-Wuerttemberg. The data are based on the survey of more than 8000 institutions with over 140000 occupational exposed persons and are derived from more than one million single measurements. The report covers informations on the institutions, on the persons as well as dosimetric values. The measuring method is described briefly with respect to dosimeters used, their range and the interpretation of values. Information on notional doses and the interpolation of values nearby the detection limits are given. (HP) [de

  1. Finance and banking for wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rave, Klaus [Investitionsbank Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)

    1999-01-01

    Installed wind power capacity in Schleswig-Holstein has grown from 2 MW in 1988 to about 600 MW in 1997; about 10% of the total power demand. The target of 20 to 25% by 2010 should easily be exceeded. Cost per kW of installed capacity has fallen from DM 3,350 in 1990 to DM 1,700 in 1997. Estimates for the world market for wind power are given. Criteria for evaluating the financing of a build, operate, transfer wind energy project are set out. (uk)

  2. Finance and banking for wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rave, Klaus [Investitionsbank Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)

    1999-04-01

    Installed wind power capacity in Schleswig-Holstein has grown from 2 MW in 1988 to about 600 MW in 1997; about 10% of the total power demand. The target of 20 to 25% by 2010 should easily be exceeded. Cost per kW of installed capacity has fallen from DM 3,350 in 1990 to DM 1,700 in 1997. Estimates for the world market for wind power are given. Criteria for evaluating the financing of a build, operate, transfer wind energy project are set out. (uk)

  3. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating of f...... that can also be expected for the past. This knowledge will be applied to the dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the Alster River and Schlamersdorf at the Trave River, both in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany....

  4. Accounting of greenhouse gas emissions of a biogas plant. Results from the practice; Bilanzierung der Treibhausgasemissionen einer Biogasanlage. Ergebnisse aus der Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckmann, Karoline [Union Agricole Holding AG, Pinneberg (Germany); Fritz, Thomas; Lasar, Ansgar

    2014-08-01

    The assessment of greenhouse gas emissions for biogas plants aims at providing valuable data in order to identify set screws for improvements. Most measurements potentially reducing CO{sub 2}-emissions also help improving the profitability of the biogas plant. The current study therefore aimed at quantifying the environmental impacts of biogas plants. To that end, greenhouse gas emissions were assessed using data of a company-owned 776 kW biogas plant located in Wahlstedt, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Fermentation substrates are maize, grass and cattle manure. Specific greenhouse gas emissions of 282 g CO{sub 2}-eq per kWh{sub el} have been calculated.

  5. Actions against Asse II dismissed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    In the legal dispute over the storage of radioactive waste in the former Asse II salt mine near Wolfenbuettel, the Higher Administrative Court for Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein in a decision dated January 17, 1980, dismissed as inadmissible the appeals brought by plaintiffs from the Federal Republic of Germany, Denmark and Austria against the decision by the Braunschweig Administrative Court, in which that action had been dismissed. Also more recent applications were declared to be inadmissible on the grounds that the Lower Saxony State Ministry of Social Affairs was not the proper defendant. No appeal was permitted. The written decision by the Court has not yet been published. (HSCH) [de

  6. Muusikamaailm : Rahvusvahelised festivalid augustis / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    Rahvusvahelistest festivalidest augustis : Glimmerglass, USA (1.07-23.08), Rheinsberg (3.07-15.08), Innsbrucki festival (6.07-29.08), Peraladas (Kataloonia lossifestival 10.07-21.08), Schleswig-Holstein (11.07-29.08), Bregenz (20.07-23.08), Batignano (22.07-15.08), Davos (23.07-14.08), Salzburg (24.07-30.08), Prades (26.07-13.08), Santander (1.-31.08), Stavanger (6.-15.08), Pesaro (7.-22.08)

  7. Danish interdominational school in Schleswig. HVAC system for a grammar school of superlatives; Daenische Gemeinschaftsschule in Schleswig. HLK-Technik fuer ein Gymnasium der Superlative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, Christian [Siemens Building Technologies GmbH und Co. OHG, Kiel (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Schools are investments in the future. In the Danish school with pupils of the classes 7 to 13 in Schleswig (a gift from the Danish AP Moeller Foundation) not only the future of learning takes place, but also the identity of the Danish minority in Schleswig-Holstein. Externally, the school building corresponds to the best Danish architectural tradition. The school hall and the spatial sectioning are based on the communication patterns of a city with market-places, bridges, alleys and stairways. More inconspicuous, but not less effective and intelligent, the building services are integrated in the open space landscape.

  8. Population Development of Baltic Bird Species: Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) - Update with results from 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Christof; Bregnballe, Thomas; Larsson, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    pair numbers started to increase during the second half of the 1970s. During the 1980s, the Cormorant started to expand its range towards the northern and eastern parts of the Baltic. Currently, the species is present in the whole Baltic Sea area, including the northern parts of the Gulf of Bothnia....... After a decade of exponential growth, the breeding population of the Cormorant has stabilized in the south-western Baltic (Denmark and the northern Federal States of Germany - Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) in the 1990s, but breeding populations are still growing in the central...

  9. The Danish-German police cooperation cross Danish-German land border in Schleswig-/South Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd

    including members of the national minorities. However, the 'opening' of the now 'internal EU border' after the Danish implementation of the Schengen Agreement in March 2001 as well as a massive growth in the demand of labour in South Jutland from 2004-2009, led to a rapid increase in the cross...... patterns of migration. A larger number of Danish bikers, including members of Hell's Angels have for instance in the recent years moved to Schleswig-Holstein. Danish and German police co-operate on combating gang related crime including crime committed by gangs of bikers. However, while Germany allows...

  10. 16th Carbonyl Metabolism Meeting: from enzymology to genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maser Edmund

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 16th International Meeting on the Enzymology and Molecular Biology of Carbonyl Metabolism, Castle of Ploen (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, July 10–15, 2012, covered all aspects of NAD(P-dependent oxido-reductases that are involved in the general metabolism of xenobiotic and physiological carbonyl compounds. Starting 30 years ago with enzyme purification, structure elucidation and enzyme kinetics, the Carbonyl Society members have meanwhile established internationally recognized enzyme nomenclature systems and now consider aspects of enzyme genomics and enzyme evolution along with their roles in diseases. The 16th international meeting included lectures from international speakers from all over the world.

  11. Modern completion and start-up techniques for petroleum wells on Mittelplate: Mittelplate A 3a and 8b; Moderne Komplettierung und Inproduktionssetzung von Erdoelbohrungen auf Mittelplate am Beispiel Mittelplate A 3a und 8b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, P. [RWE-DEA AG, Friedrichskoog (Germany). Foerderbetrieb Holstein

    1998-12-31

    The Mittelplate offshore platform is located 7 km offshore Schleswig-Holstein in the Wattenmeer national park. The contribution describes the completion and start-up operations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit ueber zehn Jahren betreibt das Mittelplate Konsortium die Bohr- und Foerderinsel Mittelplate. Sie liegt 7 km vor der Nordseekueste Schleswig-Holsteins im Nationalpark Wattenmeer an der Position von einer der drei vorausgegangenen Erkundungsbohrungen. Auf der mit Spundwaenden eingefassten kuenstlichen Insel befinden sich die notwendigen Foerder-, Aufbereitungs- und Zwischenlagereinrichtungen fuer Erdoel, als auch die Energieversorgungs-, Prozesssteuer- und Wohnbereiche. Ein in die Insel integrierter Hafen nimmt zum Abtransport des Reinoels eine der drei Oeltransport-Bargen auf, mit denen das Reinoel zum Anlanden nach Brunsbuettel gebracht wird. Am Beispiel der beiden in 1997 komplettierten Bohrungen Mittelplate A 3a und 8b soll im Folgenden ueber die Komplettierung und Inproduktionssetzung von Bohrungen auf Mittelplate berichtet werden. Es werden die Anforderungen an die Komplettierungstechnik vorgestellt und im Hinblick darauf die Beispielbohrungen erlaeutert. Abschliessend soll ein Blick in die Praxis der Komplettierungsarbeiten und der Inproduktionssetzung geworfen werden. (orig.)

  12. Impact of biogenic terpene emissions from Brassica napus on tropospheric ozone over Saxony (Germany): numerical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Eberhard; Münzenberg, Annette

    2003-01-01

    The role of biogenic emissions in tropospheric ozone production is currently under discussion and major aspects are not well understood yet. This study aims towards the estimation of the influence of biogenic emissions on tropospheric ozone concentrations over Saxony in general and of biogenic emissions from brassica napus in special. MODELLING TOOLS: The studies are performed by utilizing a coupled numerical modelling system consisting of the meteorological model METRAS and the chemistry transport model MUSCAT. For the chemical part, the Euro-RADM algorithm is used. EMISSIONS: Anthropogenic and biogenic emissions are taken into account. The anthropogenic emissions are introduced by an emission inventory. Biogenic emissions, VOC and NO, are calculated within the chemical transport model MUSCAT at each time step and in each grid cell depending on land use type and on the temperature. The emissions of hydrocarbons from forest areas as well as biogenic NO especially from agricultural grounds are considered. Also terpene emissions from brassica napus fields are estimated. SIMULATION SETUP AND METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS: The simulations were performed over an area with an extension of 160 x 140 km2 which covers the main parts of Saxony and neighboring areas of Brandenburg, Sachsen-Anhalt and Thuringia. Summer smog with high ozone concentrations can be expected during high pressure conditions on hot summer days. Typical meteorological conditions for such cases were introduced in an conceptual way. It is estimated that biogenic emissions change tropospheric ozone concentrations in a noticeable way (up to 15% to 20%) and, therefore, should not be neglected in studies about tropospheric ozone. Emissions from brassica napus do have a moderate potential to enhance tropospheric ozone concentrations, but emissions are still under consideration and, therefore, results vary to a high degree. Summing up, the effect of brassica napus terpene emissions on ozone concentrations is

  13. [General practitioners' opinion and attitude towards DMPs and the change in practice routines to implement the DMP "diabetes mellitus type 2"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksch, Antje; Trieschmann, Johanna; Ose, Dominik; Rölz, Andreas; Heiderhoff, Marc; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Effective implementation of disease management programmes (DMPs) in primary care practices often requires changes in practice workflows and responsibilities and acceptance by the parties involved. Within the ELSID study (evaluation study of the DMP diabetes mellitus type 2) the physicians' attitudes toward DMPs were obtained and an optimised implementation of DMPs was developed by conducting a quality management cycle with primary care practice teams. The aim was to investigate which practice workflows will have to be changed and what kind of barriers to implement these changes are perceived. In 78 primary care practices of the two German federal states of Rheinland-Pfalz and Sachsen-Anhalt a quality management cycle was conducted using a structured analysis of the current state of DMP workflows and the need for improvement identified. Subsequently, an optimised workflow was developed and targets were agreed upon. After 6 months, the study team called to inquire about the current state of implementation and, if appropriate, actual barriers to change. After 6 months, 71 practices had been interviewed by phone. 64 of them (90.1%) had agreed on at least one target (e.g., to purchase new instrumentation, to regularly discuss feedback reports, to set up a patient registry). On average three targets had been formulated, and 2 out of 3 had been implemented in the meantime. In most cases lack of time was given as the reason for non-implementation. The majority of surveyed practices perceived some need for improvement. But sufficient resources (time, staff and money) are required to ensure efficient implementation of DMPs in primary care practices and their integration with routine processes. A redefinition of responsibilities for DMPs will strengthen the role of medical assistants and promote high-quality implementation of these programmes. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Feasibility study to combine the evaluation of radiological and chemical-toxicological effects of old contaminated sites; Machbarkeitsstudie zur Verknuepfung der Bewertung radiologischer und chemisch-toxischer Wirkungen von Altlasten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P; Proehl, G [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Schneider, K; Voss, J U [FoBiG Forschungs- und Beratungsinstitut Gefahrstoffe GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    The uranium mining regions of the German Federal States Saxony, Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt are contaminated by radionuclides and by chemical substances. For both, ionizing radiations and chemicals, concepts and models exists to assess possible health effects for the population living in such areas. However, these assessment models were developed independently for both kinds of contaminants. Therefore, the 9{sup th} Conference of the State Ministers for Environmental Protection have claimed that for the evaluation of contaminated sites the radiological and chemical contaminants should be integrated into a joint assessment. This feasibility study describes the state of the art of the concepts and models used for the evaluation of radiological and chemical contaminants. The similarities and differences of these evaluation methods are identified and discussed. Suggestions are made for an integrated assessment to standardize the evaluation of sites contaminated by radionuclides or chemicals. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den Gebieten des ehemaligen Uranbergbaus der Bundeslaender Sachsen, Thueringen und Sachsen-Anhalt treten neben den radioaktiven Kontaminationen auch andere Schadstoffe, insbesondere Schwermetalle, auf. Fuer ionisierende Strahlung und fuer chemische Noxen existieren unabhaengig voneinander entwickelte Bewertungssysteme zum Schutz vor Gesundheitsgefahren und Empfehlungen zum Umgang mit kontaminierten Standorten. Vor diesem Hintergrund forderte die 9. Umweltministerkonferenz - Ost am 17./18. Juni 1993 eine `Verknuepfung der radiologischen und konventionellen Altlastenbewertung`. Ob diese Verknuepfung moeglich ist und in welcher Weise diese vorgenommen werden kann, ist bisher nicht untersucht worden. Diese Machbarkeitsstudie unternimmt eine Bestandsaufnahme von Uebereinstimmungen und Unterschieden der beiden bestehenden Bewertungssysteme fuer Kontaminationen mit Radionukliden und mit chemisch-toxischen Stoffen und zeigt einen Weg auf zur Verinheitlichung der

  15. Hydraulic and physicochemical processes in direct gas injection; Hydraulische und physiko-chemische Prozesse bei der Direktgasinjektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geistlinger, H.; Lazik, D.; Beckmann, A.; Krauss, G. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Dept. Hydrogeologie, Lepzig (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The direct injection of gases into the subsoil is a promising and cost-effective technology for the remediation of groundwater aquifers. In view of the fact that oxygen is the commonest limiting factor in numerous types of contamination and a large number of organic groundwater pollutants are aerobically degradable this technology is suitable as a relatively broad-band, i.e. relatively nonselective remediation method for the treatment of complex pollutant mixtures consisting of aliphatics and aromatics such as are found in many cases of groundwater contamination at former sites of the chemical industry in Saxony Anhalt. The goal of the present research project was to gain an understanding, at a bench-scale, of the more important processes that determine the efficiency of direct gas injection in porous media (groundwater aquifers), to validate process models and develop prognostic models for existing sites. [German] Das Einbringen von reaktiven Gasen in den Untergrund mittels Direktgasinjektion stellt eine vielversprechende und kostenguenstige in-situ Technologie zur Sanierung kontaminierter Grundwasserleiter dar. Da Sauerstoff der am haeufigsten limitierende Faktor fuer eine Vielzahl von Schadensfaellen ist und eine Vielzahl von organischen Schadstoffen im Grundwasser aerob abbaubar ist, kann dieser Verfahrensansatz als eine ''breitbandige'', d.h. relativ unselektive Sanierungsmassnahme fuer komplexe Schadstoffgemische aus Aliphaten und Aromaten, wie sie bei vielen Grundwasser-Schadensfaellen ehemaliger Chemiestandorte des Landes Sachsen-Anhalt anzutreffen sind, angewendet werden. Ziel des Forschungsprojektes war es, wichtige Prozesse, die die Effizienz von Direktgasinjektionen in poroese Medien (Grundwasserleiter) bestimmen, im Bench-Scale zu verstehen, Prozessmodelle zu validieren und Prognosemodelle fuer reale Standorte zu entwickeln. (orig.)

  16. The BATENUS process for recycling mixed battery waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Siegmund; Sewing, Dirk

    The first large-scale battery recycling facility implementing the hydrometallurgical BATENUS technology is expected to go into operation by 1996. The plant will be situated in Schönebeck/Sachsen-Anhalt, and has a projected maximum capacity of 7500 tons of spent batteries per year. The engineering is being carried out by Keramchemie GmbH and the plant will be operated by Batterierecycling Schönebeck GmbH. The BATENUS process was developed by Pira GmbH, a research institute in Stühlingen, Germany, during a period of five years. This new process combines hydrometallurgical operations in a nearly closed reagent cycle that involves electrochemical and membrane techniques. Effluent emissions are minimized to the greatest possible extent. Process validity has been proven in a series of pilot plant testings. After mechanical separation of the casing materials like ferrous and nonferrous metals, paper and plastics, the subsequent hydrometallurgical recovery yields zinc, copper, nickel and cadmium. The other products are manganese carbonate and a mixture of manganese oxide with carbon black. Mercury is immobilized by absorption on a selective ion-exchange resin. The BATENUS process is a master process for the hydrometallurgical reclamation of metals from secondary raw materials. It has found its first application in the treatment of spent consumer batteries (i.e., mixtures of zinc-carbon, alkaline manganese, lithium, nickel-cadmium cells, etc.). As a result of its modular process design, the individual steps can be modified easily and adapted to accommodate variations in the contents of the secondary raw materials. Further applications of this highly flexible technology are planned for the future.

  17. [GP medication prioritisation in older patients with multiple comorbidities recently discharged from hospital: a case-based bottom-up approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, M L H; von Waldegg, G H; Kip, M; Lehmann, B; Andrusch, S; Straub, H; Robra, B-P

    2015-01-01

    After the hospital discharge of older patients with multiple morbidities, GPs are often faced with the task of prioritising the patients' drug regimens so as to reduce the risk of overmedication. How do GPs prioritise such medications in multimorbid elderly patients at the transition between inpatient and home care? The experience by the GPs is documented in typical case vignettes. 44 GPs in Sachsen-Anhalt were recruited--they were engaged in focus group discussions and interviewed using semi-standardised questionnaires. Typical case vignettes were developed, relevant to the everyday care that elderly patients would typically receive from their GPs with respect to their drug optimisation. According to the results of the focus groups, the following issues affect GPs' decisions: drug and patient safety, their own competence in the health system, patient health literacy, evidence base, communication between secondary and primary care (and their respective influences on each other). When considering individual cases, patient safety, patient wishes, and quality of life were central. This is demonstrated by the drug dispositions of one exemplary case vignette. GPs do prioritise drug regimens with rational criteria. Initial problem delineation, process documentation and the design of a transferable product are interlinking steps in the development of case vignettes. Care issues of drug therapy in elderly patients with multiple morbidities should be investigated further with larger representative samples in order to clarify whether the criteria used here are applied contextually or consistently. Embedding case vignettes into further education concepts is also likely to be useful. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Morphology, processes and geohazards of giant landslides in and around Agadir Canyon, northwest Africa - Cruise MSM32 - September 25 - October 30, 2013 - Bremen (Germany) - Cádiz (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Krastel, Sebastian; Böttner, Christof; Cartigny, Matthieu; Feldens, Peter; Fu, Lili; Glogowski, Silke; Guggolz, Theresa; Hellmann, Sebastian; Hühnerbach, Veit; Jähmlich, Heiko; Kraus, Katrin; Kretschmer, Jacob; Matthew, Duncan; Meier, Daniela; Mücke, Isabell

    2014-01-01

    Agadir Canyon is one of the largest submarine canyons in the World, supplying giant submarine sediment gravity flows to the Agadir Basin and the wider Moroccan Turbidite System. While the Moroccan Turbidite System is extremely well investigated, almost no data from the source region, i.e. the Agadir Canyon, are available. Understanding why some submarine landslides remain as coherent blocks of sediment throughout their passage downslope, while others mix and disintegrate almost immediately af...

  19. Assessing the Acceptability and Usability of an Internet-Based Intelligent Health Assistant Developed for Use among Turkish Migrants: Results of a Study Conducted in Bremen, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Klein-Ellinghaus, Funda; Brand, Tilman; Reeske-Behrens, Anna; Plumbaum, Till; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-12-03

    The Internet offers a new chance for health professionals to reach population groups not usually reached through traditional information channels, for example, migrants. Criticism has, however, been raised that most health information on the Internet is not easy to read and lacks cultural sensitivity. We developed an Internet-based bilingual health assistant especially for Turkish migrants in Germany, tested its acceptance, and evaluated its usability in a participatory research design with families with and without Turkish migrant background. The interactive health assistant covered the following: nutrition, physical activity, overweight, diabetes, as well as pregnancy and pregnancy support. The idea of an Internet-based health assistant was generally accepted by all participants of the evaluation study, as long as it would be incorporated in existing appliances, such as smartphones. The bilingual nature of the assistant was welcomed especially by first generation migrants, but migrant participants also indicated that not all health information needed to be made available in a culture-specific way. The participants were least satisfied with the nutrition component, which they felt should include recipes and ingredients from the culture of origin, as well as specific aspects of food preparation.

  20. Assessing the Acceptability and Usability of an Internet-Based Intelligent Health Assistant Developed for Use among Turkish Migrants: Results of a Study Conducted in Bremen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Samkange-Zeeb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet offers a new chance for health professionals to reach population groups not usually reached through traditional information channels, for example, migrants. Criticism has, however, been raised that most health information on the Internet is not easy to read and lacks cultural sensitivity. We developed an Internet-based bilingual health assistant especially for Turkish migrants in Germany, tested its acceptance, and evaluated its usability in a participatory research design with families with and without Turkish migrant background. The interactive health assistant covered the following: nutrition, physical activity, overweight, diabetes, as well as pregnancy and pregnancy support. The idea of an Internet-based health assistant was generally accepted by all participants of the evaluation study, as long as it would be incorporated in existing appliances, such as smartphones. The bilingual nature of the assistant was welcomed especially by first generation migrants, but migrant participants also indicated that not all health information needed to be made available in a culture-specific way. The participants were least satisfied with the nutrition component, which they felt should include recipes and ingredients from the culture of origin, as well as specific aspects of food preparation.

  1. Farbe bekennen – Grüne Bibliotheken auf die Tagesordnung! Vortrag auf dem 103. Deutschen Bibliothekartag, Bremen, 5. Juni 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hauke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Was in vielen Ländern bereits im Alltag der Bibliotheken verankert ist, beginnt in Deutschland erst sehr zaghaft: Das Verantwortungsbewusstsein von Bibliotheken für die ökologische Bildung der Gesellschaft und die Konsequenzen daraus für die Bibliothekspraxis. Es ist höchste Zeit, in der deutschen Bibliothekslandschaft publik zu machen, was eine „Grüne Bibliothek“ sein kann – bezogen auf das Gebäude, die Ausstattung, das Management, die Services für die Nutzer. Anhand einer Checkliste wird gezeigt, wie Bibliotheken mit einem „grünen“ Konzept nicht nur selbst etwas für die ökologische Nachhaltigkeit tun können, sondern auch wie sie als Multiplikatoren in den Kommunen, Hochschulen und bei anderen Trägern Einfluss auf das ökologische Verhalten nehmen und damit einen wichtigen Beitrag für unsere Gesellschaft leisten. Bringing environmental awareness to libraries does not necessarily imply huge financial efforts or a big budget. Ecological sustainability is an undervalued aspect of the marketing strategy for libraries which has more impact on clients and on stakeholders than one would expect. Small steps in going green can make a big impact for the library’s image. Little financial input can produce an important marketing outcome. Activities in this field can be developed in cooperation with unpaid partners like non-governmental organisations (NGOs, Friends of the Library groups, library suppliers and, last but not least, the library users. A checklist on how to go green gives an overview of important aspects in planning, construction, and library operations in order to introduce the first “green footsteps”.

  2. Care-Related and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with the Antenatal Nondetection of Intrauterine Growth Restriction: A Case-Control Study from Bremen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinja Alexandra Ernst

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify care-related and maternal risk factors for the antenatal nondetection of IUGR. Methods. In this hospital-based case-control study we compared antenatally undetected IUGR neonates (cases to detected IUGR neonates (controls. Data were collected using newborn documentation sheets and standardized personal interviews with the mothers. We calculated antenatal detection rates and used uni- and multivariable logistic regression models to assess the association of antenatal nondetection of IUGR and maternal and care-related factors. Results. A total of 161 neonates from three hospitals were included in the study. Suboptimal fetal growth was identified antenatally in n=77 pregnancies while in n=84 it was not detected antenatally (antenatal detection rate: 47.8%. Severity of IUGR, maternal complications, and a Doppler examination during the course of pregnancy were associated with IUGR detection. We did not find statistically significant differences regarding parental socioeconomic status and maternal migration background. Conclusions. In our study, about half of all pregnancies affected by suboptimal growth remained undetected. Future in-depth studies with larger study populations should further examine factors that could increase antenatal detection rates for IUGR.

  3. Assessing the Acceptability and Usability of an Internet-Based Intelligent Health Assistant Developed for Use among Turkish Migrants: Results of a Study Conducted in Bremen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Klein-Ellinghaus, Funda; Brand, Tilman; Reeske-Behrens, Anna; Plumbaum, Till; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-01-01

    The Internet offers a new chance for health professionals to reach population groups not usually reached through traditional information channels, for example, migrants. Criticism has, however, been raised that most health information on the Internet is not easy to read and lacks cultural sensitivity. We developed an Internet-based bilingual health assistant especially for Turkish migrants in Germany, tested its acceptance, and evaluated its usability in a participatory research design with families with and without Turkish migrant background. The interactive health assistant covered the following: nutrition, physical activity, overweight, diabetes, as well as pregnancy and pregnancy support. The idea of an Internet-based health assistant was generally accepted by all participants of the evaluation study, as long as it would be incorporated in existing appliances, such as smartphones. The bilingual nature of the assistant was welcomed especially by first generation migrants, but migrant participants also indicated that not all health information needed to be made available in a culture-specific way. The participants were least satisfied with the nutrition component, which they felt should include recipes and ingredients from the culture of origin, as well as specific aspects of food preparation. PMID:26633455

  4. Low-level liquid scitillation counting for quantification of annual {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C concentrations in tree disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopka, B [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Isotopenlaboratorium fuer Biologische und Medizinische Forschung; Schikowski, J [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Isotopenlaboratorium fuer Biologische und Medizinische Forschung; Porstendoerfer, J [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Isotopenlaboratorium fuer Biologische und Medizinische Forschung

    1997-03-01

    The government of Schleswig Holstein funded a study to perform the retrospective determination of airborne {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C concentrations. It is well known, that in tree rings most of the hydrogen and cabron is fixed after insertion in the matrix of wood and that the radionuclide concentration correlates with former airborne activity concentrations. For the retrospective study wood disks of trees located in the region near the nuclear power plant of Kruemmel and control disks of unsuspected areas were selected. The hydrogen of the wood was transformed to water and the carbon to carbondioxide by classical oxidation processes (combustion in a furnace). The contents of {sup 3}H in the water and {sup 14}C of the carbondioxide (solved in scintillation liquid) were determined by liquid scintillation counting, using a low-level counter (type Quantulus 1220, Wallac). (orig.)

  5. Dismissal of the stoppage of the Brunsbuettel power plant in spite of procedural faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    With the decree of the 17th December 1980 - 7 OVG B 114/77 - the OVG Lueneburg has repudiated the complaint of a plaintiff resident about 110 km Northeast of the Brunsbuettel power plant against the decrees of the Schleswig-Holstein administrative court and thereby confirmed the dismissal of a stoppage. The written statement of arguments now in hand comprises 65 pages from which paragraphs of basic importance are reprinted. The decree defines the right for action on the basis of the radiation burden and the distant residence of the plaintiff and judges the requirements of the proceedings in case of the project being thoroughly attered. However, it maintains the avoided alteration licenses which have been issued without public administrative proceedings (procedural faults) because no other decision could have been made in this case. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Dynamic Biogas Upgrading for Integration of Renewable Energy from Wind, Biomass and Solar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars

    The Sabatier process is investigated as a storage scheme for renewable energy. Hydrogen derived from fluctuating renewable energy sources like wind and solar is converted to methane by the hydrogenation/methanation of carbon oxides. Biogas from anaerobic digestion is considered in this study...... as a sustainable process for electricity storage and system integration in Northern Germany, i. e. the state of Schleswig-Holstein. A feasibility study was conducted to analyze the energy system in this region and the potential for this process. Process simulation tools were used to prove the product gas...... properties and the degree of efficiency of the system. Lab-scale and bench-scale experiments where further applied to demonstrate the utilization of industrial waste water for biogas production and the general applicability of biogas in the Sabatier process....

  7. Tvangslånene. Om fiskale forhold i Slesvig under og efter Treårskrigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    the districts of the region. However, only the two first were actually collected as the final one was decided just a few months before the end of the war. The compulsory loans were a war tax, with the particular characteristic though, that in principle those citizens who contributed enjoyed status as creditors...... by each district issuing interest-bearing loan certificates to citizens in exchange for cash. They passed the yield on to the Schleswig-Holstein treasury that in its turn issued bonds to the district authorities. The second loan was raised in April 1850 with the purpose of covering the deficit created...... or after some persuasion, seeing it as a civil duty and/or a sensible investment. On a number of occasions though, especially in the northern districts where pro-Danish sentiments prevailed, local residents would only pay up after threats by central authorities to take possession by military execution...

  8. Action for declaration of annulment of reactor construction permit dismissed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Higher Administrative Court of Rheinland Pfalz has confirmed two decisions by the Koblenz Administrative Court dismissing an actions to declare the annulment of the partial construction permit issued for the Muelheim-Kaerlich reactor. Appeal was not admitted. The plaintiffs, who are under age and were represented by their father, are permanently resident in Schleswig-Holstein, at about 470 km from the site and have a further residence in Mainz, about 60 km away from the site. They plead to have a legitimate interest in the declaration of nullity on the grounds of the uncertainty created in legal matters by the delivery of the permit and its being unconstitutional as well as for ideological and religious reasons. The ruling deals also with the importance of the distance from the site of a nuclear reactor, which is considered to be such as to exclude the 'necessary spatial relation'. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Statistics of official personal dosimetry and monitoring activities of the period 1994-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, E.; Wittmann, A.; Wahl, W.

    1998-01-01

    The measuring laboratory of the GSF in Neuherberg is the largest of the six official supervisory laboratories in Germany. It distributes the officially approved personal dosemeters and is responsible for personal dosimetry monitoring of about 140,000 persons in the German federal states of Bavaria, Hesse, Schleswig-Holstein, and, since 1989, Baden-Wuerttmeberg. Dosemeter readouts are recorded here in a database together with personal data and data describing activities, so that the information collected can be used as a source of reference for establishing general surveys of occupational exposure to external irradiation with ionizing radiation. The report first describes the dosemeter designs and the methods applied by the GSF lab for quality assurance, then explains results of the statistical evaluation of the recent data from 1994-1995, and concludes with explaining tendencies shown by long-term curves of the collective and average annual doses recorded in the years from 1986 until 1995. (orig./CB) [de

  10. Husum wind power meeting 1991: Wind power in impetus. Husumer Windenergietage 1991: Windkraft im Aufwind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloos, L

    1991-11-01

    Although, within the last 2 years, the generation of electricity has made a considerable progress in Schleswig-Holstein, the capacity connected to the network is 1% of the electricity consumption. But now, after the commercial utilization of wind energy seems to get going, resistances and defiles become evident. On the one hand, this concerns reservations of the protectors of birds who are afraid of an interference of protected coastal birds as well as the limited ability of the existing network. In so far, the ability of transfer into the network limits the size of the wind park or their number. A further restriction through the support program of the 250 MW of the Federal government results from the incentive that predominantly German firms have to be considered when erecting wind power plants. (BWI).

  11. To bier nye for den danske fauna (Hymenoptera, Apoidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Hans Thomsen; Calabuig, Isabel; Madsen, Henning Bang

    2017-01-01

    Since the publication of the district catalogue on Danish bee species, an additional two species are hereby published as new records for the country: Osmia parietina Curtis, 1828 and Sphecodes rufiventris (Panzer, 1798). This brings the Danish bee fauna to a current total of 288 species, closing...... in on the number of bee species recorded for Sweden and Schleswig-Holstein in Germany. By a mistake in the catalogue on the names and distributions of Central European bees by Warncke (1986), both these new species were already listed as occurring in Denmark. This error was inherited in several recent printed...... and online catalogues on bee distributions. However, this error is hereby clarified and the recent recordings presented. This paper outlines the general biology and how to identify the two species O. parietina and S. rufiventris, and presents the details of the recording of the specimens and their respective...

  12. New records of the rare glacial relict Eurytemora lacustris (Poppe 1887 (Copepoda; Calanoida in atypical lake habitats of northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter KASPRZAK

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During monitoring investigations of lakes in Schleswig-Holstein (northern Germany in 2000 and 2008, the calanoid copepod Eurytemora lacustris (POPPE 1887 was found in three lakes of the Ratzeburger Lake complex: the Kleine Küchensee, the Große Küchensee and the Große Ratzeburger See. The species has a broad geographic distribution but has become rare and endangered by eutrophication and global change. The lakes are mesotrophic (Gr. Ratzeburger See and eutrophic (Kl. Küchensee, Gr. Küchensee with cool (1 mg O2 L-1. Food and physical conditions seem to be favourable enough to permit survival and reproduction of the species at least in spring. It remains unclear, however, whether the populations in the studied lakes are autochthonous. Eurytemora lacustris possibly invaded the lakes or was transported via a canal from the Schaalsee upstream, where a viable population exists.

  13. Danish and German students’ reflections and recommendations to changes in their science education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Rask; Ahrenkiel, Linda; Michelsen, Claus

    We here present a case study on students’ reflections and recommendations on their everyday science education. These recommendations come from a minority group seldom heard in science education, namely those students who are already engaged in science and science education. In November 2010...... situation in science education. The seminar was studied as a case study and data was collected by the use of questionnaires, videotaping, student presentations, field notes and interviews with some of the participants. The focus on the findings is on the students’ motives for changing their current...... a seminar was held in Sankelmark, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. 29 upper secondary students from 4 schools (2 Danish and 2 German) attended the seminar in order to prepare some recommendations to take home to their own school. The students were asked to describe their current situation in science education...

  14. Nr 302 - Report made on the behalf of the Foreign affairs, defence and armed forces Commission (1) on the bill project authorizing the approval of the convention related to the construction and exploitation of European X-ray free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintat, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This report concerns the convention which defined the construction and exploitation conditions by currently twelve European countries of a large scientific research installation, the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL), which can create a considerably more powerful and precise light than any other laser, by means of a self amplifying spontaneous emission effect (SASE effect). This installation is to be built in the German regions of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein. The author briefly describes this project, its scientific challenges and objectives. He indicates the involved countries and partners, and some key figures about construction. He addresses the current and programmed investments. He presents the economic and political framework and the legal framework, evokes agreements of the same type already signed by France, and outlines the peculiarities of the convention

  15. Supreme Administrative Court affirms the admissibility of an action of voidance, but does not affirm the exclusion of objections according to article 7 b AtG a.F. and complains about the period of exposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Supreme Administrative Court for the Laender Niedersachsen and Schleswig-Holstein at Lueneburg turned down - with the judgement made on May 30, 1978 VII OVG A2/78 - the appeal filed by the appellee (Licensing authority under atomic law) and others (operator of nuclear power stations) against an interlocutory decree made by the Administrative Court Oldenburg/Stade on October 14, 1977 - I A 371/72 S -. Due to a given partial licensing decree, the interlocutory decree deposed the action of voidance filed by an opponent of nuclear energy, resident at Hamburg, to be admissible in contrast to the statement made by the appellee and others. The Supreme Administrative Court substantially reaffirmed and extended the interpretation of the interlocutory decree. It was approved to lodge an appeal. The appellee and others involved have lodged an appeal. The most decisive factors are given in the text. (orig./HP) [de

  16. A Differentiation Framework for Maritime Clusters: Comparisons across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Neto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to point out some of the main characteristics and critical factors for success that can substantiate the proposal of a differentiation framework for maritime clusters. We conduct a benchmarking analysis intended to distinguish the most relevant aspects which can or should be observed in these types of clusters, applied to the following countries: Spain (Basque Country, Germany (Lander of Schleswig-Holstein, the Netherlands and Norway. The differentiation factors involve agglomeration economies and endogenous conditions derived from geographic proximity, essential for lowering transaction costs, strengthening the leverage of public/private cooperation through centres of maritime excellence, at the same time providing an adequate local environment that favours positive interactions between the different maritime industries and actors. The main results arising from this article are presented through a reconceptualisation of Porter’s Diamond framework for diagnosing the competitiveness of maritime clusters.

  17. The salt stock of the Jura bassin in Ostholstein. A seismologic re-interpretation; Der Salzstock des ostholsteinischen Juratroges. Eine seismische Re-Interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, H.J.; Baykulov, M.; Gajewski, D.; Yoon, Mi-Kyung [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik

    2008-10-23

    The developing age of the Permian salt stocks in Schleswig-Holstein (Federal Republic of Germany) reaches from the Trias over the Jura up to the Tertiary period. In the context of the DGMK project 577-1, the reflection-rich salt dome in the East Holstein Jura was investigated seismically by means of the CRS method and speed tomography. These measurements enable the interpretation of a structural style with a substantial tectonically compressive component. Magnetotelluric measurements point to potential natural gas source rocks. The drift of the Permian salt contributes to the contact support of new red sandstone on the pre-salinar layers. Migration ways are opened which contributed to a filling of structurally high new red sandstone reservoirs in small depths.

  18. Example of establishing the recycling of scrap metal as a waste management option within German regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenstein, Matthias; Delfs, Johannes; Karschnick, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The German Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz, AtG) specifies the German nuclear licensing and supervising regulations. On that basis the German federal states are responsible for licensing and supervising of nuclear power plants (NPPs) located in that state. The Ministry of Energy, Agriculture, the Environment and Rural Areas (MELUR) is the authority responsible for the state Schleswig-Holstein, in which the NPPs Brokdorf, Brunsbuettel, Kruemmel and the research reactor HZG are located. In the licensing and supervisory procedures the authority may consult authorized experts. In addition to the AtG, the German Radiation Protection Ordinance (Strahlenschutzverordnung, StrlSchV) specifies regulations for clearance according to the 10 μSv-concept. The clearance of metal by recycling / melting is one option within the regulations of the StrlSchV. For a clearance an additional license given by the MELUR is necessary. In that license and the application documents as well as in the supervisory procedures very specific regulations are implemented. This includes regulations for clearance at third parties in foreign countries. In this talk a short introduction to the German regulations focussed on clearance according to the 10 μSv-concept will be given. The specific regulations in the license of clearance will be presented and also the application documents for NPPs in Schleswig-Holstein will be discussed. Furthermore it will be illustrated on what terms the MELUR decided to agree upon the recycling of scrap metal with the aim of clearance according to Radiation Protection 89 in foreign countries along with the German regulatory framework. (authors)

  19. Review process of PSA Level 2 of KBR. Concept and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andernacht, Martin; Glaser, Hendrik; Sonnenkalb, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, a periodic safety review (PSR) has to be performed every 10 years by the utility. In the past, a PSR only included a plant-specific probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) Level 1 study. For the NPP Brokdorf (KBR) PSA Level 2 project, an agreement was reached between all parties involved that the study will be performed not as a part of the PSR process, but supplementary to it. Since a revised version of the German PSA guideline has been released in 2005, these plant-specific PSAs have to include a PSA Level 2, too. This paper will focus on conclusions and findings from a ongoing parallel review process of the first full scope PSA Level 2 performed by the utility for KBR, a typical German PWR-1300. The responsible authority 'Ministerium fuer Soziales, Gesundheit, Familie, Jugend und Senioren des Landes Schleswig-Holstein (MSGF)' (Ministry of Social Affairs, Health, Family, Youth and Senior Citizens of Schleswig-Holstein) initiated this parallel review process in agreement with the utility KBR and the E.ON Kernkraft in 2006. The project will be completed soon. Such a review process allows that essential steps of the PSA will be reviewed and commented before the PSA Level 2 will be finished. So the benefit from this parallel review process is a significant enhancement of the quality and completeness of the PSA Level 2 study as the majority of the recommendations given by the review team has been taken over by the utility and the developer of the PSA, the Areva NP company. Further, a common understanding and agreement will be reached at the end between all parties involved on the major topics of the PSA Level 2 study. (orig.)

  20. Biotest-directed identification of toxic organic compounds in sediments - a contribution to risk assessment of complex contaminations using the small river Spittelwasser as an example; Biotestorientierte Identifikation toxischer organischer Sedimentinhaltsstoffe - ein Beitrag zur Risikoanalyse komplexer Kontaminationen am Beispiel des Spittelwassers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brack, W.; Altenburger, R.; Ensenbach, U.; Nehls, S.; Segner, H.; Schueuermann, G. [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Ecotoxicology

    2000-11-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals intentionally or unintentionally emitted to the environment is an important task of preventive environmental protection. Risk assessment combines effects assessment with exposure assessment. It identifies negative effects of the respective chemical and the concentration range necessary for exhibiting these effects. This range of effect concentrations is related to the expected exposure range in the ecosystem, that shall be protected, calculating probabilities for the effect to arise. Ecosystems such as sediments as a rule are not contaminated with a single pollutant but with complex mixtures of naturally occurring and anthropogenic compounds of unknown composition. Risk assessment of complex environmental contamination therefore requires a previous step of identification of potentially effective pollutants. Powerful tools to meet this requirement are bioassay-directed chemical analysis (Fernandez et al. 1992) and toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) (Mount and Carnahan 1989, Mount 1989, Norberg-King et al. 1992). They combine biotests with biotest-directed fractionation and chemical analysis to a sequential procedure characterising and finally identifying those compounds causing measurable effects. Effect-directed identification of organic toxicants in sediment extracts is demonstrated using the small river of Spittelwasser in the industrial region of Bitterfeld (Sachsen-Anhalt) as an example (Fig. 1). (orig.) [German] Die Abschaetzung der Risiken durch Chemikalien, die bewusst oder unbewusst in die Umwelt eingebracht werden, stellt eine zentrale Aufgabe vorbeugenden Umweltschutzes dar. Diese Risikoanalyse verknuepft Wirkungs- und Expositionsanalyse, indem sie moegliche unerwuenschte Wirkungen der jeweiligen Chemikalie identifiziert, den Konzentrationsbereich ermittelt, in dem diese Wirkungen eintreten, und diesen mit der zu erwartenden Exposition des zu schuetzenden Systems in Beziehung setzt mit dem Ziel, eine

  1. Investigations of time-dependent water pollution effects of overburden dumps - partial project 1. Final report; Untersuchungen gewaesserrelevanter Einfluesse von Bergbauhalden in Abhaengigkeit von der Standzeit - Teilprojekt 1. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuge, P.; Dunger, C.; Mibus, J.; Starke, R.

    1998-02-01

    Management of overburden dumps necessitates careful stocktaking and precise definitions of pollutant emissions so that, if necessary, conclusions can be drawn concerning sanitation concepts in consideration of emission limits and environmental balances. In view of the large number of overburden dumps in Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia caused the authors to restrict their investigations to ore mines and to select elements characteristic of the worked deposits and their potential environmental effects. The following problems were investigated: Are overburden dumps significant emitters of elements at all? Which elements are emitted in what concentrations, in what form and up to what distance from the dump? Are there really different patterns for gangue and impregnation types? How big is the real reaction space of the dump? Should the whole dump be assumed to be a reservoir of elements for emission or just parts of it? What are the factors that most strongly influence element mobilisation and/or retention? What measures should be recommended for emission reduction or prevention from the aspects of necessity, economic efficiency and long-term stability? (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Es ergibt sich fuer den Umgang mit Halden die Notwendigkeit einer gruendlichen Bilanzierung und schaerferen Definition von Schadstoffemission aus ihnen, um daraus Konsequenzen fuer eventuell erforderliche Sanierungskonzeptionen unter Beruecksichtigung von Grenzwerteinhaltung und Umweltbilanz abzuleiten. Der Umfang der einzelnen Fragestellungen und die Bedeutung der Halden in Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt und Thueringen sowie Anzahl und ihr Inhalt fuehrte zur Beschraenkung auf den Erzbergbau und auf die Kontrolle ausgewaehlter Elemente, die fuer den jeweils abgebauten Lagerstaetteninhalt charakteristisch und fuer die Wirkung auf die Umwelt von Bedeutung sind. Folgende konkrete Fragestellungen sollen verfolgt werden: - Sind Halden ueberhaupt nennenswerte Emittenten von Elementen? - Welche Elemente werden

  2. Radiotherapy in Northern Germany: Facts and figures about radiooncology in 6 states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, H.J.; Heilmann, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally there was a close cooperation between the Roentgen Society of Northern Germany and the Society of 'Niedersachsen' and 'Sachsen-Anhalt'. Therefore, hospital departments and free standing office-type facilities in radiooncology from 6 states have put together a regional North German data-base. Detailed questionnaires were sent out in order to get data on heads of departments, professional staff, technical equipment, workload, diagnoses and training facilities. The collected data were distributed to all participating centers for confidential individual analysis. This paper reports the data collected. The survey 1995/96 had an unexpected return. Thirty-six from 38 centers in a region with 17.36 million inhabitants in 6 states (21.3% of Germany) took part. There were 73 megavolt machines and 31 afterloading facilities. Two hundred and forty physicians, 110 physicists, and 350 radiographers were working in radiooncology; and there were 852 hospital beds specifically assigned to radiooncology for the care of in-patients. In 1995, 32,000 patients were treated with 37,000 series, 570,000 treatment visits and 1,600,000 radiation fields. The average patient got 1.2 series, 18 treatment visits and 50 fields. Equipmentwise, an average department runs a mean of 2 megavolt machines and 1 afterloading facility. The corresponding data for 1 megavolt machine were 3.5 physicians, 1.6 physicists, 5 radiographers and 13 hospital beds. There was 1 machine for 240,000 inhabitants. The average workload of a megavolt machine was 439 patients a year with 513 series, 7,813 treatment visits and 21,845 radiation fields. A regional data-base for radiooncology is being described. It is demonstrated that it is possible to get detailed and current data by this method. It provides transparent data on equipment, personnel and workload in radiooncology. It should set an example for other regions to collect their data in the same fashion, and then compile all such data for the whole

  3. R+D project KEWA. Cooperative development of economically efficient applications for environment, traffic and neighbouring fields in new administrative structures. Phase III 2007/08; F+E-Vorhaben KEWA. Kooperative Entwicklung wirtschafticher Anwendungen fuer Umwelt, Verkehr und benachbarte Bereiche in neuen Verwaltungsstrukturen. Phase III 2007/08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer-Foell, R.; Keitel, A.; Geiger, W. (eds.)

    2008-07-15

    The contribution to the R+D project 'KEWA - Cooperative development of economically efficient applications for environment, traffic and neighbouring fields in new administrative structures. Phase III 2007/08' contains the following contributions: (a) INSPIRE-GeoZG - Realisation of the INSPIRE regulation by means of the planned geo data access law of the Federal Government; (b) RIPS-GDI-AAA - Realisation of the CONCEPTION RIPS 2006 under consideration of the geo data infrastructure Baden-Wuerttemberg and of the AAA concepts of the administration of measurement; (c) RIPS-MDK - Spatial information system and planning system Baden-Wuerttemberg for the IuK group country/municipalities - RIPS metadata profile and further development - MDK; (d) disy Cadenza/GISterm WE - Further development of a platform for reports, evaluations and GIS as well as their applications in the Federal Government and countries; (e) disy Cadenza/GISterm NF - New special applications on the basis of Cadenza and GISterm - scope of special applications; (f) Environmental portals of the country - Networking of information in the environmental portals of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Sachsen-Anhalt and Thuringia under employment of a commercial search machine; (g) Topic park - Extension of the environmental communication platform by multimedial functionalities and contents of the Bodenseeweb; (h) FADO BW - Development of a fundamental version for a new management of special documents in the environmental information system Baden-Wuerttemberg; (i) BodenseeOnline -Interconnected research projects for an information system for the prediction of the hydrodynamics and water quality of lakes by the example of the Bodensee; (j) WaterFrame registered - Modern water information systems by cooperation of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Thuringia and Bavaria at specialized and technical level; (k) TrIS - New development of the drinking water information system Baden-Wueerttemberg; (l) FLIWAS-LE - Country-wide introduction

  4. Preferences of patients undergoing hemodialysis – results from a questionnaire-based study with 4,518 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Inger M.; Gerhardus,Ansgar; von Gersdorff,Gero; Schaller,Mathias; Barth,Claudia; Scheibler,Fueloep; Baldamus,Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Inger Miriam Janssen,1 Ansgar Gerhardus,2,3 Gero D von Gersdorff,4 Conrad August Baldamus,4 Mathias Schaller,4 Claudia Barth,5 Fueloep Scheibler6 1Department of Epidemiology and International Public Health, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany; 2Department for Health Services Research, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; 3Health Sciences Bremen, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; 4Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 5KfH K...

  5. Thermography colloquium 2007; Thermografie-Kolloquium 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    optically induced lock-in thermography T(A. Gleiter, Institut fuer Kunststofftechnik (IKT), Universitaet Stuttgart et al.). 16. Ultrasonic thermography in industrial applications (A. Dillenz, e/de/vis, Stuttgart et al.). 17. Quantitative evaluation of defects in CFRP components using lock-in thermography (C. Zoecke, EADS Innovation Works Germany, Muenchen et al.). The two posters are: 1. Ultrasonic thermography of massive steel components (R. Plum, TU Braunschweig, Institut fuer Bauwerkserhaltung und Tragwerk, Braunschweig et al.); 2. Detection of cavities behind medieval wall paintings using active IR thermography (T. Loether, Institut fuer Diagnostik und Konservierung an Denkmalen in Sachsen und Sachsen-Anhalt, Dresden et al.). [German] Diese CD enthaelt 16 Beitraege (vorwiegend in Form von Manuskripten, sonst Kurzfassungen) sowie zwei Posterbeitraege mit folgenden Themen: 1. Umwelteinfluesse auf die Genauigkeit von Gebaeudethermografien (G. Dittie, Dittie Thermografie, Koenigswinter). 2. Energetische Ueberarbeitung von Gebaeuden im Bestand: BlowerDoor- Pruefungen und Infrarot-Thermografie als Entscheidungshilfen fuer Sanierungsmassnahmen (K. Schwarz, Beratender Ingenieur, Ingenieurbuero Schwarz, Owingen / Baden). 3. Gas leak detection in the oil and gas industry using infrared optical imaging (J. Tegstam, FLIR Systems AB, Danderyd, Sweden; et al.). 4. The Medical Use of Infrared-Thermography; History and Recent Applications (R. Berz, Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Thermographie und Regulationsmedizin, Hilders / Rhoen; et al.). 5. Dual-Band-QWIP IR-Kamera ''Geminis 110k ML'' Kameratechnik und Einsatzbeispiele (O. Schreer, IRCAM, Erlangen; et al.). 6. Quantitative Phasen- und Amplitudenauswertung im Frequenzbereich fuer aktive Thermografie mit Rechteckimpuls-Erwaermung (R. Arndt, BAM Berlin; et al.). 8. Ortsaufgeloeste Detektion von Ermuedungsvorgaengen in metallischen Werkstoffen mit Infrarot-Thermografie (J. Medgenberg, TU Braunschweig, Institut fuer

  6. The effects of training school staff for utilizing student monitoring system data : 10th IFIP WG 3.7 conference, ITEM 2012, Bremen, Germany, August 5-8, 2012 : revised selected papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staman, Laura; Visscher, Arend J.; Luyten, Johannes W.; Passey, Don; Breiter, Andreas; Visscher, Adrie

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch School Inspectorate defines achievement-oriented work (AOW) as the maximization of student performance in a systematic and goaloriented way. Research by the Inspectorate shows that students in achievementoriented schools perform better than students in schools that meet the criteria for

  7. Sprache als Schlüssel zur Welt: Bibliotheken und Sprach-Kitas in guter Partnerschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Brandt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Von 2016 bis voraussichtlich 2020 wird durch das Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend das Bundesprogramm „Sprach-Kitas. Weil Sprache der Schlüssel zur Welt ist“ gefördert. Es richtet sich an Kindertageseinrichtungen, die von einem überdurchschnittlich hohen Anteil von Kindern mit besonderem Bedarf an sprachlicher Bildung und Förderung besucht werden. Dabei stehen besonders die folgenden drei Zielbereiche im Fokus: alltagsintegrierte sprachliche Bildung, inklusive Bildung und Zusammenarbeit mit den Familien. An den Standorten dieser mehr als 3000 Sprach-Kitas in Deutschland gibt es nahezu überall öffentliche Bibliotheken, die als nachbarschaftliche Partnerinnen den Sprach-Kitas bei der Sprachförderung mit vielfältigen Medien und Kooperationsangeboten zur Seite stehen. Auch als Schnittstelle zwischen Kita und Familie können die Büchereien wichtige Aufgaben im Rahmen des Programms übernehmen. Die Büchereizentrale Schleswig-Holstein hat daher mit Fördermitteln des Landes und in guter Abstimmung mit den Sprachkoordinatorinnen der Kitas das Projekt „Mit Worten wachsen“ entwickelt. Der Beitrag beschreibt, welche Chancen und Herausforderungen sich durch eine solche Zusammenarbeit mit Sprach-Kitas für Bibliotheken ergeben und wie sich daraus eine lebendige interdisziplinäre Partnerschaft im Sinne der genannten Zielbereiche entwickeln lässt. Since 2016, the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth has sponsored the programme “Language day-care centres. Because language is the key to the world” (Sprach-Kitas. Weil Sprache der Schlüssel zur Welt ist; this is expected to last until 2020. The programme addresses day-care facilities which are attended by an above-average number of children with special needs in their language development. The following three aims are at the centre of the programme: language education which is integrated in everyday life; education based on

  8. Increased survival rate by local release of diclofenac in a murine model of recurrent oral carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will OM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Olga Maria Will,1,* Nicolai Purcz,2,* Athena Chalaris,3 Carola Heneweer,4,5 Susann Boretius,1 Larissa Purcz,2 Lila Nikkola,6 Nureddin Ashammakhi,6 Holger Kalthoff,7 Claus-Christian Glüer,1 Jörg Wiltfang,2 Yahya Açil,2 Sanjay Tiwari1 1Section Biomedical Imaging, Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, MOIN CC, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, 3Institute of Biochemistry, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 4Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, 5Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 6Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland; 7Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and combination chemotherapy following tumor resection, the 5-year survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer is at best only 50%. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of localized release of diclofenac from electrospun nanofibers generated from poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide polymer. Diclofenac was chosen since anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase have shown great potential in their ability to directly inhibit tumor growth as well as suppress inflammation-mediated tumor growth. A mouse resection model of oral carcinoma was developed by establishing tumor growth in the oral cavity by ultrasound-guided injection of 1 million SCC-9 cells in the floor of the mouth. Following resection, mice were allocated into four groups with the following treatment: 1 no treatment, 2 implanted scaffolds without diclofenac, 3 implanted scaffolds loaded with diclofenac, and 4 diclofenac given orally. Small animal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized for longitudinal

  9. Instruments. Climate protection of reduction of no-load losses in electric appliances and equipment; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten. Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, U.; Hellmann, R. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany); Moehring-Hueser, W.; Wortmann, K.; Bregas, J. [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Mordziol, C. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Two studies on the subject of 'Climate Protection through Reduction of No-load Losses in Electric Applicances and Equipment' have been performed on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the German Federal Environmental Agency. The first study, carried out by the Tuebingen-based engineering bureau eboek, has been published in the Federal Environmental Agency's TEXTE series (Texte 45/97, 2{sup nd} edition, 1998). It was the starting point for a multitude of activities among them two information campaigns carried out in 1998 and 1999 that were funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment and the German Section of the Friends of the Earth (BUND). The study also served as a basis for decisions taken by the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (Council of Constituent States). The second study on the subject was carried out by the engineering bureau eboek and Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein. Building on the results obtained in the first study, it presents estimates of relevant data for the European Union and examines various approaches for possible measures to reduce no-load losses as to their suitability. The studies impressively show that effective climate protection can be achieved in all relevant sectors, and in many cases even save costs. The results are detailed below. (orig.) [German] Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit sowie des Umweltbundesamtes wurden zwei Studien zum Thema: 'Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten' durchgefuehrt: Die erste, vom Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und oekologische Konzepte (eboek), Tuebingen, earbeitete Studie wurde in der Reihe TEXTE des UBA veroeffentlicht (Texte 45/97, 2. Auflage 1998). Sie bildete den Ausgangspunkt fuer eine Vielzahl von Aktivitaeten, unter anderem zwei vom Bundesumweltministerium finanzierte und vom Bund fuer Umwelt und

  10. Instruments. Climate protection of reduction of no-load losses in electric appliances and equipment; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten. Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, U; Hellmann, R [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany); Moehring-Hueser, W; Wortmann, K; Bregas, J [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Mordziol, C [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Two studies on the subject of 'Climate Protection through Reduction of No-load Losses in Electric Applicances and Equipment' have been performed on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the German Federal Environmental Agency. The first study, carried out by the Tuebingen-based engineering bureau eboek, has been published in the Federal Environmental Agency's TEXTE series (Texte 45/97, 2{sup nd} edition, 1998). It was the starting point for a multitude of activities among them two information campaigns carried out in 1998 and 1999 that were funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment and the German Section of the Friends of the Earth (BUND). The study also served as a basis for decisions taken by the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (Council of Constituent States). The second study on the subject was carried out by the engineering bureau eboek and Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein. Building on the results obtained in the first study, it presents estimates of relevant data for the European Union and examines various approaches for possible measures to reduce no-load losses as to their suitability. The studies impressively show that effective climate protection can be achieved in all relevant sectors, and in many cases even save costs. The results are detailed below. (orig.) [German] Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit sowie des Umweltbundesamtes wurden zwei Studien zum Thema: 'Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten' durchgefuehrt: Die erste, vom Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und oekologische Konzepte (eboek), Tuebingen, earbeitete Studie wurde in der Reihe TEXTE des UBA veroeffentlicht (Texte 45/97, 2. Auflage 1998). Sie bildete den Ausgangspunkt fuer eine Vielzahl von Aktivitaeten, unter anderem zwei vom Bundesumweltministerium finanzierte und vom Bund fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz (BUND) 1998 und

  11. 77 FR 75655 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Vista and Diamond Mountain Vineyard, 2121 Diamond Mountain Rd., Calistoga, 12001144 GEORGIA Lumpkin..., Jct. of Douglas Rd. & IN 106, Bremen, 12001151 Bremen Water Tower, W. side of 100 blk. of S. Jackson...

  12. Analysis of Age and Gender Structures for ICD-10 Diagnoses in Outpatient Treatment Using Shannon's Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Fabian; Ostermann, Thomas; Emcke, Timo; Schuster, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic diversity has been in the focus of several studies of health services research. As the fraction of people with statutory health insurance changes with age and gender it is assumed that diagnostic diversity may be influenced by these parameters. We analyze fractions of patients in Schleswig-Holstein with respect to the chapters of the ICD-10 code in outpatient treatment for quarter 2/2016 with respect to age and gender/sex of the patient. In a first approach we analyzed which diagnose chapters are most relevant in dependence of age and gender. To detect diagnostic diversity, we finally applied Shannon's entropy measure. Due to multimorbidity we used different standardizations. Shannon entropy strongly increases for women after the age of 15, reaching a limit level at the age of 50 years. Between 15 and 70 years we get higher values for women, after 75 years for men. This article describes a straight forward pragmatic approach to diagnostic diversity using Shannon's Entropy. From a methodological point of view, the use of Shannon's entropy as a measure for diversity should gain more attraction to researchers of health services research.

  13. Environmental Information Systems. Integrative data management - Examples from the environmental monitoring; Umweltinformationssysteme. Integratives Datenmanagement - Beispiele aus der Umweltbeobachtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knetsch, Gerlinde; Jessen, Karin (comps.) [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany). Fachgebiet IV 2.1 Informationssysteme Chemikaliensicherheit

    2010-02-15

    Within the workshop ''Environmental databases / Environmental Information Systems'' of the German Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) at 4th to 5th May, 2009, in Hof (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The German Environmental Specimen Base in the Internet (Maria Ruether); (2) REACH IT tools and workflows for the European implementation of chemicals (Gerlinde Knetsch); (3) Design of a European portal for soil information in the scope of the eContentplus project GS soil as a component for SEIS based on the PortaIU {sup registered} technology (Martin Klenke, Stefanie Konstantinidis, Fred Kruse); (4) Introduction of SOS services for the exchange and presentation of numeric data in PortalU {sup registered} (Carsten Heidmann, Wassili Kazakos, Martin Klenke, Siegbert Kunz); (5) Internet portals of waste management in Schleswig-Holstein (Friedhelm Hosenfeld, Wolfgang Thiel, Johannes Bublitz); (6) FIS waters - an international specialized and information technological cooperation (Wolfgang Ballin).

  14. Parasites in harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina) from the German Wadden Sea between two Phocine Distemper Virus epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, K.; Raga, J. A.; Siebert, U.

    2007-12-01

    Parasites were collected from 107 harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina) found on the coasts of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, between 1997 and 2000. The prevalence of the parasites and their associated pathology were investigated. Eight species of parasites, primarily nematodes, were identified from the examined organs: two anisakid nematodes ( Pseudoterranova decipiens (sensu lato) , Contracaecum osculatum (sensu lato)) from the stomach, Otostrongylus circumlitus (Crenosomatidae) and Parafilaroides gymnurus (Filaroididae) from the respiratory tract, one filarioid nematode ( Acanthocheilonema spirocauda) from the heart, two acanthocephalans, Corynosoma strumosum and C. semerme (Polymorphidae), from the intestine and an ectoparasite, Echinophthirius horridus (Anoplura, Insecta). Lungworm infection was the most prominent parasitological finding and secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia the most pathogenic lesion correlated with the parasites. Heavy nematode burdens in the respiratory tract were highly age-related and more frequent in young seals. A positive correlation was observed between high levels of pulmonary infection and severity of bronchopneumonia. The prevalence of lungworms in this study was higher than in seals that died during the 1988/1989 Phocine Distemper Virus epidemic, and the prevalence of acanthocephalans and heartworms had decreased compared to findings from the first die-off.

  15. Long term effects of an energy efficiency advertising campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortmann, Klaus; Moehring-Hueser, Werner [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    A professional marketing approach should support a transformation of the market towards more energy efficient decisions not only of consumers, but also of retailers and producers. The state-wide energy efficiency advertising campaign 'Aus. Wirklich aus?' (off. really off?) against pointless stand-by consumption took place in Schleswig-Holstein (Northern Germany) from November 2000 until June 2001 followed by reminder ads in autumn 2001 and spring 2002. Extraordinary efforts were undertaken to evaluate the effects of the campaign, because it served as a pilot project for an approach on the national level. Two representative samples of the population and specialist dealers for electrical equipment in two German states (one as 'control group') were interviewed by phone before the launch of the campaign, at the peak of the advertising pressure and one year after. The results are presented with special emphasis on sustainable effects with respect to energy awareness and interest of the consumers as well as on their intention to act and on specific actions like switching the TV (really) off. For most of these criteria long lasting effects could be observed. Also the retailers steadily increased their own (additional) activities to profit from the campaign. The results are discussed with respect to economical cost-benefit-arguments and in the light of psychological theories of information processing in order to describe the essential lessons learned for successful energy efficiency campaigns in the future.

  16. [Acceptance of a total smoking ban in schools: students' attitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, M; Wiborg, G; Hanewinkel, R

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure students' attitudes towards a total smoking ban in schools and towards impositions in cases of violation. Cross-sectional survey of 1 738 students of 12 public schools in Schleswig-Holstein (grades 7-13, age 11-20 years). Data were collected by means of written questionnaires administered during class time. The following variables were assessed: attitude towards smoking ban, attitude towards impositions, age, sex, citizenship, perceived school climate, current smoking, lifetime smoking; for smokers, and additionally, the "Heaviness of Smoking Index". 76.5% of all students agreed with a total smoking ban, 66.4% agreed with the punishment of violations. Higher acceptance rates were found among girls, young students (11-15 years of age), for never-smokers, and for students who feel comfortable at school. Acceptance of the smoking ban is closely related to current smoking status: 93% of the non-smoking students, but only 14% of the daily smoking students agreed with the regulations. Refusal of the ban increased with increasing physical dependence. The intensification of the smoking ban in public schools meets approval by the majority of students. Smoking students should be more strongly involved in the implementation process, e.g., by supplemental cessation programmes.

  17. Value of MRI in radiology. No MRI training in other special medical fields. A joint statement by the DRG and BVDRN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, K.J.; Fischer, J.

    1997-01-01

    Applications of MRI are restricted to the special field of diagnostic radiology, also comprising neuroradiology and pediatric radiology, and this is how it should be. This is the unanimous opinion of the medical self-administration bodies as well as of the supervisory bodies, declared with the coming into force of the WO of 1992. Any spreading of applications to other special medical fields will jeopardize the existence and development of diagnostic radiology. Only its being exclusively applied by diagnostic radiology experts will guarantee and maintain the high quality standards and economic efficiency meanwhile achieved with MRI. The demand for diagnostic MRI examinations is met by the currently available equipment at radiological specialists' practices. The Medical Associations of the Laender Baden-Wuerttemberg, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, and Westfalen-Lippe, other than the Bavarian Association, declared that the method should not be opened up for application by orthopedic specialists. The Federal Medical Association is called upon to use its competences as a recommending body in order to make this point clear in a general statement, recommending that MRI applications should be restricted to experts in the field of diagnostic radiology. Another good reason is warranty of equal conditions throughout Germany. There are no facts or reasons that would recommend a softening of current conditions by allowing deviating practice at Laender level. (Orig./AJ) [de

  18. Conversion of laparoscopic surgery for perforated peptic ulcer: a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Markus; Hoffmann, Martin; Laubert, Tilman; Jung, Carlo; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Schloericke, Erik

    2015-11-01

    A perforated peptic ulcer can be managed laparoscopically in selected patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether conversion of emergency laparoscopy is inferior to primary median laparotomy in terms of postoperative morbidity and mortality. We analyzed patients who underwent laparoscopic or open surgery for a perforated peptic ulcer at the Department of Surgery, University of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck between January, 1996 and December, 2010. Perforations were graded according to the Boey classification, a preoperative risk-scoring system. Conversion to laparotomy was necessary in 20 of the 45 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery (CG); therefore, laparoscopic operations were completed in 25 patients (LG). The third patient cohort comprised 139 patients who underwent primary laparotomy (OG). Overall minor morbidity was significantly lower (p = 0.048) in the LG patients than in the OG patients, whereas no significant differences were found in major morbidity and mortality, particularly between the OG and CG. Patients' suitability for laparoscopic management should be decided on according to Boey's clinical scoring system. Our findings demonstrated that conversion from laparoscopy to laparotomy was not associated with elevated postoperative morbidity or mortality versus initial laparotomy. Therefore, emergency operations may be commenced laparoscopically in selected patients, especially considering the postoperative advantages of this approach.

  19. Retrospective analyses versus RCTs: comparing like with like?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baron R

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ralf Baron,1 Lieven Nils Kennes,2 Christian Elling31Division of Neurological Pain Research and Therapy, Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel Campus, Kiel, 2Department of Economics and Business Administration, University of Applied Sciences Stralsund, Stralsund, 3Grünenthal GmbH, Medical Affairs Europe and North America, Aachen, GermanyIn their recent retrospective analysis assessing oxycodone/naloxone (OXN vs. tapentadol (TAP treatment for chronic low-back pain with a neuropathic component, Ueberall and Mueller-Schwefe1 compare their results to the findings of an earlier phase 3b/4 study.2 In our opinion, a proper comparison to the prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label study by Baron and colleagues is scientifically not appropriate. Although Ueberall and Mueller-Schwefe use the terms “prospective,” “randomly,” and “blinded” and refer to the PROBE design (prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint,3 their database study is retrospective, nonrandomized, and nonblinded with the treatment choice left to the discretion of the physicians. In this context, the use of the term “intention-to-treat (ITT population” is inappropriate because ITT is unambiguously defined as including all randomized subjects and thus inseparable from true randomization (ICH E9.4View original paper by Ueberall and Mueller-Schwefe.

  20. Locally owned renewable energy : benefits, opportunities and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, H.

    2008-01-01

    The German experience in wind power development was discussed in this presentation, with particular reference to 17 years of experience acquired by the German company Ingenieurburo Henning Holst. The company has constructed 30 wind power projects in Germany ranging in size from 1 to 57 MW. Half of the projects are community owned. The services provided by Henning Holst include calculations of emissions from turbines; land lease concepts; assistance with contractual agreements; tenders and site supervision; feasibility studies; and commissioning, operation and administration. The early installations required high wind speeds and wind energy development was only possible in a few locations. With improved technology, many other sites with lower wind speeds are now profitable. In 1991, the provincial target for Schleswig Holstein was 1,200 MW by 2010. Today, there are 2,400 MW in the province, and 1,500 MW are waiting to be installed. This paper provided a brief outline of Germany's renewable energy policy and the importance of grid access and appropriate pricing. 25 figs

  1. DOSIMO - an interactive web service of the GSF Readout Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, S.; Lempart, R.

    2002-01-01

    Under the Radiation Protection and X-ray Ordinances, official personnel dosimetry centers are charged with measuring, documenting, and monitoring personnel doses as independent agencies. The GSF Readout Center (AWST) for Personnel Dosimeters and Area Monitors is responsible for monitoring persons occupationally exposed to radiation in the federal states of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bavaria, Hesse, and Schleswig-Holstein. The largest German readout center uses new media in personnel dosimetry in order to simplify and speed up data transfer. In October 1998, AWST in cooperation with ADANAT ENTIRE SYSTEMS implemented an Internet interface. As a result, AWST is the first European readout center to offer not only a possibility to disseminate information through the Internet by means of the DOSIMO (DOSIMETRY On-line) Internet Service, but also enabling the interactive data exchange by electronic means with authorized customers. DOSIMO users enjoy the decisive advantage of having the results of readout of their dosimeters ready for use as soon as they have become available. (orig.) [de

  2. Job stress and job satisfaction of physicians in private practice: comparison of German and Norwegian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Edgar; Rosta, Judith; Siegrist, Johannes; Aasland, Olaf G

    2012-10-01

    This study examined job satisfaction and job stress of German compared to Norwegian physicians in private practice. A representative sample of physicians in private practice of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany (N = 414) and a nationwide sample of Norwegian general practitioners and private practice specialists (N = 340) were surveyed in a cross-sectional design in 2010. The questionnaire comprised the standard instruments "Job Satisfaction Scale (JSS)" and a short form of the "Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERI)". Norwegian physicians scored significantly higher (job satisfaction scale compared to German physicians (M 5.57, SD 0.74 vs. M 4.78, SD 1.01). The effect size was highest for the items freedom to choose method (d = 1.012), rate of pay (d = 0.941), and overall job satisfaction (d = 0.931). While there was no significant difference in the mean of the overall effort scale between German and Norwegian physicians, Norwegian physicians scored significantly higher (p job satisfaction. Job satisfaction and reward were significantly higher in Norwegian than in German physicians. An almost threefold higher proportion of German physicians exhibited a high level of work-related stress. Findings call for active prevention and health promotion among stressed practicing physicians, with a special focus on improved working conditions.

  3. Smart Grid folder - When research is made in close collaboration: France and Germany multiply initiatives; Greenlys, a French breakthrough in smart grids; Integration of ENRs - Germany; it's working hard in the North

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongrain, Timothee; Piro, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    A first article proposes an overview of some of the numerous initiatives taken by France and Germany for the development of smart grids. In France, these are regional projects and are for example named Smile, You and Grid, Flexgrid, CityOps, Smart Electric Lyon, Nice Grid, Premio. On its side, Germany has launched the SINTEG programme of five demonstrators of energy intelligence and energy digitalisation at a regional scale. A second article presents the Greenlys project of experimentation of a smart grid in Lyon and in Grenoble by a consortium of energy and industrial companies, public bodies and academics. The third article addresses the New 4.0 German project of integration of renewable energies into the grid, based on the use of smart grids and consumption steering. This project concerns the Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg Lander where renewable energies are expected to reach 70 per cent in 2025 and 100 per cent in 2035 in their energy mix. Other similar projects undertaken on other German regions are also mentioned

  4. Sleep quality and health-related quality of life among long-term survivors of (non-) Hodgkin lymphoma in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersen, Friederike; Lewin, Philip; Gebauer, Judith; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka; Brabant, Georg; Katalinic, Alexander; Waldmann, Annika

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated sleep quality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among long-term survivors of Hodgkin (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The aim was to explore the impact of personal and health-related factors on sleep quality as well as associations between sleep quality and HRQOL. For the postal survey, participants with a minimum age of 18 years initially treated between 1998 and 2008 were recruited via the population-based cancer registry in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Questionnaires included amongst others the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36v1). Descriptive and comparative statistics were performed. Additionally, a regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of sleep quality. In total, we recruited 515 participants (398 NHL, 117 HL) with a mean age of 63.1 years. Approximately half of the survivors were classified as good sleepers. HRQOL scores differed between good and poor sleepers with lower scores in poor sleepers. In a prediction model, self-reported depression, exhaustion, higher age, inability to work, endocrinological disorders and female gender classified as predictors of sleep quality. This study highlights the impact of sleep quality on HRQOL in long-term survivors of NHL and HL. Thus, sleep quality should be routinely assessed during follow-up of cancer survivors with special attention to patients with potential risk factors.

  5. Development of a Virtual Museum Including a 4d Presentation of Building History in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, T. P.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Deggim, S.

    2017-02-01

    In the last two decades the definition of the term "virtual museum" changed due to rapid technological developments. Using today's available 3D technologies a virtual museum is no longer just a presentation of collections on the Internet or a virtual tour of an exhibition using panoramic photography. On one hand, a virtual museum should enhance a museum visitor's experience by providing access to additional materials for review and knowledge deepening either before or after the real visit. On the other hand, a virtual museum should also be used as teaching material in the context of museum education. The laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has developed a virtual museum (VM) of the museum "Alt-Segeberger Bürgerhaus", a historic town house. The VM offers two options for visitors wishing to explore the museum without travelling to the city of Bad Segeberg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Option a, an interactive computer-based, tour for visitors to explore the exhibition and to collect information of interest or option b, to immerse into virtual reality in 3D with the HTC Vive Virtual Reality System.

  6. Do pressure ulcer risk assessment scales improve clinical practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kottner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jan Kottner1, Katrin Balzer21Department of Nursing Science, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; 2Nursing Research Group, Institute for Social Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, GermanyAbstract: Standardized assessment instruments are deemed important for estimating pressure ulcer risk. Today, more than 40 so-called pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are available but still there is an ongoing debate about their usefulness. From a measurement point of view pressure ulcer (PU risk assessment scales have serious limitations. Empirical evidence supporting the validity of PU risk assessment scale scores is weak and obtained scores contain varying amounts of measurement error. The concept of pressure ulcer risk is strongly related to the general health status and severity of illness. A clinical impact due do the application of these scales could also not be demonstrated. It is questionable whether completion of standardized pressure ulcer risk scales in clinical practice is really needed.Keywords: Braden pressure ulcer, prevention, risk assessment, nursing assessment, predictive value, clinical effectiveness, review

  7. Determination of the biogas and methane yield of selected energy crops. [NAchWAchsende ROhstoffe]; Ermittlung der Biogas- und Methanausbeute ausgewaehlter Nawaro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohl, Susanne

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this paper is the characterization of substrate quality and methane yield of different energy crops, which were cultivated in Schleswig-Holstein. The specific methane production of 224 variants was determined in with Hohenheim biogas yield test (HBT), 72 variants were investigated in a common batch test. The specific methane production (HBT) is 359-371 l{sub N}/kg{sub oDM} for wheat, 358-378 l{sub N}/kg{sub oDM} for maize and 341-372 l{sub N}/kg{sub oDM} for perennial ryegrass. The results for the specific methane production are due to a systematic offset in the batch experiment always below those of the HBT. Silages achieve higher gas yields than fresh substrates. The mass losses, which occur during ensiling, were compensated due to the higher gas yields. Maize is compared with other energy crops superior in terms of the yield per hectare. The experimentally determined methane yields showed a good agreement with calculated theoretical methane yields (method of WEIssBACH 2008, 2009).

  8. Rostock bioenergy forum. Future technologies for bioenergy. Proceedings; 4. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Zukunftstechnologien fuer Bioenergie. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the 4th Rostock bioenergy forum 'future technologies for bioenergy' at 27th and 28th October, 2010, in Rostock (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Sustainable supply of biomass from the agriculture (Christian Gienapp); (2) Biogas plants in conflict of different legal regulation systems (Michael Kern); (3) Logistics of biomass - Do you know the real costs? (Nadine Doden); (4) Potentials of wooden biomass from the landscape conservation using the Lower Saale valley (Sachsen-Anhalt) as an example (Karen Runge); (5) Value creation with energy wood in rural area - Results of a potential study (Marco Hahs); (6) Soil ecological evaluation of short rotational plantations on farmland (Christel Baum); (7) Development of moulds and dry weight losses in bulk wood chips (Christine Idler); (8) Logistics of pellets during the harvest of short-term rotation areas with a field chopper (Franz Handler); (9) Concepts of combustion of biomass within the scope of the BMU funding program 'Energetic utilization of biomass' (Diana Pfeiffer); (10) Thermoelectric transformer for biogenic heat (Karl-Ernst Schnorr); (11) Emissions of benzene in the combustion f gases from wood in cogeneration plants (Christian Hirschmeier); (12) Utilization of additives in the combustion of miscanthus pellets in a small-scale furnace < 100 kW{sub N}WL (Thomas Zeng); (13) Practical experiences with dust separators for small-scale furnaces (Peter Turowski); (14) Analysis for gaining the minimum goal of 10 % renewable energy in traffic sector (Karin Naumann); (15) New diesel components from glycerine (E. Paetzold); (16) Challenges and possibilities in the utilization of biofuels in customary auxiliary heatings (Hajo Hoffmann); (17) Demands on biofuels for the use in combustion engines (Volker Wichmann); (18) Alternative fuel dimethyl ether (Martin Werner); (19) Long-term investigation of the stability of rapeseed fuel and field study of modern Common Rail

  9. Segeberg 1600 - Reconstructing a Historic Town for Virtual Reality Visualisation as AN Immersive Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deggim, S.; Kersten, T. P.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Hinrichsen, N.

    2017-11-01

    The 3D reconstruction of historic buildings and cities offers an opportunity to experience the history of relevant objects and their development over the centuries. Digital visualisations of such historic objects allow for a more natural view of history as well as showing information that is not possible in a real world setting. New presentation forms, such as the virtual reality (VR) system HTC Vive, can be used to disseminate information in another dimension and simplify the access by changing the user's viewpoint from a listener and viewer into being an integrated part of an interactive situation. In general, this approach is a combination of education and entertainment, also known as "edutainment" or "gamification", a term used in the education sector as describing where motivation to learn is encouraged through adding a competitive element. It is thus a step away from simple consumption of information towards experiencing information and a more literal interpretation of "living history". In this contribution, we present the development of a 3D reconstruction of the two towns Segeberg and Gieschenhagen (today: Bad Segeberg) in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany in the Early Modern Age around 1600. The historic landscape and its conversion from a reconstructed virtual town model into an interactive VR application is also described. The reconstruction is based on a recent digital terrain model as well as survey data of surviving buildings, historic visual information based on historic drawings and written accounts from that era. All datasets are combined to a single walkable virtual world that spans approximately 3 km2.

  10. Paradigm shift in transport legislation or rather at the 'bottleneck'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeser, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    In the year just started significant decisions with considerable consequences by the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court in the field of nuclear law are expected. Especially the decision with regards to 'nuclear phase-out' within the 13th amendment of the Atomic Energy Act is being eagerly expected, as with its far-reaching consequences also fundamental constitutional questions need to be answered. The Federal Administrative Court will need to decide on the question, whether she admits the appeal against the Brunsbuettel decision by the Higher Administrative Court Schleswig-Holstein (HAC), which from the view of claimant shifted the fundamental basis of demarcation of responsibilities between the executive and judiciary power. In comparison to these fundamental decisions the awaited decision by the HAC on nuclear transport legislation seems of subordinate importance, although she will proceed with a paradigm shift in the legal area. The decision deals with the question as to whether and when a right of action from a third party within the nuclear transport legislation can be accepted or more precisely under which preconditions a third party has clear standing against a nuclear transport authorisation. As the site selection law (issued on 23 July 2013 BGBI I p. 2552) excludes the recirculation of vitrified waste block canisters from reprocessing spent fuel elements to the transport cask storage facility Gorleben, the decision by the HAC Lueneburg for this site will only be relevant for present unpredictable transportations from the transport cask storage facility Gorleben to a final repository. If necessary interest to seek a declaratory judgment for declaratory action, in concreto danger of recurrence will be approved, is another matter.

  11. A GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage in northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, Michael; Malte, Schwanebeck; Ehsan, Biniyaz; Rainer, Duttmann

    2015-04-01

    Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany.

  12. Vulvar cancer: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkatout I

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Alkatout,1 Melanie Schubert,1 Nele Garbrecht,2 Marion Tina Weigel,1 Walter Jonat,1 Christoph Mundhenke,1 Veronika Günther1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Institute for Pathology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany Epidemiology: Vulvar cancer can be classified into two groups according to predisposing factors: the first type correlates with a HPV infection and occurs mostly in younger patients. The second group is not HPV associated and occurs often in elderly women without neoplastic epithelial disorders. Histology: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the most common malignant tumor of the vulva (95%. Clinical features: Pruritus is the most common and long-lasting reported symptom of vulvar cancer, followed by vulvar bleeding, discharge, dysuria, and pain. Therapy: The gold standard for even a small invasive carcinoma of the vulva was historically radical vulvectomy with removal of the tumor with a wide margin followed by an en bloc resection of the inguinal and often the pelvic lymph nodes. Currently, a more individualized and less radical treatment is suggested: a radical wide local excision is possible in the case of localized lesions (T1. A sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy may be performed to reduce wound complications and lymphedema. Prognosis: The survival of patients with vulvar cancer is good when convenient therapy is arranged quickly after initial diagnosis. Inguinal and/or femoral node involvement is the most significant prognostic factor for survival. Keywords: vulvar cancer, HPV infection, radical vulvectomy, groin dissection, sentinel lymph node biopsy, overall survival

  13. Semi-rigid penile prosthesis as a salvage management of idiopathic ischemic stuttering priapism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faddan AA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amr A Faddan, Alexey V Aksenov, Carsten M Naumann, Klaus P Jünemann, Daniar K Osmonov Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany Introduction: Priapism is the persistent erection resulting from dysfunction of the mechanisms that regulate penile swelling, stiffness, and sagging. It is a full or partial erection that persists for a period more than 4 hours beyond sexual stimulation and/or orgasm or is unrelated to sexual stimulation. Ischemic priapism should be managed in a step-by-step fashion. Objective: To demonstrate step-by-step management of stuttering refractory ischemic priapism. We report a case of stuttering refractory ischemic priapism. Moreover, we reviewed different approaches to priapism management in the literature. Case presentation: A 53-year-old male presented with a painful erection of 29 hours’ duration, probably caused by consumption of alcohol. The penile blood gas showed a pH of 7.08, PCO2 of 75 mmHg and PO2 of 39 mmHg. Aspiration was followed by irrigation of an α-adrenergic, Winter and T-shunt operations were preformed, and finally a semi-rigid penile prosthesis was implanted to overcome the refractory stuttering ischemic priapism. Conclusion: In case of stuttering refractory ischemic priapism, immediate implantation of a penile prosthesis is a simple and effective procedure that manages both the acute episode and the inevitable erectile dysfunction that would otherwise occur, while preserving penile length. Keywords: priapism, stuttering priapism, shunting operation, penile prosthesis 

  14. Barry shunt for treatment of a 76-hour stuttering priapism without subsequent erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmonov DK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniar Kurmanbekovich Osmonov, Aleksey Aksenov, Andrea Nathaly Guerra Sandoval, Almut Kalz, Klaus Peter Juenemann Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany Introduction: This paper reports treatment of a 76-hour low-flow priapism with a shunting procedure that was first described by Barry in 1976. We were able to observe the preservation of erectile function despite the long period of ischemia. A review of the literature shows that there are few reports of erectile function recovery after a priapism of similar duration. Materials and methods: A 42-year-old patient presented with a 76-hour priapism, probably caused by consumption of alcohol and illegal drugs. A Barry Shunt procedure was performed. The erectile function of the patient was assessed by means of International Index of Erectile Function score over a follow-up period of 30 months. Moreover, we reviewed different surgical options for treatment of priapism in the literature. Results: Partial return of erection without sexual arousal occurred on two occasions during the 10-day hospitalization, but was treated by manipulation of the penis, ie, by milking the tumescence into the shunt. After 3 months, the shunt was still palpable as a subcutaneous swelling. Six months postoperatively, the residual swelling had disappeared. The International Index of Erectile Function score was of 21 without phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors after a follow-up of 2.5 years. Conclusion: Barry shunt is an effective alternative surgical option for the treatment of low-flow priapism. In the case of our patient, it was also effective after a 76-hour-lasting priapism. Keywords: low flow priapism, erectile function, cavernovenous shunt, surgical treatment of stuttering priapism

  15. Paradigm shift in transport legislation or rather at the 'bottleneck'; Paradigmenwechsel im Befoerderungsrecht oder am 'Flaschenhals'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeser, Hanns [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    In the year just started significant decisions with considerable consequences by the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court in the field of nuclear law are expected. Especially the decision with regards to 'nuclear phase-out' within the 13th amendment of the Atomic Energy Act is being eagerly expected, as with its far-reaching consequences also fundamental constitutional questions need to be answered. The Federal Administrative Court will need to decide on the question, whether she admits the appeal against the Brunsbuettel decision by the Higher Administrative Court Schleswig-Holstein (HAC), which from the view of claimant shifted the fundamental basis of demarcation of responsibilities between the executive and judiciary power. In comparison to these fundamental decisions the awaited decision by the HAC on nuclear transport legislation seems of subordinate importance, although she will proceed with a paradigm shift in the legal area. The decision deals with the question as to whether and when a right of action from a third party within the nuclear transport legislation can be accepted or more precisely under which preconditions a third party has clear standing against a nuclear transport authorisation. As the site selection law (issued on 23 July 2013 BGBI I p. 2552) excludes the recirculation of vitrified waste block canisters from reprocessing spent fuel elements to the transport cask storage facility Gorleben, the decision by the HAC Lueneburg for this site will only be relevant for present unpredictable transportations from the transport cask storage facility Gorleben to a final repository. If necessary interest to seek a declaratory judgment for declaratory action, in concreto danger of recurrence will be approved, is another matter.

  16. A Coastal Citizen Science Project - How to run an international Citizen Science Project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, K.; Knickmeier, K.; Thiel, M.; Gatta, M.

    2016-02-01

    "Searching for plastic garbage" is an international Citizen Science project that aims to participate school students in the public discussion on the topic "plastic pollution in the ocean". For this, young people apply various research methods, evaluate their data, communicate and publish their results and investigate solutions solving this problem. The project will be carried out in Chile and Germany at the same time, which allows the participating students to share and compare their results and discuss their ideas with an international partner. This takes place on the website www.save-ocean.org. The project promotes intercultural and scientific skills of the students. They get insights into scientific research, get into another culture and experiences plastic pollution as an important global problem. Since May 2015, 450 pupils aged 10 to 15 years and 20 teachers in Germany and Chile have explored the plastic garbage on beaches. Where are the largest plastic garbage deposits? Which items of plastic are mostly found in Germany and Chile? Or where does this garbage comes from? These and other research questions are being answered by an international network between students, teachers and scientists. After completing the first Citizen Science pilot study successfully in summer 2015, the entire German and Chilean coast will be explored in spring 2016 by around 2500 participating school students. The project "Searching for plastic garbage" is the first international Citizen Science project that is a cooperation between the ocean:lab of Kiel Science Factory and the "Cientificos de la Basura", a project of the department of marine biology at University Catolica del Norte in Coquimbo, Chile. The project is supported by the Cluster of Excellence "The Future Ocean", the Leibniz Institute for Science Education and Mathematics (IPN), the Ministry of School and Professional Education of Land Schleswig-Holstein and the University Catolica del Norte in Coquimbo, Chile

  17. At the dawn of delegation? Experiences and attitudes of general practitioners in Germany - a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Katja; Kornitzky, Anna; Mahnkopf, Janis; Steinhäuser, Jost

    2017-12-19

    In the future, 'delegation' as task shifting from general practitioners (GPs) to non-physicians will be important in primary care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes towards the concept of task shifting and to identify predictors of a positive attitude towards task shifting from the perspective of GPs. This cross-sectional questionnaire study analysed attitudes towards the concept of task shifting and delegated tasks from the perspective of GPs who were recruited in the German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein. Descriptive statistics and binary regression analyses were computed to identify potential predictors of a positive attitude towards task shifting. Out of 1538 questionnaires distributed, 577 GP questionnaires were returned (response rate: 37.5%). A total of 53.2% of the respondents were male, and 37.3% were female. A positive attitude regarding task shifting was shown by 49% of the participating GPs. The highest level of agreement (95.2%) was found for time savings with task shifting, and a lower agreement (39%) was found regarding the lack of clarity concerning the responsibilities and legal aspects with regards to task shifting. The most frequently delegated tasks were recording electrocardiograms and measuring blood glucose levels. A positive attitude towards task shifting was positively associated with higher job satisfaction and a need for qualified staff. Our sample of GPs for this study was very open-minded towards the concept of task shifting. Germany is just beginning this delegation, but the implementation of task shifting depends on different aspects, such as legal requirements, adequate payment and qualified staff. Finally, there is a need for continuing professional development in primary care teams, especially for non-clinical practice staff.

  18. E-Government Goes Semantic Web: How Administrations Can Transform Their Information Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klischewski, Ralf; Ukena, Stefan

    E-government applications and services are built mainly on access to, retrieval of, integration of, and delivery of relevant information to citizens, businesses, and administrative users. In order to perform such information processing automatically through the Semantic Web,1 machine-readable2 enhancements of web resources are needed, based on the understanding of the content and context of the information in focus. While these enhancements are far from trivial to produce, administrations in their role of information and service providers so far find little guidance on how to migrate their web resources and enable a new quality of information processing; even research is still seeking best practices. Therefore, the underlying research question of this chapter is: what are the appropriate approaches which guide administrations in transforming their information processes toward the Semantic Web? In search for answers, this chapter analyzes the challenges and possible solutions from the perspective of administrations: (a) the reconstruction of the information processing in the e-government in terms of how semantic technologies must be employed to support information provision and consumption through the Semantic Web; (b) the required contribution to the transformation is compared to the capabilities and expectations of administrations; and (c) available experience with the steps of transformation are reviewed and discussed as to what extent they can be expected to successfully drive the e-government to the Semantic Web. This research builds on studying the case of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, where semantic technologies have been used within the frame of the Access-eGov3 project in order to semantically enhance electronic service interfaces with the aim of providing a new way of accessing and combining e-government services.

  19. How do patients with a Turkish background evaluate their medical care in Germany? An observational study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz K

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Katja Goetz,1 Jessica Bungartz,2 Joachim Szecsenyi,1 Jost Steinhaeuser3 1Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 2Praxis Medizin im Zentrum, München, Germany; 3Institute of Family Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany Background: Patients’ evaluation of medical care is an essential dimension of quality of care and an important aspect of the feedback cycle for health care providers. The aim of this study was to document how patients with a Turkish background evaluate primary care in Germany and determine which aspects of care are associated with language abilities.Methods: The study was based on an observational design. Patients with a Turkish background from German primary care practices completed the EUROPEP (European Project on Patient Evaluation of General Practice Care questionnaire consisting of 23 items. Seventeen primary care practices were involved with either German (n=8 or Turkish (n=9 general practitioners (GPs.Results: A convenience sample of 472 patients with a Turkish background from 17 practices participated in the study (response rate 39.9%. Practices with a German GP had a lower response rate (19.6% than those with a Turkish GP (57.5%. Items evaluated the highest were “keeping data confidential” (73.4% and “quick services for urgent health problems” (69.9%. Subgroup analysis showed lower evaluation scores from patients with good or excellent German language abilities. Patients who consulted a Turkish GP had higher evaluation scores.Conclusion: The evaluation from patients with a Turkish background living in Germany with either Turkish or German GPs showed lower scores than patients in other studies in Europe using EUROPEP. However, our results had higher evaluation scores than those of Turkish patients evaluating GPs in Turkey. Therefore, different explanation models for these findings should be explored in future studies

  20. Different surgical strategies for chronic pancreatitis significantly improve long-term outcome: a comparative single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrand P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In general, chronic pancreatitis (CP primarily requires conservative treatment. The chronic pain syndrome and complications make patients seek surgical advice, frequently after years of progression. In the past, surgical procedures involving drainage as well as resection have been employed successfully. The present study compared the different surgical strategies. Patients and Methods From March 2000 until April 2005, a total of 51 patients underwent surgical treatment for CP at the Department of surgery, University of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck. Out of those 51 patients, 39 (76.5% were operated according to the Frey procedure, and in 12 cases (23.5% the Whipple procedure was performed. Patient data were documented prospectively throughout the duration of the hospital stay. The evaluation of the postoperative pain score was carried out retrospectively with a validated questionnaire. Results Average operating time was 240 minutes for the Frey group and 411 minutes for the Whipple group. The medium number of blood transfusions was 1 in the Frey group and 4.5 in the Whipple group. Overall morbidity was 21% in the Frey group and 42% in the Whipple group. 30-day mortality was zero for all patients. During the median follow-up period of 50 months, an improvement in pain score was observed in 93% of the patients of the Frey group and 67% of the patients treated according to the Whipple procedure. Conclusion The results show that both the Frey procedure as well as partial pancreaticoduodenectomy are capable of improving chronic pain symptoms in CP. As far as later endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is concerned, however, the extended drainage operation according to Frey proves to be advantageous compared to the traditional resection procedure by Whipple. Accordingly, the Frey procedure provides us with an organ-preserving surgical procedure which treats the complications of CP sufficiently, thus being an

  1. Second-line treatment of recurrent HNSCC: tumor debulking in combination with high-dose-rate brachytherapy and a simultaneous cetuximab-paclitaxel protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, M.; Teudt, I. U.; Meyer, J. E.; Schröder, U.; Kovács, G.; Wollenberg, B.

    2016-01-01

    After the failure of first-line treatment, the clinical prognosis in head and neck cancer (HNSCC) deteriorates. Effective therapeutic strategies are limited due to the toxicity of previous treatments and the diminished tolerance of surrounding normal tissue. This study demonstrates a promising second-line regimen, with function preserving surgical tumor debulking, followed by a combination of postoperative interstitial brachytherapy and a simultaneous protocol of cetuximab and taxol. From January 2006 to May 2013, 197 patients with HNSCC were treated with brachytherapy at the University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein Campus Lübeck, including 94 patients due to recurrent cancer. Within these, 18 patients were referred to our clinic because of early progressive disease following first- or second-line treatment failure. They received the new palliative regimen. A matched-pair analysis including recurrent tumor stage, status of resection margins, tissue invasion and previous therapy was performed to evaluate this treatment retrospectively. Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), functional outcome and treatment toxicity was analyzed on the basis of medical records and follow-up data. DFS and OS of the study group were 8.7 and 14.8 months. Whereas, DFS and OS of the control group, treated only by function preserving tumor debulking and brachytherapy, was 3.9 and 6.1 months respectively. This demonstrates a positive trend through the additional use of the cetuximab-taxane protocol. Furthermore, no increase of therapy induced toxicities was displayed. Pre-treated patients with a further relapse benefit from the ‘cetuximab-taxane recurrency scheme’. It seems to be a valuable complement to interdisciplinary and multimodal tumor therapy, which improves OS and results in acceptable toxicity. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-016-0583-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  2. Systematic skin cancer screening in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  3. Long-term Survival of Straumann Dental Implants with TPS Surfaces: A Retrospective Study with a Follow-up of 12 to 23 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephan T; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta E; Rossmann, Christian M; Behrens, Eleonore; Jochens, Arne; Wiltfang, Jörg

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term dental implant survival rates of Straumann dental implants in a university hospital environment over 12 to 23 years. A total of 388 Straumann dental implants with titanium-sprayed surfaces (TPS) were inserted in 92 patients between 1988 and 1999 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein in Kiel, and they were reevaluated with standardized clinical and radiological exams. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed for individual factors. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to detect the factors influencing long-term implant failure. The long-term implant survival rate was 88.03% after an observation time of 12.2 to 23.5 years. Cox regression revealed statistically significant influences of the International Team for Implantology (ITI) implantation type (p = .00354) and tobacco smoking (p = .01264) on implant failure. A proportion 82.8% of the patients with implant losses had a medical history of periodontitis. Peri-implantitis was diagnosed in 9.7% of the remaining implants in the long-term survey. This study emphasized the long-term rehabilitation capabilities of Straumann dental implants in complex cases. The survival rates after several years constitute important information for patients, as well as for clinicians, in deciding about different concepts of tooth replacement. Patient-related and technical factors - determined before implant placement - could help to predict the risk of implant loss. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Conditioning ad energetic utilization of wooden materials for landscape conservation; Aufbereitung und Energetische Nutzung von holzigem Landschaftspflegematerial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letalik, Christian [C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V., Straubing (Germany). Abt. Festbrennstoffe

    2013-10-01

    It has become common practice to energetically recover ligneous materials from landscape conservation activities in heat (and power) generation plants. The treatment of green cuttings along roads, railways or power supply lines is state of the art. Such landscaping materials are ligneous green residues e.g. from tree lopping in orchard meadows or shrub hedges - there are about 45,000 kilometers of hedgerows in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, alone. Shredder machines disintegrate the materials into any required size. By means of adjustable perforated baskets on the disintegrating engine and subsequent sieving steps, homogenous fuels of defined dimensions and low shares of fines can be provided, whichever required. Depending on the water content, such wood chips contain about 20% less energy (calorific value) than comparable forest wood chips. It is important, however, that mineral fine particles like sand, soil or small stones are being sieved out before the combustion because they do not only decrease the calorific value and hence the boiler performance but also cause problems in the combustion areas resulting in higher costs for maintenance, cleaning and ash utilization. Composting plants are regularly well-equipped. They use well-proven management concepts for the material flow to merely condition as much landscape cuttings into fuels, enable the aerobe composting process with less ligneous and more humid materials to continue. For both compost and wood fuels there is sufficient demand resulting in increasing revenues. The EEG amendment 2012 classifies landscape conservation materials as raw materials of remuneration class II (= 8 ct/kWhel on top of the basic remuneration). This is likely to further increment the demand for ligneous fuel from landscape conservation. According to the EEG 2012 there will no longer be power plants without reasonable heat concepts. (orig.)

  5. Review process of PSA level 2 of KBR - Concept and Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andernacht, M.; Glaser, H.; Sonnenkalb, M.

    2013-01-01

    In Germany, a periodic safety review (PSR) has to be performed every ten years by the utility. In the past, a PSR only included a plant-specific probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) Level 1 study. Since a revised version of the German PSA guideline has been released in 2005, these plant-specific PSAs have to include a PSA Level 2, too. For the NPP Brokdorf (KBR) PSA Level 2 project, an agreement was reached between all parties involved that the study will be performed not as a part of the PSR process, but supplementary to it. This paper will focus on conclusions and findings from an ongoing parallel review process of the first full scope PSA Level 2 performed by the utility for KBR, a typical German PWR-1300. The responsible authority 'Ministerium fuer Soziales, Gesundheit, Familie, Jugend und Senioren des Landes Schleswig- Holstein' (MSGF) initiated this parallel review process in agreement with the utility KBR and the E.ON Kernkraft in 2006. The project will be completed soon. Such a review process allows that essential steps of the PSA will be reviewed and commented before the PSA Level 2 will be finished. So the benefit from this parallel review process is a significant enhancement of the quality and completeness of the PSA Level 2 study as the majority of the recommendations given by the review team has been taken over by the utility and the developer of the PSA, the AREVA NP company. Further, a common understanding and agreement will be reached at the end between all parties involved on the major topics of the PSA Level 2 study. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  6. SEGEBERG 1600 – RECONSTRUCTING A HISTORIC TOWN FOR VIRTUAL REALITY VISUALISATION AS AN IMMERSIVE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deggim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The 3D reconstruction of historic buildings and cities offers an opportunity to experience the history of relevant objects and their development over the centuries. Digital visualisations of such historic objects allow for a more natural view of history as well as showing information that is not possible in a real world setting. New presentation forms, such as the virtual reality (VR system HTC Vive, can be used to disseminate information in another dimension and simplify the access by changing the user’s viewpoint from a listener and viewer into being an integrated part of an interactive situation. In general, this approach is a combination of education and entertainment, also known as “edutainment” or “gamification”, a term used in the education sector as describing where motivation to learn is encouraged through adding a competitive element. It is thus a step away from simple consumption of information towards experiencing information and a more literal interpretation of “living history”. In this contribution, we present the development of a 3D reconstruction of the two towns Segeberg and Gieschenhagen (today: Bad Segeberg in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany in the Early Modern Age around 1600. The historic landscape and its conversion from a reconstructed virtual town model into an interactive VR application is also described. The reconstruction is based on a recent digital terrain model as well as survey data of surviving buildings, historic visual information based on historic drawings and written accounts from that era. All datasets are combined to a single walkable virtual world that spans approximately 3 km².

  7. The central tower of the cathedral of Schleswig - New investigations to understand the alcali-silica reaction of historical mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Wanja; Protz, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The damaging alcali-silica reaction leads to crack-formation and structural destruction at noumerous, constructed with cement mortar, buildings worldwide. The ASR-reaction causes the expansion of altered aggregates by the formation of a swelling gel. This gel consists of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) that increases in volume with water, which exerts an expansive pressure inside the material. The cathedral of Schleswig is one of the oldest in northern Germany. The first church was built in 985-965. The Romanesque building part was erected around 1180 and the Gothic nave at the end of the 13th century. The central tower was constructed between 1888 and 1894 with brick and cement mortar. With 112 meters, the tower is the second-largest church spire of the country of Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany. Due to the formation of cracks and damages from 1953 to 1956 first restoration works took place. Further developments of cracks are making restoration necessary again today. For developing a suitable conservation strategy, different investigations were done. The investigation included the determination of the pore space properties, the hygric and thermal dilatation and mercury porosimetry measurements. Furthermore, the application of cathodoluminescence microscopy may give information about the alteration process and microstructures present and reveal the differences between unaltered and altered mortars. An obvious relation between the porosity and the swelling intensity could be detected. Furthermore it becomes apparent, that a clear zonation of the mortar took place. The mortar near the surface is denser with a lower porosity and has a significantly lower swelling or dilatation.

  8. Wind energy - The facts. An analysis of wind energy in the EU-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    Since the previous edition of Wind Enera - The Facts was published five years ago, the wind energy sector has undergone rapid change and transformation. There has been an explosion in demand for and Interest in a cleaner energy world from politicians, institutions, policy makers and regulators, the media, commentators and the general public. Such interest necessitates a greater depth of understanding of the wind power sector if informed choices and policy decisions are to be made. The European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), and the European Commission's Directorate General for Transport' and Energy have collaborated on this report to provide a detailed overview of the wind power sector. Wind Enera - The Facts provides a comprehenslve overview of the essential issues concerning wind power today: technology, cost, prices, environment, industry and employment, market, and research and development. Wind energy is a relatively young but rapidly expanding industry. Over the past decade, global installed capacity has increased from 2,500 megawatts (MW) in 1992 to just over 40,000 MW at the end of 2003, at an annual growth rate of near 30%. Almost three quarters of this capacity has been installed in Europe. Penetration levels in the electricity sector have reached 20% in Denmark and about 5% in both Germany and Spain. The north German state of Schleswig-Holstein has 1,800 MW of installed wind capacity, enough to meet 30% of the region's total electricity demand, while in Navarra, in Spain, 50% of consumption is met by wind power. If positive policy support continues to develop, EWEA has projected that wind power will achieve an installed capacity of 75,000 MW in the EU-15 by 2010. This would represent an overall contribution to electricity supply of 5.5%. By 2020, this figure is expected to increase to more than 12%, with wind power providing energy equal to the demand of 195 million European household consumers. (au)

  9. Association between risk factors and detection of cutaneous melanoma in the setting of a population-based skin cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Joachim; Waldmann, Annika; Eisemann, Nora; Noftz, Maria; Geller, Alan C; Weinstock, Martin A; Volkmer, Beate; Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Katalinic, Alexander

    2017-07-07

    Early detection is considered to improve the prognosis of cutaneous melanoma. The value of population-based screening for melanoma, however, is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive power of established risk factors in the setting of a population-based screening and to provide empirical evidence for potential risk stratifications. We reanalyzed data (including age, sex, risk factors, and screening results) of 354 635 participants in the Skin Cancer Research to provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany project conducted in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein (2003-2004). In multivariable analysis, atypical nevi [odds ratio (OR): 17.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 14.4-20.1], personal history of melanoma (OR: 5.3; 95% CI: 3.6-7.6), and multiple (≥40) common nevi (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) were associated with an increased risk of melanoma detection. Family history and congenital nevi were not significantly associated with melanoma detection in the Skin Cancer Research to provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany population. The effects of several risk-adapted screening strategies were evaluated. Hypothesizing a screening of individuals aged more than or equal to 35 years, irrespective of risk factors (age approach), the number needed to screen is 559 (95% CI: 514-612), whereas a screening of adults (aged ≥20) with at least one risk factor (risk approach) leads to an number needed to screen of 178 (95% CI: 163-196). Converted into one screen-detected melanoma, the number of missed melanomas is 0.15 (95% CI: 0.12-0.18) with the age approach and 0.22 (95% CI: 0.19-0.26) with the risk approach. The results indicate that focusing on individuals at high risk for melanoma may improve the cost-effectiveness and the benefit-to-harm balance of melanoma screening programs.

  10. [Need for information concerning medical rehabilitation of the federal german pension fund--findings of an online survey of general practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, A L; Pohontsch, N J; Deck, R

    2015-05-01

    General practitioners complain about information deficits, uncertainties and unclear requirements associated with medical rehabilitation. In this study General practitioners' specific information needs are identified and the preferred form for the presentation of information is determined. In a secondary analysis of several focus groups with different stakeholders, rehabilitation specific aspects were identified for which General practitioners could have further information needs. Those were transferred into an online-questionnaire. GPs in Schleswig-Holstein were invited to the online-survey via E-Mail by different medical associations. A total of 194 questionnaires were available for analysis. In general, high information needs covering all rehabilitation topics in the questionnaire are evident. The highest information need is recognised for the following aspects: in which cases it makes sense to file an objection, which measures have to take place before it makes sense to file an objection and what the term "ambulant measures have been exhausted" exactly means. GPs clearly prefer a website as a means of informational source. Under the option of multiple replies 74.2% prefer a website, followed by the option of a brochure (44.8%) and further education (22.2%). General practitioners have high information needs regarding different aspects of rehabilitation which are not satisfied with existing sources of information. The development of a user-friendly website with comprehensible information on the required aspects seems necessary to increase the acceptance and understanding of medical rehabilitation among practitioners and therefore to optimise rehabilitation processes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Tropomyosin Receptor Kinase A Expression on Merkel Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehkamp, Ulrike; Stern, Sophie; Krüger, Sandra; Hauschild, Axel; Röcken, Christoph; Egberts, Friederike

    2017-11-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a malignant neuroendocrine skin tumor frequently associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus. Immune checkpoint therapy showed remarkable results, although not all patients are responsive to this therapy. Anti-tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA)-targeted treatment has shown promising results in several tumor entities. To determine TrkA expression in MCC as a rationale for potential targeted therapy. This case series study investigated the MCC specimens of 55 patients treated at the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany, from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2015. Thirty-nine of the 55 samples were suitable for further histopathologic examination. Expression of TrkA was explored by immunohistochemical analysis. Diagnosis of MCC was confirmed by staining positive for cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and synaptophysin. Expression of TrkA on the tumor cells. Specimens of 39 patients (21 women and 18 men; mean [SD] age, 75.0 [7.8] years) underwent immunohistochemical investigation. Thirty-eight of 38 specimens expressed CK20 and synaptophysin on the MCC tumor cells (100% expression). Merkel cell polyomavirus was detected in 32 of 38 specimens (84%). Tropomyosin receptor kinase A was found in all 36 evaluable specimens on the tumor cells; 34 (94%) showed a weak and 2 (6%) showed a strong cytoplasmic expression. In addition, strongly positive perinuclear dots were observed in 30 of 36 specimens (83%). Tropomyosin receptor kinase A was expressed on MCC tumor cells in 100% of evaluable specimens. This result may lead to the exploration of new targeted treatment options in MCC, especially for patients who do not respond to anti-programmed cell death protein 1 treatment.

  12. E-Cigarettes and the Use of Conventional Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Nies, Alina; Goecke, Michaela; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2018-04-06

    In 2015, 12.1% of 12- to 17-year-olds in Germany had reportedly already tried e-cigarette smoking at least once. We carried out a study of the "gateway" hypothesis, according to which the use of e-cigarettes can motivate adolescents to start smoking conventional cigarettes. During the 2015/2016 school year, 2186 tenth-graders in the German states of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein who had never smoked conventional cigarettes before took part in a survey over a 6-month period (mean age 15.5 years, standard deviation 0.65; 53.6% female). 14.3% of the survey population (313 adolescents) said at the start of the survey period that they had already tried e-cigarettes at least once. By the end of the survey period, 12.3% (268) of those who had never smoked before had begun to experiment with conventional cigarettes. The risk of beginning such experimentation was 2.2 times higher among e-cigarette users. This association remained (relative risk = 2.18 [1.65; 2.83]) after statistical control for age, sex, state, immigrant background, type of school, socioeconomic status, various personality traits (sensation-seeking, impulsivity, anxiety, hopelessness, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness), and the use of alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit drugs. Further analysis revealed that the association between the use of e-cigarettes and the onset of conventional cigarette smoking was stronger among adolescents with low sensation-seeking scores and without any experience of alcohol intoxication. Among adolescents who have never smoked, experimentation with conventional cigarettes is more common in those who have used e-cigarettes. This effect seems to be stronger among adolescents who, in general, have a lower risk of starting to smoke. The 6-month observation period of this study is too short to allow any inference regarding a connection between e-cigarette use and the development of tobacco dependence.

  13. Difficult medical encounters and job satisfaction - results of a cross sectional study with general practitioners in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Katja; Mahnkopf, Janis; Kornitzky, Anna; Steinhäuser, Jost

    2018-05-09

    In primary care 15% of patient encounters are perceived as challenging by general practitioners (GP). However it is unknown what impact these encounters have regarding job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate which encounters are perceived as challenging by German GPs and whether they were associated with job satisfaction. A total of 1538 questionnaires were sent to GPs in the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. GPs should rate 14 medical conditions and 8 traits of patients on the perceived challenge using a Likert scale (1: 'not challenging at all' to 10: 'extremely challenging'). Job satisfaction was measured with the Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale. A linear regression analyses were used to explore potential associations between for the primary outcome variable 'overall job satisfaction'. Total response was 578 (38%). GPs perceived 16% of their patients as challenging. Psychiatric disorders such as somatization disorder (mean = 7.42), schizophrenia (mean = 6.83) and anxiety disorder (mean = 6.57) were ranked as high challenging while diabetes mellitus type 2 (mean = 4.87) and high blood pressure (mean = 3.22) were ranked as a rather low challenging condition. GPs were mostly satisfied with 'colleagues' (mean = 5.80) and mostly dissatisfied with their 'hours of work' (mean = 4.20). The linear regression analysis showed no association with challenging medical conditions and traits of patients but only with different aspects of job satisfaction concerning the outcome variable 'overall job satisfaction'. Especially psychiatric conditions are perceived as challenging the question arises, in what amount psychiatric competences are gained during the postgraduate specialty training in general practice and if GPs with a mandatory rotation in psychiatry perceive these conditions as less challenging. Interestingly this study indicates that challenging encounter in terms of challenging medical conditions and traits

  14. Regional flood impact assessment for Kiel and Eckernförde, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustikova, Iuliia; Viavattene, Christophe; Seiß, Guntram

    2017-04-01

    It is well-observed that extreme flood events bring considerable destruction to coastal communities. The estimates of damage increases when direct and indirect losses are both considered in the assessment. This study applied the INtegrated DisRuption Assessment (INDRA) model which is designed to estimate and compare not only tangible but also intangible losses such as risk to life, recovery mechanisms and household displacement. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) was performed in order to compare hotspots of high flood risk on the regional scale and detect which impact indicators influence results the most. INDRA allowed assessing the following impact indicators: direct damages to buildings and roads, transport disruption, risk to life and financial recovery mechanisms of private households and businesses. The focus was on two hotspots of flood risk, where direct and indirect impacts from 200 years flood were assessed and analyzed in terms of relative importance to the region. The region here was defined as municipalities located on the Baltic Sea coast within the Schleswig-Holstein state, Germany. The hotspots are the towns of Kiel and Eckernförde. They are urban areas with a high concentration of people and assets, which previously experienced extreme flood events. From the performed investigation it was found out that modeled flood differently impacts Kiel and Eckernförde. The results produced by MCA show that the scores of direct and indirect damage are slightly higher in Eckernförde than in Kiel. Transport disruption is a compelling element in the performed regional impact assessment and demonstrated immense weight. Extreme events may pose significant direct and indirect impacts on the coastal roads, obstructing not only the access to important landmarks such as hospitals, train stations, harbors, etc. but also to contiguous municipalities. Yet, the analysis showed that other impact indicators are rather of local importance and would not cause vast damage on a

  15. Disappearance of the last lions and hyenas of Europe in the Late Quaternary - a chain reaction of large mammal prey migration, extinction and human antagonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    , Germany) - a porcupine and hyena den and contribution to their palaeobiogeography. - The Open Palaeontological Journal, 2008 (1): 33-41. Diedrich, C. 2008b. The rediscovered holotypes of the Upper Pleistocene spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) and the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) and taphonomic discussion to the Zoolithen Cave hyena den at Geilenreuth (Bavaria, South-Germany). Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society London, 154, 822-831. Diedrich, C. 2008c. Late Pleistocene hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) from Upper Rhine valley open air sites and the contribution to skull shape variability. Cranium, 25-2: (in press), Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2009a. Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1810) remains from the Bilstein Caves (Sauerland Karst) and contribution to the steppe lion taphonomy, palaeobiology and sexual dimorphism. Annales de Paléontologie, 95 (2009) 117-138, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2009b. Steppe lion remains imported by Ice Age spotted hyenas into the Late Pleistocene Perick Caves hyena den in Northern Germany. Quaternary Research 71 (3): 361-374, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2010a. Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) remains from the Balve Cave (NW Germany) - a hyena den and Middle Palaeolithic human site. - International Journal of Osteoarchaeology (acepted). Diedrich, C. 2010b. Ein Skelett einer kranken Löwin Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss 1810) und andere männliche Löwenreste aus Neumark-Nord. - Archäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt, Sonderbad (accepted). Diedrich, C. 2010c. Late Pleistocene lion Panthera leo spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1810) remains from the Keppler Cave (Sauerland Karst, NW Germany). Cranium 26, Amsterdam (in press). Diedrich, C. 2010c. Specialized horse killers in Europe - foetal horse remains in the Late Pleistocene Srbsko Chlum-Komín Cave hyena den in the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic) and actualistic comparisons to modern African spotted hyenas as zebra hunters

  16. TENLAW: Tenancy Law and Housing Policy in Multi-level Europe - National Report for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Sandberg, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law in a general housing law context. Based on a quiestionaire from Universität Bremen. The project is financed by EU Seventh Framework Programme.......Report on Danish Tenancy Law in a general housing law context. Based on a quiestionaire from Universität Bremen. The project is financed by EU Seventh Framework Programme....

  17. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, 28725 Bremen, Germany. ∗ .... fields of the order of 1 μG, the shock fronts are collisionless, i.e. the energy dis- ... shock area, compared to the characteristic shock transition scale, namely the proton.

  18. Echoes from the past: Regional variations in recovery within a harbour seal population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie M J M Brasseur

    Full Text Available Terrestrial and marine wildlife populations have been severely reduced by hunting, fishing and habitat destruction, especially in the last centuries. Although management regulations have led to the recovery of some populations, the underlying processes are not always well understood. This study uses a 40-year time series of counts of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in the Wadden Sea to study these processes, and demonstrates the influence of historical regional differences in management regimes on the recovery of this population. While the Wadden Sea is considered one ecologically coupled zone, with a distinct harbour seal population, the area is divided into four geo-political regions i.e. the Netherlands, Lower Saxony including Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Denmark. Gradually, seal hunting was banned between 1962 and 1977 in the different regions. Counts of moulting harbour seals and pup counts, obtained during aerial surveys between 1974 and 2014, show a population growth from approximately 4500 to 39,000 individuals. Population growth models were developed to assess if population growth differed between regions, taking into account two Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV epizootics, in 1988 and 2002 which seriously affected the population. After a slow start prior to the first epizootic, the overall population grew exponentially at rates close to assumed maximum rates of increase in a harbour seal population. Recently, growth slowed down, potentially indicative of approaching carrying capacity. Regional differences in growth rates were demonstrated, with the highest recovery in Netherlands after the first PDV epizootic (i.e. 17.9%, suggesting that growth was fuelled by migration from the other regions, where growth remained at or below the intrinsic growth rate (13%. The seals' distribution changed, and although the proportion of seals counted in the German regions declined, they remained by far the most important pupping region, with approximately

  19. Echoes from the past: Regional variations in recovery within a harbour seal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, Sophie M J M; Reijnders, Peter J H; Cremer, Jenny; Meesters, Erik; Kirkwood, Roger; Jensen, Lasse Fast; Jeβ, Armin; Galatius, Anders; Teilmann, Jonas; Aarts, Geert

    2018-01-01

    Terrestrial and marine wildlife populations have been severely reduced by hunting, fishing and habitat destruction, especially in the last centuries. Although management regulations have led to the recovery of some populations, the underlying processes are not always well understood. This study uses a 40-year time series of counts of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Wadden Sea to study these processes, and demonstrates the influence of historical regional differences in management regimes on the recovery of this population. While the Wadden Sea is considered one ecologically coupled zone, with a distinct harbour seal population, the area is divided into four geo-political regions i.e. the Netherlands, Lower Saxony including Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Denmark. Gradually, seal hunting was banned between 1962 and 1977 in the different regions. Counts of moulting harbour seals and pup counts, obtained during aerial surveys between 1974 and 2014, show a population growth from approximately 4500 to 39,000 individuals. Population growth models were developed to assess if population growth differed between regions, taking into account two Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV) epizootics, in 1988 and 2002 which seriously affected the population. After a slow start prior to the first epizootic, the overall population grew exponentially at rates close to assumed maximum rates of increase in a harbour seal population. Recently, growth slowed down, potentially indicative of approaching carrying capacity. Regional differences in growth rates were demonstrated, with the highest recovery in Netherlands after the first PDV epizootic (i.e. 17.9%), suggesting that growth was fuelled by migration from the other regions, where growth remained at or below the intrinsic growth rate (13%). The seals' distribution changed, and although the proportion of seals counted in the German regions declined, they remained by far the most important pupping region, with approximately 70% of all pups

  20. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempp, Charlotte; Jungwirth, Nicole; Grilo, Miguel L; Reckendorf, Anja; Ulrich, Arlena; van Neer, Abbo; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Bauer, Christian; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes), next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus) and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus) were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence), canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry) and Aujeszky's disease (virus cultivation). The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16) and pneumonia (n = 20). None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry zoonotic

  1. COPD care delivery pathways in five European Union countries: mapping and health care professionals’ perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayyali R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reem Kayyali,1 Bassel Odeh,1 Inéz Frerichs,2 Nikki Davies,3 Eleni Perantoni,4 Shona D’arcy,5 Anouk W Vaes,6 John Chang,3 Martijn A Spruit,6 Brenda Deering,7 Nada Philip,1 Roshan Siva,3 Evangelos Kaimakamis,8 Ioanna Chouvarda,8 Barbara Pierscionek,1 Norbert Weiler,2 Emiel FM Wouters,6 Andreas Raptopoulos,9 Shereen Nabhani-Gebara1 1Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University, Kingston-Upon-Thames, UK; 2Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Centre Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany; 3Chest Clinic and Research and Development, Croydon University Hospital, Croydon, UK; 4Pulmonary Clinic, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 5Department of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; 6Research and Education, CIRO – Centre of Expertise for Chronic Organ Failure, Horn, the Netherlands; 7COPD Outreach, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; 8Medical School, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, 9Research and Development, Exodus Information Technology SA, Athens, Greece Background: COPD is among the leading causes of chronic morbidity and mortality in the European Union with an estimated annual economic burden of €25.1 billion. Various care pathways for COPD exist across Europe leading to different responses to similar problems. Determining these differences and the similarities may improve health and the functioning of health services.Objective: The aim of this study was to compare COPD patients’ care pathway in five European Union countries including England, Ireland, the Netherlands, Greece, and Germany and to explore health care professionals’ (HCPs perceptions about the current pathways.Methods: HCPs were interviewed in two stages using a qualitative, semistructured email interview and a face-to-face semistructured interview.Results: Lack of communication among different health care providers managing COPD and comorbidities was a common feature of the

  2. A GIS Based 3D Online Decision Assistance System for Underground Energy Storage in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, M.; Schwanebeck, M.; Biniyaz, E.; Duttmann, R.

    2014-12-01

    developed at Kiel University for the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany. This work is part of project 'ANGUS+', lead by Prof. Dr. Sebastian Bauer and funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF).

  3. The Bramsche-Massiv anomalies - again an open question?; Die Anomalien vom Bramsche - wieder eine offene Frage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, H.J. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    An unsolved problem of regional geoscientific importance for Northern Germany is the question of the existence of the so-called 'Bramsche Massiv'. The high thermal maturity in the southern area of the Lower Saxony Basin, the CO{sub 2}-risk and missing reservoir properties are being regarded as an aftermath of this massif, that is supposed to have risen in the Upper Cretaceous period as mafic pluton at depths of about 6 km. The existence of a massif of similar nature, located between Schleswig-Holstein and Brandenburg and characterised by gravimetric and magnetic anomalies, the so-called 'East-Elbian Massiv', has in the meantime been credibly challenged. The anomalies lie in the area of the eastern centre of the Southern Permian Basin and are particularly distinct due to the local maxima of Pritzwalk in Northwest Brandenburg. The causes of the observed anomalies in the Pritzwalk area are no longer assumed to arise from depths of 6-10 km, but in accordance with more recent geophysical investigations arise in all probability from the lower crust at a depth of between 15 and 30 km. Furthermore, the analysis of the thermal development of the Lower Saxony Basin close to the 'Bramsche Massiv' demonstrated that the level of maturities along well holes is more likely to be explained by an increased subsidence rate with subsequent tectonic inversion and not due to the effect of an intrusion. An alternative and comparative interpretation of other co-existent geophysical and geological anomalies also coincides with the current prevailing interpretation challenging the existence of the 'Bramsche Massiv'. If this intrusion in the suspected form never existed, the regional CO{sub 2}-risk would have to be reassessed, the structural and thermal development of the southern edge of the Lower Saxony Basin would need to be judged differently and the existence of available and possible Mesozoic and Paleozoic gas reserves in the neighbouring areas

  4. Elucidating source processes of N2O fluxes following grassland-to-field-conversion using isotopologue signatures of soil-emitted N2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, G.; Giesemann, A.; Well, R.; Flessa, H.

    2012-04-01

    Conversion of grassland to arable land often causes enhanced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to the atmosphere. This is due to the tillage of the sward and subsequent decomposition of organic matter. Prediction of such effects is uncertain so far because emissions may differ depending on site and soil conditions. The processes of N2O turnover (nitrification, production by bacterial or fungal denitrifiers, bacterial reduction to N2) are difficult to identify, however. Isotopologue signatures of N2O such as δ18O, average δ15N (δ15Nbulk) and 15N site preference (SP = difference in δ15N between the central and peripheral N positions of the asymmetric N2O molecule) can be used to characterize N2O turnover processes using the known ranges of isotope effects of the various N2O pathways. We aim to evaluate the impact of grassland-to-field-conversion on N2O fluxes and the governing processes using isotopic signatures of emitted N2O. At two sites, in Kleve (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, conventional farming) and Trenthorst (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, organic farming), a four times replicated plot experiment with (i) mechanical conversion (ploughing, maize), (ii) chemical conversion (broadband herbicide, maize per direct seed) and (iii) continuous grassland as reference was started in April 2010. In Trenthorst we additionally established a (iv) field with continuous maize cultivation as further reference. Over a period of two years, mineral nitrogen (Nmin) content was measured weekly on soil samples taken from 0-10 cm and 10-30 cm depth. Soil water content and N2O emissions were measured weekly as well. Gas samples were collected using a closed chamber system. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry was carried out on gas samples from selected high flux events to determine δ18O, δ15Nbulk and SP of N2O. δ18O and SP of N2O exhibited a relatively large range (32 to 72 ‰ and 6 to 34 ‰, respectively) indicating highly variable process dynamics. The data-set is grouped

  5. The Federal Administrative Court confirms unlawfulness of nuclear power moratorium. Political primacy is only valid in the bounds of justice; Bundesverwaltungsgericht bestaetigt Rechtswidrigkeit des Kernkraftmoratoriums. Primat der Politik gilt nur in den Schranken des Rechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidinger, Tobias [Gleiss-Lutz Rechtsanwaelte, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    With its decision on December 20{sup th}, the Federal Administrative Court (BVwerfG) came to the legally valid conclusion that after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the supervision court order related to the law on nuclear installation by the Hessian Ministry for the Environment, in order to stop operating nuclear power plants Biblis A and B for 3 months or rather not to put in operation again, was unlawful (BVwerfG 7 B 18.13 und 7 B 19.13). Beforehand, the Hessian Administrative Court (Hess. VGH) had already pronounced its judgement on February 27{sup th} 2013. The supervising orders were part of the so-called nuclear power moratorium. They were issued after the resolution of the federal government, at demand of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) towards their nearby countries, and were identically executed by the supervisory authority of the other site-countries. Besides Biblis in Hesse, nuclear power plants in Neckarwestheim I and Philippsburg 1, Baden-Wurttemberg, Isar 1 in Bavaria, Unterweser in Lower Saxony, as well as Brunsbuettel in Schleswig-Holstein, were affected. However only RWE took legal action and was now affirmed - after the Hessian VGH verdict- by the highest German administrative court: The nuclear power moratorium - the first step to withdrawal of nuclear power in Germany - was unlawful. The decision taken by the BVerwG - as well as the one by the Hessian VGH - indicates a juridical clear and precise argumentation. The partially polemic and unobjective critic, which the VHG-verdict experienced, did not disguise, just as little as the political conflict concerning the withdrawal from nuclear energy, the view of federal judges, regarding the decision-relevant questions nor did they influence their reply. The political primacy finds its limits in the bounds of justice. Existing rights do not become thus a paper waste because there is a fundamental decision. This takes effectiveness for

  6. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, stone marten (Martes foina and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Lempp

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, stone marten (Martes foina and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes, next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence, canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry and Aujeszky's disease (virus cultivation. The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16 and pneumonia (n = 20. None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry

  7. Dysphagia in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: Early Dysphagia Screening May Reduce Stroke-Related Pneumonia and Improve Stroke Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaled, Mohamed; Matthis, Christine; Binder, Andreas; Mudter, Jonas; Schattschneider, Joern; Pulkowski, Ulrich; Strohmaier, Tim; Niehoff, Torsten; Zybur, Roland; Eggers, Juergen; Valdueza, Jose M; Royl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is associated with poor outcome in stroke patients. Studies investigating the association of dysphagia and early dysphagia screening (EDS) with outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are rare. The aims of our study are to investigate the association of dysphagia and EDS within 24 h with stroke-related pneumonia and outcomes. Over a 4.5-year period (starting November 2007), all consecutive AIS patients from 15 hospitals in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, were prospectively evaluated. The primary outcomes were stroke-related pneumonia during hospitalization, mortality, and disability measured on the modified Rankin Scale ≥2-5, in which 2 indicates an independence/slight disability to 5 severe disability. Of 12,276 patients (mean age 73 ± 13; 49% women), 9,164 patients (74%) underwent dysphagia screening; of these patients, 55, 39, 4.7, and 1.5% of patients had been screened for dysphagia within 3, 3 to 72 h following admission. Patients who underwent dysphagia screening were likely to be older, more affected on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and to have higher rates of neurological symptoms and risk factors than patients who were not screened. A total of 3,083 patients (25.1%; 95% CI 24.4-25.8) had dysphagia. The frequency of dysphagia was higher in patients who had undergone dysphagia screening than in those who had not (30 vs. 11.1%; p dysphagia had a higher rate of pneumonia than those without dysphagia (29.7 vs. 3.7%; p dysphagia was associated with increased risk of stroke-related pneumonia (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.8-4.2; p dysphagia was independently correlated with an increase in mortality (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.4-4.2; p Dysphagia exposes stroke patients to a higher risk of pneumonia, disability, and death, whereas an EDS seems to be associated with reduced risk of stroke-related pneumonia and disability. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Combination of geochemical and hydrobiological tracers for the analysis of runoff generating processes in a lowland catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Claas; Wu, Naicheng; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Since lowlands are characterised by flat topography and low hydraulic gradients, groundwater inflow has a large influence to streamflow generation in such catchments. In catchments with intense agricultural land use, artificial drainages are often another major contributor to streamflow. They shorten the soil passage and thus change the matter retention potential as well as runoff dynamics of a catchment. Contribution of surface runoff to streamflow is usually less important in volume. However, due to high concentrations of agrochemicals, surface runoff can constitute an important entry pathway into water bodies, especially if strong precipitation events coincide with fertilizer or pesticide application. The DFG funded project "Separating surface runoff from tile drainage flow in agricultural lowland catchments based on diatoms to improve modelled runoff components and phosphorous transport" investigates prevalent processes in this context in a 50 km² lowland catchment (Kielstau, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany) with the goal of improving existing models. End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA) is used in the project to determine the relative importance of groundwater, tile drainage and surface runoff to streamflow at daily time steps. It became apparent that geochemical tracers are suitable for distinguishing surface runoff, but are weak for the separation of tile drainage and groundwater influence. We attribute this to the strong and complex interaction between soil water and shallow groundwater tables in the catchment. Recent studies (e.g. Pfister et al. 2011, Tauro et al. 2013) show the potential of diatoms as indicators for hydrological processes. Since we found diatoms to be suitable for the separation of tile drainage and stream samples (Wu et al., unpublished data) in our catchment, we are able to include diatom derived indices (e.g. density, species moisture indices, diversity indices) as traces in EMMA. Our results show that the inclusion of diatom data in the

  9. Integration and Validation of Hysteroscopy Simulation in the Surgical Training Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elessawy, Mohamed; Skrzipczyk, Moritz; Eckmann-Scholz, Christel; Maass, Nicolai; Mettler, Liselotte; Guenther, Veronika; van Mackelenbergh, Marion; Bauerschlag, Dirk O; Alkatout, Ibrahim

    The primary objective of our study was to test the construct validity of the HystSim hysteroscopic simulator to determine whether simulation training can improve the acquisition of hysteroscopic skills regardless of the previous levels of experience of the participants. The secondary objective was to analyze the performance of a selected task, using specially designed scoring charts to help reduce the learning curve for both novices and experienced surgeons. The teaching of hysteroscopic intervention has received only scant attention, focusing mainly on the development of physical models and box simulators. This encouraged our working group to search for a suitable hysteroscopic simulator module and to test its validation. We decided to use the HystSim hysteroscopic simulator, which is one of the few such simulators that has already completed a validation process, with high ratings for both realism and training capacity. As a testing tool for our study, we selected the myoma resection task. We analyzed the results using the multimetric score system suggested by HystSim, allowing a more precise interpretation of the results. Between June 2014 and May 2015, our group collected data on 57 participants of minimally invasive surgical training courses at the Kiel School of Gynecological Endoscopy, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel. The novice group consisted of 42 medical students and residents with no prior experience in hysteroscopy, whereas the expert group consisted of 15 participants with more than 2 years of experience of advanced hysteroscopy operations. The overall results demonstrated that all participants attained significant improvements between their pretest and posttests, independent of their previous levels of experience (p hysteroscopic skills, proving an adequate construct validation of the HystSim. Using the multimetric scoring system enabled a more accurate analysis of the performance of the

  10. The Federal Administrative Court confirms unlawfulness of nuclear power moratorium. Political primacy is only valid in the bounds of justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidinger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    With its decision on December 20 th , the Federal Administrative Court (BVwerfG) came to the legally valid conclusion that after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the supervision court order related to the law on nuclear installation by the Hessian Ministry for the Environment, in order to stop operating nuclear power plants Biblis A and B for 3 months or rather not to put in operation again, was unlawful (BVwerfG 7 B 18.13 und 7 B 19.13). Beforehand, the Hessian Administrative Court (Hess. VGH) had already pronounced its judgement on February 27 th 2013. The supervising orders were part of the so-called nuclear power moratorium. They were issued after the resolution of the federal government, at demand of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) towards their nearby countries, and were identically executed by the supervisory authority of the other site-countries. Besides Biblis in Hesse, nuclear power plants in Neckarwestheim I and Philippsburg 1, Baden-Wurttemberg, Isar 1 in Bavaria, Unterweser in Lower Saxony, as well as Brunsbuettel in Schleswig-Holstein, were affected. However only RWE took legal action and was now affirmed - after the Hessian VGH verdict- by the highest German administrative court: The nuclear power moratorium - the first step to withdrawal of nuclear power in Germany - was unlawful. The decision taken by the BVerwG - as well as the one by the Hessian VGH - indicates a juridical clear and precise argumentation. The partially polemic and unobjective critic, which the VHG-verdict experienced, did not disguise, just as little as the political conflict concerning the withdrawal from nuclear energy, the view of federal judges, regarding the decision-relevant questions nor did they influence their reply. The political primacy finds its limits in the bounds of justice. Existing rights do not become thus a paper waste because there is a fundamental decision. This takes effectiveness for

  11. The impact of JNK inhibitor D-JNKI-1 in a murine model of chronic colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersting S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sabine Kersting,1* Volker Behrendt,1* Jonas Kersting,1 Kirstin Reinecke,3 Christoph Hilgert,1 Ingo Stricker,2 Thomas Herdegen,3 Monika S Janot,1 Waldemar Uhl,1 Ansgar M Chromik1 1Department of General and Visceral Surgery, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 2Department of Pathology, Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 3Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany *The two authors Sabine Kersting and Volker Behrendt contributed equally to this work Purpose: The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK are involved in the activation of T cells and the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Several studies have established the relevance of the JNK pathway in inflammatory bowel diseases. The present study analyzed the therapeutic effect of D-JNKI-1, a specific JNK-inhibiting peptide, in a low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS model of chronic colitis. Methods: DSS colitis was induced in female C57/BL6 mice by cyclic administration using different concentrations of DSS (1.0% and 1.5%. Mice in the intervention groups received subcutaneous administration of 1 µg/kg D-JNKI-1 on days 2, 12, and 22. They were monitored daily to assess the severity of colitis, body weight, stool consistency, and the occurrence of occult blood or gross rectal bleeding using evaluation of the disease activity index. The animals were sacrificed after 30 days, and the inflamed intestine was histologically evaluated using a crypt damage score. Immunohistochemical quantification of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was also carried out. Results: Administration of 1 µg/kg D-JNKI-1 resulted in a significant decrease in the disease activity index (P = 0.013 for 1.0% DSS; P = 0.007 for 1.5% DSS. As a mild form of colitis was induced, histological examination did not show any distinct damage to the mucosa and crypts. However, expression of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was reduced in mice treated with D-JNKI-1 (not

  12. Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2009-05-01

    To examine differential effects of smoking in films and tobacco advertising on adolescent smoking. We hypothesize that movie smoking will have greater effects on smoking initiation, whereas tobacco advertising receptivity will primarily affect experimentation. Longitudinal observational study of adolescents. School-based surveys conducted in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. A total of 4384 adolescents age 11-15 years at baseline and re-surveyed 1 year later; ever smoking prevalence was 38% at time 1. The main outcome variable combined two items assessing life-time and current smoking (alpha = 0.87). Baseline never smokers were analyzed separately from those who had tried smoking (ever smokers). Exposure to smoking in 398 internationally distributed US movies was modeled as a continuous variable, with 0 corresponding to the 5th percentile and 1 to the 95th percentile of exposure. Tobacco marketing receptivity consisted of naming a brand for a favorite tobacco advertisement. Ordinal logistic regressions controlled for socio-demographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. Whereas 34% of ever smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing at time 1, only 6% of never smokers were. Among time 1 never smokers, exposure to movie smoking was a significantly stronger predictor of higher time 2 smoking level [adjusted proportional odds ratio = 2.76, 95% confidence interval (1.84, 4.15)] than was tobacco marketing receptivity (1.53 [1.07, 2.20]). Among time 1 ever smokers, both tobacco marketing receptivity and exposure to movie smoking predicted higher levels of time 2 smoking [2.17 (1.78, 2.63) and 1.62 (1.18, 2.23), respectively], and the two estimates were not significantly different. In this longitudinal study, exposure to movie smoking was a stronger predictor of smoking initiation than tobacco marketing receptivity, which was more common among ever smokers. The results suggest that entertainment media smoking should be

  13. Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D.; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine differential effects of smoking in films and tobacco advertising on adolescent smoking. We hypothesize that movie smoking will have greater effects on smoking initiation, whereas tobacco advertising receptivity will primarily affect experimentation. Design Longitudinal observational study of adolescents. Setting School-based surveys conducted in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Participants A total of 4384 adolescents age 11–15 years at baseline and re-surveyed 1 year later; ever smoking prevalence was 38% at time 1. Measurements The main outcome variable combined two items assessing life-time and current smoking (alpha = 0.87). Baseline never smokers were analyzed separately from those who had tried smoking (ever smokers). Exposure to smoking in 398 internationally distributed US movies was modeled as a continuous variable, with 0 corresponding to the 5th percentile and 1 to the 95th percentile of exposure. Tobacco marketing receptivity consisted of naming a brand for a favorite tobacco advertisement. Ordinal logistic regressions controlled for socio-demographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. Findings Whereas 34% of ever smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing at time 1, only 6% of never smokers were. Among time 1 never smokers, exposure to movie smoking was a significantly stronger predictor of higher time 2 smoking level [adjusted proportional odds ratio = 2.76, 95% confidence interval (1.84, 4.15)] than was tobacco marketing receptivity (1.53 [1.07, 2.20]). Among time 1 ever smokers, both tobacco marketing receptivity and exposure to movie smoking predicted higher levels of time 2 smoking [2.17 (1.78, 2.63) and 1.62 (1.18, 2.23), respectively], and the two estimates were not significantly different. Conclusions In this longitudinal study, exposure to movie smoking was a stronger predictor of smoking initiation than tobacco marketing receptivity, which was more common among ever

  14. Magnetic particle imaging: current developments and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotopoulos N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos,1 Robert L Duschka,1 Mandy Ahlborg,2 Gael Bringout,2 Christina Debbeler,2 Matthias Graeser,2 Christian Kaethner,2 Kerstin Lüdtke-Buzug,2 Hanne Medimagh,2 Jan Stelzner,2 Thorsten M Buzug,2 Jörg Barkhausen,1 Florian M Vogt,1 Julian Haegele1 1Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Lübeck, 2Institute of Medical Engineering, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany Abstract: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI is a novel imaging method that was first proposed by Gleich and Weizenecker in 2005. Applying static and dynamic magnetic fields, MPI exploits the unique characteristics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs. The SPIONs’ response allows a three-dimensional visualization of their distribution in space with a superb contrast, a very high temporal and good spatial resolution. Essentially, it is the SPIONs’ superparamagnetic characteristics, the fact that they are magnetically saturable, and the harmonic composition of the SPIONs’ response that make MPI possible at all. As SPIONs are the essential element of MPI, the development of customized nanoparticles is pursued with the greatest effort by many groups. Their objective is the creation of a SPION or a conglomerate of particles that will feature a much higher MPI performance than nanoparticles currently available commercially. A particle’s MPI performance and suitability is characterized by parameters such as the strength of its MPI signal, its biocompatibility, or its pharmacokinetics. Some of the most important adjuster bolts to tune them are the particles’ iron core and hydrodynamic diameter, their anisotropy, the composition of the particles’ suspension, and their coating. As a three-dimensional, real-time imaging modality that is free of ionizing radiation, MPI appears ideally suited for applications such as vascular imaging and interventions as well as cellular and targeted imaging. A number

  15. Modeling of droplet dynamic and thermal behaviour during spray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Supersonic atomization; droplets; thermal history; solid fraction; secondary dendrite arm spacing. 1. Introduction .... velocity with distance as illustrated in (1) (Eon-Sik Lee and Ahn ...... Uhlenwinkel and U Fritsching (Bremen, Germany: Univer-.

  16. Prevention and health promotion for the excluded and the destitute in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chauvin, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    ... Abuse in Spain The Advisory Service on Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Bremen 65 71 73 77 82 84 90 95 98 104 107 Part 3. Health Promotion Public Health and Health Promotion Definition of Target...

  17. Effects of CO{sub 2} sanitation program for buildings 2008. Expert opinion; Effekte des CO{sub 2}-Gebaeudesanierungsprogramms 2008. Gutachten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausnitzer, Klaus-Dieter; Gabriel, Juergen; Eilmes, Sabine [Bremer Energie-Institut, Bremen (Germany); Diefenbach, Nikolaus; Loga, Tobias [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Wosniok, Werner [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Statistik

    2008-07-01

    The climate protection, the securing of the power supply as well as the enabling of payable energy costs belong to the central tasks to the policy. In the year 2006, the working group consisting of the Bremen Energie Institute (Bremen, Federal Republic of Energy), Institute Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH (Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Institute for Statistics of the University of Bremen (Bremen, Federal Republic of Germany) was ordered to develop a model for the estimation of the positive effects of the CO{sub 2} sanitation program for buildings according to the reduction of CO{sub 2}, conservation of final energy, employment, progress in modernization and saving of heating cost. In the expert opinion under consideration, the influences are stated for the case of loan and grant for the year 2008.

  18. Chile Triple Junction 2012: NE Lau Basin on Scripps Research Vessel Roger Revelle between 20120909 and 20120926

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 cruise will use the University of Bremen Quest 4000 remotely operated vehicle to locate, map and sample hydrothermal sites at...

  19. SROF12: NE Lau Basin on Scripps Research Vessel Roger Revelle between 20120909 and 20120926

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 cruise will use the University of Bremen Quest 4000 remotely operated vehicle to locate, map and sample hydrothermal sites at...

  20. The unification of law via the institution of jurisdiction in the 19th century : commercial law before the High Court of Appeal of the four free cities of Germany / Peter Oestmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oestmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Institutsioonide pädevuse kaudu õiguse ühtlustamisest 19. sajandil Saksamaal. Nelja Hansa vabalinna (Hamburg, Frankfurt, Bremen, Lübeck) ühiskohtu Oberappellationsgericht tegevusest, Lübecki õigusest Tallinnas ja kohtulahenditest

  1. PV in a sports arena; PV im Hexenkessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeche, B.

    2008-05-19

    The German soccer club Werder Bremen is reconstructing its stadium. Apart from higher spectator comfort and a better atmosphere, there will also be PV systems on the roof and external walls of the arena. (orig.)

  2. Enhancement of oceanic nitrous oxide emissions by storms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bange, H.W.; Naik, H.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    NationalInstituteofOceanography,Goa,India, 3 Max-Planck-Institutfür MarineMikrobiologie,Bremen,GermanyContact:hbange@ifm-geomar.de Since2001HermannBangehasbeenworkingasachemicaloceanographerintheMarine Biogeochemistry...

  3. Conference on Stochastic Processes and Their Applications (12th) held at Ithaca, New York on 11-15 Jul 83,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-15

    Research and Industrial Engineering and College of Engineering 31n For "Ded [] Partial funding provided by atlo National Science Foundation , Air Force...Statistical and Acturial Universitt Bremen Sciences Postfach 33 0440 3005 EMS Building 2800 Bremen 33 University of Western Ontario WEST GERMANY London...of Sciences "On Dyson’s hiearchical model - critical phenomena and minimal laws in statistical physics 1000 - 10130 a.m. Chairs F. Spitzer Warren 45

  4. Impact of numerical information on risk knowledge regarding human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination among schoolgirls: a randomised controlled trial [Effekt von Zahlenangaben auf das Risikowissen von Schülerinnen zur Humanen Papillomavirus (HPV-Impfung: eine randomisiert-kontrollierte Studie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steckelberg, Anke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: In Germany the implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination for women aged 12–17 years was accompanied by various campaigns. Evidence-based information including numerical data was not provided. However, standard information leads to overestimation of cancer risk and effects of HPV vaccination. Confidence in children’s ability to deal with numerical data is low, especially in disadvantaged pupils. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a standard leaflet with an information leaflet supplemented with numerical data on ‘risk knowledge’ regarding HPV vaccination among schoolgirls.Methods: Randomised-controlled short-term trial. All 108 schoolgirls of seven school classes were asked to participate and 105 agreed. Participants were vocational schoolgirls who were preparing for grade 10 graduation and who were members of the target group for HPV vaccination. The control group was asked to read a standard leaflet on HPV vaccination of the German Women’s Health Network. The intervention group received the same leaflet, but it was supplemented with numerical information on cancer risk and assumed effects of the HPV vaccination on cancer prevention. As baseline characteristics we surveyed: age, vaccination status, attitude towards HPV vaccination and aspects regarding migration background. The primary end point was ‘risk knowledge’. Questionnaire surveys were performed under experimental conditions. Individual randomisation, participants, and intention-to-treat data analyses were blinded. The study was approved by the Ministry of Education and Culture of Schleswig-Holstein and the ethics committee of the Hamburg Chamber of Physicians.Results: We analysed ‘risk knowledge’ for all 105 randomised participants. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were comparable. Numerical risk information recipients were more likely to give correct answers compared to standard information

  5. The development of the Middle Triassic tectonical controlled Germanic Basin of Central Europe and the palaeoenvironmental related distribution of marine and terrestrial reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    -Italy). Bolletino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 41 (1), 37-40. Bachmann, G.H. and Aref, M.A.M., 2005. A seismite in Triassic gypsum deposits (Grabfeld Formation, Ladinian), Southwest Germany. Sedimentary Geology 180, 75-89. De Zanche, V. and Farabegoli, E. 1988. Anisian paleogeographic evolution in the Central-Western Southern Alps. Memoirs Scientifique Geologique 40, 399-411. Demathieu, G.R. 1985. Trace fossil assemblages in Middle Triassic marginal marine deposits, eastern border of the Massif Central, France. Societe Economie Paléontologie et Mineralogie, Special Publications, 35, 53-66. Diedrich, C. 2005. Actuopalaeontological trackway experiments with Iguana on intertidal flat carbonates of the Arabian Gulf - a comparison to fossil Rhynchosauroides tracks of Triassic carbonate tidal flat megatracksites in the European Germanic Basin. Senckenbergiana maritime, 35 (2), 203-220. Diedrich, C. 2008a. Millions of reptile tracks - Early to Middle Triassic carbonate tidal flat migration bridges of Central Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 259, 410-423. Diedrich, C. 2008b. Palaeogeographic evolution of the marine Middle Triassic marine Germanic Basin changements - with emphasis on the carbonate tidal flat and shallow marine habitats of reptiles in Central Pangaea. Global and Planetary Change, 65 (2009), 27-55. Diedrich, C. 2009a. The vertebrates of the Anisian/Ladinian boundary (Middle Triassic) from Bissendorf (NW Germany) and their contribution to the anatomy, palaeoecology, and palaeobiogeography of the Germanic Basin reptiles. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 273 (2009), 1-16. Diedrich, C. 2009b. Die Saurierspuren-Grabung im basalen Mittleren Muschelkalk (Anis, Mitteltrias) von Bernburg (Sachsen-Anhalt). Archäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt, Sonderband 2009, 1-62. Diedrich, 2010a. Palaeoecology of Placodus gigas (Reptilia) and other placodontids - macroalgae feeder of the Middle Triassic in the Germanic Basin of Central Europe and

  6. Tapentadol in the management of chronic low back pain: a novel approach to a complex condition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pergolizzi J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Pergolizzi1, Eli Alon2, Ralf Baron3, Cesare Bonezzi4, Jan Dobrogowski5, Rafael Gálvez6, Troels Jensen7, Hans-Georg Kress8, Marco AE Marcus9, Bart Morlion10, Serge Perrot11, Rolf-Detlef Treede121Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Universitätsspital Zurich, Switzerland; 3Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany; 4Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Pavia, Italy; 5Zaklad Badania i Leczenia Bólu, Kraków, Poland; 6Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain; 7Aarhus University, Denmark; 8Medical University of Vienna, Austria; 9Maastricht University Medical Center and University of Muenster, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 10University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium; 11Hôpital Dieu, Paris, France; 12Ruprecht-Karls-University, Heidelberg, GermanyAbstract: Chronic pain affects approximately 1 in 5 people in Europe, and around half of sufferers receive inadequate pain management. The most common location is the lower back. Pharmacological treatment of this condition is challenging because of the range of causative mechanisms and the difficulty of balancing analgesic efficacy and tolerability. An international panel of clinical pain specialists met in September, 2009, to discuss the treatment of chronic low back pain, and to review preclinical and clinical data relating to the new analgesic, tapentadol. A lack of consensus exists on the best treatment for low back pain. The range of regularly prescribed pharmacological agents extends from nonopioids (paracetamol, NSAIDs, and COX-2 inhibitors to opioids, antidepressants and anticonvulsants. Pain relief may be compromised, however, by an undetected neuropathic component or intolerable side effects. Treatment is potentially life-long and effective analgesics are urgently needed, with demonstrable long-term safety. Combining separate agents with different mechanisms of action could overcome the limitations of present

  7. Upper Middle Pleistocene climate and landscape development of Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Pleistocene sequence of the Schöningen lignite mine contains a number of interglacial and interstadial limnic and peat deposits, travertine tuff, soils, tills and fluvioglacial sediments as well as loess deposits. The complex Quaternary sequence contains six major cycles with evidence of four interglacials younger than the Elsterian glaciation and preceding the Holocene. The sequence begins with Late Elsterian glacial and three interstadial deposits formed in shallow basins. Cycle I is assigned to late parts of the Holsteinian interglacial. A strong cooling is recorded by a significant increase of Artemisia and grasses during the following Buschhaus A Stadial, which is considered to mark the onset of the Saalian Complex sensu lato (penultimate glacial-complex). The lacustrine sediments of Cycle II, Reinsdorf interglacial sequence (Urban, 1995), have been found to occur at archaeological sites Schöningen 12 and 13 (Thieme,1997). Recent investigations give evidence for at least 13 Local Pollen Assemblage Zones showing a five-fold division of the interglacial and a sequence of five climatic oscillations following the interglacial (Urban, 2006). From the relative high values for grasses and herbs in the inferred forested periods of the interglacial, a warm dry forest steppe climate can be deduced. The stratigraphic position of throwing spears (Thieme, 1997), can clearly be allocated to Reinsdorf Interstadial B (level II-4) characterized by an open pine-birch forest. Uppermost parts (level II-5) represent the transition into a periglacial environment indicating the definite end of cycle II. The Schöningen Interglacial (Cycle III) represents the youngest of the pre-Drenthe (Early Saalian Stadial) interglacials (Urban, 1995). In summary, it can be concluded that the Middle Pleistocene terrestrial pollen record of the Schöningen sequence represents tentative correlatives of MIS 7, 9 and 11. North of Leck (North Friesland, Schleswig-Holstein) sediments of the centre

  8. Long-term outcome of laparoscopic and open surgery in patients with Crohn’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Martin Hoffmann,1 Dina Siebrasse,1 Erik Schlöricke,2 Ralf Bouchard,1 Tobias Keck,1 Claudia Benecke1 1Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Lübeck, 2Department of Surgery, Westküstenklinikum Heide, Heide, Germany Aim: To investigate, via data analysis, the long-term outcome of patients who underwent either laparoscopic or open surgery for Crohn’s disease.Methods: A total of 113 patients who had undergone first abdominal surgery due to Crohn’s disease between January 2000 and December 2010 in a maximum care provider facility, were included in the statistical analysis. All patients provided their informed consent prior to inclusion. Data were collected from a database. Follow-up data included data from central mortality registries, general practitioners and a specialized clinic. Statistical analysis of the general patient data and the different operations and approaches were performed with the use of chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and the Mann–Whitney U test.Results: The median follow-up period in case of open and laparoscopic surgery was found to be 9 and 6 years, respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed for the following parameters in case of open and laparoscopic surgery, respectively: age (median=44 vs. 36 years, range=15–76 vs. 15–72 years; p=0.007, urgency of operation (23 out of 34 planned vs. 6 out of 70 planned; p<0.001, year of resection (median=2003 vs. 2006, range=2000–2010 vs. 2000–2010; p=0.001. The length of stay in hospital was significantly shorter in the laparoscopic group than that of open surgery group (8 vs. 11 days, respectively; p<0.0001. We did not control for factors such as age and comorbidities in our statistical analysis. We also did not find any differences with regard to perioperative and 90-day mortality, surgical complications, length of specimen, stoma, surgical recurrence rate (10% in both groups and number of re

  9. Wind power report Germany 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrig, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    class, which was previously dominant. Added turbines have on average rotor diameters of 99 m and hub heights of 115 m. For the first time new turbines were added in every state. The greatest absolute capacity expansions were in Schleswig-Holstein (1293 MW) followed by Lower Saxony (600 MW). The greatest expansion in terms of percentage was in Bavaria in the south of Germany (27%). Offshore. Global offshore expansion in 2014 was about 1.6 GW, as in the two previous years. The greatest expansion was again in the United Kingdom, followed by Germany and Belgium. A total of 2693 offshore wind turbines in 104 wind farms having a capacity of 8493 MW are connected to the grid. In Germany, 141 turbines with a total capacity of 523 MW in the DanTysk, Meerwind Sued/Ost, Nordsee Ost and Riffgat (in part) wind farms went online, meaning a total capacity of 1044 MW were installed in German waters by the end of 2014. Another 286 wind turbines with a total capacity of 1269 MW were installed but had no grid connection at the end of 2014.

  10. Effects of bioenergy production on European nature conservation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleupner, C.; Schneider, U. A.

    2009-04-01

    To increase security of energy supply and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions the European Commission set out a long-term strategy for renewable energy in the European Union (EU). Bioenergy from forestry and agriculture plays a key role for both. Since the last decade a significant increase of biomass energy plantations has been observed in Europe. Concurrently, the EU agreed to halt the loss of biodiversity within its member states. One measure is the Natura2000 network of important nature sites that actually covers about 20% of the EU land surface. However, to fulfil the biodiversity target more nature conservation and restoration sites need to be designated. There are arising concerns that an increased cultivation of bioenergy crops will decrease the land available for nature reserves and for "traditional" agriculture and forestry. In the following the economic and ecological impacts of structural land use changes are demonstrated by two examples. First, a case study of land use changes on the Eiderstedt peninsula in Schleswig-Holstein/Germany evaluates the impacts of grassland conversion into bioenergy plantations under consideration of selected meadow birds. Scenarios indicate not only a quantitative loss of habitats but also a reduction of habitat quality. The second study assesses the role of bioenergy production in light of possible negative impacts on potential wetland conservation sites in Europe. By coupling the spatial wetland distribution model "SWEDI" (cf. SCHLEUPNER 2007) to the European Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model (EUFASOM; cf. SCHNEIDER ET AL. 2008) economic and environmental aspects of land use are evaluated simultaneously. This way the costs and benefits of the appropriate measures and its consequences for agriculture and forestry are investigated. One aim is to find the socially optimal balance between alternative wetland uses by integrating biological benefits - in this case wetlands - and economic opportunities - here

  11. Wind power report Germany 2014; Windenergie Report Deutschland 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrig, Kurt (ed.)

    2015-07-01

    class, which was previously dominant. Added turbines have on average rotor diameters of 99 m and hub heights of 115 m. For the first time new turbines were added in every state. The greatest absolute capacity expansions were in Schleswig-Holstein (1293 MW) followed by Lower Saxony (600 MW). The greatest expansion in terms of percentage was in Bavaria in the south of Germany (27%). Offshore. Global offshore expansion in 2014 was about 1.6 GW, as in the two previous years. The greatest expansion was again in the United Kingdom, followed by Germany and Belgium. A total of 2693 offshore wind turbines in 104 wind farms having a capacity of 8493 MW are connected to the grid. In Germany, 141 turbines with a total capacity of 523 MW in the DanTysk, Meerwind Sued/Ost, Nordsee Ost and Riffgat (in part) wind farms went online, meaning a total capacity of 1044 MW were installed in German waters by the end of 2014. Another 286 wind turbines with a total capacity of 1269 MW were installed but had no grid connection at the end of 2014.

  12. Electricity and gas market design to supply the German transport sector with hydrogen; Strom- und Gasmarktdesign zur Versorgung des deutschen Strassenverkehrs mit Wasserstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinius, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The German government has set targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2020, 55% by 2030, 70% by 2040 and 80-95% by 2050 compared to 1990 as reference year. As well as meeting other requirements, these targets can be achieved by raising the contribution of renewably-generated power to Germany's gross electricity consumption to 80% by 2050. Based on Germany's potential, intermittent energy sources (IES) such as on- and offshore wind, as well as photovoltaics, are necessary sources that must be utilized in order to achieve these ambitious targets. Because of the intermittency of these sources, there will be times in which surplus power generated could be used for example for the transport sector. During these periods of surplus power, the storage capacity of hydrogen allows for a socalled ''power-to-gas'' concept whereby the surplus power can be used to produce hydrogen and oxygen by means of electrolyzers. The aim of this thesis is to identify and develop a market design that is characterized by high penetration levels of IES, supplemented by the use of hydrogen in the transport sector. Furthermore, the aim was to develop a model in which the electricity and gas sector, including a hydrogen pipeline grid, is represented so as to analyze and validate selected market designs. Therefore, potential electricity and gas markets, as well as the most important potential share and stakeholders of a hydrogen infrastructure, are analyzed. With the model developed in this thesis, an existing energy concept has been developed, analyzed and evaluated. In addition, the distribution of the hydrogen production costs was calculated by employing a Monte Carlo Simulation analysis. The developed energy concept relies on 170 GW onshore and 60 GW offshore wind capacity and these dominate the model. This leads to surplus power, especially in the federal states of Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. To supply the

  13. Electricity and gas market design to supply the German transport sector with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinius, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The German government has set targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2020, 55% by 2030, 70% by 2040 and 80-95% by 2050 compared to 1990 as reference year. As well as meeting other requirements, these targets can be achieved by raising the contribution of renewably-generated power to Germany's gross electricity consumption to 80% by 2050. Based on Germany's potential, intermittent energy sources (IES) such as on- and offshore wind, as well as photovoltaics, are necessary sources that must be utilized in order to achieve these ambitious targets. Because of the intermittency of these sources, there will be times in which surplus power generated could be used for example for the transport sector. During these periods of surplus power, the storage capacity of hydrogen allows for a socalled ''power-to-gas'' concept whereby the surplus power can be used to produce hydrogen and oxygen by means of electrolyzers. The aim of this thesis is to identify and develop a market design that is characterized by high penetration levels of IES, supplemented by the use of hydrogen in the transport sector. Furthermore, the aim was to develop a model in which the electricity and gas sector, including a hydrogen pipeline grid, is represented so as to analyze and validate selected market designs. Therefore, potential electricity and gas markets, as well as the most important potential share and stakeholders of a hydrogen infrastructure, are analyzed. With the model developed in this thesis, an existing energy concept has been developed, analyzed and evaluated. In addition, the distribution of the hydrogen production costs was calculated by employing a Monte Carlo Simulation analysis. The developed energy concept relies on 170 GW onshore and 60 GW offshore wind capacity and these dominate the model. This leads to surplus power, especially in the federal states of Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. To supply the

  14. Power to gas. The final breakthrough for the hydrogen economy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler-Goldstein, Raphael [Germany Trade and Invest (GTAI), Paris (France); Rastetter, Aline [Alphea Hydrogene, Forbach (France)

    2013-04-01

    In Germany more than 20% of the energy mix is made up of renewable energy and its share is rapidly increasing. The federal government expects renewables to account for 35% of Germany's electricity consumption by 2020, 50% by 2030 and 80% by 2050. According to the German Energy Agency, multi-billion euro investments in energy storage are expected by 2020 in order to reach these goals. The growth of this fluctuating energy supply has created demand for innovative storage options in Germany and it is accelerating the development of technologies in this field. Along with batteries and smart grids, hydrogen is expected to be one of the lead technologies. 2010 a commercialization roadmap for wind hydrogen was set up by the two northern federal states of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein with the goal of utilizing surplus wind power for the electrolytic production of hydrogen. With the creation of the 'performing energy initiative', 2011, Brandenburg and Lower Saxony joined this undertaking. The aim of this initiative is to set up demonstration projects in order to develop and optimize wind-hydrogen hybrid systems and prepare their commercialization for the time after 2020. Beside the conversion of hydrogen into electricity and fuel for cars, further markets like raw material for the chemical, petrochemical, metallurgy and food industry are going to be addressed. Considering the fact there are over 40 caves currently used for natural gas storage with a total volume of 23.5 billion cubic meters and 400 000 km gas grid available in Germany, the German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water sees opportunities for hydrogen to be fed into the existing natural gas grid network. The name of this concept is power-to-gas. According to the current DVGW-Standards natural gas in Germany can contain up to 5% hydrogen. The GERG, European Group on the Gas Research sees potential to increase this amount up to 6% to 20%. Power-to-gas could serve both for fuel and for the

  15. COMMERCIAL FISH HARVEST IN INLAND WATER BODIES OF GERMANY (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Didenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze scientific and statistical sources on commercial fishery in inland water bodies of Germany. To summarize German experience and identify specific features of this sector. Findings. Commercial fishery in Germany is carried out on 30% (≈250 000 hectares of inland water bodies of Germany. The main fishing regions are prealpine lakes in Bavaria, Lake Constance, lakes in Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania federal states as well as lakes and rivers of Brandenburg and Berlin. Commercial fishing on rivers usually has a local importance and is practiced in regions with poorly developed industry. There were 670 commercial fishing organizations in 2014, where 932 people were employed. Each fishing license owner is allowed deploying simultaneously a clearly defined number of fishing gears depending on season. In addition, fishing nets are regulated not only based on their mesh size and length, but also height and the minimum thread diameter. The cardinal difference of German inland fishing is the absence of the periods of total ban on commercial fishing. There are only ban periods for fishing on certain fish species during their spawning seasons. These periods differ for federal states and are listed in the relevant regional fishing rules. The total fish catch in inland waters of Germany by commercial fishermen in 2014 was 3132 tons, much lower than the catches of anglers who caught 18 450 tons at the same year. Most of fish were caught by fishing organizations in the Brandenburg Federal State. Average fish productivity in 2014 was approx. 13 kg/ha (ranging from 10 to 20 kg/ha. Whitefish was the dominant species in catches in the Lake Constance and prealpine lakes of Bavaria, while cyprinids (roach, bream, silver bream, blue bream, etc. dominated in Northern Germany. The profit of commercial fish catch in 2014 was about 12.5 million euros. Among numerous activities aimed at preserving commercial fish populations, Germans

  16. Discussion on nuclear energy in the trade union journal 'Metall'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    For over one year there was a discussion about the problems of nuclear energy in the trade union journal 'Metall'. Invited by the editors, scientists from the university of Bremen also participated in this contoversy. In early 1977, an article with the title, Blessing or curse of the future' written by Bremen scientists was published in 5 parts. A reply was written by nine scientists, all but one from the Nuclear Research Centre in Juelich. This criticism caused the reaction of 17 persons from the university of Bremen. This document contains the articles which appeared in vanious numbers of the journal 'Metall', including the readers letters written by colleagues from the Union. (orig./GL) [de

  17. Nuclear arms race - no way around

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebotter, K.

    1981-01-01

    On the invitation of the publisher, but really on the invitation of all those who had signed the Krefeld disarmament appeal till then the former General of the Federal Army, Gert Bastian came to Bremen as a guest. He gave a lecture in the municipal hall, answered all questions of the audience and gave interviews to the local press and was questioned by Radio Bremen and the regional television. This compendium contains all speeches, questions and answers of the municipal to hall-meeting, all radio- and TV-interviews, the press reports in full detail and some letters written in connection with the event. (orig./HS) [de

  18. Power plants at the bottom of the sea; Kraftwerke auf dem Meeresgrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Klaus

    2011-07-01

    The depths of the ocean are a hostile environment. In a bid to defy these adverse conditions, many organisms have teamed up to form close relationships called symbioses. Nicole Dubilier and her colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen keep discovering new symbioses that provide these deep-sea inhabitants with a guaranteed energy supply. (orig.) [German] Die Tiefen der Ozeane sind ein lebensfeindlicher Ort. Um den widrigen Bedingungen zu trotzen, haben sich viele Organismen zu Lebensgemeinschaften zusammengeschlossen. Nicole Dubilier und ihre Mitarbeiter am Max-Planck-Institut fuer marine Mikrobiologie in Bremen entdecken immer wieder neue Symbiosen, mit denen die Tiefseebewohner ihre Energieversorgung sicherstellen.

  19. Heat recovery - a cost-effective investment for the food service industry. Waermerueckgewinnung - eine wirtschaftliche Investition fuer Lebensmittelverarbeitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiery, H. (EUREKA Waermerueckgewinnung und Kuehltechnik GmbH, Emsdetten (Germany))

    1993-05-01

    In a lecture in Bremen to representatives of fish processing firms the author demonstrated how the exploitation of evaporator heat from refrigerating and deep freezing plants can generate sufficient hot water to meet demand. The principles involved are now shown to be valid throughout the food service industry, from meat and bakery products manufacturing to hospitals, supermarkets, restaurants and hotels. (orig.)

  20. ReconnACT Blumenthal to the water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Restemeyer, Britta; Motta Zanin, Giulia; Kötterheinrich, Marie; Chan Lok Hei, Patricia; Warsewa, Günter; Mironowicz, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    The project “ReconnACT Blumenthal to the water” is a concept for a particular area in the north of Bremen, Blumenthal, which is currently in a transition phase from an industrial to a post-industrial urban district. In line with the general theme of the summer school, “City on Water”, making

  1. 2011 annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefung (DGZfP). NDE in research, development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This CD-ROM proceedings publication contains the papers and posters of the DGZfP annual meeting 2011, at Bremen, Germany, both in full text and as PowerPoint presentations. The following issues were discussed: Radiographic inspection, ultrasonic inspection, computerized tomography, and thermography. Ten papers were recorded as separate entries in the ENERGY database. [de

  2. MAGLEV `95. 14th international conference on magnetically levitated systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The proceedings present the papers of the 14th International Conference on Magnetically Levitated Systems held in Bremen, FRG, in November 1995. For 70 of 74 papers a separate subject analysis has been carried out. 4 papers are not available in the proceedings. (HW)

  3. Outlook on EDRS-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore, R.; Duncan, J.; Pulcino, V.; Bourne, D.; Voegt, S.; Perez, G.

    2017-09-01

    EDRS-C will operate on a geostationary orbit as the second node of the European Data Relay System (EDRS). The EDRS-C satellite, designed by OHB System as prime contractor, has been procured in the frame of a Public Private Partnership (PPP) between Airbus Defence and Space and ESA. EDRS-C is currently under assembly at OHB facilities in Bremen.

  4. Next Generation Drivetrain Development and Test Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan; Erdman, Bill; Blodgett, Doug; Halse, Chris; Grider, Dave

    2015-11-03

    This presentation was given at the Wind Energy IQ conference in Bremen, Germany, November 30 through December 2, 2105. It focused on the next-generation drivetrain architecture and drivetrain technology development and testing (including gearbox and inverter software and medium-voltage inverter modules.

  5. 2013 annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefung (DGZfP). NDE in research, development and application; DGZfP-Jahrestagung 2013. Zerstoerungsfreie Materialpruefung. ZfP in Forschung, Entwicklung und Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This CD-ROM proceedings publication contains the papers and posters of the DGZfP annual meeting 2013, at Bremen, Germany, both in full text and as PowerPoint presentations. The following issues were discussed: computerized tomography, thermography; radiographic, ultrasonic, eddy current and microwave testing. 13 papers were recorded as separate entries in the INIS database.

  6. Teaching Chemistry about "Stevia"--A Case of Cooperative Curriculum Innovation within PROFILES in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Marc; Lippel, Marianne; Eilks, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    PROFILES is a project of teacher education and curriculum innovation funded by the FP7-programme of the European Union. The aim of PROFILES is implementing innovative science teaching practices incorporating a societal perspective and compassing inquiry-based science learning. The University of Bremen, Germany, as one of the partners, combines…

  7. 47 A DISCUSSION OF JAMES 1: 27 AND ITS IMPACT ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Christ as one's personal Saviour, trust in the life, death and resurrection of Jesus .... who began their work of evangelization in 1834, and the Bremen Mission ... the fundamental principles of the Christian faith to the culture and needs of the ... James' notion of pure Christianity or religion seems to be somewhat different.

  8. Intelligibility of Standard German and Low German to Speakers of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, C.S.; Kürschner, Sebastian; van Bezooijen, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the intelligibility of spoken Low German and Standard German for speakers of Dutch. Two aspects are considered. First, the relative potential for intelligibility of the Low German variety of Bremen and the High German variety of Modern Standard German for speakers of Dutch is

  9. Matouš Konečný a jeho podíl na výchově a vzdělávání bratrských duchovních na počátku 17. století

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Just, Jiří

    -, č. 18 (2016), s. 75-88 ISSN 1802-2502 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08740S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Matouš Konečný * education of clergy * protestant ecclesiastical administration * Matthias Martini * gymnasium illustre in Bremen * peregrinatio academica * protestant schoolbooks * Bohemian Brethren Subject RIV: AB - History

  10. Antiplasmodial and larvicidal compounds of Toddalia asiatica root ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    communication, we report the isolation of eight com- pounds from the ... UNICAM SP 8-150 UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Mass spectral data were obtained on a MAT 8200 A Varian. Bremen ..... the stock solutions were diluted in the media RPMI.

  11. 2013 annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefung (DGZfP). NDE in research, development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This CD-ROM proceedings publication contains the papers and posters of the DGZfP annual meeting 2013, at Bremen, Germany, both in full text and as PowerPoint presentations. The following issues were discussed: computerized tomography, thermography; radiographic, ultrasonic, eddy current and microwave testing. 13 papers were recorded as separate entries in the INIS database.

  12. Determination of atmospheric aerosol properties over land using satellite measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokhanovsky, A.A.; Leeuw, G. de

    2009-01-01

    Mostly, aerosol properties are poorly understood because the aerosol properties are very sparse. The first workshop on the determination of atmospheric aerosol properties over land using satellite measurements is convened in Bremen, Germany. In this workshop, the topics of discussions included a

  13. Hemorrhage in mouse tumors induced by dodecaborate cluster lipids intended for boron neutron capture therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffran T

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tanja Schaffran,1 Nan Jiang,1 Markus Bergmann,2,3 Ekkehard Küstermann,4 Regine Süss,5 Rolf Schubert,5 Franz M Wagner,6 Doaa Awad,7 Detlef Gabel1,2,8 1Department of Chemistry, University of Bremen, 2Institute of Neuropathology, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte; 3Cooperative Center Medicine, University of Bremen, 4“In-vivo-MR” AG, FB2, University of Bremen, Bremen, 5Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, 6Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II, Technische Unversitaet Muenchen, Garching, Germany; 7Department of Biochemistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 8School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany Abstract: The potential of boron-containing lipids with three different structures, which were intended for use in boron neutron capture therapy, was investigated. All three types of boron lipids contained the anionic dodecaborate cluster as the headgroup. Their effects on two different tumor models in mice following intravenous injection were tested; for this, liposomes with boron lipid, distearoyl phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol as helper lipids, and containing a polyethylene glycol lipid for steric protection, were administered intravenously into tumor-bearing mice (C3H mice for SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma and BALB/c mice for CT26/WT colon carcinoma. With the exception of one lipid (B-THF-14, the lipids were well tolerated, and no other animal was lost due to systemic toxicity. The lipid which led to death was not found to be much more toxic in cell culture than the other boron lipids. All of the lipids that were well tolerated showed hemorrhage in both tumor models within a few hours after administration. The hemorrhage could be seen by in vivo magnetic resonance and histology, and was found to occur within a few hours. The degree of hemorrhage depended on the amount of boron administered and on the tumor model. The observed unwanted effect of the lipids

  14. The NEPTUNE Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Degre, T.

    The main aim for NEPTUNE is the establishing of an "open" European network of universities and research institutes engaged in research, training and education for waterborne (maritime and inland navigation) transport. This network should constitute an European knowledge base to support....... For the support to the objectives of NEPTUNE the association is developing the NEPTUNE Information Network. A pilot demonstration on the basis of the world wide web technique on Internet has been established. Two NEPTUNE server, on the premises of ISL in Bremen and NTUA in Athens, can be adressed via the URL......=http://www.isl.uni-bremen.de/NEPTUNE/ and URL=http://www.maritime.deslab.naval.ntua.gr/neptune/framelayout.html The pilot will be enlarged concerning the number of NEPTUNE servers as well as regarding the scope of information provided by the various servers. The implementation and operating of such an European Waterborne Information Network...

  15. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey......The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare....../Swansea. The focus is on designs that are specified by so-called control tables. The paper can serve as a starting point for further comparative studies. The DTU/Bremen research has been funded by the RobustRailS project granted by Innovation Fund Denmark. The Surrey/Swansea research has been funded by the Safe...

  16. Teaching Chemistry about ‘Stevia’ – A Case of Cooperative Curriculum Innovation within PROFILES in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Stuckey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PROFILES is a project of teacher education and curriculum innovation funded by the FP7-programme of the European Union. The aim of PROFILES is implementing innovative science teaching practices incorporating a societal perspective and compassing inquiry-based science learning. The University of Bremen, Germany, as one of the partners, combines teacher continuous professional development with the research-based design of new teaching and learning modules for science teaching. This paper presents – as an exemplary case – how the University of Bremen is operating PROFILES. This case is illustrated according to the development of a teaching and learning module on sugar and sweeteners, incorporating the use of advertising in science education.

  17. Consistency of eye movements in MOT using horizontally flipped trials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Děchtěrenko, F.; Lukavský, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, Suppl (2013), s. 42-42 ISSN 0301-0066. [36th European Conference on Visual Perception. 25.08.2013.-29.08.2013, Brémy] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28709S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : eye movements * symmetry * consistency Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://www.ecvp.uni-bremen.de/~ecvpprog/abstract164.html

  18. Intelligent energy management. Less electricity, same cooling; Energie intelligent managen. Weniger Strom, gleiche Kaelte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprado, Joern; Lawo, Michael [Bremen Univ. (DE). Technologie-Zentrum Informatik und Informationstechnik (TZI)

    2009-09-15

    In cooperation with the company netDV Unternehmensberatung GmbH, the Technology Center for Computational Science (TZI) at the University of Bremen has developed a computer-aided ''assistance system for intelligent energy management'' that considerably reduces the energy consumption of feed refrigeration systems in our supermarkets. Reductions of between 10 and 20 per cent lead to savings in the order of five-digit euro amounts. (orig.)

  19. Comments by the Editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, Dan M.; Brown, Dennis; Girard, Sylvain; Gerardin, Simone; Quinn, Heather; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Esqueda, Ivan Sanchez; Robinson, William; Moss, Steven

    2017-08-01

    The August 2017 special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science contains more than 40 selected, peer-reviewed, journal articles that were prepared on the basis of presentations made at the 2016 Conference on Radiation and Its Effects on Components and Systems (RADECS) held on September 19-23, 2016, in Bremen, Germany. A few additional papers may appear in subsequent issues of the Transactions. A full conference record of RADECS 2016 will also be available in the IEEE Xplore.

  20. Simplificación del proceso de lana cardada

    OpenAIRE

    Coll Tortosa, Liberto; Riva Juan, Ascensión; Adolphs, Georg; García Congosto, Mariano; Roig Munill, Francesc; Fresno Chamarro, José; Marcos Maldonado, Mª José; Cano Casas, Francesc

    1999-01-01

    Este trabajo es parte de un proyecto I+D perteneciente al programa europeo BriteEuram 4478. En el conjunto del proyecto participó el siguiente consorcio internacional. • Spinnbau Bremen (D), (constructor de maquinaria de hilatura). • Tuchfabric Becker (D), (empresa manufacturera). • HILFESA (E), (empresa manufacturera) • Institut für Textiltechnik de la RWTH Aachen (D), (centro universitario de investigación). • INTEXTER (E) que actuó de coordinador del proyecto, (centro unive...

  1. Comparison of different plasticity criteria for trabecular bone failure modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, Ondřej

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2008), s. 10177-10178 ISSN 1617-7061. [Annual Meeting of International Association of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics. Bremen, 31.03.2008-04.04.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/05/1020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : nanoindentation * plasticity criteria * trabecular bone Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics

  2. "Um sich in vorkommenden besonderen Fällen selber rathen zu können, was rechtens (sey) ...": "Der wohl instruirte Schiffer" - ein bordpraxisnahes deutschsprachiges Handbuch des Seerechtes aus der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts

    OpenAIRE

    Stettner, Heinrich

    1993-01-01

    The maritime-legal manual discussed here appeared during the second half of the eighteenth century in several editions. Those of 1769, 1771 and 1773 fail to mention the author by name although the latter contains an introduction by him. The 1792 edition, however, bears the name of Johann Andreas Engelbrecht as editor. Engelbrecht (1733-1803) lived in Bremen for many years, working first as a foreign-language correspondent and later as an assessor of averages, author of specialized Iiterature ...

  3. Rejection of counsels for the plaintiff in nuclear power plant proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    With its decision of April 21, 1980 - W 122 79 -, the Administrative Court has rejected three Bremen plaintiffs who also acted as counsels for 136 further plaintiffs in various parts of West Germany, West Berlin and other states in the action at law against the licenses granted for Grafenrheinfeld nuclear power plant, in their function as counsels for the plaintiff. The main grounds of the decision are presented in full wording. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Conference Logistics Management 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Haasis, Hans-Dietrich; Kopfer, Herbert; Kotzab, Herbert; Schönberger, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the collected research papers presented at the Logistik-Management-Konferenz 2013 organized by the VHB Wissenschaftliche Kommission Logistik, held in Bremen 2013. The papers reflect the current state-of-the-art in logistics and supply chain management, focusing on environmental sustainability in logistics and supply chain network dynamics and control. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field as well as practitioners but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  5. Britain and Europe: what ways forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold James

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed some of the reasons why Britain participated only half-way in the European Union and ended up voting for Bremen on 23 June 2016. It also examines the options open to the European Union and Great Britain. Europe must show that it can work by showing results. In Britain it is necessary to break the established molds of thought and reshape the structure of political parties

  6. Untersuchungen der Behandlung des Schlagwerks in den Kompositionen von Younghi Pagh-Paan

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Unsu

    2007-01-01

    This is the research of korean composer, Younghi Pagh-Paan, who is living in Germany and is working as a professor at Bremen Art University. The focus especially is made on her musical treatment of the percussion instruments, because it always has connection with her korean nationality, which means the usage of korean traditional rhythms, tone colors and the instruments. My reserch begins with this questions, especially what musical influences does she have from her childhood and how did she ...

  7. Early warnings of extreme winds using the ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index

    OpenAIRE

    Petroliagis, Thomas I.; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The European FP7 SafeWind Project aims at developing research towards a European vision of wind power forecasting, which requires advanced meteorological support concerning extreme wind events. This study is focused mainly on early warnings of extreme winds in the early medium-range. Three synoptic stations (airports) of North Germany (Bremen, Hamburg and Hannover) were considered for the construction of time series of daily maximum wind speeds. All daily wind extremes were found to be linked...

  8. Astronomy from Olbers to Schwarzschild. (German Title: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

    This issue comprises talks presented 2000 September 18 at the colloquium ``International relations in astronomy'' it is supplemented by additional articles about this topic. The foundation of the international ``Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft'', which took place in 1800 in Bremen, prompted us to investigate the development of astronomy in German-speaking regions, and its international relations during the 19th century. We investigate the activities of famous astronomers like W. Olbers, J.E. Bode, F.X. von Zach, J.H. Schroeter, H.C. Schumacher and K. Schwarzschild, as well as those of their less famous professional colleagues like J.G. Schrader and L. de Ball. The geographical spectrum extends from Bremen and Lilienthal over Kiel, Gotha and Dresden to Copenhagen, Vienna and Chile. Among the topics are: telescope construction, including telescopes made by Herschel, the rediscovery of the minor planet Ceres 1801/02, the Berlin ``Astronomisches Jahrbuch'', the foundation of the ``Astronomische Nachrichten'', the evolution from the ``Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft'' to the present-day ``Astronomische Gesellschaft'', the research at the Kuffner Observatory in Vienna, the professionalization in astronomy, and the attempts of many countries to establish a southern observatory in Chile. A listing of astronomical monuments in Lilienthal and Bremen concludes the book. All papers are written in German with English abstracts.

  9. Deep learning for tumor classification in imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Jens; Etmann, Christian; Boskamp, Tobias; Casadonte, Rita; Kriegsmann, Jörg; Maaß, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Tumor classification using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) data has a high potential for future applications in pathology. Due to the complexity and size of the data, automated feature extraction and classification steps are required to fully process the data. Since mass spectra exhibit certain structural similarities to image data, deep learning may offer a promising strategy for classification of IMS data as it has been successfully applied to image classification. Methodologically, we propose an adapted architecture based on deep convolutional networks to handle the characteristics of mass spectrometry data, as well as a strategy to interpret the learned model in the spectral domain based on a sensitivity analysis. The proposed methods are evaluated on two algorithmically challenging tumor classification tasks and compared to a baseline approach. Competitiveness of the proposed methods is shown on both tasks by studying the performance via cross-validation. Moreover, the learned models are analyzed by the proposed sensitivity analysis revealing biologically plausible effects as well as confounding factors of the considered tasks. Thus, this study may serve as a starting point for further development of deep learning approaches in IMS classification tasks. https://gitlab.informatik.uni-bremen.de/digipath/Deep_Learning_for_Tumor_Classification_in_IMS. jbehrmann@uni-bremen.de or christianetmann@uni-bremen.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Sujata Bhatt: los colores del encuentro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janés Nadal, Clara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Invitada al Festival de Poesía de Bremen, movida por la alegría de ir a Alemania cuando el último poeta amado era un alemán, Johannes Bobrowski, confesé este hecho en público. Se me acercó entonces Sujata Bahtt, poetisa india que también admira a este poeta, e iniciamos un hermoso intercambio. Al día siguiente me regaló sus libros, donde se trasluce el contraste entre las culturas oriental y occidental. En Bremen escribí yo un largo poema-crónica con trasfondos y citas múltiples. Luego traduje uno de los libros de Sujata y lo presentamos en Cartagena. Meses después nos encontramos en Delhi. Finalmente nos volvimos a reunir en Bremen, de nuevo en el Festival. una sesión para las dos solas en el Museo Paula Modersohn-Becker, donde ella presentó un nuevo libro puesto en boca de esa pintora amiga de rilke, yo el poema-crónica donde hablo de poesía, de la ciudad y cito a rilke.

  11. Preferences of patients undergoing hemodialysis – results from a questionnaire-based study with 4,518 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen IM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inger Miriam Janssen,1 Ansgar Gerhardus,2,3 Gero D von Gersdorff,4 Conrad August Baldamus,4 Mathias Schaller,4 Claudia Barth,5 Fueloep Scheibler6 1Department of Epidemiology and International Public Health, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany; 2Department for Health Services Research, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; 3Health Sciences Bremen, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; 4Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 5KfH Kuratorium fuer Dialyse und Nierentransplantation e.V., Neu-Isenburg, Germany; 6Department of Non-Drug Interventions, Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care, Cologne, Germany Background: Chronic kidney disease is an increasing health problem worldwide and in its final stage (stage V can only be treated by renal replacement therapy, mostly hemodialysis. Hemodialysis has a major influence on the everyday life of patients and many patients report dissatisfaction with treatment. Little is known about which aspects of treatment are considered important by hemodialysis patients. The objective of this study was to rate the relative importance of different outcomes for hemodialysis patients and to analyze whether the relative importance differed among subgroups of patients.Patients and methods: Within the framework of a yearly questionnaire which is distributed among patients receiving hemodialysis by the largest hemodialysis provider in Germany, we assessed the relative importance of 23 outcomes as rated on a discrete visual analog scale. Descriptive statistics were used to rank the outcomes. Subgroup analyses were performed using Mann–Whitney U or Kruskal–Wallis tests.Results: Questionnaires of 4,518 hemodialysis patients were included in the analysis. The three most important outcomes were safety of treatment, health-related quality of life, and satisfaction with care. Further important outcomes were hospital stays, accompanying symptoms, hemodialysis

  12. ESSReS-PEP, an international and interdisciplinary postgraduate education concept on Earth and Environmental Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Burrows, John

    2013-04-01

    Promoting young researchers is a major priority of the German Helmholtz Association. Since more than five years graduate and postgraduate education in the field of Earth System and Environmental Science has been established in Bremen and Bremerhaven, north-western Germany. Using the network and collaboration of experts and specialists on observational and paleoclimate data as well as on statistical data analysis and climate modelling from two Universities and the Helmholtz research institute on Polar and Marine Research, master and PhD students are trained to understand, decipher and cope with the challenges of recent climate change on an highly interdisciplinary and inter-institutional level. The existing research infrastructure at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven (AWI), University of Bremen, and Jacobs University Bremen offers a unique research environment to study past, present and future changes of the climate system, with special focus on high latitudinal processes. It covers all kind of disciplines, climate science, geosciences and biosciences, and provides a consistent framework for education and qualification of a new generation of expertly trained, internationally competitive master and PhD students. On postgraduate level, the Postgraduate Programme Environmental Physics (PEP) at the University of Bremen (www.pep.uni-bremen.de) educates the participants on the complex relationship between atmosphere, hydrosphere (ocean), cryosphere (ice region) and solid earth (land). Here, the learning of experimental methods in environmental physics at the most advanced level, numerical data analysis using supercomputers, and data interpretation via sophisticated methods prepare students for a scientific career. Within cooperation with the Ocean University of China (OUC) students are participating one year in the PEP programme during their master studies since 2006, to get finally a double degree of both universities. At the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar

  13. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 15th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the fifth collection of essays on the history of astronomy (Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains 11 major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The first article, on the analysis and interpretation of historical horoscopes as a source of the history of science, is based on the inaugural lecture of its author, Guenther Oestmann. After a general introduction, which deals with the principles of horoscope making, the author discusses the horoscope of Count Heinrich Ranzau (1526-1598), the Danish governor of Schleswig-Holstein, who was a friend of Tycho Brahe. Oestmann shows that the astronomical-mathematical basis of such a horoscope can be reconstructed and interpreted. However, it is hardly possible to gain an insight in the process how the interpretation of a horoscope was done in detail. The second and third articles, by Franz Daxecker, deal with Athanasius Kircher and Christoph Scheiner, two catholic astronomers of the 17th century. Kircher's Organum Mathematicum is a calculating device that can be used in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, chronology, astronomy, astrology and others. The author provides extracts of the description of the Organum taken from a book by Caspar Schott, which deal with chronology and astronomy. A photograph of the Organum indicates that this tool consists of a set of tables glued on wooden or cardboard, but details of its contents and applications remain pretty obscure for the reader - a few elaborated examples would have been helpful. The second paper deals with the life of Christoph Scheiner SJ, the co-discoverer of sunspots (next to Galileo), after leaving Rome in 1633 - the year of the Galileo trial. Scheiner spent his later years in the Austrian and

  14. Verkäuferinnen auf Passagierschiffen

    OpenAIRE

    Feldkamp, Ursula

    2002-01-01

    Beginning in the 1930s, saleswomen were employed on the express steamers BREMEN and EUROPA as well as on passenger ships of the Hamburg Süd. The German Maritime Museum possesses four biographical accounts by women who documented their lives as saleswomen on board in different ways. They signed on as regulars but were employees of firms which had business relationships with the shipping companies. The Ocean Comfort Company of Bremerhaven, for example, ran so-called art salons on the express st...

  15. The new Drop Tower catapult system

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kampen, Peter; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich; Rath, Hans J.

    2006-07-01

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of the "Drop Tower" began. Since then, the eye-catching tower with a height of 146 m and its characteristic glass roof has become the emblem of the technology centre in Bremen. The Drop Tower Bremen provides a facility for experiments under conditions of weightlessness. Items are considered weightless, when they are in "free fall", i.e. moving without propulsion within the gravity field of the earth. The height of the tower limits the simple "free fall" experiment period to max. 4.74 s. With the inauguration of the catapult system in December 2004, the ZARM is entering a new dimension. This world novelty will meet scientists' demands of extending the experiment period up to 9.5 s. Since turning the first sod on May 3rd, 1988, the later installation of the catapult system has been taken into account by building the necessary chamber under the tower. The catapult system is located in a chamber 10 m below the base of the tower. This chamber is almost completely occupied by 12 huge pressure tanks. These tanks are placed around the elongation of the vacuum chamber of the drop tube. In its centre there is the pneumatic piston that accelerates the drop capsule by the pressure difference between the vacuum inside the drop tube and the pressure inside the tanks. The acceleration level is adjusted by means of a servo hydraulic breaking system controlling the piston velocity. After only a quarter of a second the drop capsule achieves its lift-off speed of 175 km/h. With this exact speed, the capsule will rise up to the top of the tower and afterwards fall down again into the deceleration unit which has been moved under the drop tube in the meantime. The scientific advantages of the doubled experiment time are obvious: during almost 10 s of high

  16. Socially disadvantaged city districts show a higher incidence of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarctions with elevated cardiovascular risk factors and worse prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, J; Seide, S; Wienbergen, H; Fiehn, E; Stehmeier, J; Günther, K; Ahrens, W; Hambrecht, R; Pohlabeln, H; Fach, A

    2017-09-22

    The importance of socioeconomic status (SES) for coronary heart disease (CHD)-morbidity is subject of ongoing scientific investigations. This study was to explore the association between SES in different city-districts of Bremen/Germany and incidence, severity, treatment modalities and prognosis for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI). Since 2006 all STEMI-patients from the metropolitan area of Bremen are documented in the Bremen STEMI-registry. Utilizing postal codes of their home address they were assigned to four groups in accordance to the Bremen social deprivation-index (G1: high, G2: intermediate high, G3: intermediate low, G4: low socioeconomic status). Three thousand four hundred sixty-two consecutive patients with STEMI admitted between 2006 and 2015 entered analysis. City areas with low SES showed higher adjusted STEMI-incidence-rates (IR-ratio 1.56, G4 vs. G1). This elevation could be observed in both sexes (women IRR 1.63, men IRR 1.54) and was most prominent in inhabitants  3000 U/l, OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.4-2.8) and severe impairment of LV-function post-STEMI (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.4). Long term follow-up revealed that lower SES was associated with higher major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event (MACCE)-rates after 5 years: G1 30.8%, G2 35.7%, G3 36.0%, G4 41.1%, p (for trend) = 0.02. This worse prognosis could especially be shown for young STEMI-patients (<50 yrs. of age) 5-yr. mortality-rates(G4 vs. G1) 18.4 vs. 3.1%, p = 0.03 and 5-year-MACCE-rates (G4 vs. G1) 32 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.02. This registry-data confirms the negative association of low socioeconomic status and STEMI-incidence, with higher rates of smoking and obesity, more extensive infarctions and worse prognosis for the socio-economically deprived.

  17. Proposal for an Environmental Ship Index. Air pollutants and CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Boer, E.; Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.

    2009-02-15

    This report develops an environmental index for the air emissions of seagoing ships. The ports of Le Havre (France), Antwerp (Belgium), Rotterdam (Netherlands), Bremen and Hamburg (both Germany) want to develop a uniform Environmental Ship Index (ESI) that identifies ships that go beyond the current average technology in reducing air emissions. The index should be transparent, easy to determine and easy to verify. It should build on current legislation on air pollutant emissions. Therefore, the report reviews current legislation, existing indices in the maritime sector and in other modes of transport.

  18. Importance of hemodialysis-related outcomes: comparison of ratings by a self-help group, clinicians, and health technology assessment authors with those by a large reference group of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen IM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Inger M Janssen,1 Fueloep Scheibler,2 Ansgar Gerhardus3,4 1Department of Epidemiology and International Public Health, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, 2Department of Non-Drug Interventions, Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care, Cologne, 3Department for Health Services Research, Institute for Public Health and Nursing Research, University of Bremen, 4Health Sciences Bremen, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany Background: The selection of important outcomes is a crucial decision for clinical research and health technology assessment (HTA, and there is ongoing debate about which stakeholders should be involved. Hemodialysis is a complex treatment for chronic kidney disease (CKD and affects many outcomes. Apart from obvious outcomes, such as mortality, morbidity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL, others such as, concerning daily living or health care provision, may also be important. The aim of our study was to analyze to what extent the preferences for patient-relevant outcomes differed between various stakeholders. We compared preferences of stakeholders normally or occasionally involved in outcome prioritization (patients from a self-help group, clinicians and HTA authors with those of a large reference group of patients. Participants and methods: The reference group consisted of 4,518 CKD patients investigated previously. We additionally recruited CKD patients via a regional self-help group, nephrologists via an online search and HTA authors via an expert database or personal contacts. All groups assessed the relative importance of the 23 outcomes by means of a discrete visual analog scale. We used descriptive statistics to rank outcomes and compare the results between groups. Results: We received completed questionnaires from 49 self-help group patients, 19 nephrologists and 18 HTA authors. Only the following 3 outcomes were ranked within the top 7 outcomes by all 4 groups: safety, HRQoL and emotional state. The

  19. Initiative of the citizen - cooperation by the citizen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusler, D.

    1978-01-01

    The position of Buerger initiatives in the social and the legal system of the FRG was the central subject of the 5th Environment Forum on Nov. 29, 1977 at Bremen, organized by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Umweltfragen (AGU), Bonn. 56 environment experts of groups represented in the AGU (environmental associations, employees, science, industry, Bundestag und Laender parliaments, administration, inidviduals) discussed the matter-of-course of Buerger initiatives,participation of joint boards in the possibility of introducing the action brought by joint boards. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Members of the Forum Engelberg visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Forum Engelberg is an annual interdisciplinary conference held in Engelberg, Switzerland intended to act as an international platform for debate and exchange of views on key issues affecting scientific research, technology, economics and philosophy. Photo 01: Members of the Forum Engelberg and public figures from Geneva visit SM18, the test hall for LHC magnets: (left to right) N. Siegel, Prof. Dr. Med. Bernard Mach, Mr Alexander Höchli, H. Wenninger, Mrs Mireille Quirina, Mme Konrade Von Bremen, Mrs Thérèse Wolf, Prof. Roger Berthouzoz, Mrs Marie-Anne Heimo, Mr Bernard Ecoffey.

  1. Results of the physical-chemical investigations 1992; in tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The ARGE Weser, a cooperative effort of the Laender of Bremen, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen and Thueringen for the abatement of pollution in the Weser river, issues a yearly report which contains the results of the water quality monitoring programmes in the Weser and Werra/Ulster rivers. There is an introductory section with a description of the measuring programme, a map containing the measuring points, a sampling schedule, sampling procedures, and the method of analysis. The report addresses scientific/technical services and universities. It permits a parameter-specific assessment of the water quality of the Weser river. (orig./EF) [de

  2. Formal Development and Verification of Railway Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu Hong, Linh; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    done applying conventional methods where requirements and designs are described using natural language, diagrams and pseudo code, and the verification of requirements has been done by code inspection and non-exhaustive testing. These techniques are not sufficient, leading to errors and an in-effective...... for Strategic Research. The work is affiliated with a number of partners: DTU Compute, DTU Transport, DTU Management, DTU Fotonik, Bremen University, Banedanmark, Trafikstyrelsen, DSB, and DSB S-tog. More information about RobustRails project is available at http://www.dtu.dk/subsites/robustrails/English.aspx...

  3. Compte rendu de Burkhard Pohl, Jörg Türschmann (eds., Miradas glocales. Cine español en el cambio de milenio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Brémard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este libro reúne los trabajos sobre el cine español (desde la década de los 1990 hasta hoy de veinte especialistas europeos, trabajos inicialmente presentados en el marco del Congreso de Hispanistas Alemanes de Bremen (2005. El extraño neologismo del título, tomado de Roland Robertson, designa el matrimonio entre globalización y localización convenido por la gran mayoría de películas españolas del período concernido. Matrimonio de conveniencia ya que se trata de una estrategia comercial que...

  4. Evaluación de extractos vegetales para el control de la broca del café (Hypothenemus hampei, ferrari)

    OpenAIRE

    Niño Osorio, Jaime; Correa N., Yaned Milena; Mosquera M., Oscar M.; Bustamante Peláez, Angélica María

    2007-01-01

    Este trabajo describe la evaluación por antibiosis de la actividad antibroca de 21 extractos metanólicos de las plantas recolectadas en la Reserva Natural Bremen-La Popa (Quindío). Los bioensayos se realizaron bajo condiciones controladas (23 ± 3 ºC; 75 ± 5 % H.R.), utilizando como unidad experimental (UE) un tubo eppendorf al interior del cual se transfirió un grano de café pergamino impregnado del respectivo extracto a 1000 mg/L y una hembra adulta de broca. Se hicieron 90 UE por cada extra...

  5. Members of the Forum Engelberg visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Forum Engelberg is an annual interdisciplinary conference held in Engelberg, Switzerland intended to act as an international platform for debate and exchange of views on key issues affecting scientific research, technology, economics and philosophy. Pictured here in front of String 2 - the full-scale test facility for LHC sytems - are (left to right) H. Wenninger, Mme M. Quirina, Mme Marie-Anne Heimo, N. Siegel, Mme Konrade Von Bremen, Prof. Roger Berthouzoz, Mme Thérèse Wolf, Prof. Dr. Med. Bernard Mach and M. Alexander Höchli.

  6. Report on the 1992 study trip on the Weser aboard the laboratory ship 'Max-Pruess' of the Land North-Rhine-Westfalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    As agreed by the standing committee of the Weser task force ('Arge Weser'), regular trips on the river for taking measurements have been made since 1965. The ninth trip, from May 8th to 14th, 1992 aboard the ''Max Pruess'', a ship equipped with measuring instruments and a laboratory and owned by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia, was concerned with three areas of investigation: A) the Fulda and Werra estuaries, B) the upper and middle Weser (Hann.-Muenden (km 0.0) to Bremen (km 361.1)), C) the lower Weser (Bremen (km 0.0) to Kolumbuskai (km 67.8)). A uniform water quality longitudinal profile of the Weser was established during this trip by means of chemico-physical and biological tests. While investigations by measuring stations cover a longer period of time, the measurements taken during a voyage reflect a transient condition and complement long-term trend investigations. The voyage also permits to gain an overview of relative changes in the condition of the river at various points of its course. The evaluation of the results of this trip is facilitated by investigations of Arge Weser already carried through for the duration of several years and information obtained by previous trips. (orig./EF) [de

  7. Climate change and the Lower Weser region. Final report; Klimaaenderung und Unterweserregion (KLIMU) 'Fallstudie Weseraestuar'. Teilprojekt: Oekologischer Komplex. T. B: Klimasensitivitaet der Unterweser und ihrer Vorlaender. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterkamp, S.; Schirmer, M.

    2000-12-01

    The climate sensitivity of the aquatic, amphibic and terrestrial compartments of the lower Weser region was analyzed. This region, located between Bremen and Bremerhaven in northern Germany, is part of a bigger natural reserve ('Unterwesermarsch'). Vegetation and land use were mapped at the biotype level, and forecasts of changes to be expected were attempted on the basis of a regionalised climate scenario. Climate-induced changes in the topology of the headlands and in the morphology of the lower Weser river could not be taken into account. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit (Teil B: 'Klimasensitivitaet der Unterweser und ihrer Vorlaender') des Teilprojektes Oekologischer Komplex wird die Klimasensitivitaet der aquatischen, amphibischen und terrestrischen Lebensraeume der Unterweserregion analysiert. (Die Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen der Klimasensitivitaet der Marschen sind im Abschlussbericht des Teilprojektes Oekologischer Komplex, Teil A, Kraft and Schirmer 2000 beschrieben). Das Untersuchungsgebiet, im Norden Deutschlands zwischen Bremen und Bremerhaven gelegen, stellt den inneren Teil des Naturraumes Unterwesermarsch dar. Die Vegetation und die Nutzung des Gebietes wurde flaechendeckend auf der Ebene von Biotoptypenkartierungen erfasst. Prognosen der Flaechenbilanzen und der kuenftigen Veraenderung der Biotoptypen und der Fauna des Vorlandes und der Unterweser wurden auf der Grundlage eines regionalisierten Klimaszenarios vorgenommen. Klimabedingte Veraenderungen der Topografie der Vorlandbereiche und der Morphologie der Unterweser konnten innerhalb der vorliegenden Studie nicht beruecksichtigt werden. (orig.)

  8. BEOS-A new approach to promote and organize industrial ISS utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttmann, Helmut; Buchholz, Henning; Bratke, Burkhard; Hueser, Detlev; Dittus, Hansjörg

    2000-01-01

    In order to develop and to market innovative services and products for the operation of the ISS and its utilization, three players have teamed up together and established an entity called BEOS (Bremen Engineering Operations Science). The team is made up of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace, OHB-System and ZARM, the Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity at the University of Bremen. It is the aim of BEOS to represent a competent industrial interface to potential ISS users from the space and non-space industries. In this effort BEOS is supporting and supplementing the activities of the space agencies, especially in the field of industrial and/or commercial ISS utilization. With this approach BEOS is creating new business opportunities not only for its team members but also for its customers from industry. Besides the fostering of industrial research in space, nontechnical fields of space utilization like entertainment, advertisement, education and space travel represent further key sectors for the marketing efforts of BEOS. .

  9. Guidance system monitors regional link network; Leitsystem ueberwacht regionales Verbundleitungsnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgas, O. [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The Harzwasserwerke GmbH, as a regional supplier in Lower Saxony, treat drinking water in dam and ground water works. An approximately 500 km long supply network supplies water to around 70 towns and communities in Northern Germany. This means around one and a half million people are supplied with the life elixir in renowned towns such as Hannover, Wolfsburg (with the Volkswagen AG), Braunschweig, Hildesheim, Goettingen and Bremen. A new network guidance system has been installed to monitor the pipeline system and the feed to water works and feed in and out of high-level reservoirs. (orig.) [German] Die Harzwasserwerke GmbH als Regionalversorger in Niedersachsen bereiten Trinkwasser in Talsperren- und Grundwasserwerken auf. Ueber ein rund 500 km langes Leitungsnetz werden im Norden Deutschlands etwa 70 Staedte und Gemeinden versorgt. Damit werden rund eineinhalb Millionen Menschen mit dem Lebensmittel Nummer Eins, unter anderem in namhaften Staedten wie Hannover, Wolfsburg mit der Volkswagen AG, Braunschweig, Hildesheim, Goettingen und Bremen beliefert. Zur Ueberwachung des Leitungssystems und der Einspeisung an Wasserwerken bzw. Ein- und Ausspeisungen an Hochbehaeltern wurde ein neues Netzleitsystem installiert. (orig.)

  10. A Novel Wearable Forehead EOG Measurement System for Human Computer Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jeong; Yoon, Heenam; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-06-23

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients whose voluntary muscles are paralyzed commonly communicate with the outside world using eye movement. There have been many efforts to support this method of communication by tracking or detecting eye movement. An electrooculogram (EOG), an electro-physiological signal, is generated by eye movements and can be measured with electrodes placed around the eye. In this study, we proposed a new practical electrode position on the forehead to measure EOG signals, and we developed a wearable forehead EOG measurement system for use in Human Computer/Machine interfaces (HCIs/HMIs). Four electrodes, including the ground electrode, were placed on the forehead. The two channels were arranged vertically and horizontally, sharing a positive electrode. Additionally, a real-time eye movement classification algorithm was developed based on the characteristics of the forehead EOG. Three applications were employed to evaluate the proposed system: a virtual keyboard using a modified Bremen BCI speller and an automatic sequential row-column scanner, and a drivable power wheelchair. The mean typing speeds of the modified Bremen brain-computer interface (BCI) speller and automatic row-column scanner were 10.81 and 7.74 letters per minute, and the mean classification accuracies were 91.25% and 95.12%, respectively. In the power wheelchair demonstration, the user drove the wheelchair through an 8-shape course without collision with obstacles.

  11. Working Group for Water Pollution Abatement in the Weser River. Weser water quality report 1998; Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Reinhaltung der Weser. Weserguetebericht 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The ARGE Weser (Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Reinhaltung der Weser), which comprises representatives of the German states of Bremen, Hessen,Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen and Thueringen, publishes a yearly water quality report based on the measuring programmes for the Weser river and for the Werra/Ulster rivers (the latter is a joint project of the states of Hessen and Thrueringen). The Weser river today has a water quality of II-III after the successful implementation of the 1989 action programme. Chloride concentrations were reduced as well, but efforts will still be made by communal authorities, agriculture, industry and administrative bodies if the goals set for 2000 are to be reached.(orig/SR) [Deutsch] Die Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Reinhaltung der Weser (ARGE Weser), der die Bundeslaender Bremen, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen und Thueringen angehoeren, dokumentiert jaehrlich im Weserguetebericht die Ergebnisse des Weser- und des von Hessen und Thueringen gemeinsam gefuehrten Messprogrammes Werra/Ulster. Die Weser weist heute ueberwiegend die Gewaesserguete II-III auf. Dies ist ein Ergebnis des 1989 beschlossenen Aktionsprogrammes. Deutliche Erfolge konnten auch im Hinblick auf die Reduzierung der Chloridbelastung erzielt werden. Die volle Verwirklichung des Aktionsprogrammes Weser bis zum Jahr 2000 wird allerdings noch erhebliche Anstrengungen auf Seiten der Kommunen, der Landwirtschaft, der Industrie und der Verwaltungen erfordern. (orig./SR)

  12. Working Group for Water Pollution Abatement in the Weser River. Weser water quality report 2001; Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Reinhaltung der Weser. Weserguetebericht 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Weser is Germany's only river whose catchment area is entirely in Germany. This opens up interesting options in terms of water quality investigations, water protection measures, and river management. The ARGE Weser working group, which comprises the German states of Bremen, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen and Thueringen, has been carrying out long-term measurements for many years in selected sites on the Werra, Fulda, Weser and Aller rivers. This report presents data, as well as information on the concentrations and action of the analyzed substances. It also presents an evaluation and assessment of the selected substances. [German] Das Einzugsgebiet der Weser befindet sich vollstaendig innerhalb der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Im Vergleich zu anderen bedeutenden deutschen Flusseinzugsgebieten sind mit dieser Besonderheit aussergewoehnliche Moeglichkeiten verbunden. So koennen Gewaesseruntersuchungen, Gewaesserschutz und Bewirtschaftungsmassnahmen effektiv und ohne Hemmnisse durchgefuehrt und umgesetzt werden. Die Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Reinhaltung der Weser (ARGE Weser), der die Bundeslaender Bremen, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen und Thueringen angehoeren, fuehrt seit vielen Jahren an ausgewaehlten Standorten der Werra, Fulda, Weser und Aller Untersuchungen zur Wasserbeschaffenheit durch. Grundlage hierfuer ist das Messprogramm Weser. Der vorliegende Bericht versucht ueber die reine Zahlendokumentation hinaus auch ueber Vorkommen und Wirkungsweise der analysierten Stoffe zu informieren. Die Betrachtung der Messdaten beinhaltet eine Auswertung und Bewertung der ausgewaehlten und untersuchten Substanzen. (orig.)

  13. Radiative transfer modeling through terrestrial atmosphere and ocean accounting for inelastic processes: Software package SCIATRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, V. V.; Dinter, T.; Rozanov, A. V.; Wolanin, A.; Bracher, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2017-06-01

    SCIATRAN is a comprehensive software package which is designed to model radiative transfer processes in the terrestrial atmosphere and ocean in the spectral range from the ultraviolet to the thermal infrared (0.18-40 μm). It accounts for multiple scattering processes, polarization, thermal emission and ocean-atmosphere coupling. The main goal of this paper is to present a recently developed version of SCIATRAN which takes into account accurately inelastic radiative processes in both the atmosphere and the ocean. In the scalar version of the coupled ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer solver presented by Rozanov et al. [61] we have implemented the simulation of the rotational Raman scattering, vibrational Raman scattering, chlorophyll and colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence. In this paper we discuss and explain the numerical methods used in SCIATRAN to solve the scalar radiative transfer equation including trans-spectral processes, and demonstrate how some selected radiative transfer problems are solved using the SCIATRAN package. In addition we present selected comparisons of SCIATRAN simulations with those published benchmark results, independent radiative transfer models, and various measurements from satellite, ground-based, and ship-borne instruments. The extended SCIATRAN software package along with a detailed User's Guide is made available for scientists and students, who are undertaking their own research typically at universities, via the web page of the Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen: http://www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de.

  14. ARGE Weser (Working Group for Water Pollution Abatement in the Weser River). Weser water quality report 1996; Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Reinhaltung der Weser. Weserguetebericht 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The ARGE Weser (Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Reinhaltung der Weser), which comprises representatives of the German states of Bremen, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen and Thueringen, publishes a yearly water quality report based on the measuring programmes for the Weser river and for the Werra/Ulster rivers (the latter is a joint project of the states of Hessen and Thrueringen). The Weser river today has a water quality of II-III after the successful implementation of the 1989 action programme. Chloride concentrations were reduced as well, but efforts will still be made by communal authorities, agriculture, industry and administrative bodies if the goals set for 2000 are to be reached. (orig/AJ) [Deutsch] Die Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Reinhaltung der Weser (ARGE Weser), der die Bundeslaender Bremen, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen und Thueringen angehoeren, dokumentiert jaehrlich im Weserguetebericht die Ergebnisse des Weser- und des von Hessen und Thueringen gemeinsam gefuehrten Messprogrammes Werra/Ulster. Die Weser weist heute ueberwiegend die Gewaesserguete II-III auf. Dies ist ein Ergebnis des 1989 beschlossenen Aktionsprogrammes. Deutliche Erfolge konnten auch im Hinblick auf die Reduzierung der Chloridbelastung erzielt werden. Die volle Verwirklichung des Aktionsprogrammes Weser bis zum Jahr 2000 wird allerdings noch erhebliche Anstrengungen auf Seiten der Kommunen, der Landwirtschaft, der Industrie und der Verwaltungen erfordern. (orig./AJ)

  15. IODP New Ventures in Exploring Scientific Targets (INVEST: Defining the New Goals of an International Drilling Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Inagaki

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The INVEST conference, an international meeting to define the scientific goals and required technology for a new ocean drilling program, was held at the University of Bremen on 22–25 September 2009. Based on the large attendance and vigorous engagement of scientists in the discussion of new science/technology ideas, INVEST was extremely successful. Initially 400 participants were expected, but the INVEST steering and organization committees were thrilled to see a much larger number of scientists flock to Bremen to demonstrate their support and enthusiasm for the continuation of an international scientific ocean drilling program. In all, 584 participants, including sixty-four students, from twenty-one nations and >200 institutions and agencies attended the INVEST conference. Contributions to INVEST included 103 submitted white papers that were posted on the INVEST webpage (http://www.marum.de/iodp-invest. html, and breakout discussions in fifty working groups that focused on a range of topics during the course of the conference. In addition, students and early career scientists, as well as national funding agency managers and platform providers, presented a total of eighty-six posters. Interspersed with the working group and plenary sessions were twelve keynote lectures, chosen to highlight overarching themes and new directions in research and technology.

  16. CoMA, an experiment for the detailed in-situ analysis of collected cometary particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissel, J.; Fechtig, H.; Jessberger, E.K.; Krueger, F.R.; Niemczyk, N.; Schaefer, G.; Zscheeg, H.

    1989-01-01

    After NASA accepted for the implementation phase (up to October 1990) our proposal for the CoMA investigation to be flown onboard CRAF to rendezvous with a comet, funding by the BMFT for instrument pre-development has been obtained. Most contracts could be let, some, however, with substantial delay due to administrative problems. Progress can be reported as the group in Bremen could demonstrate a mass resolution of 60 000 for a low magnetic field ICR-experiment, resolving 12 CH + and 13 C + ions. Also a first successful attempt was made to theoretically describe the dust collection efficiencies of different materials. As yet such a model did not exist - a fact that made the interpretation and extrapolation of laboratory data obsolete. The experimental setup in which the Indium liquid ion source is tested could be completed by the successful addition of a bunching structure. In future it will serve those partners that develop in detail the primary beam system. (orig.)

  17. EcoMobility. Changwon 2011 World Congress on Mobility for the Future of Sustainable Cities. A Series of Local Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    More than 390 participants from around the world gathered in Changwon, Republic of Korea to share ideas on sustainable mobility and discuss creative solutions for the future. On the occasion of this global multi-stakeholder forum ICLEI published a series of local case stories to showcase leading visionaries for EcoMobility. These local case stories provide a deeper insight into the practices of sustainable mobility and serve as a source of inspiration for innovative transport solutions. Included are 14 outstanding examples from: Ahmedabad, India; Bologna, Italy; Bremen, Germany; Curitiba, Brazil; Freiburg, Germany; Gaevle, Sweden; Hangzhou, China; La Rochelle, France; London, UK; Lund, Sweden; Portland, USA; Seoul, Republic of Korea; Stockholm, Sweden; and Vancouver, Canada.

  18. Federal Administrative Court on priorities between water law and nuclear law procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    With its decision of November 22, 1979 - BVerwG 4 B 162/79 -, the Federal Administration Court, at the expense of the plaintiff, has judged against a Bremen resident who had lodged a complained against the non-admission of an appeal in a partial verdict by the Lueneburg Higher Administrative Court concerning licenses under water law for Kernkraftwerk Unterweser. The value in litigation for the complaint procedure was set at DM 5000,-. In its partial verdict of February 12, 1979 - VII OVG A 113/77 - the Lueneburg Higher Administrative Court had decided that the plaintiff's rights are not infringed by the administrative steps under water law taken by the defendant district, and that pleas under nuclear law cannot be entered in the present procedure. The Federal Administrative Court was of the same opinion. The reasons for its decision are given in full wording. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 CKA [de

  19. Impact of Sulfide on Nitrate Conversion in Eutrophic Nitrate-Rich Marine Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwermer, Carsten U.; Krieger, Bärbel; Lavik, Gaute

    2006-01-01

    IMPACT OF SULFIDE ON NITRATE CONVERSION IN EUTROPHIC NITRATE-RICH MARINE SLUDGE C.U. Schwermer 1, B.U. Krieger 2, G. Lavik 1, A. Schramm 3, J. van Rijn 4, D. de Beer 1, D. Minz 5, E. Cytryn 4, M. Kuypers 1, A. Gieseke 1 1 Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany; 2 Dept...... nitrate conversion from denitrification to dissimilatory nitrate-reduction to ammonium (DNRA). In situ microsensor profiling in stagnant sludge revealed the typical stratification of nitrate reduction on top of sulfate reduction. Increasing the bulk nitrate concentration lead to a downward shift....... Our results show that the presence of sulfide generally decreased growth rates but increased N2O production. We conclude that sulfide plays a key role in causing incomplete denitrification, presumably by inhibiting the N2O reductase, and enhancing DNRA compared to denitrification.  ...

  20. Chromosome aberration analysis in peripheral lymphocytes of Gulf war and Balkans war veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, H.; Heimers, A.; Frentzel-Beyme, R.; Schott, A.; Hoffmann, W

    2003-07-01

    Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were determined in standard peripheral lymphocyte metaphase preparations of 13 British Gulf War veterans, two veterans of the recent war in the Balkans, and one veteran of both wars. All 16 volunteers suspect exposures to depleted uranium while deployed at the two different theatres of war in 1990 and later on. The Bremen laboratory control served as a reference in this study. Compared with this control there was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of dicentric chromosomes (dic) and centric ring chromosomes (cR) in the veterans' group, indicating a previous exposure to ionising radiation. The statistically significant overdispersion of dic and cR indicates non-uniform irradiation as would be expected after non-uniform exposure and/or exposure to radiation with a high linear energy transfer. The frequency of SCEs was decreased when compared with the laboratory control. (author)

  1. Chromosome aberration analysis in peripheral lymphocytes of Gulf war and Balkans war veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, H.; Heimers, A.; Frentzel-Beyme, R.; Schott, A.; Hoffmann, W.

    2003-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were determined in standard peripheral lymphocyte metaphase preparations of 13 British Gulf War veterans, two veterans of the recent war in the Balkans, and one veteran of both wars. All 16 volunteers suspect exposures to depleted uranium while deployed at the two different theatres of war in 1990 and later on. The Bremen laboratory control served as a reference in this study. Compared with this control there was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of dicentric chromosomes (dic) and centric ring chromosomes (cR) in the veterans' group, indicating a previous exposure to ionising radiation. The statistically significant overdispersion of dic and cR indicates non-uniform irradiation as would be expected after non-uniform exposure and/or exposure to radiation with a high linear energy transfer. The frequency of SCEs was decreased when compared with the laboratory control. (author)

  2. The rights of avoidance of third parties and 'protection laws'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, E.

    1981-01-01

    After having given an account of the rights of avoidance of third parties and their foundation in the law the author cites an atypical example of a right of avoidance, i.e. the corporation suit in the environmental protection law in the German Laender Bremen and Hesse. The corporations can only denounce the violation of the environmental protection law. These regulations constitute the protection law, namely in favour of the interests of nature protection, i.e. public interests. It is natural that the corporation has only be concerned an independent right of conducting a case. The (altruistic) corporation suit is therefore a complaint suit aiming at administration control and not a means of an individual legal protection. (HSCH) [de

  3. Global Interconnectedness - Local Authorities and Transnational Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Krause Hansen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that, in their continuous and proclaimed efforts at "modernizing" themselves, public sector organizations, also at the sub-national level, increasingly envision the new media as an object of policy making and intervention. At the same time, this focus on the new media facilitates transborder networking, taking the shape of globalizing webs that connect the actors internationally through pro- cesses af mediation and with implications for relations af authority and modes of governance. As such, these webs both constitute and facilitate a form of everyday political globalization which is on the rise. Empirically, our account is based on studies of two local authorities, the cities of Vina del Mar in Chile and Bremen in Germany, as two of the transnational networks that connect them.

  4. 8th international workshop on large-scale integration of wind power into power systems as well as on transmission networks for offshore wind farms. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt, Uta; Ackermann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Within the 8th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms at 14th to 15th October, 2009 in Bremen (Federal Republic of Germany), lectures and posters were presented to the following sessions: (1) Keynote session and panel; (2) Grid integration studies and experience: Europe; (3) Connection of offshore wind farms; (4) Wind forecast; (5) High voltage direct current (HVDC); (6) German grid code issues; (7) Offshore grid connection; (8) Grid integration studies and experience: North America; (9) SUPWIND - Decision support tools for large scale integration of wind; (10) Windgrid - Wind on the grid: An integrated approach; (11) IEA Task 25; (12) Grid code issues; (13) Market Issues; (14) Offshore Grid; (15) Modelling; (16) Wind power and storage; (17) Power system balancing; (18) Wind turbine performance; (19) Modelling and offshore transformer.

  5. Analysis of the transport of Chernobyl fallout nuclides through the pasture-cow-milk food chain using a time-dependent model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, G.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, activity concentrations in grass from a pasture situated near Bremen and in milk from one particular cow grazing there were analyzed continuously in order to monitor the time-dependent transfer via the grass-cow-milk food chain. From these data weathering half lives on grass are calculated. Using a three compartment model, transfer rates for the transport of I-131 and Cs-137 into milk are determined. Transfer coefficients from feed to milk for use with equilibrium food chain models are derived. Generally, results are in the range of transfer data reported in the literature. Calculated weathering half lives, however, are in the lower range of values previously reported. (orig.)

  6. Robust Manufacturing Control

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This contributed volume collects research papers, presented at the CIRP Sponsored Conference Robust Manufacturing Control: Innovative and Interdisciplinary Approaches for Global Networks (RoMaC 2012, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, June 18th-20th 2012). These research papers present the latest developments and new ideas focusing on robust manufacturing control for global networks. Today, Global Production Networks (i.e. the nexus of interconnected material and information flows through which products and services are manufactured, assembled and distributed) are confronted with and expected to adapt to: sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes of important parameters which are occurring more and more frequently, event propagation in networks with high degree of interconnectivity which leads to unforeseen fluctuations, and non-equilibrium states which increasingly characterize daily business. These multi-scale changes deeply influence logistic target achievement and call for robust planning and control ...

  7. Fabrication of Complex Optical Components From Mold Design to Product

    CERN Document Server

    Riemer, Oltmann; Gläbe, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    High quality optical components for consumer products made of glass and plastic are mostly fabricated by replication. This highly developed production technology requires several consecutive, well-matched processing steps called a "process chain" covering all steps from mold design, advanced machining and coating of molds, up to the actual replication and final precision measurement of the quality of the optical components. Current market demands for leading edge optical applications require high precision and cost effective parts in large volumes. For meeting these demands it is necessary to develop high quality process chains and moreover, to crosslink all demands and interdependencies within these process chains. The Transregional Collaborative Research Center "Process chains for the replication of complex optical elements" at Bremen, Aachen and Stillwater worked extensively and thoroughly in this field from 2001 to 2012. This volume will present the latest scientific results for the complete process chain...

  8. 5th International Conference on Dynamics in Logistics

    CERN Document Server

    Kotzab, Herbert; Pannek, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings contain research papers presented at the 5th International Conference on Dynamics in Logistics, held in Bremen, Germany, February 2016. The conference is concerned with dynamic aspects of logistic processes and networks. The spectrum of topics reaches from modeling, planning and control of processes over supply chain management and maritime logistics to innovative technologies and robotic applications for cyber-physical production and logistic systems. The growing dynamic confronts the area of logistics with completely new challenges: it must become possible to describe, identify and analyze the process changes. Moreover, logistic processes and networks must be redevised to be rapidly and flexibly adaptable to continuously changing conditions. The book primarily addresses researchers and practitioners from the field of industrial engineering and logistics, but it may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  9. Information operator approach and iterative regularization methods for atmospheric remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doicu, A.; Hilgers, S.; Bargen, A. von; Rozanov, A.; Eichmann, K.-U.; Savigny, C. von; Burrows, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we present the main features of the information operator approach for solving linear inverse problems arising in atmospheric remote sensing. This method is superior to the stochastic version of the Tikhonov regularization (or the optimal estimation method) due to its capability to filter out the noise-dominated components of the solution generated by an inappropriate choice of the regularization parameter. We extend this approach to iterative methods for nonlinear ill-posed problems and derive the truncated versions of the Gauss-Newton and Levenberg-Marquardt methods. Although the paper mostly focuses on discussing the mathematical details of the inverse method, retrieval results have been provided, which exemplify the performances of the methods. These results correspond to the NO 2 retrieval from SCIAMACHY limb scatter measurements and have been obtained by using the retrieval processors developed at the German Aerospace Center Oberpfaffenhofen and Institute of Environmental Physics of the University of Bremen

  10. Reduction of CO2 emissions from road transport in cities impact of dynamic route guidance system on greenhouse gas emission

    CERN Document Server

    Markiewicz, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Michal Markiewicz presents the outcomes of his research regarding the influence of dynamic route guidance system on overall emission of carbon dioxide from road transport in rural areas. Sustainable transportation in smart cities is a big challenge of our time, but before electric vehicles replace vehicles that burn fossil fuels we have to think about traffic optimization methods that reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Contents Comparison of Travel Time Measurements Using Floating Car Data and Intelligent Infrastructure Integration of Cellular Automata Traffic Simulator with CO2 Emission Model Impact of Dynamic Route Guidance System on CO2 Emission Naxos Vehicular Traffic Simulator Target Groups Lecturers and students of computer science, transportation and logistics Traffic engineers The Author Dr. Michal Markiewicz defended his PhD thesis in computer science at the University of Bremen,TZI Technologie-Zentrum Informatik und Informationstechnik, Germany. Currently, he is working on commercializat...

  11. Il fiume nella città: una rete di esperienze a confronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Campus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission promoted, within the context of the InterReg IIIC South program, “The RiverLink”s Project/Program". This particular program is undoubtedly an excellent occasion as an example for a sustainable river-city project. Six European cities are involved in this project: Florence, Bordeaux, Tallinn, Dresden, Seville and Bremen, coordinated by the Environment Direction of Florence.The complete aim of this project is the exchange of experiences and knowledge-base about the management of transformations of this particular urban framework of cities with a river, and the areas surrounding it.Partner cities displayed projects in an International Congress titled, “The River in the City: a networking of experiences to confront and discuss”, that took place in Florence on June, 9th, 2006, and was organized by the Town Planning Department of Environment Direction of Florence Municipality. 

  12. LDRD final report on theory and exploration of quantum-dot optical nonlinearities and coherences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Weng Wah

    2008-01-01

    A microscopic theory for investigating quantum-dot optical properties was developed. The theory incorporated advances on various aspects of quantum-dot physics developed at Sandia and elsewhere. Important components are a non-Markovian treatment of polarization dephasing due to carrier-carrier scattering (developed at Sandia) and a nonperturbative treatment within a polaron picture of the scattering of carriers by longitudinal-optical phonons (developed at Bremen University). A computer code was also developed that provides a detailed accounting of electronic structure influences and a consistent treatment of many-body effects, the latter via the incorporation of results from the microscopic theory. This code was used to explore quantum coherence physics in a quantum-dot system. The investigation furthers the understanding of the underlying differences between atomic quantum coherence and semiconductor quantum coherence, and helps improve the potential of using quantum coherences in quantum computing, coherent control and high-resolution spectroscopy

  13. Multiphysics modelling of the spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, J.; Grant, P.S.; Fritsching, U.; Belkessam, O.; Garmendia, I.; Landaberea, A.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated, multiphysics numerical model has been developed through the joint efforts of the University of Oxford (UK), University of Bremen (Germany) and Inasmet (Spain) to simulate the spray forming process. The integrated model consisted of four sub-models: (1) an atomization model simulating the fragmentation of a continuous liquid metal stream into droplet spray during gas atomization; (2) a droplet spray model simulating the droplet spray mass and enthalpy evolution in the gas flow field prior to deposition; (3) a droplet deposition model simulating droplet deposition, splashing and re-deposition behavior and the resulting preform shape and heat flow; and (4) a porosity model simulating the porosity distribution inside a spray formed ring preform. The model has been validated against experiments of the spray forming of large diameter IN718 Ni superalloy rings. The modelled preform shape, surface temperature and final porosity distribution showed good agreement with experimental measurements

  14. 2nd European Conference on Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wilhelm, Adalbert FX

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a snapshot of the state-of-the-art in classification at the interface between statistics, computer science and application fields. The contributions span a broad spectrum, from theoretical developments to practical applications; they all share a strong computational component. The topics addressed are from the following fields: Statistics and Data Analysis; Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery; Data Analysis in Marketing; Data Analysis in Finance and Economics; Data Analysis in Medicine and the Life Sciences; Data Analysis in the Social, Behavioural, and Health Care Sciences; Data Analysis in Interdisciplinary Domains; Classification and Subject Indexing in Library and Information Science. The book presents selected papers from the Second European Conference on Data Analysis, held at Jacobs University Bremen in July 2014. This conference unites diverse researchers in the pursuit of a common topic, creating truly unique synergies in the process.

  15. [Development of public health regulations for tattooing and piercing and their realization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolondek, U; Stelling, R; Hohmann, H

    1998-03-01

    In the course of prevention of infectious diseases the Public Health office of the city of Bremen has made increase efforts to improve hygienic conditions in tattoo and piercing studios. Defined and practicable hygienic standards have been developed and formulated for and in cooperation with the studios. Supported by intense personal counselling of the studios the hygienic standards are now--after 6-9 months--widely accepted and increasingly observed in practice. This programme has been--as a crucial point--supplemented by intense information for the general public and the customers of the studios in order to support (and control) the practice of hygienic standards in tattooing and piercing also from this point of view.

  16. Members of the Forum Engelberg visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Forum Engelberg is an annual interdisciplinary conference held in Engelberg, Switzerland intended to act as an international platform for debate and exchange of views on key issues affecting scientific research, technology, economics and philosophy. Its President is Hubert Curien - former French Minister of Research and Space Research, and President of the CERN Council from 1994 to 1996. Photo 01: (left to right) Konrade Von Bremen, Claude-Olivier Rochat, T. Virdee and Guillaume Pictet in front of one of the two end-caps of the CMS detector at the assembly site. The brass structure in the top right-hand corner is part of the hadronic calorimeter that will measure the energy of strongly interacting particles produced in collisions at the LHC.

  17. The Documentary Method in Intercultural Research Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Evers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The documentary method appears to be especially suitable for preventing possible ethnocentrisms in the interpretation of data in reconstructive research, as well as for precluding concessions with a statistic and normative cultural concept. As an illustration of this thesis, this article presents a study—undertaken at the Bremen University of Applied Sciences—in which the effects of an intercultural contact programme between international students and German families are analysed. Special emphasis is placed on the question of the students' emotional and cognitive changes, called educational processes ("Bildung" in the educational science. The theoretical and methodological background of the study and exemplary results are presented. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901478

  18. Design and deployment of autoclave pressure vessels for the portable deep-sea drill rig MeBo (Meeresboden-Bohrgerät)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Thomas; Hohnberg, Hans-Jürgen; Wunsch, David; Anders, Erik; Freudenthal, Tim; Huhn, Katrin; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2017-11-01

    Pressure barrels for sampling and preservation of submarine sediments under in situ pressure with the robotic sea-floor drill rig MeBo (Meeresboden-Bohrgerät) housed at the MARUM (Bremen, Germany) were developed. Deployments of the so-called MDP (MeBo pressure vessel) during two offshore expeditions off New Zealand and off Spitsbergen, Norway, resulted in the recovery of sediment cores with pressure stages equaling in situ hydrostatic pressure. While initially designed for the quantification of gas and gas-hydrate contents in submarine sediments, the MDP also allows for analysis of the sediments under in situ pressure with methods typically applied by researchers from other scientific fields (geotechnics, sedimentology, microbiology, etc.). Here we report on the design and operational procedure of the MDP and demonstrate full functionality by presenting the first results from pressure-core degassing and molecular gas analysis.

  19. 4th International Conference on Dynamics in Logistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pannek, Jürgen; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume brings together research papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Dynamics in Logistics, held in Bremen, Germany in February 2014. The conference focused on the identification, analysis and description of the dynamics of logistics processes and networks. Topics covered range from the modeling and planning of processes, to innovative methods like autonomous control and knowledge management, to the latest technologies provided by radio frequency identification, mobile communication, and networking. The growing dynamic poses wholly new challenges: logistics processes and networks must be(come) able to rapidly and flexibly adapt to constantly changing conditions. The book primarily addresses the needs of researchers and practitioners from the field of logistics, but will also be beneficial for graduate students.

  20. Interpretation of ozone vertical profiles and their variations in the Northern hemisphere on the basis of GOME satellite data. Final report; Interpretation von Ozon-Vertikalprofilen und deren Variationen in der noerdlichen Hemisphaere unter Benutzung von GOME Satellitendaten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichmann, K.U.; Bramstedt, K.; Weber, M.; Rozanov, V.; Debeek, R.; Hoogen, R.; Burrows, J.P.

    2000-07-04

    Semiglobal ozone vertical profiles based on GOME measurements were established and evaluated systematically. GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), carried by the ERS-2 satellite, is the first European passive optical sensor for long-term monitoring of ozone, other trace elements, and aerosols. Especially the vertical distribution of ozone in the Arctic region was measured and interpreted with a view to enhanced ozone degradation in the Arctic winter and spring seasons. Apart from the regional variations, also the time variations of the profiles are to provide further information on the dynamics and chemical processes in the polar vortex. The retrieval algorithm used for assessing the ozone vertical profiles, FURM (FUll Retrieval Method), is based on the GOMETRAN radiation transport model developed at Bremen university especially for evaluation of the GOME data. The GOME ozone profiles were validated with ozone probes and other satellite experiments. [German] Ziel des Projektes war eine systematische Bestimmung und Auswertung von semiglobalen Ozonvertikalprofilen aus den Messdaten von GOME. Das auf dem Satelliten ERS-2 fliegende Spektrometer GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) ist der erste europaeische, passive, optische Sensor, der fuer Langzeitmessungen von Ozon, anderen Spurenstoffen und Aerosolen konzipiert wurde. Im Projekt wurde insbesondere die vertikale Verteilung von Ozon in der Arktis bestimmt und interpretiert hinsichtlich des verstaerkten Ozonabbaus im arktischen Winter und Fruehjahr. Neben der raeumlichen Variation sollen auch die zeitlichen Ablaeufe und Veraenderungen der Profile weitere Erkenntnise hinsichtlich der Dynamik und der chemischen Prozesse im Polarwirbel liefern. Der Retrievalalgorithmus zur Bestimmung des Ozonhoehenprofils, FURM (Full Retrieval Method) genannt, basiert auf dem Strahlungstransportmodell GOMETRAN, das an der Universitaet Bremen speziell fuer die Auswertung der Daten des GOME Instrumentes entwickelt wurde

  1. Erratum: Erratum to: The Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Reis, Stefan; Newman, Paul; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Rex, Markus; Santee, Michelle L.; Eckman, Richard S.; Zheng, Xiangdong; Tully, Matthew B.; Stevenson, David S.; Young, Paul; Pyle, John; Weber, Mark; Tamminen, Johanna; Mills, Gina; Bais, Alkiviadis F.; Heaviside, Clare; Zerefos, Christos

    2018-03-01

    The Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 2016 Sophie GODIN-BEEKMANN*1, Irina PETROPAVLOVSKIKH2, Stefan REIS3,20, Paul NEWMAN4, Wolfgang STEINBRECHT5, Markus REX6, Michelle L. SANTEE7, Richard S. ECKMAN8, Xiangdong ZHENG9, Matthew B. TULLY10, David S. STEVENSON11, Paul YOUNG12, John PYLE13, Mark WEBER14, Johanna TAMMINEN15, Gina MILLS16, Alkiviadis F. BAIS17, Clare HEAVISIDE18, and Christos ZEREFOS19 1 Observatoire de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, CNRS, 78280 Guyancourt, France 2 CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA 3 NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Edinburgh EH26 0QB, UK 4 Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA 5 Hohenpeissenberg Meteorological Observatory, Deutscher Wetterdienst, 82383 Hohenpeissenberg, Germany 6 Alfred Wegener Institute, 14401 Potsdam, Germany 7 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, CA 91109, USA 8 NASA Headquarters, Earth Science Division, Washington, DC, USA 9 Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China 10 Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia 11 University of Edinburgh, School of GeoSciences, Edinburgh EH9 3FE, UK 12 Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK 13 University of Cambridge, Department of Chemistry, Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK 14 University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, 28359 Bremen, Germany 15 Finnish Meteorological Institute, Earth Observation, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland 16 NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, Wales, UK 17 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece 18 Public Health England, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, London, UK 19 Research Center for Atmospheric Physics & Climatology, Academy of Athens, Athens 10680, Greece 20 University of Exeter Medical School, Truro TR1 3HD, UK

  2. Wind power project. Investigation of the habitat use of selected native small game species in the vicinity of wind power systems. Final report; Projekt Windkraftanlagen. Untersuchungen zur Raumnutzung ausgewaehlter heimischer Niederwildarten im Bereich von Windkraftanlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlmeyer, K.; Menzel, C.

    2001-04-01

    Acting on behalf of the State Hunting Association of Lower Saxony the Game Research Institute (IWFo) of Hannover Veterinary University carried out a three-year study from April 1998 through March 2001 on the habitat use of selected native small game species in the vicinity of aerogenerators. This final report depicts the animals' preferred places, use of agricultural land, avoidance radius, if any, their activities and exposure to predator pressure. The target species were roe deer, hare, red fox, partridge and carrion crow. The study was carried out in Lower Saxony and Bremen on a total study area of 22.3 km{sup 2}, comprising four areas with running aerogenerators and five control areas without an aerogenerator. All parameters were studied in terms of a comparison between aerogenerator and control areas. The objective was to identify differences in population, use of space and habitat and in behaviour. [German] Am Institut fuer Wildtierforschung an der Tieraerztlichen Hochschule Hannover (IWFo) wurde im Auftrag der Landesjaegerschaft Niedersachsen (LJN) in einer dreijaehrigen Studie von April 1998 bis Maerz 2001 die Raumnutzung ausgewaehlter heimischer Niederwildarten im Bereich von Windkraftanlagen (WKA) untersucht. Im Weiteren wurden Aufenthaltspraeferenzen, Nutzung der landwirtschaftlichen Flaechen, moegliche Naeherungslimits und Aktivitaeten der Wildarten sowie der Beutegreiferdruck dargestellt. Zielarten der Studie waren Rehwild, Feldhase, Rotfuchs, Rebhuhn und Rabenkraehen. Die Untersuchungen wurden in vier Gebieten mit in Betrieb befindlichen WKA sowie in fuenf Referenzgebieten ohne WKA in Niedersachsen und Bremen auf einer Flaeche von insgesamt 22,3 km{sup 2} durchgefuehrt. Alle Parameter wurden vergleichend fuer die WKA- und Referenzgebiete betrachtet. Moegliche Unterschiede im Besatz bzw. Bestand, in Raum- und Habitatnutzung sowie im Verhalten wurden herausgearbeitet. (orig.)

  3. Electromagnetic and Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles XV: Celebrating 150 Years of Maxwell's Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, Andreas; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    The 15th Electromagnetic and Light Scattering Conference (ELS-XV) was held in Leipzig, Germany from 21 to 26 of June 2015. This conference built on the great success of the previous meetings held in Amsterdam (1995), Helsinki(1997) [2], New York City(1998) [3], Vigo (1999),Halifax (2000), Gainesville (2002), Bremen (2003), Salobreña (2005), St. Petersburg (2006), Bodrum (2007), Hatfield (2008), Helsinki (2010), Taormina (2011), and Lille as well as the workshops held in Bremen (1996,1998) and Moscow (1997). As usual, the main objective of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, and PhD students studying various aspects of electromagnetic scattering and to provide a relaxed atmosphere for in-depth discussion of theory, measurements, and applications. Furthermore, ELS-XV supported the United Nations "Year of Light" and celebrated the150th anniversary of Maxwell's electromagnetics. Maxwell's paper on "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" was published in1865 and has widely been acknowledged as one of the supreme achievements in the history of science. The conference was attended by136 scientists from 22 countries. The scientific program included two plenary lectures, 16 invited reviews, 88 contributed oral talks, and 70 poster presentations. The program and the abstracts of conference presentations are available at the conference website http://www.els-xv-2015.net/home.html. Following the well-established ELS practice and with Elsevier's encouragement, we solicited full-size papers for a topical issue of the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (JQSRT). The result of this collective effort is now in the reader's hands. As always, every invited review and regular paper included in this topical issue has undergone the same rigorous peer review process as any other manuscript published in the JQSRT.

  4. Radiative transfer modeling through terrestrial atmosphere and ocean accounting for inelastic processes: Software package SCIATRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanov, V.V.; Dinter, T.; Rozanov, A.V.; Wolanin, A.; Bracher, A.; Burrows, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    SCIATRAN is a comprehensive software package which is designed to model radiative transfer processes in the terrestrial atmosphere and ocean in the spectral range from the ultraviolet to the thermal infrared (0.18–40 μm). It accounts for multiple scattering processes, polarization, thermal emission and ocean–atmosphere coupling. The main goal of this paper is to present a recently developed version of SCIATRAN which takes into account accurately inelastic radiative processes in both the atmosphere and the ocean. In the scalar version of the coupled ocean–atmosphere radiative transfer solver presented by Rozanov et al. we have implemented the simulation of the rotational Raman scattering, vibrational Raman scattering, chlorophyll and colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence. In this paper we discuss and explain the numerical methods used in SCIATRAN to solve the scalar radiative transfer equation including trans-spectral processes, and demonstrate how some selected radiative transfer problems are solved using the SCIATRAN package. In addition we present selected comparisons of SCIATRAN simulations with those published benchmark results, independent radiative transfer models, and various measurements from satellite, ground-based, and ship-borne instruments. The extended SCIATRAN software package along with a detailed User's Guide is made available for scientists and students, who are undertaking their own research typically at universities, via the web page of the Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen: (http://www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de). - Highlights: • A new version of the software package SCIATRAN is presented. • Inelastic scattering in water and atmosphere is implemented in SCIATRAN. • Raman scattering and fluorescence can be included in radiative transfer calculations. • Comparisons to other radiative transfer models show excellent agreement. • Comparisons to observations show consistent results.

  5. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia-associated chromosomal abnormalities and miRNA deregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiefer Y

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yvonne Kiefer1, Christoph Schulte2, Markus Tiemann2, Joern Bullerdiek11Center for Human Genetics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; 2Hematopathology Hamburg, Hamburg, GermanyAbstract: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is the most common leukemia in adults. By cytogenetic investigations major subgroups of the disease can be identified that reflect different routes of tumor development. Of these chromosomal deviations, trisomy 12 and deletions of parts of either the long arm of chromosome 13, the long arm of chromosome 11, or the short arm of chromosome 17 are most commonly detected. In some of these aberrations the molecular target has been identified as eg, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM in case of deletions of chromosomal region 11q22~23 and the genes encoding microRNAs miR-15a/16-1 as likely targets of deletions of chromosomal band 13q14.3. Of note, these aberrations do not characterize independent subgroups but often coexist within the metaphases of one tumor. Generally, complex aberrations are associated with a worse prognosis than simple karyotypic alterations. Due to smaller sizes of the missing segment the detection of recurrent deletions is not always possible by means of classical cytogenetics but requires more advanced techniques as in particular fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Nevertheless, at this time it is not recommended to replace classical cytogenetics by FISH because this would miss additional information given by complex or secondary karyotypic alterations. However, the results of cytogenetic analyses allow the stratification of prognostic and predictive groups of the disease. Of these, the group characterized by deletions involving TP53 is clinically most relevant. In the future refined methods as eg, array-based comparative genomic hybridization will supplement the existing techniques to characterize CLL. Keywords: chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chromosomal abnormality, miRNA deregulation

  6. [Cholera in 1831. Challenges for science and the federal government].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm-Kuhlmann, T

    1989-01-01

    The peak of the first great cholera pandemic in 1831 fomented the controversy among contagionists and non-contagionists. In the following year the public debate centered around the correct interpretation of the recent experiences with cholera. The central government of the bureaucratic-absolutist monarchy in Prussia adhered to a firmly contagionist interpretation of the disease and reacted accordingly. Local authorities in Königsberg and Berlin and the bourgeoisie in the merchant city of Danzig, however, stressed the destructive consequences of the cordon system. They considered the results of an interruption in trade and industry to be worse than the damage inflicted by the epidemic. The summer of 1831 demonstrated that cholera could not be stopped by the cordons, but the King's medical advisors nevertheless remained contagionists. Non-contagionists put forward several hypotheses to explain the origin and the spreading of cholera, mainly "miasma" theory and the Hippocratic paradigm of "epidemic constitution". The correlation between poverty and disease, however, was widely noticed. Physicians in the city of Bremen pointed to the necessity of sanitary precautions to be taken in cholera-free periods. On the other hand, many "honest" citizens believed that individuals with a "dissolute" conduct of life were more at risk to contract cholera than others. Instead of costly sanitary policies, the well-to-do classes preferred to identify the defense against cholera with the segregation of unwelcome elements of society. The article is based on hitherto unpublished sources from the former Prussian State Archives at Merseburg, GDR, and the State Archive of the Hanseatic City of Bremen.

  7. Compositional variations and differential diagenesis in Miocene turbidites from the western coast of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Sonja; Westphal, Hildegard; Munnecke, Axel; Mateu Vicens, Guillem

    2010-05-01

    Compositional variations and differential diagenesis in Miocene turbidites from the western coast of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) Sonja Felder (1), Hildegard Westphal (1), Axel Munnecke (2), Guillem Mateu Vicens (1,3) (1) MARUM and Department of Geosciences, Universität Bremen, Leobener Straße, 28359 Bremen, Germany (2) GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Loewenichstr. 28, 91054 Erlangen, Germany (3) Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Roma "La Sapienza", Ple Aldo 7 Moro, 5. I-00185 Roma, Italy Cyclic alternations of limestone and marl beds crop out along the western coast of the Island of Mallorca. This Miocene succession is traditionally interpreted to represent more weathering-resistant turbidites interlayered by softer hemipelagic background sediment. However, the cementation patterns that dominate the appearance of the outcrop do not always consistently follow sedimentary layering; locally the cemented beds are systematically oblique to the sedimentary layers. Compositional studies demonstrate that differences in non-carbonate fraction, carbonate concentration and fossil content (e.g. foraminiferal assemblages) trace sedimentary bedding, regardless the diagenetic style. Limestone versus marl lithology, in contrast, is defined by the diagenetic style, tight cementation by calcite cements in the limestones versus low porosity and compaction in the marls. The reason for this striking pattern of diagenetic bedding cross-cutting sedimentary layers is assumed to be related to tectonic fracturing, opening pathways for diagenetic fluids. This example cautions the straight-forward interpretation of limestone-marl alternations as direct witnesses of environmental or climatic variations.

  8. ExNum 2016 International Symposium on Experimental Methods and Numerical Simulation in Engineering Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Foreword

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ExNum 2016International Symposium on Experimental Methods and Numerical Simulation in Engineering SciencesSeptember 18th - 21st, 2016Conference Centre Liblice, Liblice, Czech RepublicOrganized by:Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics ASCR, v.v.i.Faculty of Transportation Sciences CTU in PragueBergische Universität Wuppertal, Faculty 5 - Architecture and Civil EngineeringThe International Symposium on Experimental Methods and Numerical Simulation in Engineering Sciences continues the tradition of the Czech-German bilateral symposium founded by prof. Karl-Hans Laermann and prof. Stanislav Holý in 1985. In the following years, the symposium was extensively developed by prof. Josef Jíra. The symposium shall bring together mainly young scientists who are actively involved in experimental solid mechanics, theoretically and practically, in order to exchange experience, to report on the present state-of-art as well as on running research projects, to discuss due questions and problems and to promote the co-operation between individuals as well as between institutions. Therefore in the symposium discussions will play a highly significant role.Scientific Committeeprof. Ing. Ondřej Jiroušek, Ph.D. (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics ASCR, v.v.i.Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing.Dr.h.c.mult. Karl-Hans Laermann (Bergische Universität WuppertalProf. Dr.- Ing. Reinhard Harte (Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Faculty 5 - Architecture and Civil EngineeringProf. Dr.-Ing. Marc Gutermann (Hochschule BremenIng. Daniel Kytýř, Ph.D. (Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Transportation SciencesIng. Petr Zlámal, Ph.D. (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics ASCR, v.v.i.Local Organizing CommitteeTomáš DoktorTomáš FílaNela KrčmářováPetr KoudelkaVeronika KoudelkováDaniel KytýřJan ŠleichrtPetr ZlámalEditorsDaniel KytýřPetr ZlámalScientific GuidanceOndřej Jiroušek

  9. Identifying and prioritising systematic review topics with public health stakeholders: A protocol for a modified Delphi study in Switzerland to inform future research agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Dyon; Mütsch, Margot; Kien, Christina; Gerhardus, Ansgar; Lhachimi, Stefan K

    2017-08-04

    The Cochrane Collaboration aims to produce relevant and top priority evidence that responds to existing evidence gaps. Hence, research priority setting (RPS) is important to identify which potential research gaps are deemed most important. Moreover, RPS supports future health research to conform both health and health evidence needs. However, studies that are prioritising systematic review topics in public health are surprisingly rare. Therefore, to inform the research agenda of Cochrane Public Health Europe (CPHE), we introduce the protocol of a priority setting study on systematic review topics in several European countries, which is conceptualised as pilot. We will conduct a two-round modified Delphi study in Switzerland, incorporating an anonymous web-based questionnaire, to assess which topics should be prioritised for systematic reviews in public health. In the first Delphi round public health stakeholders will suggest relevant assessment criteria and potential priority topics. In the second Delphi round the participants indicate their (dis)agreement to the aggregated results of the first round and rate the potential review topics with the predetermined criteria on a four-point Likert scale. As we invite a wide variety of stakeholders we will compare the results between the different stakeholder groups. We have received ethical approval from the ethical board of the University of Bremen, Germany (principal investigation is conducted at the University of Bremen) and a certificate of non-objection from the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (fieldwork will be conducted in Switzerland). The results of this study will be further disseminated through peer reviewed publication and will support systematic review author groups (i.a. CPHE) to improve the relevance of the groups´ future review work. Finally, the proposed priority setting study can be used as a framework by other systematic review groups when conducting a priority setting study in a different context.

  10. Effectiveness of various formulations of local anesthetics and additives for topical anesthesia – a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilbach C

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Christian Weilbach,1 Christian Hoppe,2 Matthias Karst,3 Michael Winterhalter,4 Konstantinos Raymondos,3 Arthur Schultz,3 Niels Rahe-Meyer2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care, Emergency Medicine and Pain Therapy, St. Josefs-Hospital Cloppenburg, Cloppenburg, 2Clinic for Anesthesiology and Operational Intensive Care, Franziskus Hospital Bielefeld, Bielefeld, 3Clinic for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, 4Clinic for Anesthesiology and Pain Therapy, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Bremen, Germany Background: Topical anesthesia is used to control pain associated with many procedures in medicine. Today, the product most commonly applied for topical anesthesia in Germany is EMLA® (lidocaine/prilocaine. However, since prilocaine is a methemoglobin-inducing agent, there are limitations to its use, especially in neonates and infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prilocaine and lidocaine as well as propylene glycol, a penetration enhancer, and trometamol, a buffer substance, in anesthetic creams.Patients and methods: Twenty-nine healthy adults participated in this study. Standardized creams with eight different compositions were applied and left for 20, 40 or 60 min. After exposure to standardized painful stimuli (blunt/sharp with pressures of 0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 N, subjects rated the experimental pain using a visual analog scale.Results: Significant results were only found with an exposure time of 60 min and a stamp pressure of 0.8 N. At a concentration of 20%, lidocaine was more effective compared to placebo and equally effective compared to lidocaine/prilocaine in controlling pain. The analgesic effect of the cream containing lidocaine 10% and additional trometamol was significantly superior to that of placebo and non-inferior to that of lidocaine/prilocaine. In this study, the penetration enhancer propylene glycol did not accelerate the onset of the analgesic effect. In contrast

  11. Composition Changes After the "Halloween" Solar Proton Event: The High-Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere (HEPPA) Model Versus MIPAS Data Intercomparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, B.; Baumgaertner, A.; Calisto, M.; Egorova, T.; Jackman, C. H.; Kieser, J.; Krivolutsky, A.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Marsh. D. R.; Reddmann, T.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We have compared composition changes of NO, NO2, H2O2,O3, N2O, HNO3 , N2O5, HNO4, ClO, HOCl, and ClONO2 as observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat in the aftermath of the "Halloween" solar proton event (SPE) in October/November 2003 at 25-0.01 hPa in the Northern hemisphere (40-90 N) and simulations performed by the following atmospheric models: the Bremen 2D model (B2dM) and Bremen 3D Chemical Transport Model (B3dCTM), the Central Aerological Observatory (CAO) model, FinROSE, the Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere (HAMMONIA), the Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere (KASIMA), the ECHAM5/MESSY Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model, the modeling tool for SO1ar Climate Ozone Links studies (SOCOL and SOCOLi), and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4). The large number of participating models allowed for an evaluation of the overall ability of atmospheric models to reproduce observed atmospheric perturbations generated by SPEs, particularly with respect to NOS, and ozone changes. We have further assessed the meteorological conditions and their implications on the chemical response to the SPE in both the models and observations by comparing temperature and tracer (CH4 and CO) fields. Simulated SPE-induced ozone losses agree on average within 5% with the observations. Simulated NO(y) enhancements around 1 hPa, however, are typically 30% higher than indicated by the observations which can be partly attributed to an overestimation of simulated electron-induced ionization. The analysis of the observed and modeled NO(y) partitioning in the aftermath of the SPE has demonstrated the need to implement additional ion chemistry (HNO3 formation via ion-ion recombination and water cluster ions) into the chemical schemes. An overestimation of observed H2O2 enhancements by all models hints at an underestimation of the OH/HO2 ratio in the upper polar stratosphere during the SPE. The

  12. A language based on analogy to communicate cultural concepts in SETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Paolo

    2011-02-01

    The present paper is a synthesis of three presentation given by myself at the Toulouse IAC 2001 ( Analogy as a tool to communicate abstract concepts in SETI), the Bremen IAC 2003 ( From maths to culture: towards an effective message), and the Vancouver IAC 2004 ( Philosophical and religious implications of extraterrestrial intelligent life). Its aim is to find a way to make our cultural concepts understandable to hypothetical extraterrestrials (ETs) in a SETI communication. First of all, I expose the reasons why I think that analogy could be a good tool for this purpose. Then, I try to show that this is possible only in the context of an integrated language, using both abstract symbols and pictures, also sketching two practical examples about some basic concepts of our moral and religious tradition. Further studies are required to determine whether this method could be extended to the higher-level abstract concepts in the other fields of our culture. Finally, I discuss the possible role of mathematics, logic and natural science in the construction of an analogy-based language for interstellar messages with a cultural content and a possible way of managing this matter from a social point of view.

  13. Discharge reductions-value for money?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, R G; Coates, R; Taylor, R H

    2004-01-01

    Through the Nuclear Liabilities Management Authority White Paper, the UK Government and the Regulators have signalled a commitment to further improving the operation of the regulatory regime and to its operating within the principles of proportionality, transparency, consistency and accountability which underpin the Government's approach to regulation in general. Particular emphasis is placed upon ensuring that there is greater consistency in the treatment of risk and hazard; proportionate and cost effective delivery of public, worker and environmental protection; and an open and transparently applied regulatory system. The paper uses the historical record of radioactive discharges from BNFL's Sellafield reprocessing site in the UK and seeks to identify what have been the key drivers for change, particularly over the past 20 years of significant discharge reductions. The paper examines the current context for ongoing and future discharges from the site, and the incorporation of the use of the concepts of best practicable environmental option and best practicable means. Intergovernmental commitments such as the OSPAR Sintra and Bremen statements and the developing UK policy framework are also considered, together with BNFL's work with a wide range of 'green' stakeholders. The paper outlines the principal components of BNFL's decision-making processes for discharge control and abatement; and how these interact with the relevant external pressures. It then analyses whether the overall drivers and outcomes align with the declared desire of the UK Government to ensure that the taxpayer receives value for money in the new national arrangements for managing historic nuclear liabilities

  14. Nuclear transports. Unpopular as never before?; Nukleartransporte. Ungeliebter denn je?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2014-11-15

    Since many years there are initiatives in cities with large German seaports to prevent nuclear transports through the cities and transshipment at these harbours. Through the reactor accident in Fukushima and the Federal Government's decision 2011 to opt out, initiatives against nuclear transports seem to have gotten fresh wind in their sails. This is indicated by initiatives in Bremen and Hamburg. Though, to protect health and material goods from hazards and harmful ionising radiation, transportation of radioactive material is regulated by nuclear law as well as traffic law, enactments, guidelines, standards and recommendations, nationally and internationally. These regulations have contributed to the fact that nuclear material has been transported worldwide routinely without harm for the past five decades with an average of roughly 20 million nuclear material transports per year. These attempts disregard that about 95 % of all nuclear transports is not caused by the nuclear energy industry. We should stop demonising nuclear transports and rather acknowledge that they are necessary part of our everyday life.

  15. Once Upon a Time, Scientific Fairy Tales Explaining Topics Related to the Discovery, Protection and Use of the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Mendez, G.; Elyashiv, H.; Reyes-Macaya, D. A.; Jackson, R.; Tangunan, D.; Schmidt, C.; Santos, C.; Hernández-Almeida, I.; Rossel, P. E.; Tamborrino, L.; Müller Dum, D.; Wang, H.; Hohmann, S.; Duran Toro, V.; Stone, J.; Hollstein, M.; Jessen, G.; Jacobi, L.; Böhnert, S.; Ruiz-Soto, S.; Rebotim, A.; Cavaleiro, C. D.; Kirillova, V.; Liu, Y. Y.; Park, E.; Contreras, A.; Mendoza, P.; Greco, M.

    2017-12-01

    "Once Upon a Time… a Scientific Fairy Tale" is a project that aims to communicate science and promote the dialogue between scientists and the general public. An international group of young scientists working in different research fields (marine geochemistry, marine microbiology, marine geology, marine ecology) at various institutions near Bremen have written short stories (tales) with scientific content in a simple language. The target audience for these stories is adults with a connection to children. The major focus of the stories have been human impact in the oceans. The stories will be published by the end of August 2017 in an illustrated Ebook, first in English, German and Spanish. In a second phase of the project the stories will be also published in Italian, French, Chinese, Portuguese, Hebrew, Philipino, Korean, Russian and Farsi. The objective with translating the stories to so many languages is reaching the broader possible audience. Reading events of the stories will provide further platforms for their spreading. The project is one of the winner projects of the competition "Hochschulwettbewerb im Wissenschftsjahr 2016*17 - Meere un Ozeane" (see more information in http://www.hochschulwettbewerb.net/gewinnerprojekte/) of the German foundation "Wissenschaft im Dialog".

  16. Work Process Oriented Learning via Mobile Devices – Theoretical Basics and Examples for a (New Didactical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spöttl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two problems can be identified which counteract the need for further training: On the one hand the clientele of skilled workers is not necessarily keen on further training. On the other hand the time and cost pressure within the sector does not offer any room for time-consuming further training measures far away from the workplace. This is why the project “Virtual Learning on the building site – (Vila-b” was realized in cooperation with the project partners of the University of Bremen (Working group »Digital Media« of the Centre for Information Technology as well as from the economy (Arbeitskreis ökologischer Holzbau e. V. and Claus Holm, pm|c. The project team has tested a concept which facilitated learning adapted to the occupational reality and supported by the advantages of digital media. The central didactical elements for the development of this further training course are the contextual and methodological orientation to real work processes as well as the use of digital mobile media which facilitate learning directly at the workplace. The present article starts with a description of the theoretical basics for learning within the work process and discusses the didactical elements which are necessary for work process oriented learning with digital and mobile media.

  17. Polypharmacy and Renal Failure in Nursing Home Residents: Results of the Inappropriate Medication in Patients with Renal Insufficiency in Nursing Homes (IMREN) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörks, Michael; Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan; Schmiemann, Guido; Hoffmann, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Polypharmacy has become an emerging public health issue in recent years, since use of multiple medications or polypharmacy is beneficial for many conditions, but may also have negative effects like adverse drug reactions. The risk further increases in patients with chronic renal failure, a comorbidity very frequent in nursing home residents. Since more than 50% of all drugs were renally excreted, dose adjustments in patients with renal failure are required. To assess polypharmacy in German nursing homes, in particular in residents with renal failure. Multi-center cross-sectional study in 21 nursing homes in Bremen and Lower Saxony/Germany. Baseline data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Multivariable logistic regression model and 95% confidence intervals were used to study the association of renal failure and polypharmacy. Of all 852 residents, the analysis comprised those 685 with at least one serum creatinine value so that the estimated creatinine clearance could be calculated. Of those, 436 (63.6%) had a severe or moderate renal failure, defined as estimated creatinine clearance renal failure (estimated creatinine clearance renal failure are common in German nursing home residents and an association of both could be found. Further studies are needed to assess the appropriateness of polypharmacy in these patients.

  18. Enhancing Social Competence for Disadvantaged Youth in Pre-Vocational Education: Model Development Through Design-Based Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Kristina Kühn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the enhancement of social competence for disadvantaged young people based on the example of the "Werkschule Bremen" educational course. Theoretical approaches to social competence as a learning outcome are mainly based on the model of social information processing, although the meaning of both practical and experience-oriented approaches is constantly evolving. Taking the specific contextual conditions into account, this study combines qualitative and quantitative methods within the design-based research methodology in order to determine how a location-independent didactical concept to enhance social competence could be created as well as which comparable impacts on the participants' social competence can be verified. The results show that a basic didactical concept is feasible, while the teaching and learning environment has a huge impact on the comparability. It is also clear that the students' motivation to participate depends on both their own and their teachers' interest as well as the teachers' capacity to facilitate safe relationships. As a core result, this study delivers a didactic model that is based on target-controlled experience-oriented learning environments on the practical side and the social information processing approach on the theoretical side.

  19. Verification of the weak equivalence principle of supports and heavy masses using SQUIDs; Ueberpruefung des schwachen Aequivalenzprinzips von Traegern und schwerer Masse mittels Squids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodel, W.; Nietzsche, S.; Neubert, R. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Dittus, H. [Univ. Bremen (Germany). Zentrum fuer angewandte Raumfahrttechnologie und Mikrogravitation

    2003-07-01

    The weak equivalence principle is one of the fundamental hypotheses of general relativity and one of the key elements of our physical picture of the world, but since Galileo there has been no satisfactory way of verifying it. The new SQUID technology may offer a solution. The contribution presents the experiments of Jena University. Applications are envisaged, e.g., in the STEP space mission of the NASA/ESA. [German] Das Schwache Aequivalenzprinzip ist eine der grundlegenden Hypothesen der Allgemeinen Relativitaetstheorie und damit einer der Grundpfeiler unseres physikalischen Weltbildes. Obwohl es seit den ersten Experimenten von Galileo Galilei am Schiefen Turm zu Pisa im Jahre 1638 bis heute schon zahlreiche und immer praeziser werdende Messungen zur Ueberpruefung der Aequivalenz von schwerer und traeger Masse gegeben hat, ist die strenge Gueltigkeit dieses fundamentalen Prinzips experimentell vergleichsweise unzureichend bestimmt. Neuere Methoden, wie der Einsatz SQUID-basierter Messtechnik und die Durchfuehrung von Experimenten auf Satelliten, lassen Verbesserungen schon in naher Zukunft erwarten, so dass theoretische Ueberlegungen zur Vereinigung aller uns bekannten physikalischen Wechselwirkungen, die eine Verletzung des Schwachen Aequivalenzprinzips voraussagen, experimentell eingegrenzt werden koennten. Der Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die an der Universitaet Jena entwickelte SQUID-basierte Messtechnik zum Test des Aequivalenzprinzips und fasst die bisher bei Freifallversuchen am Fallturm Bremen erzielten experimentellen Ergebnisse zusammen. Ein Ausblick auf die geplante Raumfahrtmission STEP der NASA/ESA zum Praezisionstest des Schwachen Aequivalenzprinzips schliesst den Beitrag ab. (orig.)

  20. Use of plastics in blast furnace processes: A contribution to ecologically and economically acceptable recycling of plastic waste; Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen - ein Beitrag zum oekologischen und oekonomischen Recycling von Altkunststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janz, J. [Stahlwerke Bremen GmbH (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The use of plastics in blast furnace processes has a number of advantages. For one thing, existing facilities can be used with only slight reconstruction measures. Next, the blast furnace process does not necessarily require plastics and therefore is independent of the available plastics volume. Further, it has a high utilisation potential. For example, the Bremen blast furnace No. II has only 8 nozzles out of 32 which are suited for plastics, but it can utilize 70,000 t/a, which is more than 13 percent of the total plastics volume collected by DSD. Indepenent eco-balances have shown that there is no better technology on the market at the moment. (orig) [Deutsch] Mit der Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen steht ein Verfahren zur Verfuegung, das sich gleich in mehrfacher Hinsicht vor der Konkurrenz auszeichnet. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Verwertungen wird eine bereits vorhandene Anlage genutzt, an der lediglich zusatzeinrichtungen benoetigt werden. Gleichzeitig wird abfallpolitische Flexibilitaet dadurch erreicht, dass der Hochofen nicht auf das Reduktionsmittel Kunststoff angewiesen ist. Von wesentlicher Bedeutung ist auch die hohe Verwertungskapazitaet eines Hochofens. Unabhaengige Oekobilanzen und eigene Messungen haben zweifelsfrei gezeigt, dass ein besseres Verfahren zur Zeit nicht auf dem Markt ist. (orig)

  1. A large-scale intercomparison of stratospheric vertical distributions of NO2 and BrO retrieved from the SCIAMACHY limb measurements and ground-based twilight observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Alexei; Hendrick, Francois; Lotz, Wolfhardt; van Roozendael, Michel; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John P.

    This study is devoted to the intercomparison of NO2 and BrO vertical profiles obtained from the satellite and ground-based measurements. Although, the ground-based observations are performed only at selected locations, they have a great potential to be used for the validation of satellite measurements since continuous long-term measurement series performed with the same instruments are available. Thus, long-term trends in the observed species can be analyzed and intercompared. Previous intercomparisons of the vertical distributions of NO2 and BrO retrieved from SCIAMACHY limb measurements at the University of Bremen and obtained at IASB-BIRA by applying a profiling technique to ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations have shown a good agreement between the results of completely different measurement techniques. However, only a relatively short time period of one year was analyzed so far which do not allow investigating seasonal variations and trends. Furthermore, some minor discrepancies are still to be analyzed. In the current study, several years datasets obtained at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP) in France and in Harestua in Norway will be compared to the retrievals of SCIAMACHY limb measurements. Seasonal and annual variations will be analyzed and possible reasons for the remaining discrepancies will be discussed.

  2. Fire emissions constrained by the synergistic use of formaldehyde and glyoxal SCIAMACHY columns in a two-compound inverse modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakou, T.; Muller, J.; de Smedt, I.; van Roozendael, M.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wittrock, F.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.

    2008-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO) are carbonyls formed in the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants, anthropogenic activities, and biomass burning. They are also directly emitted by fires. Although this primary production represents only a small part of the global source for both species, yet it can be locally important during intense fire events. Simultaneous observations of formaldehyde and glyoxal retrieved from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument in 2005 and provided by the BIRA/IASB and the Bremen group, respectively, are compared with the corresponding columns simulated with the IMAGESv2 global CTM. The chemical mechanism has been optimized with respect to HCHO and CHOCHO production from pyrogenically emitted NMVOCs, based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) and on an explicit profile for biomass burning emissions. Gas-to-particle conversion of glyoxal in clouds and in aqueous aerosols is considered in the model. In this study we provide top-down estimates for fire emissions of HCHO and CHOCHO precursors by performing a two- compound inversion of emissions using the adjoint of the IMAGES model. The pyrogenic fluxes are optimized at the model resolution. The two-compound inversion offers the advantage that the information gained from measurements of one species constrains the sources of both compounds, due to the existence of common precursors. In a first inversion, only the burnt biomass amounts are optimized. In subsequent simulations, the emission factors for key individual NMVOC compounds are also varied.

  3. Automation and Control of an Imaging Internal Laser Desorption Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometer (I2LD-FTMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McJunkin, Timothy R; Tranter, Troy Joseph; Scott, Jill Rennee

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes the automation of an imaging internal source laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometer (I2LD-FTMS). The I2LD-FTMS consists of a laser-scanning device [Scott and Tremblay, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2002, 73, 1108–1116] that has been integrated with a laboratory-built FTMS using a commercial data acquisition system (ThermoFinnigan FT/MS, Bremen, Germany). A new user interface has been developed in National Instrument's (Austin, Texas) graphical programming language LabVIEW to control the motors of the laser positioning system and the commercial FTMS data acquisition system. A feature of the FTMS software that allows the user to write macros in a scripting language is used creatively to our advantage in creating a mechanism to control the FTMS from outside its graphical user interface. The new user interface also allows the user to configure target locations. Automation of the data analysis along with data display using commercial graphing software is also described.

  4. Hazard Control Extensions in a COTS Based Data Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Torsten; Rakers, Sven; Gronowski, Matthias; Schneegans, Joachim

    2011-08-01

    EML is an electromagnetic levitator for containerless processing of conductive samples on the International Space Station. This material sciences experiment is running in the European Drawer Rack (EDR) facility. The objective of this experiment is to gain insight into the parameters of liquid metal samples and their crystallisation processes without the influence of container walls. To this end the samples are electromagnetically positioned in a coil system and then heated up beyond their melting point in an ultraclean environment.The EML programme is currently under development by Astrium Space Transportation in Friedrichshafen and Bremen; jointly funded by ESA and DLR (on behalf of BMWi, contract 50WP0808). EML consists of four main modules listed in Table 1. The paper focuses mainly on the architecture and design of the ECM module and its contribution to a safe operation of the experiment. The ECM is a computer system that integrates the power supply to the EML experiment, control functions and video handling and compression features. Experiment control is performed by either telecommand or the execution of predefined experiment scripts.

  5. Evaluation of an Intercultural Peer Training for Incoming Undergraduate Students at an International University in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina K. Kedzior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available University education is increasingly becoming international. Therefore, it is important that universities prepare their new students for the challenges of an intercultural academic environment. The aim of the current study was to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of an intercultural peer-to-peer training offered to all new incoming students at Jacobs University Bremen, Germany. The training aims to facilitate the social and academic integration of students at this international university. A total of 117 first-year undergraduate students completed a pen-and-paper questionnaire with 47 items one semester (6 months after attending the intercultural training. The results suggest that participants liked the structure of the training and the use of senior students as peer trainers. It appears that the training improved the awareness of the effects of culture (own and other on the social life of students. However, the training was less adequate at preparing the participants for the student-centered academic culture at this university. In light of its cost-effectiveness, the intercultural training could be easily adopted for use at other universities as part of the campus-wide orientation activities. However, regardless of their culture, all new university students require more assistance to academically adapt to and succeed in multicultural classrooms.

  6. Geophysical validation of SCIAMACHY Limb Ozone Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Brinksma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the quality of the two available SCIAMACHY limb ozone profile products. They were retrieved with the University of Bremen IFE's algorithm version 1.61 (hereafter IFE, and the official ESA offline algorithm (hereafter OL versions 2.4 and 2.5. The ozone profiles were compared to a suite of correlative measurements from ground-based lidar and microwave, sondes, SAGE II and SAGE III (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. To correct for the expected Envisat pointing errors, which have not been corrected implicitly in either of the algorithms, we applied a constant altitude shift of -1.5 km to the SCIAMACHY ozone profiles. The IFE ozone profile data between 16 and 40 km are biased low by 3-6%. The average difference profiles have a typical standard deviation of 10% between 20 and 35 km. We show that more than 20% of the SCIAMACHY official ESA offline (OL ozone profiles version 2.4 and 2.5 have unrealistic ozone values, most of these are north of 15° S. The remaining OL profiles compare well to correlative instruments above 24 km. Between 20 and 24 km, they underestimate ozone by 15±5%.

  7. Inter-comparison of stratospheric O3 and NO2 abundances retrieved from balloon borne direct sun observations and Envisat/SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric O3 and NO2 abundances measured by different remote sensing instruments are inter-compared: (1 Line-of-sight absorptions and vertical profiles inferred from solar spectra in the ultra-violet (UV, visible and infrared (IR wavelength ranges measured by the LPMA/DOAS (Limb Profile Monitor of the Atmosphere/Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy balloon payload during balloon ascent/descent and solar occultation are examined with respect to internal consistency. (2 The balloon borne stratospheric profiles of O3 and NO2 are compared to collocated space-borne skylight limb observations of the Envisat/SCIAMACHY satellite instrument. The trace gas profiles are retrieved from SCIAMACHY spectra using different algorithms developed at the Universities of Bremen and Heidelberg and at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. A comparison scheme is used that accounts for the spatial and temporal mismatch as well as differing photochemical conditions between the balloon and satellite borne measurements. It is found that the balloon borne measurements internally agree to within ±10% and ±20% for O3 and NO2, respectively, whereas the agreement with the satellite is ±20% for both gases in the 20 km to 30 km altitude range and in general worse below 20 km.

  8. Interim balance: Ecology. Oekologische Zwischenbilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogon, E; Jungk, R

    1981-03-01

    The world wide ecology problem is discussed with examples of energy, transportation, chemistry, agriculture and food industry, and water supply. Destruction of nature and human discord is considered. Conservative in our political parties and their views on environmental protection are presented, including alliance between reds and 'greens''. The Rhine initiative is discussed. Lead respects no borders accounts experiences of citizens' action groups in Lothringia and the Saar district. International airport Munich-II/comments by a protestant. 'Give priority to life is hearing on environmental protection. Other subjects include: 'Green's in the Bremen Senate; policy in a hard-hearing world psychology of citizens' action groups; critical ecological research and scientific establishment; full productivity and ecology; the deluge to follow/hints on how to build an ark; symbiosis is more than coexistence/ecologists' social theory; throwing in two hundred elementary particles/on the way to an ecological concept of science; scientific journals; alternative literature; and a teaching model for a teaching subject' ecology'.

  9. MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2 column densities in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Stefan; Weihs, Philipp; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Ostendorf, Mareike; Schönhardt, Anja; Burrows, John P.; Schmalwieser, Alois

    2017-04-01

    In the VINDOBONA (VIenna horizontal aNd vertical Distribution OBservations Of Nitrogen dioxide and Aerosols) project, two Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) systems will be set up at two different locations and altitudes in Vienna, Austria. After comparison measurements in Bremen, Germany, and Cabauw, The Netherlands, the first of the two MAX-DOAS instruments was set up at the University of Veterinary Medicine in the northeastern part of Vienna in December 2016. The instrument performs spectral measurements of visible scattered sunlight at defined horizontal and vertical viewing directions. From these measurements, column densities of NO2 and aerosols are derived by applying the DOAS analysis. First preliminary results are presented. The second MAX-DOAS instrument will be set up in April/May 2017 at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in the northwestern part of Vienna. Once these two instruments are measuring simultaneously, small campaigns including car DOAS zenith-sky and tower DOAS off-axis measurements are planned. The main emphasis of this project will be on the installation and operation of two MAX-DOAS instruments, the improvement of tropospheric NO2 and aerosol retrieval, and the characterization of the horizontal, vertical, and temporal variations of tropospheric NO2 and aerosols in Vienna, Austria.

  10. Video retrieval by still-image analysis with ImageMiner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyss, Jutta; Roeper, M.; Alshuth, Peter; Hermes, Thorsten; Herzog, Otthein

    1997-01-01

    The large amount of available multimedia information (e.g. videos, audio, images) requires efficient and effective annotation and retrieval methods. As videos start playing a more important role in the frame of multimedia, we want to make these available for content-based retrieval. The ImageMiner-System, which was developed at the University of Bremen in the AI group, is designed for content-based retrieval of single images by a new combination of techniques and methods from computer vision and artificial intelligence. In our approach to make videos available for retrieval in a large database of videos and images there are two necessary steps: First, the detection and extraction of shots from a video, which is done by a histogram based method and second, the construction of the separate frames in a shot to one still single images. This is performed by a mosaicing-technique. The resulting mosaiced image gives a one image visualization of the shot and can be analyzed by the ImageMiner-System. ImageMiner has been tested on several domains, (e.g. landscape images, technical drawings), which cover a wide range of applications.

  11. Future of Space Astronomy: A Global Road Map for the Next Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Gehrels, Neil; Corbett, Ian; DeBernardis, Paolo; Machado, Marcos; Griffin, Matt; Hauser, Michael; Manchanda, Ravinder K.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; hide

    2012-01-01

    The use of space techniques continues to play a key role in the advance of astrophysics by providing access to the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio observations to the high energy gamma rays. The increasing size, complexity and cost of large space observatories places a growing emphasis on international collaboration. Furthermore, combining existing and future datasets from space and ground based observatories is an emerging mode of powerful and relatively inexpensive research to address problems that can only be tackled by the application of large multi-wavelength observations. If the present set of space and ground-based astronomy facilities today is impressive and complete, with space and ground based astronomy telescopes nicely complementing each other, the situation becomes concerning and critical in the next 10-20 years. In fact, only a few main space missions are planned, possibly restricted to JWST and, perhaps, WFIRST and SPICA, since no other main facilities are already recommended. A "Working Group on the Future of Space Astronomy" was established at the 38th COSPAR Assembly held in Bremen, Germany in July 2010. The purpose of this Working Group was to establish a roadmap for future major space missions to complement future large ground-based telescopes. This paper presents the results of this study including a number of recommendations and a road map for the next decades of Space Astronomy research.

  12. Measurements of phoretic velocities of aerosol particles in microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodi, F.; Santachiara, G.; Travaini, S.; Vedernikov, A.; Dubois, F.; Minetti, C.; Legros, J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Measurements of thermo- and diffusio-phoretic velocities of aerosol particles (carnauba wax, paraffin and sodium chloride) were performed in microgravity conditions (Drop Tower facility, in Bremen, and Parabolic Flights, in Bordeaux). In the case of thermophoresis, a temperature gradient was obtained by heating the upper plate of the cell, while the lower one was maintained at environmental temperature. For diffusiophoresis, the water vapour gradient was obtained with sintered plates imbued with a water solution of MgCl 2 and distilled water, at the top and at the bottom of the cell, respectively. Aerosol particles were observed through a digital holographic velocimeter, a device allowing the determination of 3-D coordinates of particles from the observed volume. Particle trajectories and consequently particle velocities were reconstructed through the analysis of the sequence of particle positions. The experimental values of reduced thermophoretic velocities are between the theoretical values of Yamamoto and Ishihara [Yamamoto, K., Ishihara, Y., 1988. Thermophoresis of a spherical particle in a rarefied gas of a transition regime. Phys. Fluids. 31, 3618-3624] and Talbot et al. [Talbot, L., Cheng, R.K., Schefer, R.W., Willis, D.R., 1980. Thermophoresis of particles in a heated boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech. 101, 737-758], and do not show a clear dependence on the thermal conductivity of the aerosol. The existence of negative thermophoresis is not confirmed in our experiments. Concerning diffusiophoretic experiments, the results obtained show a small increase of reduced diffusiophoretic velocity with the Knudsen number.

  13. Use of plastics in blast furnace processes: A contribution to ecologically and economically acceptable recycling of plastic waste; Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen - ein Beitrag zum oekologischen und oekonomischen Recycling von Altkunststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janz, J [Stahlwerke Bremen GmbH (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The use of plastics in blast furnace processes has a number of advantages. For one thing, existing facilities can be used with only slight reconstruction measures. Next, the blast furnace process does not necessarily require plastics and therefore is independent of the available plastics volume. Further, it has a high utilisation potential. For example, the Bremen blast furnace No. II has only 8 nozzles out of 32 which are suited for plastics, but it can utilize 70,000 t/a, which is more than 13 percent of the total plastics volume collected by DSD. Indepenent eco-balances have shown that there is no better technology on the market at the moment. (orig) [Deutsch] Mit der Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen steht ein Verfahren zur Verfuegung, das sich gleich in mehrfacher Hinsicht vor der Konkurrenz auszeichnet. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Verwertungen wird eine bereits vorhandene Anlage genutzt, an der lediglich zusatzeinrichtungen benoetigt werden. Gleichzeitig wird abfallpolitische Flexibilitaet dadurch erreicht, dass der Hochofen nicht auf das Reduktionsmittel Kunststoff angewiesen ist. Von wesentlicher Bedeutung ist auch die hohe Verwertungskapazitaet eines Hochofens. Unabhaengige Oekobilanzen und eigene Messungen haben zweifelsfrei gezeigt, dass ein besseres Verfahren zur Zeit nicht auf dem Markt ist. (orig)

  14. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  15. DIVERSIDAD DE MARIPOSAS (LEPIDOPTERA: RHOPALOCERA EN LA PARTE ALTA DE LA CUENCA DEL RÍO EL ROBLE (QUINDÍO-COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOBAR-L. DIEGO

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En siete relictos de bosque y áreas abiertas aledañas con pastizales, en la parte altade la cuenca del Río El Roble (Quindío se registraron 2697 individuos de mariposaspertenecientes a 203 especies, 119 géneros, 20 subfamilias y 6 familias. Los valoresmás altos en riqueza y en abundancia se obtuvieron durante el período seco (mayojuliocuando se registraron 174 especies; en la época lluviosa (abril-junio se registraron146. La riqueza de especies y los valores de abundancia variaron según eltamaño, la estructura, la composición florística y el estado de transformación de losbosques; Membrillal, Bremen y La Siria presentaron la mayor diversidad de especiesdurante ambos periodos. El número de especies observadas en los pastizales entoda la cuenca se acercó al valor esperado según los diferentes estimadores utilizados;en los interiores de los bosques, los valores variaron significativamente respectoa los esperados (40-80% probablemente debido a su estado de conservación.

  16. The founding charter of the Genomic Observatories Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Clark, Melody S; Deck, John; Drummond, Alexei; Faith, Daniel P; Geller, Jonathan; Gilbert, Jack; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Hirsch, Penny R; Leong, Jo-Ann; Meyer, Chris; Obst, Matthias; Planes, Serge; Scholin, Chris; Vogler, Alfried P; Gates, Ruth D; Toonen, Rob; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Barbier, Michèle; Barker, Katherine; Bertilsson, Stefan; Bicak, Mesude; Bietz, Matthew J; Bobe, Jason; Bodrossy, Levente; Borja, Angel; Coddington, Jonathan; Fuhrman, Jed; Gerdts, Gunnar; Gillespie, Rosemary; Goodwin, Kelly; Hanson, Paul C; Hero, Jean-Marc; Hoekman, David; Jansson, Janet; Jeanthon, Christian; Kao, Rebecca; Klindworth, Anna; Knight, Rob; Kottmann, Renzo; Koo, Michelle S; Kotoulas, Georgios; Lowe, Andrew J; Marteinsson, Viggó Thór; Meyer, Folker; Morrison, Norman; Myrold, David D; Pafilis, Evangelos; Parker, Stephanie; Parnell, John Jacob; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Roderick, George K; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Schonrogge, Karsten; Simon, Nathalie; Valette-Silver, Nathalie J; Springer, Yuri P; Stone, Graham N; Stones-Havas, Steve; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Thibault, Kate M; Wecker, Patricia; Wichels, Antje; Wooley, John C; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Zingone, Adriana

    2014-03-07

    The co-authors of this paper hereby state their intention to work together to launch the Genomic Observatories Network (GOs Network) for which this document will serve as its Founding Charter. We define a Genomic Observatory as an ecosystem and/or site subject to long-term scientific research, including (but not limited to) the sustained study of genomic biodiversity from single-celled microbes to multicellular organisms.An international group of 64 scientists first published the call for a global network of Genomic Observatories in January 2012. The vision for such a network was expanded in a subsequent paper and developed over a series of meetings in Bremen (Germany), Shenzhen (China), Moorea (French Polynesia), Oxford (UK), Pacific Grove (California, USA), Washington (DC, USA), and London (UK). While this community-building process continues, here we express our mutual intent to establish the GOs Network formally, and to describe our shared vision for its future. The views expressed here are ours alone as individual scientists, and do not necessarily represent those of the institutions with which we are affiliated.

  17. CASH 2021: Commercial access and space habitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Ferretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frédéric; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J. Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-07-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.

  18. The Norse discovery of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmoen, Iver A

    2005-12-01

    In the late 8th century, the stage for Viking expansion was set by commercial expansion in northwest Europe, the pressure of an increasing population in limited territorial reserves, and the development of the Viking ships. The Norsemen traveled extensively over the oceans, south to the Holy Land, and north to the White Sea and settled over a wide area from Sicily to Greenland. Historical sources, including the reports by Adam of Bremen and the Icelandic Sagas, describe several expeditions from Greenland to Vinland (somewhere along the east coast of North America) in approximately AD 1000 and later. Historians have arrived at highly different conclusions with respect to the location of Vinland (from Labrador to Georgia), but, in 1960, the Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad localized ancient house sites on L'Ans aux Meadows, a small fishing village on the Northern beaches of Newfoundland. From 1961 to 1969, Ingstad and his wife, Anne Stine (an archaeologist), led several archaeological expeditions that revealed Viking turf houses with room for approximately 100 people. They also excavated a smithy, outdoor cooking pits, boathouses, a bathhouse, and enclosures for cattle, in addition to several Viking artifacts. The finds were C dated to AD 990 +/- 30. The present report reviews historical and archaeological evidence indicating the sites to which the Vikings traveled and attempted to settle in the new world.

  19. Interim balance: Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogon, E.; Jungk, R.

    1981-01-01

    Subjects: The ecology problem - world wide. Sectoral balances: The examples of energy, transportation, chemistry, agriculture and food industry, water supply. Destruction of nature and human discord. Conservatives in our political parties and their views on environmental protection. Alliance between reds and 'greens', integration between reds and greens. The Rhine initiative. Lead respects no borders, experiences of citizens' action groups in Lothringia and the Saar district. International airport Munich-II/comments by a protestant. 'Give priority to life'/A hearing on environmental protection. 4:96 - 'greens' in the Bremen Senate. Policy in a hard-hearing world/psychology of citizens' action groups. Critical ecological research and scientific establishment. Full productivity and ecology. The deluge to follow/Hints on how to build an ark. Symbiosis is more than coexistence/Ecologists' social theory. Throwing in two hundred elementary particles/on the way to an ecological concept of science. Scientific journals. Alternative literature. Teaching model for a teaching subject 'ecology'. (orig.) [de

  20. [Preventive health control of U. S. emigrants at the beginning of 20th century on the example of hotel "Emigrants" in Rijeka].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotim Malvić, Jasna

    2015-01-01

    Rijeka inscribed herself on the list of great European emigration ports like Hamburg, Bremen, Liverpool in the end of the year 1903 when a ship of the British Cunard Line established a travel line from Rijeka to New York. Up to the year 1914, 317639 passengers - emigrants travelled to America from the port of Rijeka. The large flow of people caused problems for the city, for that reason, already in 1906 did the Hungarian ministry of home affairs started the construction of a grandiose building intended for the emigrants. When it was opened in 1908 it was named Hotel Emigrants and had a capacity of 2500 guests. The name Hotel was given to him because of the highest construction and sanitary standards applied during his construction, but also because of comfort provided for the emigrants, large bright dormitories, living rooms, one big and spacious terrace and a number of smaller ones indicated more to a touristic hotel than to a house for emigrants. Health surveillance of emigrants was performed by Dr. David Friedman, Dr. Arturo Jellouscheg and Dr. Emil Tauffer. They were in charge in front of the Maritime Gubernia in Rijeka, the U.S. consulate in Rijeka and the Adria Maritime Society. Although the city authorities and the Hungarian authorities boasted of the hotel and the rigid medical control over immigrants which was done there, American authorities have still often returned some emigrants, at the expense of the company, after inspection at Ellis Island revealing that before landing some individuals are sick.

  1. Seasonal sea ice predictions for the Arctic based on assimilation of remotely sensed observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauker, F.; Kaminski, T.; Ricker, R.; Toudal-Pedersen, L.; Dybkjaer, G.; Melsheimer, C.; Eastwood, S.; Sumata, H.; Karcher, M.; Gerdes, R.

    2015-10-01

    The recent thinning and shrinking of the Arctic sea ice cover has increased the interest in seasonal sea ice forecasts. Typical tools for such forecasts are numerical models of the coupled ocean sea ice system such as the North Atlantic/Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Model (NAOSIM). The model uses as input the initial state of the system and the atmospheric boundary condition over the forecasting period. This study investigates the potential of remotely sensed ice thickness observations in constraining the initial model state. For this purpose it employs a variational assimilation system around NAOSIM and the Alfred Wegener Institute's CryoSat-2 ice thickness product in conjunction with the University of Bremen's snow depth product and the OSI SAF ice concentration and sea surface temperature products. We investigate the skill of predictions of the summer ice conditions starting in March for three different years. Straightforward assimilation of the above combination of data streams results in slight improvements over some regions (especially in the Beaufort Sea) but degrades the over-all fit to independent observations. A considerable enhancement of forecast skill is demonstrated for a bias correction scheme for the CryoSat-2 ice thickness product that uses a spatially varying scaling factor.

  2. Review: Birgit Griese, Hedwig Rose Griesehop & Martina Schiebel (Eds. (2004. Perspektiven qualitativer Sozialforschung [Perspectives of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Appel

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This collection of papers gives an insight into the inter-disciplinary debate from the "Interuniversitäres Netzwerk Biographie und Lebensweltforschung" (INBL (Inter-University Network of Biographical and Lebenswelt Research, which is comprised of investigative groups from the Universities of Bremen, Göttingen and Bielefeld. The articles argue mostly about method and methodological aspects of qualitative research. These are reflections on methods and results of qualitative research projects as seen through the various disciplines of Sociology, Educational and Cultural Sciences, Psychology and Ethnology. They are viewed through a range of action fields such as theoretical and applied research and teaching and professional practice—simultaneously a strength and weakness of the book. In spite of an introductory chapter, the connections between the articles are often not explicit. Nevertheless, the book gives interesting suggestions for rumination about real and relevant questions in all aspects of the ongoing development of qualitative research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs050311

  3. Exploring bacterial outer membrane barrier to combat bad bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghai I

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ishan Ghai,1 Shashank Ghai2 1School of Engineering and Life Sciences, Jacobs University, Bremen, 2Leibniz University, Hannover, Germany Abstract: One of the main fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria comprises an effective change in the membrane permeability to antibiotics. The Gram-negative bacterial complex cell envelope comprises an outer membrane that delimits the periplasm from the exterior environment. The outer membrane contains numerous protein channels, termed as porins or nanopores, which are mainly involved in the influx of hydrophilic compounds, including antibiotics. Bacterial adaptation to reduce influx through these outer membrane proteins (Omps is one of the crucial mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance. Thus to interpret the molecular basis of the outer membrane permeability is the current challenge. This review attempts to develop a state of knowledge pertinent to Omps and their effective role in antibiotic influx. Further, it aims to study the bacterial response to antibiotic membrane permeability and hopefully provoke a discussion toward understanding and further exploration of prospects to improve our knowledge on physicochemical parameters that direct the translocation of antibiotics through the bacterial membrane protein channels. Keywords: antibiotics, Gram-negative bacteria, cell envelope, protein channels, nanopores, influx, antibiotic resistance

  4. Das Bremerhavener Grundwasser im Klimawandel - Eine FREEWAT-Fallstudie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleit, Björn; Jensen, Sven; Seiter, Katherina; Siebert, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    A 3D structural model was created for the state of Bremen based on an extensive borehole database. Parameters were assigned to the model by interpretation and interpolation of the borehole descriptions. This structural model was transferred into a flow model via the FREEWAT platform, an open-source plug-in of the free QGIS software, with connection to the MODFLOW code. This groundwater management tool is intended for long-term use. As a case study for the FREEWAT Project, possible effects of climate change on groundwater levels in the Bremerhaven area have been simulated. In addition to the calibration year 2010, scenarios with a sea-level rise and decreasing groundwater recharge were simulated for the years 2040, 2070 and 2100. In addition to seawater intrusion in the coastal area, declining groundwater levels are also a concern. Possibilities for future groundwater management already include active control of the water level of a lake and the harbor basin. With the help of a focused groundwater monitoring program based on the model results, the planned flow model can become an important forecasting tool for groundwater management within the framework of the planned continuous model management and for representing the effects of changing climatic conditions and mitigation measures.

  5. A new vector radiative transfer model as a part of SCIATRAN 3.0 software package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Alexei; Rozanov, Vladimir; Burrows, John P.

    The SCIATRAN 3.0 package is a result of further development of the SCIATRAN 2.x software family which, similar to previous versions, comprises a radiative transfer model and a retrieval block. A major improvement was achieved in comparison to previous software versions by adding the vector mode to the radiative transfer model. Thus, the well-established Discrete Ordinate solver can now be run in the vector mode to calculate the scattered solar radiation including polarization, i.e., to simulate all four components of the Stockes vector. Similar to the scalar version, the simulations can be performed for any viewing geometry typical for atmospheric observations in the UV-Vis-NIR spectral range (nadir, limb, off-axis, etc.) as well as for any observer position within or outside the Earth's atmosphere. Similar to the precursor version, the new model is freely available for non-commercial use via the web page of the University of Bremen. In this presentation a short description of the software package, especially of the new vector radiative transfer model will be given, including remarks on the availability for the scientific community. Furthermore, comparisons to other vector models will be shown and some example problems will be considered where the polarization of the observed radiation must be accounted for to obtain high quality results.

  6. The right understanding of nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baetjer, K.; Begemann, K.; Bleck, J.; Boikat, U.; Carbonell, P.; Helmers, H.; Kirchner, J.; Muschol, E.; Scheer, J.; Schmitz-Feuerhake, I.

    1978-09-01

    As the abstractor found himself unable to point out all the errors of the book, the statement on the back cover is cited in full wording: A boom for nuclear power - in the next 10 years, 40 nuclear power plants will be built in West Germany alone. It is a wellprepared boom: For 20 years, the public has heard about 'cheap, safe, and clean, nuclear power. Yet in spite of this, there is an ever increasing resistance of the public which finds itself threatened, misinformed and lost - left alone also by natural scientists who do not speak in the controversy or against the nuclear propaganda. Here is where this book intends to help. It was written by a group of scientists, students and staff of Bremen university. For three years, they have followed the public discussion of the nuclear problem, often acting as experts on behalf of citizen's groups. In this book, they refer to the propaganda leaflet '66 questions - 66 answers - for a better understanding of nuclear power', which has been distributed in 200,000 copies. To each of the questions and answers they give a detailed reply from the point of view of nuclear power plant opponents. With a summarizing epilogue and a list of explanations of abbreviations and keywards. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Hypermutability of CpG dinucleotides in the propeptide-encoding sequence of the human albumin gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, S.O.; Peach, R.; Myles, T.; George, P.; Arai, Kunio; Madison, J.; Watkins, S.; Putnam, F.W.; Laurell, C.B.; Galliano, M.

    1990-01-01

    An electrophoretically slow albumin variant was detected with a phenotype frequency of about 1:1,000 in Sweden and was also found in a family of Scottish descent from Kaikoura, New Zealand, and in five families in Tradate, Italy. Structural study established that the major variant component was arginyl-albumin, in which arginine at the -1 position of the propeptide is still attached to the processed albumin. A minor component with the amino-terminal sequence of proalbumin was also present as 3-6% of the total albumin. After amplification of the gene segment encoding the prepro sequence of albumin, specific hybridization of DNA to an oligonucleotide probe encoding cysteine at position -2 indicated the mutation of arginine at the -2 position to cysteine (-2 Arg → Cys). This produced the propeptide sequence Arg-Gly-Val-Phe-Cys-Arg. This was confirmed by sequence analysis after pyridylethylation of the cysteine. This mutation produces an alternate signal peptidase cleavage site in the variant proalbumin precursor of arginyl-albumin giving rise to two possible products, arginyl-albumin and the variant proalbumin. Another plasma from Bremen had an alloalbumin with a previously described substitution (1 Asp → Val), which also affects propeptide cleavage. Hypermutability of two CpG dinucleotides in the codons for the diarginyl sequence may account for the frequency of mutations in the propeptide. Mutation at these two sites results in a series of recurrent proalbumin variants that have arisen independently in diverse populations

  8. A differential optical absorption spectroscopy method for retrieval from ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers measurements of the direct solar beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yanfeng; Duan, Minzheng; Tian, Wenshou; Min, Qilong

    2015-08-01

    A differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS)-like algorithm is developed to retrieve the column-averaged dryair mole fraction of carbon dioxide from ground-based hyper-spectral measurements of the direct solar beam. Different to the spectral fitting method, which minimizes the difference between the observed and simulated spectra, the ratios of multiple channel-pairs—one weak and one strong absorption channel—are used to retrieve from measurements of the shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. Based on sensitivity tests, a super channel-pair is carefully selected to reduce the effects of solar lines, water vapor, air temperature, pressure, instrument noise, and frequency shift on retrieval errors. The new algorithm reduces computational cost and the retrievals are less sensitive to temperature and H2O uncertainty than the spectral fitting method. Multi-day Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) measurements under clear-sky conditions at two sites (Tsukuba and Bremen) are used to derive xxxx for the algorithm evaluation and validation. The DOAS-like results agree very well with those of the TCCON algorithm after correction of an airmass-dependent bias.

  9. Laparoscopic Navigated Liver Resection: Technical Aspects and Clinical Practice in Benign Liver Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kleemann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic liver resection has been performed mostly in centers with an extended expertise in both hepatobiliary and laparoscopic surgery and only in highly selected patients. In order to overcome the obstacles of this technique through improved intraoperative visualization we developed a laparoscopic navigation system (LapAssistent to register pre-operatively reconstructed three-dimensional CT or MRI scans within the intra-operative field. After experimental development of the navigation system, we commenced with the clinical use of navigation-assisted laparoscopic liver surgery in January 2010. In this paper we report the technical aspects of the navigation system and the clinical use in one patient with a large benign adenoma. Preoperative planning data were calculated by Fraunhofer MeVis Bremen, Germany. After calibration of the system including camera, laparoscopic instruments, and the intraoperative ultrasound scanner we registered the surface of the liver. Applying the navigated ultrasound the preoperatively planned resection plane was then overlain with the patient's liver. The laparoscopic navigation system could be used under sterile conditions and it was possible to register and visualize the preoperatively planned resection plane. These first results now have to be validated and certified in a larger patient collective. A nationwide prospective multicenter study (ProNavic I has been conducted and launched.

  10. Small-scale impacts as potential trigger for landslides on small Solar system bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Marc; Sierks, Holger; Blum, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a set of experiments to investigate whether millimetre-sized impactors impinging on a granular material at several m s-1 are able to trigger avalanches on small, atmosphereless planetary bodies. These experiments were carried out at the Zentrum für angewandte Raumfahrttechnologie und Mikrogravitation (ZARM) drop tower facility in Bremen, Germany to facilitate a reduced gravity environment. Additional data were gathered at Earth gravity levels in the laboratory. As sample materials we used a ground Howardites, Eucrites and Diogenites (HED) meteorite and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mars-1 Martian soil simulant. We found that this type of small-scale impact can trigger avalanches with a moderate probability, if the target material is tilted to an angle close to the angle of repose. We additionally simulated a small-scale impact using the discrete element method code esys-particle. These simulations show that energy transfer from impactor to the target material is most efficient at low- and moderate-impactor inclinations and the transferred energy is retained in particles close to the surface due to a rapid dissipation of energy in lower material layers driven by inelastic collisions. Through Monte Carlo simulations we estimate the time-scale on which small-scale impacts with the observed characteristics will trigger avalanches covering all steep slopes on the surface of a small planetary body to be of the order 105 yr.

  11. Aerogeophysical survey over Sør Rondane Mountains and its implications for revealing the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieth, Matthias; Steinhage, Daniel; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Jokat, Wilfried

    2013-04-01

    We are presenting new magnetic and gravity data of a high-resolution aerogephysical survey over the area of the Sør Rondane Mountains in the eastern Dronning Maud Land (DML). The aircraft survey is part of the joint geological and geophysical GEA campaign (Geodynamic Evolution of East Antarctica) of the Federal Agency for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) and Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), in cooperation with the Universities of Ghent, Bremen and Bergen. It was completed during the Antarctic summer season 2012/13, covering an area of more than 100000 square kilometer with a line spacing of 5 km. The data will be correlated with geological structures exposed in the mountain range as well as matched and merged with the data sets of the eastern and southern DML (acquired by AWI during the last decade) for comparison and discussion in the greater context of the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica. Preliminary results show that the magnetic anomaly pattern over the Sør Rondane Mountains differs from the pattern found over the central DML mountains as well as from the low amplitude pattern in between both regions, indicating a significant difference in the evolution of this region, which is in accordance with latest geological findings in this region.

  12. Inscribing Authority: Female Title Bearers in Jewish Inscriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Duncan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates representations of gender in the material culture of the ancient synagogue. The pertinent data are numerous dedicatory and funerary inscriptions linking individual Jews, men and women, with titles seemingly associated with leadership in Late Antique synagogues (ca. 200–600 CE. Bernadette Brooten’s influential 1982 monograph argued against the prevailing tendency to characterize these titles as indications of power, authority, and responsibility when associated with men but as meaningless flattery when applied to women. She suggests that synagogue titles denote power, authority and responsibility on all title bearers equally, both men and women. I question the continued utility of proffering female title-holders as enumerable examples of powerful women rescued from their forgotten place in history. Using theoretical insights developed by historians Elizabeth Clark and Gabrielle Spiegel, this paper will engage a comparative analysis with the work of Riet van Bremen and Saba Mahmood to develop new methods of conceptualizing women’s authority in early Jewish communities. I propose that viewing women’s synagogue titles as culturally constructed representations allows for a fruitful inquiry into how women’s titles were used by male-dominated synagogue communities in their self-articulation and public presentation of Judaism.

  13. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry rapid detection of carbapenamase activity in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Abouseada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carbapenamase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii are an increasing threat in hospitals and Intensive Care Units. Accurate and rapid detection of carbapenamase producers has a great impact on patient improvement and aids in implementation of infection control measures. Aim: In this study, we describe the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS to identify carbapenamase-producing A. baumannii isolates in up to 3 h. Isolates and Methods: A total of 50 A. baumannii isolates (of which 39 were carabapenamase producers were tested using MALDI TOF MS. Isolates were incubated for 3 h with 0.25 mg/ml up to 2 mg/ml of imipenem (IMP at 37°C. Supernatants were analysed by MALDI TOF to analyse peaks corresponding to IMP (300 Da and an IMP metabolite (254 Da using UltrafleXtreme (Bruker Daltonics, Bremen, Germany. Results: All carbapenamase-producing isolates were evidenced by the disappearance or reduction in intensity of the 300 Da peak of IPM and the appearance of a 254 Da peak of the IPM metabolite. In isolates that did not produce carbapenamase, the IPM 300 Da peak remained intact. Conclusion: MALDI TOF is a promising tool in the field of diagnostic microbiology that has the ability to transfer identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing time from days to hours.

  14. ``DMS-R, the Brain of the ISS'', 10 Years of Continuous Successful Operation in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Bernd; Scheffers, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Space industries on both sides of the Atlantic were faced with a new situation of collaboration in the beginning of the 1990s.In 1995, industrial cooperation between ASTRIUM ST, Bremen and RSC-E, Moscow started aiming the outfitting of the Russian Service Module ZVEZDA for the ISS with computers. The requested equipments had to provide not only redundancy but fault tolerance and high availability. The design and development of two fault tolerant computers, (FTCs) responsible for the telemetry (Telemetry Computer: TC) and the central control (CC), as well as the man machine interface CPC were contracted to ASTRIUM ST, Bremen. The computer system is responsible e.g. for the life support system and the ISS re-boost control.In July 2000, the integration of the Russian Service Module ZVEZDA with Russian ZARYA FGB and American Node 1 bears witness for transatlantic and European cooperation.The Russian Service module ZVEZDA provides several basic functions as Avionics Control, the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) in the ISS and control of the docked Automatic Transfer Vehicle (ATV) which includes re-boost of ISS. If these elementary functions fail or do not work reliable the effects for the ISS will be catastrophic with respect to Safety (manned space) and ISS mission.For that reason the responsible computer system Data Management System - Russia (DMS-R) is also called "The brain of the ISS".The Russian Service module ZVEZDA, including DMS-R, was launched on 12th of July, 2000. DMS-R was operational also during launch and docking.The talk provide information about the definition, design and development of DMS-R, the integration of DMS-R in the Russian Service module and the maintenance of the system in space. Besides the technical aspects are also the German - Russian cooperation an important subject of this speech. An outlook finalises the talk providing further development activities and application of fault tolerant systems.The importance of the DMS

  15. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danker H. Schaareman

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available - H.J.M. Claessen, Jan van Bremen, Symposion. Tijdschrift voor Maatschappijwetenschap. Onder redactie van Jan van Bremen, Cees Cruson, Helle Snel, Jojada Verrips, Willem Wolters en Ton Zwaan. Uitgave: Stichting voor Maatschappijwetenschappelijk Onderzoek., Cees Cruson, Helle Snel (eds. - H.J.M. Claessen, Neil Lifuka, Logs in the current of the sea. Neil Lifuka’s story of Kioa and the Vaitupu colonists. Edited and introduced by Klaus-Friedrich Koch. With a foreword by Professor H.E. Maude. Cambridge, Mass.: Langdon Associates Press. 1978. - H.J.M. Claessen, R.R. Nayacakalou, Leadership in Fiji. 1975. Melbourne etc.: Oxford University Press. 170 pp. Appendices, tables, notes. - H.J.M. Claessen, Michael W. Young, The ethnography of Malinowski; The Trobriand Islands 1915-1918. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979. Bibliography, Index, illustrations. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, G.B. Milner, Natural symbols in South East Asia. School of Oriental and African Studies, London 1978. 181 p., 13 plates. - P. Kloos, G.N. Appell, Ethical dilemmas in anthropological inquiry: A case book, Waltham (Mass., Crossroads Press, 1978, xii + 291 pp. - David S. Moyer, M.B. Hooker, A concise legal history of South-East Asia. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978. 289 pp. - J.G. Oosten, Henri J.M. Claessen, The early state. Mouton Publishers. The Hague, The Netherlands 1978. XII + 690 pages., P. Skalník (eds. - J.G. Oosten, Jean Poirier, Ethnologie Régionale 2. Asie-Amérique-Mascareignes. Sous la direction de Jean Poirier. Encyclopédie de la Pleiade. Gallimard, Paris 1978. - J.G. Oosten, A. de Ruyter, Een speurtocht naar het denken. Een inleiding tot het structuralisme van Claude Lévi Strauss. Van Gorcum & Comp. N.V., Assen 1979. Serie: Terreinverkenningen in de Culturele Anthropologie, nr. 16. - Anton Ploeg, Raymond C. Kelly, Etoro Social Structure. A study in structural contradiction. Foreword by Marshall Sahlins. The University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, 1974, 1977

  16. Indirect treatment comparison of bevacizumab + interferon-α-2a vs tyrosine kinase inhibitors in first-line metastatic renal cell carcinoma therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald HJ Mickisch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gerald HJ Mickisch1, Björn Schwander2, Bernard Escudier3, Joaquim Bellmunt4, José P Maroto5, Camillo Porta6, Stefan Walzer7, Uwe Siebert8,91Department of Urology, Center of Operative Urology Bremen, Bremen, Germany; 2Department of Outcomes Research, AiM GmbH Assessment-in-Medicine, Lörrach, Germany; 3Immunotherapy Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France; 4Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital del Mar UPF, Barcelona, Spain; 5Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; 6Department of Medical Oncology, IRCCS San Matteo University Hospital Foundation, Pavia, Italy; 7Global Health Economics, F Hoffmann-La Roche Pharmaceuticals AG, Basel, Switzerland; 8Department of Public Health, Medical Decision Making and Health Technology Assessment, UMIT - University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, Hall i.T., Austria; 9Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USABackground: The vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor bevacizumab (BEV given in combination with interferon-α-2a (IFN, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs sunitinib (SUN and pazopanib (PAZ, have all shown significant increase in progression-free survival (PFS in first-line metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC therapy. These targeted therapies are currently competing to be primary choice; hence, in the absence of direct head-to-head comparison, there is a need for valid indirect comparison assessment.Methods: Standard indirect comparison methods were applied to independent review PFS data of the pivotal Phase III trials, to determine indirect treatment comparison hazard-ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. As BEV+IFN and SUN have been compared to IFN, indirect comparison was enabled by the common IFN comparator arms. As PAZ was compared to placebo (PLA, a connector trial (IFN vs PLA was required for the indirect comparison to BEV

  17. Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, Roland; Geomon, Ndacc Infrared, Modelling Working Group

    2010-05-01

    GEOmon, NDACC Infrared, and Modelling Working Group: M.P. Chipperfield (2), M. De Mazière (3), J. Notholt (4), S. Barthlott (1), R.L. Batchelor (5,17), R.D. Blatherwick (16), Th. Blumenstock (1), M.T. Coffey (17), P. Duchatelet (6), H. Fast (7), W. Feng (2), A. Goldman (16), D.W.T. Griffith (8), K. Hamann (1), J.W. Hannigan (17), F. Hase (1), N.B. Jones (8), A. Kagawa (9,10), Y. Kasai (9), O. Kirner (19), R. Kohlhepp (1), W. Kouker (1), I. Kramer (1), R. Lindenmaier (5), E. Mahieu (6), R.L. Mittermeier (7), B. Monge-Sanz (2), I. Murata (12), H. Nakajima (13), I. Morino (11), M. Palm (4), C. Paton-Walsh (8), Th. Reddmann (1), M. Rettinger (15), C.P. Rinsland (18), M. Schneider (1), C. Senten (3), B.-M. Sinnhuber (4), D. Smale (14), K. Strong (5), R. Sussmann (15), J.R. Taylor (5), G. Vanhaelewyn (3), T. Warneke (4), C. Whaley (5), M. Wiehle (1), and S.W. Wood (14) (1) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), IMK-ASF, Karlsruhe, Germany, (2) University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom, (3) Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Brussels, Belgium, (4) University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Bremen, Germany, (5) Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, (6) University of Liège, Institute of Astrophysics and Geophysics, Liège, Belgium, (7) Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, (8) Centre for Atmospheric Chemistry, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia, (9) National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, Japan, (10) Fujitsu FIP Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, (11) Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan, (12) Department of Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Japan, (13) Atmospheric Environment Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan, (14) National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd (NIWA), Lauder, New Zealand, (15) Karlsruhe

  18. Radiative transfer through terrestrial atmosphere and ocean: Software package SCIATRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanov, V.V.; Rozanov, A.V.; Kokhanovsky, A.A.; Burrows, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    tool for a wide range of remote sensing applications. Here, we present some selected comparisons of SCIATRAN simulations to published benchmark results, independent radiative transfer models, and various measurements from satellite, ground-based, and ship instruments. Methods for solving inverse problems related to remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere using the SCIATRAN software are outside the scope of this study and will be discussed in a follow-up paper. The SCIATRAN software package along with a detailed User's Guide is freely available for non-commercial use via the webpage of the Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen: (http://www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de/sciatran). -- Highlights: • The description of the numerical aspects of the vectorial radiative transfer equation solution. • The application of the software for the simulation of radiative transfer in ocean. • The description of bidirectional distribution reflectance function models. • The full description of aerosol, cloud, and trace gases databases used in the framework of SCIATRAN. • The detailed description of applications of SCIATRAN for atmospheric optics

  19. Histórico das hepatites virais History of viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Ferraz da Fonseca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A história das hepatites virais remonta milhares de anos e é fascinante. Quando o ser humano sofreu pela primeira vez a invasão do seu organismo por tais agentes, iniciou-se um ciclo natural e repetitivo capaz de infectar bilhões de seres humanos, dizimar e sequelar milhares de vida. MÉTODOS: Este artigo rever informações científicas disponíveis sobre o histórico das hepatites virais. Todas as informações foram obtidas através de extensa revisão bibliográfica, compreendendo artigos originais e de revisão e consultas na rede internet. RESULTADOS: Existem relatos de surtos de icterícia epidêmica na China há mais de 5.000 anos e na Babilônia, há mais de 2.500 anos. A história catastrófica das grandes epidemias ou pandemias ictéricas são conhecidas e geralmente estão associadas às grandes guerras. Na guerra da Secessão Americana, 40 mil casos ocorreram entre militares da União. Em 1885, um surto de icterícia catarral acometeu 191 trabalhadores do estaleiro de Bremen (Alemanha após vacinação contra varíola. Em 1942, 28.585 soldados contraíram hepatite após inoculação da vacina contra a febre amarela. O número de casos de hepatite durante a Segunda Grande Guerra foi estimado em 16 milhões. Somente no século XX, foram identificados os principais agentes causadores das hepatites virais. O vírus da hepatite B foi o primeiro a ser descoberto. CONCLUSÕES: Neste artigo, a revisão da história das grandes epidemias ocasionadas pelos vírus das hepatites e a descoberta desses agentes revelam singulares peculiaridades, citando como exemplo, a descoberta acidental ou por acaso dos vírus da hepatite B e D.INTRODUCTION: The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives

  20. Composition changes after the "Halloween" solar proton event: the High Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere (HEPPA model versus MIPAS data intercomparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Funke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have compared composition changes of NO, NO2, H2O2, O3, N2O, HNO3, N2O5, HNO4, ClO, HOCl, and ClONO2 as observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat in the aftermath of the "Halloween" solar proton event (SPE in late October 2003 at 25–0.01 hPa in the Northern Hemisphere (40–90° N and simulations performed by the following atmospheric models: the Bremen 2-D model (B2dM and Bremen 3-D Chemical Transport Model (B3dCTM, the Central Aerological Observatory (CAO model, FinROSE, the Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere (HAMMONIA, the Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere (KASIMA, the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC model, the modeling tool for SOlar Climate Ozone Links studies (SOCOL and SOCOLi, and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4. The large number of participating models allowed for an evaluation of the overall ability of atmospheric models to reproduce observed atmospheric perturbations generated by SPEs, particularly with respect to NOy and ozone changes. We have further assessed the meteorological conditions and their implications for the chemical response to the SPE in both the models and observations by comparing temperature and tracer (CH4 and CO fields.

    Simulated SPE-induced ozone losses agree on average within 5 % with the observations. Simulated NOy enhancements around 1 hPa, however, are typically 30 % higher than indicated by the observations which are likely to be related to deficiencies in the used ionization rates, though other error sources related to the models' atmospheric background state and/or transport schemes cannot be excluded. The analysis of the observed and modeled NOy partitioning in the aftermath of the SPE has demonstrated the need to implement

  1. Effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait in cerebral palsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghai S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Shashank Ghai,1 Ishan Ghai,2 Alfred O. Effenberg1 1Institute for Sports Science, Leibniz University Hannover, Hannover, Germany; 2School of Life Sciences, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany Abstract: Auditory entrainment can influence gait performance in movement disorders. The entrainment can incite neurophysiological and musculoskeletal changes to enhance motor execution. However, a consensus as to its effects based on gait in people with cerebral palsy is still warranted. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to analyze the effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters of gait in people with cerebral palsy. Systematic identification of published literature was performed adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine guidelines, from inception until July 2017, on online databases: Web of Science, PEDro, EBSCO, Medline, Cochrane, Embase and ProQuest. Kinematic and spatiotemporal gait parameters were evaluated in a meta-analysis across studies. Of 547 records, nine studies involving 227 participants (108 children/119 adults met our inclusion criteria. The qualitative review suggested beneficial effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait performance among all included studies. The meta-analysis revealed beneficial effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait dynamic index (Hedge’s g=0.9, gait velocity (1.1, cadence (0.3, and stride length (0.5. This review for the first time suggests a converging evidence toward application of rhythmic auditory cueing to enhance gait performance and stability in people with cerebral palsy. This article details underlying neurophysiological mechanisms and use of cueing as an efficient home-based intervention. It bridges gaps in the literature, and suggests translational approaches on how rhythmic auditory cueing can be incorporated in rehabilitation approaches to

  2. CH4 emissions from European Major Population Centers: Results from aircraft-borne CH4 in-situ observations during EMeRGe-Europe campaign 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiger, A.; Klausner, T.; Schlager, H.; Ziereis, H.; Huntrieser, H.; Baumann, R.; Eirenschmalz, L.; Joeckel, P.; Mertens, M.; Fisher, R.; Bauguitte, S.; Young, S.; Andrés Hernández, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Urban environments represent large and diffuse area sources of CH4 including emissions from pipeline leaks, industrial/sewage treatment plants, and landfills. However, there is little knowledge about the exact magnitude of these emissions and their contribution to total anthropogenic CH4. Especially in the context of an urbanizing world, a better understanding of the methane footprint of urban areas is crucial, both with respect to mitigation and projection of climate impacts. Aircraft-borne in-situ measurements are particularly useful to both quantify emissions from such area sources, as well as to study their impact on the regional distribution. However, airborne CH4 observations downstream of European cities are especially sparse.Here we report from aircraft-borne CH4 in-situ measurements as conducted during the HALO aircraft campaign EMeRGe (Effect of Megacities on the Transport and Transformation of Pollutants on the Regional to Global Scales) in July 2017, which was led by the University of Bremen, Germany. During seven research flights, emissions from a variety of European (Mega)-cities were probed at different altitudes from 3km down to 500m, including measurements in the outflows of London, Rome, Po Valley, Ruhr and Benelux. We will present and compare the CH4 distribution measured downstream of the various studied urban hot-spots. With the help of other trace gas measurements (including e.g. CO2, CO, O3, SO2), observed methane enhancements will be attributed to the different potential source types. Finally, by the combination of in-situ measurements and regional model simulations using the EMAC-MECO(n) model, the contribution of emissions from urban centers to the regional methane budget over Europe will be discussed.

  3. Surface Deformation by Thermo-capillary Convection -Sounding Rocket COMPERE Experiment SOURCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Eckart; Dreyer, Michael E.

    The sounding rocket COMPERE experiment SOURCE was successfully flown on MASER 11, launched in Kiruna (ESRANGE), May 15th, 2008. SOURCE has been intended to partly ful-fill the scientific objectives of the European Space Agency (ESA) Microgravity Applications Program (MAP) project AO-2004-111 (Convective boiling and condensation). Three parties of principle investigators have been involved to design the experiment set-up: ZARM for thermo-capillary flows, IMFT (Toulouse, France) for boiling studies, EADS Astrium (Bremen, Ger-many) for depressurization. The scientific aims are to study the effect of wall heat flux on the contact line of the free liquid surface and to obtain a correlation for a convective heat transfer coefficient. The experiment has been conducted along a predefined time line. A preheating sequence at ground was the first operation to achieve a well defined temperature evolution within the test cell and its environment inside the rocket. Nearly one minute after launch, the pressurized test cell was filled with the test liquid HFE-7000 until a certain fill level was reached. Then the free surface could be observed for 120 s without distortion. Afterwards, the first depressurization was started to induce subcooled boiling, the second one to start saturated boiling. The data from the flight consists of video images and temperature measurements in the liquid, the solid, and the gaseous phase. Data analysis provides the surface shape versus time and the corresponding apparent contact angle. Computational analysis provides information for the determination of the heat transfer coefficient in a compensated gravity environment where a flow is caused by the temperature difference between the hot wall and the cold liquid. Correlations for the effective contact angle and the heat transfer coefficient shall be delivered as a function of the relevant dimensionsless parameters. The data will be used for benchmarking of commercial CFD codes and the tank design

  4. Impacts of the January 2005 solar particle events on middle atmospheric chlorine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Holger; Sinnhuber, Miriam; Notholt, Justus; Maik Wissing, Jan; Kallenrode, May-Britt; Santee, Michelle

    It is well established that solar particle events (SPEs) are sources of significant chemical dis-turbances in the Earth's polar atmosphere. The observed SPE effects on nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen compounds have been investigated in some detail in recent years, and they can be reproduced by atmospheric models using basic parametrizations for NOx and HOx produc-tion as a funtion of the particle impact ionisation. However, there are considerable differences between model predictions and measurements concerning several other trace gases including chlorine species. Two major SPEs occurred on January 17, and January 20, 2005. The latter had an exceptionally hard energy spectrum which caused maximum particle impact ionization at stratospheric altitudes. The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on-board the Aura satellite has measured a short-term decrease of HCl in the northern polar region corresponding to January 2005 SPEs. The peak HCl depletion is ˜300 ppt at 35-40 km. This is comparable to the depletion of messopheric HCl observed by the HALOE instrument during the July 2000 SPE. We will present simulation results of the University of Bremen Ion Chemistry (UBIC) model for the SPEs in January 2005 focusing on chlorine species. The simulations indicate that the observed short-term decrease of middle atmospheric HCl is due to a conversion into active chlorine species such as Cl, ClO and HOCl. The magnitude of the observed HCl loss can only be reproduced if reactions of negative chlorine species and the production of O(1 D) from the reaction N(2 D) + O2 are taken into account. The model results will be compared to MLS/Aura data of HCl, HOCl and ClO. Additionally, the impacts of the observed chlorine activation, e.g. on ozone, will be assessed.

  5. Automatische Qualitätsverbesserung von Fraktur-Volltexten aus der Retrodigitalisierung am Beispiel der Zeitschrift Die Grenzboten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Nölte

    2016-03-01

    die Funktionalität der Nachkorrektur deutschsprachiger Frakturschrift erweitert. In einem Ausblick werden Bedarfe und Möglichkeiten für die Zukunft aufgezeigt. Gradually, the humanities are provided with a number of computer based tools and scientific infrastructures of the digital humanities. As digital full text is strongly needed for these tools and infrastructures, the demand for high-quality full texts is constantly rising. OCRed full text from Gothic typeface texts is of considerably worse quality than OCRed full text from Antiqua. The value of uncorrected and unstructured OCR full text is fairly low. As multiple millions of pages need to be processed, the method should be efficient with respect to expenditure and costs. Therefore, we introduce an almost fully automated approach for the post correction of OCR full text. The approach developed at the Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Bremen (SuUB is a straightforward one. One of the requirements, a list of historical word forms, was easily generated. An efficient algorithm carries out the matching of 1,7 million word forms against almost 80 million words taken from the historical journal Die Grenzboten. The parametrization of the algorithm, i.e. the adaption to the specific requirements of the full text project, is comprehensible and easy to understand. The results which can be achieved strongly depend on the initial quality of the full text, the dimension and quality of the list of historical word forms and the error model applied. For example, specific types of errors can only be corrected by taking context information into account. Furthermore, the cloud service overProof was enhanced by the ability to correct German Gothic typeset. This was done in a cooperation with the Australian company ProjectComputing. In the discussion, requirements and options for the future are presented.

  6. 3. A Closed Aquatic System for Space and Earth Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.; Duenne, M.; Jastorff, B.; Ranke, J.; Schirmer, M.

    Increased durations in space travel as well as living in extreme environments are requiring reliable life support systems in general and bioregenerative ones in detail. Waste water management, air revitalization and food production are obviously center goals in this research, however, in addition a potential influence by chemicals, drugs etc. released to the closed environment must be considered. On this basis ecotoxicological data become more and more important for CELSS (Closed Ecological Life Support System) development and performance. The experiences gained during the last years in our research group lead to the development of an aquatic habitat, called AquaHab (formerly CBRU), which is a closed, self-sustaining system with a total water volume of 9 liters. In the frame program of a R&D project funded by the state of Bremen and OHB System, AquaHab is under adaptation to become an ecotoxicological research unit containing for example Japanese Medaka or Zebra Fish, amphipods, water snails and water plants. Test runs were standardized and analytical methods were developed. Beside general biological and water chemical parameters, activity measurements of biotransforming enzymes (G6PDH, CytP450-Oxidase, Peroxidase) and cell viability tests as well as residual analysis of the applied substance and respective metabolites were selected as evaluation criteria. In a first series of tests low doses effects of TBT (Tributyltin, 0.1 to 20 μgTBT/l nominal concentration) were analyzed. The AquaHab and data obtained for applied environmental risk assessment will be presented at the assembly.

  7. Zooming into Molecular Biomarker Distribution through Spatially Resolved Mass Spectrometry on Intact Sediment Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörmer, L.; Fuchser, J.; Alfken, S.; Elvert, M.; Schimmelmann, A.; Hinrichs, K. U.

    2016-02-01

    Marine microorganisms adapt to their habitat by structural modification of their membrane lipids. After sedimentation, and due to their persistence in the sedimentary record, the information archived in them remains available on geological time-scales. Thereby sedimentary lipid biomarkers become important informants of past environments. Conventional biomarker analysis is labor-intensive and requires cm-sized samples, temporal resolution is consequently low. We here present an approach, based on laser desorption ionization (LDI) coupled to ultra high resolution mass spectrometry, that avoids wet-chemical sample preparation and enables analysis directly on sediment sections at sub-mm spatial resolution. Our initial study targeted archaeal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). GDGTS are ubiquitous and persistent components in marine sediments, and used in several, widely recognized paleoenvironmental proxies. Applied to an Eastern Mediterranean Sapropel layer, GDGT-profiles with previously unachieved temporal resolution were obtained, and pointed to a strong influence of high frequency cycles on sea-surface temperature and planktonic archaeal ecology. Spatial information furthermore revealed a new view on the fine-scale patchiness of lipid distribution. Following these pioneering studies, major developments are under way. A dedicated facility has been set up at MARUM/University of Bremen, which combines lipid biomarker and elemental analysis at sub-mm resolution (down to 50 µm). We present methods for other comprehensive lipid biomarkers (e.g. alkenones or sterols) that are currently being targeted; and the application of spatially resolved biomarker analysis to recent laminated sediments (Santa Barbara Basin), yielding informative profiles with subannual resolution. We also discuss criteria for analyte and sample selection, as well as the main potentialities and constraints of this new approach.

  8. Using mobile, internet connected deep sea crawlers for spatial and temporal analysis of cold seep ecosystems and the collection of real-time classroom data for extreme environment education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Autun; Kwasnitschka, Tom; Duda, Alexander; Schwendner, Jakob; Bamberg, Marlene; Sohl, Frank; Doya, Carol; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Best, Mairi; Llovet, Neus Campanya I.; Scherwath, Martin; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2015-04-01

    Cabled internet and power connectivity with the deep sea allow instruments to operate in the deep sea at higher temporal resolutions than was possible historically, with the reliance on battery life and data storage capacities. In addition to the increase in sensor temporal frequency, cabled infrastructures now allow remote access to and control of mobile platforms on the seafloor. Jacobs University Bremen, in combination with collaborators from the Robotic Exploration of Extreme Environments (ROBEX) project, CSIC Barcelona and Ocean Networks Canada have been operating tracked deep sea crawler vehicles at ~890 m depth at the dynamic Barkley Canyon methane seep site, Pacific Canada during the last ~4 years. The vehicle has been able to explore an area of ~50 m radius, allowing repeated visits to numerous microhabitats. Mounting a range of sensors, including temperature, pressure, conductivity, fluorescence, turbidity, flow and methane concentration sensors, as well as various camera systems a large dataset has been compiled. Several methane pockmarks are present in the survey area, and geological, biological and oceanographic changes have been monitored over a range of timescales. Several publications have been produced, and in this presentation we introduce further data currently under analysis. Cabled internet connectivity further allows mobile platforms to be used directly in education. As part of the ROBEX project, researchers and students from both terrestrial and planetary sciences are using the crawler in an ongoing study project. Students are introduced to statistical methods from both fields during the course and in later stages they can plan their own research using the in-situ crawler, and follow the progress of their investigations live, then analyse the collected data using the techniques introduced during the course. Cabled infrastructures offer a unique facility for spatial investigation of extreme ecosystems over time, and for the 'hands on

  9. Microcystis aeruginos strain [D-Leu1] Mcyst-LR producer, from Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Rosso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To show the toxicological and phylogenetic characterization of a native Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa strain (named CAAT 2005-3 isolated from a water body of Buenos Aires province, Argentine. Methods: A M. aeruginosa strain was isolated from the drainage canal of the sewage treatment in the town of Pila, Buenos Aires province, Argentina and acclimated to laboratory conditions. The amplification of cpcBA-IGS Phcocyanin (PC, intergenic spacer and flanking regions was carried out in order to build a phylogenetic tree. An exactive/orbitrap mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany was used for the LC/ESI-HRMS microcystins analysis. The number of cell/mL and [D-Leu1] Mcyst-LR production obtained as a function of time was modelled using the Gompertz equation. Results: The phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequence clustered with others M. aeruginosa sequences obtained from NCBI. The first Argentinian strain of M. aeruginosa (CAAT 2005-3 growing under culture conditions maintains the typical colonial architecture of M. aeruginosa with profuse mucilage. M. aeruginosa CAAT 2005-3 expresses a toxin variant, that was identified by LC-HRMS/Orbitrapas as [D-Leu1] microcystin-LR ([M+H]+=1 037.8 m/z. Conclusions: [D-Leu1] microcystin-LR has been also detected in M. aeruginosa samples from Canada, Brazil and Argentina. This work provides the basis for technological development and production of analytical standards of toxins present in our region.

  10. Development and evaluation of a cancer-related fatigue patient education program: protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görres Stefan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-related fatigue (CRF and its impact on patients' quality of life has been an increasing subject of research. However, in Germany there is a lack of evidence-based interventions consistent with the multidimensional character of fatigue. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a self-management program for disease-free cancer patients to cope with CRF. Methods Based on evidence extracted from a literature review, a curriculum for the self-management program was elaborated. The curriculum was reviewed and validated by an interdisciplinary expert group and the training-modules will be pretested with a small number of participants and discussed in terms of feasibility and acceptance. To determine the efficacy of the program a randomised controlled trial will be carried out: 300 patients will be recruited from oncological practices in Bremen, Germany, and will be allocated to intervention or control group. The intervention group participates in the program, whereas the control group receives standard care and the opportunity to take part in the program after the end of the follow-up (waiting control group. Primary outcome measure is the level of fatigue, secondary outcome measures are quality of life, depression, anxiety, self-efficacy and physical activity. Data will be collected before randomisation, after intervention, and after a follow-up of 6 months. Discussion Because there are no comparable self-management programs for cancer survivors with fatigue, the development of the curriculum has been complex; therefore, the critical appraisal by the experts was an important step to validate the program and their contributions have been integrated into the curriculum. The experts appreciated the program as filling a gap in outpatient cancer care. If the results of the evaluation prove to be satisfactory, the outpatient care of cancer patients can be broadened and supplemented. Trial Registration Clinical

  11. Incidence of anogenital warts in Germany: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolajczyk Rafael T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papilloma virus (HPV types 6 and 11 account for 90 percent of anogenital warts (AGW. Assessment of a potential reduction of the incidence of AGW following introduction of HPV vaccines requires population-based incidence rates. The aim of this study was to estimate incidence rates of AGW in Germany, stratified by age, sex, and region. Additionally, the medical practitioner (gynaecologist, dermatologist, urologist etc. who made the initial diagnosis of AGW was assessed. Methods Retrospective cohort study in a population aged 10 to 79 years in a population-based healthcare insurance database. The database included more than 14 million insurance members from all over Germany during the years 2004-2006. A case of AGW was considered incident if a disease-free period of twelve months preceded the diagnosis. To assess regional variation, analyses were performed by federal state. Results The estimated incidence rate was 169.5/100,000 person-years for the German population aged 10 to 79 years. Most cases occurred in the 15 to 40 years age group. The incidence rate was higher and showed a peak at younger ages in females than in males. The highest incidence rates for both sexes were observed in the city-states Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen. In females, initial diagnosis of AGW was most frequently made by a gynaecologist (71.7%, whereas in males, AGW were most frequently diagnosed by a dermatologist (44.8% or urologist (25.1%. Conclusions Incidence of AGW in Germany is comparable with findings for other countries. As expected, most cases occurred in the younger age groups. The frequency of diagnoses of AGW differs between sexes and women and men receive treatment by doctors of different specialties.

  12. Evaluation of a High Resolving Power Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for Drug Analysis in Terms of Resolving Power and Acquisition Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelander, Anna; Decker, Petra; Baessmann, Carsten; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2011-02-01

    Liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) is applied increasingly to various fields of small molecule analysis. The moderate resolving power (RP) of standard TOFMS instruments poses a risk of false negative results when complex biological matrices are to be analyzed. In this study, the performance of a high resolving power TOFMS instrument (maXis by Bruker Daltonik, Bremen, Germany) was evaluated for drug analysis. By flow injection analysis of critical drug mixtures, including a total of 17 compounds with nominal masses of 212-415 Da and with mass differences of 8.8-23.5 mDa, RP varied from 34,400 to 51,900 (FWHM). The effect of acquisition rate on RP, mass accuracy, and isotopic pattern fit was studied by applying 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 Hz acquisition rates in a 16 min gradient elution LC separation. All three variables were independent of the acquisition rate, with an average mass accuracy and isotopic pattern fit factor (mSigma) of 0.33 ppm and 5.9, respectively. The average relative standard deviation of RP was 1.8%, showing high repeatability. The performance was tested further with authentic urine extracts containing a co-eluting compound pair with a nominal mass of 296 Da and an 11.2 mDa mass difference. The authentic sample components were readily resolved and correctly identified by the automated data analysis. The average RP, mass accuracy, and isotopic pattern fit were 36,600, 0.9 ppm, and 7.3 mSigma, respectively.

  13. Remote sensing of CO2 and CH4 using solar absorption spectrometry with a low resolution spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Notholt

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the last few years solar absorption Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS has been further developed to measure the total columns of CO2 and CH4. The observations are performed at high spectral resolution, typically at 0.02 cm−1. The precision currently achieved is generally better than 0.25%. However, these high resolution instruments are quite large and need a dedicated room or container for installation. We performed these observations using a smaller commercial interferometer at its maximum possible resolution of 0.11 cm−1. The measurements have been performed at Bremen and have been compared to observations using our high resolution instrument also situated at the same location. The high resolution instrument has been successfully operated as part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. The precision of the low resolution instrument is 0.32% for XCO2 and 0.46% for XCH4. A comparison of the measurements of both instruments yields an average deviation in the retrieved daily means of ≤0.2% for CO2. For CH4 an average bias between the instruments of 0.47% was observed. For test cases, spectra recorded by the high resolution instrument have been truncated to the resolution of 0.11 cm−1. This study gives an offset of 0.03% for CO2 and 0.26% for CH4. These results indicate that for CH4 more than 50% of the difference between the instruments results from the resolution dependent retrieval. We tentatively assign the offset to an incorrect a-priori concentration profile or the effect of interfering gases, which may not be treated correctly.

  14. Preface: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) (Košice, Slovakia, 23 27 July 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan; Kováč, Josef; Václavíková, Miroslava; Odenbach, Stefan

    2008-05-01

    The 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) was held in Košice, Slovakia between 23-27 July 2007. Attendance at the conference was high and its motivation was in line with the ten previous ICMF conferences organized in Udine, Orlando, Bangor, Sendai-Tokyo, Riga, Paris, Bhavnagar, Timisoara, Bremen and Guarujá. The conference in Slovakia reflected the scientific community's enthusiasm and worldwide support, with 256 participants, from 30 countries attending.The main objective of ICMF 11 was to promote progress and knowledge in the field of magnetic fluids regarding their chemistry, physical and magnetic properties, heat and mass transfer, surface phenomena, as well as their technological and biomedical applications. As research on magnetic fluids is essentially interdisciplinary, experts from related areas were invited to present their contributions with a view to increasing knowledge in the field and highlighting new trends. Submitted communications were refereed by members of the Scientific Organizing Committee and abstracts were assembled in a book of abstracts. Participants presented 180 posters in two poster sessions and 56 oral presentations. All presentations contributed to a greater understanding of the area, and helped to bridge the gap between physics, chemistry, technology, biology and medical sciences. Contributions to this conference are presented in 115 scientific papers, with some published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and the rest in Magnetohydrodynamics. The organization of the conference was made possible by generous support from the Institute of Experimental Physics and Institute of Geotechnics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, the University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik and the Slovak Physical Society. Financial support from Ferrotec, Cryosoft Ltd, Mikrochem, Liquids Research Ltd, Askony and US Steel Košice, is also gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopcansky, P.; Timko, M.; Vaclavikova, M.

    2007-12-01

    The 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) was held on July 23-27, 2007 in Kosice, Slovakia. The attendance was high and motivated, in line with previous ten conferences within the ICMF series organized in Udine, Orlando, Bangor, Sendai-Tokyo, Riga, Paris, Bhavnagar, Timisoara, Bremen and Guaruja. The conference in Slovakia reflected the enthusiasm of the scientific community from all around the world, with 256 participants from 30 countries. The main objective of ICMF 11 was to promote the progress and the knowledge in the field of magnetic fluids regarding their chemistry, physical and magnetic properties, heat and mass transfer, surface phenomena, as well as their technological and biomedical applications. As the research on magnetic fluids is essentially interdisciplinary, experts from related areas were invited to present their contributions with a view to extend the frontiers of knowledge in the field and to present the new trends. Submitted communications were refereed by the members of the Scientific Organizing Committee and abstracts were assembled in the Book of Abstracts. Participants presented 180 posters in 2 poster sessions and 56 oral presentations. All presentations helped to expand the frontiers of the area and to establish new bridges between physics, chemistry, technology, biology and medical sciences. Outcomes of this conference are presented by 115 scientific papers, which are published partly in the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (JoPCM) and partly in Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The organization of the conference was made possible by generous support from the Institute of Experimental Physics and Institute of Geotechnics of Slovak Academy of Sciences, the University of P.J. Safarik and Slovak Physical Society. Financial support from the Ferrotec, Cryosoft, Mikrochem, Liquids research, Askony, U.S. Steel Kosice, is also gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kooijman

    1960-07-01

    Full Text Available - J.L. Swellengrebel, Jane Belo, Trance in Bali. Columbia University Press, New York 1960. XIII en 284 blz. tekst, 32 blz. foto’s. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, J.M. Gullick, Indigenous Political Systems of Western Malaya. L.S.E. Monographs on Social Anthropology, no. 17. University of London, The Athlone Press, London 1958. 145 pp. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Judith Djamour, Malay kinship and marriage in Singapore. L.S.E. Monographs on Social Anthropology, No. 21. University of London, The Athlone Press, London 1959. 147 pp. - F.D.K. Bosch, A.J. Bernert Kempers, Ancient Indonesian Art. C.P.J. van der Peet, Amsterdam, 1959. 124 blz., 353 pl. - E.M. Uhlenbeck, M.E.J.G. Verstraelen, De bijwoordelijke bepalingen van het werkwoord in enkele Indonesische talen, diss. Utrecht 1955. - E.M. Uhlenbeck, A. Capell, A linguistic survey of the South-Western Pacific. South Pacific Commission Technical Paper no. 70, Noumea, New Caledonia, 1957. IX + 210 pp. with 17 maps. - E.M. Uhlenbeck, C. Maxwell Churchward, Tongan Grammar 1953, Tongan Dictionary 1959, Oxford University Press. - S. Kooijman, Tibor Bodrogi, Oceanian Art. With 160 photographs and 10 colour plates of objects in the custody of the Ethnographical Museum of Budapest. Budapest, 1959. - E.M. Uhlenbeck, H.R. Klieneberger, Bibliography of Oceanic Linguistics. London Oriental Bibliographies Vol. I, 1957. - W.F. Wertheim, Friedrich W. Funke, Dämmerung über Indonesien. Streifzüge durch Sumatra, Java, Bali und Celebes. Carl Schünemann Verlag, Bremen, 1959; 250 pp., 40 blz. foto’s. - G.H.R. von Koenigswald, W.E. le Gros Clark, The antecedents of man. Edinburgh University Publications, Science and Mathematics Texts 2, 1959, pp. 1-374, 152 textfiguren.

  17. [Skin cancer screening and treatment costs : Utilisation of the skin cancer screening and skin cancer treatment costs in organ transplant recipients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckel, D; Schlothauer, N I; Zeeb, H; Wagner, G; Sachse, M M

    2018-04-12

    Organ transplant recipients have an up to 250-times higher risk to develop skin cancer. This article evaluated the utilisation of skin cancer screening and the treatment costs for skin cancer in organ transplant recipients. Patients of the health insurance AOK Bremen/Bremerhaven had been identified and the need for skin cancer prevention trainings was derived. The number of organ transplant recipients (ICD code Z94.0-4) with and without any history of skin cancer (ICD code C43/C44), the utilisation of dermatologic health care services, and the costs for treatments with the diagnosis Z94.0-4 with and without C43/C44 were evaluated. The analyses were carried out for the period from 2009-2014 by using the accounting systems of the AOK. Between 2009 and 2014, 231 organ transplant recipients had been recorded. By mid-2014, 20% of these insured persons developed skin cancer and the mean incidence was 2.76% per year. On average, 43% of these patients were seen by a dermatologist at least once a year, whereby only 15% of the organ transplant recipients participated in the annual skin cancer screening. In 29% of the patients without any history of skin cancer, a skin examination was never performed by a dermatologist or a general practitioner. In all, 17 inpatient cases of organ transplant recipients with the primary diagnosis C43/C44 were analyzed. This resulted in total costs of 54,707 € (on average about 3200 € per case). The increased incidence of skin cancer and the associated treatment costs indicate the need for skin cancer prevention training.

  18. SCIATRAN 3.1: A new radiative transfer model and retrieval package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Alexei; Rozanov, Vladimir; Kokhanovsky, Alexander; Burrows, John P.

    The SCIATRAN 3.1 package is a result of further development of the SCIATRAN 2.X software family which, similar to previous versions, comprises a radiative transfer model and a retrieval block. After an implementation of the vector radiative transfer model in SCIATRAN 3.0 the spectral range covered by the model has been extended into the thermal infrared ranging to approximately 40 micrometers. Another major improvement has been done accounting for the underlying surface effects. Among others, a sophisticated representation of the water surface with a bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) has been implemented accounting for the Fresnel reflection of the polarized light and for the effect of foam. A newly developed representation for a snow surface allows radiative transfer calculations to be performed within an unpolluted or soiled snow layer. Furthermore, a new approach has been implemented allowing radiative transfer calculations to be performed for a coupled atmosphere-ocean system. This means that, the underlying ocean is not considered as a purely reflecting surface any more. Instead, full radiative transfer calculations are performed within the water allowing the user to simulate the radiance within both the atmosphere and the ocean. Similar to previous versions, the simulations can be performed for any viewing geometry typi-cal for atmospheric observations in the UV-Vis-NIR-TIR spectral range (nadir, limb, off-axis, etc.) as well as for any observer location within or outside the Earth's atmosphere including underwater observations. Similar to the precursor version, the new model is freely available for non-commercial use via the web page of the University of Bremen. In this presentation a short description of the software package, especially of the new features of the radiative transfer model is given, including remarks on the availability for the scientific community. Furthermore, some application examples of the radiative transfer model are

  19. Fracture Resistance and Mode of Failure of Ceramic versus Titanium Implant Abutments and Single Implant-Supported Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaireen, Mohd G

    2015-06-01

    The material of choice for implant-supported restorations is affected by esthetic requirements and type of abutment. This study compares the fracture resistance of different types of implant abutments and implant-supported restorations and their mode of failure. Forty-five Oraltronics Pitt-Easy implants (Oraltronics Dental Implant Technology GmbH, Bremen, Germany) (4 mm diameter, 10 mm length) were embedded in clear autopolymerizing acrylic resin. The implants were randomly divided into three groups, A, B and C, of 15 implants each. In group A, titanium abutments and metal-ceramic crowns were used. In group B, zirconia ceramic abutments and In-Ceram Alumina crowns were used. In group C, zirconia ceramic abutments and IPS Empress Esthetic crowns were used. Specimens were tested to failure by applying load at 130° from horizontal plane using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Subsequently, the mode of failure of each specimen was identified. Fracture resistance was significantly different between groups (p Empress crowns supported by zirconia abutments had the lowest fracture loads (p = .000). Fracture modes of metal-ceramic crowns supported by titanium abutments included screw fracture and screw bending. Fracture of both crown and abutment was the dominant mode of failure of In-Ceram/IPS Empress crowns supported by zirconia abutments. Metal-ceramic crowns supported by titanium abutments were more resistant to fracture than In-Ceram crowns supported by zirconia abutments, which in turn were more resistant to fracture than IPS Empress crowns supported by zirconia abutments. In addition, failure modes of restorations supported by zirconia abutments were more catastrophic than those for restorations supported by titanium abutments. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Extension of SCIATRAN by coupling atmospheric and oceanic radiative transfer: First results of comparisons for in-situ and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Mirjam; Rozanov, Vladimir; Bracher, Astrid; Burrows, John P.

    The radiative transfer model SCIATRAN [V. V. Rozanov et al., 2002; A. Rozanov et al., 2005, 2008] has been developed to model atmospheric radiative transfer. This model is mainly applied to improve the analysis of high spectrally resolved satellite data as, for instance, data of the instrument SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHar-tographY) onboard the ENVISAT satellite. Within the present study, SCIATRAN has been extended by taking radiative processes as well as at the atmosphere-water interface as within the water into account, which were caused by water itself and its constituents. Comparisons of this extended version of SCIATRAN for in-situ data and for MERIS satellite information yield first results, which will be shown. It is expected that the new version of SCIATRAN, including the coupling of atmospheric and oceanic radiative transfer, will widen the use of high spectrally resolved data in the form of achieving new findings, such as information about ocean biooptics and biogeochemistry like, for example, biomass of different phytoplankton groups or CDOM fluorescence. In addition, it is awaited that the new version improves the retrieval of atmospheric trace gases above oceanic waters. References: 1. V. V. Rozanov, M. Buchwitz, K.-U. Eichmann, R. de Beek, and J. P. Burrows. Sciatran -a new radiative transfer model for geophysical applications in the 240-2400nm spectral region: the pseudo-spherical version. Adv. in Space Res. 29, 1831-1835 (2002) 2. A. Rozanov, V. V. Rozanov, M. Buchwitz, A. Kokhanovsky, and J. P. Burrows. SCIA-TRAN 2.0 -A new radiative tranfer model for geophysical applications in the 175-2400nm spectral region. Adv. in Space Res. 36, 1015-1019 (2005) 3. A. Rozanov. SCIATRAN 2.X: Radiative transfer model and retrieval software package. URL = http://www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de/sciatran (2008)

  1. Generic and scientific constraints involving geoethics and geoeducation in planetary geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Frías, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    Geoscience education is a key factor in the academic, scientific and professional progress of any modern society. Geoethics is an interdisciplinary field, which involves Earth and Planetary Sciences as well as applied ethics, regarding the study of the abiotic world. These coss-cutting interactions linking scientific, societal and cultural aspects, consider our planet, in its modern approach, as a system and as a model. This new perspective is extremely important in the context of geoducation in planetary geosciences. In addition, Earth, our home planet, is the only planet in our solar system known to harbor life. This also makes it crucial to develop any scientific strategy and methodological technique (e.g. Raman spectroscopy) of searching for extraterrestrial life. In this context, it has been recently proposed [1-3] that the incorporation of the geoethical and geodiversity issues in planetary geology and astrobiology studies would enrich their methodological and conceptual character (mainly but not only in relation to planetary protection). Modern geoscience education must take into account that, in order to understand the origin and evolution of our planet, we need to be aware that the Earth is open to space, and that the study of meteorites, asteroids, the Moon and Mars is also essential for this purpose (Earth analogs are also unique sites to define planetary guidelines). Generic and scientific constraints involving geoethics and geoeducation should be incorporated into the teaching of all fundamental knowledge and skills for students and teachers. References: [1] Martinez-Frias, J. et al. (2009) 9th European Workshop on Astrobiology, EANA 09, 12-14 October 2009, Brussels, Belgiam. [2] Martinez-Frias, J., et al. (2010) 38th COSPAR Scientific Assembly. Protecting the Lunar and Martian Environments for Scientific Research, Bremen, Germany, 18-25 July. [3] Walsh et al. (2012) 43rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 1910.pdf

  2. Retrieval of spectral aerosol optical thickness over land using ocean color sensors MERIS and SeaWiFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. von Hoyningen-Huene

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of aerosol optical thickness (AOT Bremen AErosol Retrieval (BAER has been developed. Method and main features on the aerosol retrieval are described together with validation and results. The retrieval separates the spectral aerosol reflectance from surface and Rayleigh path reflectance for the shortwave range of the measured spectrum of top-of-atmosphere reflectance for wavelength less than 0.670 μm. The advantage of MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on the Environmental Satellite – ENVISAT – of the European Space Agency – ESA and SeaWiFS (Sea viewing Wide Field Sensor on OrbView-2 spacecraft observations is the availability of several spectral channels in the blue and visible range enabling the spectral determination of AOT in 7 (or 6 channels (0.412–0.670 μm and additionally channels in the NIR, which can be used to characterize the surface properties. A dynamical spectral surface reflectance model for different surface types is used to obtain the spectral surface reflectance for this separation. The normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI, taken from the satellite observations, is the model input. Further surface bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF is considered by the Raman-Pinty-Verstraete (RPV model. Spectral AOT is obtained from aerosol reflectance using look-up-tables, obtained from radiative transfer calculations with given aerosol phase functions and single scattering albedos either from aerosol models, given by model package "optical properties of aerosol components" (OPAC or from experimental campaigns. Validations of the obtained AOT retrieval results with data of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET over Europe gave a preference for experimental phase functions derived from almucantar measurements. Finally long-term observations of SeaWiFS have been investigated for 11 year trends in AOT. Western European regions have negative trends with decreasing AOT with time

  3. The role of 3-D imaging and computer-based postprocessing for surgery of the liver and pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenacher, L.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Richter, G.M.; Thorn, M.; Vetter, M.; Hassenpflug, P.; Meinzer, H.P.; Knaebel, H.P.; Kraus, T.; Buechler, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging based on navigation and virtual reality planning tools are well-established in the surgical routine in orthopedic surgery and neurosurgery. In various procedures, they have achieved a significant clinical relevance and efficacy and have enhanced the discipline's resection capabilities. In abdominal surgery, however, these tools have gained little attraction so far. Even with the advantage of fast and high resolution cross-sectional liver and pancreas imaging, it remains unclear whether 3D planning and interactive planning tools might increase precision and safety of liver and pancreas surgery. The inability to simply transfer the methodology from orthopedic or neurosurgery is mainly a result of intraoperative organ movements and shifting and corresponding technical difficulties in the on-line applicability of presurgical cross sectional imaging data. For the interactive planning of liver surgery, three systems partly exist in daily routine: HepaVision2 (MeVis GmbH, Bremen), LiverLive (Navidez Ltd. Slovenia) and OrgaNicer (German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg). All these systems have realized a half- or full-automatic liver-segmentation procedure to visualize liver segments, vessel trees, resected volumes or critical residual organ volumes, either for preoperative planning or intraoperative visualization. Acquisition of data is mainly based on computed tomography. Three-dimensional navigation for intraoperative surgical guidance with ultrasound is part of the clinical testing. There are only few reports about the transfer of the visualization of the pancreas, probably caused by the difficulties with the segmentation routine due to inflammation or organ-exceeding tumor growth. With this paper, we like to evaluate and demonstrate the present status of software planning tools and pathways for future pre- and intraoperative resection planning in liver and pancreas surgery. (orig.)

  4. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) (Košice, Slovakia, 23-27 July 2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan; Kováč, Josef; Václavíková, Miroslava; Odenbach, Stefan

    2008-05-21

    The 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) was held in Košice, Slovakia between 23-27 July 2007. Attendance at the conference was high and its motivation was in line with the ten previous ICMF conferences organized in Udine, Orlando, Bangor, Sendai-Tokyo, Riga, Paris, Bhavnagar, Timisoara, Bremen and Guarujá. The conference in Slovakia reflected the scientific community's enthusiasm and worldwide support, with 256 participants, from 30 countries attending.The main objective of ICMF 11 was to promote progress and knowledge in the field of magnetic fluids regarding their chemistry, physical and magnetic properties, heat and mass transfer, surface phenomena, as well as their technological and biomedical applications. As research on magnetic fluids is essentially interdisciplinary, experts from related areas were invited to present their contributions with a view to increasing knowledge in the field and highlighting new trends. Submitted communications were refereed by members of the Scientific Organizing Committee and abstracts were assembled in a book of abstracts. Participants presented 180 posters in two poster sessions and 56 oral presentations. All presentations contributed to a greater understanding of the area, and helped to bridge the gap between physics, chemistry, technology, biology and medical sciences. Contributions to this conference are presented in 115 scientific papers, with some published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and the rest in Magnetohydrodynamics. The organization of the conference was made possible by generous support from the Institute of Experimental Physics and Institute of Geotechnics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, the University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik and the Slovak Physical Society. Financial support from Ferrotec, Cryosoft Ltd, Mikrochem, Liquids Research Ltd, Askony and US Steel Košice, is also gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    different altitudinal belts. The local differences of temperature dynamics are illustrated in a map as an example of the low alpine altitudinal belt showing a 4-dimensional characterization (in space and time) of high mountain ecosystem functioning. Hydrological aspects derived from those results are presented showing the large- scaled hydrological dynamics of high mountain catchment basins in central Norway. The results of the process analysis of hydrological dynamics in the central Norwegian high mountains are discussed within the frame of investigations on altitudinal changes of mountain ecosystem structure and functioning (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM [in print]). The poster illustrates the theoretical and methodological conception, methods and techniques, examples from complex data material as well as general outcomes of the project (RÖßLER [in prep.]. JUNG, G., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Untersuchungen zur Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Forschungsansatz. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium 3: 4-36. Oldenburg. KÖHLER, B., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1994): Probleme der kleinräumigen Geoökovarianz im mittelnorwegischen Gebirge. Norsk geogr. Tidsskr. 48: 99- 111. LÖFFLER, J. (1997): Großmaßstäbige geoökologische Kartierungen in den Höhenstufen des mittelnorwegischen Gebirges. NORDEN 12: 205-228. Bremen. LÖFFLER, J. (1998): Geoökologische Untersuchungen zur Struktur mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Oldenburger Geoökologische Studien 1. Oldenburg. LÖFFLER, J., O.-D. FINCH, J. NAUJOK &R. PAPE (2001): Möglichkeiten der Integration zoologischer Aspekte in die landschaftsökologische Untersuchung von Hochgebirgen. Methodendiskussion am Beispiel ökologischer Prozesssysteme und Biozönosen. Naturschutz u. Landschaftsplanung 33 (11): 351-357. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Klimatische Phänomene in mittelnorwegischen Hochgebirgslandschaften und ihre ökosystemare Bedeutung. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium

  6. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Analysis of disease manifestation by region-based quantification of lung parenchyma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilig, D., E-mail: dorothea.theilig@charite.de [Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Doellinger, F. [Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Kuhnigk, J.M. [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Temmesfeld-Wollbrueck, B.; Huebner, R.H. [Charité, Department of Pneumology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Schreiter, N.; Poellinger, A. [Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •The distribution of cystic lesions in LAM was evaluated with quantitative CT. •There were more cystic lesions in the central lung compared to peripheral areas. •Cystic changes were more frequent in apical two thirds compared to lower third. •Results might help to obviate the need for biopsy in more cases. -- Abstract: Purpose: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is characterized by proliferation of smooth muscle tissue that causes bronchial obstruction and secondary cystic destruction of lung parenchyma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the typical distribution of cystic defects in LAM with quantitative volumetric chest computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: CT examinations of 20 patients with confirmed LAM were evaluated with region-based quantification of lung parenchyma. Additionally, 10 consecutive patients were identified who had recently undergone CT imaging of the lung at our institution, in which no pathologies of the lung were found, to serve as a control group. Each lung was divided into three regions (upper, middle and lower thirds) with identical number of slices. In addition, we defined a “peel” and “core” of the lung comprising the 2 cm subpleural space and the remaining inner lung area. Computerized detection of lung volume and relative emphysema was performed with the PULMO 3D software (v3.42, Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen, Germany). This software package enables the quantification of emphysematous lung parenchyma by calculating the pixel index, which is defined as the ratio of lung voxels with a density <−950 HU to the total number of voxels in the lung. Results: Cystic changes accounted for 0.1–39.1% of the total lung volume in patients with LAM. Disease manifestation in the central lung was significantly higher than in peripheral areas (peel median: 15.1%, core median: 20.5%; p = 0.001). Lower thirds of lung parenchyma showed significantly less cystic changes than upper and middle lung areas combined (lower

  7. Heat Transfer by Thermo-capillary Convection -Sounding Rocket COMPERE Experiment SOURCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Michael; Fuhrmann, Eckart

    The sounding rocket COMPERE experiment SOURCE was successfully flown on MASER 11, launched in Kiruna (ESRANGE), May 15th, 2008. SOURCE has been intended to partly ful-fill the scientific objectives of the European Space Agency (ESA) Microgravity Applications Program (MAP) project AO-2004-111 (Convective boiling and condensation). Three parties of principle investigators have been involved to design the experiment set-up: ZARM for thermo-capillary flows, IMFT (Toulouse, France) for boiling studies, EADS Astrium (Bremen, Ger-many) for depressurization. The topic of this paper is to study the effect of wall heat flux on the contact line of the free liquid surface and to obtain a correlation for a convective heat trans-fer coefficient. The experiment has been conducted along a predefined time line. A preheating sequence at ground was the first operation to achieve a well defined temperature evolution within the test cell and its environment inside the rocket. Nearly one minute after launch, the pressurized test cell was filled with the test liquid HFE-7000 until a certain fill level was reached. Then the free surface could be observed for 120 s without distortion. Afterwards, the first depressurization was started to induce subcooled boiling, the second one to start saturated boiling. The data from the flight consists of video images and temperature measurements in the liquid, the solid, and the gaseous phase. Data analysis provides the surface shape versus time and the corresponding apparent contact angle. Computational analysis provides information for the determination of the heat transfer coefficient in a compensated gravity environment where a flow is caused by the temperature difference between the hot wall and the cold liquid. The paper will deliver correlations for the effective contact angle and the heat transfer coefficient as a function of the relevant dimensionsless parameters as well as physical explanations for the observed behavior. The data will be used

  8. Recording the PHILAE Touchdown using CASSE: Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapmeyer, Martin; Faber, Claudia; Tune, Jean-Baptiste; Arnold, Walter; Witte, Lars; Schröder, Silvio; Roll, Reinhard; Chares, Bernd; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Möhlmann, Diedrich; Seidensticker, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    The landing of Philae on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is scheduled for November 11, 2014. Its landing feet house the triaxial acceleration sensors of CASSE (Comet Acoustic Surface Sounding Experiment) which will thus be the first sensors to be in mechanical contact with the cometary surface. It is planned that CASSE will be in listening mode to record the deceleration of the lander by the collision with the comet. The analysis of this data will not only support an engineering analysis of the landing process itself but also yield information about the mechanical properties of the comet's surface. Here, we describe a series of controlled landings of a lander model. The tests were conducted in the Landing & Mobility Test Facility (LAMA) of the DLR Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, where an industrial robot can be programmed to move landers or rovers along predefined paths and under simulated low gravity. The qualification model of the Philae landing gear was used in the tests. It consists of three legs manufactured of carbon fiber and metal joints. Attached to each leg is a foot with two soles and a mechanically driven ice screw to secure the lander on the comet. The right one of these soles, if viewed from the outside towards the lander body, houses a Brüel & Kjaer DeltaTron 4506 triaxial piezoelectric accelerometer as used on the spacecraft. Orientation of the three axes was such that the X-axis of the accelerometer points downwards while the Y and Z axes are horizontal. This somewhat uncommon orientation was necessary due to the position of the electric connector on the 4506. Data was recorded at a sampling rate of 8.2 kHz for a duration of 2 s. Touchdown measurements were conducted on three types of ground with different landing velocities. Landings with low velocities were carried out on the concrete floor of the LAMA to determine the stiffness of the landing gear based on the deceleration data measured with the accelerometer. Landings on fine

  9. Changes in corneal endothelium cell characteristics after cataract surgery with and without use of viscoelastic substances during intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze SD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stephan D Schulze,1 Thomas Bertelmann,1 Irena Manojlovic,2 Stefan Bodanowitz,2 Sebastian Irle,3 Walter Sekundo11Department of Ophthalmology, Philipps University of Marburg, Marburg, 2Private Practice and Ambulatory Surgical Center, Bremen, 3Freelance Statistician, Friedberg, GermanyPurpose: To evaluate whether the use of balanced salt solution (BSS or an ophthalmic viscoelastic device (OVD during hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL implantation variously impacts corneal endothelial cell characteristics in eyes undergoing uneventful phacoemulsifications.Methods: Prospective nonrandomized observational clinical trial. Patients were assigned either to the BSS plus® or to the OVD Z-Celcoat™ group depending on the substance used during IOL implantation. Corneal endothelium cell characteristics were obtained before, 1 week, and 6 weeks after surgery. Intraoperative parameters (eg, surgery time, phacoemulsification energy were recorded.Results: Ninety-seven eyes were assigned to the BSS plus and 86 eyes to the Z-Celcoat group. Preoperative corneal endothelium cell density (ECD and endothelium cell size were 2,506±310 cells/mm2/2,433±261 cells/mm2 and 406±47 µm2/416±50 µm2 (P=0.107/P=0.09. After 1 and 6 weeks, ECD decreased and endothelium cell size increased significantly in both groups (each P<0.001 without significant differences between both groups (each P>0.05. Irrigation–aspiration suction time (30.3±16.6 versus 36.3±14.5 seconds and overall surgical time (7.2±1.2 versus 8.0±1.4 minutes were significantly longer in the OVD Z-Celcoat group (each P<0.001. No complications or serious side effects occurred.Conclusion: Implantation of a hydrophilic acrylic IOL under BSS infusion seems to be a useful and faster alternative in experienced hands without generating higher ECD loss rates.Keywords: phacoemulsification, ophthalmic viscoelastic device, endothelial cell density, IOL

  10. Overview of SCIAMACHY validation: 2002–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. M. Piters

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available SCIAMACHY, on board Envisat, has been in operation now for almost three years. This UV/visible/NIR spectrometer measures the solar irradiance, the earthshine radiance scattered at nadir and from the limb, and the attenuation of solar radiation by the atmosphere during sunrise and sunset, from 240 to 2380 nm and at moderate spectral resolution. Vertical columns and profiles of a variety of atmospheric constituents are inferred from the SCIAMACHY radiometric measurements by dedicated retrieval algorithms. With the support of ESA and several international partners, a methodical SCIAMACHY validation programme has been developed jointly by Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium (the three instrument providing countries to face complex requirements in terms of measured species, altitude range, spatial and temporal scales, geophysical states and intended scientific applications. This summary paper describes the approach adopted to address those requirements. Since provisional releases of limited data sets in summer 2002, operational SCIAMACHY processors established at DLR on behalf of ESA were upgraded regularly and some data products – level-1b spectra, level-2 O3, NO2, BrO and clouds data – have improved significantly. Validation results summarised in this paper and also reported in this special issue conclude that for limited periods and geographical domains they can already be used for atmospheric research. Nevertheless, current processor versions still experience known limitations that hamper scientific usability in other periods and domains. Free from the constraints of operational processing, seven scientific institutes (BIRA-IASB, IFE/IUP-Bremen, IUP-Heidelberg, KNMI, MPI, SAO and SRON have developed their own retrieval algorithms and generated SCIAMACHY data products, together addressing nearly all targeted constituents. Most of the UV-visible data products – O3, NO2, SO2, H2O total columns; BrO, OClO slant columns; O3, NO2, BrO profiles

  11. Accounting for surface reflectance in the derivation of vertical column densities of NO2 from airborne imaging DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Andreas Carlos; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Bösch, Tim; Seyler, André; Constantin, Daniel Eduard; Shaiganfar, Reza; Merlaud, Alexis; Ruhtz, Thomas; Wagner, Thomas; van Roozendael, Michel; Burrows, John. P.

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides, NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in tropospheric chemistry. In addition to their directly harmful effects on the respiratory system of living organisms, they influence the levels of tropospheric ozone and contribute to acid rain and eutrophication of ecosystems. As they are produced in combustion processes, they can serve as an indicator for anthropogenic air pollution. In the late summers of 2014 and 2015, two extensive measurement campaigns were conducted in Romania by several European research institutes, with financial support from ESA. The AROMAT / AROMAT-2 campaigns (Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases) were dedicated to measurements of air quality parameters utilizing newly developed instrumentation at state-of-the-art. The experiences gained will help to calibrate and validate the measurements taken by the upcoming Sentinel-S5p mission scheduled for launch in 2016. The IUP Bremen contributed to these campaigns with its airborne imaging DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) instrument AirMAP (Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution). AirMAP allows retrieving spatial distributions of trace gas columns densities in a stripe below the aircraft. The measurements have a high spatial resolution of approximately 30 x 80 m2 (along x across track) at a typical flight altitude of 3000 m. Supported by the instrumental setup and the large swath, gapless maps of trace gas distributions above a large city, like Bucharest or Berlin, can be acquired within a time window of approximately two hours. These properties make AirMAP a valuable tool for the validation of trace gas measurements from space. DOAS retrievals yield the density of absorbers integrated along the light path of the measurement. The light path is altered with a changing surface reflectance, leading to enhanced / reduced slant column densities of NO2 depending on surface properties. This effect must be considered in

  12. Scientists Must Not Film but Must Appear on Screen!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, A.; Madlener, S.

    2013-12-01

    Film production in science has affected its subjects in a truly remarkable way. Where scientists were once perceived to be poor communicators with an overwhelming aptitude for numbers and figures, audiences now have access to scientists they can understand and even relate to. Over the years, scientists have grown accustomed to involving and using the media in their research and exposing their science to wider audiences, making them better communicators. This is a huge development, and one that is especially noticeable at MARUM, the Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen/Germany. Over time, the collaboration between the scientists and public relations staff has taught us all to be better at what we do. A unique characteristic of MARUM TV is that more or less all videos are produced 'in house'; we have established the small yet effective infrastructure necessary do develop, execute, and distribute semi-professional videos to access broader audiences and increase world-wide visibility. MARUM TV relies on our research scientists to operate cameras and capture important moments offshore on expedition, and to cooperate with us as we shoot footage of them and conduct interviews onshore in the lab. In turn, we promote their research and help increase their accessibility. At the forefront of our success is the relatively recent implementation of HD cameras on MARUM's fleet of remotely operated vehicles, which capture stunning video footage of the deep sea. Furthermore, sustained collaborations with national tv stations, online media portals, and large production companies helps inform our process and increases MARUM's visibility. The result is an extensive suite of about 70 short and long format science videos with some of the highest view counts on YouTube compared to other marine institutes. In the session PA011 'Scientists must film!' we intent to address issues regarding roadblocks to bridging science and media: a) Science communication

  13. Different behavioural responses of larval fish under microgravity and morphological correlates in the inner ear -a drop-tower study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Reinhard; Weigele, Jochen; Knie, Miriam; Hendrik Anken, Ralf

    In vertebrates altered gravitational environments such as weightlessness (microgravity, g) in-duce changes in central and peripheral interpretation of sensory input leading to alterations in motor behaviour (e.g., intersensory-conflicts) including space motion sickness, a sensory motor kinetosis normally accompanied by malaise and vomiting. In fish it had been repeatedly shown that some fish of a given batch reveal motion sickness after transition from hypergravity (pull up) to microgravity microgravity in the course of parabolic aircraft flight (PF= low quality microgravity = LQM) experiments or in the case of drop tower experiments at ZARM (Bre-men) immediately after release of the capsule. The drop-tower studies were designed to further elucidate the role of otolith asymmetry concerning an individually different susceptibility to kinetoses. In order to test, whether the differing results between the PF and the drop-tower experiment were based exclusively on the differing quality of diminished gravity, or, if further parameters of the PF and the drop-tower environment need to be taken into consideration (e.g., vibrations and changing accelerations during PFs or the brisk compression of the drop-capsule at its release) to explain the differing results, drop-tower flights were performed at a series of increasing accelerations, by centrifugation in the drop capsule. This simulation of "differ-ent micro" gravity was carried out in housing larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) within a centrifuge at high quality microgravity 10-6g (HQM) and 10-4g to 0.3g during the drop-tower flights. The percentual ratios of the swimming behaviour at drop-tower changed significantly according to the increasing acceleration force of the centrifuge during flight. With increasing acceleration (= detectable gravity for fish) the relative proportion of looping an d spinning movements decreased in favour of normal swimming an at 0.3g nearly no kinetotic behaviour was observed. When

  14. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Ch.L. van der Vliet

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available - Rita Bolland, Alfred Bühler, The patola of Gujarat. Double ikat in India. Krebs AG Basel, 1979. Vol. 1, 360 p. tekst, ill. Vol. 2, afb. in kleur en zwart/wit, krt. tab. noten, verkl. woorden. litl., Eberhard Fischer (eds. - Raymond Buve, Hugo G. Nutini, Ritual kinship. The structure and historical development of the Compadrazgo system in rural Tlaxcala, Vol. I. Princeton University Press, N.J., 1980, XVI plus 494 pp., maps, tables, glossary and index., Betty Bell (eds. - Benno Galjart, G.A. Banck, Jagen met een kat... Schaarse middelen en sociale relaties in de Braziliaanse staat Espirito Santo, CEDLA Incidentele publicaties no. 8, CEDLA, Amsterdam 1977. - R.A.L.H. Gunawardana, J. van Goor, Jan Kompanie as schoolmaster: Dutch education in Ceylon, 1690-1795, Historische Studies, Instituut voor Geschiedenis der Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, XXIV, Wolters-Noordhoff Groningen, 1978, 205 pp., 3 maps. - Ria Kloppenborg, R.A.L.H. Gunawardana, Robe and plough. Monasticism and economic interest in early medieval Sri Lanka. Association for Asian Studies, Monographs and Papers No. XXXV, University of Arixona Press, Tucson, Arizona, 1979; 377 pages, including bibliography and index. - Els Postel-Coster, Jan van Bremen, Romantropologie - Essays over antropologie en literatuur, Antropologisch-Sociologisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1979., Sjaak van der Geest, Jojada Verrips (eds. - Arie de Ruijter, T. Lemaire, Over de waarde van kulturen. Een inleiding in de kultuurfilosofie. Ambo, Baarn 1976, herdruk 1980. 509 blz. - P. van de Velde, W. Arens, The man-eating myth. Oxford University Press, New York, 1979. XIV + 206 pp., 12 illustrations. - E.Ch.L. van der Vliet, Klaus E. Müller, Geschichte der antiken ethnographie und ethnologischen theoriebildung von den anfängen bis auf die byzantinischen historiographen, Teil II (Studien zur Kulturkunde 52, Wiesbaden: Franza Steiner Verlag, 1980. 563 pp. 11 figs. - J.J. de Wolf, P.T.W. Baxter, Age

  15. Monitoring shipping emissions in the German Bight using MAX-DOAS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    ), a cooperation between the University of Bremen and the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH), supported by the Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG).

  16. The effect of real-time pricing on load shifting in a highly renewable power system dominated by generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Brown, Tom; Schlachtberger, David; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants, Vienna, Austria, 15.-17. November 2016 [2] Kleinhans, D.: Towards a systematic characterization of the potential of demand side management, arXiv preprint arXiv:1401.4121, 2014 [3] Kies, A., Schyska, B. U., von Bremen, L., The Demand Side Management Potential to Balance a Highly Renewable European Power System. Energies, 9(11), 955, 2016

  17. Overview of SCIAMACHY validation: 2002-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piters, A. J. M.; Bramstedt, K.; Lambert, J.-C.; Kirchhoff, B.

    2006-01-01

    SCIAMACHY, on board Envisat, has been in operation now for almost three years. This UV/visible/NIR spectrometer measures the solar irradiance, the earthshine radiance scattered at nadir and from the limb, and the attenuation of solar radiation by the atmosphere during sunrise and sunset, from 240 to 2380 nm and at moderate spectral resolution. Vertical columns and profiles of a variety of atmospheric constituents are inferred from the SCIAMACHY radiometric measurements by dedicated retrieval algorithms. With the support of ESA and several international partners, a methodical SCIAMACHY validation programme has been developed jointly by Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium (the three instrument providing countries) to face complex requirements in terms of measured species, altitude range, spatial and temporal scales, geophysical states and intended scientific applications. This summary paper describes the approach adopted to address those requirements. Since provisional releases of limited data sets in summer 2002, operational SCIAMACHY processors established at DLR on behalf of ESA were upgraded regularly and some data products - level-1b spectra, level-2 O3, NO2, BrO and clouds data - have improved significantly. Validation results summarised in this paper and also reported in this special issue conclude that for limited periods and geographical domains they can already be used for atmospheric research. Nevertheless, current processor versions still experience known limitations that hamper scientific usability in other periods and domains. Free from the constraints of operational processing, seven scientific institutes (BIRA-IASB, IFE/IUP-Bremen, IUP-Heidelberg, KNMI, MPI, SAO and SRON) have developed their own retrieval algorithms and generated SCIAMACHY data products, together addressing nearly all targeted constituents. Most of the UV-visible data products - O3, NO2, SO2, H2O total columns; BrO, OClO slant columns; O3, NO2, BrO profiles - already have acceptable

  18. Mapping of the Tropospheric NO2 Spatial Distribution at City-scale Based on Airborne APEX Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, F. M.; Merlaud, A.; Danckaert, T.; Yu, H.; Fayt, C.; Iordache, D.; Meuleman, K.; Fierens, F.; Deutsch, F.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2016-12-01

    NO2 is a key pollutant with highly variable concentrations in space and time. Quantitative information about its spatial variability at high resolution is currently scarce, but very valuable for (air quality) studies at the urban scale. APEX is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with high spatial (60 by 80 m2) and spectral (2.8-3.3 nm) resolution. APEX flights were conducted over (1) the city and port of Antwerp, Belgium on April 14, 2015 and July 19, 2016, (2) Brussels, Belgium on June 30, 2015 (BUMBA project), and (3) Berlin, Germany on April 21, 2016 (AROMAT and AROMAPEX projects). APEX was operated from a DLR DO-228 plane at 6.1 km altitude. Over Berlin, two additional imagers, AirMAP (IUP Bremen) and SWING (BIRA-IASB), were simultaneously operated from a FUB Cessna at 3 km for intercomparison purposes. NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) are retrieved based on (1) the DOAS analysis of the observed spectra in the visible region (470 nm - 510 nm), and (2) air mass factor calculations with the RTM VLIDORT 2.6. Results show that APEX is suitable (1) to detect the fast varying spectral signatures of a trace gas like NO2 and (2) to identify small scale gradients in the NO2 field and to resolve individual emission sources. Main NOx sources in the Antwerp area are related to (petro)chemical industry, while traffic emissions are dominant in Brussels. Over Berlin, 2 large industrial NO2 plumes are detected by all three imaging systems, crossing the city from west to east. The NO2 VCD levels range between 0.2 and 3.5 x 1016 molec cm-2. The typical detection limit for the APEX instrument is around 1.7 to 2.2 x 1015 molec cm-2. Correlation coefficients of 0.85 and slopes close to unity are obtained when compared to coincident car mobile-DOAS measurements. The NO2 retrieval algorithm, campaign results, and ongoing research concerning the comparison of the VCDs with in-situ surface concentrations and a high resolution (25 m) air quality model, i.e. RIO-IFDM, will be discussed.

  19. ESA Press Event: See Mars Express before its departure to the Red Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    There will be ten participants: four ESA astronauts (Pedro Duque, Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli and Thomas Reiter), four Japanese astronauts from NASDA (Takao Doi, Koichi Wakata, Satoshi Furukawa and Aikihido Hoshide) and two NASA astronauts (Nicole Passonno Stott and Stephanie D. Wilson). The main objective of this training session is to prepare the astronauts for the tasks they will have to perform when the Japanese experiment module (JEM) and ESA's Columbus laboratory are docked with the core of the International Space Station over the years ahead. After completing their training and certification, the astronauts will be assigned to long-duration missions to the ISS. The advanced training at the EAC will focus on the Columbus systems and the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV). It will consist of 24 classroom lectures on the Columbus and ATV systems and 4 on payloads, and 2 sessions in the Columbus Trainer. Instructors are being provided by Astrium for the Columbus systems and Alenia Spazio for the ATV, with ESA/EAC staff as mentors for the Columbus payloads. The astronauts are scheduled to visit Astrium in Bremen on 30 August to get acquainted with the flight unit of the Columbus laboratory module currently undergoing integration. This group of astronauts started their advanced training in April 2001 at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, where they attended a first course on the US segment of the International Space Station. This was followed by training on the JEM system at NASDA's Tsukuba Space Center, Japan, in December 2001 - January 2002 and additional training at the JSC in May 2002. At the beginning of next year the group will be returning to Tsukuba for training on Japanese payloads. Hands-on sessions on Columbus Payload Training Models are scheduled for the second half of 2003, again at ESA's European Astronaut Centre. On Thursday 5 September, between 16:30 and 18:30 hrs, the astronauts and other ESA specialists will be available for interviews

  20. Quality management and reduction of processing time through automised preforming in the rotorblade manufacturing for wind turbines; Teilautomatisiertes preforming zur Qualitaetssicherung und Verkuerzung von Fertigungszeiten bei der Herstellung von Rotorblaettern von Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doersch, C.; Ohlendorf, J.H.; Gebauer, I.; Mueller, D.H. [Bremer Institut fuer Konstruktionstechnik, Universitaet Bremen (Germany); Weigel, L. [Abeking Rasmussen Rotec GmbH and Co. KG, Lemwerder (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Rotor blades of wind turbines are mainly manufactured from fibre reinforced plastics. These materials show an excellent performance concering the ratio of stiffness and weight. Basically the composite material of rotor blades is made out of glass fibres and thermosetting material. But growing technological and economical requirements to rotor blades by off-shore-application, in particular through increasing rotor blade diameter, have to meet successful. Although reduction of processing time and increased quality of rotor blades play a major role. To achieve the increasing requirements of the rotor blade manufacturing the Bremen Institute for Engineering Design and the rotor blade manufacturer Abeking and Rasmussen Rotec GmbH are working together on the handling and manufacturing of textile preforms. Preforms are made out of stacked and bonded dry textile layers and deposited in the mould as one textile part. Preforming allows the parallel processing of some manufacturing steps. This shows great advantages in the production of fibre reinforced plastics because of the long curing time of the resin component. This parallel processing is required to reach the aim of decreased overall cycle time. This essay is focussing on the handling of textiles and the textile preforming. Summarised aspects of quality management and economics in textile preforming will be discussed with the aim of automising the preforming process. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Rotorblaetter von Windenergieanlagen werden aufgrund des guten Verhaeltnisses von Steifigkeit und Gewicht zu grossen Teilen aus Faserverbundwerkstoffen gefertigt. Dabei kommen hauptsaechlich Glasfasern (GF) als verstaerkendes Material sowie duroplastische Harze als Matrix zur Anwendung. Um die wachsenden Herausforderungen des Offshore-Einsatzes von Windenergieanlagen, insbesondere die steigende Rotorblattgroesse, technisch und wirtschaftlich erfolgreich bewaeltigen zu koennen, wird die

  1. Passive remote sensing of large-scale methane emissions from Oil Fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and validation by airborne in-situ measurements - Results from COMEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Thompson, David R.; Thorpe, Andrew K.; Kolyer, Richard W.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Frankenberg, Christian; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Vigil, Sam; Fladeland, Matthew; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2016-04-01

    The CO2 and MEthane EXperiment (COMEX) was a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of the HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities. As a part of this effort, seven flights were performed between June 3 and September 4, 2014 with the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) remote sensing instrument (operated by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ) over the Kern River, Kern Front, and Poso Creek Oil Fields located in California's San Joaquin Valley. MAMAP was installed for the flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with: a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer operated by the NASA Ames Research Center, ARC; a 5-hole turbulence probe; and an atmospheric measurement package operated by CIRPAS measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point, and other atmospheric parameters. Three of the flights were accompanied by the Next Generation Airborne Visual InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, installed aboard a second Twin Otter aircraft. Large-scale, high-concentration CH4 plumes were detected by the MAMAP instrument over the fields and tracked over several kilometers. The spatial distribution of the MAMAP observed plumes was compared to high spatial resolution CH4 anomaly maps derived by AVIRIS-NG imaging spectroscopy data. Remote sensing data collected by MAMAP was used to infer CH4 emission rates and their distributions over the three fields. Aggregated emission estimates for the three fields were compared to aggregated emissions inferred by subsequent airborne in-situ validation measurements collected by the Picarro instrument. Comparison of remote sensing and in-situ flux estimates will be presented, demonstrating the ability of airborne remote sensing data to provide accurate emission estimates for concentrations above the

  2. Initial results of detected methane emissions from landfills in the Los Angeles Basin during the COMEX campaign by the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) instrument and a greenhouse gas in-situ analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautwurst, Sven; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Kolyer, Richard; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Vigil, Sam; Buchwitz, Michael; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Fladeland, Matthew M.; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2015-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas beside carbon dioxide (CO2). Significant contributors to the global methane budget are fugitive emissions from landfills. Due to the growing world population, it is expected that the amount of waste and, therefore, waste disposal sites will increase in number and size in parts of the world, often adjacent growing megacities. Besides bottom-up modelling, a variety of ground based methods (e.g., flux chambers, trace gases, radial plume mapping, etc.) have been used to estimate (top-down) these fugitive emissions. Because landfills usually are large, sometimes with significant topographic relief, vary temporally, and leak/emit heterogeneously across their surface area, assessing total emission strength by ground-based techniques is often difficult. In this work, we show how airborne based remote sensing measurements of the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CH4 can be utilized to estimate fugitive emissions from landfills in an urban environment by a mass balance approach. Subsequently, these emission rates are compared to airborne in-situ horizontal cross section measurements of CH4 taken within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) upwind and downwind of the landfill at different altitudes immediately after the remote sensing measurements were finished. Additional necessary parameters (e.g., wind direction, wind speed, aerosols, dew point temperature, etc.) for the data inversion are provided by a standard instrumentation suite for atmospheric measurements aboard the aircraft, and nearby ground-based weather stations. These measurements were part of the CO2 and Methane EXperiment (COMEX), which was executed during the summer 2014 in California and was co-funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The remote sensing measurements were taken by the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) developed and operated by the University of Bremen and

  3. Spatio Temporal Variability of the Global Transmittance During the Arctic POLARSTERN Expedition 106/1 Ice Floe Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos Velasco, C.; Macke, A.; Griesche, H.; Engelmann, R.; Deneke, H.; Seifert, P.

    2017-12-01

    Institut für Troposphärenforschung (TROPOS), Universität Leipzig Institut für Meteorologie (LIM), Universitäat Bremen, Universität zu Köln and Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz Zentrum für Polar - und Meeresforschung (AWI).

  4. Graduate training in Earth science across borders and disciplines: ArcTrain -"Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Rüdiger; Kucera, Michal; Walter, Maren; de Vernal, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Due to a complex set of feedback processes collectively known as "polar amplification", the Arctic realm is expected to experience a greater-than-average response to global climate forcing. The cascades of feedback processes that connect the Arctic cryosphere, ocean and atmosphere remain incompletely constrained by observations and theory and are difficult to simulate in climate models. Our capacity to predict the future of the region and assess the impacts of Arctic change processes on global and regional environments hinges on the availability of interdisciplinary experts with strong international experience and understanding of the science/society interface. This is the basis of the International Research Training Group "Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic - ArcTrain", which was initiated in 2013. ArcTrain aims to educate PhD students in an interdisciplinary environment that combines paleoclimatology, physical oceanography, remote sensing and glaciology with comprehensive Earth system modelling, including sea-ice and ice-sheet components. The qualification program for the PhD students includes joint supervision, mandatory research residences at partner institutions, field courses on land and on sea (Floating University), annual meetings and training workshops and a challenging structured training in expert skills and transferrable skills. Its aim is to enhance the career prospects and employability of the graduates in a challenging international job market across academic and applied sectors. ArcTrain is a collaborative project at the University of Bremen and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven. The German part of the project is designed to continue for nine years and educate three cohorts of twelve PhD students each. The Canadian partners comprise a consortium of eight universities led by the GEOTOP cluster at the Université du Québec à Montréal and including

  5. Measurement of dinitrogen fixation by Biological soil crust (BSC) from the Sahelian zone: an isotopic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, F.; Alavoine, G.; Bertrand, I.

    2012-04-01

    Plus Advantage mass spectrometer (Finnigan Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany). N2fixation fluxes were calculated from the difference between the amount of 15N in incubated and in control samples. Mean values ranged from 1.32.10-3 ± 1.02.10-4 to 8.47.10-2 ± 2.63.10-3 mgN.m-2.h-1. Concerning the variability, differences observed between crusts and between replicates are probably related to the characteristic of each crust as well as to field sampling which integrates the important heterogeneity and sensitivity of the material.

  6. “Alexander von Humboldt” als Name für Forschungsschiffe vor dem Hintergrund seiner meereskundlichen Arbeiten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Kortum

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Article in German, Abstract in English. A. v. Humboldt as a Name of Research VesselsA number of special purpose vessels in the world carried or carry the name of Alexander von Humboldt, who had substantial interests in oceanography. However, most of his marine texts are scattered over his major works, and he never finished his manuscript on ocean circulation. But there is a general agreement that A. v. Humboldt was one of the pioneers of marine sciences. He made his own observations on the sailing vessels he used on his expedition to the Neotropics, mainly concerning sea surface temperatures. In 2002 there was a discussion in Germany about the name of a new research vessel which is going to be commissioned in the summer of 2004. It was suggested by the science community to take the name of „Alexander von Humboldt“ again, as the new vessel is replacing a medium-sized ship with this name operated now by the Baltic Sea Research Institute in Rostock-Warnemünde. This vessel has been in service from 1970 to 1990 for the Academy of Sciences of the former German Democratic Republic. The first German research vessel „Alexander von Humboldt“ was a fishing trawler (1939. Furthermore, Peru and Mexico operate research vessels bearing Humboldt’s name. The best known „Alexander von Humboldt“ is an ocean going sailing ship of the International Sail Training Association, based in Bremen. She is engaged in educational programmes and went the South America in 1999 following Humboldt’s route. Thus, Humboldt’s marine legacy is preserved. The proposal to use the undisputed name of this great all-round scientist for the new German vessel under construction now was not successful. A high-ranking jury decided to prefer “Maria Sibylla Merian” (1647-1717, which was suggested by a young student in a nation-wide competition to find a name. As Humboldt 100 years later, she went to South America to study plants and other fields of natural history.

  7. Advantages and limitations of remotely operated sea floor drill rigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthal, T.; Smith, D. J.; Wefer, G.

    2009-04-01

    A variety of research targets in marine sciences including the investigation of gas hydrates, slope stability, alteration of oceanic crust, ore formation and palaeoclimate can be addressed by shallow drilling. However, drill ships are mostly used for deep drillings, both because the effort of building up a drill string from a drill ship to the deep sea floor is tremendous and control on drill bit pressure from a movable platform and a vibrating drill string is poor especially in the upper hundred meters. During the last decade a variety of remotely operated drill rigs have been developed, that are deployed on the sea bed and operated from standard research vessels. These developments include the BMS (Bentic Multicoring System, developed by Williamson and Associates, operated by the Japanese Mining Agency), the PROD (Portable Remotely Operated Drill, developed and operated by Benthic Geotech), the Rockdrill 2 (developed and operated by the British geological Survey) and the MeBo (German abbreviation for sea floor drill rig, developed and operated by Marum, University of Bremen). These drill rigs reach drilling depths between 15 and 100 m. For shallow drillings remotely operated drill rigs are a cost effective alternative to the services of drill ships and have the major advantage that the drilling operations are performed from a stable platform independent of any ship movements due to waves, wind or currents. Sea floor drill rigs can be deployed both in shallow waters and the deep sea. A careful site survey is required before deploying the sea floor drill rig. Slope gradient, small scale topography and soil strength are important factors when planning the deployment. The choice of drill bits and core catcher depend on the expected geology. The required drill tools are stored on one or two magazines on the drill rig. The MeBo is the only remotely operated drill rig world wide that can use wire line coring technique. This method is much faster than conventional

  8. XBAER-derived aerosol optical thickness from OLCI/Sentinel-3 observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Linlu; Rozanov, Vladimir; Vountas, Marco; Burrows, John P.; Richter, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    study, the recently developed AOT retrieval algorithm eXtensible Bremen AErosol Retrieval (XBAER) has been applied to data from the OLCI instrument for the first time to illustrate the feasibility of applying XBAER to the data from this new instrument. The first global retrieval results show similar patterns of aerosol optical thickness, AOT, to those from MODIS and MISR aerosol products. The AOT retrieved from OLCI is validated by comparison with AERONET observations and a correlation coefficient of 0.819 and bias (root mean square) of 0.115 is obtained. The haze episode is well captured by the OLCI-derived AOT product. XBAER is shown to retrieve AOT well from the observations of MERIS and OLCI.

  9. PANGAEA® - Research Data enters Scholarly Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, U.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.

    2012-04-01

    publication workflow used by PANGAEA®, the technical background of the dynamic linking approach done between conventional publishers and the data repository, and the further steps for integrating editorial processes on both sides. PANGAEA® is operated as a joint long term facility by MARUM at the University Bremen and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI). More than 80% of the funding results from project data management and the implementation of spatial data infrastructures (47 International, 46 European and 37 national projects since the last 12 years - www.pangaea.de/projects).

  10. Retrieval of ozone profiles from OMPS limb scattering observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Carlo; Rozanov, Alexei; Malinina, Elizaveta; Eichmann, Kai-Uwe; von Clarmann, Thomas; Burrows, John P.

    2018-04-01

    This study describes a retrieval algorithm developed at the University of Bremen to obtain vertical profiles of ozone from limb observations performed by the Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite (OMPS). This algorithm is based on the technique originally developed for use with data from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument. As both instruments make limb measurements of the scattered solar radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) spectral ranges, an underlying objective of the study is to obtain consolidated and consistent ozone profiles from the two satellites and to produce a combined data set. The retrieval algorithm uses radiances in the UV and Vis wavelength ranges normalized to the radiance at an upper tangent height to obtain ozone concentrations in the altitude range of 12-60 km. Measurements at altitudes contaminated by clouds in the instrument field of view are identified and filtered out. An independent aerosol retrieval is performed beforehand and its results are used to account for the stratospheric aerosol load in the ozone inversion. The typical vertical resolution of the retrieved profiles varies from ˜ 2.5 km at lower altitudes ( passive satellite observations or measured in situ by balloon-borne sondes. Between 20 and 60 km, OMPS ozone profiles typically agree with data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) v4.2 within 5-10 %, whereas in the lower altitude range the bias becomes larger, especially in the tropics. The comparison of OMPS profiles with ozonesonde measurements shows differences within ±5 % between 13 and 30 km at northern middle and high latitudes. At southern middle and high latitudes, an agreement within 5-7 % is also achieved in the same altitude range. An unexpected bias of approximately 10-20 % is detected in the lower tropical stratosphere. The processing of the 2013 data set using the same retrieval settings and its validation against ozonesondes reveals a much

  11. Combined use of drugs inhibiting the renin–angiotensin system: prescribing patterns and risk of acute kidney injury in German nursing home residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörks M

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael Dörks,1 Stefan Herget-Rosenthal,2 Falk Hoffmann,1 Kathrin Jobski1 1Department of Health Services Research, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany; 2Department of Medicine, Rotes Kreuz Krankenhaus, Bremen, Germany Background/aims: In 2012, the European Medicines Agency reviewed the safety of dual renin–angiotensin system (RAS blockade because of potentially increased risks for inter alia acute kidney injury (AKI. Since residents of nursing homes are particularly vulnerable to adverse drug outcomes, the aims of our study were to describe RAS-inhibiting drug use in German nursing home residents and examine the risk of AKI associated with dual RAS blockade.Methods: Based on claims data, a nested case-control study within a cohort of RAS-inhibiting drug users was conducted. Using conditional logistic regression, confounder-adjusted odds ratios (aORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were obtained for the risk of AKI associated with dual RAS blockade. Subgroup analyses were performed in patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease and both comorbidities.Results: Of all 127,227 nursing home residents, the study cohort included 64,567 (50.7% who were treated with at least one RAS-inhibiting drug. More than three quarters of the study population were female (77.1%. Mean age was 86.0 ± 6.8 years. Most residents were treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (77.8%, followed by angiotensin II receptor blockers (21.6% and aliskiren (0.2%. Annual prevalence of dual RAS blockade declined from 9.6 (95% CI 7.8–11.8 in 2010 to 4.7 (95% CI 4.0–5.4 per 1,000 users in 2014. In the overall cohort, AKI was not significantly associated with dual RAS blockade (aOR 1.99; 0.77–5.17. However, significantly increased aORs were observed when considering patients with diabetes (3.47; 1.27–9.47, chronic kidney disease (4.74; 1.24–18.13 or both (11.17; 2.65–47.15.Conclusions: Prescribing of drugs inhibiting the RAS is

  12. The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: inter-comparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gurlit

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the ENVISAT/-SCIAMACHY satellite validation, solar irradiance spectra are absolutely measured at moderate resolution in the UV/visible spectral range (in the UV from 316.7-418 nm and the visible from 400-652 nm at a full width half maximum resolution of 0.55 nm and 1.48 nm, respectively from aboard the azimuth-controlled LPMA/DOAS balloon gondola at around 32 km balloon float altitude. After accounting for the atmospheric extinction due to Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption (O3 and NO2, the measured solar spectra are compared with previous observations. Our solar irradiance spectrum perfectly agrees within +0.03% with the re-calibrated Kurucz et al. (1984 solar spectrum (Fontenla et al., 1999, called MODTRAN 3.7 in the visible spectral range (415-650 nm, but it is +2.1% larger in the (370-415 nm wavelength interval, and -4% smaller in the UV-A spectral range (316.7-370 nm, when the Kurucz spectrum is convolved to the spectral resolution of our instrument. Similar comparisons of the SOLSPEC (Thuillier et al., 1997, 1998a, b and SORCE/SIM (Harder et al., 2000 solar spectra with MODTRAN 3.7 confirms our findings with the values being -0.5%, +2%, and -1.4% for SOLSPEC -0.33%, -0.47%, and -6.2% for SORCE/SIM, respectively. Comparison of the SCIAMACHY solar spectrum from channels 1 to 4 (- re-calibrated by the University of Bremen - with MODTRAN 3.7 indicates an agreement within -0.4% in the visible spectral range (415-585 nm, -1.6% within the 370-415 nm, and -5.7% within 325-370 nm wavelength interval, in agreement with the results of the other sensors. In agreement with findings of Skupin et al. (2002 our study emphasizes that the present ESA SCIAMACHY level 1 calibration is systematically +15% larger in the considered wavelength intervals when compared to all available other solar irradiance measurements.

  13. Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a Reliable Tool to Identify Species of Catalase-negative Gram-positive Cocci not Belonging to the Streptococcus Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Velázquez, Viviana Rojas; Ramirez, Maria Soledad; Famiglietti, Angela; Vay, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) by using 190 Catalase-negative Gram-Positive Cocci (GPC) clinical isolates. All isolates were identified by conventional phenotypic tests following the proposed scheme by Ruoff and Christensen and MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker Daltonics, BD, Bremen, Germany). Two different extraction methods (direct transfer formic acid method on spot and ethanol formic acid extraction method) and different cut-offs for genus/specie level identification were used. The score cut-offs recommended by the manufacturer (≥ 2.000 for species-level, 1.700 to 1.999 for genus level and genus level, ≥ 1.700 for species-level and score genus or species. MALDI-TOF MS identification was considered correct when the result obtained from MS database agreed with the phenotypic identification result. When both methods gave discordant results, the 16S rDNA or sodA genes sequencing was considered as the gold standard identification method. The results obtained by MS concordant with genes sequencing, although discordant with conventional phenotyping, were considered correct. MS results discordant with 16S or sod A identification were considered incorrect. Using the score cut-offs recommended by the manufacturer, 97.37% and 81.05% were correctly identified to genus and species level, respectively. On the other hand, using lower cut-off scores for identification, 97.89% and 94.21% isolates were correctly identified to genus and species level respectively by MALDI-TOF MS and no significant differences between the results obtained with two extraction methods were obtained. The results obtained suggest that MALDI-TOF MS has the potential of being an accurate tool for Catalase-negative GPC identification even for those species with difficult diagnosis as Helcococcus , Abiotrophia , Granulicatella , among others. Nevertheless, expansion of the library, especially including more strains with

  14. Precision measurements with atom interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christian; Abend, Sven; Schlippert, Dennis; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2017-04-01

    Interferometry with matter waves enables precise measurements of rotations, accelerations, and differential accelerations [1-5]. This is exploited for determining fundamental constants [2], in fundamental science as e.g. testing the universality of free fall [3], and is applied for gravimetry [4], and gravity gradiometry [2,5]. At the Institut für Quantenoptik in Hannover, different approaches are pursued. A large scale device is designed and currently being set up to investigate the gain in precision for gravimetry, gradiometry, and fundamental tests on large baselines [6]. For field applications, a compact and transportable device is being developed. Its key feature is an atom chip source providing a collimated high flux of atoms which is expected to mitigate systematic uncertainties [7,8]. The atom chip technology and miniaturization benefits from microgravity experiments in the drop tower in Bremen and sounding rocket experiments [8,9] which act as pathfinders for space borne operation [10]. This contribution will report about our recent results. The presented work is supported by the CRC 1227 DQ-mat, the CRC 1128 geo-Q, the RTG 1729, the QUEST-LFS, and by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under Grant No. DLR 50WM1552-1557. [1] P. Berg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 114, 063002, 2015; I. Dutta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 116, 183003, 2016. [2] J. B. Fixler et al., Science 315, 74 (2007); G. Rosi et al., Nature 510, 518, 2014. [3] D. Schlippert et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 112, 203002, 2014. [4] A. Peters et al., Nature 400, 849, 1999; A. Louchet-Chauvet et al., New J. Phys. 13, 065026, 2011; C. Freier et al., J. of Phys.: Conf. Series 723, 012050, 2016. [5] J. M. McGuirk et al., Phys. Rev. A 65, 033608, 2002; P. Asenbaum et al., arXiv:1610.03832. [6] J. Hartwig et al., New J. Phys. 17, 035011, 2015. [7] H. Ahlers et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 173601

  15. THE PHYSICS OF PROTOPLANETESIMAL DUST AGGLOMERATES. V. MULTIPLE IMPACTS OF DUSTY AGGLOMERATES AT VELOCITIES ABOVE THE FRAGMENTATION THRESHOLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothe, Stefan; Guettler, Carsten; Blum, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of new experiments have advanced our knowledge on the early growth phases of protoplanetary dust aggregates. Some of these experiments have shown that collisions between porous and compacted agglomerates at velocities above the fragmentation threshold velocity can lead to growth of the compact body, when the porous collision partner fragments upon impact and transfers mass to the compact agglomerate. To obtain a deeper understanding of this potentially important growth process, we performed laboratory and drop tower experiments to study multiple impacts of small, highly porous dust-aggregate projectiles onto sintered dust targets. The projectile and target consisted of 1.5 μm monodisperse, spherical SiO 2 monomers with volume filling factors of 0.15 ± 0.01 and 0.45 ± 0.05, respectively. The fragile projectiles were accelerated by a solenoid magnet and combined with a projectile magazine with which 25 impacts onto the same spot on the target could be performed in vacuum. We measured the mass-accretion efficiency and the volume filling factor for different impact velocities between 1.5 and 6.0 m s -1 . The experiments at the lowest impact speeds were performed in the Bremen drop tower under microgravity conditions to allow partial mass transfer also for the lowest adhesion case. Within this velocity range, we found a linear increase of the accretion efficiency with increasing velocity. In the laboratory experiments, the accretion efficiency increases from 0.12 to 0.21 in units of the projectile mass. The recorded images of the impacts showed that the mass transfer from the projectile to the target leads to the growth of a conical structure on the target after less than 100 impacts. From the images, we also measured the volume filling factors of the grown structures, which ranged from 0.15 (uncompacted) to 0.40 (significantly compacted) with increasing impact speed. The velocity dependency of the mass-transfer efficiency and the packing

  16. TYCHO: Demonstrator and operational satellite mission to Earth-Moon-Libration point EML-4 for communication relay provision as a service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, Andreas; Homeister, Maren

    2015-03-01

    operation time of up to 10 years. It also enables measurements of the libration point environment with the scientific payloads. This includes sensors for space dust, solar and cosmic radiation activity for satellite lifetime estimation and lunar crew protection by providing early-warning systems. The paper describes the mission concept and the pre-design of the demonstrator satellite according to the operational mission requirements, advantages and benefits of this service. The concept was awarded with the Space Generation Advisory Council and OHB Scholarship in 2011 and the concept study is conducted at the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) [1] of the University of Stuttgart and OHB-System, Bremen [2].

  17. Space-Hotel Early Bird - Visions for a Commercial Space Hotel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amekrane, R.; Holze, C.; Apel, U.

    2002-01-01

    rachid.amekrane@astrium-space.com/Fax: +49 421 539-24801, cholze@zarm.uni-bremen.de/Fax: +49 421 218-7473, The International Space Station was planed for research purposes. In 2001 the first private man, Denis Tito,visited the ISS and the second private man, Mark Shuttleworth is following him. The gate towards the commercial utilization of manned space flight has been pushed open. Space pioneers as Wernher von Braun and Sir Arthur C. Clarke had the dream that one day a space station in earth orbit will host tourists. It is evident that the ISS is not designed to host tourists. Therefore the dream of the pioneers is still open. By asking the question "how should a space station should look like to host tourists?", the German Aerospace Society DGLR e.V. organized a contest under the patronage of Mr. Joerg Feustel-Buechl, the Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity, European Space Agency (ESA) in April 2001. Because the definition and design of living space is the content of architecture the approach was to gather new ideas from young architects in cooperation with space experts. This contest was directed at students of architecture and the task set was to design a hotel for the earth orbit and to accommodate 220 guests. The contest got the name "Early Bird - Visions of a Space Hotel". The results and models of the student's work were shown in an exhibition in Hamburg/Germany, which was open to the public from September 19th till October 20th 2001. During the summer term of 2001 seventeen designs were completed. Having specialists, as volunteers, in the field of space in charge meant that it could be ensured that the designs reflected a certain possibility of being able to be realized. Within this interdisciplinary project both parties learned from each other. The 17 different designs were focused on the expectations and needs of a future space tourist. The designs are for sure not feasible today, but the designs are in that sense realistic that they could be

  18. Space-Hotel EARLY BIRD - A Visionary Prospect of a Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amekrane, R.; Holze, C.

    2002-01-01

    rachid.amekrane@astrium-space.com/Fax: +49 421 539-24801, cholze@zarm.uni-bremen.de/Fax: The International Space Station was planed for research purposes. In 2001 the first private man, Denis Tito,visited the ISS and the second private man, Mark Shuttleworth is following him. Space pioneers as Wernher von Braun, Sir Arthur C. Clarke had the dream that one day a space station in earth orbit will host tourists. It is evident that the ISS is not designed to host tourists. Therefore this dream is still open. Asking the question "how should a space station should look like to host tourists?" the German Aerospace Society DGLR e.V. initiated in April 2001 a contest under the patronage of Mr. Joerg Feustel-Buechl, the Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity, European Space Agency (ESA). Because the definition and design of living space is the content of architecture the approach was to gather new ideas from young architects in cooperation with space experts. This contest was directed at students of architecture and the task set was to design a hotel for the earth orbit and to accommodate 220 guests. The contest got the name "Early Bird - Visions of a Space Hotel". The results and models of the student's work were shown in an exhibition in Hamburg/Germany, which was open to the public from September 19th till October 20th 2001. During the summer term of 2001 seventeen designs were completed. Having specialists, as volunteers, in the field of space in charge meant that it could be ensured that the designs reflected a certain possibility of being able to be realized. Within this interdisciplinary project both parties learned from each other. The 17 different designs were focused on the expectations and needs of a future space tourist. The design are for sure not feasible today, but the designs are in that sense realistic that they could be built in future. This paper will present the overview of the 17 designs as visions of a future space hotel. The designs used

  19. Mission Specific Platforms: Past achievements and future developments in European led ocean research drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Carol; McInroy, David; Stevenson, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expeditions are operated by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD). Each MSP expedition is unique within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). In order to complement the abilities of the JOIDES Resolution and the Chikyu, the ECORD Science Operator (ESO) must source vessels and technology suitable for each MSP proposal on a case-by-case basis. The result is that ESO can meet scientific requirements in a flexible manner, whilst maintaining the measurements required for the IODP legacy programme. The process of tendering within EU journals for vessels and technology means that the planning process for each MSP Expedition starts many years in advance of the operational phase. Involvement of proposal proponents from this early stage often leads to the recognition for technological research and development to best meet the scientific aims and objectives. One example of this is the planning for the Atlantis Massif proposal, with collaborative development between the British Geological Survey (BGS) and MARUM, University of Bremen, on suitable instruments for seabed drills, with the European Petrophysics Consortium (EPC) driving the development of suitable wireline logging tools that can be used in association with such seabed systems. Other technological developments being undertaken within the European IODP community include in-situ pressure sampling for gas hydrate expeditions, deep biosphere and fluid sampling equipment and CORK technology. This multi-national collaborative approach is also employed by ESO in the operational phase. IODP Expedition 302 ACEX saw vessel and ice management support from Russia and Sweden to facilitate the first drilling undertaken in Arctic sea ice. A review of MSP expeditions past, present and future reveal the significant impact of European led operations and scientific research within the current IODP programme, and also looking forward to the start of the new International

  20. PANGAEA® - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science - Research data enters scholarly communication and big data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepenbroek, Michael; Schindler, Uwe; Riedel, Morris; Huber, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The ISCU World Data Center PANGAEA is an information system for acquisition, processing, long term storage, and publication of geo-referenced data related to earth science fields. Storing more than 350.000 data sets from all fields of geosciences it belongs to the largest archives for observational earth science data. Standard conform interfaces (ISO, OGC, W3C, OAI) enable access from a variety of data and information portals, among them the search engine of PANGAEA itself ((www.pangaea.de) and e.g. GBIF. All data sets in PANGAEA are citable, fully documented, and can be referenced via persistent identifiers (Digital Object Identifier - DOI) - a premise for data publication. Together with other ICSU World Data Centers (www.icsu-wds.org) and the Technical Information Library in Germany (TIB) PANGAEA had a share in the implementation of a DOI based registry for scientific data, which by now is supported by a worldwide consortium of libraries (www.datacite.org). A further milestone was building up strong co-operations with science publishers as Elsevier, Springer, Wiley, AGU, Nature and others. A common web service allows to reference supplementary data in PANGAEA directly from an articles abstract page (e.g. Science Direct). The next step with science publishers is to further integrate the editorial process for the publication of supplementary data with the publication procedures on the journal side. Data centric research efforts such as environmental modelling or big data analysing approaches represent new challenges for PANGAEA. Integrated data warehouse technologies are used for highly efficient retrievals and compilations of time slices or surface data matrixes on any measurement parameters out of the whole data continuum. Further, new and emerging big data approaches are currently investigated within PANGAEA to e.g. evaluate its usability for quality control or data clustering. PANGAEA is operated as a joint long term facility by MARUM at the University Bremen

  1. Memetics and Cultural Evolution of Grimm’s Fairy Tales in Slovenia (1849-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Mileva Blažić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe Grimm Brothers’ Fairy Tales are a typical example of memetics and cultural evolution. The most known types/motifs/mems in their Children’s and Household Tales (1812 are: Little Red Cap, Little Snow White, Sleeping Beauty, Hansel and Gretel, the Wolf and the Seven Young Kids, the Frog King (or the Iron Heinrich, Thumbling, the Wishing Table, Town Musicians of Bremen etc.Purpose: Based on Jack Zipes’ theory of memetics and cultural evolution of fairy tales the article deals with translations, adaptations and retellings of Grimm’s Fairy Tales in Slovenia in the period from 1849 to 2012.Methodology/approach: Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are applied. The goal of the research was to deal with the reception of the Grimm’s Fairy Tales from the point of view of Jack Zipes’ theory of memetics and cultural evolution and to determine which fairy tales have been translated into Slovenian. The article deals with the question whether the priority was given to the most typical fairy tales that had already been translated into many other languages trying to find out if any other specific selection criteria were used. Based on the qualitative and quantitative research and on the descriptive method, Jack Zipes’ sociological theory is applied to a representative bibliography of the translations into Slovenian.Research limitation: Grimm’s fairy tales were translated into Slovenian but the authors and/or translators were either not cited or cited by initials or annotations (i.e. translated from German into Slovenian by…Many Slovenian (juvenile authors have written original texts based on Grimm’s fairy tales (i.e. Oton Župančič: Sneguljčiča /Snow White, 1900 thus combining folk tradition and originality. Originality/practical implications: The research applies the sociological theory of memetics and cultural evolution of the American scientist Jack Zipes to the reception of Grimm’s Fairy Tales in Slovenia in

  2. Optical characterisation of three reference Dobsons in the ATMOZ Project - verification of G. M. B. Dobson's original specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Ulf; Nevas, Saulius; McConville, Glen; Evans, Robert; Smid, Marek; Stanek, Martin; Redondas, Alberto; Schönenborn, Fritz

    2018-04-01

    Three reference Dobsons (regional standard Dobsons No. 064, Germany and No. 074, Czech Republic as well as the world standard No. 083, USA) were optically characterized at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig in 2015 and at the Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) in Prague in 2016 within the EMRP ENV 059 project Traceability for atmospheric total column ozone. Slit functions and the related parameters of the instruments were measured and compared with G. M. B. Dobson's specifications in his handbook. All Dobsons show a predominantly good match of the slit functions and the peak (centroid) wavelengths with deviations between -0.11 and +0.12 nm and differences of the full width half maximum (FWHM) between 0.13 and 0.37 nm compared to the nominal values at the shorter wavelengths. Slightly larger deviations of the FWHMs from the nominal Dobson data, up to 1.22 nm, can be seen at the longer wavelengths, especially for the slit function of the long D-wavelength. However, differences between the effective absorption coefficients (EACs) for ozone derived using Dobson's nominal values of the optical parameters on one hand and these measured values on the other hand are not too large in the case of both old Bass-Paur (BP) and new IUP-ozone (Institut für Umweltphysik, University of Bremen) absorption cross sections. Their inclusion in the calculation of the total ozone column (TOC) leads to improvements of significantly less than ±1 % at the AD-wavelengths between -1 and -2 % at the CD-wavelengths pairs in the BP-scale. The effect on the TOC in the IUP-scale is somewhat larger at the AD-wavelengths, up to +1 % (D074), and smaller at the CD-wavelengths pair, from -0.44 to -1.5 %. Beside this positive effect gained from the data with higher metrological quality that is needed for trend analyses and satellite validation, it will be also possible to explain uncommon behaviours of field Dobsons during calibration services, especially when a newly

  3. Combining Internet-Based and Postal Survey Methods in a Survey among Gynecologists: Results of a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Brand, Tilman; Lhachimi, Stefan K; Zeeb, Hajo

    2018-04-01

    To assess whether a combination of Internet-based and postal survey methods (mixed-mode) compared to postal-only survey methods (postal-only) leads to improved response rates in a physician survey, and to compare the cost implications of the different recruitment strategies. All primary care gynecologists in Bremen and Lower Saxony, Germany, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey from January to July 2014. The sample was divided into two strata (A; B) depending on availability of an email address. Within each stratum, potential participants were randomly assigned to mixed-mode or postal-only group. In Stratum A, the mixed-mode group had a lower response rate compared to the postal-only group (12.5 vs. 20.2 percent; RR = 0.61, 95 percent CI: 0.44-0.87). In stratum B, no significant differences were found (15.6 vs. 16.2 percent; RR = 0.95, 95 percent CI: 0.62-1.44). Total costs (in €) per valid questionnaire returned (Stratum A: 399.72 vs. 248.85; Stratum B: 496.37 vs. 455.15) and per percentage point of response (Stratum A: 1,379.02 vs. 861.02; Stratum B 1,116.82 vs. 1,024.09) were higher, whereas variable costs were lower in mixed-mode compared to the respective postal-only groups (Stratum A cost ratio: 0.47, Stratum B cost ratio: 0.71). In this study, primary care gynecologists were more likely to participate by traditional postal-only than by mixed-mode survey methods that first offered an Internet option. However, the lower response rate for the mixed-mode method may be partly due to the older age structure of the responding gynecologists. Variable costs per returned questionnaire were substantially lower in mixed-mode groups and indicate the potential for cost savings if the sample population is sufficiently large. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  4. Artium mater in relativistic astrophysics : New perspectives for a European-Latin American PhD program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chardonnet, Pascal [Coordinator IRAP PhD EMJD, Université de Nice 28, avenue Valrose 06103 Nice (France); LAPTh, Université de Savoie, CNRS, B.P. 110, Annecy-le-Vieux F-74941 (France); ICRANet, Piazza della Repubblica 10, 65122 Pescara (Italy); Department for Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Research Nuclear University Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-17

    Following the successful scientific space missions by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, as well as the high-energy particle activities at CERN in Genve, we have created a Ph.D. program dedicated to the formation of scientists in the field of relativistic astrophysics. The students of such a program will lead the theoretical developments of one of the most active fields of research, based on the above observational and experimental facilities. This program needs expertise in the most advanced topics of mathematical and theoretical physics, and in relativistic field theories. It requires the ability to model the observational data received from the above facilities, as well as all the basic knowledge in astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. This activity is necessarily international, no single university can cover the broad expertises. From this, the proposed program of the IRAP Ph.D., in one of the youngest and most dynamical French universities, pole of research and teaching in the Euro-Mediterranean region (PRES): the University of Nice. It benefits from the presence of the astrophysics research institute of Observatoire de la Cte d’Azur involved in relativistic and non-photonic astrophysics. The participation of the Freie Universitaet Berlin, Oldenburg and Bremen Universities and of the Einstein Institute in Potsdam offers the possibility of teaching in relativistic field theories at the highest level. The University of Savoy offers the link to the particle physics at CERN. The activities at the University of Rome, at Stockholm University and at ICRANet offer teaching programs in all the fields of relativistic astrophysics, including cosmology, the physics of gravitational collapse, gamma-ray bursts, and black hole physics. Finally, the University of Ferrara will be present with lectures and researches in the topics they have pioneered such as x-ray astrophysics and observational cosmology. Through ICRANet

  5. Artium mater in relativistic astrophysics : New perspectives for a European-Latin American PhD program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chardonnet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Following the successful scientific space missions by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, as well as the high-energy particle activities at CERN in Genve, we have created a Ph.D. program dedicated to the formation of scientists in the field of relativistic astrophysics. The students of such a program will lead the theoretical developments of one of the most active fields of research, based on the above observational and experimental facilities. This program needs expertise in the most advanced topics of mathematical and theoretical physics, and in relativistic field theories. It requires the ability to model the observational data received from the above facilities, as well as all the basic knowledge in astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. This activity is necessarily international, no single university can cover the broad expertises. From this, the proposed program of the IRAP Ph.D., in one of the youngest and most dynamical French universities, pole of research and teaching in the Euro-Mediterranean region (PRES): the University of Nice. It benefits from the presence of the astrophysics research institute of Observatoire de la Cte d’Azur involved in relativistic and non-photonic astrophysics. The participation of the Freie Universitaet Berlin, Oldenburg and Bremen Universities and of the Einstein Institute in Potsdam offers the possibility of teaching in relativistic field theories at the highest level. The University of Savoy offers the link to the particle physics at CERN. The activities at the University of Rome, at Stockholm University and at ICRANet offer teaching programs in all the fields of relativistic astrophysics, including cosmology, the physics of gravitational collapse, gamma-ray bursts, and black hole physics. Finally, the University of Ferrara will be present with lectures and researches in the topics they have pioneered such as x-ray astrophysics and observational cosmology. Through ICRANet

  6. Artium mater in relativistic astrophysics : New perspectives for a European-Latin American PhD program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardonnet, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Following the successful scientific space missions by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, as well as the high-energy particle activities at CERN in Genve, we have created a Ph.D. program dedicated to the formation of scientists in the field of relativistic astrophysics. The students of such a program will lead the theoretical developments of one of the most active fields of research, based on the above observational and experimental facilities. This program needs expertise in the most advanced topics of mathematical and theoretical physics, and in relativistic field theories. It requires the ability to model the observational data received from the above facilities, as well as all the basic knowledge in astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. This activity is necessarily international, no single university can cover the broad expertises. From this, the proposed program of the IRAP Ph.D., in one of the youngest and most dynamical French universities, pole of research and teaching in the Euro-Mediterranean region (PRES): the University of Nice. It benefits from the presence of the astrophysics research institute of Observatoire de la Cte d'Azur involved in relativistic and non-photonic astrophysics. The participation of the Freie Universitaet Berlin, Oldenburg and Bremen Universities and of the Einstein Institute in Potsdam offers the possibility of teaching in relativistic field theories at the highest level. The University of Savoy offers the link to the particle physics at CERN. The activities at the University of Rome, at Stockholm University and at ICRANet offer teaching programs in all the fields of relativistic astrophysics, including cosmology, the physics of gravitational collapse, gamma-ray bursts, and black hole physics. Finally, the University of Ferrara will be present with lectures and researches in the topics they have pioneered such as x-ray astrophysics and observational cosmology. Through ICRANet the

  7. EAC trains its first international astronaut class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolender, Hans; Bessone, Loredana; Schoen, Andreas; Stevenin, Herve

    2002-11-01

    After several years of planning and preparation, ESA's ISS training programme has become operational. Between 26 August and 6 September, the European Astronaut Centre (EAC) near Cologne gave the first ESA advanced training course for an international ISS astronaut class. The ten astronauts who took part--two from NASA, four from Japan and four from ESA--had begun their advanced training programme back in 2001 with sessions at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston and at the Japanese Training Centre in Tsukuba. During their stay in Cologne, the ten astronauts participated in a total of 33 classroom lessons and hands-on training sessions, which gave them a detailed overview of the systems and subsystems of the Columbus module, the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and the related crew operations tasks. They were also introduced to the four ESA experiment facilities to be operated inside the Columbus module. After their first week of training at EAC, the astronauts were given the opportunity to see the flight model of the Columbus module being integrated at the site of ESA's ISS prime contractor, Astrium in Bremen. The second week of training at EAC included hands-on instruction on the Columbus Data Management System (DMS) using the recently installed Columbus Crew Training Facility. In preparation for the first advanced crew training session at EAC, two Training Readiness Reviews (TRR) were conducted there in June and August. These reviews were supported by training experts and astronauts from NASA, NASDA and CSA (Canada), who were introduced to ESA's advanced training concept and the development process, and then analysed and evaluated the training flow, content and instructional soundness of lessons and courses, as well as the fidelity of the training facilities and the skills of the ESA training instructors. The International Training Control Board (ITCB), made up of representatives from all of the ISS International Partners and mandated to control and

  8. Development and evaluation of two web-based interventions for the promotion of physical activity in older adults: study protocol for a community-based controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellmann, Saskia; Bragina, Inna; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Rost, Eric; Lippke, Sonia; Meyer, Jochen; Schnauber, Jochen; Wasmann, Merlin; Toborg, Merle; Koppelin, Frauke; Brand, Tilman; Zeeb, Hajo; Pischke, Claudia R

    2017-05-25

    Regular physical activity (PA) is a key contributor to healthy ageing. However, despite known health benefits, only one third of older adults in Germany reach the PA levels recommended for persons aged 65 years and above by the World Health Organization. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of two web-based interventions for the initiation and maintenance of regular PA (i.e., intervention groups 1 and 2) compared to a delayed intervention control group of older adults aged 65 to 75 years. Study participants will be randomly assigned to one of three study arms in five communities in the Bremen-Oldenburg metropolitan region: a) Participants in the first arm will receive access to a web-based intervention for 10 weeks allowing them to track their weekly PA (subjective self-monitoring, intervention group 1); b) participants in the second arm will receive access to the web-based intervention for 10 weeks and, in addition, track PA using Fitbit Zips (objective self-monitoring, intervention group 2); c) participants in the delayed intervention control group will receive access to the intervention implemented in the first study arm after completion of the 12-week follow-up in the other two groups within each community. In addition, weekly group meetings in the communities will be offered to study participants in the intervention groups providing the opportunity to address questions related to the use of the website and to practice PA in groups (e.g., neighborhood walks, strength and balance exercises). To evaluate short-term effects of the intervention on physical and psychological health, PA, physical fitness, and cognitive and psychological variables will be assessed at baseline and 12-week follow-up. This study will provide answers regarding acceptance and effectiveness of web-based interventions promoting uptake and maintenance of regular PA in persons aged 65-75 years. Study findings will contribute to a growing body of evidence in

  9. Retrieval of ozone profiles from OMPS limb scattering observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arosio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a retrieval algorithm developed at the University of Bremen to obtain vertical profiles of ozone from limb observations performed by the Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite (OMPS. This algorithm is based on the technique originally developed for use with data from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY instrument. As both instruments make limb measurements of the scattered solar radiation in the ultraviolet (UV and visible (Vis spectral ranges, an underlying objective of the study is to obtain consolidated and consistent ozone profiles from the two satellites and to produce a combined data set. The retrieval algorithm uses radiances in the UV and Vis wavelength ranges normalized to the radiance at an upper tangent height to obtain ozone concentrations in the altitude range of 12–60 km. Measurements at altitudes contaminated by clouds in the instrument field of view are identified and filtered out. An independent aerosol retrieval is performed beforehand and its results are used to account for the stratospheric aerosol load in the ozone inversion. The typical vertical resolution of the retrieved profiles varies from  ∼  2.5 km at lower altitudes ( < 30 km to  ∼  1.5 km (about 45 km and becomes coarser at upper altitudes. The retrieval errors resulting from the measurement noise are estimated to be 1–4 % above 25 km, increasing to 10–30 % in the upper troposphere. OMPS data are processed for the whole of 2016. The results are compared with the NASA product and validated against profiles derived from passive satellite observations or measured in situ by balloon-borne sondes. Between 20 and 60 km, OMPS ozone profiles typically agree with data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS v4.2 within 5–10 %, whereas in the lower altitude range the bias becomes larger, especially in the tropics. The comparison of OMPS profiles with ozonesonde

  10. Hydrology and phytoplankton community structure at Itamaracá-Pernambuco (Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luise Koening

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Quali-quantitative studies and hydrologic parameters were carried out in the profiles 6 (Orange and 7 (Catuama during the Victor Hensen cruise, in accordance with the bilateral scientific cooperation agreement Brazil/Germany. Hydrologically a zone of thermic and saline stability characterizes the superficial layer. The nutrient concentrations were generally low on the surface and higher at levels surpassing 100m in depth. 102 taxa were identified including diatoms (49, dinoflagellates (49, bluegreen algae (3, and euglenophyceae (1. The diversity and evenness were high, surpassing the environmental equilibrium. The clustering of samples showed evidence of 2 main groups, one encompassing the stations 32 and 38, characterized predominantly by Oscillatoria erythraeum, and another encompassing the remaining stations, characterized by dinoflagellates and diatoms. The clustering of species involved 4 groups, the biggest being oceanic marine species (49 species and coastal and eurihaline marine species (31 species. The phytoplankton density varied from 50,000 cell.l-1 to 590,000 cell.l-1, characterizing an oligotrophic environment.Estudos hidrológicos e fitoplanctônicos foram realizados em dois perfis perpendiculares à costa, em frente à Ilha de Itamaracá-PE (perfis Orange e Catuama, durante a Expedição do Navio de Pesquisas Victor Hensen, dentro do acordo de cooperação bilateral celebrado entre o Departamento de Oceanografia da UFPE e o Centro de Ecologia Marinha Tropical (ZMT-Bremen-Alemanha. A camada superficial está caracterizada por uma zona de estabilidade térmica e salina. As concentrações de nutrientes foram geralmente mais baixas na superfície e mais elevadas em profundidades acima de 100m. Foram identificados 102 táxons, incluindo 49 diatomáceas, 49 dinoflagelados, 3 cianofíceas e 1 euglenofícea. A diversidade específica e equitabilidade foram elevadas, indicando um equilíbrio ambiental. A associação das amostras

  11. Southern African Phanerozoic Carbonatites: Perspectives on Their Sources and Petrogeneses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janney, P. E.; Ogungbuyi, P. I.; Marageni, M.; Harris, C.; Reid, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Found worldwide, carbonatites are particularly numerous in southern Africa and reflect one expression of abundant intraplate alkaline magmatism of Proterozoic to Paleogene age in the region. Phanerozoic southern African carbonatites tend to be concentrated near the margins of the continent (especially the western margin), and near the East African Rift, and often occur in discrete magmatic lineations also containing kimberlites, melilitites, nephelinites and differentiated silica-undersaturated rocks such as phonolites and syenites. We present a synthesis of geochemical and radiogenic and stable isotope results for southern African carbonatites, including new trace element and isotope data from four Phanerozoic carbonatite complexes in South Africa and Namibia: Marinkas Quellen (MQ; southernmost Namibia, ≈525 Ma), Saltpeterkop (SPK; near Sutherland, South Africa, 74 Ma), Zandkopsdrift (ZKD; near Garies, South Africa, 55 Ma, a major REE deposit in development), and Dicker Willem (DW; near Aus, southern Namibia, 49 Ma). All are located in the Early-mid Proterozoic Namaqua-Natal mobile belt. These carbonatite complexes are each associated with linear, NE-SW oriented magmatic provinces, i.e., the Kuboos-Bremen Line of felsic alkaline intrusions and ultramafic lamprophyres (MQ); the Western Cape olivine melilitite province (SPK); the Namaqualand-Bushmanland-Warmbad province of olivine melilitites and kimberlites (ZKD) and the Schwarzeberg-Klinghardt-Gibeon swarm of nephelinites, phonolites and kimberlites (DW), the latter three provinces are of Paleogene to Late Cretaceous age and are clearly age progressive. Each of the four carbonatite complexes contain silica-undersaturated igneous rocks such as potassic trachyte (MQ, SPK & DW), alkaline lamprophyre (ZKD), ijolite (MQ & DW) and olivine melilitite (ZKD and SPK). Most also contain hybrid silicate-carbonate igneous rocks with <35 wt.% SiO2 and ≥20 wt.% CO2 such as nepheline sövite (DW), aillikite (ZKD) and other

  12. A major upgrade of the sediment echosounder ATLAS PARASOUND and the digital acquisition software ParaDigMA for high-resolution sea floor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerriets, A.; von Lom-Keil, H.; Spiess, V.; Zwanzig, C.; Bruns, R.

    2003-04-01

    The combination of the ATLAS PARASOUND sediment echosounder, designed by ATLAS Hydrographic, and the digital recording software package ParaDigMA (commercially available as ATLAS PARASTORE-3) for online digitisation, preprocessing and visualisation of recorded seismograms has proven to be a reliable system for high-resolution acoustic sea floor studies. During 10 years of successful operation aboard several research vessels, including R/V Meteor, R/V Sonne and R/V Polarstern, the system has been only slightly modified. Based on this experience, today's PARASOUND/ParaDigMA system has accomplished the step from DOS towards Windows platform and network capability. In cooperation of ATLAS Hydrographic and the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bremen a major upgrade of the PARASOUND/ParaDigMA system has been developed that adds significant functionality for surveys of sediment structures and sea floor morphology. The innovations primarily concern the control section of the ATLAS PARASOUND echosounder and the ParaDigMA user front end. The previous analogue PARASOUND control terminal has been replaced by a small real time control PC responsible for the control of the echosounder as well as for the continuous digitisation of the data. The control PC communicates via standard network protocols metadata and data with client applications that can display and store the acquired data on different computers on the network. The new network capabilities of the system overcome former limitations and admit a high flexibility with respect to numbers and locations of operator and recording/display PCs. The system now offers a simultaneous parallel registration of the 2.5-5.5kHz parametric signal and the 18kHz NBS signal. This feature in combination with the recording of complete soundings including the entire water column provides the basis for evolving scientific research topics e. g. gas venting. The ParaDigMA recording software now operates on Windows platforms which

  13. Vibrations of wind power plants 2011; Schwingungen von Windenergieanlagen 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the 2nd meeting of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) at 8th to 9th February, 2011 in Bremen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Are test bench measurements of wind gears comparable to field studies (T. Jacob); (2) Investigation of the dynamic behaviour of the drive train of wind power plants (T. Gellermann); (3) Noise source identification at wind power plants by means of microphone arrays with a special geometry (H. Kreidl); (4) Condition monitoring of rotor blades at wind power plants for the detection of damages at rotor blades, icy conditions and dynamic loads (P. Volkmer); (5) Analysis of the scale of damages at rolling bearings in wind power plants - In-depth methods of diagnosis and application of the diagnosis of rolling bearings at wind power plants according to the regulation VDI 3832 (D. Franke); (6) Investigation of acoustic emissions at wind power plants according to the regulation IEC 61400-11 and FGW - Presentation of a new integrated solution for the measuring technique (R. Schlombs); (7) Condition monitoring systems for wind power plants: State of the art and outlook for future developments from the view of the certification (K. Steingroever); (8) Refined vibration diagnostic methods for the condition monitoring at gears of wind power plants (R. Wirth); (9) Damage and self-healing of OWEA foundations (G. Gudehus); (10) Measurement of dynamic movements and condition monitoring at the fundaments of wind power plants beginning with the allocation of damage images till to the strengthening of fundaments (J. Nix); (11) Prediction of damages on wind power plant (P. Bangert); (12) Influence of a indirect converter on the operating characteristic of a power conversion system of wind power plants with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (C. Sourkounis); (13) Determination of realistic load assumptions for the pitch system and specification of a control strategy of a wind power

  14. Beyond 2013 - The Future of European Scientific Drilling Research - An introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camoin, G.; Stein, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) is funded for the period 2003-2013, and is now starting to plan the future of ocean drilling beyond 2013, including the development of new technologies, new emerging research fields as and the societal relevance of this programme. In this context an interdisciplinary and multinational (USA, Europe, Japan, Asian and Oceanian countries), key conference - INVEST IODP New Ventures in Exploring Scientific Targets - addressing all international IODP partners is therefore planned for September 23rd-25th 2009 in Bremen, Germany (more information at http://www.iodp.org and http://marum.de/iodp-invest.html) to discuss future directions of ocean drilling research and related aspects such as ventures with related programmes or with industry. The first critical step of INVEST is to define the scientific research goals of the second phase of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which is expected to begin in late 2013. INVEST will be open to all interested scientists and students and will be the principal opportunity for the international science community to help shape the future of scientific ocean drilling. The outcome of the conference will be the base to draft a science plan in 2010 and to define new goals and strategies to effectively meet the challenges of society and future ocean drilling. The current EGU Session and the related two days workshop which will be held at the University of Vienna will specifically address the future of European scientific drilling research. The major objectives of those two events are to sharpen the European interests in the future IODP and to prepare the INVEST Conference and are therefore of prime importance to give weight to the European propositions in the program renewal processes, both on science, technology and management, and to provide the participants with information about the status/process of ongoing discussions and negotiations regarding program structure, and provide them

  15. Impact of sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel on coastal air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Weigelt, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Shipping traffic is a sector that faces an enormous growth rate and contributes substantially to the emissions from the transportation sector, but lacks regulations and controls. Shipping is not enclosed in the Kyoto Protocol. However, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced sufhur limits for marine heavy fuels, nitrogen oxide limits for newly-built ship engines and established Emission Control Areas (ECA) in the North and Baltic Sea as well as around North America with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI). Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, measurements of reactive trace gases and the chemical composition of the marine troposphere along shipping routes are sparse and up to now there is no regular monitoring system available. The project MeSmarT (measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) is a cooperation between the University of Bremen, the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH) and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. This study aims to analyse the influence of shipping emissions on the coastal air quality by evaluating ground-based remote sensing measurements using the MAX-DOAS (Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique. Measurements of the atmospheric trace gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been carried out in the marine troposphere at the MeSmarT measurement sites in Wedel and on Neuwerk and on-board several ship cruises on the North and Baltic Sea. The capability of two-channel MAX-DOAS systems to do simultaneous measurements in the UV and visible spectral range has been used in the so called "onion-peeling" approach to derive spatial distributions of ship emissions and to analyse the movement of the exhausted

  16. Preliminary XCO2 and XCH4 retrievals in the GOSAT routine processing (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Eguchi, N.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Watanabe, H.

    2009-12-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite "IBUKI" (GOSAT) was launched on January 23, 2009. The data acquired with the sensors onboard the satellite, the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI), are transferred to JAXA’s Tsukuba Space Center where the Level 1A data (FTS interferogram data and geometrically uncorrected CAI data) are generated. There, the FTS Level 1A data are further processed into the spectral data (FTS Level 1B data). The FTS Level 1A and 1B data as well as the CAI Level 1A data are then forwarded to GOSAT Data Handling Facility (DHF) at NIES for CAI Level 1B (performing geometric and radiometric correction), Level 2 (retrieving column abundances of CO2 and CH4 molecules from the FTS data, and obtaining cloud and aerosol properties from the CAI data), and higher-level processing. After the three-months initial check out of the satellite and the onboard sensors, the operational observation and data processing started in April, 2009. At GOSAT DHF, the Level 2 data products (column CO2 and CH4, Ver.00.02) were processed from uncalibrated Level 1B data (radiance spectra, Ver.006.006). A preliminary version of the Level 2 data product (Ver.00.02) for the observation period between April 23 and June 27 was processed at GOSAT DHF and distributed to the registered researchers who contribute to researches in instrument calibration, data validation, and data processing algorithms. More Level 2 data products (Ver.00.03) were generated later using initially-calibrated Level 1B data (Ver.007.007) obtained in August, 2009. These data products have not been validated yet. Data validation activities are currently underway; the Level 2 data products are being verified with the ground-based FTS network data collected at observation sites in Tsukuba (Japan), Darwin (Australia), Lauder (New Zealand), Bremen (Germany), Park Falls (USA), and other locations

  17. Public Awareness and Use of German Physician Ratings Websites: Cross-Sectional Survey of Four North German Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Stuart; Strech, Daniel; Meyer, Andrea; Kahrass, Hannes

    2017-11-09

    Physician rating websites (PRWs) allow patients to rate, comment, and discuss physicians' quality. The ability of PRWs to influence patient decision making and health care quality is dependent, in part, on sufficient awareness and usage of PRWs. However, previous studies have found relatively low levels of awareness and usage of PRWs, which has raised concerns about the representativeness and validity of information on PRWs. The objectives of this study were to examine (1) participants' awareness, use, and contribution of ratings on PRWs and how this compares with other rating websites; (2) factors that predict awareness, use, and contribution of ratings on PRWs; and (3) participants' attitudes toward PRWs in relation to selecting a physician. A mailed cross-sectional survey was sent to a random sample (N=1542) from four North German cities (Nordhorn, Hildesheim, Bremen, and Hamburg) between April and July 2016. Survey questions explored respondents' awareness, use, and contribution of ratings on rating websites for service (physicians, hospitals, and hotels and restaurants) and products (media and technical) in general and the role of PRWs when searching for a new physician. A total of 280 completed surveys were returned (280/1542, 18.16% response rate), with the following findings: (1) Overall, 72.5% (200/276) of respondents were aware of PRWs. Of the respondents who were aware of PRWs, 43.6% (86/197) had used PRWs. Of the respondents who had used PRWs, 23% (19/83) had rated physicians at least once. Awareness, use, and contribution of ratings on PRWs were significantly lower in comparison with all other rating websites, except for hospital rating websites. (2) Except for the impact of responders' gender and marital status on the awareness of PRWs and responders' age on the use of PRWs, no other predictors had a relevant impact. (3) Whereas 31.8% (85/267) of the respondents reported that PRWs were a very important or somewhat important information source when

  18. Multi-facetted Metadata - Describing datasets with different metadata schemas at the same time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Damian; Klump, Jens; Bertelmann, Roland

    2013-04-01

    REST-interface to store versioned dataset files and metadata in a XML-format. The software is able to administrate more than one eSciDoc metadata record per item and thus allows the description of a dataset according to its context. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and, at the same time, make use of contextual information available in a project setting. Access rights can be adjusted to set visibility of datasets to the required degree of openness. Metadata from separate instances of panMetaDocs can be syndicated to portals through RSS and OAI-PMH interfaces. The application architecture presented here allows storing file-based datasets and describe these datasets with any number of metadata schemas, depending on the intended use case. Data and metadata are stored in the same entity (eSciDoc items) and are managed by a software tool through the eSciDoc REST interface - in this case the application is panMetaDocs. Other software may re-use the produced items and modify the appropriate metadata records by accessing the web API of the eSciDoc data infrastructure. For presentation of the datasets in a web browser we are not bound to panMetaDocs. This is done by stylesheet transformation of the eSciDoc-item. [1] http://www.datacite.org [2] http://www.escidoc.org , eSciDoc, FIZ Karlruhe, Germany [3] http://panmetadocs.sf.net , panMetaDocs, GFZ Potsdam, Germany [4] http://metaworks.pangaea.de , panMetaWorks, Dr. R. Huber, MARUM, Univ. Bremen, Germany

  19. The Global Muon Detector Network -GMDN and the space situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Munakata, Kazuoki; Dal Lago, Alisson; Marcos Denardini, Clezio; Echer, Ezequiel; Demítrio Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter; da Silva, Marlos; Rigozo, Nivaor R.; Petry, Adriano; Kirsch Pinheiro, Damaris; Braga, Carlos Roberto; Vinicius Dias Silveira, Marcos; Ronan Coelho Stekel, Tardelli; Espindola Antunes, Cassio; Ramos Vieira, Lucas; Kemmerich, Níkolas; Kato, Chihiro; Fushishita, Akira; Fujii, Zenjirou; Bieber, John W.; Evenson, Paul; Kuwabara, Takao; Duldig, Marcus L.; Humble, John E.; Chilingarian, Ashot; Sabbah, Ismail; Jansen, Frank

    hadronic interactions of primary GCRs (mostly protons) with atmospheric nuclei. Since muons have a relatively long life-time (about 2.2 mi-croseconds at rest) and can reach the detector at ground level preserving the incident direction of primary particles, the detector can measure the GCRs intensity in various directions with a multidirectional detector at a single location, such as in Brazil. The Brazilian muon detector (MD), at SSO, is a part of the GMDN, an international collaboration consisting of 10 insti-tutions from 6 countries, with real time data generated by the GMDN, which was developed at Shinshu University, Japan. With the expectation of the approval by European Commission of the NESTEC (NExt generation Space TEChnology) Project, the GMDN may be upgrade in 2010 including new muon detectors in Bremen, Germany and in Hermanus, South Africa. Therefore the ICMEs traveling in the interplanetary space and reaching the Earth -cause re-duction in cosmic ray counts at the Earth by one to ten percent, and can be detected sometimes as much as ten hours before their arrival at Earth -with the GMDN, thus permitting accurate and reliable Space Weather forecasting and for the space situational awareness.

  20. Inverting Comet Acoustic Surface Sounding Experiment (CASSE) touchdown signals to measure the elastic modulus of comet material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W.; Faber, C.; Knapmeyer, M.; Witte, L.; Schröder, S.; Tune, J.; Möhlmann, D.; Roll, R.; Chares, B.; Fischer, H.; Seidensticker, K.

    2014-07-01

    The landing of Philae on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is scheduled for November 11, 2014. Each of the three landing feet of Philae house a triaxial acceleration sensor of CASSE, which will thus be the first sensors to be in mechanical contact with the cometary surface. CASSE will be in listening mode to record the deceleration of the lander, when it impacts with the comet at a velocity of approx. 0.5 m/s. The analysis of this data yields information on the reduced elastic modulus and the yield stress of the comet's surface material. We describe a series of controlled landings of a lander model. The tests were conducted in the Landing & Mobility Test Facility (LAMA) of the DLR Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, where an industrial robot can be programmed to move landers or rovers along predefined paths, allowing to adapt landing procedures with predefined velocities. The qualification model of the Philae landing gear was used in the tests. It consists of three legs manufactured of carbon fiber and metal joints. A dead mass of the size and mass of the lander housing is attached via a damper above the landing gear to represent the lander structure as a whole. Attached to each leg is a foot with two soles and a mechanically driven fixation screw (''ice screw'') to secure the lander on the comet. The right soles, if viewed from the outside towards the lander body, house a Brüel & Kjaer DeltaTron 4506 triaxial piezoelectric accelerometer as used on the spacecraft. Orientation of the three axes was such that one of the axes, here the X-axis of the accelerometer, points downwards, while the Y- and Z-axes are horizontal. Data were recorded at a sampling rate of 8.2 kHz within a time gate of 2 s. In parallel, a video sequence was taken, in order to monitor the touchdown on the sand and the movement of the ice screws. Touchdown measurements were conducted on three types of ground with landing velocities between 0.1 to 1.1 m/s. Landings with low velocities were

  1. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chris Ballard, Paula Brown, R. Michael Bourke, Tracy Harwood (eds; The sweet potato in Oceania; A reappraisal (Peter Boomgaard Caroline Hughes; The political economy of Cambodia’s transition, 1991-2001 (Han Ten Brummelhuis Richard Robison, Vedi Hadiz; Reorganising power in Indonesia; The politics of oligarchy in an age of markets (Marleen Dieleman Michael W. Charney; Southeast Asian warfare, 1300-1900 (Hans Hägerdal Daniel Perret, Amara Srisuchat, Sombun Thanasuk (eds; Études sur l´histoire du sultanat de Patani (Mary Somers Heidhues Joel Robbins; Becoming sinners; Christianity and moral torment in a Papua New Guinea society (Menno Hekker Mujiburrahman; Feeling threatened; Muslim-Christian relations in Indonesia’s New Order (Gerry van Klinken Marie-Odette Scalliet; De Collectie-Galestin in de Leidse Universiteitsbibliotheek (Dick van der Meij James Neil Sneddon; Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian (Don van Minde James Leach; Creative land; Place and procreation on the Rai coast of Papua New Guinea (Dianne van Oosterhout Stanley J. Ulijaszek (ed.; Population, reproduction and fertility in Melanesia (Dianne van Oosterhout Angela Hobart; Healing performances of Bali; Between darkness and light (Nathan Porath Leo Suryadinata (ed.; Admiral Zheng He and Southeast Asia (Roderich Ptak Ruth Barnes; Ostindonesien im 20. Jahrhundert; Auf den Spuren der Sammlung Ernst Vatter (Reimar Schefold Marie-Antoinette Willemsen; Een missionarisleven in brieven; Willem van Bekkum, Indië 1936-1998 (Karel Steenbrink Marie-Antoinette Willemsen; Een pionier op Flores; Jilis Verheijen (1908-1997, missionaris en onderzoeker (Karel Steenbrink Akitoshi Shimizu, Jan van Bremen (eds; Wartime Japanese anthropology in Asia and the Pacific (Fridus Steijlen Lilie Roosman; Phonetic experiments on the word and sentence prosody of Betawi Malay and Toba Batak (Uri Tadmor Jamie D. Saul; The Naga of Burma; Their festivals, customs

  2. Deposition of acidifying components and base cations in Germany in the period 1987-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, A.; Draaijers, G.P.J; Klap, J.M.; Van Jaarsveld, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The title project was carried out on behalf of and for account of the 'Umweltbundesamt' (UBA) Germany in co-operation with TNO-MEP and SC-DLO. The main products arising from this project are, for Germany, estimates of dry deposition with a high spatial resolution, which, in combination with wet deposition data, will be used for the calculation of critical load exceedances. The basic model used in this study was EDACS. This model calculates dry deposition fluxes on the basis of meteorological data and atmospheric concentrations of relevant species. As such, the project reported here further elaborates the work carried out in a previous project in 1996, with the following additions and/or improvements worked out: (a) The distribution of NH3 concentrations in Germany has now been calculated on a 5x5 km grid using the EUTREND model, while in the previous study these data were taken from the standard EMEP model; (b) Possible concepts for introducing cloud deposition into the inferential approach have been investigated, with results for a small study area in southern Germany shown; (c) Canopy exchange estimates for forest sites in Germany were related to parameters, also measured at these sites to gain better insight into the parameters controlling canopy uptake and leaching. SOx dry deposition fluxes were highest in central-east Germany, NOy fluxes in central-west Germany and NHx fluxes in north-west Germany. The highest dry deposition of potential acid (up to 15,000 eq. ha -1 y -1 in 1987) was calculated for 'Bundesland' Sachsen and the highest dry deposition load of nitrogen was calculated for Bremen (up to 2100 eq ha -1 y -1 in 1989). Dry deposition of SOx, NOy, NHx and potential acid in the 1993-1995 period decreased by 36%, 13%, 21% and 31%, respectively, compared to the 1987-1989 period The decrease in potential acid was highest in Sachsen (43%) and lowest in Baden-Wittemberg (12%). Dry deposition of non-sea salt Ca 2+ , K + , Mg 2+ and base cations decreased

  3. ESA Parabolic Flight, Drop Tower and Centrifuge Opportunities for University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Natacha; Ventura-Traveset, Javier; Zornoza Garcia-Andrade, Eduardo; Gomez-Calero, Carlos; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Pletser, Vladimir; Kufner, Ewald; Krause, Jutta; Lindner, Robert; Gai, Frederic; Eigenbrod, Christian

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Education Office was established in 1998 with the purpose of motivating young people to study science, engineering and technology subjects and to ensure a qualified workforce for ESA and the European space sector in the future. To this end the ESA Education Office is supporting several hands-on activities including small student satellites and student experiments on sounding rockets, high altitude balloons as well as microgravity and hypergravity platforms. This paper is intended to introduce three new ESA Education Office hands-on activities called "Fly Your Thesis!", "Drop Your Thesis!" and "Spin Your Thesis!". These activities give re-spectively access to aircraft parabolic flight, drop tower and centrifuge campaigns to European students. These educational programmes offer university students the unique opportunity to design, build, and eventually perform, in microgravity or hypergravity, a scientific or techno-logical experiment which is linked to their syllabus. During the "Fly Your Thesis!" campaigns, the students accompany their experiments onboard the A300 Zero-G aircraft, operated by the company Novespace, based in Bordeaux, France, for a series of three flights of 30 parabolas each, with each parabola providing about 20s of microgravity [1]. "Drop Your Thesis!" campaigns are held in the ZARM Drop Tower, in Bremen, Germany. The installation delivers 4.74s of microgravity in dropping mode and 9.3s in the catapulting mode [2]. Research topics such as fluid physics, fundamental physics, combustion, biology, material sciences, heat transfer, astrophysics, chemistry or biochemistry can greatly benefit from using microgravity platforms. "Spin Your Thesis!" campaigns take place in the Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC) facility, at ESTEC, Noordwijk, in the Netherlands. This facility offers an acceleration from 1 to 20 times Earth's gravity [3]. The use of hypergravity allows completing the scientific picture of how gravity has an

  4. Space-Hotel Early Bird - An Educational and Public Outreach Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amekrane, R.; Holze, C.

    2002-01-01

    education and public outreach can be combined and how a cooperation among an association, the industry and academia can work successfully. Representatives of the DGLR and the academia developed a method to spread space related knowledge in a short time to a motivated working group. The project was a great success in the sense to involve other disciplines in space related topics by interdisciplinary work and in the sense of public and educational outreach. With more than 2.3 million contacts the DGLR e.V. promoted space and the vision of living (in) space to the public. The task of the paper is mainly to describe the approach and the experience made related to the organization, lectures, financing and outreach efforts in respect to similar future international outreach activities, which are planned for the 54th International Astronautical Congress in Bremen/Germany. www.spacehotel.org

  5. Ionic Liquids: Radiation Chemistry, Solvation Dynamics and Reactivity Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wishart, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    the influence of ILs on charge transport processes. Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies at BNL's Laser-Electron Accelerator Facility (LEAF) are used to identify reactive species in ionic liquids and measure their solvation and reaction rates. We and our collaborators (R. Engel (Queens College, CUNY) and S. Lall-Ramnarine, (Queensborough CC, CUNY)) develop and characterize new ionic liquids specifically designed for our radiolysis and solvation dynamics studies. IL solvation and rotational dynamics are measured by TCSPC and fluorescence upconversion measurements in the laboratory of E. W. Castner at Rutgers Univ. Investigations of radical species in irradiated ILs are carried out at ANL by I. Shkrob and S. Chemerisov using EPR spectroscopy. Diffusion rates are obtained by PGSE NMR in S. Greenbaum's lab at Hunter College, CUNY and S. Chung's lab at William Patterson U. Professor Mark Kobrak of CUNY Brooklyn College performs molecular dynamics simulations of solvation processes. A collaboration with M. Dietz at U. Wisc. Milwaukee is centered around the properties and radiolytic behavior of ionic liquids for nuclear separations. Collaborations with C. Reed (UC Riverside), D. Gabel (U. Bremen) and J. Davis (U. South Alabama) are aimed at characterizing the radiolytic and other properties of borated ionic liquids, which could be used to make fissile material separations processes inherently safe from criticality accidents

  6. Research approach and first results on agglomerate compaction in protoplanetary dust simulation in the Cloud Manipulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedernikov, Andrei; Blum, Jurgen; Ingo Von Borstel, Olaf; Schraepler, Rainer; Balapanov, Daniyar; Cecere, Anselmo

    2016-07-01

    of growing single agglomerate out of the whole cloud. The cloud manipulation system additionally provides temperature stabilization or, on the contrary, high temperature variation in the observation volume; formation of controlled temperature gradients, intensive three-dimensional periodic shear flow or three-dimensional gas density pulsations of the contraction-expansion type; application of electrostatic gradients including electro dynamic balancing; imposing of photophoretic force, etc. Their choice and/or combination depend upon particular experimental task. Experiments on forced agglomeration in short duration microgravity conditions of the Bremen drop tower succeeded in rapid growth of extended agglomerates, formation of complex three-dimensional cloud patterns, allowed observing controlled cloud displacement, cloud trapping, particle separation with respect to their electrical charge. The breadboard (CMS BB) and the laboratory version of the Cloud Manipulation System (CMS LV) are new types of scientific instrument with high scientific potential. ESA PRODEX program, the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office, DLR project 50WM1223, ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company Ltd. are greatly acknowledged.

  7. MaNIDA: Insight into the German Marine Network for Integrated Data Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Angela; Scientific MaNIDA Team

    2013-04-01

    The Marine Network for Integrated Data Access (MaNIDA) builds a sustainable e-Infrastructure to support discovery and re-use of data from distinct marine and earth science data providers in Germany (see ESSI1.2 and ESSI2.2). Thereby we implement the "Data Portal of German Marine Research" for coherent discovery, view, download and dissemination of aggregated content. MaNIDA receives a unique momentum from the cooperation and financial partnership between main German marine research institutes (AWI, MARUM, HZG, GEOMAR, Uni Hamburg, Uni Kiel, Uni Bremen) and the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency as well as active participation in international and major EU-initiatives (ICSU, GEOSS, SeaDataNet, EMODNET, ODIP). Together with a coherent management strategy coordinated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, sustainability will be achieved via the long-term commitment of framework funding by the Helmholtz Association, Germany's largest scientific research organization for large-scale facilities and scientific infrastructure. Strategic Aims The installation of the "Data Portal of German Marine Research" will address the urgent demands of the German research community for reliable and easy access to marine research data at one single point of access and truth. Primary focus will be given to data derived from nationally operated research and monitoring facilities (vessels, observatories, alert systems, etc), whereby related contextual content and publications will become an integral part of the aggregation effort. For the scientific community we define responsibilities and commitments across partners while complementing existing data repositories and the new portal with well-articulated workflows from the instrument to the data product. Necessary level of quality assurance and user support will be implemented to achieve substantial enhancements in the whole lifecycle management of marine scientific data. The creation of a data

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild. Nationale Entwicklungen und internationale Beziehungen im 19. Jahrhundert (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, C.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 14th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of a Colloquium International Relationships in Astronomy (in German) organised by the History of Astronomy Section of the Astronomische Gesellschaft held on September 18 in Lilienthal, Germany. The book contains 13 articles on astronomical topics covering the 19th and 20th centuries. The first paper is by Guenther Oestmann and deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works and with later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations as seen by astronomers and historians. This report is complemented by a second article on Schroeter's 25-ft reflector in Lilienthal near Bremen. To this end, author Felix Luehning has constructed a scale model of the telescope, and shows how the building of a model brings a deeper understanding of function and handling of this instrument. This brings us to a third paper on telescope building in Lilienthal: Hans-Joachim Leue describes the cooperation of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter and Johann Gottlieb Schrader in developing a white reflecting metal alloy for use as telescope mirror. The fourth article, by Klaus Schillinger, describes on the basis of archival documents the aquisition history of the Herschel telescopes, including telescope quality check, repair and building. Memorial sites referring to Wilhelm Olbers, Johann Hieronymus Schroeter, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and Carl Friedrich Gauss are described by Arno Langkavel in two walks outlined in the very last paper of this book. Peter Brosche, in the fifth paper, discusses the rediscovery of Ceres in December1801, a discovery that was the result of the combined efforts of a theoretician (Gauss) and an observer (Zach). Juergen Hamel's paper is based on previously unused archival sources and discusses the outstanding role played by H. C. Schumacher (1780-1850, editor of the Astronomische Nachrichten) in the communication between

  9. World Data Center for Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (WDC-RSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Michael; Höppner, Kathrin; Hildenbrand, Beate

    Since 2003 the Applied Remote Sensing Cluster of DLR has hosted and operated the World Data Center for Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (WDC-RSAT, http://wdc.dlr.de) under the non-governmental auspices of the International Council of Science (ICSU). WDC-RSAT offers scientists and the general public free access to a continuously growing collection of satellite-based atmosphere-related data sets and services. These data holdings range from raw data collected by remote sensors, to information products derived from the raw data ("value adding"). The current WDC-RSAT data holding contains data and information products addressing atmospheric trace gases, clouds, surface parameters, solar radiation, and special services as near-real time (NRT) information related to e.g. European air quality, UV radiation forecasts, global ozone level maps. In addition to archiving data sets, WDC-RSAT cooperates with other data centers and strives to provide additional services, which include data analysis and value adding, data summaries, campaign planning support, and data set validation and publication. In Germany, three current ICSU World Data Centers, namely WDC-Climate (hosted by the German Climate Computer Center, DKRZ), WDC-MARE (co-hosted by AWI and the University of Bremen), WDC-RSAT (hosted by DLR), and the pending WDC-Terra (to be hosted by GFZ) founded in 2004 the German WDC cluster for "Earth System Research", in order to promote Earth System Science and Research in Germany and abroad. This Cluster is actively pursuing a strategy, using information technology, to make data related to Earth Systems available to an as wide and as interdisciplinary possible audience. In early 2006 a scientific advisory committee for WDC-RSAT was established. External experts representing space agencies, weather services, atmospheric remote sensing technologies, and atmospheric science help to guide WDC-RSAT in setting and reaching its goals. In cooperation with the World Meteorological

  10. Petroleum and natural gas in the Federal Republic of Germany 2001; Erdoel und Erdgas in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, M.; Kosinowski, M.; Loesch, J.; Messner, J.; Sedlacek, R.

    2002-07-01

    After the last years had seen the lowest level of exploration activities, the year 2001 marked a distinct increase of exploration activities. This became quite visible in the number of completed exploration wells and in the extent of seismic surveys. Two of four new-field wildcats were completed in 2001, however without success. One of the three additional exploration wells (new-pool test and new-tectonic block) found gas. In production drilling nine of twelve wells were successful. Footage increased by near 25% compared to the preceding year and amounted to 54 030 metres. Seen in the light of history since 1945, this value marks the last but one rank compared to the last rank of the previous year. The rise of footage was achieved exclusively by exploration drilling. Footage of production drilling was slightly down. In geophysical prospecting the activities in 3D seismics reached the same level as in times of maximum seismic activities. The total area of 2400 square kilometres even exceeded the previous maximum. The main contribution was delivered by only one offshore survey in the German North Sea. 2D seismic was rather low and amounted to 450 kilometres in total. The license area for oil and gas exploration was reduced even further. As in previous years several expired licences were not extended and in some cases parts of the licence areas were relinquished. One licence around the city of Bremen was newly awarded. Two licences were awarded due to reorganisation of licence areas respectively due to adaptation to frontiers. In the state of Nordrhein-Westfalen three smaller licence areas were newly awarded aiming at producing gas from abandoned coal mines. German oil production could increase to 3.44 million metric tons due to the increase in production from the oil field Mittelplate to 1.6 million tons. In all other fields oil production decreased because of normal decline in production. Total remaining proven and probable oil reserves are reduced by 3 million tons

  11. Investigation of the impact of extraterrestrial energetic particles on stratospheric nitrogen compounds and ozone on the basis of three dimensional model studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieters, Nadine

    2013-06-17

    -dimensional ionisations rates from Atmospheric Ionization Module Osnabrueck (AIMOS) were implemented into the model. The previous version of the CTM uses a so-called family approach to solve the chemical equations. This family approach is a appropiate assumption in the stratosphere, but cannot be applied in the mesosphere and thermosphere. To consider chemical processes in the upper atmosphere a non family version of the chemical code have been implemented into the CTM. To investigate the impact of precipitating particles on chlorine compounds, additional parametrisations have been implemented in a case model study from the University of Bremen Ion Chemistry (UBIC) model. With this extended version of the three-dimensional CTM of the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere, different model simulations for the period between 2002-2009 have been performed. This period covered the maximum phase of the 23. solar cycle with several medium and strong SPEs as well as the rather quiet declining phase of cycle 23 and the beginning of cycle 24.

  12. COLUMBUS as Engineering Testbed for Communications and Multimedia Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, C.; Anspach von Broecker, G. O.; Kolloge, H.-G.; Richters, M.; Rauer, D.; Urban, G.; Canovai, G.; Oesterle, E.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents ongoing activities to prepare COLUMBUS for communications and multimedia technology experiments. For this purpose, Astrium SI, Bremen, has studied several options how to best combine the given system architecture with flexible and state-of-the-art interface avionics and software. These activities have been conducted in coordination with, and partially under contract of, DLR and ESA/ESTEC. Moreover, Astrium SI has realized three testbeds for multimedia software and hardware testing under own funding. The experimental core avionics unit - about a half double rack - establishes the core of a new multi-user experiment facility for this type of investigation onboard COLUMBUS, which shall be available to all users of COLUMBUS. It allows for the connection of 2nd generation payload, that is payload requiring broadband data transfer and near-real-time access by the Principal Investigator on ground, to test highly interactive and near-realtime payload operation. The facility is also foreseen to test new equipment to provide the astronauts onboard the ISS/COLUMBUS with bi- directional hi-fi voice and video connectivity to ground, private voice coms and e-mail, and a multimedia workstation for ops training and recreation. Connection to an appropriate Wide Area Network (WAN) on Earth is possible. The facility will include a broadband data transmission front-end terminal, which is mounted externally on the COLUMBUS module. This Equipment provides high flexibility due to the complete transparent transmit and receive chains, the steerable multi-frequency antenna system and its own thermal and power control and distribution. The Equipment is monitored and controlled via the COLUMBUS internal facility. It combines several new hardware items, which are newly developed for the next generation of broadband communication satellites and operates in Ka -Band with the experimental ESA data relay satellite ARTEMIS. The equipment is also TDRSS compatible; the open loop

  13. Mini-CORK observatories using the MeBo seafloor drill rig - a new development for long-term data acquisition and sampling in shallow boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, A.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Bergenthal, M.; Renken, J.; Zabel, M.; Wefer, G.

    2011-12-01

    State of the art technology for long-term monitoring of fluid migration within the sea floor is the sealing of a borehole with a Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) after sensor installation and/or fluid sampling devices within the drill string. However, the combined used of a drilling vessels and a remotely operated drilling (ROV) required for a CORK installation in the deep sea is a costly exercise that limits the number of monitoring stations installed. Robotic sea floor drill rigs are a cost effective alternative for shallow drillings down to 50-100 m below sea floor. Here we present a Mini-CORK system that is developed for installation with the sea floor drill rig MeBo. This rig was developed at MARUM Research Centre, University of Bremen in 2005 and can sample the sea floor in water depths up to 2000 m. The MeBo is deployed on the seabed and remotely controlled from the vessel. All required drill tools for wire-line core drilling down to 70 m below sea floor are stored on two rotating magazines and can be loaded below the top drive drill head for assembling the drill string. For one of the upcoming cruises with RV Sonne offshore Japan (Nankai Trough accretionary prism), MeBo will be used for the first time to place observatories. Two different designs have been developed. The first, relatively simple long-term device resembles a MeBo drill rod in its geometry, and contains a pressure and temperature transducer in the borehole plus an identical pair of transducers for seafloor reference. The device also contains a data logger, battery unit, and an acoustic modem so that data can be downloaded at any time from a ship of opportunity. The key element at the base of the observatory rod is a seal at the conical thread to separate the borehole hydraulically from the overlying water body. It is realized by an adapter, which also contains a hotstab hydraulic connection and an electrical connection. The second observatory device is a seafloor unit, which replaces

  14. NEREUS- Network of European Regions Using Space - an initiative of regions to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Roya

    2013-04-01

    contributed substantially to get an idea about the regional situation and existing activities and player. NEREUS wishes to stimulate regional stakeholder to develop space applications in different domains and take measures to participate in European space programs. In this context the dialogue with end-user, in particular local and regional authorities is in the centre. To enhance the exchange between both and bring space uses in concrete administrative dossiers, NEREUS organizes together with its member regions thematic Workshops (WS), e.g. EGNOS/Galileo uses for maritime/marine purposes during which service provider discussed with harbour authorities and the policy and administrative level. The NEREUS-member region Lombardy region started to explore the opportunities of space uses for agriculture and discussed it with different stakeholder. For 2013 three thematic WS are planned (Maritime purposes, Civil Emergencies, Agriculture) with the NEREUS-network community and other partners. The NEREUS CET (Communication, Education and Training) Working Group, one of five NEREUS Working Groups, is another forum of the network that contributes to the spread of knowledge about space and its opportunities also at a broader societal scale. This group is co-chaired by Martina Hilger from Bremen and Michel Bousquet from Midi/P. Stimulating the up-take of space related studies and careers among young people in Europe is an important part for widening the understanding of space uses at citizen level. Only if Europe has a well educated and highly skilled work force will it be possible to exploit the potential of space uses and get the political support from citizen. The CET Working Group was established in 2009 and has since then been an active forum for discussion and exchange. Communicating and networking space related education at universities and other relevant organisations (if appropriate in cooperation with industry) in the NEREUS regions have been in the centre of the activities and

  15. IONIC LIQUIDS: RADIATION CHEMISTRY, SOLVATION DYNAMICS AND REACTIVITY PATTERNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WISHART, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    's Laser-Electron Accelerator Facility (LEAF) are used to identify reactive species in ionic liquids and measure their solvation and reaction rates. We and our collaborators (R. Engel (Queens College, CUNY) and S. Lall-Ramnarine, (Queensborough CC, CUNY)) develop and characterize new ionic liquids specifically designed for our radiolysis and solvation dynamics studies. IL solvation and rotational dynamics are measured by TCSPC and fluorescence upconversion measurements in the laboratory of E. W. Castner at Rutgers Univ. Investigations of radical species in irradiated ILs are carried out at ANL by I. Shkrob and S. Chemerisov using EPR spectroscopy. Diffusion rates are obtained by PGSE NMR in S. Greenbaum's lab at Hunter College, CUNY and S. Chung's lab at William Patterson U. Professor Mark Kobrak of CUNY Brooklyn College performs molecular dynamics simulations of solvation processes. A collaboration with M. Dietz and coworkers at ANL is centered around the properties and radiolytic behavior of ionic liquids for nuclear separations. Collaborations with C. Reed (UC Riverside), D. Gabel (U. Bremen) and J. Davis (U. South Alabama) are aimed at characterizing the radiolytic and other properties of borated ionic liquids, which could be used to make fissile material separations processes inherently safe from criticality accidents

  16. Publishing datasets with eSciDoc and panMetaDocs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, D.; Klump, J.; Bertelmann, R.

    2012-04-01

    publishing scientific datasets as electronic data supplements to research papers. Publication of research manuscripts has an already well established workflow that shares junctures with other processes and involves several parties in the process of dataset publication. Activities of the author, the reviewer, the print publisher and the data publisher have to be coordinated into a common data publication workflow. The case of data publication at GFZ Potsdam displays some specifics, e.g. the DOIDB webservice. The DOIDB is a proxy service at GFZ for the DataCite [4] DOI registration and its metadata store. DOIDB provides a local summary of the dataset DOIs registered through GFZ as a publication agent. An additional use case for the DOIDB is its function to enrich the datacite metadata with additional custom attributes, like a geographic reference in a DIF record. These attributes are at the moment not available in the datacite metadata schema but would be valuable elements for the compilation of data catalogues in the earth sciences and for dissemination of catalogue data via OAI-PMH. [1] http://www.escidoc.org , eSciDoc, FIZ Karlruhe, Germany [2] http://panmetadocs.sf.net , panMetaDocs, GFZ Potsdam, Germany [3] http://metaworks.pangaea.de , panMetaWorks, Dr. R. Huber, MARUM, Univ. Bremen, Germany [4] http://www.datacite.org

  17. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

    2012-04-01

    prism during IODP Exp. 319 and successfully recovered during IODP Exp. 332, both cruises being part of NanTroSEIZE (Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment). The 15-months long data showed transients related to the arrival of seismic waves, storms and can further be used for detection of seismogenic strain events. Moreover, based on tidal signals in the pressure data, it was possible to make assumptions regarding the elastic properties of the surrounding formation. The SmartPlug was exchanged by an enhanced version, the GeniusPlug, which provides additional fluid sampling devices and microbiological experiments during the monitoring period. Its recovery is planned for 2013. Going one step further in simplicity, a Mini-CORK has recently developed especially designed for the portable seafloor drill rig MeBo (MARUM, Univ. Bremen, Germany), which can be installed without a drillship and which, due to its telemetric unit, makes costly recovery operations obsolete. The MeBo can be operated from any re-search vessel and allows coring to a depth of 70 m, which may be followed by instrumentation of the borehole with the MeBo-CORK. Two designs are available: the first design allows in situ measurement of pressure and temperature solely, whereas the second design consists of a seafloor unit including additional mission specific sensors (osmo-samlers for geochemistry and microbiology, etc.). A first field test for the MeBo-CORKs into mud volcanoes in the Kumano forearc basin is envisaged for summer 2012 to complement IODP project NanTroSEIZE.

  18. Consistent Evaluation of ACOS-GOSAT, BESD-SCIAMACHY, CarbonTracker, and MACC Through Comparisons to TCCON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulawik, Susan; Wunch, Debra; O’Dell, Christopher; Frankenberg, Christian; Reuter, Maximilian; Chevallier, Frederic; Oda, Tomohiro; Sherlock, Vanessa; Buchwitz, Michael; Osterman, Greg; hide

    2016-01-01

    Consistent validation of satellite CO2 estimates is a prerequisite for using multiple satellite CO2 measurements for joint flux inversion, and for establishing an accurate long-term atmospheric CO2 data record. Harmonizing satellite CO2 measurements is particularly important since the differences in instruments, observing geometries, sampling strategies, etc. imbue different measurement characteristics in the various satellite CO2 data products. We focus on validating model and satellite observation attributes that impact flux estimates and CO2 assimilation, including accurate error estimates, correlated and random errors, overall biases, biases by season and latitude, the impact of coincidence criteria, validation of seasonal cycle phase and amplitude, yearly growth, and daily variability. We evaluate dry-air mole fraction (X(sub CO2)) for Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) (Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space, ACOS b3.5) and SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) (Bremen Optimal Estimation DOAS, BESD v2.00.08) as well as the CarbonTracker (CT2013b) simulated CO2 mole fraction fields and the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) CO2 inversion system (v13.1) and compare these to Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) observations (GGG2012/2014). We find standard deviations of 0.9, 0.9, 1.7, and 2.1 parts per million vs. TCCON for CT2013b, MACC, GOSAT, and SCIAMACHY, respectively, with the single observation errors 1.9 and 0.9 times the predicted errors for GOSAT and SCIAMACHY, respectively. We quantify how satellite error drops with data averaging by interpreting according to (error(sup 2) equals a(sup 2) plus b(sup 2) divided by n (with n being the number of observations averaged, a the systematic (correlated) errors, and b the random (uncorrelated) errors). a and b are estimated by satellites, coincidence criteria, and hemisphere. Biases at individual stations have year

  19. Translation of Henrich Klebahn's 'Damaging agents of the klippfish - a contribution to the knowledge of the salt-loving organisms'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Henrich Klebahn was a German linguist, mycologist and phytopathologist, who was known as Dr. Dr. h. c. Henrich Klebahn, Hauptcustos a. D., Honorarprofessor an der Hanischen Universität. He was born February 20, 1859 in Bremen, and died October 5, 1942 in Hamburg. He taught linguistics from 1885-1899, studied Natural Science at the Universities of Jena and Berlin (1881) and received his PhD from the University of Jena. In 1899, he was appointed scientific assistant at the Hamburg botanical garden, where he worked until 1905. From 1905 to 1930, he was at the agricultural institute of Bromberg. In 1921, he was named honorary professor and lecturer in cryptogams and soil biology at the Institut für Allgemeine Botanik where he taught until 1934. He is well known for his work on gas vesicles and halophiles, among other topics. This re-print of 'Die Schädlinge des Klippfisches. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der salzliebenden Organismen. Von H. Klebahn. Mit zwei Tafeln und vier Abbildungen im Text.' was originally published in 1919 in the Jahrbuch der Hamb. Wissensch. Anstaltes. XXXVI. Beiheft pages 11-69, by Latcke & Waltt, E. H. Buchdrucker. The translators have tried to remain faithful to the contents and to the original sense of the article by minimizing modifications. Results The original paper reported the conclusions of a 3 year long study of the microbes causing damage to the fish industry as well as a summation of work on the subject up until 1919. The findings were that the causative agents were fungi and other microbes, the chief of which was a red, Gram-negative rod-shaped bacillus, Bacillus halobius ruber, that formed pale reddish colonies and was found to oscillate, but after extensive testing, was found not possess flagella. The initial appearance of "a shiny corpuscle" at the ends of cells was determined not to be spores; rather that it was the "result of the coherence of the light beams due to a total reflection of the light in the optically

  20. Exomars orbiter science and data-relay mission / looking for trace gases on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratacci, Olivier

    spectrometers, mapper and imagers will be embarked, providing an enhanced science return compared to already flying instruments on previous Mars missions like MGS, MEX and MRO. In particular trace gases detection by sun occultation is promoted as first priority followed by quasi continuous limb to limb atmosphere scan and strategic surface high resolution imaging. The multiple instrument pointing requirements combined with a non-Sun-synchronous orbit, led to selection of a "Sun-nadir yaw steering" pointing strategy. A designated axis is pointed to nadir, while the yaw orientation about nadir is controlled to keep the long axis of the solar arrays normal to the Sun vector. This pointing strategy keeps a spacecraft face always pointed away from both the Sun and Mars allowing implementation of the radiators of cryogenic instruments. After the 2 years science phase the OM will also provide a data-relay function with a UHF proximity link for about four years to all future Mars surface assets including the Exomars Rover planned for launch in 2018. Thales Alenia Space will build the CRSM on the basis of the existing Spacebus telecommunication platform to reduce costs and meet the Exomars challenging performance and schedule. The OHB company in Bremen will procure and assemble the Mechanical, Thermal and Propulsion subsystems. The system PDR is planned end of 2010 and the announcement of opportunities for science payloads was issued in January 2010.

  1. Experiments on Nitrogen Oxide Production of Droplet Arrays Burning under Microgravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moesl, Klaus; Sattelmayer, Thomas; Kikuchi, Masao; Yamamoto, Shin; Yoda, Shinichi

    The optimization of the combustion process is top priority in current aero-engine and aircraft development, particularly from the perspectives of high efficiency, minimized fuel consumption, and a sustainable exhaust gas production. Aero-engines are exclusively liquid-fueled with a strong correlation between the combustion temperature and the emissions of nitric oxide (NOX ). Due to safety concerns, the progress in NOX reduction has been much slower than in stationary gas turbines. In the past, the mixing intensity in the primary zone of aero-engine combustors was improved and air staging implemented. An important question for future aero-engine combustors, consequently, is how partial vaporization influences the NOX emissions of spray flames? In order to address this question, the combustion of partially vaporized, linear droplet arrays was studied experimentally under microgravity conditions. The influence of fuel pre-vaporization on the NOX emissions was assessed in a wide range. The experiments were performed in a drop tower and a sounding rocket campaign. The microgravity environment provided ideal experiment conditions without the disturbing ef-fect of natural convection. This allowed the study of the interacting phenomena of multi-phase flow, thermodynamics, and chemical kinetics. This way the understanding of the physical and chemical processes related to droplet and spray combustion could be improved. The Bremen drop tower (ZARM) was utilized for the precursor campaign in July 2008, which was com-prised of 30 drops. The sounding rocket experiments, which totaled a microgravity duration of 6 minutes, were finally performed on the flight of TEXUS-46 in November 2009. On both campaigns the "Japanese Combustion Module" (JCM) was used. It is a cooperative experi-ment on droplet array combustion between the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and ESA's (European Space Agency) research team, working on the combustion properties of partially premixed sprays

  2. Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.-M. Sinnhuber

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Time series of total column abundances of hydrogen chloride (HCl, chlorine nitrate (ClONO2, and hydrogen fluoride (HF were determined from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra recorded at 17 sites belonging to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC and located between 80.05° N and 77.82° S. By providing such a near-global overview on ground-based measurements of the two major stratospheric chlorine reservoir species, HCl and ClONO2, the present study is able to confirm the decrease of the atmospheric inorganic chlorine abundance during the last few years. This decrease is expected following the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its amendments and adjustments, where restrictions and a subsequent phase-out of the prominent anthropogenic chlorine source gases (solvents, chlorofluorocarbons were agreed upon to enable a stabilisation and recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer. The atmospheric fluorine content is expected to be influenced by the Montreal Protocol, too, because most of the banned anthropogenic gases also represent important fluorine sources. But many of the substitutes to the banned gases also contain fluorine so that the HF total column abundance is expected to have continued to increase during the last few years. The measurements are compared with calculations from five different models: the two-dimensional Bremen model, the two chemistry-transport models KASIMA and SLIMCAT, and the two chemistry-climate models EMAC and SOCOL. Thereby, the ability of the models to reproduce the absolute total column amounts, the seasonal cycles, and the temporal evolution found in the FTIR measurements is investigated and inter-compared. This is especially interesting because the models have different architectures. The overall agreement between the measurements and models for the total column abundances and the seasonal cycles is good. Linear trends of HCl, ClONO2, and HF are calculated from both