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Sample records for breeds contempt kangaroos

  1. Familiarity breeds contempt: kangaroos persistently avoid areas with experimentally deployed dingo scents.

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    Michael H Parsons

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials to olfactory scents (urine, feces from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo, along with a control (water. If these predator cues were alarming, we expected that over time, some red kangaroos (Macropus rufous, western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis would elect to not participate in cafeteria trials because the scents provided information about the riskiness of the area. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the effects of urine and feces independently and expected that urine would elicit a stronger reaction because it contains a broader class of infochemicals (pheromones, kairomones. Finally, we scored non-invasive indicators (flight and alarm stomps to determine whether fear or altered palatability was responsible for the response. Repeated exposure reduced macropodid foraging on food associated with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.75+/-3.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209.0+/-107.0 g (P0.5. Macropodids did not habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents, rather they avoided the entire experimental area after 10 days of trials (R(2 = 83.8; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Responses to urine and feces were indistinguishable; both elicited fear-based responses and deterred foraging. Despite repeated exposure to predator-related cues in the absence of a predator, macropodids persistently avoided an area of highly palatable food. Area avoidance is consistent with that observed from other species following repeated anti-predator conditioning, However, this is the first time this response has been

  2. Dispositional contempt : A first look at the contemptuous person

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriber, Roberta A; Chung, J.M.H.; Sorensen, Katherine S; Robins, Richard W

    2017-01-01

    Contempt is a powerful emotion. Marriages fail (Gottman, 1994), coworkers are shamed (Melwani & Barsade, 2011), terrorism is tended toward (Tausch et al., 2011). Despite its importance, contempt has not been investigated at the level of personality. The present research examines how our contemptuous

  3. Individual Differences in Gelotophobia Predict Responses to Joy and Contempt

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    Jennifer Hofmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a paradigm facilitating smile misattribution, facial responses and ratings to contempt and joy were investigated in individuals with or without gelotophobia (fear of being laughed at. Participants from two independent samples (N1 = 83, N2 = 50 rated the intensity of eight emotions in 16 photos depicting joy, contempt, and different smiles. Facial responses were coded by the Facial Action Coding System in the second study. Compared with non-fearful individuals, gelotophobes rated joy smiles as less joyful and more contemptuous. Moreover, gelotophobes showed less facial joy and more contempt markers. The contempt ratings were comparable between the two groups. Looking at the photos of smiles lifted the positive mood of non-gelotophobes, whereas gelotophobes did not experience an increase. We hypothesize that the interpretation bias of “joyful faces hiding evil minds” (i.e., being also contemptuous and exhibiting less joy facially may complicate social interactions for gelotophobes and serve as a maintaining factor of gelotophobia.

  4. Congress’s Contempt Power: Law, History, Practice, and Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-24

    that prosecution of Anne Gorsuch Burford, Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, was not required following implementation of an...House of Representatives against the Then-Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, Anne Gorsuch Burford, Hearing before the House Committee...not to present to the grand jury the contempt citation of Environmental Protection Agency Administration Anne Gorsuch Burford.157 CRS-27 157

  5. The Witness in Contempt: Reflections on Overfamiliarity, Pain and Desecration

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    Maria Tumarkin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many opportunities for lying and cheating in engaging with, what Susan Sontag called, ‘the pain of others’. One of them is the gradual emergence of the feeling that you know what happened, what it was like to go through it. Yet overfamiliarity can, at times, injure more than contempt or blatant disregard. With so many recent tragedies, the experts who know how it feels and what it’s like, send tropical medications to war-torn continental countries, offer free art therapy classes in place of bread and water, write reports about the ‘atmosphere of fear and uncertainty’ that can neither produce the most negligible of changes nor console even the most naive of souls. It’s possible to counter contempt and indifference with knowledge, laughter and moral courage, but what is the defence against the thick web of assumptions?

  6. Law Enforcement Efforts Against Contempt Of Court As The Judges Shield In Indonesian Justice System

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    Wisnu Baroto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The contempt of court basically is one of criminal offenses against the administration of justice which as a whole deals with the criminal justice system. The contempt of court cases that occurred in Indonesia but the enforcement of the law against the contempt of court is an issue that is never-ending. The provisions of contempt of court are necessary to ensure the position trust authority and integrity of the court in the judicial process including all matters relating to the judicial process. Guarantee that once the public interest to take action against any violation as an endorsement of the judicial process the rights of the public to ensure a fair trial and protecting privacy. On the other hand there is also a public interest that cant be ignored in any democratic society namely the right to freedom of speech and expression. A manifestation of contempt of court is a speech writing pictures or other expressions that can be categorized as a contempt of court. In other words contempt of court is a restriction of the right to freedom of speech opinion and expression. How to limit the collision of the purposes of enforcing the provisions of contempt of court with the right to freedom of speech freedom of opinion and expression. Preparation of deeds category and procedures for enforcement of contempt of court must be specifically and carefully.

  7. Sex differences in neural activation to facial expressions denoting contempt and disgust.

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    André Aleman

    Full Text Available The facial expression of contempt has been regarded to communicate feelings of moral superiority. Contempt is an emotion that is closely related to disgust, but in contrast to disgust, contempt is inherently interpersonal and hierarchical. The aim of this study was twofold. First, to investigate the hypothesis of preferential amygdala responses to contempt expressions versus disgust. Second, to investigate whether, at a neural level, men would respond stronger to biological signals of interpersonal superiority (e.g., contempt than women. We performed an experiment using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, in which participants watched facial expressions of contempt and disgust in addition to neutral expressions. The faces were presented as distractors in an oddball task in which participants had to react to one target face. Facial expressions of contempt and disgust activated a network of brain regions, including prefrontal areas (superior, middle and medial prefrontal gyrus, anterior cingulate, insula, amygdala, parietal cortex, fusiform gyrus, occipital cortex, putamen and thalamus. Contemptuous faces did not elicit stronger amygdala activation than did disgusted expressions. To limit the number of statistical comparisons, we confined our analyses of sex differences to the frontal and temporal lobes. Men displayed stronger brain activation than women to facial expressions of contempt in the medial frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus. Conversely, women showed stronger neural responses than men to facial expressions of disgust. In addition, the effect of stimulus sex differed for men versus women. Specifically, women showed stronger responses to male contemptuous faces (as compared to female expressions, in the insula and middle frontal gyrus. Contempt has been conceptualized as signaling perceived moral violations of social hierarchy, whereas disgust would signal violations of physical purity. Thus, our

  8. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

  9. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

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    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  10. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF JUDICIAL CONTEMPT POWER IN WRIT OF PROTECTION CASES. A CASE STUDY, BOGOTÁ, COLOMBIA (2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Londoño Toro, Beatriz; Universidad del Rosario; Cortés Nieto, Johanna del Pilar; Universidad del Rosario; Lombana Rodríguez, Mónica Alexandra; Universidad del Rosario; Maya, Carlos Andrés; Universidad del Rosario; Aguilar Ariza, Julián; Universidad del Rosario; Palacios Sanabria, Óscar Gabriel; Universidad del Rosario

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the research project “The Effectiveness of Judicial Contempt Power in Writ of Protection Cases. A Case Study, Bogotá (2007)”. Its purpose is to identify and analyze the variables that influence the effectiveness of contempt requests in terms of the satisfaction of fundamental rights. In order to do so, the research intended to have a quantitative approach with exploratory boundar- ies. The project examined a total of 431 files in criminal, civil, administrat...

  11. The CAD triad hypothesis: a mapping between three moral emotions (contempt, anger, disgust) and three moral codes (community, autonomy, divinity).

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    Rozin, P; Lowery, L; Imada, S; Haidt, J

    1999-04-01

    It is proposed that 3 emotions--contempt, anger, and disgust--are typically elicited, across cultures, by violations of 3 moral codes proposed by R. A. Shweder and his colleagues (R. A. Shweder, N. C. Much, M. Mahapatra, & L. Park, 1997). The proposed alignment links anger to autonomy (individual rights violations), contempt to community (violation of communal codes including hierarchy), and disgust to divinity (violations of purity-sanctity). This is the CAD triad hypothesis. Students in the United States and Japan were presented with descriptions of situations that involve 1 of the types of moral violations and asked to assign either an appropriate facial expression (from a set of 6) or an appropriate word (contempt, anger, disgust, or their translations). Results generally supported the CAD triad hypothesis. Results were further confirmed by analysis of facial expressions actually made by Americans to the descriptions of these situations.

  12. HYPOALDOSTERONISM IN A MATSCHIE'S TREE KANGAROO (DENDROLAGUS MATSCHIEI).

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    Whoriskey, Sophie T; Bartlett, Susan L; Baitchman, Eric

    2016-06-01

    A 20-yr-old female Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) was diagnosed with hypoaldosteronism, a rare condition in which the body fails to produce normal amounts of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. Aldosterone plays a key role in body salt homeostasis, increasing sodium reabsorption and promoting excretion of potassium. Hypoaldosteronism resulted in decreased appetite, lethargy, and weight loss in conjunction with hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia in this tree kangaroo. The animal was successfully managed with mineralocorticoid replacement using desoxycorticosterone pivalate. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of hypoaldosteronism in a tree kangaroo and one of the few reports in the veterinary literature in any species.

  13. Mothers’ Experiences with Premature Neonates about Kangaroo Care: Qualitative Approaches

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    Tahere Salimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Premature neonates admitted in NICU besides being separated from their mothers are prone to inevitably painful and stressful situations. Kangaroo care is the most effective method to get rid of this separation and its negative consequences. This study was performed to determine the experiences of mothers having premature neonates concerning Kangaroo care.   Material and Methods: The present study is a qualitative research in which focus group discussion method is used for data collection. Research society consisted of mothers having premature neonates Research group reread and categorized the qualitative findings. Contents of interviews were analyzed using the conventional interpretation approach introduced by Dicklman Method.   Results: Through content analysis of information emerged two major categories including mothers’ experiences about advantages of kangaroo care in interaction with neonate, and, feeling of physical-mental healthiness of neonate. Executive obstacles of kangaroo care from mothers’ standpoint were also discussed, which will be subsequently presented.   Discussion: According to the obtained results, it seems vital to highlight kangaroo care as a safe and effective clinical care-taking treatment in nursery of premature neonates in all hospitals. Nurses shall provide all mothers with the needed instructions for holding the premature and lower-weight neonate properly on their chests and shall promote their knowledge level concerning positive effects of kangaroo care including induction of tranquil sleep, optimization of physiological conditions of neonate, and removal of suckling obstacles.

  14. On the Procedure of"Contempt Court"in America%美国“蔑视法庭罪”程序法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚道祥

    2013-01-01

      在英美法系诸国,“蔑视法庭罪”在程序法上有着极其显著的特殊性,其不仅是一个简单的罪名,还包含着“法官直判”、“附条件惩罚”、“平行上诉”等一系列特定制度与其相配套。同时,其在类型上可以有直接蔑视、间接蔑视、民事蔑视、刑事蔑视的划分,不同的类型在审理程序、处罚方式以及可上诉性方面各有差异。%In the countries of Anglo-American law system, "contempt of court"has significant particularity.It is not only a common accusation, but also contains a series of specific supporting systems like "summary sanction","conditional punishment"and"parallel appeal"etc.It can be classified into direct contempt, indirect contempt, civil contempt and criminal contempt . Each of them differs in proceedings , penalties, and appealability.

  15. Phylogeny of kangaroo apples (Solanum subg. Archaesolanum, Solanaceae).

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    Poczai, Péter; Hyvönen, Jaakko; Symon, David E

    2011-11-01

    Kangaroo apples, subgenus Archaesolanum, are a unique and still poorly known group within the genus Solanum. Here we aimed to reveal phylogeny, historical biogeography and age of diversification of Archaesolanum. We sampled all recognized species of the group and sequenced three chloroplast regions, the trnT-trnL spacer, trnL intron and trnL-trnF spacer to calibrate a molecular clock to estimate the age of the group. Distributional data were combined with the results of phylogenetic analysis to track the historical processes responsible for the current range of the group. Our analysis supported the monophyly of the kangaroo apples and the biogeographical disjunction between the two subclades within the group. Based on the divergence time estimates the most recent common ancestor of kangaroo apples is from the late Miocene age (~9 MYA). Based on the age estimate the common ancestors of the kangaroo apples are presumed to have arrived in Australia by long-distance dispersal. The two distinct lineages within the group have separated during the aridification of the continent and further speciated in the brief resurgence of rainforests during the Pliocene.

  16. What is kangaroo mother care? Systematic review of the literature

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    Grace J Chan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kangaroo mother care (KMC, often defined as skin–to–skin contact between a mother and her newborn, frequent or exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from the hospital has been effective in reducing the risk of mortality among preterm and low birth weight infants. Research studies and program implementation of KMC have used various definitions.

  17. Kangaroo Care: Experiences and Needs of Parents in Neonatal Intensive Care: A Systematic Review ‘Parents’ Experience of Kangaroo Care’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabriels, karlijn; Brouwer, AJ; maat, Jessica; van den Hoogen, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This review is focusing on the experiences and needs of parents with infants within NICU regarding Kangaroo Care. Ten studies with qualitative designs were included. Kangaroo Care was overall experienced as positive; giving parents the opportunity to get to know their babies and (re-) const

  18. Kangaroo – A pattern-matching program for biological sequences

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    Betel Doron

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists are often interested in performing a simple database search to identify proteins or genes that contain a well-defined sequence pattern. Many databases do not provide straightforward or readily available query tools to perform simple searches, such as identifying transcription binding sites, protein motifs, or repetitive DNA sequences. However, in many cases simple pattern-matching searches can reveal a wealth of information. We present in this paper a regular expression pattern-matching tool that was used to identify short repetitive DNA sequences in human coding regions for the purpose of identifying potential mutation sites in mismatch repair deficient cells. Results Kangaroo is a web-based regular expression pattern-matching program that can search for patterns in DNA, protein, or coding region sequences in ten different organisms. The program is implemented to facilitate a wide range of queries with no restriction on the length or complexity of the query expression. The program is accessible on the web at http://bioinfo.mshri.on.ca/kangaroo/ and the source code is freely distributed at http://sourceforge.net/projects/slritools/. Conclusion A low-level simple pattern-matching application can prove to be a useful tool in many research settings. For example, Kangaroo was used to identify potential genetic targets in a human colorectal cancer variant that is characterized by a high frequency of mutations in coding regions containing mononucleotide repeats.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with otitis.

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    Okeson, Danelle M; Coke, Rob L; Kochunov, Peter; Davis, M Duff

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on an adult, male Red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with a history of nonspecific neurologic signs and acute discharge from the left ear. MRI revealed findings consistent with otitis and possible osteomyelitis of the temporal and mastoid bones. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of otitis and MRI findings in a kangaroo.

  20. The physics of articulated toys - a jumping and rotating kangaroo

    CERN Document Server

    Güémez, J

    2014-01-01

    We describe the physics of an articulated toy with an internal source of energy provided by a spiral spring. The toy is a funny low cost kangaroo which jumps and rotates. The study consists of a mechanical and a thermodynamical analysis which makes use of the Newton and center of mass equations, the rotational equations and the first law of thermodynamics. This amazing toy provides a nice demonstrative example how new physics insights can be brought about when links with thermodynamics are established in the study of mechanical systems.

  1. Monitoring the Stephen's kangaroo rat: An analysis of monitoring methods and recommendations for future monitoring

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document covers a series of analyses to explore and summarize previous monitoring efforts of Stephens Kangaroo Rats (SKR) and make recommendations for future...

  2. Nurses' adherence to the Kangaroo Care Method: support for nursing care management

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    Laura Johanson da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: construct an explanatory theoretical model about nurses' adherence to the Kangaroo Care Method at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, based on the meanings and interactions for care management.METHOD: qualitative research, based on the reference framework of the Grounded Theory. Eight nurses were interviewed at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The comparative analysis of the data comprised the phases of open, axial and selective coding. A theoretical conditional-causal model was constructed.RESULTS: four main categories emerged that composed the analytic paradigm: Giving one's best to the Kangaroo Method; Working with the complexity of the Kangaroo Method; Finding (demotivation to apply the Kangaroo Method; and Facing the challenges for the adherence to and application of the Kangaroo Method.CONCLUSIONS: the central phenomenon revealed that each nurse and team professional has a role of multiplying values and practices that may or may not be constructive, potentially influencing the (discontinuity of the Kangaroo Method at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The findings can be used to outline management strategies that go beyond the courses and training and guarantee the strengthening of the care model.

  3. Understanding kangaroo care and its benefits to preterm infants

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    Campbell-Yeo ML

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marsha L Campbell-Yeo,1–4 Timothy C Disher,1 Britney L Benoit,1 C Celeste Johnston,2,4,5 1School of Nursing, Dalhousie University, 2Department of Pediatrics, IWK Health Centre, 3Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, 4Centre for Pediatric Pain Research, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS, 5Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada Abstract: The holding of an infant with ventral skin-to-skin contact typically in an upright position with the swaddled infant on the chest of the parent, is commonly referred to as kangaroo care (KC, due to its simulation of marsupial care. It is recommended that KC, as a feasible, natural, and cost-effective intervention, should be standard of care in the delivery of quality health care for all infants, regardless of geographic location or economic status. Numerous benefits of its use have been reported related to mortality, physiological (thermoregulation, cardiorespiratory stability, behavioral (sleep, breastfeeding duration, and degree of exclusivity domains, as an effective therapy to relieve procedural pain, and improved neurodevelopment. Yet despite these recommendations and a lack of negative research findings, adoption of KC as a routine clinical practice remains variable and underutilized. Furthermore, uncertainty remains as to whether continuous KC should be recommended in all settings or if there is a critical period of initiation, dose, or duration that is optimal. This review synthesizes current knowledge about the benefits of KC for infants born preterm, highlighting differences and similarities across low and higher resource countries and in a non-pain and pain context. Additionally, implementation considerations and unanswered questions for future research are addressed. Keywords: kangaroo care, skin-to-skin contact, infant, preterm, review

  4. Spatial requirements of free-ranging Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei (Macropodidae, in upper montane forest.

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    Gabriel Porolak

    Full Text Available Tree kangaroos (Macropodidae, Dendrolagus are some of Australasia's least known mammals. However, there is sufficient evidence of population decline and local extinctions that all New Guinea tree kangaroos are considered threatened. Understanding spatial requirements is important in conservation and management. Expectations from studies of Australian tree kangaroos and other rainforest macropodids suggest that tree kangaroos should have small discrete home ranges with the potential for high population densities, but there are no published estimates of spatial requirements of any New Guinea tree kangaroo species. Home ranges of 15 Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei, were measured in upper montane forest on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. The home range area was an average of 139.6±26.5 ha (100% MCP; n = 15 or 81.8±28.3 ha (90% harmonic mean; n = 15, and did not differ between males and females. Home ranges of D. matschiei were 40-100 times larger than those of Australian tree kangaroos or other rainforest macropods, possibly due to the impact of hunting reducing density, or low productivity of their high altitude habitat. Huon tree kangaroos had cores of activity within their range at 45% (20.9±4.1 ha and 70% (36.6±7.5 ha harmonic mean isopleths, with little overlap (4.8±2.9%; n = 15 pairs between neighbouring females at the 45% isopleth, but, unlike the Australian species, extensive overlap between females (20.8±5.5%; n = 15 pairs at the complete range (90% harmonic mean. Males overlapped each other and females to a greater extent than did pairs of females. From core areas and overlap, the density of female D. matschiei was one per 19.4 ha. Understanding the cause of this low density is crucial in gaining greater understanding of variations in density of tree kangaroos across the landscape. We consider the potential role of habitat fragmentation, productivity and hunting pressure in limiting tree kangaroo

  5. Positive interactions between desert granivores: localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats.

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    Andrew J Edelman

    Full Text Available Facilitation, when one species enhances the environment or performance of another species, can be highly localized in space. While facilitation in plant communities has been intensely studied, the role of facilitation in shaping animal communities is less well understood. In the Chihuahuan Desert, both kangaroo rats and harvester ants depend on the abundant seeds of annual plants. Kangaroo rats, however, are hypothesized to facilitate harvester ants through soil disturbance and selective seed predation rather than competing with them. I used a spatially explicit approach to examine whether a positive or negative interaction exists between banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis mounds and rough harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus colonies. The presence of a scale-dependent interaction between mounds and colonies was tested by comparing fitted spatial point process models with and without interspecific effects. Also, the effect of proximity to a mound on colony mortality and spatial patterns of surviving colonies was examined. The spatial pattern of kangaroo rat mounds and harvester ant colonies was consistent with a positive interspecific interaction at small scales (<10 m. Mortality risk of vulnerable, recently founded harvester ant colonies was lower when located close to a kangaroo rat mound and proximity to a mound partly predicted the spatial pattern of surviving colonies. My findings support localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats, likely mediated through ecosystem engineering and foraging effects on plant cover and composition. The scale-dependent effect of kangaroo rats on abiotic and biotic factors appears to result in greater founding and survivorship of young colonies near mounds. These results suggest that soil disturbance and foraging by rodents can have subtle impacts on the distribution and demography of other species.

  6. Positive interactions between desert granivores: localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Facilitation, when one species enhances the environment or performance of another species, can be highly localized in space. While facilitation in plant communities has been intensely studied, the role of facilitation in shaping animal communities is less well understood. In the Chihuahuan Desert, both kangaroo rats and harvester ants depend on the abundant seeds of annual plants. Kangaroo rats, however, are hypothesized to facilitate harvester ants through soil disturbance and selective seed predation rather than competing with them. I used a spatially explicit approach to examine whether a positive or negative interaction exists between banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) mounds and rough harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus) colonies. The presence of a scale-dependent interaction between mounds and colonies was tested by comparing fitted spatial point process models with and without interspecific effects. Also, the effect of proximity to a mound on colony mortality and spatial patterns of surviving colonies was examined. The spatial pattern of kangaroo rat mounds and harvester ant colonies was consistent with a positive interspecific interaction at small scales (harvester ant colonies was lower when located close to a kangaroo rat mound and proximity to a mound partly predicted the spatial pattern of surviving colonies. My findings support localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats, likely mediated through ecosystem engineering and foraging effects on plant cover and composition. The scale-dependent effect of kangaroo rats on abiotic and biotic factors appears to result in greater founding and survivorship of young colonies near mounds. These results suggest that soil disturbance and foraging by rodents can have subtle impacts on the distribution and demography of other species.

  7. Interpersonal relationships between professionals and mothers of premature from Kangaroo-Unit

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    Francisca Eliene de Oliveira Callou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the interpersonal relationships between professionals and mothers of premature newborns of the Kangaroo Unit. Methods: This was an exploratory study of qualitative approach. The interviews were conducted with 10 mothers and 7 professionals who joined in Kangaroo Program and then analyzed by the content analysis technique. The guiding questions used were related to feelings perceived in relation to the Kangaroo method, related to mother-child dyad and interpersonal relationships. Results: Mothers reported on their speeches: “safe to be with the baby in Kangaroo Method” and “sense of maternal feeling during breastfeeding”, while in the professionals’ discourses have emerged: “guidelines on caring for the babies”, “the embracement by the team” and “the importance of family support.” Conclusions: The interaction between professionals and mothers of Kangaroo Unit facilitates the permanence of the binomial in the method, therefore develops feelings of security, tranquility and confidence to take care of the baby. It is important that the team be aware of the difficulties, supporting them in the weakest moments and sharing their fears, doubts and concerns over the baby’s hospitalization.

  8. Draft De Novo Transcriptome of the Rat Kangaroo Potorous tridactylus as a Tool for Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udy, Dylan B; Voorhies, Mark; Chan, Patricia P; Lowe, Todd M; Dumont, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The rat kangaroo (long-nosed potoroo, Potorous tridactylus) is a marsupial native to Australia. Cultured rat kangaroo kidney epithelial cells (PtK) are commonly used to study cell biological processes. These mammalian cells are large, adherent, and flat, and contain large and few chromosomes-and are thus ideal for imaging intra-cellular dynamics such as those of mitosis. Despite this, neither the rat kangaroo genome nor transcriptome have been sequenced, creating a challenge for probing the molecular basis of these cellular dynamics. Here, we present the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the draft rat kangaroo de novo transcriptome. We sequenced 679 million reads that mapped to 347,323 Trinity transcripts and 20,079 Unigenes. We present statistics emerging from transcriptome-wide analyses, and analyses suggesting that the transcriptome covers full-length sequences of most genes, many with multiple isoforms. We also validate our findings with a proof-of-concept gene knockdown experiment. We expect that this high quality transcriptome will make rat kangaroo cells a more tractable system for linking molecular-scale function and cellular-scale dynamics.

  9. Physical mechanisms underlying the strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of kangaroo shoulder cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibbotuwawa, Namal; Oloyede, Adekunle; Li, Tong; Singh, Sanjleena; Senadeera, Wijitha; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-09-01

    Due to anatomical and biomechanical similarities to human shoulder, kangaroo was chosen as a model to study shoulder cartilage. Comprehensive enzymatic degradation and indentation tests were applied on kangaroo shoulder cartilage to study mechanisms underlying its strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior. We report that superficial collagen plays a more significant role than proteoglycans in facilitating strain-rate-dependent behavior of the kangaroo shoulder cartilage. By comparing the mechanical properties of degraded and normal cartilages, it was noted that proteoglycan and collagen degradation significantly compromised strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of the cartilage. Superficial collagen contributed equally to the tissue behavior at all strain-rates. This is different to the studies reported on knee cartilage and confirms the importance of superficial collagen on shoulder cartilage mechanical behavior. A porohyperelastic numerical model also indicated that collagen disruption would lead to faster damage of the shoulder cartilage than when proteoglycans are depleted.

  10. Comparison of results of simulation of the CONTEMPT-LT/028 and lAP-3B codes for the analysis of the internal vacuum breaker valves of the CNLV; Comparacion de resultados de simulacion de los codigos CONTEMPT-LT/028 y MAAP-3B para el analisis de las valvulas rompedoras de vacio internas de la CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovando C, R.; Cecenas F, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Energia Nuclear, Av. Reforma 113 Col. Palmira. 62490, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Moya C, M.M. [Comision Federal de Electricidad. Gerencia de Centrales Nucleoelectricas Disciplina de Analisis de Ingenieria. Subgerencia de Ingenieria. Carretera Veracruz-Medellin Km 7.5, Dos Bocas, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: rovando@iie.org.mx

    2006-07-01

    In the primary container of a BWR type reactor, the humid and dry wells its are communicate by means of valves designed to equal the pressure in case of a significant pressure difference exists, produced by an operative event just as the performance of an emergency system. These valves are known as internal vacuum breakers and its analysis it is made by means of the use of a code with the capacity to analyze the primary contention of the reactor. Among the codes able to carry out this analysis type there is CONTEMPT-LT/028 and MAAP-3B; however, these codes possess characteristic different respect the modeling one of the different damage mitigation systems to the contention (dews, windy, emergency systems), of the transfer of heat among the different compartments of the primary container and in the details of the civil construction. In previous works carried out with the CONTEMPT-LT/028 code, they have been carried out different cases of simulation related with the operation of the internal breaker vacuum valves. These cases include small ruptures in the main steam lines and ruptures in the recirculation knots. It was selected the case more restrictive and it was generated an equivalent scenario file for the MAAP-3B code. In this work the performance of the internal breaker vacuum valves is analyzed by means of the CONTEMPT-LT/028 and MAAP-3B codes, when using the case more restrictive consistent in a small rupture in a main steam line. The analysis of the simulations indicates that both codes produce very similar results and the found differences are explained with base in the models used by each code to obtain the answer of the main thermohydraulic variables. In general terms, MAAP-3B possesses models that adapt in a form more convenient to the prospective phenomenology for this analysis, maintaining a conservative focus. (Author)

  11. Milk composition in a field population of red kangaroos, Macropus rufus (Desmarest) (Macropodidae: Marsupialia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin L.

    1996-01-01

    The composition of milk from early pouch life (0-40 days) to weaning (360 days) was determined in samples collected from a field population of red kangaroos, Macropus rufus (n = 150). Total milk solids increased from 11% at 0-40 days to 26% at permanent emergence from the pouch (235 days), then decreased towards weaning. Compared with other macropodids, milk from red kangaroos is relatively dilute. Carbohydrate concentrations increased from 2.0 to 6.2% at about Day 235 then declined while lipid concentrations increased from 3.9 to 10.3% over the course of lactation. Protein values increased from 5.0 to 7.0% prior to pouch emergence. Whey proteins were separated by means of SDS PAGE, identifying and confirming the presence of several phase-specific proteins. These results are similar to those reported for components of milk in captive red kangaroos and therefore confirm the general macropodid pattern of changing milk composition throughout lactation for a field population of red kangaroos.

  12. Parental involvement and kangaroo care in European neonatal intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Losacco, Valentina; Maraschini, Alice

    2012-01-01

    To compare, in a large representative sample of European neonatal intensive care units, the policies and practices regarding parental involvement and holding babies in the kangaroo care position as well as differences in the tasks mothers and fathers are allowed to carry out....

  13. Functional morphology of the forelimb of living and extinct tree-kangaroos (Marsupialia: Macropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Natalie M; Harvey, Kathryn J; Prideaux, Gavin J; O'Shea, James E

    2011-10-01

    Tree-kangaroos are a unique group of arboreal marsupials that evolved from terrestrial ancestors. The recent discovery of well-preserved specimens of extinct tree-kangaroo species (genus Bohra) within Pleistocene cave deposits of south-central Australia provides a unique opportunity to examine adaptive evolution of tree-kangaroos. Here, we provide the first detailed description of the functional anatomy of the forelimb, a central component of the locomotor complex, in the extant Dendrolagus lumholtzi, and compare its structure and function with representatives of other extant marsupial families. Several features were interpreted as adaptations for coping with a discontinuous, uneven and three-dimensional arboreal substrate through enhanced muscular strength and dexterity for propulsion, grasping, and gripping with the forelimbs. The forelimb musculoskeletal anatomy of Dendrolagus differed from terrestrial kangaroos in the following principal ways: a stronger emphasis on the development of muscles groups responsible for adduction, grasping, and gripping; the enlargement of muscles that retract the humerus; and modified shape of the scapula and bony articulations of the forelimb bones to allow improved mobility. Many of these attributes are convergent with other arboreal marsupials. Tree-kangaroos, however, still retain the characteristic bauplan of their terrestrial ancestors, particularly with regard to skeletal morphology, and the muscular anatomy of the forelimb highlights a basic conservatism within the group. In many instances, the skeletal remains of Bohra have similar features to Dendrolagus that suggest adaptations to an arboreal habit. Despite the irony of their retrieval from deposits of the Nullarbor "Treeless" Plain, forelimb morphology clearly shows that the species of Bohra were well adapted to an arboreal habitat.

  14. Hopping Down the Main Street: Eastern Grey Kangaroos at Home in an Urban Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Coulson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most urban mammals are small. However, one of the largest marsupials, the Eastern Grey Kangaroo Macropus giganteus, occurs in some urban areas. In 2007, we embarked on a longitudinal study of this species in the seaside town of Anglesea in southern Victoria, Australia. We have captured and tagged 360 individuals to date, fitting each adult with a collar displaying its name. We have monitored survival, reproduction and movements by resighting, recapture and radio-tracking, augmented by citizen science reports of collared individuals. Kangaroos occurred throughout the town, but the golf course formed the nucleus of this urban population. The course supported a high density of kangaroos (2–5/ha, and approximately half of them were tagged. Total counts of kangaroos on the golf course were highest in summer, at the peak of the mating season, and lowest in winter, when many males but not females left the course. Almost all tagged adult females were sedentary, using only part of the golf course and adjacent native vegetation and residential blocks. In contrast, during the non-mating season (autumn and winter, many tagged adult males ranged widely across the town in a mix of native vegetation remnants, recreation reserves, vacant blocks, commercial properties and residential gardens. Annual fecundity of tagged females was generally high (≥70%, but survival of tagged juveniles was low (54%. We could not determine the cause of death of most juveniles. Vehicles were the major (47% cause of mortality of tagged adults. Road-kills were concentrated (74% in autumn and winter, and were heavily male biased: half of all tagged males died on roads compared with only 20% of tagged females. We predict that this novel and potent mortality factor will have profound, long-term impacts on the demography and behavior of the urban kangaroo population at Anglesea.

  15. Preterm newborns at Kangaroo Mother Care: a cohort follow-up from birth to six months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexsandra da S. Menezes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To evaluate clinical outcomes, growth and exclusive breastfeeding rates in premature infants assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care at birth, at discharge and at six months of life.METHODS: Prospective study of a premature infants cohort assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care in a tertiary public maternity in Northeast Brazil with birth weight ≤1750g and with clinical conditions for Kangaroo care.RESULTS: The sample was composed by 137 premature infants, being 62.8% female, with average birth weight of 1365±283g, average gestational age of 32±3 weeks and 26.2% were adequate for gestational age. They have been admitted in the Kangaroo Ward with a median of 13 days of life, weighing 1430±167g and, at this time, 57.7% were classified as small for corrected gestational age. They were discharged with 36.8±21.8 days of chronological age, weighing 1780±165g and 67.9% were small for corrected gestational age. At six months of life (n=76, they had an average weight of 5954±971g, and 68.4% presented corrected weight for gestational age between percentiles 15 and 85 of the World Health Organization (WHO weight curve. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at discharge was 56.2% and, at six months of life, 14.4%.CONCLUSIONS: In the studied sample, almost two thirds of the children assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care were, at six months of life, between percentiles 15 and 85 of the WHO weight curves. The frequency of exclusive breastfeeding at six months was low.

  16. Circulating levels of prolactin and progesterone in a wild population of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) Marsupialia: Macropodidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Hinds, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Circulating progesterone and prolactin levels were measured in shot and live-caught wild red kangaroos using radioimmunoassays validated for the red kangaroo. The objective of the study was to correlate hormone profiles with reproductive status and determine if red kangaroos follow the general pattern elucidated for other macropodids. During Phase 2a lactation (600 pg/ml (n= 32) during the transition to Phase 3 lactation (181 to 235 days) when the quiescent corpus luteum and embryo were reactivated. Progesterone concentrations then decreased to prolactin during Phase 2a were prolactin concentrations increased to 15 ng/ml (n= 32), then decreased and remained low through the subsequent stage of dual lactation. These results indicate that progesterone and prolactin profiles in wild red kangaroos follow patterns found previously in other macropodid species, the tammar and Bennett's wallabies.

  17. My objective: zero contempt, not zero risk;Mon objectif n'est pas le risque zero mais le zero mepris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delevoye, J.P. [Mediateur de la Republique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-12-15

    With technology, scientific research and dissemination of knowledge, medical practice has improved thereby achieving an efficient health care system. However, it would be appropriate to consider the human dimension of medicine as a key development. There are two major challenges in risk management: organizational management of risk on one hand and the management of human relationship with the patient especially when problems arise, on the other. It is therefore a question of achieving awareness, managing a culture change in the medical circle i.e. moving from a culture of guilt to a culture of error and finally relaxing the atmosphere of mutual distrust that exists between health professionals and patients. Indeed, the relation 'health professional-patient' has deteriorated over time due to poor risk management. An educational effort must be done to avoid frustration of the patient and contribute to zero contempt. On reflection, this means that the quality of a system is due to the individual quality of its members, the quality of methods and the organization in place. (author)

  18. Transparency and communication can improve wildlife welfare outcomes: A case of kangaroos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available All countries manage human and wildlife coexistence. Where traditionally humans may have killed animals perceived to be a problem, this is often no longer legal or socially acceptable. Decision-makers tend to feel less strongly about coexistence issues than the people who attempt to influence them on behalf of human or wildlife interests. It has been argued that links between human interests and decisions affecting wildlife should be transparent, and that open decision making processes involving a range of local stakeholders will improve outcomes for humans and wildlife. This paper examines one case incident in an ongoing conflict between an international car racing track and kangaroos that have occasionally been found on the track during a race, causing danger to themselves and race participants. A secret local government report and plan to cull kangaroos was obtained using Freedom of Information legislation. When released to the media the subsequent public discussion showed a much greater concern for kangaroo stress, harm and right to live than the official report, and called for consideration of a range of alternatives to culling. This led to postponement of culling plans, and commitment to a more open community discussion of options. The case clearly supports claims that greater transparency and local stakeholder participation in management decision processes can improve welfare outcomes for non-human animals.

  19. Derivation of soil screening thresholds to protect chisel-toothed kangaroo rat from uranium mine waste in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Otton, James K.; Finger, Susan E.; Little, Edward E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical data from soil and weathered waste material samples collected from five uranium mines north of the Grand Canyon (three reclaimed, one mined but not reclaimed, and one never mined) were used in a screening-level risk analysis for the Arizona chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps leucotis); risks from radiation exposure were not evaluated. Dietary toxicity reference values were used to estimate soil-screening thresholds presenting risk to kangaroo rats. Sensitivity analyses indicated that body weight critically affected outcomes of exposed-dose calculations; juvenile kangaroo rats were more sensitive to the inorganic constituent toxicities than adult kangaroo rats. Species-specific soil-screening thresholds were derived for arsenic (137 mg/kg), cadmium (16 mg/kg), copper (1,461 mg/kg), lead (1,143 mg/kg), nickel (771 mg/kg), thallium (1.3 mg/kg), uranium (1,513 mg/kg), and zinc (731 mg/kg) using toxicity reference values that incorporate expected chronic field exposures. Inorganic contaminants in soils within and near the mine areas generally posed minimal risk to kangaroo rats. Most exceedances of soil thresholds were for arsenic and thallium and were associated with weathered mine wastes.

  20. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Fuss and Crying Time in Colicky Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akbarian Rad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infantile colic is a common complaint in the first few weeks of life. On the other hand, because of its unknown etiology, there is not a specific therapy for this complaint, but various therapeutic options for reducing pain and restlessness of these infants are recommended. Skin to skin contact by Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC increases in pain threshold and it seems to be a suitable method for the care of these infants. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of KMC on infantile colic. Methods: This case- control study was performed between March 2012 and March 2013. Subjects were 55 infants with exclusive breast fed infant, aged 15-60 days with excessive fuss and crying, referred to Infant and Child Clinic in Ayatollah Rohani Hospital in Babol, north of Iran. Babies whose weights were less than 2500 Grams and with inheritance and clinical diseases excluded from the study. Infants were subjected to KMC at least 2 hours a day. Standard questionnaire and Barr Scale were filled by interview. Data was analyzed by SPSS v.11.5 and T-test, a P- value less than 0.05 considered being significant. Results: The fuss and crying time before the KMC was 2.21±1.54 hours per day and decreased to 1.16±1.3 hours per day after the implementation of KMC. (p=0.001 Conclusions: Kangaroo mother care at home can be used as a simple and safe method for decreasing of cry and fussiness in colicky infants. Keywords: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC, fussiness, Colicky Infants, colic

  1. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Fuss and Crying Time in Colicky Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akbarian Rad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Infantile colic is a common complaint in the first few weeks of life. On the other hand, because of its unknown etiology, there is not a specific therapy for this complaint, but various therapeutic options for reducing pain and restlessness of these infants are recommended. Skin to skin contact by Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC increases in pain threshold and it seems to be a suitable method for the care of these infants. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of KMC on infantile colic.Methods: This case- control study was performed between March 2012 and March 2013. Subjects were 55 infants with exclusive breast fed infant, aged 15-60 days with excessive fuss and crying, referred to Infant and Child Clinic in Ayatollah Rohani Hospital in Babol, north of Iran. Babies whose weights were less than 2500 Grams and with inheritance and clinical diseases excluded from the study. Infants were subjected to KMC at least 2 hours a day. Standard questionnaire and Barr Scale were filled by interview. Data was analyzed by SPSS v.11.5 and T-test, a P- value less than 0.05 considered being significant.Results:The fuss and crying time before the KMC was 2.21±1.54 hours per day and decreased to 1.16±1.3 hours per day after the implementation of KMC. (p=0.001Conclusions:Kangaroo mother care at home can be used as a simple and safe method for decreasing of cry and fussiness in colicky infants. Keywords: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC, fussiness, Colicky Infants, colic

  2. A Reproductive Management Program for an Urban Population of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tribe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, culling has been the expedient, most common, and in many cases, the only tool used to control free-ranging kangaroo populations. We applied a reproductive control program to a population of eastern grey kangaroos confined to a golf course in South East Queensland. The program aimed to reduce fecundity sufficiently for the population to decrease over time so that overgrazing of the fairways and the frequency of human–animal conflict situations were minimised. In 2003, 92% of the female kangaroos above 5 kg bodyweight were implanted with the GnRH agonist deslorelin after darting with a dissociative anaesthetic. In 2007, 86% of the females above 5 kg were implanted with deslorelin and also 87% of the males above 5 kg were sterilised by either orchidectomy or vasectomy. In 2005, 2008 and 2009, the population was censused to assess the effect of each treatment. The 2003 deslorelin program resulted in effective zero population growth for approximately 2.5 years. The combined deslorelin–surgery program in 2007 reduced the birth rate from 0.3 to 0.06%/year for 16 months, resulting in a 27% population reduction by November 2009. The results were consistent with implants conferring contraception to 100% of implanted females for at least 12 months. The iatrogenic mortality rates for each program were 10.5% and 4.9%, respectively, with 50% of all mortalities due to darting-related injuries, exertional myopathy/hyperthermia or recovery misadventure. The short term sexual and agonistic behaviour of the males was assessed for the 2007 program: no significant changes were seen in adult males given the vasectomy procedure, while sexual behaviours’ were decreased in adult males given the orchidectomy procedure. It is concluded that female reproduction was effectively controlled by implantation with deslorrelin and male reproductive behaviour was reduced by orchidectomy, which together achieved population control.

  3. Use of “Kangaroo Care” to Alleviate the Intensity of Vaccination Pain in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobe Gholami Robatsangi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:It has been demonstrated that newborns feel pain completely. Thus, they should be treated with this in mind. Recent research showed that non-pharmacological interventions such as "Kangaroo Care" may be useful for decreasing pain in newborns. We tried to determine the effect of kangaroo care on the pain intensity of vaccination in healthy newborns. Methods:This study was a randomized case-control clinical trial. Subjects were 60 healthy full-term newborns delivered in a general Hospital, in Iran, from March to July 2006. They were randomly assigned to case and control groups. The case group received 30 minutes skin to skin contact, whereas infants in the control group were put, wrapped in a blanket, aside the mothers. Behavioral changes of newborns were evaluated and observed 2 minutes before, during, and 3 minutes after the intervention. All procedures were filmed. An assistant who was blinded to the study, scored behavior changes using Neonatal/Infant Pain Scale. Heart rate and oxygen saturation levels as displayed on the pulse monitor and duration of crying were recorded using a stopwatch. Findings:Mean pain intensity during the intervention v was significantly lower in the case group (P<0.006. Mean pain intensity 3 minutes after intervention was also significantly lower in the case group (P<0.021. Mean duration of crying was significantly lower in case group as well (P<0.001. Conclusion:Kangaroo care may be used to decrease pain intensity in newborns undergoing painful procedures.

  4. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti Swarnkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and

  5. Plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with oral necrobacillosis (lumpy jaw disease) using an automated handheld testing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotohira, Yukari; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Sasaki, Haruka; Sano, Tadashi; Tsuchiya, Masakazu; Suzuki, Yohko; Shimamori, Toshio; Tsukano, Kenji; Sato, Ayano; Yokota, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability and effectiveness of directly determining endotoxin activity in plasma samples from kangaroos with lumpy jaw disease (LJD, n=15) and healthy controls (n=12). Prior to the present study, the ability of the commercially available automated handheld portable test system (PTS(TM)) to detect endotoxin activity in kangaroo plasma was compared with that of the traditional LAL-kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Plasma samples, which were obtained from endotoxin-challenged cattle, were diluted 1:20 in endotoxin-free water and heated to 80°C for 10 min. The performance of the PTS(TM) was not significantly different from that of the traditional LAL-based assay. The data obtained using PTS(TM) correlated with those using KT (r(2)=0.963, PPTS(TM) is applicable as a simplified system to assess endotoxin activity in macropods. In the present study, we demonstrated the diagnostic value of plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with systemic inflammation caused by oral necrobacillosis and identified plasma endotoxin activity as a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation in kangaroos with LJD. Based on ROC curves, we proposed a diagnostic cut-off point for endotoxin activity of >0.22 EU/ml for the identification of LJD. Our results indicate that the assessment of plasma endotoxin activity is a promising diagnostic tool for determining the outcome of LJD in captive macropods.

  6. Seasonal variation in kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotopes in southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, Tom H.; Ambrose, Stanley H.

    2012-09-01

    Serial sampling of tooth enamel growth increments for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of Macropus (kangaroo) teeth was performed to assess the potential for reconstructing paleoseasonality. The carbon isotope composition of tooth enamel apatite carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C3 and C4 vegetation. The oxygen isotopic composition of enamel reflects that of ingested and metabolic water. Tooth enamel forms sequentially from the tip of the crown to the base, so dietary and environmental changes during the tooth's formation can be detected. δ13C and δ18O values were determined for a series of enamel samples drilled from the 3rd and 4th molars of kangaroos that were collected along a 900 km north-south transect in southern Australia. The serial sampling method did not yield pronounced seasonal isotopic variation patterns in Macropus enamel. The full extent of dietary isotopic variation may be obscured by attenuation of the isotopic signal during enamel mineralisation. Brachydont (low-crowned) Macropus teeth may be less sensitive to seasonal variation in isotopic composition due to time-averaging during mineralisation. However, geographic variations observed suggest that there may be potential for tracking latitudinal shifts in vegetation zones and seasonal environmental patterns in response to climate change.

  7. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehority, Burk A; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-08-01

    The methods used for culturing rumen protozoa were found to be unsatisfactory for growth of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach. Based on published measurements of physical parameters in the marsupial forestomach, several modifications were incorporated into the procedure, i.e., an increase in % hydrogen in the gas phase, adjustment of initial pH of the medium to 6.9-7.0 range, feed only forage as a substrate and incubate at a lower temperature (33-36 °C). Only incubation at the lower temperature increased survival time of the kangaroo protozoa. Two species of Bitricha were still viable after 28 d in culture. Cultures had to be terminated at that time. One of the species differed considerably in size and shape from previously described species and based on 18S rRNA data, may represent a new species of Bitricha. The second species, present in low numbers was identified as Bitricha oblata. In a separate trial, Macropodinium yalanbense survived for 11 d, at which time these cultures also had to be terminated.

  8. Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding and breeds

    OpenAIRE

    I. Kohler-Rollefson

    2004-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding (IK-AB) includes concepts and practices used to influence the genetic composition of herds. Indigenous selection is often based on preferences based on physical characteristics, vigor, social and economic insurance. This issue paper summarizes the value of indigenous knowledge and local breeds to achieve agricultural sustainability. Links to IK-AB information are also provided. Available in SANREM office, ES

  9. Parents’ lived experience of providing kangaroo care to their preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Leonard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature and low birthweight infants pose particular challenges to health services in South Africa. While there is good evidence to demonstrate the benefits of kangaroo care in low birthweight infants, limited research has been conducted locally on the experiences of parents who provide kangaroo care to their preterm infants. This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of parents who provided their preterm infants with kangaroo care at a tertiary-level maternity centre in the Western Cape. In-depth interviews were conducted with six parents: four mothers and two fathers. Data was analysed using an adaptation of the approaches described by Colaizzi (1978:48-71 and Hycner (1985:280-294. To ensure trustworthiness, the trustworthiness criteria described by Guba and Lincoln (1989:242-243 were applied. Kangaroo care is a phased process, each phase bringing a unique set of experiences. The eight themes that emerged are described: unforeseen, unprepared and uncertain - the experience of birth; anxiety and barriers; an intimate connection; adjustments, roles and responsibilities; measuring success; a network of encouragement and support; living-in challenges; and living with the infant outside of hospital. Challenges facing health care providers are described and recommendations for information about kangaroo care and support for parents are made. Opsomming Vroeggebore babas en babas met ’n lae geboortegewig stel besondere uitdagings vir Suid-Afrikaanse gesondhiedsdienste. Daar bestaan goeie bewyse dat die kangaroesorgmetode voordelig is vir babas met ’n laegeboortegewig, dog is minimale plaaslike navorsing gedoen oor die ondervindinge van ouers wat hierdie metode gebruik om vir hul vroeggebore babas te sorg. Hierdie fenomenologiese studie verken die geleefde ervaringe van ouers wat vir hulle vroeggebore babas deur middel van die kangaroesorgmetode in ’n tersiêre kraamsentrum in die Weskaap gesorg het. Data is ingesamel deur in

  10. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  11. [Social representations on breastfeeding according to preterm infants' mothers in Kangaroo Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorski, Marly; Caetano, Laise Conceição; Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena de; Leite, Adriana Moraes; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the social representations on premature infants' breastfeeding at a Kangaroo Care Unit, from the perspective of mothers who are breastfeeding and describe the conflicts and contradictions they experience in this context. A qualitative approach was adopted, using the first stage of enunciation analysis in the light of social representations theory to identify the meanings assigned to breastfeeding. We found the following representations: healthy babies are breastfed, mother's milk provides protection and preserves the premature child's life, breastfeeding is the complement of motherhood and breastfeeding a premature infant is a hard and exhausting experience. The conflicts resulted from the assimilation of technical contents and discourse, late sucking and representations on breastfeeding.

  12. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care Immediately after Delivery on Mother-infant Attachment 3 Months after Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zahra Karimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background  The aim of this study was determine the effect of kangaroo mother care (KMC immediately after delivery on mother-infant attachment 3-month after delivery. Materials and Methods: In this RCT study, 72 mother-infant pairs were randomly divided in to kangaroo mother care and routine care groups.The intervention group received kangaroo mother care (KMC in the first two hours post birth. The control group just received routine hospital care. Mothers in the intervention group were encouraged to keep the baby in KMC as much as possible during the day and night throughout the neonatal period. Participants were followed up for three months after birth. The Main outcome measure was mother-infant attachment at 3 months postpartum and maternal anxiety about the baby at the same time. The data was collected by questionnaire (demographic information of parents and neonates and maternal attachment scale. Analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 14. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding their baseline data. Mean maternal attachment score in the KMC group and in the routine care group at three months after delivery was 52.40±3.30 and 49.86±4.18 respectively, which was significantly higher in the KMC group (P

  13. Mother-offspring distances reflect sex differences in fine-scale genetic structure of eastern grey kangaroos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Wendy J; Garant, Dany; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Natal dispersal affects life history and population biology and causes gene flow. In mammals, dispersal is usually male-biased so that females tend to be philopatric and surrounded by matrilineal kin, which may lead to preferential associations among female kin. Here we combine genetic analyses and behavioral observations to investigate spatial genetic structure and sex-biased dispersal patterns in a high-density population of mammals showing fission-fusion group dynamics. We studied eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) over 2 years at Wilsons Promontory National Park, Australia, and found weak fine-scale genetic structure among adult females in both years but no structure among adult males. Immature male kangaroos moved away from their mothers at 18-25 months of age, while immature females remained near their mothers until older. A higher proportion of male (34%) than female (6%) subadults and young adults were observed to disperse, although median distances of detected dispersals were similar for both sexes. Adult females had overlapping ranges that were far wider than the maximum extent of spatial genetic structure found. Female kangaroos, although weakly philopatric, mostly encounter nonrelatives in fission-fusion groups at high density, and therefore kinship is unlikely to strongly affect sociality.

  14. Mother–offspring distances reflect sex differences in fine-scale genetic structure of eastern grey kangaroos

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Wendy J; Garant, Dany; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Natal dispersal affects life history and population biology and causes gene flow. In mammals, dispersal is usually male-biased so that females tend to be philopatric and surrounded by matrilineal kin, which may lead to preferential associations among female kin. Here we combine genetic analyses and behavioral observations to investigate spatial genetic structure and sex-biased dispersal patterns in a high-density population of mammals showing fission–fusion group dynamics. We studied eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) over 2 years at Wilsons Promontory National Park, Australia, and found weak fine-scale genetic structure among adult females in both years but no structure among adult males. Immature male kangaroos moved away from their mothers at 18–25 months of age, while immature females remained near their mothers until older. A higher proportion of male (34%) than female (6%) subadults and young adults were observed to disperse, although median distances of detected dispersals were similar for both sexes. Adult females had overlapping ranges that were far wider than the maximum extent of spatial genetic structure found. Female kangaroos, although weakly philopatric, mostly encounter nonrelatives in fission–fusion groups at high density, and therefore kinship is unlikely to strongly affect sociality. PMID:26045958

  15. Bringing compassion to the ethical dilemma in killing kangaroos for conservation: comment on "Conservation through sustainable use" by Rob Irvine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramp, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Ethical debate on the killing of kangaroos has polarised conservation and animal welfare science, yet at the heart of these scientific disciplines is the unifying aim of reducing harm to non-human animals. This aim provides the foundation for common ground, culminating in the development of compassionate conservation principles that seek to provide mechanisms for achieving both conservation and welfare goals. However, environmental decision-making is not devoid of human interests, and conservation strategies are commonly employed that suit entrenched positions and commercial gain, rather than valuing the needs of the non-human animals in need of protection. The case study on the wild kangaroo harvest presents just such a dilemma, whereby a conservation strategy is put forward that can only be rationalised by ignoring difficulties in the potential for realising conservation benefits and the considerable welfare cost to kangaroos. Rather than an open debate on the ethics of killing game over livestock, in this response I argue that efforts to bring transparency and objectivity to the public debate have to date been obfuscated by those seeking to maintain entrenched interests. Only by putting aside these interests will debate about the exploitation of wildlife result in humane, compassionate, and substantive conservation benefits.

  16. Brain thermal inertia, but no evidence for selective brain cooling, in free-ranging western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2009-04-01

    Marsupials reportedly can implement selective brain cooling despite lacking a carotid rete. We measured brain (hypothalamic) and carotid arterial blood temperatures every 5 min for 5, 17, and 63 days in spring in three free-living western grey kangaroos. Body temperature was highest during the night, and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00. The highest body temperatures recorded occurred sporadically in the afternoon, presumably associated with exercise. Hypothalamic temperature consistently exceeded arterial blood temperature, by an average 0.3 degrees C, except during these afternoon events when hypothalamic temperature lagged behind, and was occasionally lower than, the simultaneous arterial blood temperature. The reversal in temperatures resulted from the thermal inertia of the brain; changes in the brain to arterial blood temperature difference were related to the rate of change of arterial blood temperature on both heating and cooling (P cooling in kangaroos. The effect of thermal inertia on brain temperature is larger than might be expected in the grey kangaroo, a discrepancy that we speculate derives from the unique vascular anatomy of the marsupial brain.

  17. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  18. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  19. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual ste

  20. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  1. Broiler breeding : breeding goals, selection schemes and the usefulness of local breeds for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation considers three aspects of broiler breeding: definition of breeding goals, selection schemes for specialized lines, and the usefulness of local breeds for China. Economic values in broiler breeding were derived based on a deterministic model. A systematic design for the application

  2. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition.

  3. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of genetic variation in Labiostrongylus longispicularis from kangaroos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huby-Chilton, F; Beveridge, I; Gasser, R B; Chilton, N B

    2001-06-01

    Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was employed to screen for sequence heterogeneity in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of ribosomal (r) DNA of Labiostrongylus longispicularis, a parasitic strongylid nematode occuring in some species of kangaroo in different geographical regions of Australia. The results showed that most of the nematodes screened had different SSCP profiles, which were subsequently shown to correspond to polymorphisms and/or an indel in the ITS-2 sequence. These variable sites related mainly to unpaired regions of the predicted secondary structure of the precursor rRNA molecule. SSCP profiles could be used to distinguish L. longispicularis in Macropus robustus robustus (New South Wales) from L. longispicularis in Macropus robustus erubescens and Macropus rufus (South Australia). This difference corresponded to a transversional change in the ITS-2 sequence at alignment position 82. The study demonstrated clearly the effectiveness of SSCP analysis for future large-scale population genetic studies of L. longispicularis in order to test the hypothesis that L. longispicularis from different geographical regions represents multiple sibling species.

  4. Ord's kangaroo rats living in floodplain habitats: Factors contributing to habitat attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.S.; Wilson, K.R.; Andersen, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    High densities of an aridland granivore, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii), have been documented in floodplain habitats along the Yampa River in northwestern Colorado. Despite a high probability of inundation and attendant high mortality during the spring flood period, the habitat is consistently recolonized. To understand factors that potentially make riparian habitats attractive to D. ordii, we compared density and spatial pattern of seeds, density of a competitor (western harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis), and digging energetics within floodplain habitats and between floodplain and adjacent upland habitats. Seed density within the floodplain was greatest in the topographically high (rarely flooded) floodplain and lowest immediately after a spring flood in the topographically low (frequently flooded) floodplain. Seed densities in adjacent upland habitat that never floods were higher than the lowest floodplain habitat. In the low floodplain prior to flooding, seeds had a clumped spatial pattern, which D. ordii is adept at exploiting; after spring flooding, a more random pattern resulted. Populations of the western harvester ant were low in the floodplain relative to the upland. Digging by D. ordii was energetically less expensive in floodplain areas than in upland areas. Despite the potential for mortality due to annual spring flooding, the combination of less competition from harvester ants and lower energetic costs of digging might promote the use of floodplain habitat by D. ordii.

  5. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Badiee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group. Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001. Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers.

  6. Speed cameras, section control, and kangaroo jumps-a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, Alena

    2014-12-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted of the effects of speed cameras and section control (point-to-point speed cameras) on crashes. 63 effect estimates from 15 speed camera studies and five effect estimates from four section control studies were included in the analysis. Speed cameras were found to reduce total crash numbers by about 20%. The effect declines with increasing distance from the camera location. Fatal crashes were found to be reduced by 51%, this result may however be affected by regression to the mean (RTM). Section control was found to have a greater crash reducing effect than speed cameras (-30% for total crash numbers and -56% for KSI crashes). There is no indication that these results (except the one for the effect of speed cameras on fatal crashes) are affected by regression to the mean, publication bias or outlier bias. The results indicate that kangaroo driving (braking and accelerating) occurs, but no adverse effects on speed or crashes were found. Crash migration, i.e., an increase of crash numbers on other roads due to rerouting of traffic, may occur in some cases at speed cameras, but the results do not indicate that such effects are common. Both speed cameras and section control were found to achieve considerable speed reductions and the crash effects that were found in meta-analysis are of a similar size or greater than one might expect based on the effects on speed.

  7. The effect of formal, neonatal communication-intervention training on mothers in kangaroo care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alta Kritzinger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to low-birth-weight, preterm birth, HIV and/or AIDS and poverty-related factors, South Africa presents with an increased prevalence of infants at risk of language delay. A Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC unit offers unique opportunities for training.Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine if formal, neonatal communication-intervention training had an effect on mothers’ knowledge and communication interaction with their high-risk infants.Methods: Three groups of mothers participated: Group 1 was trained whilst practicing KMC; Group 2 was not trained but practiced KMC; and Group 3 was also not trained but practiced sporadic KMC. Ten mothers per group were matched for age, education level and birth order of their infants. The individual training was based on graded sensory stimulation and responsive mother-infant communication interaction, which emphasised talking and singing by the mother.Results: Significant differences were found in mother-infant communication interaction between all three groups, which indicated a positive effect on Group 1 with training. Group 2, KMC without training, also had a positive effect on interaction. However, Group 1 mothers with training demonstrated better knowledge of their infants and were more responsive during interaction than the other two groups.Conclusion: The present study suggests that neonatal communication-intervention training adds value to a KMC programme. Normal 0 false false false EN-ZA X-NONE X-NONE

  8. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  9. Travelling to breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, RJ; Fox, AD; Stahl, J

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, investigation of the dynamics of avian migration has been heavily biased towards the autumn return trip to the wintering quarters. Since the migratory prelude to breeding has direct fitness consequences, the European Science Foundation recently redressed the balance and sponsored a wo

  10. Breeding kennel management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, S

    1992-09-01

    Veterinarians and dog breeders should work together to establish protocols for health care and breeding management that are based on sound scientific principles as well as practical systems. These protocols should involve bitches, stud dogs, and puppies. Tantamount importance must be placed on record keeping so that problems may be identified and solved before they are irreversible.

  11. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great numb

  12. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, R.; Dun, van K.P.M.; Snoo, de B.; Berg, van den M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, de J.P.C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Wijnker, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on re

  13. Rolling out of kangaroo mother care in secondary level facilities in Bihar-Some experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutapa B Neogi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of under-five child deaths worldwide and in India. Kangaroo mother care (KMC is a powerful and easy-to-use method to promote health and well-being and reduce morbidity and mortality in preterm/low birth weight (LBW babies. Objective: As the part of the roll-out of India Newborn Action Plan interventions, we implemented KMC in select facilities with an objective to assess the responsiveness of public health system to roll out KMC. Methods: KMC intervention was implemented in two select high priority districts, Gaya and Purnea in Bihar over the duration of 8 months from August 2015 to March 2016. The implementation of intervention was phased out into; situation analysis, implementation of intervention, and interim assessment. KMC model, as envisaged keeping in mind the building blocks of health system, was established in 6 identified health-care facilities. A pretested simple checklist was used to assess the awareness, knowledge, skills, and practice of KMC during baseline situational analysis and interim assessment phases for comparison. Results: The intervention clearly seemed to improve the awareness among auxiliary nurse midwives/nurses about KMC. Improvements were also observed in the availability of infrastructure required for KMC and support logistics like facility for manual expression of breast milk, cups/suitable devices such as paladi cups for feeding small babies and digital weighing scale. Although the recording of information regarding LBW babies and KMC practice improved, still there is scope for much improvement. Conclusion: There is a commitment at the national level to promote KMC in every facility. The present experience shows the possibility of rolling out KMC in secondary level facilities with support from government functionaries.

  14. Supporting factors and barriers in implementing kangaroo mother care in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Pratomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC was introduced to Indonesia in the 1990s. Since then, KMC has not been widely implemented and has not received national policy support. Objective The objectives of this case study were to implement KMC by an intervention that would ultimately benefit ten hospitals in Java, Indonesia, as well as identify supporting factors and barriers to KMC implementation. Methods An intervention with four phases was conducted in ten hospitals. Two teaching hospitals were supported to serve as training centers, six hospitals were supported to implement KMC and two other hospitals were supported to strengthen existing KMC practices. The four phases were comprised of a baseline assessment, a five-day training workshop, two supervisory visits to each hospital, and an end-line assessment. Results A total of 344 low birth weight infants received KMC during the intervention period. Good progress with regards to implementation was observed in most hospitals between the first and second supervisory visits. Supporting factors for KMC were the following: support received from hospital management, positive attitudes of healthcare providers, patients, families and communities, as well as the availability of resources. The most common challenges were record keeping and data collection, human resources and staff issues, infrastructure and budgets, discharge and follow-up, as well as family issues. Challenges related to the family were the inability of the mother or family to visit the infant frequently to provide KMC, and the affordability of hospital user fees for the infant to stay in the hospital for a sufficient period of time. Conclusion KMC appeared to be well accepted in most hospitals. For an intervention to have maximum impact, it is important to integrate services and maintain a complex network of communication systems. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:43-50].

  15. Changing patterns of meat consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: Will kangaroo meat make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasiri, Shyama; Bandara, Jayatilleke

    2017-01-01

    The Australian per capita consumption of ruminant meat such as beef and lamb has declined over the last two decades. Over the same period, however, per capita consumption of non-ruminant meat such as chicken and pork has continued to increase. Furthermore, it is now observed that the human consumption of kangaroo meat is on the rise. This study investigates the implications of these changes in meat consumption patterns on Green House Gases (GHGs) emission mitigation in Australia using a Vector Auto Regression (VAR) forecasting approach. Our results suggest that the increase will continue in non-ruminant meat consumption and this will not only offset the decline in ruminant meat consumption, but will also raise the overall per capita meat consumption by approximately 1% annually. The per capita GHGs emissions will likely decrease by approximately 2.3% per annum, due to the inclusion of non-ruminant meat in Australian diets. The GHGs emissions can further be reduced if the average Australian consumer partially replaces ruminant meat with kangaroo meat.

  16. Changing patterns of meat consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: Will kangaroo meat make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasiri, Shyama; Bandara, Jayatilleke

    2017-01-01

    The Australian per capita consumption of ruminant meat such as beef and lamb has declined over the last two decades. Over the same period, however, per capita consumption of non-ruminant meat such as chicken and pork has continued to increase. Furthermore, it is now observed that the human consumption of kangaroo meat is on the rise. This study investigates the implications of these changes in meat consumption patterns on Green House Gases (GHGs) emission mitigation in Australia using a Vector Auto Regression (VAR) forecasting approach. Our results suggest that the increase will continue in non-ruminant meat consumption and this will not only offset the decline in ruminant meat consumption, but will also raise the overall per capita meat consumption by approximately 1% annually. The per capita GHGs emissions will likely decrease by approximately 2.3% per annum, due to the inclusion of non-ruminant meat in Australian diets. The GHGs emissions can further be reduced if the average Australian consumer partially replaces ruminant meat with kangaroo meat. PMID:28196141

  17. Aerobic characteristics of red kangaroo skeletal muscles: is a high aerobic capacity matched by muscle mitochondrial and capillary morphology as in placental mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; Mifsud, Brock; Raad, Matthew C; Webster, Koa N

    2004-07-01

    Marsupials and placentals together comprise the Theria, the advanced mammals, but they have had long independent evolutionary histories, with the last common ancestor occurring more than 125 million years ago. Although in the past the marsupials were considered to be metabolically 'primitive', the red kangaroo Macropus rufus has been reported to have an aerobic capacity (VO2max) comparable to that of the most 'athletic' of placentals such as dogs. However, kangaroos travel at moderate speeds with lower relative cost than quadrupedal placentals. Given the long independent evolution of the two therian groups, and their unusual locomotor energetics, do kangaroos achieve their high aerobic capacity using the same structural and functional mechanisms used by (athletic) placentals? Red kangaroo skeletal muscle morphometry matched closely the general aerobic characteristics of placental mammals. The relationship between total mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle and VO2max during exercise was identical to that in quadrupedal placentals, and differed from that in bipedal humans. As for placentals generally, red kangaroo mitochondrial oxygen consumption at VO2max was 4.7 ml O2 min(-1) ml(-1) of mitochondria. Also, the inner mitochondrial membrane densities were 35.8 +/- 0.7 m2 ml(-1) of mitochondria, which is the same as for placental mammals, and the same pattern of similarity was seen for capillary densities and volumes. The overall data for kangaroos was equivalent to that seen in athletic placentals such as dogs and pronghorns. Total skeletal muscle mass was high, being around 50% of body mass, and was concentrated around the pelvis and lower back. The majority of the muscles sampled had relatively high mitochondrial volume densities, in the range 8.8-10.6% in the major locomotor muscles. Again, capillary densities and capillary blood volumes followed the pattern seen for mitochondria. Our results indicate that the red kangaroo, despite its locomotion and extreme

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of Asian and European pig breeds determined by mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K I; Lee, J H; Li, K; Zhang, Y P; Lee, S S; Gongora, J; Moran, C

    2002-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Asian and European pig breeds were assessed using 1036 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) tree was constructed on the basis of maximum likelihood distances using sequences determined for three Cheju (Korea), 11 Chinese, one Westran (Australian feral origin) and two European pigs (Berkshire and Welsh), and also published sequences for four Japanese (including two Wild Boars), one Yucatan miniature, five European (including Large White, Landrace, Duroc, Swedish and Wild Boar) and two Meishan pigs. The Colombian collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) sequence was also determined and used as an outgroup. The maximum parsimony with heuristic search method was used to determine bootstrap support values. Asian-type pigs clustered together (bootstrap support 33%), but were separate from European-type pigs that also clustered together (93%). The Westran pig, derived from the feral descendants of pigs inhabiting Kangaroo Island of South Australia, clustered with Asian pigs, demonstrating Asian origin of their mitochondria. Berkshire and Large White clustered with Asian pigs, indicating that Asian pigs were involved in the development of these breeds. Our findings clearly demonstrate that pigs indigenous to China, Korea and Japan are only recently diverged from each other and distinctly different from European-type pigs. European pig breeds consist of pigs with mitochondria of Asian and non-Asian type, some of which were formed from closely related maternal ancestors, if not from a single ancestor.

  19. Kangaroo mother care diminishes pain from heel lance in very preterm neonates: A crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNaughton Kathryn

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo mother care (KMC has been shown to be efficacious in diminishing pain response to heel lance in full term and moderately preterm neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine if KMC would also be efficacious in very preterm neonates. Methods Preterm neonates (n = 61 between 28 0/7 and 31 6/7 weeks gestational age in three Level III NICU's in Canada comprised the sample. A single-blind randomized crossover design was employed. In the experimental condition, the infant was held in KMC for 15 minutes prior to and throughout heel lance procedure. In the control condition, the infant was in prone position swaddled in a blanket in the incubator. The primary outcome was the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP, which is comprised of three facial actions, maximum heart rate, minimum oxygen saturation levels from baseline in 30-second blocks from heel lance. The secondary outcome was time to recover, defined as heart rate return to baseline. Continuous video, heart rate and oxygen saturation monitoring were recorded with event markers during the procedure and were subsequently analyzed. Repeated measures analysis-of-variance was employed to generate results. Results PIPP scores at 90 seconds post lance were significantly lower in the KMC condition (8.871 (95%CI 7.852–9.889 versus 10.677 (95%CI 9.563–11.792 p CI 103–142 versus 193 seconds (95%CI 158–227. Facial actions were highly significantly lower across all points in time reaching a two-fold difference by 120 seconds post-lance and heart rate was significantly lower across the first 90 seconds in the KMC condition. Conclusion Very preterm neonates appear to have endogenous mechanisms elicited through skin-to-skin maternal contact that decrease pain response, but not as powerfully as in older preterm neonates. The shorter recovery time in KMC is clinically important in helping maintain homeostasis. Trial Registration (Current

  20. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  1. A new species of Near-shore Marine Goby (Pisces: Gobiidae: Nesogobius) from Kangaroo Island, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Michael P; Hoese, Douglass F; Bertozzi, Terry

    2015-12-11

    Nesogobius is one of two goby genera with all species wholly restricted to temperate Australian waters. Described here is a new member of the genus discovered during near-shore marine and estuarine fish sampling along the central southern Australian coastline. The tiger sandgoby Nesogobius tigrinus sp. nov. is distinguished from other congeners by a combination of colouration including four prominent vertical black bars on males; morphological characters involving body scales (large), head scales (naked), body depth (slender) and gill opening (wide); meristic counts including a lack of second dorsal and anal fin spines; and mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence. The species appears to be a narrow range endemic, restricted to specific sub-tidal habitat in the unique sheltered embayments of northeast Kangaroo Island. This study forms part of ongoing investigations to more fully describe the biodiversity and conservation requirements of the regional ichthyofauna.

  2. Marsupial and monotreme serum immunoglobulin binding by proteins A, G and L and anti-kangaroo antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Paola K; Hartley, Carol A; Browning, Glenn F; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-12-01

    Serological studies are often conducted to examine exposure to infectious agents in wildlife populations. However, specific immunological reagents for wildlife species are seldom available and can limit the study of infectious diseases in these animals. This study examined the ability of four commercially available immunoglobulin-binding reagents to bind serum immunoglobulins from 17 species within the Marsupialia and Monotremata. Serum samples were assessed for binding, using immunoblots and ELISAs (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays), to three microbially-derived proteins - staphylococcal protein A, streptococcal protein G and peptostreptococcal protein L. Additionally, an anti-kangaroo antibody was included for comparison. The inter- and intra-familial binding patterns of the reagents to serum immunoglobulins varied and evolutionary distance between animal species was not an accurate predictor of the ability of reagents to bind immunoglobulins. Results from this study can be used to inform the selection of appropriate immunological reagents in future serological studies in these clades.

  3. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  4. Potato breeding in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de H.

    1953-01-01

    A remarkable feature of potato breeding in the Netherlands is the great number of private breeders who have concentrated their efforts on the improvement of the potato. The author calls attention to some circumstances and measures that have made potato breeding attractive in the Netherlands

  5. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  6. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including ES...

  7. Illinois’ 2000 breeding season report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the 2000 breeding season for grassland birds in Illinois. The report begins by summarizing weather conditions throughout the season and...

  8. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  9. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  10. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  11. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  12. Método Mãe-Canguru Método Madre Canguro Kangaroo Mother Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Costa

    2005-12-01

    conocimientos lo hace difícil, también, una adecuada evaluación de esta práctica con relación al recién-nacido y su familia pero, principalmente, en lo que concierne a la aplicación del MMC junto al equipo neonatal.Study of a qualitative nature, whose objective is to identify the knowledge that comes out produced and propagated in Brazilians and foreigners periodic, about Kangaroo Mother Method (KMM. An incursion for literature was carried through, from the databases Medline and Lilacs, as well as direct search to main the nursing periodic, during the period from 1995 through 2004. Eight five articles were selected, later catalogued and submitted to categorizes. After analysis of the articles, four categories were extracted on the thematic. The results had led to the conclusion that despite the KMM being configuring itself as a paradigmatic change in the care to the newborn, it does not have total correspondence with the theoretical production, taking the one that the practical one is developed, many times, without had theoretical sustentation. This gap of knowledge makes it difficult, also, one adequate evaluation of this practical with relation to newborn and its family but, mainly, in whom it says respect to the application of KMM together to the neonatal team.

  13. Scaling up kangaroo mother care in South Africa: 'on-site' versus 'off-site' educational facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rooyen Elise

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up the implementation of new health care interventions can be challenging and demand intensive training or retraining of health workers. This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care. Methods Thirty-six hospitals in the Provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga in South Africa were targeted to implement kangaroo mother care and participated in the trial. The hospitals were paired with respect to their geographical location and annual number of births. One hospital in each pair was randomly allocated to receive either 'on-site' facilitation (Group A or 'off-site' facilitation (Group B. Hospitals in Group A received two on-site visits, whereas delegates from hospitals in Group B attended one off-site, 'hands-on' workshop at a training hospital. All hospitals were evaluated during a site visit six to eight months after attending an introductory workshop and were scored by means of an existing progress-monitoring tool with a scoring scale of 0–30. Successful implementation was regarded as demonstrating evidence of practice (score >10 during the site visit. Results There was no significant difference between the scores of Groups A and B (p = 0.633. Fifteen hospitals in Group A and 16 in Group B demonstrated evidence of practice. The median score for Group A was 16.52 (range 00.00–23.79 and that for Group B 14.76 (range 07.50–23.29. Conclusion A previous trial illustrated that the implementation of a new health care intervention could be scaled up by using a carefully designed educational package, combined with face-to-face facilitation by respected resource persons. This study demonstrated that the site of facilitation, either on site or at a centre of excellence, did not influence the ability of a hospital to implement KMC. The choice of outreach

  14. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano P. Marelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  15. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  16. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  17. Secretion of whey acidic protein and cystatin is down regulated at mid-lactation in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K.R.; Fisher, J.A.; Muths, E.; Trott, J.; Janssens, P.A.; Reich, C.; Shaw, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    Milk collected from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) between day 100 and 260 of lactation showed major changes in milk composition at around day 200 of lactation, the time at which the pouch young begins to temporarily exit the pouch and eat herbage. The carbohydrate content of milk declined abruptly at this time and although there was only a small increase in total protein content, SDS PAGE analysis of milk revealed asynchrony in the secretory pattern of individual proteins. The levels of ??-lactalbumin, ??-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and transferrin remain unchanged during lactation. In contrast, the protease inhibitor cystatin, and the putative protease inhibitor whey acidic protein (WAP) first appeared in milk at elevated concentrations after approximately 150 days of lactation and then ceased to be secreted at approximately 200 days. In addition, a major whey protein, late lactation protein, was first detected in milk around the time whey acidic protein and cystatin cease to be secreted and was present at least until day 260 of lactation. The co-ordinated, but asynchronous secretion of putative protease inhibitors in milk may have several roles during lactation including tissue remodelling in the mammary gland and protecting specific proteins in milk required for physiological development of the dependent young. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.

  18. Evalvacija šolskega matematičnega tekmovanja Kenguru = Evaluation of the Kangaroo School Mathematical Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Komel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Each year Slovene students of secondary vocational schools, among them also the Construction and Service School in Kranj (Economics and Service Educational Centre Kranj, compete in knowledge in the Kangaroo International Mathematical Competition . We decided to evaluate two points of view of the competition, namely processional in the sense of extra-curricular activities, i.e. preparation for the competition, and interpersonal in the sense of deepening the relations between teachers and students. One of the main aims of our evaluation, besides deepening the relations, was to motivate and prepare as many students as possible for the competition. While carrying out the project, there was a growing conviction that the process of evaluation is more important than its results, because it has united and brought closer all the participants, students as well as teacher-mentors. An extremely positive consequence of evaluation is the fact that the understanding of the competition itself has improved and it has also boosted its own efficiency. School climate has become friendlier, while the project group of mathematicians gained new guidelines for further work.

  19. A new species of the basal "kangaroo" Balbaroo and a re-evaluation of stem macropodiform interrelationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H Black

    Full Text Available Exceptionally well-preserved skulls and postcranial elements of a new species of the plesiomorphic stem macropodiform Balbaroo have been recovered from middle Miocene freshwater limestone deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area of northwestern Queensland, Australia. This constitutes the richest intraspecific sample for any currently known basal "kangaroo", and, along with additional material referred to Balbaroo fangaroo, provides new insights into structural variability within the most prolific archaic macropodiform clade--Balbaridae. Qualitative and metric evaluations of taxonomic boundaries demonstrate that the previously distinct species Nambaroo bullockensis is a junior synonym of B. camfieldensis. Furthermore, coupled Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses reveal that our new Balbaroo remains represent the most derived member of the Balbaroo lineage, and are closely related to the middle Miocene B. camfieldensis, which like most named balbarid species is identifiable only from isolated jaws. The postcranial elements of Balbaroo concur with earlier finds of the stratigraphically oldest balbarid skeleton, Nambaroo gillespieae, and suggest that quadrupedal progression was a primary gait mode as opposed to bipedal saltation. All Balbaroo spp. have low-crowned bilophodont molars, which are typical for browsing herbivores inhabiting the densely forested environments envisaged for middle Miocene northeastern Australia.

  20. Kangaroo care and behavioral and physiologic pain responses in very-low-birth-weight twins: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Cusson, Regina M; Hussain, Naveed; Zhang, Di; Kelly, Sharon P

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this case study was to describe pain responses in three study conditions: longer (30 minutes) kangaroo care (KC) before and throughout heel stick (KC30), shorter (15 minutes) KC before and throughout heel stick (KC15), and incubator care throughout heel stick (IC) in 28-week gestational age twins. Pain responses were measured by crying time, Preterm Infant Pain Profile (PIPP), and heart rate variability indexes, including low-frequency power (LF, representing sympathetic activity), high-frequency power (HF, parasympathetic activity), and LF/HF ratio (sympathetic-parasympathetic balance). Both twins cried more and had higher PIPP pain scores and tachycardia during heel stick in the IC condition. Infant B had an incident of apnea and tachycardia by the end of the heel stick and a bradycardia episode during recovery in the IC condition. The twins had lower LF/HF ratios (better autonomic nervous system balance) during recovery in both longer and shorter KC conditions compared with the IC condition. Infant B had difficulty returning to LF/HF ratio baseline level after the painful procedure in the IC condition. These data suggest that both longer and shorter KC before and throughout painful procedures can be helpful in reducing behavioral and physiologic pain responses in preterm infants.

  1. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  2. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  3. Sport horses : breeding specialist from a single breeding programme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection,

  4. Trial gain of weight and hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm infant in assistance for kangaroo mother care

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Aparecida Giacomini Rodrigues; Maria Aparecida Tedeschi Cano

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) interferes in the gain of weight and in the hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm newborn (LWBPTN). For this, it was realized an analytic retrospective study, through the evaluation of the medical records of 60 LWBPTN with born weight less than 2000 g that received assistance by KMC, for a period of 2 hours per day and, 60 LWBPTN that received assistance by the Traditional Method of Care (TMC), admitted in ...

  5. The evolution of potato breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cultivars in most regions of the world are tetraploid and clonally propagated. For over a century, the breeding strategy has been phenotypic recurrent selection. However, the polyploid nature of the crop prevents breeders from eliminating deleterious alleles and assembling positive alleles fo...

  6. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation availab

  7. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windig Jack J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. Non-genetic aspects included threats (e.g. low population size, low preferences by farmers and current merits (economic, ecological and cultural merits. Threat analysis identified eight of the 14 breeds as threatened. Analysis of current merits showed that sub-alpine and arid-lowland breeds contribute most to farmer livelihoods in comparison to other breeds. The highest contribution to the genetic diversity conserved was from the Simien breed. Simien showed high between-breed (low between-breed kinship = 0.04 as well as high within-breed diversity (low within-breed kinship = 0.09 and high HE = 0.73 and allelic richness = 6.83. We combined the results on threat status, current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity to produce a ranking of the 14 breeds for conservation purposes. Our results balance the trade-offs between conserving breeds as insurance against future uncertainties and current sustainable utilization. The ranking of breeds provides a basis for conservation strategies for Ethiopian sheep and contributes to a regional or global conservation plan.

  8. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  9. A sedge plant as the source of Kangaroo Island propolis rich in prenylated p-coumarate ester and stilbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Colin C; Tran, Van H; Duke, Rujee K; Abu-Mellal, Abdallah; Plunkett, George T; King, Douglas I; Hamid, Kaiser; Wilson, Karen L; Barrett, Russell L; Bruhl, Jeremy J

    2017-02-01

    Propolis samples from Kangaroo Island, South Australia, were investigated for chemical constituents using high-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectral profiling. A type of propolis was found containing a high proportion of prenylated hydroxystilbenes. Subsequently, the botanical origin of this type of propolis was identified using a beehive propolis depletion method and analysis of flora. Ligurian honey bees, Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, were found to produce propolis from resin exuded by the Australian native sedge plant Lepidosperma sp. Montebello (Cyperaceae). The plants, commonly known as sword sedge, were found to have resin that matched with the propolis samples identified as the most abundant propolis type on the island containing C- and O-prenylated tetrahydroxystilbenes (pTHOS) in addition to a small amount of prenylated p-coumarate. The isolation of five pTHOS not previously characterized are reported: (E)-4-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,4',5-trihydroxy-3'-methoxystilbene, (E)-2,4-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,3',4',5-tetrahydroxystilbene, (E)-2-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyloxy)-3',4',5-trihydroxystilbene, (E)-2,6-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxystilbene and (E)-2,6-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,4',5-trihydroxy-3'-methoxystilbene. A National Cancer Institute 60 human cell line anticancer screen of three of these compounds showed growth inhibitory activity. The large Australasian genus Lepidosperma is identified as a valuable resource for the isolation of substances with medicinal potential.

  10. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding program

  11. Grooming relationships between breeding females and adult group members in cooperatively breeding moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löttker, Petra; Huck, Maren; Zinner, Dietmar P; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2007-10-01

    Grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior in primates that apart from hygienic and hedonistic benefits offers important social benefits for the performing individuals. This study examined grooming behavior in a cooperatively breeding primate species, characterized by single female breeding per group, polyandrous matings, dizygotic twinning, delayed offspring dispersal, and intensive helping behavior. In this system, breeding females profit from the presence of helpers but also helpers profit from staying in a group and assisting in infant care due to the accumulation of direct and indirect fitness benefits. We examined grooming relationships of breeding females with three classes of partners (breeding males, potentially breeding males, (sub)adult non-breeding offspring) during three reproductive phases (post-partum ovarian inactivity, ovarian activity, pregnancy) in two groups of wild moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax). We investigated whether grooming can be used to regulate group size by either "pay-for-help" or "pay-to-stay" mechanisms. Grooming of breeding females with breeding males and non-breeding offspring was more intense and more balanced than with potentially breeding males, and most grooming occurred during the breeding females' pregnancies. Grooming was skewed toward more investment by the breeding females with breeding males during the phases of ovarian activity, and with potentially breeding males during pregnancies. Our results suggest that grooming might be a mechanism used by female moustached tamarins to induce mate association with the breeding male, and to induce certain individuals to stay in the group and help with infant care.

  12. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  13. Research Progress of Kangaroo Nursing Care Applied in Neonatal Pain Management%袋鼠式护理应用于新生儿疼痛管理的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖苑红; 沈永珍; 黄晓睿

    2016-01-01

    袋鼠式护理已被广泛应用于新生儿护理中,在新生儿疼痛管理中的应用更受关注。本文通过综述袋鼠式护理应用于新生儿疼痛管理的应用机制、现状及效果,对今后开展袋鼠式护理应用于新生儿疼痛管理的研究提出建议。%Kangaroo care has been widely used in neonatal care,and more attention has been paid in the application of neonatal pain management. This article reviewed the mechanism of kangaroo care used in neonatal pain management,the current situation,and the effectiveness of kangaroo care used in neonatal pain management. Suggestions about how to apply kangaroo care in neonatal pain management were presented.

  14. A retrospective study of Babesia macropus associated with morbidity and mortality in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L. Donahoe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of 38 cases of infection by Babesia macropus, associated with a syndrome of anaemia and debility in hand-reared or free-ranging juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus from coastal New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland between 1995 and 2013. Infection with B. macropus is recorded for the first time in agile wallabies (Macropus agilis from far north Queensland. Animals in which B. macropus infection was considered to be the primary cause of morbidity had marked anaemia, lethargy and neurological signs, and often died. In these cases, parasitised erythrocytes were few or undetectable in peripheral blood samples but were sequestered in large numbers within small vessels of visceral organs, particularly in the kidney and brain, associated with distinctive clusters of extraerythrocytic organisms. Initial identification of this piroplasm in peripheral blood smears and in tissue impression smears and histological sections was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and molecular analysis. Samples of kidney, brain or blood were tested using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA and heat shock protein 70 gene using primers specific for piroplasms. The piroplasm detected in these samples had 100% sequence identity in the 18S rRNA region with the recently described Babesia macropus in two eastern grey kangaroos from New South Wales and Queensland, and a high degree of similarity to an unnamed Babesia sp. recently detected in three woylies (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi in Western Australia.

  15. Kangaroo mother program: physical growth and morbidity in a cohort of children, followed from 40 weeks of postconceptional age until first year.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Palencia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Up to 40 weeks of postconceptional age, the kangaroo mother program at the Hospital Universitario del Valle has proved to be a safe alternative for premature babies’ management with a low birth weight. Objectives: To evaluate the physical growth and morbidity in children followed since 40 weeks up to 1 year in the program. Material and methods: A cohort study was performed in newborn infants admitted to the kangaroo mother program in the newborn unit at the Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia, with birth weight lower than 2000 g, from 40 weeks postconceptional age up to one year age, between August 2002 and July 2006. Information was collected about maternal age and morbidity, prenatal control, type of birth, gender, birth weight, gestational age, breastfeeding, thick motor development, physical growth, morbidity, readmissions, mortality and tests results. Results: A total of 390 infants were admitted to the program, with a 61% of captation. 65% of theirs mothers did not have prenatal control. Before completing the 40 weeks, 5.3% were readmitted due to anaemia and apnoea. After 40 weeks, 13% were readmitted by bronchopneumonia and acute diarrhoea. Most of them were allocated in the reference percentiles for weight and size. Size had a better growth than weight. The cumulated low weight incidence for age at 13 months was 22%. Conclusions: To increase the coverage of prenatal control program and to watch that the children receive prescribed iron and formulated folic acid.

  16. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) originated in the Andean region of South America; this species is associated with exceptional grain nutritional quality and is highly valued for its ability to tolerate abiotic stresses. However, its introduction outside the Andes has yet to take off on a large...... scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  17. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  18. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  19. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foulley Jean-Louis

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall FST = 0.27, and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.

  20. Breeding without breeding: is a complete pedigree necessary for efficient breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry A El-Kassaby

    Full Text Available Complete pedigree information is a prerequisite for modern breeding and the ranking of parents and offspring for selection and deployment decisions. DNA fingerprinting and pedigree reconstruction can substitute for artificial matings, by allowing parentage delineation of naturally produced offspring. Here, we report on the efficacy of a breeding concept called "Breeding without Breeding" (BwB that circumvents artificial matings, focusing instead on a subset of randomly sampled, maternally known but paternally unknown offspring to delineate their paternal parentage. We then generate the information needed to rank those offspring and their paternal parents, using a combination of complete (full-sib: FS and incomplete (half-sib: HS analyses of the constructed pedigrees. Using a random sample of wind-pollinated offspring from 15 females (seed donors, growing in a 41-parent western larch population, BwB is evaluated and compared to two commonly used testing methods that rely on either incomplete (maternal half-sib, open-pollinated: OP or complete (FS pedigree designs. BwB produced results superior to those from the incomplete design and virtually identical to those from the complete pedigree methods. The combined use of complete and incomplete pedigree information permitted evaluating all parents, both maternal and paternal, as well as all offspring, a result that could not have been accomplished with either the OP or FS methods alone. We also discuss the optimum experimental setting, in terms of the proportion of fingerprinted offspring, the size of the assembled maternal and paternal half-sib families, the role of external gene flow, and selfing, as well as the number of parents that could be realistically tested with BwB.

  1. Thermal implications of interactions between insulation, solar reflectance, and fur structure in the summer coats of diverse species of kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; Maloney, Shane K

    2016-11-01

    Not all of the solar radiation that impinges on a mammalian coat is absorbed and converted into thermal energy at the coat surface. Some is reflected back to the environment, while another portion is reflected further into the coat where it is absorbed and manifested as heat at differing levels. Substantial insulation in a coat limits the thermal impact at the skin of solar radiation, irrespective where in the coat it is absorbed. In coats with low insulation, the zone where solar radiation is absorbed may govern the consequent heat load on the skin (HL-SR). Thin summer furs of four species of kangaroo from differing climatic zones were used to determine how variation in insulation and in coat spectral and structural characteristics influence the HL-SR. Coat depth, structure, and solar reflectance varied between body regions, as well as between species. The modulation of solar radiation and resultant heat flows in these coats were measured at low (1 m s(-1)) and high (6 m s(-1)) wind speeds by mounting them on a heat flux transducer/temperature-controlled plate apparatus in a wind tunnel. A lamp with a spectrum similar to solar radiation was used as a proxy for the sun. We established that coat insulation was largely determined by coat depth at natural fur lie, despite large variations in fibre density, fibre diameter, and fur mass. Higher wind speed decreased coat insulation, but depth still determined the overall level. A multiple regression analysis that included coat depth (insulation), fibre diameter, fibre density, and solar reflectance was used to determine the best predictors of HL-SR. Only depth and reflectance had significant impacts and both factors had negative weights, so, as either insulation or reflectance increased, HL-SR declined, the larger impact coming from coat reflectance. This reverses the pattern observed in deep coats where insulation dominates over effects of reflectance. Across all coats, as insulation declined, reflectance increased

  2. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  3. 袋鼠式护理对足月新生儿疼痛的护理效果%Kangaroo Care for Neonatal Pain Nursing Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗小敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss kangaroo care for neonatal pain nursing effect, evaluation of its clinical application value. Methods From 2010 September to 2011 June in our hospital was born in 98 full-term neonates were divided randomly into two groups, the control group (n=49 ) using the routine nursing care, observation group (n=49 ) using a kangaroo care, two groups of neonatal pain, heart rate, oxygen saturation and crying time comparison. Results The observation group of neonatal pain score lower than those in the control group, the difference between the two groups was significant (P < 0.05 ); study group of neonatal heart rate lower than that of the control group, while the oxygen saturation is higher than that of control group, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05 ); observation group of neonatal crying time shorter than the control group, the difference between the two groups was significant (P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Kangaroo care helps to reduce neonatal pain, promote stable vital signs, it is worth of application.%目的 讨论袋鼠式护理对于足月新生儿疼痛的护理效果,评价其临床应用价值.方法 将2010年9月-2011年6月在本院出生的98例足月新生儿随机分为两组,其中对照组(49例)采用常规护理方法,观察组(49例)采用袋鼠式护理,对两组新生儿的疼痛程度、心率、血氧饱和度及啼哭时间进行比较.结果 观察组新生儿疼痛评分低于对照组,两组差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组新生儿心率低于对照组,而血氧饱和度高于对照组,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组新生儿啼哭时间短于对照组,两组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论袋鼠式护理有助于降低新生儿的疼痛感,促进生命体征稳定,临床应用效果好.

  4. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    examples, such as breeding for good maternal behaviour, could enhance welfare, production and naturalness, although dilemmas emerge where improved welfare could result from breeding away from natural behaviour. Selection against certain behaviours may carry a risk of creating animals which are generally......In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits......, and opportunities exist to increase the inclusion of behaviour in breeding indices. On a technical level, breeding for behaviour presents a number of particular challenges compared to physical traits. It is much more difficult and time-consuming to directly measure behaviour in a consistent and reliable manner...

  5. Breeding of speciality maize for industrial purposes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The breeding programme on speciality maize with specific traits was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, several decades ago. The initial material was collected, new methods applying to breeding of speciality maize, i.e. popping maize, sweet maize and white-seeded maize, were introduced. The aim was to enhance and improve variability of the initial material for breeding these three types of maize. Then, inbred lines of good combining abilities were developed and used as c...

  6. Development Of Space Breeding In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Luxiang

    2009-01-01

    @@ Space breeding provides a new technical platform for Chinese agricaltural scientists to explore the mechanism of crop mutation induced during spaceflight and breeds new varieties of crops. It is important for China to develop the space breeding industry,maintain China's lead position in this field,serve agricultural production better,promote China's sustainable and healthy agricultural development,and ensure national food safety.

  7. The Breeding Bird Survey, 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Van Velzen, W.T.

    1967-01-01

    A Breeding Bird Survey of a large section on North America was conducted during June 1966. Cooperators ran a total of 585 Survey routes in 26 eastern States and 4 Canadian Provinces. Future coverage of established routes will enable changes in the abundance of North American breeding birds to be measured. Routes are selected at random on the basis of one-degree blocks of latitude and longitude. Each 241/2-mile route, with 3-minute stops spaced one-half mile apart, is driven by automobile. All birds heard or seen at the stops are recorded on special forms and the data are then transferred to machine punch cards. The average number of birds per route is tabulated by State, along with the total number of each species and the percent of routes and stops upon which they were recorded. Maps are presented showing the range and abundance of selected species. Also, a year-to-year comparison is made of populations of selected species on Maryland routes in 1965 and 1966.

  8. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  9. Chemical classification of cattle. 1. Breed groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C M; Manwell, C

    1980-01-01

    From approximately 1000 papers with data on protein polymorphism in some 216 breeds of cattle, 10 polymorphic proteins were compared in means and variances of gene frequencies (arcsin p 1/2) for ten well-recognized breed groups for 196 of the breeds. The polymorphic proteins were alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, caseins (alpha s1, beta and chi), serum albumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, amylase I and carbonic anhydrase II. The breed groups were North European, Pied Lowland, European Red brachyceros, Channel Island brachyceros, Upland brachyceros, primigenius-brachyceros mixed, primigenius, Indian Zebu, African Humped (with Zebu admixture), and African Humped (Sanga). The coherence within groups and the differences between groups are often impressive. Only carbonic anhydrase II fails to differentiate at least some of the major breed groups. In some cases paradoxical distributions of rare genetic variants can be explained by a more detailed inspection of breed history. The chemical data support the morphological and geographical divisions of cattle into major breed groups. There are three distinct but related brachyceros groups; for some polymorphisms the two Channel Island breeds, the Jersey and the Guernsey, are quite divergent. Although some authorities have considered the Pied Lowland as primigenius, it is a very distinct breed group.

  10. The productivity of various pure breed and cross breed of imported pigs during lactation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamuara Aritonang

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to evaluate the productivity of pure breeds and cross breeds of imported pigs. Sixteen strains of pigs with five best sows were selected based on litter size and birth weight on the second parity. The results of the study showed that the pure breed performance was better than the cross breeds, as shown by the litter size, birth and weaned weight, less mortality, better mothering ability and better feed efficiency. Between pure breed, the Landrace and Yorkshire were better than other sows and between the cross breed, the LH and YL performed better than other crossbreeds. It is recommended that the pure breed especially Landrace and Yorkshire and LH and YL of cross breed are better than others

  11. Passage marker excretion in red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) and colobine monkeys (Colobus angolensis, C. polykomos, Trachypithecus johnii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-11-01

    Ruminants are characterized by an efficient particle-sorting mechanism in the forestomach (FRST) followed by selective rechewing of large food particles. For the nonruminating foregut fermenter pygmy hippo it was demonstrated that large particles are excreted as fast as, or faster than, the small particles. The same has been suggested for other nonruminating foregut fermenters. We determined the mean retention time of fluids and different-sized particles in six red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), seven collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) and three colobine monkeys (Colobus angolensis, C. polykomos, Trachypithecus johnii). We fed Co-EDTA as fluid and mordanted fiber as particle markers (Cr, Ce). Mean (+ or - SD) total tract retention time for fluids, small and large particles was 14 + or - 2, 29 + or - 10 and 30 + or - 9 hr in red kangaroos, 26 + or - 2, 34 + or - 5 and 32 + or - 3 hr in collared peccaries and 57 + or - 17, 55 + or - 19 and 54 + or - 19 hr in colobine monkeys, respectively. Large and small particles were excreted simultaneously in all species. There was no difference in the excretion of fluids and particles in the colobine monkeys, in contrast to the other foregut fermenters. In the nonprimate, nonruminant foregut fermenters, the difference in the excretion of fluids and small particles decreases with increasing food intake. On the contrary, ruminants keep this differential excretion constant at different intake levels. This may be a prerequisite for the sorting of particles in their FRST and enable them to achieve higher food intake rates. The functional significance of differential excretion of fluids and particles from the FRST requires further investigations.

  12. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Kierdorf

    Full Text Available Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species.

  13. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species. PMID:26895178

  14. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species.

  15. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  16. 78 FR 45494 - Plant Breeding Listening Session meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Plant Breeding Listening Session meeting ACTION: Notice of a Plant Breeding... Agriculture (USDA) announces a Plant Breeding Listening Session stakeholder meeting for all interested plant breeding and cultivar development stakeholders. DATES: The Plant Breeding Listening Session will be...

  17. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  18. Plant Breeding: Surprisingly, Less Sex Is Better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Peter J; Rigola, Diana; Schauer, Stephen E

    2016-02-01

    Introduction of apomixis, asexual reproduction through seeds, into crop species has the potential to dramatically transform plant breeding. A new study demonstrates that traits can be stably transferred between generations in newly produced apomictic lines, and heralds a breeding revolution needed to increase food production for the growing planet.

  19. Lily breeding research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.; Holsteijn, van H.M.C.

    1996-01-01

    At the Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research (CPRO-DLO) in Wageningen lily breeding research in the Netherlands is concentrated. To this end sources of germplasm (genetic material) are maintained in a lily species and cultivar collection. Research is done on long term storage of this c

  20. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits, and opportunit...

  1. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane;

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...

  2. Genetic diversity of 11 European pig breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavall, G.; Iannuccelli, N.; Legault, C.; Milan, D.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Andersson, L.; Fredholm, M.; Geldermann, H.; Foulley, J.L.; Chevalet, C.; Ollivier, L.

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosi

  3. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of geneticim

  4. Impact of selective breeding on European aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.; Chavanne, H.; Berentsen, P.; Komen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the combined market share of breeding companies in aquaculture production in Europe, to describe the main characteristics of breeding companies and their programs, and to provide per species estimates on cumulative genetic gain in growth performance. Sur

  5. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...... of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998-2009.......Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim...

  6. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties. Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest importance for veterinary service is the fact that selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are in the first place based on giving priority to healthy animals, with strong immune system, good reproductive characteristics, which can be in production system for a long period. Additional important selective criteria is specific body resistance and adaptability of autochtonous breeds to environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085

  7. Patterns of molecular genetic variation among cat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Pflueger, Solveig M; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Wade, Claire M; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variation in cat breeds was assessed utilizing a panel of short tandem repeat (STR) loci genotyped in 38 cat breeds and 284 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 24 breeds. Population structure in cat breeds generally reflects their recent ancestry and absence of strong breed barriers between some breeds. There is a wide range in the robustness of population definition, from breeds demonstrating high definition to breeds with as little as a third of their genetic variation partitioning into a single population. Utilizing the STRUCTURE algorithm, there was no clear demarcation of the number of population subdivisions; 16 breeds could not be resolved into independent populations, the consequence of outcrossing in established breeds to recently developed breeds with common ancestry. These 16 breeds were divided into 6 populations. Ninety-six percent of cats in a sample set of 1040 were correctly assigned to their classified breed or breed group/population. Average breed STR heterozygosities ranged from moderate (0.53; Havana, Korat) to high (0.85; Norwegian Forest Cat, Manx). Most of the variation in cat breeds was observed within a breed population (83.7%), versus 16.3% of the variation observed between populations. The hierarchical relationships of cat breeds is poorly defined as demonstrated by phylogenetic trees generated from both STR and SNP data, though phylogeographic grouping of breeds derived completely or in part from Southeast Asian ancestors was apparent.

  8. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  9. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress.

  10. LINE CONSTRUCTION OF NONIUS BREED IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  11. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  12. Management and Breeding Soundness of Mature Bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Colin W

    2016-07-01

    Mature bulls must be fed a balanced ration, vaccinated appropriately, and undergo a breeding soundness evaluation to ensure they meet what is required of a short, but intense breeding season. To be classified as a satisfactory potential breeder, minimum standards for physical soundness, scrotal circumference, sperm motility, and sperm morphology must be achieved using an accepted bull-breeding soundness evaluation format. Sperm production requires approximately 70 days. Heat and stress are the most common insults to spermatogenesis, causing an increase in morphologic abnormalities with obesity-associated scrotal fat accumulation being the most frequent cause of elevated testicular temperature in mature bulls.

  13. 袋鼠式护理对足月新生儿疼痛的护理效果%Kangaroo Care for Nursing Effect of Neonatal Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游李平

    2013-01-01

      目的:探究袋鼠式护理对足月新生儿疼痛的护理效果及其临床意义。方法:将本院2012年10月-2013年2月内足月出生的58例新生儿随机平均分为两组,各29例。研究组采用袋鼠式护理,对照组采用常规护理,比较两组新生儿疼痛程度、心率和血氧饱和度方面的差异。结果:在疼痛程度和心率方面,研究组明显低于对照组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);在血氧饱和度方面,研究组明显高于对照组,比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:袋鼠式护理对比较于足月新生儿疼痛的护理效果显著,能够有效降低足月新生儿的疼痛感,对于新生儿的心理和生理均有良好的促进作用。%Objective:To explore the kangaroo care for nursing effect of neonatal pain and its clinical significance. Method:In our hospital from 2012 October to 2013 February 58 cases of newborn infants born at term were randomly divided into two groups,each of 29 cases. Study group received kangaroo care,and the control group received routine nursing care.To compare the differences in neonatal pain,heart rate and blood oxygen saturation between the two groups. Result:The degree of pain and heart rate of the study group was significantly lower than that of the control group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05);in the blood oxygen saturation of the study group was significantly higher than that of the control group,with statistically significant differences(P<0.05). Conclusion:Kangaroo care for nursing effect of neonatal pain significantly,can effectively reduce the full-term newborn pain,to promote the role of newborn’s psychological and physical have good. As a kind of high quality nursing methods,get recognition and promotion in clinic.

  14. The ascent of cat breeds: genetic evaluations of breeds and worldwide random-bred populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Monika J; Froenicke, Lutz; Baysac, Kathleen C; Billings, Nicholas C; Leutenegger, Christian M; Levy, Alon M; Longeri, Maria; Niini, Tirri; Ozpinar, Haydar; Slater, Margaret R; Pedersen, Niels C; Lyons, Leslie A

    2008-01-01

    The diaspora of the modern cat was traced with microsatellite markers from the presumed site of domestication to distant regions of the world. Genetic data were derived from over 1100 individuals, representing 17 random-bred populations from five continents and 22 breeds. The Mediterranean was reconfirmed to be the probable site of domestication. Genetic diversity has remained broad throughout the world, with distinct genetic clustering in the Mediterranean basin, Europe/America, Asia and Africa. However, Asian cats appeared to have separated early and expanded in relative isolation. Most breeds were derived from indigenous cats of their purported regions of origin. However, the Persian and Japanese bobtail were more aligned with European/American than with Mediterranean basin or Asian clusters. Three recently derived breeds were not distinct from their parental breeds of origin. Pure breeding was associated with a loss of genetic diversity; however, this loss did not correlate with breed popularity or age.

  15. Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey was initiated experimentally in 1947 and became operational in 1955. It is conducted cooperatively by the U.S....

  16. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Manitoba: 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1983. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  17. Final Performance Report : Snowy Plover Breeding Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of breeding populations and nesting habitat of the snowy plover were conducted from January to August, 1989 along the Gulf Coast of Florida and Alabama....

  18. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  19. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1986. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  20. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1998. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  1. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Alberta: 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  2. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1995 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 37 sites along the coast of California. This 7% decrease in breeding population size from 1994 brings to an end the trend since...

  3. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1989. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  4. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  5. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  6. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1994. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  7. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1996. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  8. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1987. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  9. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1992. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  10. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  11. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1997. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  12. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1988. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  13. Prunus transcription factors: Breeding perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor João Bianchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs. In peach, 1,533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome.

  14. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...... and MS for the two bioenergy grass species, and discuss how molecular tools and synteny can be used to transfer relevant information for genes controlling these biological mechanisms across grass species...

  15. [Pain caused by breeding: definition, judgment, pathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A

    1997-02-01

    Special terms of the "German Animal Protection Law (section 11b)"and the "European Agreement for Protection of Domestic Animals" particularly "torture-breeding, genetic characteristics, well-being, soundness, pains, injuries and specific use" are commented. Examples of torture-breedings are discussed: Dog (Merle-faktor, brachycephalie, atrichosis), cat (Mans-factor, W-gene, folded-ears), birds (tuffs, ear-drops, tailesness, hypertrophy of bill-warts, abnormal position of tarsal-joints, hypertrophy of imposing behavior).

  16. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering.

  17. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  18. Neutronic Comparison of Tritium-Breeding Performance of Candidate Tritium-Breeding Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑善良; 吴宜灿

    2003-01-01

    Tritium self-sustainment, which will meet the fuel requirement of fusion reactor, isone of the key issues of fusion power development. The tritium breeding performances of varioustritium-breeding materials are compared based on a series of neutronics calculations using three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code MCNP/4C with the IAEA FENDL-2data library. The effects of the dimensions of the tritium-breeding zone and the enrichment of 6Lion Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) are analyzed. The effects of Be as a neutron multiplier on TBRare also calculated.

  19. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  20. Strategy and Opportunity for The Development of Duck Breeding Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Hardy Prasetyo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of duck farming requires the availability of good quality breeding stocks commercially in order to improve productivity and efficiency . Presently, there is no commercial duck breeding farm which can produce good quality breeding stocks . This article presents information on alternatives in developing duck breeding farm, particularly for layer ducks . There are two alternative approaches in duck breeding farms : (1 Group breeding farm, which belongs to duck farmers' group, as part of a group production system, and (2 Commercial breeding farm, by an individual private company/Semi-Government Institution in a commercial scale and particularly for export market . A good breeding farm requires appropriate systems for selection and mating of the animals in order to guarantee the quality of the breeding stocks being produced . A breeding farm must be economically and technically feasible as an economic entity, so that economic analysis and marketing must be prepared seriously.

  1. The impact of the method Kangaroo Mother Care in the learning process of low-birth-weight preterm infants: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Paiva Franco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology advances and scientific studies in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU have contributed significantly to reduce mortality and morbidity of at-risk newborns (NB. However, they are more likely to present neurological and/or developmental psychomotor delay with neurological and sensory alterations. Therefore, proposals for neonatal intervention were developed with the aim of protecting the baby and offering appropriate incentives to minimize the effects of hospital intervention. To this end, programs of protective measures such as the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC were developed. Given the relevance of the issue described, this systematic review critically appraises articles from the national and international literature, published in recent years (from 2000 to 2011, that describe whether the KMC can be a protective factor for the development of writing in premature infants. The textual search was conducted using the Virtual Health Library (VHL, a website that covers publications worldwide, allowing access to articles from health science, including LILACS, IBECS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and SciELO, as database. The findings revealed that infants who participated in the KMC program showed improvements in their development and that factors such as low-birth-weight prematurity and learning disorders have close relationship with the onset of motor impairments and changes in psychomotor development. The findings showed no articles describing the KMC as a protective factor for the incidence of dysgraphia. Thus, we emphasize the importance of conducting further studies on these topics.

  2. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Singh Rangey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Massage therapy (MT and kangaroo mother care (KMC are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500 g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001. Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328 and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868. Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  3. Breeding programmes for smallholder sheep farming systems: II. Optimization of cooperative village breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; van Arendonk, J A M; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; Rischkowsky, B; Dessie, T; Mwai, A O

    2014-10-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as under three cooperative flock sizes, ewe to ram mating ratios and durations of ram use for breeding. Under fully controlled breeding, that is, when there is no gene flow between participating (P) and non-participating (NP) flocks, profits ranged from Birr 36.9 at 90% of participation to Birr 21.3 at 10% of participation. However, genetic progress was not affected adversely. When there was gene flow from the NP to P flocks, profits declined from Birr 28.6 to Birr -3.7 as participation declined from 90 to 10%. Under the two-way gene flow model (i.e. when P and NP flocks are herded mixed in communal grazing areas), NP flocks benefited from the genetic gain achieved in the P flocks, but the benefits declined sharply when participation declined beyond 60%. Our results indicate that a cooperative breeding group can be established with as low as 600 breeding ewes mated at a ratio of 45 ewes to one ram, and the rams being used for breeding for a period of two years. This study showed that farmer cooperation is crucial to effect genetic improvement under smallholder low-input sheep farming systems.

  4. Breeding barnacle geese in Kolokolkova Bay, Russia : number of breeding pairs, reproductive success and morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jeugd, HP; Gurtovaya, E; Eichhorn, G; Litvin, KY; Mineev, OY; van Eerden, M

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of an expedition to a barnacle-goose (Branta leucopsis) breeding area in Kolokolkova Bay, west of the lower Pechora delta in northern Russia, undertaken in July 2002. In total, 6 breeding colonies were found within the study area, harbouring 1,324 nests. Mean clutch size was 2.

  5. Motives and values in farming local cattle breeds in Europe: a survey on 15 breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandini, G.; Avon, L.; Bohte-Wilhelmus, D.I.; Bay, E.; Colinet, F.G.; Choroszy, Z.; Diaz, C.; Duclos, D.; Fernandez, J.; Gengler, N.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Kearney, F.; Lilja, T.; Mäki-Tanila, A.; Martin-Collado, D.; Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Musella, M.; Pizzi, F.; Soini, K.; Toro, M.; Turri, F.; Viinalas, H.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Within the EURECA project (Towards self-sustainable EUropean REgional CAttle breeds), we interviewed a total of 371 farmers of 15 local cattle breeds in eight European countries. Besides collecting data on farmers, land use, herd composition and economic role of cattle, we aimed at understanding far

  6. Participatory definition of breeding objectives and selection indexes for sheep breeding in traditional systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Lemma, S.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    A farmer participatory approach was used to define breeding objectives and selection indexes for short-fat-tailed sheep in sheep–barley systems and Black Head Somali sheep in pastoral systems in Ethiopia. Breeding-objective traits were identified based on producers' preferences for traits collected

  7. The sub-annual breeding cycle of a tropical seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, S James; Martin, Graham R; Dawson, Alistair; Wearn, Colin P; Hughes, B John

    2014-01-01

    Breeding periodicity allows organisms to synchronise breeding attempts with the most favourable ecological conditions under which to raise offspring. For most animal species, ecological conditions vary seasonally and usually impose an annual breeding schedule on their populations; sub-annual breeding schedules will be rare. We use a 16-year dataset of breeding attempts by a tropical seabird, the sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus), on Ascension Island to provide new insights about this classical example of a population of sub-annually breeding birds that was first documented in studies 60 years previously on the same island. We confirm that the breeding interval of this population has remained consistently sub-annual. By ringing >17,000 birds and re-capturing a large sample of them at equivalent breeding stages in subsequent seasons, we reveal for the first time that many individual birds also consistently breed sub-annually (i.e. that sub-annual breeding is an individual as well as a population breeding strategy). Ascension Island sooty terns appear to reduce their courtship phase markedly compared with conspecifics breeding elsewhere. Our results provide rare insights into the ecological and physiological drivers of breeding periodicity, indicating that reduction of the annual cycle to just two life-history stages, breeding and moult, is a viable life-history strategy and that moult may determine the minimum time between breeding attempts.

  8. EFFECT OF BREED, SEX AND SOURCE WITHIN BREED ON THE HEAMATOGICAL PARAMETERS OF THE NIGERIAN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. OKONKWO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of breed, sex and source within breed, together with their interactions on the haematological parameters of Nigerian goats were studied using 81 goats (comprising 9 males and 18 females per breed, objective being to characterize and outline the differences and similarities between the breeds in blood parameters. The goats were derived from different geo-ecological zones in the country based on the areas of preponderance of each breed. The breeds studied were: the Sahel goat (SG, Red Sokoto goat (RSG, and West African Dwarf goat (WADG and hematological values obtained per breed were: 22.52±1.48, 23.04±3.56, and 29.22±4.76 (%PCV; 7.52±0.50, 7.82±1.25 and 9.48±1.60 (g/dl Hb; 2.71±0.23, 3.09±0.64, and 4.10±0.42 (x1012/l RBC; 11.94±1.10, 11.32±2.03 and 9.23±0.63 (x109cells/l WBC, and 83.22±1.67, 76.72±2.30 and 73.34±3.40 (x106/mm3 MCV, respectively. Significant differences (P0.05 for all the breeds. The WADGs were superior to the RSGs and SGs in PCV, Hb, and RBC counts, but lower in WBC counts and MCV. The SGs were similar in most of the haematological profiles examined, irrespective of geo-ecological distance, indicating homogeneity of the breed. The sahelian goat breed also outscored other breeds in MCV, showing that the breed has greater propensity to transport oxygen and in situation occasioning oxygen starvation, the breed survives better. This explains the reason for the survival of the breed in arid and semi-arid zone. Gender has no effect on the MCV and the values of 83.22±1.67x106/mm3, 76.72±2.30x106/mm3 and 73.34±3.40x106/mm3 were observed for the SG, RSG, and WADG, respectively.

  9. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.

    2008-01-01

    The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...... into the crop can be helped by diversification within the crop, allowing complementation and compensation among plants. Although the problems of breeding cereals for organic farming systems are large, there is encouraging progress. This lies in applications of ecology to organic crop production, innovations...

  10. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  11. Under-forest Breeding Pattern and the Practice Form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zhong-ming

    2012-01-01

    Through the development in recent years, China’s under-forest breeding pattern can be divided into four kinds of practice form of under-forest breeding pattern (the pattern of breeding driven by leading enterprises; the pattern of breeding driven by intermediary economic organizations; the pattern of breeding driven by the professional wholesale market; the pattern of breeding driven by the modern animal husbandry demonstration areas), according to difference in the main body participating in signing the operation contract in breeding pattern. In the production practice of under-forest breeding pattern, the most widely used and successful pattern is the pattern of breeding driven by leading enterprises and its derivative forms.

  12. MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN DISEASE RESISTANCE BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimhulu Ragimekula

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feeding ever-increasing population is the main challenge faced by the agricultural scientists and to meet this plant breeders have to put continuous efforts to develop new crop varieties on fast track basis. DNA based polymorphism, commonly known as DNA markers can be used for genetic improvement through selection for favourable traits such as disease resistance. Molecular markers are becoming an essential component in backcross breeding programs for tracking the resistance genes in gene pyramiding. Marker assisted selection (MAS, is expected to increase genetic response by affecting efficiency and accuracy of selection. Even though marker-assisted selection now plays a prominent role in the field of plant breeding, examples of successful, practical outcomes are rare. MAS, with few exceptions, has not yet delivered its expected benefits in commercial breeding. It is clear that DNA markers hold great promise, but realizing that promise remains elusive. The economic and biological constraints such as a low return of investment in small-grain cereal breeding, lack of diagnostic markers, and the prevalence of QTL-background effects hinder the broad implementation of MAS. Until complex traits can be fully dissected, the application of MAS will be limited to genes of moderate-to-large effect and to applications that do not endanger the response to conventional selection. Till then, observable phenotype will remain an important component of genetic improvement programmes, because it takes in to account the collective effect of all genes. In future, chip-based, high-throughput genotyping platforms and the introduction of genomic selection will reduce the current problems of integrating MAS in practical breeding programs and open new avenues for a molecular-based resistance breeding.

  13. Estimating superpopulation size and annual probability of breeding for pond-breeding salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkead, K.E.; Otis, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    It has long been accepted that amphibians can skip breeding in any given year, and environmental conditions act as a cue for breeding. In this paper, we quantify temporary emigration or nonbreeding probability for mole and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum and A. maculatum). We estimated that 70% of mole salamanders may skip breeding during an average rainfall year and 90% may skip during a drought year. Spotted salamanders may be more likely to breed, with only 17% avoiding the breeding pond during an average rainfall year. We illustrate how superpopulations can be estimated using temporary emigration probability estimates. The superpopulation is the total number of salamanders associated with a given breeding pond. Although most salamanders stay within a certain distance of a breeding pond for the majority of their life spans, it is difficult to determine true overall population sizes for a given site if animals are only captured during a brief time frame each year with some animals unavailable for capture at any time during a given year. ?? 2007 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  14. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  15. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  16. Breed differences in calving interval in the humid Mexican tropic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Medina, Aída Lorena; Córdova-Izquierdo, Alejandro; Soriano Robles, Ramón; Mendoza Martínez, Germán David; Castillo-Juárez, Héctor

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of breed, breed and sex of the calf, farm, calving number (CN), type of calving, and their interactions on CI using records from four different beef breeds performing in the humid tropical environment of Mexico. The influence of these factors on CN was also evaluated. CI and CN varied with farm, breed of the dam, and with breed of the dam by calf breed interaction (PAngus cows, although with an apparent unexpected negative impact on CN.

  17. Analysis of the performance test results of young pure breed boars from the Bydgoszcz breeding region in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna MICHALSKA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented paper was analysis of the performance test results of young pure breed boars coming from The Bydgoszcz Breeding Region (located in Poland in Kujawy-Pomorze Province. The research covered the results concerning 4190 young boars of following breeds: Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Hampshire, Duroc and Pietrain. Young pure breed boars were performance tested in 2009 and 2010 in The Bydgoszcz Breeding Region according to the actual methodology. Among young pure breed boars performance tested in The Bydgoszcz Breeding Region in tested years animals of Hampshire breed had the higher growth rate. The pigs of Pietrain breed had the highest meat content. Regarding to the most important parameter of performance test, i.e. selection index in analyzed years 2009 and 2010 the best results had young boars of Hampshire then Pietrain, Duroc, PLW and PL.

  18. Development and application of biological technologies in fish genetic breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kang; Duan, Wei; Xiao, Jun; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun

    2015-02-01

    Fish genetic breeding is a process that remolds heritable traits to obtain neotype and improved varieties. For the purpose of genetic improvement, researchers can select for desirable genetic traits, integrate a suite of traits from different donors, or alter the innate genetic traits of a species. These improved varieties have, in many cases, facilitated the development of the aquaculture industry by lowering costs and increasing both quality and yield. In this review, we present the pertinent literatures and summarize the biological bases and application of selection breeding technologies (containing traditional selective breeding, molecular marker-assisted breeding, genome-wide selective breeding and breeding by controlling single-sex groups), integration breeding technologies (containing cross breeding, nuclear transplantation, germline stem cells and germ cells transplantation, artificial gynogenesis, artificial androgenesis and polyploid breeding) and modification breeding technologies (represented by transgenic breeding) in fish genetic breeding. Additionally, we discuss the progress our laboratory has made in the field of chromosomal ploidy breeding of fish, including distant hybridization, gynogenesis, and androgenesis. Finally, we systematically summarize the research status and known problems associated with each technology.

  19. Rapid cyling plant breeding in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...

  20. Breeding and Cytogenetics in the Genus Tulipa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasek Ciolakowska, A.R.; Ramanna, M.S.; Arens, P.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Tulip (Tulipa) is one of the most important ornamental bulbous plants, which has been cultivated for cut flower, potted plant, garden plant and for landscaping. Species from the different sections display complementary agronomic characteristics and breeding techniques are used to combine desired fea

  1. Breeding for trypanotolerance in African cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, van der E.H.

    2001-01-01

    Trypanosomosis, or sleeping sickness, is one of the most important livestock diseases in Africa. Some West African cattle breeds show a degree of resistance to a trypanosome infection: they are trypanotolerant. At the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in Nairobi, Kenya, an F2 experim

  2. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eissen, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows, respectively

  3. Breed differences in behavioural development in kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchei, P; Diverio, S; Falocci, N; Fatjó, J; Ruiz-de-la-Torre, J L; Manteca, X

    2009-03-23

    Differences in behaviour of pure breed cats have been suggested but not wholly investigated. Oriental/Siamese/Abyssinian (OSA) kittens (n=43) were weekly compared with Norwegian Forest (NFO) kittens (n=39) from the 4th to the 10th week of age in a repeated Open Field Test (OFT) paradigm. Heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (RT) before and after the test, and behavioural responses during the OFT were recorded. Behaviours registered were analysed by focal animal sampling. Significant breed differences were found; cats of the northern zones (NFO) seem to develop earlier thermoregulatory abilities. Precocious opening of eyes, higher locomotion scores and longer time spent standing, observed in OSA kittens may indicate an earlier neurological development. Inter breed differences recorded for exploration and locomotion seem to indicate coping style divergences: in the OFT challenging situation OSA kittens presented higher emotional tachycardia and performed more passively, with a faster decline in exploration and locomotion scores. NFO kittens exerted a more active behaviour as they spent more time exploring the arena and in escape attempts. Notwithstanding OSA and NFO cat selection was mainly aimed to improve divergent morphological traits, some different behavioural and physiological traits seem to have been maintained or co-selected within each breed.

  4. San Diego Zoo:Success in Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Giant pandas have become very popular in U.S.zoos. One in particular, the San Diego Zoo, has been extremely successful at making the pandas feel at home and getting them to breed. In 1999, it became home tothe first surviving panda cub born in the United States.

  5. Evaluation of charge breeding options for EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, P; Lamy, T; Marie-Jeanne, M; Kester, O; Wenander, F

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive study of charge breeding techniques for the most ambitious ISOL-facility project, EURISOL, is presented here. It is based on results obtained during the past years at CERN-ISOLDE and LPSC Grenoble with charge breeders of both ECR and EBIS types.

  6. Marketing potential of advanced breeding clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  7. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTIONThe investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm man

  8. Applied Genetics and Genomics in Alfalfa Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Charles Brummer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., a perennial and outcrossing species, is a widely planted forage legume for hay, pasture and silage throughout the world. Currently, alfalfa breeding relies on recurrent phenotypic selection, but alternatives incorporating molecular marker assisted breeding could enhance genetic gain per unit time and per unit cost, and accelerate alfalfa improvement. Many major quantitative trait loci (QTL related to agronomic traits have been identified by family-based QTL mapping, but in relatively large genomic regions. Candidate genes elucidated from model species have helped to identify some potential causal loci in alfalfa mapping and breeding population for specific traits. Recently, high throughput sequencing technologies, coupled with advanced bioinformatics tools, have been used to identify large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in alfalfa, which are being developed into markers. These markers will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative traits and genome wide association mapping of agronomic traits and further advanced breeding strategies for alfalfa, such as marker-assisted selection and genomic selection. Based on ideas from the literature, we suggest several ways to improve selection in alfalfa including (1 diversity selection and paternity testing, (2 introgression of QTL and (3 genomic selection.

  9. Plant Breeding by Using Radiation Mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Geung Joo (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomic researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasm, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomic and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits.

  10. Seabird metapopulations: searching for alternative breeding habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Snep, R.P.H.; Schotman, A.G.M.; Jochem, R.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Slim, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Today, many seabird species nest in port areas, which are also necessary for human economic activity. In this paper, we evaluate, using a metapopulation model, the possibilities for creating alternative breeding sites for the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) in the Rhine¿Meuse¿Scheldt estuary. We explor

  11. MODELING REGIONAL SYSTEMS OF BREEDING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svinarev I. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the experience of the development of the methodology and the computer program for calculation of regional and local systems of pigs hybridization at the example of the Rostov region (Russia. Crossing the GP lines for F1 should be organized in multiplier farm, which may be separate farms and to be part of large commercial farms. For the production of F1 in a multiplier farm, we must breed a purebred specialized paternal and a maternal line, selected on the effect of combining ability. For the successful functioning of the system of hybridization, it is necessary to build a genetic pyramid, including breeding and genetic centers (nucleus farm, multiplier farm, reproducing the baseline. The article gives a detailed calculation of sow population of levels of P, GP, GGP for maternal and paternal breeds of pigs. The program uses user-defined parameters of pigs productivity, of the simulated population, and the parameters characterizing the intensity of selection of young animals. To ensure annual production of 1,822 million pigs in the Rostov region it is necessary to provide the availability of brood stock in the amount of 89 thousand heads, 6 800 heads in the structure of grandparent flocks (GP, 730 heads in the structure of the Grand-Grand-parent stock (GGP, excluding sows second maternal and paternal breeds

  12. Breeding for longevity in Italian Chianina cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forabosco, F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to evaluate genetic aspects of longevity (LPL) in the Chianina beef cattle population in order to define how to include this trait in selection criteria. The Chianina breed has been raised for over twenty-two centuries inItaly

  13. Pericardial effusion in a mixed breed dog.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    A 7-year-old, spayed female mixed breed dog was evaluated for labored breathing, lethargy, and a distended abdomen. Pericardial effusion was diagnosed after radiographic and echocardiographic interpretation. Treatment consisted of thoracocentesis and a single pericardiocentesis. Follow-up examinations indicate that the dog's condition has remained stable.

  14. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.

    2011-01-01

      The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male reproduction. The study was performed using existing databases

  15. Artificial Breeding Techniques of Whitmania pigra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Nan; Xu; Ziliang

    2014-01-01

    The artificial breeding technology for juvenile of Whitmania pigra was introduced in the paper,including selection of sites and water quality,construction of spawning pool,hatching pool and escape proof facilities,key technology of leech selection,feeding,cocoon hatching,juvenile feeding and management.

  16. Kangaroo mother method: randomised controlled trial of an alternative method of care for stabilised low-birthweight infants. Maternidad Isidro Ayora Study Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, N L; Camacho, L W; Rojas, E P; Stern, C

    1994-09-17

    Because resources for care of low-birthweight (LBW) infants in developing countries are scarce, the Kangaroo mother method (KMM) was developed. The infant is kept upright in skin-to-skin contact with the mother's breast. Previous studies reported several benefits with the KMM but interpretation of their findings is limited by small size and design weaknesses. We have done a longitudinal, randomised, controlled trial at the Isidro Ayora Maternity Hospital in Quito, Ecuador. Infants with LBW (< 2000 g) who satisfied out-of-risk criteria of tolerance of food and weight stabilisation were randomly assigned to KMM and control (standard incubator care) groups (n = 128 and 147, respectively). During 6 months of follow-up the KMM group had a significantly lower rate than the control group of serious illness (lower-respiratory-tract disorders, apnoea, aspiration, pneumonia, septicaemia, general infections; 7 [5%] vs 27 [18%], p < 0.002), although differences between the groups in less severe morbidity were not significant. There was no significant difference in growth or in the proportion of women breastfeeding, perhaps because the proportion breastfeeding was high in both groups owing to strong promotion. Mortality was the same in both groups; most deaths occurred during the stabilisation period before randomisation. KMM mothers made more unscheduled clinic visits than control mothers but their infants had fewer re-admissions and so the cost of care was lower with the KMM. Since the eligibility criteria excluded nearly 50% of LBW infants from the study, the KMM is not universally applicable to these infants. The benefits might be greater in populations where breastfeeding is not so common.

  17. Trial gain of weight and hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm infant in assistance for kangaroo mother care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida Giacomini Rodrigues

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC interferes in the gain of weight and in the hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm newborn (LWBPTN. For this, it was realized an analytic retrospective study, through the evaluation of the medical records of 60 LWBPTN with born weight less than 2000 g that received assistance by KMC, for a period of 2 hours per day and, 60 LWBPTN that received assistance by the Traditional Method of Care (TMC, admitted in the unity of neonatal intensive care and unity of premature of a private maternity in the city of Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil, comparing the gain of weight and the hospital length stay. We did not find differences statistically significant in relation to the gain of weight of the LWBPTN assisted by KMC, in relation to LWBPTN assisted by the TMC, 15,8 and 14,9 g/per day, respectively. In relation to the time of admission, we also did not find differences statistically significant, 27,3 and 26,2 days, for the LWBPTN in the KMC and TMC, respectively, although in the stratification of the sample, the LBWPTN with pregnancy age < 30 weeks or birth weight < 1500 g left the hospital 3 days earlier in the KMC. It was concluded that the KMC, in the conditions of this study, it seems not to interfere significatively in the gain of weight and in the time of admission of LWBPTN. We emphasize that the utilization of KMC in the assistance to the LWBPTN of low weight is a viable model, even for the private health institution.

  18. The role of water in animal breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Serrantoni

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of water in animal breeding must be extended to a wider context than the animal production area, considering that 70% of the water used in the world is consumed by the whole production chain (agriculture and animal production. Therefore has a great importance the connection with other fields of the chain, as the fodder-growing and the cereal-growing, together with the evaluation and quantification of the environmental impacts. Water, that plays an essential role in the breeding, assumes different importance in relation to the animal class (birds, fish and mammals and to the animal species. Therefore are extremely different the water requirements and the water consumptions, that are moreover strongly influenced by many factors, such as the dry matter, the climatic breeding conditions, together with the individual animal features. All that represents the starting point to determine the strategies and the ways of the water giving in animal breeding, related to the technological, project and management aspects. Besides the quantitative aspects, water must be considered as food, because it is necessary to animal survival. The importance of the quality of water used in animal breeding and its nutritional role is closely related to the qualitative characteristics and to the presence of residual and polluting substances. The animal production chain, moreover, can produce environmental impacts on the aquatic ecosystems and therefore a particular attention goes to end uses of water as output of the whole animal production chain and to the quantification of the impacts, that is extremely complicate and difficult, depending on many variables. The considerations related to animal production chain assume a different value in the productive context of the management of the water resources in the third countries.

  19. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  20. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C;

    was shared across breed. Second, sequence data was used to quantify the loss in prediction reliabilities that results from using genomic markers rather than the causal variants. 50, 100 or 250 causative mutations were simulated and different sets of prediction markers were used to predict genomic...... relationships at causative mutations. Prediction of genomic relationships at causative mutations was most accurate when predicted by a selective number of markers within 1 Kb of the causative mutations. Whole-genome sequence data can help to get closer to the causative mutations and therefore improve genomic......Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed...

  1. BREED PREFERENCES AND EFFECTIVENESS OF BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH URAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mashenkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of beekeeping is defined by breed of bees and melliferous herbs. In the conditions of sharply continental climate of South Ural, duration of success of beekeeping is provided with breed of bees.

  2. New trends in plant breeding - example of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Jegor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean breeding and selection is a continual process designed to increase yield levels and improve resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Soybean breeders have been successful in producing a large number of varieties using conventional breeding methods, the Single Seed Descent method in particular. In recent decades, with the increased use of genetic transformations, backcrossing is more frequent though the only trait that has been commercialized is glyphosate tolerance. Physiological breeding poses a particular challenge, as well as phenotyping and development of useful criteria and techniques suitable for plant breeding. Using modern remote sensing techniques provides great opportunity for collecting a large amount of physiological data in real environment, which is necessary for physiological breeding. Molecular based plant breeding methods and techniques are a conceptual part of any serious breeding program. Among those methods, the most extensively used is marker-assisted selection, as a supplement to conventional breeding methods. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31022

  3. Four Square Mile Survey breeding population report for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Production report of Four Square Mile Survey breeding population estimates for 13 species of ducks. Data includes summaries of breeding population estimates...

  4. Breeding objectives, selection criteria and breeding system of indigenous goat types in bale zone, oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belete Asefa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken in bale zone to assess farmer’s selective breeding objectives, trait preferences, selection criteria and breeding system October 2012 to November 2013. A purposive and multistage sampling technique was applied for selection of 3 district and 9 kebeles. Then 360 households were selected by using simple random sampling techniques after the list of pastoralist having goats was identified. Statistical analysis system version 9.1 was used for analysis of data. Indices, effective population size and rate of inbreeding were calculated on average each respondent holds about 14 goats. Milk production is the main reason of goat keeping in the study area. Appearance is the first rank as selection criteria for male and female in all studies area. About 47.8% of the respondents have their own buck. The main use of breeding buck in the study area was for mating purpose (76.2%. Mean estimate of effective population size and mean rate of inbreeding was 2.43 and 0.21, respectively when a household flock is herded alone and under random mating. Therefore, any breed improvement strategies that are intended to be implemented in the study area and else- where should consider the traditional breeding practices and breeding objectives of the community.

  5. Breeding biology and nestling development of the Grasshopper Buzzard

    OpenAIRE

    Buij, R.; Kortekaas, K.; Folkertsma, I.; Van Der Velde, M.; Komdeur, J.; H. H. de Iongh; A. Monadjem

    2012-01-01

    Research into the effect of environmental variables on reproductive success of tropical raptors is often constrained by the lack of information on breeding biology. We provide the first detailed information of the breeding biology and nestling development of the Grasshopper Buzzard Butastur rufipennis, an Afrotropical migratory raptor threatened by extensive land transformation in its breeding range. Breeding coincided with the transition from the dry to the wet season. The mean incubation pe...

  6. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  7. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe.

  8. Genomic prediction across dairy cattle populations and breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lei

    Genomic prediction is successful in single breed genetic evaluation. However, there is no achievement in acoress breed prediction until now. This thesis investigated genomic prediction across populations and breeds using Chinese Holsterin, Nordic Holstein, Norwgian Red, and Nordic Red. Nordic Red...

  9. The Evolution and Ecology of Cooperative Breeding in Vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Eikenaar, Cas; Brouwer, Lyanne; Richardson, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative breeding – in which some adults forgo independent breeding and remain as subordinates within a group helping to raise the offspring of others – occurs in between 3% and 10% of vertebrates. The structure of such systems varies greatly, from pairs with helpers-at-the-nest to communal breed

  10. The use of clones in dairy cattle breeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to determine a breeding scheme that optimally uses large scale production of genetically identical individuals (clones) in dairy cattle. Such a breeding scheme should optimize the continuous genetic improvement of the breeding population (genetic response), and the selecti

  11. Efeitos do Método Mãe Canguru nos sinais vitais de recém-nascidos pré-termo de baixo peso Effects of Kangaroo Mother Care on the vital signs of low-weight preterm newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Almeida

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, a pressão arterial média, a temperatura e a saturação periférica de oxigênio dos recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT de baixo peso, antes e após a aplicação do MMC. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 22 RNPT de baixo peso, saudáveis, de ambos os sexos, não portadores de deficiências neurológicas, cardíacas e/ou respiratórias. A avaliação foi realizada após trinta minutos de permanência do RNPT em berço comum e após trinta minutos de aplicação do MMC, por 3 dias consecutivos. Para a avaliação, foram utilizados monitor cardíaco com dispositivo para medida da pressão arterial média de forma não invasiva e sensor para a oximetria de pulso, termômetro e cronômetro. RESULTADOS: Os resultados não mostraram alterações significativas quanto à pressão arterial média (p> 0,05 e freqüência cardíaca (p> 0,05 após a aplicação do MMC, mas, por outro lado, houve aumento significativo da temperatura axilar (pOBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the heart and respiration rates, mean arterial pressure, temperature and peripheral oxygen saturation of low-weight preterm newborns, before and after the application of kangaroo mother care. METHOD: Twenty-two healthy low-weight preterm newborns of both sexes were studied. None of them had neurological, cardiac and/or respiratory deficiencies. Assessments were made after the newborn had been left in an ordinary cot for 30 minutes and after 30 minutes of kangaroo mother care, on three consecutive days. For these evaluations, a heart monitor with a device for non-invasively measuring mean arterial pressure, a sensor for pulse oximetry, a thermometer and a chronometer were utilized. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in mean arterial pressure (p> 0.05 or heart rate (p> 0.05 after applying kangaroo mother care. However, there were significant increases in axillary temperature (p< 0.05 and peripheral oxygen

  12. The Birth of Philosophy and the Contempt for Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The history of philosophy of food is an unhappy one. It seems that only by denying the relevance of food for a happy life, philosophy could establish itself as a serious branch of knowledge: this is what I call the philosopher's incoherence. First with the Greeks, philosophy want to get rid of the b

  13. The Enforcement of Child Custody Orders by Contempt Remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. Mahoney

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Millions of divorced couples are regulated in their conduct as parents by the terms of parenting plans or custody and visitation orders established by the divorce courts. These judicial orders restrict certain parental choices, such as the amount of time that each parent will spend with the children and the manner in which important child-related decisions will be made. Prior to divorce, these same families were free of such detailed regulation by the state. In the eyes of the law, the post-divorce regulation of parenting activity serves the important purpose of protecting, in an orderly fashion, established relationships between children and both of their parents in light of the changed family circumstances that result from divorce.

  14. Genetics and breeding of brewers yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson-Tillgren, T.; Gjermansen, C.; Petersen, J.G.L.; Holmberg, S.; Kielland-Brandt, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Yeasts, used for beer production, can be divided into two groups, top fermenters and bottom fermenters and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis has been chosen as the name for the bottom fermenting yeasts which are used in lager beer production. The key for the analysis of the chromosomes of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis was provided by the discovery that single chromosomes of meiotic segregants of these strains can be transferred to genetically marked Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and subsequently analyzed by tetrad analysis and molecular hybridization. It is proposed that Saccharomyces carlsbergensis is composed of two rather divergent genotypes. Breeding can be accomplished by cross breeding and mutagenesis and possibly by introducing in vitro modified cloned genes into meiotic segregants of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis.

  15. Vertebral heart scores in eight dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen-Grant, K; Pollard, R E; Johnson, L R

    2013-01-01

    The vertebral heart score (VHS) measurement is commonly used to provide a more objective measurement of cardiomegaly in canines. However, several studies have shown significant breed variations from the value previously established by Buchanan and Bücheler (9.7 ± 0.5). This study describes VHS measurements in Pug, Pomeranian, Yorkshire Terrier, Dachshund, Bulldog, Shih Tzu, Lhasa Apso, and Boston Terrier dog breeds. Dogs with two or three view thoracic radiographs, no subjective radiographic evidence of cardiomegaly, and no physical examination findings of heart murmurs or gallop rhythms were included in the study. The Pug, Pomeranian, Bulldog, and Boston Terrier groups were found to have a VHS significantly greater than 9.7 ± 0.5 (P Bulldog (P = 0.028) and Boston Terrier (P = 0.0004) groups. Thoracic depth to width ratio did not have a significant effect on VHS.

  16. ITER breeding blanket module design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Kikuchi, Shigeto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-11-01

    The ITER breeding blanket employs a ceramic breeder and Be neutron multiplier both in small spherical pebble form. Radial-poloidal cooling panels are arranged in the blanket box to remove the nuclear heating in these materials and to reinforce the blanket structure. At the first wall, Be armor is bonded onto the stainless steel (SS) structure to provide a low Z plasma-compatible surface and to protect the first wall/blanket structure from the direct contact with the plasma during off-normal events. Thermo-mechanical analyses and investigation of fabrication procedure have been performed for this breeding blanket. To evaluate thermo-mechanical behavior of the pebble beds including the dependency of the effective thermal conductivity on stress, analysis methods have been preliminary established by the use of special calculation option of ABAQUS code, which are briefly summarized in this report. The structural response of the breeding blanket module under internal pressure of 4 MPa (in case of in-blanket LOCA) resulted in rather high stress in the blanket side (toroidal end) wall, thus addition of a stiffening rib or increase of the wall thickness will be needed. Two-dimensional elasto-plastic analyses have been performed for the Be/SS bonded interface at the first wall taking a fabrication process based on HIP bonding and thermal cycle due to pulsed plasma operation into account. The stress-strain hysteresis during these process and operation was clarified, and a procedure to assess and/or confirm the bonding integrity was also proposed. Fabrication sequence of the breeding blanket module was preliminarily developed based on the procedure to fabricate part by part and to assemble them one by one. (author)

  17. Detection of Breeding Blankets Using Antineutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Bernadette; Huber, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement between the United States and Russia makes arrangements for the disposal of 34 metric tons of excess weapon-grade plutonium. Under this agreement Russia plans to dispose of its excess stocks by processing the plutonium into fuel for fast breeder reactors. To meet the disposition requirements this fuel would be burned while the fast reactors are run as burners, i.e., without a natural uranium blanket that can be used to breed plutonium surrounding the core. This talk discusses the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the verification of the presence or absence of a breeding blanket. It is found that a 36 kg antineutrino detector, exploiting coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and made of silicon, could determine the presence of a breeding blanket at a liquid sodium cooled fast reactor at the 95% confidence level within 90 days. Such a detector would be a novel non-intrusive verification tool and could present a first application of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering to a real-world challenge.

  18. Beef cattle breeding à la Jefferson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenboken, W D

    1982-03-01

    ?Even more than most disciplines in the Animal Sciences, quantitative genetics is dependent upon models. Models, by definition, are abstractions of reality. Invariably they require simplifying assumptions, which should be but sometimes are not clearly specified. One thesis of this article, illustrated by examples, is that many of the assumptions upon which animal breeding theory and practice are based are not valid. Some proportion of research resources should be devoted to challenging or verifying those assumptions and following up those areas of enquiry suggested by the outcome of such research. A further thesis is that the selection of topics and priorities for animal breeding research should be a matter of choice by individual scientists and should not be determined by steering committees or directed by administrative fiat. Hopefully, the resultant mutation, cross-fertilization, assortment, recombination and selection of ideas that would result would bestow upon our discipline higher fitness from multiple-peak epistasis, and minimal danger of extinction (or petrification) from over-specialization. A final thesis is that true creativity by research scientists should be nurtured and rewarded and that work in traditional areas of breeding and quantitative genetics should be continued-but done better.

  19. The development of beef breeding bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelken, T J

    2008-08-01

    Management of the bull battery will have a dramatic impact on profitability of the cow/calf enterprise. It is critical that young bulls be selected and developed to maximize longevity and productivity for the eventual buyer. Bulls must be structurally sound, healthy, and have adequate libido in order to service the required number of females. Once bulls complete their first breeding season, special care must be taken in order to ensure that they recover and regain needed body condition and pass a bull breeding soundness examination (BBSE). Mature bulls that have reached their genetic potential for growth require less intensive management, but the health program and annual BBSE cannot be overlooked. Mature bulls are also more likely to carry venereal disease and should be screened according to local disease incidence and state regulations. All bulls, regardless of age, should be observed early during the breeding season to ensure that they are physically capable of mounting and servicing females. The establishment of a complete management program, especially for young bulls, is essential to ensure that ranch resources are used efficiently, including maintenance of a high level of reproductive performance of the cow herd.

  20. Cytogenetical characterization of bovine breeds Caracu, Junqueira, Pantaneiro and Patua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During the adaptive process to Brazilian conditions, the native cattle breeds acquired physiological and phenotypic characteristics wich differs them from European breeds, from which they derive. The objectives of present study were to compare the sex chromosomes morphologies between four Brazilian native cattle breeds as well as the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities. The karyotype of 332 animals from four breeds were analyzed: Caracu (115 females and 159 males, Junqueira (13 females and 3 males, Pantaneiro (8 males and Patua (21 females and 13 males. The Giemsa coloring were used to read the chromosome. All cattle breeds studied showed the normal chromosome (2n=60 consisting of 58 acrocentric autosomes and two submetacentric X chromosomes in females, and one X and one Y in males. In Caracu breed, selected for dairy or beef, it was developed by animals dimorphism carriers of Y chromosome (acrocentric and submetacentric, and the beef bloodlines showed higher percentage of acrocentric Y chromosome. There was 1% significant difference in Chi-Square test. In two females and two male born from twin birth of Caracu breed it was observed chemerism 60, XX/ 60, XY, and in other female from same breed it was observed 60, XX/ 61 XXY. For other three breeds, no chromosomal abnormality was observed. The Y chromosome morphology of the Pantaneiro and Patua breeds showed dimorphism of Y chromosome (submetacentric an acrocentric. In the Junqueira breed, only submetacentric morphology was observed.

  1. The different breeding strategies of penguins: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, André; Beaulieu, Michaël; Gilbert, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The 18 penguin species are exclusively and widely distributed in the Southern hemisphere, from the Equator to the Antarctic continent, and are thus submitted to various ecological constraints in their reproductive strategy. This results in a high variability in all aspects of the breeding biology of the different species. Although penguins appear primarily adapted for a marine existence, they remain dependent on land for breeding, rearing young, and moulting. Here we describe and compare the breeding cycle of all the penguin species, highlighting the characteristics of each species in terms of breeding range, population status, threats induced by environmental changes, duration of the different phases of the breeding cycle, mate fidelity, body mass, body height, egg mass and duration of egg formation. We also focus on the breeding cycle of the genus Aptenodytes, since it largely differs from the breeding cycle of most of the other penguin species.

  2. Life histories and the evolution of cooperative breeding in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Dieter; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2012-10-07

    While the evolution of cooperative breeding systems (where non-breeding helpers participate in rearing young produced by dominant females) has been restricted to lineages with socially monogamous mating systems where coefficients of relatedness between group members are usually high, not all monogamous lineages have produced species with cooperative breeding systems, suggesting that other factors constrain the evolution of cooperative breeding. Previous studies have suggested that life-history parameters, including longevity, may constrain the evolution of cooperative breeding. Here, we show that transitions to cooperative breeding across the mammalian phylogeny have been restricted to lineages where females produce multiple offspring per birth. We find no support for effects of longevity or of other life-history parameters. We suggest that the evolution of cooperative breeding has been restricted to monogamous lineages where helpers have the potential to increase the reproductive output of breeders.

  3. Status and Prospects of Hybrid Rice Breeding in Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cai-lin

    2005-01-01

    Research on hybrid rice in Jiangsu Province, China began in 1970. Great progress has been made since then, which can be divided into three stages according to the development of hybrid rice breeding and production in Jiangsu Province. The first stage was beginning stage from 1970 to 1980, when progress was mainly made in cytoplasmic male sterile line breeding. The second stage could be described as developing stage, from 1980 to 1995, when indica hybrid rice was rapidly popularized, and japonica hybrid rice became popular later. From 1996, hybrid rice breeding in Jiangsu Province entered the third stage, when both indica and japonica hybrid rice breeding in the three-line system or intersubspecific hybrid rice breeding in the two-line system made a great breakthrough with the successful breeding of the hybrids Teyou 559, 9 You 138 and Liangyoupeijiu. The developing trend of hybrid rice breeding in Jiangsu Province is also discussed.

  4. Spatial scale of local breeding habitat quality and adjustment of breeding decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doligez, Blandine; Berthouly, Anne; Doligez, Damien; Tanner, Marion; Saladin, Verena; Bonfils, Danielle; Richner, Heinz

    2008-05-01

    Experimental studies provide evidence that, in spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments, individuals track variation in breeding habitat quality to adjust breeding decisions to local conditions. However, most experiments consider environmental variation at one spatial scale only, while the ability to detect the influence of a factor depends on the scale of analysis. We show that different breeding decisions by adults are based on information about habitat quality at different spatial scales. We manipulated (increased or decreased) local breeding habitat quality through food availability and parasite prevalence at a small (territory) and a large (patch) scale simultaneously in a wild population of Great Tits (Parus major). Females laid earlier in high-quality large-scale patches, but laying date did not depend on small-scale territory quality. Conversely, offspring sex ratio was higher (i.e., biased toward males) in high-quality, small-scale territories but did not depend on large-scale patch quality. Clutch size and territory occupancy probability did not depend on our experimental manipulation of habitat quality, but territories located at the edge of patches were more likely to be occupied than central territories. These results suggest that integrating different decisions taken by breeders according to environmental variation at different spatial scales is required to understand patterns of breeding strategy adjustment.

  5. Effects on milk production in F1 crossbred of Alpine goat breed (♂ and Albanian goat breed (♀

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Hajno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available About 950,000 goats, farmed mostly in hilly and mountainous areas of Albania, contribute about 8% of the country’s total milk production. In order to increase milk production, farmers are currently using crosses of the local goat breed with exotic breeds, mainly the Alpine breed from France. This study examines milk production data of first lactation from 45 goats of the local breed, 82 goats of the Alpine breed and 58 F1 crosses (♂Alpine breed x ♀local breed. The goats were kept on small-scale farms according to the traditional Albanian system. Milking was carried out in the morning and evening. Kids were weaned at 65 days of age after which milking started. Milk yield was recorded twice with a 15-day interval between the two readings. Total milk yield was calculated using the Fleischmann method. The F1 goats produced 37.8 kg more milk than local breed goats although the lactation length (P<0.05 of F1 goats was six days shorter compared to that of local breed goats (P<0.05. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 of the genotype factor on milk production. The average Cappio-Borlino curves of three genotypes indicated that the lactation curves of local breed and F1 crosses were similar. Although the F1 cross goats had 50% of their genomes from a genetically improved breed they were still able to deal with the difficult conditions that characterize the traditional extensive farming systems in Albania. Breeding pure Alpine breed or its crosses with the local goat breed improved milk production in an extensive traditional system.

  6. Breeding blanket design for ITER and prototype (DEMO) fusion reactors and breeding materials issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, H.; Enoeda, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of the designs of the ITER breeding blanket and DEMO blankets is introduced placing emphasis on the breeding materials selection and related issues. The former design is based on the up-to-date design activities, as of October 1997, being performed jointly by Joint Central Team (JCT) and Home Teams (HT`s), while the latter is based on the DEMO blanket test module designs being proposed by each Party at the TBWG (Test Blanket Working Group) meetings. (J.P.N.)

  7. Simulation Modeling in Plant Breeding: Principles and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-kang; Wolfgang H Pfeiffer

    2007-01-01

    Conventional plant breeding largely depends on phenotypic selection and breeder's experience, therefore the breeding efficiency is low and the predictions are inaccurate. Along with the fast development in molecular biology and biotechnology, a large amount of biological data is available for genetic studies of important breeding traits in plants,which in turn allows the conduction of genotypic selection in the breeding process. However, gene information has not been effectively used in crop improvement because of the lack of appropriate tools. The simulation approach can utilize the vast and diverse genetic information, predict the cross performance, and compare different selection methods. Thus,the best performing crosses and effective breeding strategies can be identified. QuLine is a computer tool capable of defining a range, from simple to complex genetic models, and simulating breeding processes for developing final advanced lines. On the basis of the results from simulation experiments, breeders can optimize their breeding methodology and greatly improve the breeding efficiency. In this article, the underlying principles of simulation modeling in crop enhancement is initially introduced, following which several applications of QuLine are summarized, by comparing the different selection strategies, the precision parental selection, using known gene information, and the design approach in breeding. Breeding simulation allows the definition of complicated genetic models consisting of multiple alleles, pleiotropy, epistasis, and genes, by environment interaction, and provides a useful tool for breeders, to efficiently use the wide spectrum of genetic data and information available.

  8. Fitness consequences of timing of migration and breeding in cormorants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gienapp

    Full Text Available In most bird species timing of breeding affects reproductive success whereby early breeding is favoured. In migratory species migration time, especially arrival at the breeding grounds, and breeding time are expected to be correlated. Consequently, migration time should also have fitness consequences. However, in contrast to breeding time, evidence for fitness consequences of migration time is much more limited. Climate change has been shown to negatively affect the synchrony between trophic levels thereby leading to directional selection on timing but again direct evidence in avian migration time is scarce. We here analysed fitness consequences of migration and breeding time in great cormorants and tested whether climate change has led to increased selection on timing using a long-term data set from a breeding colony on the island of Vorsø (Denmark. Reproductive success, measured as number of fledglings, correlated with breeding time and arrival time at the colony and declined during the season. This seasonal decline became steeper during the study period for both migration and breeding time and was positively correlated to winter/spring climate, i.e. selection was stronger after warmer winters/springs. However, the increasing selection pressure on timing seems to be unrelated to climate change as the climatic variables that were related to selection strength did not increase during the study period. There is indirect evidence that phenology or abundances of preferred prey species have changed which could have altered selection on timing of migration and breeding.

  9. Breeding implications resulting from classification of patellae luxation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grevenhof, E M; Hazewinkel, H A W; Heuven, H C M

    2016-08-01

    Patellar luxation (PL) is one of the major hereditary orthopaedic abnormalities observed in a variety of dog breeds. When the patellae move sideways out of the trochlear groove, this is called PL. The PL score varies between dogs from normal to very severe. Reducing the prevalence of PL by breeding could prevent surgery, thereby improve welfare. Orthopaedic specialists differentiate between normal and loose patellae, where the patellae can be moved to the edge of the trochlear groove, considering scoring loose patellae as normal in the future. Loose patellae are considered acceptable for breeding so far by the breeding organization. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic background of PL to decide on the importance of loose patellae when breeding for healthy dogs. Data are available from two dog breeds, that is Flat-coated Retrievers (n = 3808) and Kooiker dogs (n = 794), with a total of 4602 dogs. Results show that loose patellae indicate that dogs are genetically more susceptible to develop PL because family members of the dogs with loose patellae showed more severe PL. In addition, the estimated breeding values for dogs with loose patellae indicate that breeding values of dogs with loose patellae were worse than breeding values obtained for dogs with a normal score. Given these results, it is advised to orthopaedic specialists to continue to score loose patellae as a separate class and to dog breeders to minimize the use of dogs in breeding with a genetically higher susceptibility for PL.

  10. Research on dynamics coupling for underactuated bionic kangaroo-hopping robot%欠驱动仿袋鼠跳跃机器人动力学耦合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朋威; 葛文杰; 李岩

    2012-01-01

    根据袋鼠的生物结构及运动特点,建立了具有欠驱动关节的仿袋鼠跳跃机器人模型.以此模型为基础,分析系统的主动关节与被动关节之间的加速度耦合效应.采用拉格朗日方方法建立了机构的动力学方程.结合实例,运用Matlab软件对机器人进行仿真分析,给出了机器人全局单关节耦合变化规律.结果表明:仿袋鼠跳跃机器人的踝关节与欠驱动关节间存在足够大的耦合并且通过动力学耦合来控制欠驱动关节的位置是可能的.动力学耦合指标对欠驱动机器人的结构设计和驱动装置位置有重要作用.%According to the biological structure and kinematic characteristics of kangaroo, we establish a model for uniped hopping mechanism of bionic kangaroo with underactuated joint.Based on this model,the dynamic coupling effects of the acceleration coupling between active joints and passive ones are an-alyzed,and dynamics equations are established with adopting lagrange method.Wuh practical example and using Matlab simulation analysis for the robot is made so that the changing rule of the global individual joint coupling are obtained.The result indicates that a large coupling between the ankle joint and underactuated joint of the hopping kangaroo robot is available, thus it is possible to control the position of the under-actuated joint via the dynamics coupling, which index plays an important role in structure design and actuator placement of underactuated robots system.

  11. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus syriacuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hee Sub; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has ahch a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Thirth two domestic varieties were propagated. Radiosensitivity of H. syriacus irradiated with gamma ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45 percent in 5 kR irradiated group compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5 kR could be rrecommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang Wolsan 176, I1pyondansim and Emille. 6 tabs., 2 figs., 13 refs., 4 ills. (Author).

  12. Breeding Potential in Danish Apple Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne

    , including several rare alleles. Using historical gene bank records, including aroma volatile analysis, sugar and acid data and other fruit- and tree character records, we established genotype-phenotype relationships, performing a genome-wide association study. A number of SNP markers are presented that can...... be used directly for marker-assisted selection. In addition, we suggest a number of candidate genes involved in the control of several important fruit quality traits. Future studies and breeding attempts can therefore benefit from the results, including genetic fingerprints and pedigree reconstruction...

  13. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan’s history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Nijisseiki’ around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars ‘Niitaka’ and ‘Shinko’ were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systemati...

  14. Milk yield of some Croatian sheep breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kristijan Pandek; Boro Mioč; Zdravko Barać; Vesna Pavić; Neven Antunac; Zvonimir Prpić

    2005-01-01

    Among the most important breeds of sheep, used for the milk production in Croatia, are the sheep from Pag, Brač, Cres, Istrian and Travnik΄s sheep, different crossbreeds and, recently, East Friesian sheep. The aim of the research was to determine the genotype effect on lactation period, milk yield and protein and fat content, which are important in cheese making. The longest lactation period (213 days) had East Friesian sheep, while the highest total milk production (294 kg) and the highest p...

  15. Veal fatty acid composition of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Kos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Veal fatty acid composition in M. Longissimus thoracis was investigated in different calf breeds (Simmental, Holstein, Simmental x Holstein. Calves were reared on the same farm under identical feeding and handling conditions. Simmental calves had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA but lower saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA values than Holstein and crossbreed calves (P<0,05. The PUFA/SFA ratio was the highest in Simmental calves and the lowest in Holstein calves. Simmental calves also had the highest n-6/n-3 ratio while the crossbreed calves had the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio.

  16. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T. [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1995-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  17. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes. II. Breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry. Ruminant breeding is still an open system where farmers continue to choose their own breeds and strategies. Conversely, pig and poultry breeding is more or less the exclusive domain of international breeding companies which supply farmers with hybrid animals. Innovations in breeding strategies must therefore be adapted to the different species. In developed countries, reorienting current breeding programmes seems to be more effective than developing programmes dedicated to agroecological systems that will struggle to be really effective because of the small size of the populations currently concerned by such systems. Particular attention needs to be paid to determining the respective usefulness of cross-breeding v. straight breeding strategies of well-adapted local breeds. While cross-breeding may offer some immediate benefits in terms of improving certain traits that enable the animals to adapt well to local environmental conditions, it may be difficult to sustain these benefits in the longer term and could also induce an important loss of genetic diversity if the initial pure-bred populations are no longer produced. As well as supporting the value of within-breed diversity, we must preserve between-breed diversity in order to maintain numerous options for adaptation to a variety of production environments and contexts. This may involve specific public policies to maintain and characterize local breeds (in terms of both phenotypes and genotypes), which could

  18. Characterization of the genetic profile of five Danish dog breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Loeschcke, Volker

    2013-01-01

    was determined by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and through a Bayesian clustering method. Both the PCA and the Bayesian clustering method revealed a clear genetic separation of the 5 breeds. The level of genetic variation within the breeds varied. The expected heterozygosity (H) as well......This investigation presents results from a genetic characterization of 5 Danish dog breeds genotyped on the CanineHD BeadChip microarray with 170,000 SNP. The breeds investigated were 1) Danish Spitz (DS; n = 8), 2) Danish-Swedish Farm Dog (DSF; n = 18), 3) Broholmer (BR; n = 22), 4) Old Danish...... Pointing Dog (ODP; n = 24), and 5) Greenland Dog (GD; n = 23). The aims of the investigation were to characterize the genetic profile of the abovementioned dog breeds by quantifying the genetic differentiation among them and the degree of genetic homogeneity within breeds. The genetic profile...

  19. Genome-wide genetic changes during modern breeding of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yinping; Zhao, Hainan; Ren, Longhui; Song, Weibin; Zeng, Biao; Guo, Jinjie; Wang, Baobao; Liu, Zhipeng; Chen, Jing; Li, Wei; Zhang, Mei; Xie, Shaojun; Lai, Jinsheng

    2012-06-03

    The success of modern maize breeding has been demonstrated by remarkable increases in productivity over the last four decades. However, the underlying genetic changes correlated with these gains remain largely unknown. We report here the sequencing of 278 temperate maize inbred lines from different stages of breeding history, including deep resequencing of 4 lines with known pedigree information. The results show that modern breeding has introduced highly dynamic genetic changes into the maize genome. Artificial selection has affected thousands of targets, including genes and non-genic regions, leading to a reduction in nucleotide diversity and an increase in the proportion of rare alleles. Genetic changes during breeding happen rapidly, with extensive variation (SNPs, indels and copy-number variants (CNVs)) occurring, even within identity-by-descent regions. Our genome-wide assessment of genetic changes during modern maize breeding provides new strategies as well as practical targets for future crop breeding and biotechnology.

  20. Elephant reproduction: improvement of breeding efficiency and development of a breeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thitaram, C.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of reproduction of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) has become of major concern. Captive breeding programs worldwide have met with limited success and few ex situ elephant populations are self-sustaining. The low birth rate and high mortality cause the captive population to declin

  1. Combining Breeding Bird Survey and distance sampling to estimate density of migrant and breeding birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somershoe, S.G.; Twedt, D.J.; Reid, B.

    2006-01-01

    We combined Breeding Bird Survey point count protocol and distance sampling to survey spring migrant and breeding birds in Vicksburg National Military Park on 33 days between March and June of 2003 and 2004. For 26 of 106 detected species, we used program DISTANCE to estimate detection probabilities and densities from 660 3-min point counts in which detections were recorded within four distance annuli. For most species, estimates of detection probability, and thereby density estimates, were improved through incorporation of the proportion of forest cover at point count locations as a covariate. Our results suggest Breeding Bird Surveys would benefit from the use of distance sampling and a quantitative characterization of habitat at point count locations. During spring migration, we estimated that the most common migrant species accounted for a population of 5000-9000 birds in Vicksburg National Military Park (636 ha). Species with average populations of 300 individuals during migration were: Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum), White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula). Of 56 species that bred in Vicksburg National Military Park, we estimated that the most common 18 species accounted for 8150 individuals. The six most abundant breeding species, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, White-eyed Vireo, Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), accounted for 5800 individuals.

  2. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in large breed dogs: chromosomal and breed variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Understanding extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is a crucial component for successful utilization of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The extent of LD in the dog has been described based upon small marker sets in multiple breeds and studies. Understanding variation in LD on a per...

  3. Genetic Diversity of Some Tomato Cultivars and Breeding Lines Commonly Used in Pakistani Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Azhar Shah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity present in gene pool is an important determination for breeding programs, and characterization is useful of building crop plant collections primarily based on the knowledge of the presence of valuable genes and traits. Developing successful varieties for increasing the future yield and quality of tomato depend mainly on the genetic diversity of parents used in the breeding program. Molecular characterization of 21 tomato genotypes used in in Pakistani breeding program was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. Total 102 bands were amplified among 21 genotypes using 20 RAPD primers. Overall 73.5% polymorphism was shown as 75 out of 102 loci were polymorphic. High degree of divergence between varieties was indicated by low level of monomorphic bands. The number of PCR products per primer varied from 2-8 with an average of 5.1 bands per primer. Primer GL J-20 and GL C-09 produced maximum number of bands whereas the primers GL A-09 produced the lowest. The polymorphism per RAPD primer ranged from 50% to 100% with an average of 73.5%. The accumulative analysis of amplified products generated by RAPD’s was enough to assess the genetic diversity among the genotypes. The information would be helpful for formulating future breeding and genome mapping programs. This study will also work as an indicator for tomato breeders to evolve varieties with genetic diverse back ground to achieve sustainability in tomato production in the country.

  4. Binucleation to breed new plant species adaptable to their environments

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Classical plant breeding approaches may fall short to breed new plant species of high environmental and ecological interests. Biotechnological and genetic manipulations, on the other hand, may hold more effective capabilities to circumvent the limitations of sexual incompatibility and conventional breeding programs. Given that plant cells encompass multiple copies of organellar genomes (mitochondrial and plastidial genomes), an important question could be raised about whether an artificial at...

  5. Characterization of the genetic profile of five Danish dog breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Kristensen, T. N.; Loeschcke, Volker;

    2013-01-01

    This investigation presents results from a genetic characterization of 5 Danish dog breeds genotyped on the CanineHD BeadChip microarray with 170,000 SNP. The breeds investigated were 1) Danish Spitz (DS; n = 8), 2) Danish-Swedish Farm Dog (DSF; n = 18), 3) Broholmer (BR; n = 22), 4) Old Danish P...... strategies for the preservation of the genetic pool of these dog breeds. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved....

  6. Research progress on kangaroo mother care in nursing of preterm infants%袋鼠式护理在早产儿护理中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田莉; 丁晓华; 武玉蓉

    2011-01-01

    With the development of perinatology and neonatology,the survival rate of preterm infants was improved a lot,the preterm infants become one of the important study in nowdays.there have been many studies about nursing of preterm infants,This article summarizes research progress on kangaroo mother care in nursing of preterm infants.%随着围产医学和新生儿医学的迅速发展,早产儿的存活率得到极大提高,早产儿成为当今研究的重要内容之一.有关早产儿护理干预的研究也很多,现就袋鼠式护理在早产儿护理中的研究进展综述如下.

  7. Hybrid reactors: Nuclear breeding or energy production?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piera, Mireia [UNED, ETSII-Dp Ingenieria Energetica, c/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lafuente, Antonio; Abanades, Alberto; Martinez-Val, J.M. [ETSII-UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    After reviewing the long-standing tradition on hybrid research, an assessment model is presented in order to characterize the hybrid performance under different objectives. In hybrids, neutron multiplication in the subcritical blanket plays a major role, not only for energy production and nuclear breeding, but also for tritium breeding, which is fundamental requirement in fusion-fission hybrids. All three objectives are better achieved with high values of the neutron multiplication factor (k-eff) with the obvious and fundamental limitation that it cannot reach criticality under any event, particularly, in the case of a loss of coolant accident. This limitation will be very important in the selection of the coolant. Some general considerations will be proposed, as guidelines for assessing the hybrid potential in a given scenario. Those guidelines point out that hybrids can be of great interest for the future of nuclear energy in a framework of Sustainable Development, because they can contribute to the efficient exploitation of nuclear fuels, with very high safety features. Additionally, a proposal is presented on a blanket specially suited for fusion-fission hybrids, although this reactor concept is still under review, and new work is needed for identifying the most suitable blanket composition, which can vary depending on the main objective of the hybrid. (author)

  8. The Breeding Bird Survey, 1967 and 1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Van Velzen, W.T.

    1969-01-01

    In the Breeding Bird Survey of North America, cooperators ran 982 survey routes in 1967 and 1,174 in 1968. All States except Hawaii and all Canadian Provinces except Newfoundland were included. Roadside routes are selected at random within 1-degree blocks of latitude and longitude. Each 24 1/2-mile route, with 3-minute stops spaced half a mile apart, is driven by automobile. All birds heard or seen at the stops are recorded on special forms, and the data are transferred to magnetic tape for analysis. The average number of birds of each species per route is tabulated by State and Province, presenting for the first time a record of the comparative abundance of each species across the continent. The sample size is given for each species recorded. A sophisticated analysis program, here employed for the first time, is used to compute weighted mean values of the survey results for selected species at the State, stratum, regional, and continental level. The statistical significance of year-to-year changes at the 80, 90, 95, and 99 percent levels of probability are part of the computer output. An index for comparing populations of each species from year to year is established, with 1968 as the base year. Maps show the breeding range and comparative abundance of selected species.

  9. Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding canvasbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzen, J.A.; Serie, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    We compared nutrients in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of breeding Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) to assess the relative importance of endogenous reserves and exogenous foods. Fat reserves of females increased during rapid follicle growth and varied more widely in size during the early phase of this period. Females began laying with ca. 205 g of fat in reserve and lost 1.8 g of carcass fat for every 1 g of fat contained in their ovary and eggs. Females lost body mass (primarily fat) at a declining rate as incubation advanced. Protein reserves increased directly with dry oviduct mass during rapid follicle growth. This direct relationship was highly dependent upon data from 2 birds and likely biased by structural size. During laying, protein reserves did not vary with the combined mass of dry oviduct and dry egg protein. Between laying and incubation, mean protein reserves decreased by an amount equal to the protein found in 2.1 Canvasback eggs. Calcium reserves did not vary with the cumulative total of calcium deposited in eggs. Mean calcium reserve declined by the equivalent content of 1.2 eggs between laying and incubation. We believe that protein and calcium were stored in small amounts during laying, and that they were supplemented continually by exogenous sources. In contrast, fat was stored in large amounts and contributed significantly to egg production and body maintenance. Male Canvasbacks lost fat steadily--but not protein or calcium--as the breeding season progressed.

  10. Tornadic storm avoidance behavior in breeding songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M; Kramer, Gunnar R; Peterson, Sean M; Lehman, Justin A; Buehler, David A; Andersen, David E

    2015-01-05

    Migration is a common behavior used by animals of many taxa to occupy different habitats during different periods. Migrant birds are categorized as either facultative (i.e., those that are forced to migrate by some proximal cue, often weather) or obligate (i.e., those that migrate on a regular cycle). During migration, obligate migrants can curtail or delay flights in response to inclement weather or until favorable winds prevail, and they can temporarily reorient or reverse direction when ecological or meteorological obstacles are encountered. However, it is not known whether obligate migrants undertake facultative migrations and make large-scale movements in response to proximal cues outside of their regular migration periods. Here, we present the first documentation of obligate long-distance migrant birds undertaking a facultative migration, wherein breeding golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) carrying light-level geolocators performed a >1,500 km 5-day circumvention of a severe tornadic storm. The birds evacuated their breeding territories >24 hr before the arrival of the storm and atmospheric variation associated with it. The probable cue, radiating >1,000 km from tornadic storms, perceived by birds and influencing bird behavior and movements, is infrasound (i.e., sound below the range of human hearing). With the predicted increase in severity and frequency of similar storms as anthropogenic climate change progresses, understanding large-scale behavioral responses of animals to such events will be an important objective of future research.

  11. Breeding programs for smallholder sheep farming systems: I. Evaluation of alternative designs of breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; Rischkowsky, B; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Mwai, A O; Dessie, T

    2014-10-01

    Village- and central nucleus-based schemes were simulated and evaluated for their relative bio-economic efficiencies, using Ethiopia's Menz sheep as example. The schemes were: village-based 2-tier (Scheme-1) and 1-tier (Scheme-2) cooperative village breeding schemes, dispersed village-based nuclei scheme (Scheme-3), conventional 2-tier central nucleus-based scheme (Scheme-4), and schemes linking a central nucleus and village multiplier nuclei with selection in central nucleus (Scheme-5) or in both central and village nuclei (Scheme-6). Among village-based schemes, Scheme-1 gave the highest genetic progress, while Scheme-2 was economically the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 5.6 and a profit of Birr 37.2/ewe/year. The central nucleus schemes were more efficient than the village schemes. Scheme-4 was the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 13.5 and a profit of Birr 71.2, but is operationally more difficult as it requires a very large central nucleus. The choice between village and central nucleus-based schemes would depend on local conditions (availability of infrastructure, logistics and technical knowhow and support). Linking central nucleus with village-based nuclei (Scheme-6) would be a feasible option to overcome the operational difficulties of the conventional central nucleus scheme. If a village-based breeding program is envisaged as should be the 1st step in most low-input systems, then Scheme-2 is the most efficient. To scale out to an entire Menz breed level, Scheme-3 would be recommended.

  12. Repeat breeding: Incidence, risk factors and diagnosis in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekher Saraswat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeat breeding in buffaloes was evaluated in terms of incidence, risk factors and diagnosis. The incidence of repeat breeding is low in buffaloes however in different studies the incidence varied from 0.70% to 30%. Because of seasonal suppression of fertility repeat breeding in buffaloes should be limited to the breeding season. Spring and winter calving, first parity, peri-parturient disease and lactation are significant risk factors for repeat breeding in buffaloes. The etiologies of repeat breeding in buffaloes can be failure of fertilization and early embryonic deaths. Only a few of causes of failure of fertilization have been identified in buffaloes. Ovulatory disturbances and ovarian cysts are uncommon in buffaloes and cysts have poor clinical manifestation. Endometritis is the common female cause of fertilization failures in buffaloes whereas poor semen quality and improper insemination are the bull side factors for fertilization failures. Early embryonic deaths are common in buffaloes mated/inseminated during the end of the breeding season due to a low luteal progesterone however embryonic deaths occur late (<25 days in buffaloes. Diagnostic approaches for repeat breeding include vaginoscopic and transrectal examination and uterine cytology for genital health. More precise evaluations of the ovarian and uterine function can be obtained by ultrasonographic and hysteroscopic examinations performed sequentially however, precise diagnosis of the cause of repeat breeding seems difficult.

  13. Development of Circular Economy of Characteristic Breeding Industry in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve characteristic,high-quality,high-efficiency,low-consumption,healthy and intensive breeding,we use the ecology method to analyze the status quo of development of characteristic breeding industry in Guangxi,from advantages in resources,industrial development,characteristic breeding,and standardized construction.There are some problems existing in the development of characteristic breeding industry in Guangxi:prominent contradiction among human,land and grain;outdated breeding mode;low comprehensive utilization rate of resources;increasingly deteriorating ecological environment.We put forth the following recommendations:based on the ecological and economic principles,introducing"reduce,reuse,recycle"idea of circular economy;striving to choose the development pattern of circular economy adapting to local resource characteristics,planting and breeding habits;in terms of realization path,paying close attention to construction of standardized breeding farm,cultivation of organic fertilizer industry,infrastructure construction,environmental law enforcement,and other parts;reinforcing the policy guidance,adjusting and optimizing industrial structure,strengthening scientific and technological innovation,and advancing industrialization management,to promote steady development of circular economy of characteristic breeding industry in Guangxi,and accelerate the process of rejuvenating province by breeding industry,enriching the people and building up Guangxi.

  14. Owner perceived differences between mixed-breed and purebred dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Studies about the behaviours of mixed-breed dogs are rare, although mixed-breeds represent the majority of the world’s dog population. We have conducted two surveys to investigate the behavioural, demographic, and dog keeping differences between purebred and mixed-breed companion dogs. Questionnaire data were collected on a large sample of dogs living in Germany (N = 7,700 purebred dogs representing more than 200 breeds, and N = 7,691 mixed-breeds). We found that according to their owners, mixed-breeds were (1) less calm, (2) less sociable toward other dogs, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p 10%) differences: neutering was more frequent among mixed-breeds, and they were acquired at older ages than purebreds (p < 0.001 for both), which could result in the observed behaviour differences. After controlling for the distribution of the demographic and dog keeping factors, we found that mixed-breeds were (1) more trainable than purebreds, (2) less calm, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p < 0.001 for all). We discuss that these differences at least partly might be due to selective forces. Our results suggest that instead of being the “average” dogs, mixed-breeds represent a special group with characteristic behavioural traits. PMID:28222103

  15. Population viability analysis on domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Bach, Lars; Loeschcke, Volker

    2009-01-01

    management scenarios in which one of the studbooks was closed. According to the Vortex analysis, 2 of the breeds (Knabstrupper and Jutland) will persist for the next 200 yr, whereas the smaller breed (Frederiksborg) could become extinct within 40 yr. The sensitivity analyses indicated that the variables...... (Frederiksborg ) at its present 30% level. Monitoring of the breeds in the future, however, may be exploited to adjust the breeding strategies. We suggest that the large amount of data required by Vortex makes it very useful for analyzing domestic animals because of the comprehensive data material often...

  16. Atenção humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo peso - Método Canguru: a proposta brasileira Humanization in low weight newborn intensive care - Kangaroo Mother Care: the Brazilian propose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Carvalho Lamy

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo contextualiza a experiência brasileira na Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso-Método Canguru, resgatando aspectos ligados à origem do Método Canguru na Colômbia e sua utilização em diferentes países. Para sistematizar a experiência partiu-se da leitura de fontes diversas que incluíram artigos, dissertações, teses e textos oficiais produzidos pelo Ministério da Saúde. A análise do processo de implantação da Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso - Método Canguru pelo Ministério da Saúde nos permitiu mapear uma experiência distinta da encontrada em países que adotaram ou discutem o Método Canguru como estratégia de substituição de tecnologia. Por outro lado, a experiência brasileira também é mais ampla do que aquela encontrada nos países desenvolvidos e se configura como estratégia de qualificação do cuidado neonatal.This work describes the start of Kangaroo Care utilization in Colombia, his spread in other countries and how it is applied in Brazil, contextualizing the Brazilian experience in the Humanized Care of Low Weight Newborn - Kangaroo Care (AHRNPB-MC. Our primary source to systemize the experience was the analysis of documents, including official papers produced by the Brazilian health department. The study provided a reflection on the AHRNPB-MC and his use as tool for improvement the Brazilian neonatal care.

  17. Evaluation of breeding objectives for purebred and crossbred selection schemes for adoption in indigenous chicken breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeno, T O; Kahi, A K; Peters, K J

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic and economic breeding objectives for an indigenous chicken (IC) breeding programme in Kenya. 2. A closed three-tier nucleus breeding programme with three breeding objectives and two selection schemes was simulated. The breeding objectives included IC dual-purpose (ICD) for both eggs and meat, IC layer (ICL) for eggs and IC broiler (ICB) for meat production. 3. Pure line selection scheme (PLS) for development of IC pure breeds and crossbreeding scheme (CBS) for the production of hybrids were considered. Two-and three-way crossbreeding strategies were evaluated under CBS and the impact of nucleus size on genetic gains and profitability of the breeding programme were investigated. 4. Males were the main contributors to genetic gains. The highest genetic gains for egg number (2·71 eggs) and growth traits (1·74 g average daily gain and 57·96 g live weight at 16 weeks) were realised under PLS in ICL and ICB, respectively. 5. The genetic response for age at first egg was desirable in all the breeding objectives, while that for fertility and hatchability were only favourable under ICL and PLS in ICD. Faecal egg count and immune antibody response had low, but positive gains except under PLS where the later was unfavourable. ICB was the most profitable breeding objective, followed by ICD and ICL under all the selection schemes. 6. Although PLS was superior in genetic gains and profitability and recommended in breeding programmes targeting ICL and ICB, a three line CBS should be considered in development of a dual-purpose breed. 7. Increasing the nucleus size beyond 5% of the IC population was not attractive as it resulted in declining profitability of the breeding programme.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA of seven Italian sheep breeds shows faint signatures of domestication and suggests recent breed formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Marco; Valentini, Alessio; Marsan, Paolo Ajmone; Pariset, Lorraine

    2013-10-01

    Italy represented a crucial zone for migration and formation of sheep breeds. However, few data on Italian breeds have been published so far. We analysed seven Italian sheep breeds using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing to gain information on their genetic diversity and history. A 721 bp mtDNA control region fragment was amplified and sequenced in a total of 138 samples belonging to seven breeds and to Italian mohuflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) to investigate genetic diversity and phylogenetic evolution. We retrieved 68 variable sites and 79 haplotypes. The sheep breeds in our study are quite diverse, and phylogenetic analyses resulted in 3.6% of the samples belonging to A, 2.2% to D and 94.2% to B mtDNA haplogroups. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a separation of breeds on both dimensions. The results of this study provide data on Italian breeds, presently scarcely investigated, and contribute to the knowledge of Italian sheep breeds and will be useful to the understanding of population genetics and breed evolution.

  19. Cholistan and Cholistani Breed of Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq, H. A. Samad*, F. Sher1, M. Asim1 and M. Arif Khan2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholistan, once a green and prosperous land with the source of water being the ancient Hakra River, was also the cradle of great Hakra Valley Civilization. It is sprawled at an area of 26,000 Km2, located between the latitudes 27º42´and 29º45´North and longitudes 69º52´and 75º24´East. The bioclimatic system of Cholistan falls under the category of “tropical desert” with very scanty rainfall. Geomorphologically, the soils of Cholistan are a complex blend of river alluvium and Aeolin sands. Based on topography, type of soil and vegetation, this desert is divided into two geomorphic regions: the Lesser Cholistan (the Northern 7,770 Km² region and the Greater Cholistan (the Southern 18,130 Km² region. The primary source of water is rainfall which is utilized through natural depressions or man-made ponds called “Tobas” and “Dahars.” The secondary source is underground water which is brackish and salty and not fit for human/animal consumption. Two livestock production systems prevail under pastoralism in Cholistan viz. transhumanie and nomadic. Despite an uncertain, unpredictable rainfall, low humidity and extremes in temperatures, Cholistan has long been famous for raising different breeds of livestock, contributing a significant share to national milk, meat and wool output. The total livestock population estimated during 2006 was 12,09528, out of which 47% were cattle. Cholistani cattle are considered to be ancestor of the Sahiwal and are a thermo-tolerant, tick-resistant breed. Preliminary data on some productive and reproductive traits of Cholistani cows maintained at Govt. Livestock Station, Jugait Peer, Bahawalpur during the period 2005 to 2009 revealed the avergae values for the productive traits i.e. lactation length, lactation yield, dry period, service period and fat percentage in milk as 165 days, 1235 liters, 155 days, 121 days and 4.8%, respectively. Similarly, the average values for reproductive traits i.e. age at

  20. Optimizing breeding decisions for Finnish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala-Schultz, P J; Gröhn, Y T; Allore, H G

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of reproductive performance on profitability and optimal breeding decisions for Finnish dairy herds. We used a dynamic programming model to optimize dairy cow insemination and replacement decisions. This optimization model maximizes the expected net revenues from a given cow and her replacements over a decision horizon. Input values and prices reflecting the situation in 1998 in Finland were used in the study. Reproductive performance was reflected in the model by overall pregnancy rate, which was a function of heat detection and conception rate. Seasonality was included in conception rate. The base run had a pregnancy rate of 0.49 (both heat detection and conception rate of 0.7). Different scenarios were modeled by changing levels of conception rate, heat detection, and seasonality in fertility. Reproductive performance had a considerable impact on profitability of a herd; good heat detection and conception rates provided an opportunity for management control. When heat detection rate decreased from 0.7 to 0.5, and everything else was held constant, net revenues decreased approximately 2.6%. If the conception rate also decreased to 0.5 (resulting in a pregnancy rate of 0.25), net revenues were approximately 5% lower than with a pregnancy rate of 0.49. With lower fertility, replacement percentage was higher and the financial losses were mainly from higher replacement costs. Under Finnish conditions, it is not optimal to start breeding cows calving in spring and early summer immediately after the voluntary waiting period. Instead, it is preferable to allow the calving interval to lengthen for these cows so that their next calving is in the fall. However, cows calving in the fall should be bred immediately after the voluntary waiting period. Across all scenarios, optimal solutions predicted most calvings should occur in fall and the most profitable time to bring a replacement heifer into a herd was in the fall. It

  1. CAGE BREEDING OF WARM WATER FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Croatia became actively involved in the contemporary trend of breeding fish in floating cages. In addition to various species of marine fishes, breeding was attempted with trout, carp, catfish, cisco and salmon. Of the above freshwater fish species, specific standards were established only for the cage breeding of rainbow trout. Cage breeding of the remaining species remained at the level of occasional attempts, with more of an experimental than a commercial character. The regular attempts to master this technique for cage breeding of warm water freshwater fish species were aimed at achieving the known benefits of such breeding, such as simplicity of implementing technological measures, easier establishment of the breeding system, simpler manipulation, the possibility of denser colonies per unit volume with a high level of production, easier adaptations to market conditions and fewer initial structural investments. Despite the many advantages, the main reasons for the lack of greater implementation of the cage breeding technology for warm water species of freshwater fish include problems in obtaining the appropriate category and quantity of healthy fry, the specificity and applicability of physical and chemical properties of the recipients and human error. In evaluating the advantages and disadvantages, the final decision on the justification of cage breeding for individual warm water freshwater species must be based on both biological and economic factors. Based on the knowledge of cage breeding acquired to date, the rule for virtually all intensive breeding systems is that it is only recommended for those species with high market demand and a high market price. The technology that demands nutrition with highly concentrated feed and other production expenditures is costly, and is therefore not profitable with less expensive fish species. Furthermore, production must be market oriented, i.e. the appropriate market research measures

  2. Is income breeding an appropriate construct for waterfowl?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Adam K.; Anteau, Michael J.; Markl, Nicholas; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding birds use a range of nutrient accumulation and allocation strategies to meet the nutritional demands of clutch formation and incubation. On one end of the spectrum, capital breeders use stored nutrients acquired prior to clutch formation and incubation to sustain metabolism during reproduction, while on the opposite end, income breeders derive nutrients solely from exogenous sources on the breeding grounds. Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors) are an ideal candidate to test for adoption of an income strategy among migratory waterfowl because of their small body size, temperate breeding range, and timing of reproduction relative to pulses in nutrient availability within breeding habitats. We collected migrating and pre-breeding Blue-winged Teal (n = 110) during the warmest spring in over a century in the southern edge of the species’ breeding range, which produced ideal conditions to test for adoption of an income breeding strategy among migratory waterfowl. Regression analyses revealed that females accumulated protein and fat reserves early in follicle development and appeared to mobilize at least some reserves coincident with the onset of clutch formation. Accumulation and subsequent mobilization of nutrient reserves was inconsistent with adherence to an income breeding strategy and suggested breeding Blue-winged Teal used capital (albeit locally acquired) for reproduction. Our results add to existing knowledge on the ubiquity of endogenous nutrient reserve accumulation prior to and during reproduction by waterfowl, perhaps suggesting endogenous nutrient reserves are universally used for clutch formation or incubation to some degree. If indeed Blue-winged Teal and other waterfowl universally use capital for breeding, research and conservation efforts should shift from evaluating whether an income breeding strategy is used and focus on when and where necessary capital is acquired prior to clutch formation.

  3. Issues and perspectives in dairy sheep breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierlorenzo Secchiari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review consists of two parts. In the first part, the authors briefly describe the state of the art of breedingprogrammes for Italian dairy sheep; then they report new models for genetic evaluation and consider the problem ofgenotype x environment interaction and the impact of farming systems on the genetic merit of animals. In the secondpart new breeding goals regarding the evolution of milk quality concept and the increasing importance of functional traitsare reported. Regarding milk quality, the authors especially focus on the traits related to cheese-making ability and onthe nutraceutical aspects of milk. Among functional traits, resistance to diseases (mastitis and Scrapie has been highlightedfor its great importance in livestock species. Finally, the perspectives of marker-assisted selection have also beenreported.

  4. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus Syriacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Heui Sub; Lee, Ki Woon; Im, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Hibiscus(Hibiscus syracuse L.) has been know as a national flower of Korea science old times. Although there are some ancient records that the Hibiscus had been planted in large quantities in Korea, Japanese had dug out all the good plants of Hibiscus in this country during their colonial period. But Hibiscus has such a characteristics of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as a hybrid naturally and have heterogeneous genes. Therefore many good characters can be taken out from the surviving plants. Many domestic 78 varieties of Hibiscus syracuse were collected and propagated 26 varieties cuttings. Radiosensitivity of gamma-ray irradiated Hibiscus syracuse were investigated the germination rate, survival rate, plant height was with the increase of 4 kR better than control. The radiation doses of 10-12 kR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. 6 figs, 11 tabs, 41 refs. (Author).

  5. Breeding return times and abundance in capture-recapture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pledger, Shirley; Baker, Edward; Scribner, Kim

    2013-12-01

    For many long-lived animal species, individuals do not breed every year, and are often not accessible during non-breeding periods. Individuals exhibit site fidelity if they return to the same breeding colony or spawning ground when they breed. If capture and recapture is only possible at the breeding site, temporary emigration models are used to allow for only a subset of the animals being present in any given year. Most temporary emigration models require the use of the robust sampling design, and their focus is usually on probabilities of annual survival and of transition between breeding and non-breeding states. We use lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) data from a closed population where only a simple (one sample per year) sampling scheme is possible, and we also wish to estimate abundance as well as sex-specific survival and breeding return time probabilities. By adding return time parameters to the Schwarz-Arnason version of the Jolly-Seber model, we have developed a new likelihood-based model which yields plausible estimates of abundance, survival, transition and return time parameters. An important new finding from investigation of the model is the overestimation of abundance if a Jolly-Seber model is used when Markovian temporary emigration is present.

  6. Litter size variation in Polish selected small dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Goleman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In breeders’ general opinion small breed females produce less numerous litters. The aim of the study was to analyse the litter size and the frequency of the gender ratio in selected small dog breeds in view of their popularity in Poland. The data set comprised information on 639 litters (in total 2578 puppies of eight breeds, which were born between January 2003 and end December 2014. The results were statistically analysed using statistical program SPSS 20.0. Medium-size litters were observed in the analysed small dog breeds (4.034±0.1. Comparison of the selected breeds of the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI Groups showed that the mean litter size in Group IX was higher (4.36±0.08 than that in Group III (3.87±0.14 and the differences were statistically significant. The study has confirmed the hypothesis that larger females produce more numerous litters, but there are large intra-individual variations in the number of pups born in individual breeds. Additionally, the gender ratio in the puppies born in the analysed breeds was equal, despite the fluctuations in the individual breeds.

  7. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  8. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Hendriks, Wouter; Bosch, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  9. Breeding biology and nestling development of the Grasshopper Buzzard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, R.; Kortekaas, K.; Folkertsma, I.; van der Velde, M.; Komdeur, J.; de Iongh, H. H.; Monadjem, A.

    2012-01-01

    Research into the effect of environmental variables on reproductive success of tropical raptors is often constrained by the lack of information on breeding biology. We provide the first detailed information of the breeding biology and nestling development of the Grasshopper Buzzard Butastur rufipenn

  10. Prevalence of genetic disorders in dog breeds: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirth, J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic disorders are common in dogs and in the media it is reported that genetic disorders are more frequent in pedigree dogs than in look-a-likes or in mixed-breed dogs. Here, we consider pedigree dogs as purebred dogs (i.e. matching a breed-specific morphology) with a registered and certified ped

  11. Developing a typology for local cattle breed farmers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soini, K.; Diaz, C.; Gandini, G.; Haas, de Y.; Lilja, T.; Martin-Collado, D.; Pizzi, F.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six Euro

  12. Creating new middle breeding materials by utilizing new techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ A new breeding program" Creating new middle breeding materials by utilizing new techniques", cooperated by China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI) and Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science (JIRCAS)", started in Hangzhou, China in 1999.The study led by Dr Kunihiro Y. (Japan) and Dr QIAN Qian (China) now advances smoothly.

  13. Short communication: casein haplotype variability in sicilian dairy goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, I; Maizon, D O; Riggio, V; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2008-09-01

    In the Mediterranean region, goat milk production is an important economic activity. In the present study, 4 casein genes were genotyped in 5 Sicilian goat breeds to 1) identify casein haplotypes present in the Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, Messinese, Derivata di Siria, and Maltese goat breeds; and 2) describe the structure of the Sicilian goat breeds based on casein haplotypes and allele frequencies. In a sample of 540 dairy goats, 67 different haplotypes with frequency >or=0.01 and 27 with frequency >or=0.03 were observed. The most common CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3 haplotype for Derivata di Siria and Maltese was FCFB (0.17 and 0.22, respectively), whereas for Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana and Messinese was ACAB (0.06, 0.23, and 0.10, respectively). According to the haplotype reconstruction, Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, and Messinese breeds presented the most favorable haplotype for cheese production, because the casein concentration in milk of these breeds might be greater than that in Derivata di Siria and Maltese breeds. Based on a cluster analysis, the breeds formed 2 main groups: Derivata di Siria, and Maltese in one group, and Argentata dell'Etna and Messinese in the other; the Girgentana breed was between these groups but closer to the latter.

  14. Signatures of diversifying selection in European pig breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Wilkinson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following domestication, livestock breeds have experienced intense selection pressures for the development of desirable traits. This has resulted in a large diversity of breeds that display variation in many phenotypic traits, such as coat colour, muscle composition, early maturity, growth rate, body size, reproduction, and behaviour. To better understand the relationship between genomic composition and phenotypic diversity arising from breed development, the genomes of 13 traditional and commercial European pig breeds were scanned for signatures of diversifying selection using the Porcine60K SNP chip, applying a between-population (differentiation approach. Signatures of diversifying selection between breeds were found in genomic regions associated with traits related to breed standard criteria, such as coat colour and ear morphology. Amino acid differences in the EDNRB gene appear to be associated with one of these signatures, and variation in the KITLG gene may be associated with another. Other selection signals were found in genomic regions including QTLs and genes associated with production traits such as reproduction, growth, and fat deposition. Some selection signatures were associated with regions showing evidence of introgression from Asian breeds. When the European breeds were compared with wild boar, genomic regions with high levels of differentiation harboured genes related to bone formation, growth, and fat deposition.

  15. Signatures of Diversifying Selection in European Pig Breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, S.; Lu, Z.H.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Archibald, A.L.; Haley, C.; Jackson, I.J.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Ogden, R.; Wiener, P.

    2013-01-01

    Following domestication, livestock breeds have experienced intense selection pressures for the development of desirable traits. This has resulted in a large diversity of breeds that display variation in many phenotypic traits, such as coat colour, muscle composition, early maturity, growth rate, bod

  16. Fitness consequences of cooperative breeding in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David; Burke, Terry

    2006-01-01

    Inclusive fitness benefits have been suggested as the selective force behind the evolution of cooperative breeding. Assessing the benefits accrued to individual males and females is crucial to understanding the sex-specific helping behavior observed in many cooperatively breeding species. We investi

  17. CATTLE BREEDING AND TERRITORY: A SURVEY ON THE MAREMMANA BREED RAISED IN TUSCANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto FRATINI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the importance of a cattle race native in an area of the territory of Tuscany. The Maremmana breed is a valuable breed raised in the pastures that stretch between southern Tuscany and northern Lazio. A sample of 12 farms was analyzed through direct interview, carried out at the farm. The farms surveyed implement organic farming, according to precise rules. The aspect that mostly catches in the interviews is that the only livestock activity is not sufficient for economic development of this rural area; in fact most of the farms perform multi-functional, practicing agritourism activities. In terms of remuneration of the factors of production used in animal husbandry it seems that especially farms with few animals require the integration of agricultural income with other business activities.

  18. Plasma hormone levels and semen quality in male cats during non-breeding and breeding seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, T; Onodera, F; Oba, H; Mizutani, T; Hori, T

    2009-07-01

    Female cats are known to be seasonal breeders and male cats annual breeders. Despite this, there are limited data on the influence of breeding season (BS) on hormone concentration and semen quality in the male cat. This study compared plasma concentrations of LH and testosterone (T), and semen quality during the non-breeding season (NBS) and BS in five male cats subject to natural hours of daylight but a constant environmental temperature. Plasma LH and T concentrations were higher during the BS in 2/35 and 3/5 cats, respectively, although when comparing both hormones combined, values were higher during the BS than the NBS in all cats (p hormone secretion and semen quality, during the NBS all cats were likely to have been fertile.

  19. Changes in sunflower breeding over the last fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vear Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses changes in sunflower breeding objectives since the introduction of hybrid varieties 50 years ago. After a reminder of the importance of some early programmes, Canadian in particular, the present situation for each breeding objective is compared with those encountered earlier. Breeding for yield has changed from maximum possible yield under intensive agriculture to yield with resistance to abiotic stresses, moderate droughts and shallow soils in particular, helped by collaboration with agronomists to produce crop models. Breeding for oil has changed from quantity to quality and the value of seed meal is again becoming economically important. Necessary disease resistances vary with agronomic practises and selection pressure on pathogens according to varietal genetics. The possibilities of new types of sunflower are also discussed. Advances in genomics will change breeding procedures, but with rapidly changing molecular techniques, international collaboration is particularly important.

  20. MILK COAGULATION PROPERTIES OF CATTLE BREEDS REARED IN ALPINE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Visentin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to apply mid-infrared spectroscopy prediction models developed for milk coagulation properties (MCP to a spectral dataset of 123,240 records collected over a 2-year period in the Alpine area, and to investigate sources of variation of the predicted MCP. Mixed linear models included fixed effects of breed, month and year of sampling, days in milk, parity, and the interactions between the main effects. Random effects were herd nested within breed, cow nested within breed, and the residual. All fixed effects were significant (P<0.05 in explaining the variation of MCP. In particular, milk clotting characteristics varied significantly among breeds, and local Alpine Grey breed exhibited the most favourable processing characteristics. Milk coagulation properties varied across lactation and were at their worst after the peak.

  1. Breed differences in natriuretic peptides in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, K.; Wess, G.; Ljungvall, I.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of plasma concentration of natriuretic peptides (NPs) is suggested to be of value in diagnosis of cardiac disease in dogs, but many factors other than cardiac status may influence their concentrations. Dog breed potentially is 1 such factor. OBJECTIVE: To investigate breed...... variation in plasma concentrations of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide 31-67 (proANP 31-67) and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: 535 healthy, privately owned dogs of 9 breeds were examined at 5 centers as part of the European Union (EU) LUPA project. METHODS: Absence...... the median concentration in Doberman Pinschers. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Considerable interbreed variation in plasma NP concentrations was found in healthy dogs. Intrabreed variation was large in several breeds, especially for NT-proBNP. Additional studies are needed to establish breed...

  2. Characteristics important for organic breeding of vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable development and application of new genetic The Institute for Vegetable Crops possesses a rich germplasm collection of vegetables, utilized as gene resource for breeding specific traits. Onion and garlic breeding programs are based on chemical composition improvement. There are programs for identification and use of genotypes characterized by high tolerance to economically important diseases. Special attention is paid to breeding cucumber and tomato lines tolerant to late blight. As a result, late blight tolerant pickling cucumber line, as well as late blight tolerant tomato lines and hybrids are realized. Research on bean drought stress tolerance is initiated. Lettuce breeding program including research on spontaneous flora is started and interspecies hybrids were observed as possible genetic variability source. It is important to have access to a broad range of vegetable genotypes in order to meet the needs of organic agriculture production. Appreciating the concept of sustainable agriculture, it is important to introduce organic agriculture programs in breeding institutions.

  3. Domestic estimated breeding values and genomic enhanced breeding values of bulls in comparison with their foreign genomic enhanced breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přibyl, J; Bauer, J; Čermák, V; Pešek, P; Přibylová, J; Šplíchal, J; Vostrá-Vydrová, H; Vostrý, L; Zavadilová, L

    2015-10-01

    Estimated breeding values (EBVs) and genomic enhanced breeding values (GEBVs) for milk production of young genotyped Holstein bulls were predicted using a conventional BLUP - Animal Model, a method fitting regression coefficients for loci (RRBLUP), a method utilizing the realized genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP), by a single-step procedure (ssGBLUP) and by a one-step blending procedure. Information sources for prediction were the nation-wide database of domestic Czech production records in the first lactation combined with deregressed proofs (DRP) from Interbull files (August 2013) and domestic test-day (TD) records for the first three lactations. Data from 2627 genotyped bulls were used, of which 2189 were already proven under domestic conditions. Analyses were run that used Interbull values for genotyped bulls only or that used Interbull values for all available sires. Resultant predictions were compared with GEBV of 96 young foreign bulls evaluated abroad and whose proofs were from Interbull method GMACE (August 2013) on the Czech scale. Correlations of predictions with GMACE values of foreign bulls ranged from 0.33 to 0.75. Combining domestic data with Interbull EBVs improved prediction of both EBV and GEBV. Predictions by Animal Model (traditional EBV) using only domestic first lactation records and GMACE values were correlated by only 0.33. Combining the nation-wide domestic database with all available DRP for genotyped and un-genotyped sires from Interbull resulted in an EBV correlation of 0.60, compared with 0.47 when only Interbull data were used. In all cases, GEBVs had higher correlations than traditional EBVs, and the highest correlations were for predictions from the ssGBLUP procedure using combined data (0.75), or with all available DRP from Interbull records only (one-step blending approach, 0.69). The ssGBLUP predictions using the first three domestic lactation records in the TD model were correlated with GMACE predictions by 0.69, 0.64 and 0

  4. Influence of production circumstances and economic evaluation criteria on economic comparison of breeds and breed-crosses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahi, A.K.; Koskey, I.S.; Cardoso, V.L.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ranking of genotypes (i.e., breeds and breed crosses) for economic performance depends on the production circumstances of the herd and the criteria for economic evaluation. In this study, the effects of evaluation criteria and production circumstance are quantified using data from the literature

  5. Breeding business : the future of plant breeding in the light of developments in patent rights and plant breeder's rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.; Dons, J.J.M.; Overwalle, van G.; Raven, H.; Arundel, A.; Eaton, D.; Nelis, A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant breeding serves an important public interest. Two intellectual property (IP) systems are relevant for the protection of innovations in this sector: plant breeder's rights and patent rights. Some exemptions play an important role in plant breeding, such as the 'breeder's exemption', which is un

  6. Call for Papers--Molecular Plant Breeding (ISSN 1923-8266)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Molecular Plant Breeding (ISSN 1923-8266, online, http://mpb.sophiapublisher.com/) is an open access and peer reviewed journal, which publishes original research papers involving the transgenic breeding and marker assisted breeding in plants.

  7. The lifetime production of Bovec and Improved Bovec sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Gorjanc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Production data of Bovec and Improved (with East-Friesian Bovec sheep born between years 1989 and 2006 were used for the analysis of culling dynamics and lifetime production. Lifetime production was calculated as the sum of production at each lambing (number of born and liveborn lambs and litter birth weight, weaning (number of weaned lambs and litter weaning weight or during each lactation (milk yield, fat (6.5 % and protein (5.8 % corrected milk yield (FPC; Pulina et al., 2005., and fat and protein yield for culled sheep. Animals with any missing records from the first till the last lambing, weaning or lactation were removed from the analysis. Animals that left the system of animal recording alive, due to selling or the cancellation of recording by a breeder were also excluded. Dataset included records for 2254 sheep: 1734 of Bovec and 520 of Improved Bovec breed. Data preparation and statistical analysis were performed with the use of a statistical program R (R Development Core Team, 2007. and additional packages Zelig (Imai et al., 2007; Bailey and Alimadhi, 2007; Imai et al., 2008 and lme4 (Bates and DebRoy, 2004; Bates, 2007. Results have shown that in the period ≤1996 Bovec breed had on average 4.4 lactations in their lifetime, which was almost one lactation more than in Improved Bovec breed. In the period after the year 1996 the highest proportion of animals were culled in the first lactation (as expected due to culling dynamics, with slightly higher proportion in Improved Bovec breed than in Bovec breed. Lifetime number of born, liveborn and weaned lambs was higher for about one lamb in Improved Bovec breed. Lifetime lamb weight gain did not differ between breeds, due to the high frequency of early weaning in Improved Bovec breed. During lifetime, Improved Bovec sheep produced around 200 kg (~34 % more milk, around 190 kg (~32 % more FPC milk, around 12 kg (~32 % more milk fat, and around 10 kg (~34 % more milk protein than Bovec

  8. The Meta Analysis of Alleviatory Effect of Kangaroo Care on Neonatal Painful Caused by Invasive Operation%袋鼠式护理缓解侵入性操作所致新生儿疼痛的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴海善; 王松; 李胜玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过对袋鼠式护理缓解侵入性操作所致新生儿疼痛的随机对照试验和(或)临床对照试验文献进行Meta分析,客观评价袋鼠式护理的效果,为临床新生儿疼痛的管理提供理论依据.方法 联机检索在线PUBMED、EBSCO、OVID、EMBASE、Cochrane library、中国知网、中国生物医学文献数据库,并以手工检索和引文检索为辅助,全面获取有关袋鼠式护理缓解侵入性操作所致新生儿疼痛的中英文文献.对符合纳入标准的文献,由两名研究者独立进行方法学质量评价和资料提取.采用RevMan5.0.25统计软件进行meta分析.结果 经筛选共纳入7篇临床对照试验文献.Meta分析结果显示:袋鼠式护理和襁褓包裹比较,更能稳定新生儿侵入性操作期间和操作后恢复期的心率及血氧饱和度(P<0.01),可缩短新生儿侵入性操作时和操作后恢复期啼哭和疼痛面容的持续时间(P<0.01),可减少新生儿侵入性操作时的NFCS评分(P<0.01).结论 袋鼠式护理可以有效缓解新生儿对疼痛的生理反应和行为反应,减轻新生儿疼痛.由于相关研究较少,今后尚需纳入更多设计严格的大样本随机对照试验以进一步评价袋鼠式护理缓解新生儿疼痛的效果.%Objective To evaluate the alleviatory effect of kangaroo care on neonatal pain caused by invasive operation using Meta analysis. Methods With the computer retrieval of PUBMED/MEDLINE , EBSCO, OVID, EMBASE, Cochrane library, CNKI, CMBI and auxiliary manual retrieval, citation retrieval as well, the author tried to gain the documents comprehensively in both Chinese and English on the kangaroo care easing neonatal pain caused by invasive operation. To the included documents fit for standard, two researchers were planned to screen them and then to make a methodological quality evaluation and material extraction independently. The RevMan5.0.25 statistical software for Meta analysis was used. Results After

  9. Captive breeding programs based on family groups in polyploid sturgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids ("BreedingSturgeons"). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction.

  10. Brain size-related breeding strategies in a seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaatinen, Kim; Öst, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The optimal compromise between decision speed and accuracy may depend on cognitive ability, associated with the degree of encephalization: larger brain size may select for accurate but slow decision-making, beneficial under challenging conditions but costly under benign ones. How this brain size-dependent selection pressure shapes avian breeding phenology and reproductive performance remains largely unexplored. We predicted that (1) large-brained individuals have a delayed breeding schedule due to thorough nest-site selection and/or prolonged resource acquisition, (2) good condition facilitates early breeding independent of relative brain size, and (3) large brain size accrues benefits mainly to individuals challenged by environmental or intrinsic constraints. To test these predictions, we examined how the relative head volume of female eiders (Somateria mollissima) of variable body condition correlated with their breeding schedule, hatching success and offspring quality. The results were consistent with our predictions. First, large head size was associated with a progressively later onset of breeding with increasing breeding dispersal distance. Second, increasing body condition advanced the timing of breeding, but this effect was significantly weaker in large-brained females. Third, larger head volume was associated with increased hatching success mainly among late breeders and those in poor body condition, and duckling body condition was positively related to maternal head volume, but only in poor-condition mothers. Our study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate the presence of brain size-related differences in reproductive strategies within a single natural population.

  11. PRODUCTION PARAMETERS OF SLOVAK NATIONAL HEN’S BREED ORAVKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. WEIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Our work describes the results of egg production and egg weight of hen’s breed Oravka in years 2004 - 2008. Observation of production parameters of hen’s breed Oravka realised in special poultry house for controlled breeds of poultry at University Experimental Farm in Kolíňany. In analyzed period 2004 to 2008 we observed flock of breed Oravka with ten females and one male. This poultry flock was selecting from young birds per year. The egg production we evaluated as average number of eggs for accelerated 7-month laying period (1 month - 30 days. The eggs were weighed individually from every hen for period 10 days in each month. On basic of achieved results we observed progressive increase of egg production and egg weight. The egg production of breed Oravka increased about 3.10 eggs/hen (2.06 % between years 2004 and 2008. Massive improvement we recorded at parameter of egg weight (3.30 g - 6.30 % in analyzed period. The selection programme of breed Oravka will target the increase of egg production and egg weight in accordance with standard of breed (egg production 180 - 200 eggs, egg weight 58 g.

  12. Biotechnological approach in crop improvement by mutation breeding in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeranto, H.; Sobrizal; Sutarto, Ismiyati; Manurung, Simon; Mastrizal [National Nuclear Energy Agency, Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2002-02-01

    Mutation breeding has become a proven method of improving crop varieties. Most research on plant mutation breeding in Indonesia is carried out at the Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). Nowadays, a biotechnological approach has been incorporated in some mutation breeding researches in order to improve crop cultivars. This approach is simply based on cellular totipotency, or the ability to regenerate whole, flowering plants from isolated organs, pieces of tissue, individual cells, and protoplasts. Tissue culture technique has bee extensively used for micro propagation of disease-free plants. Other usage of this technique involves in various steps of the breeding process such as germplasm preservation, clonal propagation, and distant hybridization. Mutation breeding combined with tissue culture technique has made a significant contribution in inducing plant genetic variation, by improving selection technology, and by accelerating breeding time as for that by using anther or pollen culture. In Indonesia, research on mutation breeding combined with tissue culture techniques has been practiced in different crop species including rice, ginger, banana, sorghum etc. Specially in rice, a research on identification of DNA markers linked to blast disease resistance is now still progressing. A compiled report from some research activities is presented in this paper. (author)

  13. Improving Charging-Breeding Simulations with Space-Charge Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Ryan; Kwiatkowski, Ania; Steinbrügge, René

    2016-09-01

    Rare-isotope-beam facilities use Highly Charged Ions (HCI) for accelerators accelerating heavy ions and to improve measurement precision and resolving power of certain experiments. An Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is able to create HCI through successive electron impact, charge breeding trapped ions into higher charge states. CBSIM was created to calculate successive charge breeding with an EBIT. It was augmented by transferring it into an object-oriented programming language, including additional elements, improving ion-ion collision factors, and exploring the overlap of the electron beam with the ions. The calculation is enhanced with the effects of residual background gas by computing the space charge due to charge breeding. The program assimilates background species, ionizes and charge breeds them alongside the element being studied, and allows them to interact with the desired species through charge exchange, giving fairer overview of realistic charge breeding. Calculations of charge breeding will be shown for realistic experimental conditions. We reexamined the implementation of ionization energies, cross sections, and ion-ion interactions when charge breeding.

  14. Evidence of selection signatures that shape the Persian cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Francesca; Gandolfi, Barbara; Kim, Eui Soo; Haase, Bianca; Lyons, Leslie A; Rothschild, Max F

    2016-04-01

    The Persian cat is mainly characterized by an extremely brachycephalic face as part of the standard body conformation. Despite the popularity, world-wide distribution, and economic importance of the Persian cat as a fancy breed, little is known about the genetics of their hallmark morphology, brachycephaly. Over 800 cats from different breeds including Persian, non-Persian breeds (Abyssinian, Cornish Rex, Bengal, La Perm, Norwegian Forest, Maine Coon, Manx, Oriental, and Siamese), and Persian-derived breeds (British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Selkirk Rex) were genotyped with the Illumina 63 K feline DNA array. The experimental strategy was composed of three main steps: (i) the Persian dataset was screened for runs of homozygosity to find and select highly homozygous regions; (ii) selected Persian homozygous regions were evaluated for the difference of homozygosity between Persians and those considered non-Persian breeds, and, (iii) the Persian homozygous regions most divergent from the non-Persian breeds were investigated by haplotype analysis in the Persian-derived breeds. Four regions with high homozygosity (H > 0.7) were detected, each with an average length of 1 Mb. Three regions can be considered unique to the Persian breed, with a less conservative haplotype pattern in the Persian-derived breeds. Moreover, two genes, CHL1 and CNTN6 known to determine face shape modification in humans, reside in one of the identified regions and therefore are positional candidates for the brachycephalic face in Persians. In total, the homozygous regions contained several neuronal genes that could be involved in the Persian cat behavior and can provide new insights into cat domestication.

  15. Localization of canine brachycephaly using an across breed mapping approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danika Bannasch

    Full Text Available The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, exhibits profound phenotypic diversity and is an ideal model organism for the genetic dissection of simple and complex traits. However, some of the most interesting phenotypes are fixed in particular breeds and are therefore less tractable to genetic analysis using classical segregation-based mapping approaches. We implemented an across breed mapping approach using a moderately dense SNP array, a low number of animals and breeds carefully selected for the phenotypes of interest to identify genetic variants responsible for breed-defining characteristics. Using a modest number of affected (10-30 and control (20-60 samples from multiple breeds, the correct chromosomal assignment was identified in a proof of concept experiment using three previously defined loci; hyperuricosuria, white spotting and chondrodysplasia. Genome-wide association was performed in a similar manner for one of the most striking morphological traits in dogs: brachycephalic head type. Although candidate gene approaches based on comparable phenotypes in mice and humans have been utilized for this trait, the causative gene has remained elusive using this method. Samples from nine affected breeds and thirteen control breeds identified strong genome-wide associations for brachycephalic head type on Cfa 1. Two independent datasets identified the same genomic region. Levels of relative heterozygosity in the associated region indicate that it has been subjected to a selective sweep, consistent with it being a breed defining morphological characteristic. Genotyping additional dogs in the region confirmed the association. To date, the genetic structure of dog breeds has primarily been exploited for genome wide association for segregating traits. These results demonstrate that non-segregating traits under strong selection are equally tractable to genetic analysis using small sample numbers.

  16. Genotype by environment interaction in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Milosav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Because proximity measures occur in pairs where both, similarity and dissimilarity measures exploit the same type of information, companion classification and ordination techniques can be applied. They complement each other in analysis of genotype by environment interaction (GxE data. Choice of method, companion diagnostics and graphical presentation are required within each of methodologies. By clustering of 12 genotypes into 5 groups, 96.26% of variability for genotypes contained in original data is kept. By applying same analysis for environments, 96.45% of variability contained in original data matrix is kept with grouping of 31 environments into 11 groups. Caused by genotypes and environments grouping 78.10% of GxE variability contained in original data matrix remained in analysis of such two-way reduced data. Based on shown results, it is not possible to define smaller growing regions. Clustering of environment can be useful not only for defining mega environments but also for smaller growing regions defining only in combination with some of additional analysis (AMMI, discrimination analysis, correspondent analysis etc.. In such kind of analysis experience of investigator would be of great importance. Choice of test sites for breeding programme can be made based on obtained grouping to a limited extent (rather for restructuring existing test sites network in order to obtain 'better' information with same number of test sites then for its rationalization with number of test sites decreasing.

  17. Most frequent calf diseases in industrial breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Sava

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to conduct an analysis of the incidence of viral diseases in calves if these diseases are divided into two basic groups. One group comprises diseases of respiratory organs which are manifested by symptoms of a respiratory syndrome, and the second group comprises diseases of digestive tract organs in the form of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is considered that viruses have the dominant role in the complex etiology of the respiratory syndrome, primarily the IBR virus or the Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BHV-1, followed by the parainfluenza 3 virus (RSV, the Bovine Viral Diahrrea Virus (BVDV, the bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV, but also other viruses, such as adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, can also influence the appearance of the respiratory syndrome. The respiratory syndrome is rarely caused by a single viral agent, but most frequently by mixed viruses, but also by bacterial infections. Mixed viral infections often have a lethal outcome. Investigations of the etiology of the gastrointestinal syndrome so far indicate that, in addition to bacteria, viruses can also be a significant etiological factor. Rotaviruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses parvoviruses, herpesviruses (the IBR virus, pestiviruses (BVDV, can be the causes of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is believed that viruses can be the cause in about 10% cases in the ethiopathogenesis of this syndrome. The paper describes the etiopathogenesis of calf diseases of viral etiology which are most often found in the local conditions of industrial breeding of calves.

  18. Breeding of Biomphalaria tenagophila in mass scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Mara Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for breeding Biomphalaria tenagophila (Taim lineage/RS was developed over a 5-year-period (2005-2010. Special facilities were provided which consisted of four cement tanks (9.4 x 0.6 x 0.22 m, with their bottom covered with a layer of sterilized red earth and calcium carbonate. Standard measures were adopted, as follows: each tank should contain an average of 3000 specimens, and would be provided with a daily ration of 35,000 mg complemented with lettuce. A green-house effect heating system was developed which constituted of movable dark canvas covers, which allowed the temperature to be controlled between 20 - 24 ºC. This system was essential, especially during the coldest months of the year. Approximately 27,000 specimens with a diameter of 12 mm or more were produced during a 14-month-period. The mortality rates of the newly-hatched and adult snails were 77% and 37%, respectively. The follow-up of the development system related to 310 specimens of B. tenagophila demonstrated that 70-day-old snails reached an average of 17.0 ± 0.9 mm diameter. The mortality rates and the development performance of B. tenagophila snails can be considered as highly satisfactory, when compared with other results in literature related to works carried out with different species of the genus Biomphalaria, under controlled laboratory conditions.

  19. Application of molecular markers in apple breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Slađana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple is economically the most important species of genus Malus Miller. In respect of production, trade and consumption, it ranks first among deciduous fruit and third on a global scale among all fruit species. Apple breeding is carried out on a large scale in several scientific institutes throughout the world. Due to this activity, apple is a fruit species with the highest number of described monogenic traits; 76 genes, encoding morphological traits, pest and disease resistance, as well as 69 genes encoding enzymes. The development of molecular markers (RFLPs, AFLPs, SCARs and SSRs has allowed the mapping of the apple genome and the development of several saturated genetic maps, to which genes controlling important traits are assigned. Markers flanking these genes not only play an important role in selecting parental combinations and seedlings with positive traits, but they are also particularly important in detecting recessive traits, such as seedless fruit. In addition they enable pre-selection for polygenic quantitative traits. In recent years, particular attention has been paid to biochemical and physiological processes involved in the pathway of important traits e.g., ripening and the storage capability of apple fruit.

  20. Feeding and Breeding Biology of Amblypharyngodon mola – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Gupta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Amblypharyngodon mola is a popular food fish of Indian sub-continent due to its high nutritional value. Earlier many workers have carried out studies on feeding and breeding biology of this fish species but consolidated information on the same is not available. So, a survey of published literatures on the feeding and breeding biology of A. mola has been carried out to consolidate the available information.  Lacunae of information has been pointed out for further study mainly on age group wise variation in food preference and correlation of breeding periodicity with hydrological parameters and photoperiod.

  1. Genetic distinctiveness of the Herdwick sheep breed and two other locally adapted hill breeds of the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna Bowles

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some native breeds of sheep continue to be commercially farmed only in highly localised geographical regions to which they are adapted. This study focuses on three of these breeds, selected for their adaptation to near identical environments and their geographical concentration in regions close to one another. Our objective has been to use retrotyping, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the origins of the breeds and whether, despite their similar adaptations and proximity, they are genetically distinctive. We find the three breeds each have a surprisingly different pattern of retrovirus insertions into their genomes compared with one another and with other UK breeds. Uniquely, there is a high incidence of the R0 retrotype in the Herdwick population, characteristic of a primitive genome found previously in very few breeds worldwide and none in the UK mainland. The Herdwick and Rough Fells carry two rare retroviral insertion events, common only in Texels, suggesting sheep populations in the northern uplands have a historical association with the original pin-tail sheep of Texel Island. Microsatellite data and analyses of SNPs associated with RXFP2 (horn traits and PRLR (reproductive performance traits also distinguished the three breeds. Significantly, an SNP linked to TMEM154, a locus controlling susceptibility to infection by Maedi-Visna, indicated that all three native hill breeds have a lower than average risk of infection to the

  2. Breeding biology of a winter-breeding procellariiform in the North Atlantic, the Macaronesian shearwater Puffinus lherminieri baroli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Ana Isabel; Ramos, Jaime A; Ramos, Urtelinda; Medeiros, Renata; Paiva, Vitor H

    2016-10-01

    The breeding success of burrow-nesting seabirds may be influenced by both nest site characteristics and oceanographic conditions influencing food availability at sea. In this study we describe the breeding biology of the winter-breeding Macaronesian shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri baroli), including nest site characteristics and interspecific competition. We also evaluate the possible effects of changing oceanographic conditions on breeding phenology and breeding success. The study was carried out over two breeding seasons on two islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, Cima Islet and Selvagem Grande. Oceanographic characteristics differed between years. On a regional scale, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was low and negative in 2011, and on a local scale, birds used areas with significantly lower values of chlorophyll a concentration and significantly higher values of sea surface temperature anomalies. Hatching success was higher in 2012 than in 2011. At both colonies, egg cracking was the main cause of hatching failure, but in 2011 several eggs on Selvagem Grande were deserted. In 2012 birds laid earlier and chicks had longer wings and were heavier. At both colonies, nests that were deeper, were sheltered from prevailing winds and had small chambers and a soil substrate had a higher probability of being used successfully by the birds. Nests occupied solely by Macaronesian shearwaters were much deeper and had less volume than nests shared with other species. Our study suggests that the breeding success of Macaronesian shearwaters is strongly related to nest site characteristics and that at-sea environmental conditions exert a strong influence on reproductive parameters, with birds breeding in a poor year (evaluated in terms of lower marine productivity) laying much later and their chicks growing at a slower rate than in a good year. The influence of nest site characteristics and environmental conditions may be very important for understanding the breeding

  3. Does genomic selection have a future in plant breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Elisabeth; de Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2013-09-01

    Plant breeding largely depends on phenotypic selection in plots and only for some, often disease-resistance-related traits, uses genetic markers. The more recently developed concept of genomic selection, using a black box approach with no need of prior knowledge about the effect or function of individual markers, has also been proposed as a great opportunity for plant breeding. Several empirical and theoretical studies have focused on the possibility to implement this as a novel molecular method across various species. Although we do not question the potential of genomic selection in general, in this Opinion, we emphasize that genomic selection approaches from dairy cattle breeding cannot be easily applied to complex plant breeding.

  4. Future perspectives of in vitro culture and plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark

    2015-01-01

    Conventional breeding and plant improvement increasingly become inadequate to keep up with progression and high quality demands. Thus biotechnological techniques are more and more adopted. Initially, biotechnological tools have supported conventional breeding by in vitro culture techniques......, comprising micropropagation, speeding up multiplication and improving uniformity. Also, crossing barriers of incompatible plants have been overcome using in vitro methods and embryo rescue techniques in wide hybridization approaches. Marker-assisted breeding is employed for targeted selection of DNA...... breeding in Europe is still marginal due to investment costs, legal approval and public acceptance. As a result, natural transformation using wild type bacteria and thus avoiding recombinant DNA technology has attracted attention of ornamental plant breeders in Europe. However, during the last decades...

  5. Dusky Canada goose breeding population survey, May 16 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dusky Canada goose breeding ground surveys were initiated on the Copper River Delta near Cordova, Alaska during the 1970's by the Waterfowl Division of the Alaska...

  6. Dusky Canada goose breeding population survey, May 18 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dusky Canada goose breeding ground surveys were initiated on the Copper River Delta near Cordova, Alaska during the 1970's by the Waterfowl Division of the Alaska...

  7. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Alberta: May 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1991. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  8. [Breeding bird survey authorization : Audubon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter authorizes Larry Igl and Chris Johnson to conduct population estimates of breeding birds on Audubon National Wildlife Refuge. This study is in...

  9. Maine & the Maritimes: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Maine and the Maritimes during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  10. Breeding bird study in the Mississippi River Floodplain

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A breeding bird study was initiated in 1992 to census birds on the Gardner Division of Mark Twain NWR. The division is located in the Mississippi River floodplain...

  11. Reindeer breeding along the Finno-Ugric tribes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the reindeer breeding practices among the Finno-Urgic tribes located in the northern territories of the Soviet Union and frontier districts...

  12. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern and central Alberta: May 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern and central Alberta during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  13. Predicting breeding values in animals by kalman filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karacaören, Burak; Janss, Luc; Kadarmideen, Haja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate usefulness of Kalman Filter (KF) Random Walk methodology (KF-RW) for prediction of breeding values in animals. We used body condition score (BCS) from dairy cattle for illustrating use of KF-RW. BCS was measured by Swiss Holstein Breeding Association during...... May 2004-March 2005 for 7 times approximately at monthly intervals from dairy cows (n=80) stationed at the Chamau research farm of Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Switzerland. Benefits of KF were demonstrated using random walk models via simulations. Breeding values were predicted over...... for variance components were found (with standard errors) 0.03 (0.006) for animal genetic variance 0.04 (0.007) for permanent environmental variance and 0.21 (0.02) for error variance. Since KF gives online estimation of breeding values and does not need to store or invert matrices, this methodology could...

  14. Usefulness of portable near infrared spectroscopy in olive breeding programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Moreno, L.

    2012-11-01

    The usefulness of portable near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a simple and efficient method to determine some of the main selection traits in olive breeding is evaluated in this work. Calibration models were developed and evaluated using partial least squares (PLS) regression from samples collected in different selection steps of the breeding work and under different experimental conditions. The results showed that accurate enough models (values of correlation between actual and predicted constituent higher than 0.9) were obtained for oil and moisture content in both cross validation and prediction results. Portable NIR spectroscopy could be used for selection of genotypes on the basis of these characters, providing similar ranking of genotypes than reference methods both in different selection steps of the breeding process (progenies and selection plots) and different experimental conditions (on-tree or under laboratory conditions). The advantages of this technique to improve the efficiency of the evaluation process in olive breeding programs are discussed. (Author) 21 refs.

  15. Relative Abundance of Breeding Birds in the Dismal Swamp 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To obtain an idea of the relative abundance of breeding birds in the predominant mixed swamp hardwoods forest of the Dismal Swamp in southeastern Virginia, a...

  16. Survey of breeding birds Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of the results of the second annual survey of breeding birds of Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge conducted in 1995. This series of...

  17. Survey of breeding birds, Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge, 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of the results of the third annual survey of breeding birds of Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge conducted in 1996. Information on...

  18. INTEGRATION IN ANTLER REINDEER BREEDING OF THE ALTAI REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glotko A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the questions of vertical integration which is necessary to bring the company of antler reindeer breeding out of crisis are considered. We have presented a scheme of participant of "supplier – consumer” integral interaction

  19. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ROMANIAN CATTLE BREEDS USING BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA REBEDEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a genetic characterization of cattle breeds in Romania based onbiochemical markers in the blood and the milk. The surveyed breeds are: RomanianBlack Spotted Cattle (BNR, Romanian Spotted Cattle (BR, Romanian Brown (Band Romanian Steppe, and the markers identified are represented by some proteins,serum transferrin (Tf, serum albumins (Al, hemoglobin (Hb respectively-from theblood and beta-lactoglobulin (βLg-from the milk. In order to determine thegenotypes in the studied populations electrophoresis was used in three differentvariations, depending on the type of the protein, and the migration substrates usedwere starch and polyacrylamide. The identified genetic structures in the individualsfrom the surveyed breeds allowed their genetic characterization based on gene andgenotype frequencies, as well as using these data in establishing the identity andpaternity of the individuals in the surveyed breeds.

  20. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Ontario, Quebec, and New York: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Ontario, Quebec, and New York during 1997. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  1. Western and Central Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Western and Central Ontario during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  2. Hybrid recreation by reverse breeding in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnker, Erik; Deurhof, Laurens; van de Belt, Jose; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; Blankestijn, Hetty; Becker, Frank; Ravi, Maruthachalam; Chan, Simon W L; van Dun, Kees; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; de Jong, Hans; Dirks, Rob; Keurentjes, Joost J B

    2014-04-01

    Hybrid crop varieties are traditionally produced by selecting and crossing parental lines to evaluate hybrid performance. Reverse breeding allows doing the opposite: selecting uncharacterized heterozygotes and generating parental lines from them. With these, the selected heterozygotes can be recreated as F1 hybrids, greatly increasing the number of hybrids that can be screened in breeding programs. Key to reverse breeding is the suppression of meiotic crossovers in a hybrid plant to ensure the transmission of nonrecombinant chromosomes to haploid gametes. These gametes are subsequently regenerated as doubled-haploid (DH) offspring. Each DH carries combinations of its parental chromosomes, and complementing pairs can be crossed to reconstitute the initial hybrid. Achiasmatic meiosis and haploid generation result in uncommon phenotypes among offspring owing to chromosome number variation. We describe how these features can be dealt with during a reverse-breeding experiment, which can be completed in six generations (∼1 year).

  3. Integrating genomic selection into dairy cattle breeding programmes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, A; Juga, J

    2013-05-01

    Extensive genetic progress has been achieved in dairy cattle populations on many traits of economic importance because of efficient breeding programmes. Success of these programmes has relied on progeny testing of the best young males to accurately assess their genetic merit and hence their potential for breeding. Over the last few years, the integration of dense genomic information into statistical tools used to make selection decisions, commonly referred to as genomic selection, has enabled gains in predicting accuracy of breeding values for young animals without own performance. The possibility to select animals at an early stage allows defining new breeding strategies aimed at boosting genetic progress while reducing costs. The first objective of this article was to review methods used to model and optimize breeding schemes integrating genomic selection and to discuss their relative advantages and limitations. The second objective was to summarize the main results and perspectives on the use of genomic selection in practical breeding schemes, on the basis of the example of dairy cattle populations. Two main designs of breeding programmes integrating genomic selection were studied in dairy cattle. Genomic selection can be used either for pre-selecting males to be progeny tested or for selecting males to be used as active sires in the population. The first option produces moderate genetic gains without changing the structure of breeding programmes. The second option leads to large genetic gains, up to double those of conventional schemes because of a major reduction in the mean generation interval, but it requires greater changes in breeding programme structure. The literature suggests that genomic selection becomes more attractive when it is coupled with embryo transfer technologies to further increase selection intensity on the dam-to-sire pathway. The use of genomic information also offers new opportunities to improve preservation of genetic variation. However

  4. RESEARCH STUDY ON THE BREEDING AVIFAUNA OF THE BASCOV RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Denisa Conete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author conducted an ornithological study in the Bascov Reservoir area (a square of 2x2 km and observed 102 breeding species; 83 (81% of them are certain breeding species and 19 (19% are probable breeding species. The results of the research were cumulated with those found in the Atlas of the breeding species of Romania. By relating them with the Atlas data, we noted that 83 of the 100 breeding species cited in the Atlas were again recorded during our study. Nineteen new breeding species were identified. Among the species dependent on wetlands, mention should be made of Ixobrychus minutus, Anas platyrhynchos, Fulica atra, Gallinula chloropus, Aythya ferina, etc., with relatively large numbers of individuals. The analysis showed a relatively larger number (66 of euconstant and constant species, which confirmed the wealth of food resources in the area during the nesting period. The specific richness on the Bascov Lake is represented by 119 species, a number that is consistent with the availability of the food resources and nesting places, as well as the somewhat fluctuating presence of predators (stray dogs, and the anthropocentric disturbance (sound and chemical pollution, etc.. The yearly increase in the number of reed clusters, the expansion of the surface of the islets, the emergence of bushes and trees, the ageing of the existing trees have led to a certain yearly increase in the number of breeding individuals in 45 species. But the anthropogenic influence in the area has eventually contributed to a decrease in the number of birds, both as a number of species and as a number of individuals. The study has also shown that in the farmland bird species the number of individuals is in decline. Most of the breeding species - 75 (representing 74% in the area under research are migratory. Eighteen breeding species (17.64% are listed in Annex I of the Birds Directive. The presence of the key breeding species in the area under research must be

  5. Eradication of scrapie with selective breeding: are we nearly there?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidse Aart

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following EU decision 2003/100/EC Member States have recently implemented sheep breeding programmes to reduce the prevalence of sheep with TSE susceptible prion genotypes. The present paper investigates the progress of the breeding programme in the Netherlands. The PrP genotype frequencies were monitored through time using two sets of random samples: one set covers the years 2005 to 2008 and is taken from national surveillance programme; the other is taken from 168 random sheep farms in 2007. The data reveal that although the level of compliance to the breeding programme has been high, the frequency of susceptible genotypes varies substantially between farms. The 168 sheep farms are a subset of 689 farms participating in a postal survey inquiring about management and breeding strategies. This survey aimed to identify how much these strategies varied between farms, in order to inform assessment of the expected future progress towards eradication of classical scrapie. Results On the one hand, we found that compliance to the national breeding program has been high, and the frequency of resistant genotypes is expected to increase further in the next few years. On the other hand, we observed a large variation in prevalence of the scrapie resistant PrP genotype ARR between farms, implicating a large variation of genetic resistance between farms. Substantial between-flock differences in management and breeding strategies were found in the postal survey, suggesting considerable variation in risk of scrapie transmission between farms. Conclusions Our results show that although there has been a good progress in the breeding for scrapie resistance and the average farm-level scrapie susceptibility in the Netherlands has been significantly reduced, still a considerable proportion of farms contain high frequencies of susceptible genotypes in their sheep population. Since 2007 the breeding for genetic resistance is voluntarily again, and

  6. Genome wide selection in Citrus breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, I B; Borém, A; Cristofani-Yaly, M; de Resende, M D V; Azevedo, C F; Bastianel, M; Novelli, V M; Machado, M A

    2016-10-17

    Genome wide selection (GWS) is essential for the genetic improvement of perennial species such as Citrus because of its ability to increase gain per unit time and to enable the efficient selection of characteristics with low heritability. This study assessed GWS efficiency in a population of Citrus and compared it with selection based on phenotypic data. A total of 180 individual trees from a cross between Pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and Murcott tangor (Citrus sinensis Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco) were evaluated for 10 characteristics related to fruit quality. The hybrids were genotyped using 5287 DArT_seq(TM) (diversity arrays technology) molecular markers and their effects on phenotypes were predicted using the random regression - best linear unbiased predictor (rr-BLUP) method. The predictive ability, prediction bias, and accuracy of GWS were estimated to verify its effectiveness for phenotype prediction. The proportion of genetic variance explained by the markers was also computed. The heritability of the traits, as determined by markers, was 16-28%. The predictive ability of these markers ranged from 0.53 to 0.64, and the regression coefficients between predicted and observed phenotypes were close to unity. Over 35% of the genetic variance was accounted for by the markers. Accuracy estimates with GWS were lower than those obtained by phenotypic analysis; however, GWS was superior in terms of genetic gain per unit time. Thus, GWS may be useful for Citrus breeding as it can predict phenotypes early and accurately, and reduce the length of the selection cycle. This study demonstrates the feasibility of genomic selection in Citrus.

  7. One hundred years of statistical developments in animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianola, Daniel; Rosa, Guilherme J M

    2015-01-01

    Statistical methodology has played a key role in scientific animal breeding. Approximately one hundred years of statistical developments in animal breeding are reviewed. Some of the scientific foundations of the field are discussed, and many milestones are examined from historical and critical perspectives. The review concludes with a discussion of some future challenges and opportunities arising from the massive amount of data generated by livestock, plant, and human genome projects.

  8. Competitor phenology as a social cue in breeding site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samplonius, Jelmer M; Both, Christiaan

    2017-05-01

    Predicting habitat quality is a major challenge for animals selecting a breeding patch, because it affects reproductive success. Breeding site selection may be based on previous experience, or on social information from the density and success of competitors with an earlier phenology. Variation in animal breeding phenology is often correlated with variation in habitat quality. Generally, animals breed earlier in high-quality habitats that allow them to reach a nutritional threshold required for breeding earlier or avoid nest predation. In addition, habitat quality may affect phenological overlap between species and thereby interspecific competition. Therefore, we hypothesized that competitor breeding phenology can be used as social cue by settling migrants to locate high-quality breeding sites. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally advanced and delayed hatching phenology of two resident tit species on the level of study plots and studied male and female settlement patterns of migratory pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. The manipulations were assigned at random in two consecutive years, and treatments were swapped between years in sites that were used in both years. In both years, males settled in equal numbers across treatments, but later arriving females avoided pairing with males in delayed phenology plots. Moreover, male pairing probability declined strongly with arrival date on the breeding grounds. Our results demonstrate that competitor phenology may be used to assess habitat quality by settling migrants, but we cannot pinpoint the exact mechanism (e.g. resource quality, predation pressure or competition) that has given rise to this pattern. In addition, we show that opposing selection pressures for arrival timing may give rise to different social information availabilities between sexes. We discuss our findings in the context of climate warming, social information use and the evolution of protandry in migratory animals.

  9. Genetic Diversity of Old Chicken Breeds Kept in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Maretto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the genetic variation of five local chicken breeds reared in Poland. Twenty-seven microsatellite markers were investigated in 138 birds belonging to five breeds: Miniature Cochin (MCO, Gold Italian (GI, Green Legged Partridge (GLP, Silver Italian (SI and White Leghorn (WL. One hundred eighty five alleles were detected in the overall population, with a mean number of 6.85 ± 3.32 alleles per locus. For the local breeds, the observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from a minimum of 0.287 to a maximum of 0.458 and from 0.397 to 0.499 for the GI and SI breeds, respectively. The overall population heterozygote deficiency was 0.430, the average Wright’s inbreeding coefficient (FIS was 0.061 and the heterozygote deficiency due to breed subdivision was 0.393. Wright’s fixation index was slightly positive for all breeds excluding MCO (FIS = -0.476 and the estimated molecular inbreeding (fij within breed ranged from 0.296 (GLP and SI to 0.361 (WL evidencing limited coancestry. Mean allelic richness, obtained with rarefaction method based on sixteen observations, was 2.12 being the WL the less variable (1.79. Tomiuk and Loeschcke’s DTL genetic distance values were used to draw a neighbornet network which separated the cluster made of MCO and GLP from the cluster of GI, WL and SI. The results arising from our microsatellites analysis represent a starting point for the valorization of these local Polish chicken breeds for monitoring and preserving their genetic variability.

  10. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs.

  11. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2008-08-01

    The global amphibian crisis has resulted in renewed interest in captive breeding as a conservation tool for amphibians. Although captive breeding and reintroduction are controversial management actions, amphibians possess a number of attributes that make them potentially good models for such programs. We reviewed the extent and effectiveness of captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians through an analysis of data from the Global Amphibian Assessment and other sources. Most captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians have focused on threatened species from industrialized countries with relatively low amphibian diversity. Out of 110 species in such programs, 52 were in programs with no plans for reintroduction that had conservation research or conservation education as their main purpose. A further 39 species were in programs that entailed captive breeding and reintroduction or combined captive breeding with relocations of wild animals. Nineteen species were in programs with relocations of wild animals only. Eighteen out of 58 reintroduced species have subsequently bred successfully in the wild, and 13 of these species have established self-sustaining populations. As with threatened amphibians generally, amphibians in captive breeding or reintroduction programs face multiple threats, with habitat loss being the most important. Nevertheless, only 18 out of 58 reintroduced species faced threats that are all potentially reversible. When selecting species for captive programs, dilemmas may emerge between choosing species that have a good chance of surviving after reintroduction because their threats are reversible and those that are doomed to extinction in the wild as a result of irreversible threats. Captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians require long-term commitments to ensure success, and different management strategies may be needed for species earmarked for reintroduction and species used for conservation

  12. Breeding sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for drought tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Rauf

    2008-01-01

    Productivity of sunflower is strongly regulated by the availability of water and greatest yield losses occur when water shortage occurs at flowering. Therefore, it is critical to manage the deleterious effect of drought stress at this stage. Evolving crop genotypes which have enhanced drought tolerance are the most successful and cheapest strategy to cope with drought. However, progress in drought tolerance breeding is slow due to inappropriate selection criteria and faulty breeding strategie...

  13. Network Candidate Genes in Breeding for Drought Tolerant Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Tim Krannich; Lisa Maletzki; Christina Kurowsky; Renate Horn

    2015-01-01

    Climate change leading to increased periods of low water availability as well as increasing demands for food in the coming years makes breeding for drought tolerant crops a high priority. Plants have developed diverse strategies and mechanisms to survive drought stress. However, most of these represent drought escape or avoidance strategies like early flowering or low stomatal conductance that are not applicable in breeding for crops with high yields under drought conditions. Even though a gr...

  14. Larvivorous fishes in controlling mosquito breeding from draw wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, R D; Chakraverty, R K; Rai, R N; Dey, K P; Sharma, R S

    1989-12-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus have been found to breed in about 29 per cent of the wells in semi-urban area and 14 per cent of the wells in rural areas of Varanasi at one time or other. Majority of such wells are used-ones. Effectiveness of Poecillia reticulata, Esomus danrica and Trichogaster fasciatus in controlling well breeding is evaluated in the present study with successful results.

  15. Breeding ecology of ground tits in northeastern Tibetan plateau, with special reference to cooperative breeding system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin LU; Ran HUO; Yang LI; Wenbo LIAO; Chen WANG

    2011-01-01

    Data on breeding ecology of a color-band marked population of the ground tit Parus humilis were collected in north Qinghai on the Tibetan plateau,during 2008 and 2009.In spring the birds excavated 0.8-3.2 m long nesting burrows under the ground.First-egg laying occurred between late April and late June during which a pair produced one brood.Incubation was done by female alone for 15-16 days and nestling-feeding by both sexes and helpers in any for 23-25 days.Average brood size at fledging was 5.8 (± 1.4 SD,3-8) and all the 27 observed nesting attempts fledged at least one young.At the population level,brood sex ratio did not differ from 1∶1.The birds are a territory-living resident,with annual resight rates being 48% (22 of 46) in adult breeders and 10% (7 of 67) in yearlings.Pairs were socially monogamous,of which 23% (9 of 40) contained one and sometimes two male helpers,most likely being philopatric sons of the breeders.The formation of cooperative groups is similar to the population in central Tibet but differs from that in south Guansu where breeding ground tits exhibit a high level of annual turnover [Current Zoology 57 (6):751-757,2011].

  16. Breeding ecology of ground tits in northeastern Tibetan plateau, with special reference to cooperative breeding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin LU, Ran HUO, Yang LI, Wenbo LIAO, Chen WANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on breeding ecology of a color-band marked population of the ground tit Parus humilis were collected in north Qinghai on the Tibetan plateau, during 2008 and 2009. In spring the birds excavated 0.8-3.2 m long nesting burrows under the ground. First-egg laying occurred between late April and late June during which a pair produced one brood. Incubation was done by female alone for 15-16 days and nestling-feeding by both sexes and helpers in any for 23-25 days. Average brood size at fledging was 5.8 (± 1.4 SD, 3-8 and all the 27 observed nesting attempts fledged at least one young. At the population level, brood sex ratio did not differ from 1:1. The birds are a territory-living resident, with annual resight rates being 48% (22 of 46 in adult breeders and 10% (7 of 67 in yearlings. Pairs were socially monogamous, of which 23% (9 of 40 contained one and sometimes two male helpers, most likely being philopatric sons of the breeders. The formation of cooperative groups is similar to the population in central Tibet but differs from that in south Guansu where breeding ground tits exhibit a high level of annual turnover [Current Zoology 57 (6: 751–757, 2011].

  17. Estimating the annual number of breeding attempts from breeding dates using mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornulier, Thomas; Elston, David A; Arcese, Peter; Benton, Tim G; Douglas, David J T; Lambin, Xavier; Reid, Jane; Robinson, Robert A; Sutherland, William J

    2009-11-01

    Well-established statistical methods exist to estimate variation in a number of key demographic rates from field data, including life-history transition probabilities and reproductive success per attempt. However, our understanding of the processes underlying population change remains incomplete without knowing the number of reproductive attempts individuals make annually; this is a key demographic rate for which we have no satisfactory method of estimating. Using census data to estimate this parameter from requires disaggregating the overlying temporal distributions of first and subsequent breeding attempts. We describe a Bayesian mixture method to estimate the annual number of reproductive attempts from field data to provide a new tool for demographic inference. We validate our method using comprehensive data on individually-marked song sparrows Melospiza melodia, and then apply it to more typical nest record data collected over 45 years on yellowhammers Emberiza citrinella. We illustrate the utility of our method by testing, and rejecting, the hypothesis that declines in UK yellowhammer populations have occurred concurrently with declines in annual breeding frequency.

  18. Opposing selection and environmental variation modify optimal timing of breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarwater, Corey E; Beissinger, Steven R

    2013-09-17

    Studies of evolution in wild populations often find that the heritable phenotypic traits of individuals producing the most offspring do not increase proportionally in the population. This paradox may arise when phenotypic traits influence both fecundity and viability and when there is a tradeoff between these fitness components, leading to opposing selection. Such tradeoffs are the foundation of life history theory, but they are rarely investigated in selection studies. Timing of breeding is a classic example of a heritable trait under directional selection that does not result in an evolutionary response. Using a 22-y study of a tropical parrot, we show that opposing viability and fecundity selection on the timing of breeding is common and affects optimal breeding date, defined by maximization of fitness. After accounting for sampling error, the directions of viability (positive) and fecundity (negative) selection were consistent, but the magnitude of selection fluctuated among years. Environmental conditions (rainfall and breeding density) primarily and breeding experience secondarily modified selection, shifting optimal timing among individuals and years. In contrast to other studies, viability selection was as strong as fecundity selection, late-born juveniles had greater survival than early-born juveniles, and breeding later in the year increased fitness under opposing selection. Our findings provide support for life history tradeoffs influencing selection on phenotypic traits, highlight the need to unify selection and life history theory, and illustrate the importance of monitoring survival as well as reproduction for understanding phenological responses to climate change.

  19. Genetic diversity revealed by AFLP markers in Albanian goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Anila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP technique with three EcoRI/TaqI primer combinations was used in 185 unrelated individuals, representative of 6 local goat breeds of Albania, and 107 markers were generated. The mean Nei’s expected heterozygosity value for the whole population was 0.199 and the mean Shannon index was 0.249, indicating a high level of within-breed diversity. Wright’s FST index, Nei’s unbiased genetic distance and Reynolds’ genetic distance were calculated. Pairwise Fst values among the populations ranged from 0.019 to 0.047. A highly significant average FST of 0.031 was estimated, showing a low level of breed subdivision. Most of the variation is accounted for by differences among individuals. Cluster analysis based on Reynolds’ genetic distance between breeds and PCA were performed. An individual UPGMA tree based on Jaccard’s similarity index showed clusters with individuals from all goat breeds. Analysis of population structure points to a high level of admixture among breeds.

  20. Nest ectoparasites increase physiological stress in breeding birds: an experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de La Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Tomás, Gustavo; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa; Martínez, Javier

    2011-02-01

    Parasites are undoubtedly a biotic factor that produces stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important molecules buffering cellular damage under adverse conditions. During the breeding season, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.) adults are affected by blood parasites, nest-dwelling parasites and biting flies, potentially affecting their HSP-mediated responses. Here, we treated females with primaquine to reduce blood parasites and fumigated nests with permethrin to reduce nest-dwelling parasites to test whether these treatments affect HSP60 level during the breeding season. Medicated females, but not controls, had a significant reduction of the intensity of infection by Haemoproteus spp. blood parasites. However, final intensity of infection did not differ significantly between groups, and we did not find an effect of medication on change in HSP60 level. Fumigation reduced the abundance of nest-dwelling parasites (mites, fleas and blowfly larvae) and engorged biting midges in nests. Females breeding in non-fumigated nests increased HSP60 levels during the season more than those breeding in fumigated nests. Furthermore, the change in HSP60 level was positively correlated with the abundance of biting midges. These results show how infections by nest ectoparasites during the breeding period can increase the level of HSPs and suggest that biting midges impose physiological costs on breeding female blue tits. Although plausible, the alternative that biting midges prefer to feed on more stressed birds is poorly supported by previous studies.

  1. Dog Breed Differences in Visual Communication with Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Akitsugu; Romero, Teresa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have developed a close relationship with humans through the process of domestication. In human-dog interactions, eye contact is a key element of relationship initiation and maintenance. Previous studies have suggested that canine ability to produce human-directed communicative signals is influenced by domestication history, from wolves to dogs, as well as by recent breed selection for particular working purposes. To test the genetic basis for such abilities in purebred dogs, we examined gazing behavior towards humans using two types of behavioral experiments: the 'visual contact task' and the 'unsolvable task'. A total of 125 dogs participated in the study. Based on the genetic relatedness among breeds subjects were classified into five breed groups: Ancient, Herding, Hunting, Retriever-Mastiff and Working). We found that it took longer time for Ancient breeds to make an eye-contact with humans, and that they gazed at humans for shorter periods of time than any other breed group in the unsolvable situation. Our findings suggest that spontaneous gaze behavior towards humans is associated with genetic similarity to wolves rather than with recent selective pressure to create particular working breeds.

  2. Candidate genes for idiopathic epilepsy in four dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickelson James R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic epilepsy (IE is a naturally occurring and significant seizure disorder affecting all dog breeds. Because dog breeds are genetically isolated populations, it is possible that IE is attributable to common founders and is genetically homogenous within breeds. In humans, a number of mutations, the majority of which are genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitters, or their regulatory subunits, have been discovered to cause rare, specific types of IE. It was hypothesized that there are simple genetic bases for IE in some purebred dog breeds, specifically in Vizslas, English Springer Spaniels (ESS, Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs (GSMD, and Beagles, and that the gene(s responsible may, in some cases, be the same as those already discovered in humans. Results Candidate genes known to be involved in human epilepsy, along with selected additional genes in the same gene families that are involved in murine epilepsy or are expressed in neural tissue, were examined in populations of affected and unaffected dogs. Microsatellite markers in close proximity to each candidate gene were genotyped and subjected to two-point linkage in Vizslas, and association analysis in ESS, GSMD and Beagles. Conclusions Most of these candidate genes were not significantly associated with IE in these four dog breeds, while a few genes remained inconclusive. Other genes not included in this study may still be causing monogenic IE in these breeds or, like many cases of human IE, the disease in dogs may be likewise polygenic.

  3. Breed susceptibility for developmental orthopedic diseases in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFond, Elizabeth; Breur, Gert J; Austin, Connie C

    2002-01-01

    A large-scale epidemiological study was conducted to determine breeds at risk for 12 developmental orthopedic diseases (DODs). Developmental orthopedic diseases investigated included canine hip dysplasia (CHD); craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO); fragmented coronoid process; hypertrophic osteodystrophy; Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease; osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle, caudal humeral head, femoral condyles, and talar trochlear ridges; panosteitis; patella luxation; and ununited anconeal process. Dogs that were diagnosed with any one of the diseases of interest at any of 10 veterinary teaching hospitals participating in the Veterinary Medical Database from 1986 to 1995 were included as cases. Odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine risk. Frequency of diagnosis during the 10-year period ranged from 35 cases (CMO) to 10,637 cases (CHD). The number of breeds at increased risk for a disease ranged from one (CMO) to 35 (CHD). Breed susceptibility for a DOD may suggest a genetic component in the disease etiology. The results of this study serve to increase veterinarians' awareness of breeds susceptible to DODs and may facilitate the control of such diseases by identifying breeds that might benefit from breeding programs or environmental intervention such as dietary modification.

  4. Dog Breed Differences in Visual Communication with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Akitsugu; Romero, Teresa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have developed a close relationship with humans through the process of domestication. In human-dog interactions, eye contact is a key element of relationship initiation and maintenance. Previous studies have suggested that canine ability to produce human-directed communicative signals is influenced by domestication history, from wolves to dogs, as well as by recent breed selection for particular working purposes. To test the genetic basis for such abilities in purebred dogs, we examined gazing behavior towards humans using two types of behavioral experiments: the ‘visual contact task’ and the ‘unsolvable task’. A total of 125 dogs participated in the study. Based on the genetic relatedness among breeds subjects were classified into five breed groups: Ancient, Herding, Hunting, Retriever-Mastiff and Working). We found that it took longer time for Ancient breeds to make an eye-contact with humans, and that they gazed at humans for shorter periods of time than any other breed group in the unsolvable situation. Our findings suggest that spontaneous gaze behavior towards humans is associated with genetic similarity to wolves rather than with recent selective pressure to create particular working breeds. PMID:27736990

  5. Breed- and age-related differences in canine mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Ha-Young; Shin, Jong-Il; Seung, Byung-Joon; Ju, Jung-Hyung; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2016-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a type of breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). It is an important and clinically relevant condition as it has a poor prognosis and is difficult to treat. Basal-like triple-negative cancer is highly prevalent in both African-Americans and adolescents. We therefore examined whether such a cancer likewise occurs in specific breeds and age groups in dogs, focusing on basal-like triple-negative cancer in particular. In this study, 181 samples from dogs with malignant mammary carcinoma from the 5 most common breeds and 2 age groups in Korea were analyzed. Histological classification and molecular subtyping, including assessment of immunohistochemical findings, were carried out. Twenty-five of 28 (89.3%) triple-negative carcinomas were identified as basal-like triple-negative carcinomas. Analysis of associations of classified factors revealed that the shih tzu breed (9/25, 36.0%) and advanced-age (19/25, 76.0%) groups were characterized by higher prevalence of basal-like triple-negative tumors with diverse histological types and of a higher grade. These results suggest that breed- and age-related differences can be identified in canine mammary carcinoma and, notably, in the shih tzu breed and at older ages. Further investigation of these distinguishing characteristics of the shih tzu breed is warranted.

  6. Behaviour characteristics estimation tool of genetic distance between sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Handiwirawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on the estimation of genetic distances and differentiation among sheep breeds are needed in crossing and conservation programs. This research aims to study of utilizing behaviour characteristic variables to differentiate and estimate genetic distance between the sheep breeds. The study was conducted at Cilebut and Bogor Animal House of Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production. Five sheep breeds used were Barbados Black Belly Cross (BC, Garut Composite (KG, Garut Local (LG, Sumatera Composite (KS and St. Croix Cross (SC, with total sample of 50 heads. A total of 10 variables of behavior traits were observed in this study. Analysis of variances and significance tests were applied to compare between sheep breeds and performed for all of behavior traits using PROC GLM of SAS Program ver. 9.0. PROC CANDISC was used for canonical discriminant analyses, the hierarchical clustering was performed using the PROC CLUSTER by Average Linkage method (Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using Arithmetic Averages, UPGMA, and the dendogram for the five sheep breeds was described using PROC TREE. The differentiator variables for the behavior traits were standing and feeding duration. The canonical plotting based on behavioral characteristics could differentiate BC, KS and LG (with KG and SC sheeps. Estimation of genetic distance based on the behavior traits is less accurate for grouping of sheep breeds.

  7. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for...

  8. Breeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Robert C.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on breeding livestock contains materials for use in teaching the importance of breeding, the physiology of livestock breeding, reproductive processes, sire selection, and breeding systems. Lessons on each of these competencies contain the following:…

  9. 9 CFR 151.2 - Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.2 Section 151.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.2 Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding. The Administrator...

  10. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... books of record. 151.10 Section 151.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Recognition of Breeds and Books of Record § 151.10 Recognition of additional breeds and books...

  11. Genetic characterization of Egyptian and Italian sheep breeds using mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2015-06-01

    The matrix of pairwise differences among breeds was used to perform a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. This analysis showed that the Italian breeds are clearly separated from the Egyptian breeds; moreover the Egyptian Barki breed is separated from Ossimi and Rahmani.

  12. Potato breeding in the Netherlands: a successful participatory model with collaboration between farmers and commercial breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Mertens, L.; Loon, van J.P.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2014-01-01

    Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) is mostly considered relevant to smallholder agriculture in developing countries. PPB involves getting farmers to participate in plant breeding to overcome shortcomings in the formal plant breeding system. The potato breeding system in the Netherlands has a long st

  13. Production objectives and breeding goals of Sahiwal cattle keepers in Kenya and implications for a breeding programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilatsia, Evans D; Roessler, Regina; Kahi, Alexander K; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Zárate, Valle

    2012-03-01

    The Sahiwal breed has been used for upgrading the East African Zebu (EAZ) for improved milk production and growth performance in the southern rangelands of Kenya. Main users of this breed are Maasai pastoralists. Until now, there has been no deliberate effort to understand why these pastoralists specifically prefer to keep Sahiwal genetic resources as well as which traits are considered important by them and what is the underlying reason for this. However, this information is regarded vital for further development of the breed. A survey was conducted between May and October 2009 among Maasai pastoralists in Kajiado and Narok counties in the Southern part of Kenya, and private ranches and government farms to identify production objectives and breeding goals of Sahiwal cattle producers. Sahiwal genetic resources were mainly kept for domestic milk production and for revenue generation through milk sales and live animals. To a limited extent, they were kept for breeding and also for multiple objectives that included insurance against risks and social functions. Production aims were influenced to varying extents by various household and farmer characteristics. Sahiwal cattle and their crosses were generally perceived to be better with respect to productive traits and fertility traits when compared to the EAZ. However, the EAZ was rated higher with respect to adaptation traits. The breeding objective traits of primary importance were high milk yield and big body size, good reproductive efficiency and relatively good adaptation to local production conditions. Performance and functional traits are important breeding goals that play a major role in fulfilling the multiple production objectives. This forms the basis for the optimisation of a breeding programme for sustainable utilisation to meet the needs of Sahiwal cattle producers.

  14. Post-breeding migration of Dutch-breeding black-tailed godwits: timing, routes, use of stopovers, and nonbreeding destinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Senner, Nathan R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Douglas, David C.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Wymenga, Eddy; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of long-distance migratory shorebirds is complex because these species use habitats spread across continents and hemispheres, making identification of critical habitats and potential bottlenecks in the annual cycle especially difficult. The population of Black-tailed Godwits that breeds in Western Europe, Limosa limosa limosa, has declined precipitously over the past few decades. Despite significant efforts to identify the root causes of this decline, much remains unclear. To better understand the migratory timing, use of stopover and nonbreeding sites, and the potential impact of breeding success on these parameters, we attached 15 Argos satellite transmitters and 10 geolocation tracking devices to adult godwits nearing completion of incubation at breeding sites in southwest Friesland, The Netherlands during the spring of 2009. We successfully tracked 16 adult godwits for their entire southward migration and two others for part of it. Three migration patterns and four regions of use were apparent. Most godwits left their breeding sites and proceeded south directly to stopover sites in the Mediterranean — e.g. Spain, Portugal, and Morocco — before flying on to non-breeding sites in West Africa. Other individuals spent the entire nonbreeding season in the Mediterranean. A third pattern included a few individuals that flew nonstop from their Dutch breeding sites to nonbreeding sites in West Africa. Tracking data from this study will be immediately useful for conservation efforts focused on preserving the dispersed network of sites used by godwits during their southward migration.

  15. Método Mãe Canguru: aplicação no Brasil, evidências científicas e impacto sobre o aleitamento materno Kangaroo Mother Care: scientific evidences and impact on breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Isoyama Venancio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o histórico do Método Mãe Canguru e apresentar evidências científicas sobre os benefícios dessa prática para os bebês de baixo peso no tocante a morbimortalidade, desenvolvimento psicoafetivo, neurossensorial e amamentação. FONTES DE DADOS: Foram consultadas publicações sobre o Método Mãe Canguru abrangendo o período de 1983 até 2004, identificadas nas bases de dados MEDLINE e Lilacs, bem como livros, teses e publicações técnicas do Ministério da Saúde. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Desde sua primeira descrição, o Método Mãe Canguru tem sido amplamente estudado. A análise de experimentos randomizados mostrou que o mesmo consiste em fator de proteção para a amamentação exclusiva no momento da alta hospitalar (RR 0,41; IC95% 0,25-0,68. O método também está associado a redução do risco de infecção hospitalar com 41 semanas de idade gestacional corrigida (RR 0,49; IC95% 0,25-0,93; redução de enfermidades graves (RR 0,30; IC95% 0,14-0,67; redução de infecções do trato respiratório inferior aos 6 meses (RR 0,37; IC95% 0,15-0,89; e maior ganho ponderal diário (diferença de médias de 3,6 g/dia; IC95% 0,8-6,4. O desenvolvimento psicomotor foi semelhante entre bebês submetidos ao Método Mãe Canguru e controles aos 12 meses, e não houve evidências de impacto sobre a mortalidade infantil. CONCLUSÃO: Há evidências de impacto positivo do Método Mãe Canguru sobre a prática da amamentação. Embora o método pareça reduzir a morbidade infantil, as evidências são ainda insuficientes para que o mesmo seja recomendado rotineiramente. Por outro lado, não existem relatos sobre efeitos deletérios da aplicação do método. Há a necessidade de se realizar estudos sobre a efetividade, aplicabilidade e aceitabilidade do Método Mãe Canguru em nosso meio.OBJECTIVE: To describe the history of the Kangaroo Mother Care and present scientific evidence about benefits of this practice on morbidity and

  16. An Overview of Ten Italian Horse Breeds through Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodiferro, Marco Rosario; Capomaccio, Stefano; Buttazzoni, Luca; Biggio, Giovanni Paolo; Cherchi, Raffaele; Albertini, Emidio; Olivieri, Anna; Cappelli, Katia; Achilli, Alessandro; Silvestrelli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background The climatic and cultural diversity of the Italian Peninsula triggered, over time, the development of a great variety of horse breeds, whose origin and history are still unclear. To clarify this issue, analyses on phenotypic traits and genealogical data were recently coupled with molecular screening. Methodology To provide a comprehensive overview of the horse genetic variability in Italy, we produced and phylogenetically analyzed 407 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region sequences from ten of the most important Italian riding horse and pony breeds: Bardigiano, Esperia, Giara, Lipizzan, Maremmano, Monterufolino, Murgese, Sarcidano, Sardinian Anglo-Arab, and Tolfetano. A collection of 36 Arabian horses was also evaluated to assess the genetic consequences of their common use for the improvement of some local breeds. Conclusions In Italian horses, all previously described domestic mtDNA haplogroups were detected as well as a high haplotype diversity. These findings indicate that the ancestral local mares harbored an extensive genetic diversity. Moreover, the limited haplotype sharing (11%) with the Arabian horse reveals that its impact on the autochthonous mitochondrial gene pools during the final establishment of pure breeds was marginal, if any. The only significant signs of genetic structure and differentiation were detected in the geographically most isolated contexts (i.e. Monterufolino and Sardinian breeds). Such a geographic effect was also confirmed in a wider breed setting, where the Italian pool stands in an intermediate position together with most of the other Mediterranean stocks. However, some notable exceptions and peculiar genetic proximities lend genetic support to historical theories about the origin of specific Italian breeds. PMID:27054850

  17. Tracing cattle breeds with principal components analysis ancestry informative SNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamey Lewis

    Full Text Available The recent release of the Bovine HapMap dataset represents the most detailed survey of bovine genetic diversity to date, providing an important resource for the design and development of livestock production. We studied this dataset, comprising more than 30,000 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs for 19 breeds (13 taurine, three zebu, and three hybrid breeds, seeking to identify small panels of genetic markers that can be used to trace the breed of unknown cattle samples. Taking advantage of the power of Principal Components Analysis and algorithms that we have recently described for the selection of Ancestry Informative Markers from genomewide datasets, we present a decision-tree which can be used to accurately infer the origin of individual cattle. In doing so, we present a thorough examination of population genetic structure in modern bovine breeds. Performing extensive cross-validation experiments, we demonstrate that 250-500 carefully selected SNPs suffice in order to achieve close to 100% prediction accuracy of individual ancestry, when this particular set of 19 breeds is considered. Our methods, coupled with the dense genotypic data that is becoming increasingly available, have the potential to become a valuable tool and have considerable impact in worldwide livestock production. They can be used to inform the design of studies of the genetic basis of economically important traits in cattle, as well as breeding programs and efforts to conserve biodiversity. Furthermore, the SNPs that we have identified can provide a reliable solution for the traceability of breed-specific branded products.

  18. Genomic tools in cowpea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousmane eBoukar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS, promises an increase in the number of

  19. Genomic Tools in Cowpea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukar, Ousmane; Fatokun, Christian A; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds, and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids, and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS)-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS), promises an increase in the number of improved

  20. Hybridization among wild boars, local breeds and commercial breeds - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Bakan, Jana; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka

    . Hybridization with the domestic pig is known to occur in Europe, however the degree and extent of the phenomenon is not fully understood yet. Introgression is considered to be a treat to biodiversity and could lead to loss of local adaptation or introgression in the wild population of human selected genes....... A better understanding of the hybridization levels at European scale would provide an important tool for the development of management plans aimed at reducing human conflict but also at preserving biodiversity and genetic differentiation. Additionally, this information would provide new perspectives...... gradients in variability levels among the analysed wild and domestic populations. This preliminary results will be further investigated to address the possible presence of hybrid zone(s) in Europe and the possible implications for conservation and management of both wild populations and local pig breeds...

  1. The scurs inheritance: new insights from the French Charolais breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier Mathieu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polled animals are valued in cattle industry because the absence of horns has a significant economic impact. However, some cattle are neither polled nor horned but have so-called scurs on their heads, which are corneous growths loosely attached to the skull. A better understanding of the genetic determinism of the scurs phenotype would help to fine map the polled locus. To date, only one study has attempted to map the scurs locus in cattle. Here, we have investigated the inheritance of the scurs phenotype in the French Charolais breed and examined whether the previously proposed localisation of the scurs locus on bovine chromosome 19 could be confirmed or not. Results Our results indicate that the inheritance pattern of the scurs phenotype in the French Charolais breed is autosomal recessive with complete penetrance in both sexes, which is different from what is reported for other breeds. The frequency of the scurs allele (Sc reaches 69.9% in the French Charolais population. Eleven microsatellite markers on bovine chromosome 19 were genotyped in 267 offspring (33 half-sib and full-sib families. Both non-parametric and parametric linkage analyses suggest that in the French Charolais population the scurs locus may not map to the previously identified region. A new analysis of an Angus-Hereford and Hereford-Hereford pedigree published in 1978 enabled us to calculate the frequency of the Sc allele in the Hereford breed (89.4% and to study the penetrance of this allele in males heterozygous for both polled and scurs loci (40%. This led us to revise the inheritance pattern of the scurs phenotype proposed for the Hereford breed and to suggest that allele Sc is not fully but partially dominant in double heterozygous males while it is always recessive in females. Crossbreeding involving the Charolais breed and other breeds gave results similar to those reported in the Hereford breed. Conclusion Our results suggest the existence of

  2. Practices and Prospects of Super Hybrid Rice Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The great progress in super rice breeding both in China and other countries has been made in recent years.However, there were three main problems in super rice breeding: 1) the super rice varieties were still rare; 2) most super rice varieties exhibited narrow adaptability; and 3) current breeding theories emphasized too much on the rice growth model, but they were unpractical in guidance for rice breeding. According to the authors' experience on the rice breeding, the breeding strategies including three steps (super parent breeding, super hybrid rice breeding and super hybrid rice seed production)were proposed, and the objectives of each step and the key technologies to achieve the goals were elucidated in detail. The super parent of hybrid rice should exhibit excellent performance in all agronomic traits, with the yield or sink capacity reached the level of the hybrid rice control in regional trials. The super hybrid rice combination should meet the following criteria: good rice quality, wide adaptation, lodging resistance, resistance to main insects and diseases, and the yield exceeded above 8%over the control varieties in the national and provincial regional trials. To achieve the goal, the technical strategies, such as selecting optimal combination of the parents, increasing selection pressure, paying more attention to harmony of ideal plant type, excellent physiological traits and all the agronomic traits, should be emphasized. The yield of seed production should reach 3.75 t/ha and 5.25 t/ha for the super hybrid rice combinations derived from early-season and middle-season types of male sterile lines, respectively. The main technologies for raising seed production yield included selecting optimum seed production site, using the male sterile line with large sink capacity and good outcrossing characteristics, and improving the amount of the pollen by intensive cultivation of the male parent. According to the technologies of the three-step breeding on super

  3. Genetic characterization of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds and analysis of their relationship to cosmopolitan dog breeds using microsatellite markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigi, D.; Marelli, S. P.; Randi, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    -defined cosmopolitan dog breeds. As the Border Collie seems closer to the Italian breeds than the other cosmopolitan shepherd dogs considered here, a possible utilization of this breed to improve working performance in Italian traditional working shepherd dogs cannot be ignored. The data and information found here can...

  4. Proximate drivers of spatial segregation in non-breeding albatrosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Thomas A; Manica, Andrea; Ryan, Peter G; Silk, Janet R D; Croxall, John P; Ireland, Louise; Phillips, Richard A

    2016-07-21

    Many animals partition resources to avoid competition, and in colonially-breeding species this often leads to divergent space or habitat use. During the non-breeding season, foraging constraints are relaxed, yet the patterns and drivers of segregation both between and within populations are poorly understood. We modelled habitat preference to examine how extrinsic (habitat availability and intra-specific competition) and intrinsic factors (population, sex and breeding outcome) influence the distributions of non-breeding grey-headed albatrosses Thalassarche chrysostoma tracked from two major populations, South Georgia (Atlantic Ocean) and the Prince Edward Islands (Indian Ocean). Spatial segregation was greater than expected, reflecting distinct seasonal differences in habitat selection and accessibility, and avoidance of intra-specific competition with local breeders. Previously failed birds segregated spatially from successful birds during summer, when they used less productive waters, suggesting a link between breeding outcome and subsequent habitat selection. In contrast, we found weak evidence of sexual segregation, which did not reflect a difference in habitat use. Our results indicate that the large-scale spatial structuring of albatross distributions results from interactions between extrinsic and intrinsic factors, with important implications for population dynamics. As habitat preferences differed substantially between colonies, populations should be considered independently when identifying critical areas for protection.

  5. North European short-tailed breeds of sheep: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dýrmundsson, O R; Niżnikowski, R

    2010-08-01

    The short-tailed sheep, native of an area stretching from Russia to Iceland, are generally considered a primitive type. These robust northern sheep seem to have been spread by Norse vikings to several countries in this area from the late eighth century to the middle of the eleventh century ad. They have several common characteristics in addition to the fluke-shaped and tapered short tail, such as a wide range of colour patterns, dual-coated wool and the ability to thrive under harsh environmental conditions, often in isolated marginal areas. While 34 short-tailed breeds of North European origin can still be identified, it is clear that their population sizes have declined in most cases and several of them are now rare and endangered. Although these breeds have mainly been confined to certain localities, some of them have gained considerable distribution due to their genetic merits, such as prolificacy. Of these, the Finnsheep and the Romanov are best known being exported to several countries in the world where their genetic material has been utilized through crossbreeding with local sheep. This has resulted in the production of some new synthetic breeds. Meat is now generally the main product of the North European short-tailed breeds and their crossbreds, whereas wool, skins and milk are normally regarded as byproducts, yet of considerable economic importance in some cases. Such breeds have clearly a role to play in sustainable grassland-based production systems in the future.

  6. MATING DESIGNS: HELPFUL TOOL FOR QUANTITATIVE PLANT BREEDING ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanase Nduwumuremyi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of parental materials and good mating designs in conventional plant breeding are the keys to the successful plant breeding programme. However, there are several factors affecting the choices of mating designs. Mating design refers to the procedure of producing the progenies, in plant breeding, plant breeders and geneticists, theoretically and practically, they use different form of mating designs and arrangements for targeted purpose. The choice of a mating design for estimating genetic variances should be dictated by the objectives of the study, time, space, cost and other biological limitations. In all mating designs, the individuals are taken randomly and crossed to produce progenies which are related to each other as half-sibs or full-sibs. A form of multivariate analysis or the analysis of variance can be adopted to estimate the components of variances. Therefore, this review aimed at highlighting the most used mating design in plant breeding and genetics studies. It provides easy and quick insight of the different form of mating designs and some statistical components for successful plant breeding.

  7. Genomic breeding value estimation using nonparametric additive regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solberg Trygve

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genomic selection refers to the use of genomewide dense markers for breeding value estimation and subsequently for selection. The main challenge of genomic breeding value estimation is the estimation of many effects from a limited number of observations. Bayesian methods have been proposed to successfully cope with these challenges. As an alternative class of models, non- and semiparametric models were recently introduced. The present study investigated the ability of nonparametric additive regression models to predict genomic breeding values. The genotypes were modelled for each marker or pair of flanking markers (i.e. the predictors separately. The nonparametric functions for the predictors were estimated simultaneously using additive model theory, applying a binomial kernel. The optimal degree of smoothing was determined by bootstrapping. A mutation-drift-balance simulation was carried out. The breeding values of the last generation (genotyped was predicted using data from the next last generation (genotyped and phenotyped. The results show moderate to high accuracies of the predicted breeding values. A determination of predictor specific degree of smoothing increased the accuracy.

  8. Genetic diversity in Spanish donkey breeds using microsatellite DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Jordi

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic diversity at 13 equine microsatellite loci was compared in five endangered Spanish donkey breeds: Andaluza, Catalana, Mallorquina, Encartaciones and Zamorano-Leonesa. All of the equine microsatellites used in this study were amplified and were polymorphic in the domestic donkey breeds with the exception of HMS1, which was monomorphic, and ASB2, which failed to amplify. Allele number, frequency distributions and mean heterozygosities were very similar among the Spanish donkey breeds. The unbiased expected heterozygosity (HE over all the populations varied between 0.637 and 0.684 in this study. The low GST value showed that only 3.6% of the diversity was between breeds (P A distance matrix showed little differentiation between Spanish breeds, but great differentiation between them and the Moroccan ass and also with the horse, used as an outgroup. These results confirm the potential use of equine microsatellite loci as a tool for genetic studies in domestic donkey populations, which could also be useful for conservation plans.

  9. Corticosterone mediated costs of reproduction link current to future breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Phillips, Richard A; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael; Williams, Tony D

    2013-11-01

    Life-history theory predicts that costs are associated with reproduction. One possible mediator of costs involves the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones, which in birds can be measured in feathers grown during the breeding period. Glucocorticoids mediate physiological responses to unpredictable environmental or other stressors, but they can also function as metabolic regulators during more predictable events such as reproduction. Here we show that corticosterone ("Cort") in feathers grown during the breeding season reflects reproductive effort in two Antarctic seabird species (giant petrels, Macronectes spp.). In females of both species, but not males, feather Cort ("fCort") was nearly 1.5-fold higher in successful than failed breeders (those that lost their eggs/chicks), suggesting a cost of successful reproduction, i.e., high fCort levels in females reflect the elevated plasma Cort levels required to support high metabolic demands of chick-rearing. Successful breeding also led to delayed moult prior to winter migration. The fCort levels and pre-migration moult score that we measured at the end of current breeding were predictive of subsequent reproductive effort in the following year. Birds with high fCort and a delayed initiation of moult were much more likely to defer breeding in the following year. Cort levels and the timing of moult thus provide a potential mechanism for the tradeoff between current and future reproduction.

  10. 考虑尾巴的六刚体仿袋鼠跳跃机器人的落地稳定性研究%Stance Stability of a Hopping Robot Based on the Six-rigid-body Kangaroo Model Considering Its Tail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜兴长; 杨方; 葛文杰; 杨静

    2011-01-01

    根据袋鼠的生物结构及跳跃的特点,建立了具有尾巴和脚趾的仿袋鼠跳跃机器人六刚体模型。应用拉格朗日方法,建立了机构在着地阶段的运动学和动力学方程。运用Matlab7.0对机器人进行仿真计算分析,给出了机器人在着地阶段的各关节转角、关节驱动力矩、质心轨迹、着地压力和ZMP随时间的变化规律。仿真结果表明:考虑尾巴的六刚体仿袋鼠跳跃机器人能显著提高机构的落地稳定性。%Bsaed on the bionic structure and the motion feature of a kangaroo, we estamlsn a mouel ior unlpeu hopping mechanism of a six-rigid-body bionic kangaroo with tail and toe. We adopt Lagrange method to establish the dynamics and kinematics equations for its stance phase. Taking the hopping robot with parameters as an example and using Matlab 7.0 for simulation ,we obtain the changing rule of each joint angle ,joint driving torque, the centroid trajectory, the ground pressure and ZMP with time of the stance phase. The result shows that the tail can greatly improve the stance stability of the bionic kangaroo robot.

  11. Molecular Breeding of Sorghum bicolor, A Novel Energy Crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonio, Reynante; Ito, Yusuke; Morinaka, Yoichi; Sazuka, Takashi; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Currently, molecular breeding is regarded as an important tool for the improvement of many crop species. However, in sorghum, recently heralded as an important bioenergy crop, progress in this field has been relatively slow and limited. In this review, we present existing efforts targeted at genetic characterization of sorghum mutants. We also comprehensively review the different attempts made toward the isolation of genes involved in agronomically important traits, including the dissection of some sorghum quantitative trait loci (QTLs). We also explore the current status of the use of transgenic techniques in sorghum, which should be crucial for advancing sorghum molecular breeding. Through this report, we provide a useful benchmark to help assess how much more sorghum genomics and molecular breeding could be improved.

  12. Reliabilities of genomic estimated breeding values in Danish Jersey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Su, Guosheng;

    2012-01-01

    In order to optimize the use of genomic selection in breeding plans, it is essential to have reliable estimates of the genomic breeding values. This study investigated reliabilities of direct genomic values (DGVs) in the Jersey population estimated by three different methods. The validation methods...... of DGV. The data set consisted of 1003 Danish Jersey bulls with conventional estimated breeding values (EBVs) for 14 different traits included in the Nordic selection index. The bulls were genotyped for Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using the Illumina 54 K chip. A Bayesian method was used...... index pre-selection only. Averaged across traits, the estimates of reliability of DGVs ranged from 0.20 for validation on the most recent 3 years of bulls and up to 0.42 for expected reliabilities. Reliabilities from the cross-validation were on average 0.24. For the individual traits, the reliability...

  13. REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS OF BLACK SLAVONIAN PIG - ENDANGERED BREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đ. Senčić

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Black Slavonian pig is an autochtonous Croatian breed originated by crossing of the breeds Mangulica, Berkshire and Poland Chine at the end of 19th and beginning of 20th century. It belongs to the group of fat-meaty breeds. Due to a small number of the animals (153 sows, 45 gilts and 15 boars – Report HSSP, 2000 it is subjected to extinction danger. The investigation was conducted with 60 sows, inseminated by the total of ten boars at a family farm in eastern Slavonia. Black Slavonian sows farrowed 7.10 piglets per litter of which 6.31 were alive. They reared 5.71 piglets, aged two months, in a litter. Significant variability of the reproductive traits and their statistically important phenotypic correlation (r were determined in the analysed sows.

  14. Understanding Swedish dairy farmers’ view on breeding goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röcklinsberg, H.; Gamborg, Christian; Gjerris, Mickey;

    2016-01-01

    , but also problems related to resources like milking system or grazing and to management practices like herd size or pasture management. Farmers’ practice varies depending on their values or attitudes, farm size and breed, but no previous study has mapped their values underlying choice of breeding goals...... these traits is longevity. Even so, dairy cows in Sweden are culled on average after only 2.4 lactations (about 4.5 years of age) i.e. before the housing and management of the heifer has paid off. Reasons for culling given in the literature include infertility, mastitis, disease or leg and claw problems...... cows. Leaving genetic concerns (b) aside we will now map factors leading to farmers culling a healthy cow even before the investment has been secured. Results show that although culling is emotionally difficult, curiosity in breeding and hope for even better heifers keep up recruitment levels and hence...

  15. Evidence for frequent incest in a cooperatively breeding mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, H J; Cant, M A; Hoffman, J I; Sanderson, J L

    2014-12-01

    As breeding between relatives often results in inbreeding depression, inbreeding avoidance is widespread in the animal kingdom. However, inbreeding avoidance may entail fitness costs. For example, dispersal away from relatives may reduce survival. How these conflicting selection pressures are resolved is challenging to investigate, but theoretical models predict that inbreeding should occur frequently in some systems. Despite this, few studies have found evidence of regular incest in mammals, even in social species where relatives are spatio-temporally clustered and opportunities for inbreeding frequently arise. We used genetic parentage assignments together with relatedness data to quantify inbreeding rates in a wild population of banded mongooses, a cooperatively breeding carnivore. We show that females regularly conceive to close relatives, including fathers and brothers. We suggest that the costs of inbreeding avoidance may sometimes outweigh the benefits, even in cooperatively breeding species where strong within-group incest avoidance is considered to be the norm.

  16. Opportunities for Products of New Plant Breeding Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaart, Jan G; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Lotz, Lambertus A P; Smulders, Marinus J M

    2016-05-01

    Various new plant breeding techniques (NPBT) have a similar aim, namely to produce improved crop varieties that are difficult to obtain through traditional breeding methods. Here, we review the opportunities for products created using NPBTs. We categorize products of these NPBTs into three product classes with a different degree of genetic modification. For each product class, recent examples are described to illustrate the potential for breeding new crops with improved traits. Finally, we touch upon the future applications of these methods, such as cisgenic potato genotypes in which specific combinations of Phytophthora infestans resistance genes have been stacked for use in durable cultivation, or the creation of new disease resistances by knocking out or removing S-genes using genome-editing techniques.

  17. Plant breeding with marker-assisted selection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Sussumu Sakiyama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, molecular marker studies reached extraordinary advances, especially for sequencing and bioinformatics techniques. Marker-assisted selection became part of the breeding program routines of important seed companies, in order to accelerate and optimize the cultivar developing processes. Private seed companies increasingly use marker-assisted selection, especially for the species of great importance to the seed market, e.g. corn, soybean, cotton, and sunflower. In the Brazilian public institutions few breeding programs use it efficiently. The possible reasons are: lack of know-how, lack of appropriate laboratories, few validated markers, high cost, and lack of urgency in obtaining cultivars. In this article we analyze the use and the constraints of marker-assisted selection in plant breeding programs of Brazilian public institutes

  18. Effect of Bacillus subtilis microecological probiotics on livestock breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui ZHOU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of green and healthy microecologics, Bacillus subtilis could balance the intestinal flora, promote the nutrient absorption and enhance immunity. Microecologics is one of the ideal antibiotics alternative, which are effective in preventing and treating animal disease and promoting the growth and development of the animal. Because of its advantages, such as no toxin side effect and no residual or drug-resistant, microecologics has been used in livestock breeding widely. Here, we concluded the characteristics and mechanism of Bacillus subtilis,elaborated application of microecologics on livestock breeding, discussed its problems and suggested its solved methods. In the end, the future of microecologics was expected in order to provide a reference for subsequent livestock breeding.

  19. Analysis of Tritium Breeding in the Test Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, SeongHee; Park, YunSeo; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, neutronic analyses are conducted on redesign of TMs which have high tritium breeding performance based on results of previous study. Calculation model is simplified, there is no effect to cover very complex geometry of fusion reactor for this study. As spent fuel disposal problem is issued in nuclear industry, FFHR is one of the most fascinating candidates for solving this problem through waste transmutation. Our research team also was designed a full core FFHR for waste transmutation. However, in this study, Test Module (TM) as test bed of FFHR for various purposes are analyzed. Analysis of tritium breeding on the TM was conducted as a first phase among TMs having various purposes. Because there are no fissionable materials in the TM for tritium breeding, geometry and neutronic reactions of its simpler compared to TM for waste transmutation and power production. Additionally, it is important database for tritium self-sufficiency as basic design condition of TM. In the previous study, neutronic analyses are conducted on these various TMs: Helium cooled solid breeder (HCSB), water cooled solid breeder (WCSB), Helium cooled dual breeder (HCDB) and molten-salt cooled liquid breeder (MSLB) in order to understand design characteristics. Neutronics calculations are performed with MCNPX 2.6.0 with ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron cross section library and activity and time-dependent tritium production calculations are performed with CINDER'90. In this paper, analysis of tritium breeding on WCHESL and WCHELL as TM is conducted. WCHESL is designed for effective tritium breeding performance and it satisfies design conditions. On the other hand WCHELL is designed for tritium breeding as much as possible and it also satisfies design conditions. However, neutron multiplication performance with these TM is not outstanding. WCHESL consist ceramic Li breeder, its period is 4.15E+08 sec.

  20. Genetic diversity and bottleneck studies in the Marwari horse breed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. K. Gupta; M. Chauhan; S. N. Tandon; Sonia

    2005-12-01

    Genetic diversity within the Marwari breed of horses was evaluated using 26 different microsatellite pairs with 48 DNA samples from unrelated horses. This molecular characterisation was undertaken to evaluate the problem of genetic bottlenecks also, if any, in this breed. The estimated mean (± s.e.) allelic diversity was 5.9 (± 2.24), with a total of 133 alleles. A high level of genetic variability within this breed was observed in terms of high values of mean (± s.e.) effective number of alleles (3.3 ± 1.27), observed heterozygosity (0.5306 ± 0.22), expected Levene’s heterozygosity (0.6612 ± 0.15), expected Nei’s heterozygosity (0.6535 ± 0.14), and polymorphism information content (0.6120 ± 0.03). Low values of Wright’s fixation index, $F_{\\text{IS}}$ (0.2433 ± 0.05) indicated low levels of inbreeding. This basic study indicated the existence of substantial genetic diversity in the Marwari horse population. No significant genotypic linkage disequilibrium was detected across the population, suggesting no evidence of linkage between loci. A normal ‘L’ shaped distribution of mode–shift test, non-significant heterozygote excess on the basis of different models, as revealed from Sign, Standardized differences and Wilcoxon sign rank tests as well as non-significant ratio value suggested that there was no recent bottleneck in the existing Marwari breed population, which is important information for equine breeders. This study also revealed that the Marwari breed can be differentiated from some other exotic breeds of horses on the basis of three microsatellite primers.

  1. Mitochondrial haplotypes reveal a strong genetic structure for three Indian sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeshi, V C; Kadoo, N Y; Sainani, M N; Meadows, J R S; Kijas, J W; Gupta, V S

    2007-10-01

    This survey represents the first characterization of mitochondrial DNA diversity within three breeds of Indian sheep (two strains of the Deccani breed, as well as the Bannur and Garole breeds) from different geographic regions and with divergent phenotypic characteristics. A 1061-bp fragment of the mitochondrial genome spanning the control region, a portion of the 12S rRNA gene and the complete phenyl tRNA gene, was sequenced from 73 animals and compared with the corresponding published sequence from European and Asian breeds and the European Mouflon (Ovis musimon). Analysis of all 156 sequences revealed 73 haplotypes, 52 of which belonged to the Indian breeds. The three Indian breeds had no haplotypes in common, but one Indian haplotype was shared with European and other Asian breeds. The highest nucleotide and haplotype diversity was observed in the Bannur breed (0.00355 and 0.981 respectively), while the minimum was in the Sangamneri strain of the Deccani breed (0.00167 and 0.882 respectively). All 52 Indian haplotypes belonged to mitochondrial lineage A. Therefore, these Indian sheep are distinct from other Asian and European breeds studied so far. The relationships among the haplotypes showed strong breed structure and almost no introgression among these Indian breeds, consistent with Indian sheep husbandry, which discourages genetic exchange between breeds. These results have implications for the conservation of India's ovine biodiversity and suggest a common origin for the breeds investigated.

  2. Seasonal organic pig production with a local breed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Claudi-Magnussen, C.; Horsted, Klaus;

    2009-01-01

    is believed to bea feasible strategy for producing organic pork with high credibility and superior eating quality. The studyincluded a comparison between a modern genotype and the Danish Black-Spotted pig which does almostnot exist in the modern pig production of today. 17 gilts farrowed outdoors in April...... to the modern genotype and thefat of the Black-Spotted pig was characterised as having a special nutty taste. In conclusion, preliminaryresults indicate that the local breed differs markedly with respect to several meat quality aspects comparedto the modern breed but also shows clear disadvantages regarding...... growth performance and lean content...

  3. Genetic characterisation of CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Among calcium sensitive caseins, β-casein is the most abundant in goat milk, representing up to 50% of total casein content. The goat β-casein locus has been widely investigated and at least ten alleles have been identified in different goat breeds. The aim of this work was to investigate the polymorphisms of β-casein gene in Girgentana dairy goat breed in order to assess the genotype distribution and evaluate how frequencies have changed during the last 10 years, as genotype is known to infl...

  4. Population dynamics of mallards breeding in eastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, Bruce D.; Coluccy, John M.; Dugger, Katie M.; Fox, Trevor T.; Kraege, Donald K.; Petrie, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in regional population trends for mallards breeding in the western United States indicates that additional research into factors that influence demographics could contribute to management and understanding the population demographics of mallards across North America. We estimated breeding incidence and adult female, nest, and brood survival in eastern Washington in 2006 and 2007 by monitoring female mallards with radio telemetry and tested how those parameters were influenced by study year (2006 vs. 2007), landscape type (agricultural vs. natural), and age (second year [SY] vs. after second year [ASY]). We also investigated the effects of female body condition and capture date on breeding incidence, and nest initiation date and hatch date on nest and brood survival, respectively. We included population parameters in a stage-based demographic model and conducted a perturbation analysis to identify which vital rates were most influential on population growth rate (λ). Adult female survival was best modeled with a constant weekly survival rate (0.994, SE = 0.003). Breeding incidence differed between years and was higher for birds in better body condition. Nest survival was higher for ASY females (0.276, SE = 0.118) than SY females (0.066, SE = 0.052), and higher on publicly managed lands (0.383, SE = 0.212) than agricultural (0.114, SE = 0.058) landscapes. Brood survival was best modeled with a constant rate for the 7-week monitoring period (0.50, SE = 0.155). The single variable having the greatest influence on λ was non-breeding season survival, but the combination of parameters from the breeding grounds explained a greater percent of the variance in λ. Mallard population growth rate was most sensitive to changes in non-breeding survival, nest success, brood survival, and breeding incidence. Future management decisions should focus on activities that improve these vital rates if managers want to increase the production of

  5. Capital versus income breeding in a seasonal environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainmont, Julie; Andersen, Ken Haste; Varpe, Oystein;

    2014-01-01

    The allocation of resources between growth, storage, and reproduction is a key trade-off in the life-history strategies of organisms. A central dichotomy is between capital breeders and income breeders. Capital breeders build reserves that allow them to spawn at a later time independently of food...... availability, while income breeders allocate ingested food directly to reproduction. Motivated by copepod studies, we use an analytical model to compare the fitness of income with capital breeding in a deterministic seasonal environment. We analyze how the fitness of breeding strategies depend on feeding...

  6. Growth Curves Analysis of Five Meat Rabbit Breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The growth curves of five meat rabbit breeds are fitted in form of Gompertz model. The results are shown as follows :the goodness of fit is higher than 99.50% ;considering the body weight at one hundred day.the maximum weight (A)、the instantaneous relative growth rate (K)、the turning weight (W*)、 the turning age (t*)、the early average daily gain (KW*) selection,the Checkered Giant (GG) and the New Zealand White (NN) are better than other meat breeds,the slauthter age should be at the age of 90 day.

  7. Participatory definition of breeding objectives for sheep breeds under pastoral systems--the case of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Emelie Zonabend; Mirkena, Tadele; Strandberg, Erling; Audho, James; Ojango, Julie; Malmfors, Birgitta; Okeyo, Ally Mwai; Philipsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Crossing local breeds with exotic breeds may be an option for increased livestock productivity. However, there is a risk for endangerment of the local breeds. One such case is in Kenya where the imported Dorper breed is used for crossbreeding with Red Maasai sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate farmers' trait preferences as a basis for determination of breeding objectives for Red Maasai and Dorper sheep at two sites, Amboseli and Isinya, in Kenya. Within their own flock, each farmer identified three ewes representing the best, average and poorest within each breed group: Red Maasai, Dorper and Crosses. Farmers gave reasons for their ranking. Body measurements and weights were also taken. At the harshest site, Amboseli, differences between breed groups in body weight were small and breeds were equally preferred. In Isinya, where environmental conditions are better and farmers are more market oriented, Dorper and Crosses had significantly higher body weights and market prices and were thus preferred by the farmers. Red Maasai were preferred for their maternal and adaptive traits. Breeding objectives should emphasize growth traits and milk production in both breeds at both sites. Body condition needs to be specifically considered in the breeding objectives for sheep in Amboseli, whereas adaptive traits need to be generally emphasized in Dorper.

  8. THE IMPACT OF SEASON OF BIRTH AND BREEDING OF BOARS OF POLISH LANDRACE BREED ON THEIR INSEMINATION EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Pokrywka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of breeding boars in insemination depends mainly on the skill of optimal use of their reproductive potential. Nevertheless, their semen is highly variable in its quality and physical characteristics, which makes it difficult to organise semen production for artificial insemination purposes. The present study contains an analysis of semen collected from Polish Landrace breed boars - the most popular pigs bred in Poland. It demonstrates that there is a statistically significant interaction between season of birth and reproductive season of Polish Landrace boars. What is more, it proves that these significant differences between reproductive performances of boars are closely connected to their breeding season and seasons of their birth and life. The results also illustrate how to improve organisation of insemination centres and make them better financially efficient.

  9. Does timing of breeding matter less where the grass is greener? Seasonal declines in breeding performance differ between regions in an endangered endemic raptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Sophie Garcia-Heras

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The timing of breeding can strongly influence individual breeding performance and fitness. Seasonal declines in breeding parameters have been often documented in birds, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere. Fewer studies have investigated whether seasonal declines in productivity vary in space, which would have implications for a species’ population dynamics across its distributional range. We report here on variation in the timing of breeding in the Black Harrier (Circus maurus, an endangered and endemic raptor to Southern Africa. We investigated how key breeding parameters (clutch size, nesting success and productivity varied with the timing of breeding, weather conditions (rainfall and temperature and between contrasted regions (coastal vs. interior-mountain. Black Harrier onset of breeding extended over an 8-month period, with a peak of laying between mid-August and end of September. We show a marked seasonal decline in all breeding parameters. Importantly, for clutch size and productivity these seasonal declines differed regionally, being more pronounced in interior-mountain than in coastal regions, where the breeding season was overall shorter. Timing of breeding, clutch size and productivity were also partly explained by weather conditions. In coastal regions, where environmental conditions, in particular rainfall, appear to be less variable, the timing of breeding matters less for breeding output than in interior-mountain regions, and breeding attempts thus occurred over a longer period. The former areas may act as population sources and be key in protecting the long-term population viability of this threatened endemic raptor. This study provides unique evidence for a regionally variable seasonal decline in breeding performance with implications for population biology and conservation.

  10. Out-of-season breeding of milk goats - the effect of light treatment, melatonin and breed : research communication

    OpenAIRE

    E.R. Du Preez; E.F. Donkin; P.A. Boyazoglu; G.H. Rautenbach; D.M. Barry; Schoeman, H S

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectivity of melatonin in addition to light treatment (exposure to 2 hours of light during the night = a long-day photoperiod) to modify the breeding season of Saanen and cross-bred milk goats and to compare the difference between the breeds. Twenty-two Saanen and 22 cross-bred does were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups. Group 1 (controls) received no treatment, Group 2 received light treatment for 37 days and Group 3 received light trea...

  11. On-line charge breeding using ECRIS and EBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The efficient and rapid production of a high-quality, pure beam of highly charged ions is at the heart of any radioactive ion beam facility. Whether an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source or an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is used to produce these highly charged ions, their operating characteristics will set the boundaries on the range of experiments which can be performed. In addition, time structure and duty cycle have to be considered when defining the operating parameters of the accelerator system as a whole. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), an ECR charge breeder was developed as part of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) program. The charge breeding efficiency and high charge state production of the source is at the forefront of ECR charge breeders, but its overall performance as part of the accelerator system is limited by pervasive background and relatively long breeding times. As such, an EBIS charge breeder has been developed and is running in an off-line configuration. It has already demonstrated good breeding efficiencies, shorter residence times, and reduced background and is scheduled to replace the ECR charge breeder in late 2015. The resultant change in duty cycle and time structure necessitates changes to the overall operation of the facility. The experiences with these breeders, as well as from several other facilities which already utilize an ECR or EBIS for charge breeding, help to define the operational characteristics of each technology - their strengths, their weaknesses, and the possible paths to improvement.

  12. Genetic characterisation of CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Tortorici

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among calcium sensitive caseins, β-casein is the most abundant in goat milk, representing up to 50% of total casein content. The goat β-casein locus has been widely investigated and at least ten alleles have been identified in different goat breeds. The aim of this work was to investigate the polymorphisms of β-casein gene in Girgentana dairy goat breed in order to assess the genotype distribution and evaluate how frequencies have changed during the last 10 years, as genotype is known to influence technological and nutritional milk properties. Sequencing analysis and alignment of the obtained sequences of β-casein exon 7, showed the presence of C, C1, and A strong alleles, and 0' null allele, with frequencies of 0.597, 0.326, 0.023, and 0.054, respectively. Seven genotypic classes were found in Girgentana goat breed and the most frequent genotype was CC1 (0.423 followed by CC (0.326, C1C1 (0.110, and C0' (0.096. No AA nor 0'0' homozygous individuals were found. The presence of strong alleles at CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed could be useful for the production of milk with high protein content and good cheese-making properties. Moreover, food business operators should consider the possibility of reviving interest in Girgentana goat milk using weak and null genotypes at CSN2 locus to make peculiar food products, such as drinking milk.

  13. On the Breeds of Cattle - Historic and Current Classifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felius, Marleen; Koolmees, Peter A; Theunissen, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Classification of cattle breeds contributes to our understanding of the history of cattle and is essential for an effective conservation of genetic diversity. Here we review the various classifications over the last two centuries and compare the most recent classifications with genetic data...

  14. The relevance of milk protein polymorphisms for dairy cattle breeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenhuis, H.

    1992-01-01

    An isoelectric focusing method is described that is suitable for phenotyping a large number of milk samples due to its short separation time and its high capacity. To estimate milk protein gene frequencies for breeds represented in the crossbred population and to estimate the fraction of animals mis

  15. Breeding of a Tomato Genotype Readily Accessible to Genetic Manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, Maarten; Hanhart, Corrie; Jongsma, Maarten; Toma, Ingrid; Weide, Rob; Zabel, Pim; Hille, Jacques

    1986-01-01

    A tomato genotype, superior in regenerating plants from cell cultures, was obtained by transferring regeneration capacity from Lycopersicon peruvianum into L. esculentum by classical breeding. This genotype, MsK93, greatly facilitates genetic manipulation of tomato, as was demonstrated by successful

  16. Adapted breeds for organic and low input dairy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Marco; Ferris, C; Sairanen, A;

    2014-01-01

    Part of SOLID is to understand how contrasting genotypes adapt to a systematic restriction of nutrient and energy supply. In new studies, a number of genotypes identified as being adapted to organic and low input systems were compared with conventional breeds....

  17. Genomic tools in pea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim eTAYEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22-25 percent protein, complex starch and fibre constituents and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tonnes produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel’s experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress towards deciphering the pea genome.

  18. Territory choice during the breeding tenure of male sedge warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Tadeusz; Bielański, Wojciech; Solarz, Wojciech

    2011-12-01

    A territorial male can shift the location of its territory from year to year in order to increase its quality. The male can base its decision on environmental cues or else on its breeding experiences (when territory shift is caused by breeding failure in previous seasons). We tested these possible mechanisms of territory choice in the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus), a territorial migrating passerine that occupies wetlands. This species bases its territory choices on an environmental cue: tall wetland vegetation cover. We found that the magnitude of territory quality improvement between seasons (measured as the area of tall wetland vegetation) increased throughout the early stages of a male's breeding career as a result of territory shifts dependent on the earliness of arrival. The distance the territory was shifted between seasons depended negatively on the previous year's territory quality and, less clearly, on the previous year's mating success. On the other hand, previous mating or nesting success had no influence on territory quality improvement between seasons as measured in terms of vegetation. The results imply that tall wetland vegetation is a long-term, effective environmental cue and that a preference for territories in which this type of landcover prevails has evolved into a rigid behavioral mechanism, supplemented by short-term individual experiences of breeding failure.

  19. The bald and the beautiful: hairlessness in domestic dog breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alexander; Dreger, Dayna L.; Davis, Brian W.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2017-01-01

    An extraordinary amount of genomic variation is contained within the chromosomes of domestic dogs, manifesting as dramatic differences in morphology, behaviour and disease susceptibility. Morphology, in particular, has been a topic of enormous interest as biologists struggle to understand the small window of dog domestication from wolves, and the division of dogs into pure breeding, closed populations termed breeds. Many traits related to morphology, including body size, leg length and skull shape, have been under selection as part of the standard descriptions for the nearly 400 breeds recognized worldwide. Just as important, however, are the minor traits that have undergone selection by fanciers and breeders to define dogs of a particular appearance, such as tail length, ear position, back arch and variation in fur (pelage) growth patterns. In this paper, we both review and present new data for traits associated with pelage including fur length, curl, growth, shedding and even the presence or absence of fur. Finally, we report the discovery of a new gene associated with the absence of coat in the American Hairless Terrier breed. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity’. PMID:27994129

  20. Genomic prediction in a breeding program of perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Ashraf, Bilal; Greve-Pedersen, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    We present a genomic selection study performed on 1918 rye grass families (Lolium perenne L.), which were derived from a commercial breeding program at DLF-Trifolium, Denmark. Phenotypes were recorded on standard plots, across 13 years and in 6 different countries. Variants were identified...... in utilizing genomic selection in rye grass....

  1. Using semantic web technology to accelerate plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chibon, P.Y.; Carreres, B.M.; Weerd, de H.H.; Visser, R.G.F.; Finkers, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    One goal within plant breeding is to find the causal gene(s) explaining a given phenotype. Semantic web technology brings opportu- nities to integration data and information accross spread data sources. Chebi2gene and Marker2sequence are two applications relying on this se- mantic web technology to

  2. Progress and Strategies in Cross Breeding of Poplars in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The advance in intrasection and intersection cross breeding of poplars in China over the past 50 years is reviewed. Great progress has been made in Sections Leuce and Aigeiros, and satisfactory results of intersection hybridization have been achieved in the crossing between Sections Tacamahaca and Aigeiros. The modes of hybridization include single cross, double cross, triple cross, backcross, etc. It is known that using hybrids as parents to cross with other species or hybrids is an effective and easy way to obtain heterosis. Fast growth, cold and drought tolerance, pest and disease resistance, narrow crowns and rootage, etc. are breeding goals. The conventional artificial crossing is still a major breeding method, and a combination of the conventional artificial crossing with physical radiation and chemical induction can create new triploid individuals that possess higher yield potential. The super clones cultivated have already displayed enormous socioeconomic and ecological benefits in practice. Finally, the problems that investigators have to face at present are discussed as well as some strategies in poplar cross breeding in China.

  3. Iowa Breed Bird Atlas 2, 2008-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — These are the locations of Iowa's Second Breeding Bird Atlas. Blocks are 3 by 3 miles in size. Some of the blocks are the same as those surveyed in the first BBA,...

  4. Current progress in trans- and cisgenic apple and strawberry Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krens, F.A.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Schaart, J.; Schouten, H.J.; Jacobsen, E.

    2012-01-01

    A summary is presented of the state-of-the-art in apple and strawberry biotechnological research going on in the department of Plant Breeding at Wageningen University and Research Centre. In apple, the research directed towards the introduction of scab resistance by inserting a barley gene has reach

  5. Residual feed intake and breeding approaches for enteric methane mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Lassen, J.; Haas, de Y.

    2015-01-01

    The expanding world human population will require greater food production within the constraints of increasing societal pressure to minimize the resulting impact on the environment. Breeding goals in the past have achieved substantial gains in environmental load per unit product produced, despite no

  6. Molecular breeding of allergy vaccines and antiallergic cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punnonen, J

    2000-03-01

    Molecular breeding, also called DNA shuffling, is a technology that enables the generation of large libraries of novel genes and vectors, from which improved variants can be selected based on functional properties. In a common format, it involves recursive recombination and mutation, performed by random fragmentation of related DNA sequences, followed by reassembly of the fragments in a self-priming polymerase chain reaction. As in natural evolution, the technique takes advantage of crossovers, deletions, insertions, inversions and point mutations of genes to generate large pools of related sequences. Molecular breeding can be used to generate improved variants of proteins used as therapeutics, such as vaccine antigens, growth factors and immunomodulatory molecules. Moreover, the technology can be applied to evolve entire viruses or vectors, including DNA vaccines. Cytokines downregulating allergic immune responses and allergens are attractive targets for evolution by molecular breeding. This review describes approaches to generate chimeric allergens with T cell epitopes from multiple allergen homologues, while reducing the recognition by preexisting IgE. In addition, the results and applications of molecular breeding in the evolution of improved antiallergic cytokines are discussed.

  7. Induction of Parthenogenesis in Plants and Application in Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOU Chun-hong; LI Wen-li; WU Xian-jun; WANG Bin; XIE Zhao-hui; HU Yan-yu; WANG Xu-dong

    2003-01-01

    Parthenogenesis is a kind of reproductive mode by which the egg develops into embryo without fertilization and grows into plant finally. This article summarizes the advances of inducing parthenogenesis in plants in relation to induction methods, affecting factors and the studies in embryology. In addition, the application of parthenogenesis in breeding is also discussed.

  8. Multiple Breed Validation of Five QTL Affecting Mastitis Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilkki, Johanna; Dolezal, Marlies A; Sahana, Goutam;

    (on BTA3, BTA6, BTA8, BTA19, and BTA27) agreed across the breeds, but no identical associated SNPs were detected. Higher power (imputation to bigger population samples) will be needed to confirm results. On BTA6 the results indicate several QTL within a 5 Mb region. The results provide a basis...

  9. TILLING in forage grasses for gene discovery and breeding improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, Chloe; Yates, Steven; Ruckle, Michael; Nay, Michelle; Studer, Bruno

    2016-09-25

    Mutation breeding has a long-standing history and in some major crop species, many of the most important cultivars have their origin in germplasm generated by mutation induction. For almost two decades, methods for TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) have been established in model plant species such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), enabling the functional analysis of genes. Recent advances in mutation detection by second generation sequencing technology have brought its utility to major crop species. However, it has remained difficult to apply similar approaches in forage and turf grasses, mainly due to their outbreeding nature maintained by an efficient self-incompatibility system. Starting with a description of the extent to which traditional mutagenesis methods have contributed to crop yield increase in the past, this review focuses on technological approaches to implement TILLING-based strategies for the improvement of forage grass breeding through forward and reverse genetics. We present first results from TILLING in allogamous forage grasses for traits such as stress tolerance and evaluate prospects for rapid implementation of beneficial alleles to forage grass breeding. In conclusion, large-scale induced mutation resources, used for forward genetic screens, constitute a valuable tool to increase the genetic diversity for breeding and can be generated with relatively small investments in forage grasses. Furthermore, large libraries of sequenced mutations can be readily established, providing enhanced opportunities to discover mutations in genes controlling traits of agricultural importance and to study gene functions by reverse genetics.

  10. Genomics for greater efficiency in pigeonpea hybrid breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit K Saxena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic genic male sterility based hybrid technology has demonstrated its immense potential in increasing the productivity of various crops, including pigeonpea. This technology has shown promise for breaking the long-standing yield stagnation in pigeonpea. There are difficulties in commercial hybrid seed production due to non-availability of field-oriented technologies such as time-bound assessment of genetic purity of hybrid seeds. Besides this, there are other routine breeding activities which are labour oriented and need more resources. These include breeding and maintenance of new fertility restorers and maintainer lines, diversification of cytoplasm, and incorporation of biotic and abiotic stress resistances. The recent progress in genomics research could accelerate the existing traditional efforts to strengthen the hybrid breeding technology. Marker based seed purity assessment, identification of heterotic groups; selection of new fertility restorers are few areas which have already been initiated. In this paper efforts have been made to identify critical areas and opportunities where genomics can play a leading role and assist breeders in accelerating various activities related to breeding and commercialization of pigeonpea hybrids.

  11. The Sectoral Innovation System of the Dutch Vegetable Breeding Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Z.; Jongsma, M.A.; Huang, Caicheng; Dons, J.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    In a number of studies, the Dutch vegetable breeding industry has been described as a highly innovative sector, but the root causes for its innovativeness have not yet been analysed systematically. In order to understand the factors that affect innovation and business performance, the Sectoral Innov

  12. Reducing dimensionality for prediction of genome-wide breeding values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolliams John A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Partial least square regression (PLSR and principal component regression (PCR are methods designed for situations where the number of predictors is larger than the number of records. The aim was to compare the accuracy of genome-wide breeding values (EBV produced using PLSR and PCR with a Bayesian method, 'BayesB'. Marker densities of 1, 2, 4 and 8 Ne markers/Morgan were evaluated when the effective population size (Ne was 100. The correlation between true breeding value and estimated breeding value increased with density from 0.611 to 0.681 and 0.604 to 0.658 using PLSR and PCR respectively, with an overall advantage to PLSR of 0.016 (s.e = 0.008. Both methods gave a lower accuracy compared to the 'BayesB', for which accuracy increased from 0.690 to 0.860. PLSR and PCR appeared less responsive to increased marker density with the advantage of 'BayesB' increasing by 17% from a marker density of 1 to 8Ne/M. PCR and PLSR showed greater bias than 'BayesB' in predicting breeding values at all densities. Although, the PLSR and PCR were computationally faster and simpler, these advantages do not outweigh the reduction in accuracy, and there is a benefit in obtaining relevant prior information from the distribution of gene effects.

  13. Breeding for improved production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to generate knowledge that supports the design of breeding programs for Nile tilapia targeting genetic improvement of body weight and fillet yield to serve the European market. To this end, both the genetic variation and the performance levels of different strains of tilap

  14. Breeding to Optimize Agriculture in a Changing World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiankang; Wang; Jose; Luis; Araus; Jianmin; Wan

    2015-01-01

    Breeding to Optimize Chinese Agriculture(OPTICHINA) was a three-year EU–China project launched in June of 2011. As designed, the project acted as a new strategic model to reinforce systematic cooperation on agricultural research between Europe and China. The OPTICHINA International Conference "Breeding to Optimize Agriculture in a Changing World" was held in Beijing, May 26–29, 2014. The conference included six thematic areas:(1) defining and protecting the yield potential of traits and genes;(2) high-throughput precision phenotyping in the field;(3) molecular technologies in modern breeding;(4) plant ideotype;(5) data analysis,data management, and bioinformatics; and(6) national challenges and opportunities for China. The 10 articles collected in this special issue represent key contributions and topics of this conference. This editorial provides a brief introduction to the OPTICHINA project, followed by the main scientific points of articles published in this special issue. Finally, outcomes from a brainstorming discussion at the end of the conference are summarized, representing the authors’ opinions on trends in breeding for a changing world.

  15. Breeding to Optimize Agriculture in a Changing World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiankang Wanga; Jose Luis Arausb; Jianmin Wana

    2015-01-01

    Breeding to Optimize Chinese Agriculture (OPTICHINA) was a three-year EU–China project launched in June of 2011. As designed, the project acted as a new strategic model to reinforce systematic cooperation on agricultural research between Europe and China. The OPTICHINA International Conference“Breeding to Optimize Agriculture in a Changing World”was held in Beijing, May 26–29, 2014. The conference included six thematic areas: (1) defining and protecting the yield potential of traits and genes;(2) high-throughput precision phenotyping in the field;(3) molecular technologies in modern breeding;(4) plant ideotype;(5) data analysis, data management, and bioinformatics; and (6) national challenges and opportunities for China. The 10 articles collected in this special issue represent key contributions and topics of this conference. This editorial provides a brief introduction to the OPTICHINA project, followed by the main scientific points of articles published in this special issue. Finally, outcomes from a brainstorming discussion at the end of the conference are summarized, representing the authors' opinions on trends in breeding for a changing world.

  16. EVOLUTION OF MORPHOMETRIC MEASURES IN THE MANGALARGA MARCHADOR BREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANO MARTINS SANTIAGO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mangalarga Marchador breed accounts for the largest horse herd in Brazil and has been experiencing national and international expansion. Nevertheless, there is little scientific production on the evolution of this breed and there are no studies on the morphometric transformations that took place during its formation. In this context, the present study aimed to assess the evolution in morphometric measures of the Mangalarga Marchador breed between 1970 and 2010. The research used information archived at the Brazilian Association of Mangalarga Marchador Breeders from 23,148 males and 92,980 females in a completely randomized experimental design. The six treatments consisted of the animals measured between 1970 and 1979, 1980 and 1989, 1990 and 1994, 1995 and 1999, 2000 and 2004, and 2005 and 2010, respectively. The measures assessed were: height at withers and croup, length of the head, neck, back, croup, shoulder, and body, width of the head and croup, thoracic circumference, and cannon circumference Over the period analyzed, males and females experienced a reduction in thoracic circumference, in the lengths of the head, back, croup, and shoulder, and in the widths of the head and croup. In the males, neck length and cannon circumference also decreased, while body length increased in females. Over time, breed selection led to smaller head, higher stature, and shorter trunk length. However, important measures for the breed’s functionality, such as shoulder length and thoracic circumference, decreased.

  17. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  18. Does Inhumanity Breed Humanity? Investigation of a Paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Baets, A.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    This essay investigates the thesis that inhumanity breeds humanity. Many questions arise when we try to corroborate it: Can we say anything at all about the inhumanity of human beings? Why did large-scale inhumanity occurring before 1700 not elicit a human rights regime? Was the human rights take-of

  19. Binucleation to breed new plant species adaptable to their environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Classical plant breeding approaches may fall short to breed new plant species of high environmental and ecological interests. Biotechnological and genetic manipulations, on the other hand, may hold more effective capabilities to circumvent the limitations of sexual incompatibility and conventional breeding programs. Given that plant cells encompass multiple copies of organellar genomes (mitochondrial and plastidial genomes), an important question could be raised about whether an artificial attempt to duplicate the nuclear genome might also be conceivable through a binucleation approach (generating plant cells with 2 nuclei from 2 different plant species) for potential production of new polyploidies that would characterize new plant species. Since the complexities of plant genomes are the result of multiple genome duplications, an artificial binucleation approach would thus be of some interest to eventually varying plant genomes and producing new polyploidy from related or distal plant species. Here, I discuss the potentiality of such an approach to engineer binucleated plant cells as a germ of new plant species to fulfill some environmental applications such as increasing the biodiversity and breeding new species adaptable to harsh environmental stresses and increasing green surfaces to reduce atmospheric pollutions in arid lands with poor vegetation.

  20. Paternity testing in an autotetraploid alfalfa breeding polycross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining unknown parentage in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) can improve breeding gains. Exclusion analysis based paternity testing SAS code is presented, amenable to genotyping errors, for autotetraploid species utilizing co-dominant molecular markers with ambiguous d...

  1. Research on the Morphological Characteristics Variability of Three Horse Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Cătălin Prisacaru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the characterization of some morphological parameters of some horse population improvedwith stallion of Arab, Hucul and English thoroughbred breeds. The biological material was represented by thestallions belonging to the three breeds and the population improved with them. Measurements have been made inorder to determine the height at withers, oblique length of the trunk, cannon girth and weight. The height at witherspresented smaller dimensions at the Arab and English thoroughbred breeds and at the Hucul breed the stallions had aheight at withers of 140 cm and the improved population 143.80 cm. Oblique length of the trunk presented valuesslightly lower at the improved horses in comparison with the stallions used at mount. The English thoroughbredpresented a value of 21.50 cm of the cannon girth at the improved population in comparison with the value of 19.5cm obtained at the mount stallions. The weight has been lower at the improved populations than the one of thestallions. Most of the morphological characteristics of the improved population are close to the ones if the stallionsused at mount.

  2. Adult sex ratio variation : Implications for breeding system evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szekely, T.; Weissing, F. J.; Komdeur, J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult sex ratio (ASR) exhibits immense variation in nature, although neither the causes nor the implications of this variation are fully understood. According to theory, the ASR is expected to influence sex roles and breeding systems, as the rarer sex in the population has more potential partners to

  3. Cowpea Breeding in the USA, New Varieties and Improved Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpeas are utilized in the U.S. as both a vegetable crop and a dry bean, and breeding efforts are focused on development of cultivars for specific end uses. Blackeye cultivars are developed for production of dry beans for national and international markets. ‘California Blackeye No. 50' (CB50), a ...

  4. Breeding, genetic and genomic of citrus for disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possibility of an association between biotechnological tools and classical methods of breeding. The use of molecular markers for early selection of zygotic seedlings from controlled crosses resulted in the possibility of selection of a high number of new combination and, as a consequence, the establishment of a great number of hybrids in field experiments. The faster new tools are incorporated in the program, the faster is possibility to reach new genotypes that can be tested as a new variety. Good traits should be kept or incorporate, whereas bad traits have to be excluded or minimized in the new genotype. Scion and rootstock can not be considered separately, and graft compatibility, fruit quality and productivity are essential traits to be evaluated in the last stages of the program. The mapping of QTLs has favored breeding programs of several perennial species and in citrus it was possible to map several characteristics with qualitative and quantitative inheritance. The existence of linkage maps and QTLs already mapped, the development of EST and BAC library and the sequencing of the Citrus complete genome altogether make very demanding and urgent the exploration of such data to launch a wider genetic study of citrus. The rising of information on genome of several organisms has opened new approaches looking for integration between breeding, genetic and genome. Genome assisted selection (GAS involves more than gene or complete genome sequencing and is becoming

  5. Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Site and Territory Summary - 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Scott L.; Sogge, Mark K.; Stump, Shay D.; Walker, Hira A.; Kus, Barbara E.; Sferra, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The Southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter references to willow flycatcher and flycatcher refer to E.t. extimus, except where specifically noted) is an endangered bird that breeds only in dense riparian habitats in parts of six Southwestern states (Arizona, New Mexico, southern California, extreme southern Nevada, southern Utah, and southwestern Colorado). Since 1993, hundreds of Southwestern willow flycatcher surveys have been conducted each year, and many new flycatcher breeding sites located. This document synthesizes the most current information available on all known Southwestern willow flycatcher breeding sites. This rangewide data synthesis was designed to meet two objectives: (1) identify all known Southwestern willow flycatcher breeding sites and (2) assemble data to estimate population size, location, habitat, and other information for all breeding sites, for as many years as possible, from 1993 through 2007. This report provides data summaries in terms of the number of flycatcher sites and the number of territories. When interpreting and using this information, it must be kept in mind that a 'site' is a geographic location where one or more willow flycatchers establishes a territory. Sites with unpaired territorial males are considered breeding sites, even if no nesting attempts were documented. A site is often a discrete patch of riparian habitat but may also be a cluster of riparian patches; there is no standardized definition for site, and its use varies within and among states. For example, five occupied habitat patches along a 10-km stretch of river might be considered five different sites in one state but only a single site in another state. This lack of standardization makes comparisons based on site numbers problematic. Researchers for this report generally deferred to statewide summary documents or to local managers and researchers when delineating a site for inclusion in the database. However, to avoid inflating

  6. Investigating the breeding capabilities of hybrid soliton reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catsaros, N., E-mail: nicos@ipta.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Energy and Safety, National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, 27, Neapoleos Str., 15341 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Gaveau, B., E-mail: bernardgaveau@orange.fr [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Campus Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Jaekel, M.-T., E-mail: jaekel@lpt.ens.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’Ecole Normale Supérieure (CNRS), 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Jejcic, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’Ecole Normale Supérieure (CNRS), 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Maillard, J., E-mail: maillard@idris.fr [Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (CNRS), 3 rue Michel Ange, 75794 Paris Cedex 16 (France); Institut du Développement et des Ressources en Informatique Scientifique (CNRS), Campus Universitaire d’Orsay, rue John Von Neumann, Bat 506, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France); Maurel, G., E-mail: gerard.maurel@sat.aphp.fr [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Campus Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Savva, P., E-mail: savvapan@ipta.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Energy and Safety, National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, 27, Neapoleos Str., 15341 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Silva, J., E-mail: jorge.silva@upmc.fr [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Campus Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); and others

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • ANET code simulates innovative reactor designs including Accelerator Driven Systems. • Preliminary analysis of thermal hybrid soliton reactor examines breeding capabilities. • Subsequent studies will aim at optimizing parameters examined in this analysis. • Breeding capacity could be obtained while preserving efficiency and reactor stability. -- Abstract: Nuclear energy industry asks for an optimized exploitation of available natural resources and a safe operation of reactors. A closed fuel cycle requires the mass of fissile material depleted in a reactor to be equal to or less than the fissile mass produced in the same or in other reactors. In this work, a simple closed cycle scheme is investigated, grounded on the use of a conceptual thermal water-cooled and moderated subcritical hybrid soliton reactor (HSR). The concept is a specific Accelerator Driven System (ADS) operating at lower power than usual pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This type of reactor can be inherently safe, since shutdown is achieved by simply interrupting the accelerator's power supply. In this work a preliminary investigation is attempted concerning the existence of conditions under which the operation of a thermal HSR in breeding regime is possible. For this purpose, a conceptual encapsulated core has been defined by choosing the magnitude of a set of parameters which are important from the neutronic point of view, such as core geometry and fuel composition. Indications of breeding operation regime for thermal HSR systems are sought by performing preliminary simulations of this core. For this purpose, the Monte Carlo code ANET, which is being developed based on the high energy physics code GEANT is utilized, as being capable of simulating particles’ transport and interactions produced, including also simulation of low energy neutrons transport. A simple analytical model is also developed and presented in order to investigate the conditions under which

  7. Rock coasts and seabird breeding sites : a common optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Eveillard-Buchoux

    2014-05-01

    The North-West coasts of Europe support a lot of part of Northern hemisphere breeding seabirds. In that context, Scotland has a preponderant place and Brittany has southernmost limit of these species areas, for most of them. Outside the breeding season these species live mainly on the open sea and when they do visit the land to breed, they nest on a specific sites : almost all the time they breed on the rock coasts, often on seacliffs. This specific habitat are defines by geomorphological characteristics which offer special forms of the coast. The forms of rock coasts are originally and different because of several proprieties of geology, of lithology, of structures. Breeding seabird, occupying these sites, reveals, in a new light, the richness of these forms and the originals geographic location of the coastline : seabirds prefer nest in exposed coastline like rock caps, rocky points or islands. Seabirds and rock coasts are research topics in environmental geography since several years. However, these combination studies is a new approach in this field and enlargement in the heritage field allows supplement scientific approach. For example, it show that in most important touristic sites, environmental protection measures focused on landscape, habitat or bird, but much more rarely on rock coasts for these intrinsic values. Indeed, in Brittany or in Scotland, seabirds are often stars species in lot of coastal nature reserves, where they're considered like greater ecological heritage. We could see it in touristic promotion field : bird is everywhere, cliff is mostly kept in the dark, as well in leaflets as in speech visitor's guides - without, for example, as a part of this landscape. In all cases, combination of these two heritages is extremely rare. Yet, this current research illustrates the interest and the issue of development of this comparative approach seabirds / rock coasts for optimization of nature tourism and geotourism.

  8. Breeding Dispersal by Birds in a Dynamic Urban Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzluff, John M.; DeLap, Jack H.; Oleyar, M. David; Whittaker, Kara A.; Gardner, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Changes in land cover during urbanization profoundly affect the diversity of bird communities, but the demographic mechanisms affecting diversity are poorly known. We advance such understanding by documenting how urbanization influences breeding dispersal—the annual movement of territorial adults—of six songbird species in the Seattle, WA, USA metropolitan area. We color-banded adults and mapped the centers of their annual breeding activities from 2000–2010 to obtain 504 consecutive movements by 337 adults. By comparing movements, annual reproduction, and mate fidelity among 10 developed, 5 reserved, and 11 changing (areas cleared and developed during our study) landscapes, we determined that adaptive breeding dispersal of sensitive forest species (Swainson’s Thrush and Pacific wren), which involves shifting territory and mate after reproductive failure, was constrained by development. In changing lands, sensitive forest specialists dispersed from active development to nearby forested areas, but in so doing suffered low annual reproduction. Species tolerant of suburban lands (song sparrow, spotted towhee, dark-eyed junco, and Bewick’s wren) dispersed adaptively in changing landscapes. Site fidelity ranged from 0% (Pacific wren in changing landscape) to 83% (Bewick’s wren in forest reserve). Mate fidelity ranged from 25% (dark-eyed junco) to 100% (Bewick’s wren). Variation in fidelity to mate and territory was consistent with theories positing an influence of territory quality, asynchronous return from migration, prior productivity, and reproductive benefits of retaining a familiar territory. Costly breeding dispersal, as well as reduced reproductive success and lowered survival cause some birds to decline in the face of urbanization. In contrast, the ability of species that utilize edges and early successional habitats to breed successfully, disperse to improve reproductive success after failure, and survive throughout the urban ecosystem enables them

  9. Optimizing reproductive performance of herds Simmental breed of cattle imported

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATMIRA LEKA (SULAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful development of livestock farms that breed cows with high production capacities such as Simmental and Holstein breeds, an important role of manage genetic breed capacity import into future generations and management factors that constrain improvement of reproductive performance population. Importing a considerable amount of pregnant heifer Simmental and Holstein breeds from Austria, Germany , contributed positively to the addition of milk and meat production in our country. The study was conducted in Bio farm " Ramilli " – Shijak - Durres, for the periods 2008-2011. We also included about 150 cows Simmental pure - breed for dual purpose (milk – meat. Birth of a calf annually for cow provides the optimal milk production that can only be achieved with the correct programs to monitor the events of reproduction. To optimize reproductive indicators for genetic capacity utilization cow is aiming in our study. We also included three groups heifer imported from Austria, and approach them in terms of the farm. Production of milk for the first lactationconducted three groups to 4994 ± 936.4, 4123 ± 817.3, 3750 ± 560 proven statistically differences between them ( P less then 0:05. Calving interval realized 421.7 ± 73.4, 396.5 ± 42.1, 386.6 ± 43.7 days, the difference proven statistically (P less then 0:05. Conception index 2.1, 1.7, and 1.6. Improving reproductive performance in cows with higher milk production capacities, livestock farms achievedthrough unifying control period after calving.

  10. Spatial genetic structure of bristle-thighed curlews (Numenius tahitiensis): breeding area differentiation not reflected on the non-breeding grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Williams, Ian S.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds occupy geographically and ecologically disparate areas during their annual cycle with conditions on breeding and non-breeding grounds playing separate and important roles in population dynamics. We used data from nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA control region loci to assess the breeding and non-breeding spatial genetic structure of a transoceanic migrant shorebird, the bristle-thighed curlew. We found spatial variance in the distribution of allelic and haplotypic frequencies between the curlew's two breeding areas in Alaska but did not observe this spatial structure throughout its non-breeding range on low-lying tropical and subtropical islands in the Central Pacific (Oceania). This suggests that the two breeding populations do not spatially segregate during the non-breeding season. Lack of migratory connectivity is likely attributable to the species' behavior, as bristle-thighed curlews exhibit differential timing of migration and some individuals move among islands during non-breeding months. Given the detrimental impact of many past and current human activities on island ecosystems, admixture of breeding populations in Oceania may render the bristle-thighed curlew less vulnerable to perturbations there, as neither breeding population will be disproportionally affected by local habitat losses or by stochastic events. Furthermore, lack of migratory connectivity may enable bristle-thighed curlews to respond to changing island ecosystems by altering their non-breeding distribution. However, availability of suitable non-breeding habitat for curlews in Oceania is increasingly limited on both low-lying and high islands by habitat loss, sea level rise, and invasive mammalian predators that pose a threat to flightless and flight-compromised curlews during the molting period.

  11. Small range and distinct distribution in a satellite breeding colony of the critically endangered Waved Albatross

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the proximate consequences of the limited breeding distribution of the critically endangered Waved Albatross (Phoebastria irrorata), we present continuous breeding season GPS tracks highlighting differences in behaviour, destinations, and distances travelled between ...

  12. Breeding biology and feeding habits of seabirds of Sitkalidak Strait, 1977-1978: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Breeding chronology for all bird species was essentially the same for 1977 and 1978. The number of breeding kittiwakes, gulls and terns of both species declined in...

  13. Breeding colonies of least terns (Sternula antillarum) in northern Sonora, Mexico, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa; van Riper, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We document distribution of breeding least terns (Sternula antillarum) in northern Sonora, Mexico, 2006-2008. We report breeding activity at six sites with active colonies, including three previously undocumented colonies.

  14. Sex-Specific Habitat Utilization and Differential Breeding Investments in Christmas Island Frigatebirds throughout the Breeding Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennicke, Janos C; James, David J; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    In seabirds, equal bi-parental care is the rule, as it is considered crucial for raising chicks successfully because seabirds forage in an environment with unpredictable and highly variable food supply. Frigatebirds forage in poor tropical waters, yet males reduce and even stop parental care soon after chick brooding, leaving the female to provision the chick alone for an extended fledging period. Using bird-borne tracking devices, male and female Christmas Island Frigatebirds (Fregata andrewsi) were investigated during the brooding, late chick rearing and post-fledging period to examine whether sexes exhibit foraging strategies that may be linked to differential breeding investments. During brooding, males and females showed similar foraging behaviour under average marine productivity of oceanic waters close to the colony, but males shifted to more distant and more productive habitats when conditions deteriorated to continue with reduced chick provisioning. During the late chick rearing period, females progressively increased their foraging range to the more distant but productive marine areas that only males had visited during brooding. Birds spent the non-breeding period roosting in highly productive waters of the Sunda Shelf. The sex-specific utilisation of three different foraging habitats with different primary productivity (oceanic, coastal, and shelf areas) allowed for temporal and spatial segregation in the exploitation of favourable habitats which seems to enable each sex to optimise its foraging profitability. In addition, post-fledging foraging movements of females suggest a biennial breeding cycle, while limited information on males suggests the possibility of an annual breeding cycle.

  15. Ethics of Plant Breeding: The IFOAM Basic Principles as a Guide for the Evolution of Organic Plant Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    The basic values of organic agriculture is laid down in the IFOAM four basic principles: the principle of health, the principle of ecology, the principle of fairness and the principle of care. These principles and the consequences and challenges for the further development of organic plant breeding

  16. Post-breeding migration of Dutch-breeding black-tailed godwits : Timing, routes, use of stopovers, and nonbreeding destinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijmeijer, Jos; Senner, Nathan R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill Jr, Robert E.; Douglas, David C.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Wymenga, Eddy; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of long-distance migratory shorebirds is complex because these species use habitats spread across continents and hemispheres, making identification of critical habitats and potential bottlenecks in the annual cycle especially difficult. The population of Black-tailed Godwits that breeds

  17. Lean Breed Landrace Pigs Harbor Fecal Methanogens at Higher Diversity and Density than Obese Breed Erhualian Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Y.H.; Su, Y.; Wright, A.D.G.; Zhang, L.L.; Smidt, H.; Zhu, W.Y.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of fecal methanogens of Erhualian (obese type) and Landrace (lean type) pigs was examined using separate 16S rRNA gene libraries for each breed. A total of 763 clones were analyzed; 381 from the Erhualian library and 382 from the Landrace library were identified belonging to the genus

  18. Whole-genome resequencing analyses of five pig breeds, including Korean wild and native, and three European origin breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Woo; Chung, Won-Hyong; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Cho, Eun-Seok; Lee, Si-Woo; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Heon; Lim, Wonjun; Lim, Dajeong; Lee, Yun-Gyeong; Hong, Joon-Ki; Kim, Doo-Wan; Jeon, Hyeon-Jeong; Kim, Jiwoong; Kim, Namshin; Kim, Tae-Hun

    2015-08-01

    Pigs have been one of the most important sources of meat for humans, and their productivity has been substantially improved by recent strong selection. Here, we present whole-genome resequencing analyses of 55 pigs of five breeds representing Korean native pigs, wild boar and three European origin breeds. 1,673.1 Gb of sequence reads were mapped to the Swine reference assembly, covering ∼99.2% of the reference genome, at an average of ∼11.7-fold coverage. We detected 20,123,573 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 25.5% were novel. We extracted 35,458 of non-synonymous SNPs in 9,904 genes, which may contribute to traits of interest. The whole SNP sets were further used to access the population structures of the breeds, using multiple methodologies, including phylogenetic, similarity matrix, and population structure analysis. They showed clear population clusters with respect to each breed. Furthermore, we scanned the whole genomes to identify signatures of selection throughout the genome. The result revealed several promising loci that might underlie economically important traits in pigs, such as the CLDN1 and TWIST1 genes. These discoveries provide useful genomic information for further study of the discrete genetic mechanisms associated with economically important traits in pigs.

  19. O Método Mãe Canguru em hospitais públicos do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise do processo de implantação Kangaroo Mother Care in public hospitals in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: an analysis of the implementation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Júlia Colameo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi elaborado para analisar a implantação do Método Mãe Canguru em 28 diferentes hospitais públicos do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os hospitais escola, os amigos da criança, os com banco de leite humano e os com mais de 12 profissionais treinados obtiveram melhores escores de implantação. A resistência dos profissionais de saúde à participação da família tem dado um caráter intra-hospitalar ao método. Mudanças no treinamento, incluir os gestores no programa e prever recursos orçamentários para a adoção, avaliação e controle do Método Mãe Canguru são necessários.This study analyzed the implementation of the Kangaroo Mother method in 28 different São Paulo State public hospitals. Teaching hospitals, Baby-Friendly Hospitals, hospitals with human milk banks, and those with more than 12 trained health professionals showed higher implementation scores. Because of staff resistance to family participation in neonatal care, the Kangaroo Mother method is basically applied in-hospital. Changes in the initial training, including manager awareness-raising and proper financial resource allocation, are necessary for implementation, follow-up, assessment, and feedback.

  20. Atenção humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo-peso. Método Canguru e cuidado centrado na família: correspondências e especificidades Humanized care for low birth weight newborns. The Kangaroo care Method and family-centered care: correspondence and specificities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Abreu e Silva Hennig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo-Peso - Método Canguru - como uma diretriz clínica na assistência neonatal, e busca traçar um paralelo com outro importante componente do cuidado infantil descrito na literatura internacional: o cuidado centrado na família. O artigo propõe que a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo-Peso - Método Canguru seja vista como uma boa prática e seja considerada também no campo das tecnologias em saúde.The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the Human Attention of Low Birth Weight-Kangaroo Care as clinical guidelines in neonatal intensive care. It will also try to link this clinical guideline and another component of neonatal infant care: the Family-Centered Care. Based on this relationship, this paper proposes that Human Attention of Low Birth Weight-Kangaroo Care should be catalogued as a Potentially Better Practices and also, considered as a Health Care Technology.

  1. Addition of a breeding database in the Genome Database for Rosaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Kate; Jung, Sook; Lee, Taein; Brutcher, Lisa; Cho, Ilhyung; Peace, Cameron; Main, Dorrie

    2013-01-01

    Breeding programs produce large datasets that require efficient management systems to keep track of performance, pedigree, geographical and image-based data. With the development of DNA-based screening technologies, more breeding programs perform genotyping in addition to phenotyping for performance evaluation. The integration of breeding data with other genomic and genetic data is instrumental for the refinement of marker-assisted breeding tools, enhances genetic understanding of important c...

  2. Empirical Analysis of the Typical Breeding Pattern of Clam in Hongdao Town and the Preliminary Estimates of Costs and Benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijuan; YANG; Shijun; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the survey data about clam breeding farmers in Hongdao Town in August 2011,this paper analyzes the production and operation of typical clam breeding pattern,and estimates the costs and benefits. Through the analysis of operation conditions and economic conditions of Hongdao clam breeding,this paper aims to explore a more reasonable and effective breeding pattern so as to reduce breeding costs and market risks,and increase breeding farmers’ income.

  3. Comparative analysis of traditional and modern apricot breeding programs: A case of study with Spanish and Tunisian apricot breeding germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batnini, M.A.; Krichen, L.; Bourguiba, H.; Trifi-Farah, N.; Ruiz, D.; Martínez-Gómez, P.; Rubio, M.

    2016-11-01

    Traditional plant breeding is based on the observation of variation and the selection of the best phenotypes, whereas modern breeding is characterised by the use of controlled mating and the selection of descendants using molecular markers. In this work, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity in a traditional (Tunisian) and a modern (Spanish) apricot breeding programme was performed at the phenotypic and molecular level using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Seven phenotypic traits were evaluated in 42 Tunisian apricot accessions and 30 genotypes from the Spanish apricot programme. In addition, 20 SSR markers previously described as linked to specific phenotypic traits were assayed. Results showed that modern breeding using controlled crosses increases the size of the fruit. The fruit weight average observed in the Tunisian cultivars was of 20.15 g. In the case of traditional Spanish cultivars the average weight was 47.12 g, whereas the average weight of the other progenitors from France, USA and South Africa was 72.85 g. Finally, in the new releases from the CEBAS-CSIC breeding programme, the average weight was 72.82 g. In addition, modern bred cultivars incorporate desirable traits such as self-compatibility and firmness. Cluster and structural analysis based on SSR data clearly differentiates the genotypes according to their geographic origin and pedigree. Finally, results showed an association between some alleles of PaCITA7 and UDP96003 SSR markers with apricot fruit weight, one allele of UDAp407 marker with fruit firmness and one allele of UDP98406 marker with fruit ripening. (Author)

  4. 50 CFR 15.23 - Permits for zoological breeding or display programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for zoological breeding or display... OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.23 Permits for zoological breeding or display programs. (a) Application requirements...

  5. 50 CFR 15.42 - List of foreign qualifying breeding facilities. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false List of foreign qualifying breeding... OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Qualifying Facilities Breeding Exotic Birds in Captivity § 15.42 List of foreign qualifying breeding facilities....

  6. Integrating Quantitative Genetics and Practical Aspects in a Fish Breeding Network in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kristian; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise;

    simulations are given to show how different practical aspects of a breeding plan can be optimized. By combining quantitative genetic theory with current breeding practice we are able to optimize different breeding plans increasing genetic gain while controlling the level of inbreeding and building up...

  7. A Morphometric Survey among Three Iranian Horse Breeds with Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosseini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three Iranian horse breeds, Turkoman, Caspian, and Kurdish, are the most important Iranian horse breeds which are well known in all around of the world because of their beauty, versatility, great stamina, and  intelligence. Phenotypic characterization was used to identify and document the diversity within and between distinct breeds, based on their observable attributes. Phenotypic characterization and body biometric in 23 traits were measured in 191 purebred horses belonging to three breeds, i.e. Turkoman (70 horses, Kurdish (77 horses, and Caspian (44 horses.  Caspian breed was  sampled from the Provinces of Alborz and Gilan. Kurdish breed was sampled from the Provinces of Kurdistan, Kermanshah, and Hamadan. Turkoman breed was sampled from the Provinces of Golestan, Markazi, and Isfahan. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was implemented. In addition, Canonical Discriminate Analysis (CDA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and Custer analysis were executed for assessing the relationship among the breeds. All statistical analysis was executed by SAS statistical program. The results of our investigation represented the breeds classification into 3 different classes (Caspian, Turkoman, and Kurdish based on different morphometrical traits. Caspian breed with smaller size in most variables was detached clearly from the others with more distance than Kurdish and Turkoman breeds. The result showed that the most variably trait for classification was Hind Hoof Length. Adaptation with different environments causes difference in morphology and difference among breeds. We can identify and classify domestic population using PCA, CDA, and cluster analysis.

  8. Repeatable timing of northward departure, arrival and breeding in Black-tailed Godwits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenço, P.M.; Kentie, R.; Schroeder, J.; Groen, N.M.; Hooijmeijer, J.C.E.W.; Piersma, T.

    2011-01-01

    When early breeding is advantageous, migrants underway to the breeding areas may be time stressed. The timing of sequential events such as migration and breeding is expected to be correlated because of a "domino effect", and would be of particular biological importance if timings are repeatable with

  9. ADAM: A computer program to simulate selective-breeding schemes for animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L D; Sørensen, A C; Henryon, M

    2009-01-01

    ADAM is a computer program that models selective breeding schemes for animals using stochastic simulation. The program simulates a population of animals and traces the genetic changes in the population under different selective breeding scenarios. It caters to different population structures......, genetic models, selection strategies, and mating designs. ADAM can be used to evaluate breeding schemes and generate genetic data to test statistical tools...

  10. Extending RosBREED in the Pacific Northwest for strawberry processing traits: year 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to implement marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae, many traits need to be characterized in diverse germplasm. The USDA-NIFA Specialty Crop Research Initiative-funded RosBREED project includes breeding programs of four Rosaceae crops (apple, peach, cherry, and strawberry). Phenotyping ea...

  11. Public research in plant breeding and intellectual property rights: a new call for new institutional policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripp, R.; Eaton, D.J.F.; Louwaars, N.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of using intellectual property rights (IPRs) in public sector breeding, and the potential impact on breeding strategies and on the costs and benefits. The paper is based on a study on the impact of IPRs in the breeding industry in developing countries. There are three

  12. The Current Status, Problems, and Prospects of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Breeding in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangli Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current status, methodology, achievements, and prospects of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. breeding in China. There are 77 cultivars that have been registered in the country, these include 36 cultivars bred through breeding programs, 17 introduced from overseas, 5 domesticated from wild ecotypes, and 19 through regional collection/breeding programs. Cultivars have been selected for cold resistance, disease resistance, salt tolerance, grazing tolerance, high yield, and early maturity. Most of these cultivars have been developed through conventional breeding techniques, such as selective and cross breeding, and some are now being evaluated that have been developed through the application of transgenic technology. The major problems for alfalfa breeding in China include low success rate, slow progress to breed resistant varieties, lack of breeding materials and their systematic collection, storage and evaluation, lack of advanced breeding techniques, and low adoption rate of new cultivars. There are gaps in alfalfa breeding between China and the developed world. Improvement of alfalfa breeding techniques, development of cultivars with adaptations to different regions within China, and the protection and utilization of alfalfa germplasm resources have been identified as major strategies to improve the efficiency of alfalfa breeding in China.

  13. Resistance to Verticillium dahliae (Kleb.) in the strawberry breeding lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowska, J; Hortyński, J; Cholewa, T; Honcz, K

    2006-01-01

    Verticillium species are soil-borne fungi with worldwide distribution, causing vascular disease that results in severe yield and quality losses in fruit and nut crops, legumes, vegetables, forest trees, and woody and herbaceous ornamentals. Most crop diseases are caused by the two species Verticillium dahliae Klebahn and V. albo-atrum Reinke and Berthier, which differ in morphology, host range, and growth characteristics. The control of Verticillium spp. is especially difficult because they can survive in the soil as resting structures for several years. Cultivation of resistant plant material is the most effective method of the disease elimination. Resistance to Verticillium dahliae Kleb. was examined in the four strawberry breeding lines i.e.'Kent S1', 'Kent o.p.', 'Plena S1', 'Plena o.p'. The strawberry isolate of cv. 'Elsanta' no.1093 of Verticillium dahliae from Pathogen Gene Bank (Poland-Poznań) was used throughout this study. Seedlings of strawberry breeding lines were used for in vitro inoculation at stage of 4 leaves. Their roots were dipped for approximately 1 min in conidial suspensions (inoculum concentration--60 spores at 100x magnification in the microscopic field). Observations of disease symptoms were performed at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days post inoculation. Extent of leaf chlorosis was rated on a scale of 0-4 in which: 0 no symptom. 1 up to 25% chlorotic leaves. 2 up to 50% chlorotic leaves. 3 up to 75% chlorotic leaves. 4 up to 100% chlorotic leaves. Plant response to in vitro inoculation of V. dahliae was different and depended on the breeding line. The most susceptible breeding line was 'Plena S1' and the most resistant was the line 'Kent o.p'. The line 'Kent S1' was more susceptible than the last one, but much more resistant than the line 'Plena o.p'. Seedlings without disease symptoms were observed in all examined lines at 15 and 30 days post inoculation At 45 days post inoculation no plant without disease symptoms was observed. Disease

  14. Effects of crossing of domestic breed with beef breeds on the quality of meat in PR China and Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić S.; Fang Sun; Di Liu; Petrović M.M.; Pantelić V.; Stanišić N.; Ostojić-Andrić D.; Petričević M.; Nikšić D.; Delić N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of crossing Domestic Spotted breed with beef cattle breeds in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. China is a big country of beef production and consumption. In 2012, beef production in China was 5,540,000 tons, which accounted for 9.7% of the global beef production, ranking the third in the world. The main sources of China’s beef are from crossbreeding cattle (native breed crossbred with foreign beef ca...

  15. Recent breeding history of dog breeds in Sweden: modest rates of inbreeding, extensive loss of genetic diversity and lack of correlation between inbreeding and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, M; Laikre, L

    2014-04-01

    One problem in modern dogs is a high occurrence of physical diseases, defects and disorders. Many breeds exhibit physical problems that affect individual dogs throughout life. A potential cause of these problems is inbreeding that is known to reduce the viability of individuals. We investigated the possible correlation between recent inbreeding and health problems in dogs and used studbook data from 26 breeds provided by the Swedish Kennel Club for this purpose. The pedigrees date back to the mid-20th century and comprise 5-10 generations and 1 000-50 000 individuals per pedigree over our study period of 1980-2010. We compared levels of inbreeding and loss of genetic variation measured in relation to the number of founding animals during this period in the investigated dog breeds that we classified as 'healthy' (11 breeds) or 'unhealthy' (15) based on statistics on the extent of veterinary care obtained from Sweden's four largest insurance companies for pets. We found extensive loss of genetic variation and moderate levels of recent inbreeding in all breeds examined, but no strong indication of a difference in these parameters between healthy versus unhealthy breeds over this period. Thus, recent breeding history with respect to rate of inbreeding does not appear to be a main cause of poor health in the investigated dog breeds in Sweden. We identified both strengths and weaknesses of the dog pedigree data important to consider in future work of monitoring and conserving genetic diversity of dog breeds.

  16. Genomic analyses provide insights into the history of tomato breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Zhu, Guangtao; Zhang, Junhong; Xu, Xiangyang; Yu, Qinghui; Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Lun, Yaoyao; Li, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Zejun; Li, Junming; Zhang, Chunzhi; Wang, Taotao; Zhang, Yuyang; Wang, Aoxue; Zhang, Yancong; Lin, Kui; Li, Chuanyou; Xiong, Guosheng; Xue, Yongbiao; Mazzucato, Andrea; Causse, Mathilde; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James J; Chetelat, Roger T; Zamir, Dani; Städler, Thomas; Li, Jingfu; Ye, Zhibiao; Du, Yongchen; Huang, Sanwen

    2014-11-01

    The histories of crop domestication and breeding are recorded in genomes. Although tomato is a model species for plant biology and breeding, the nature of human selection that altered its genome remains largely unknown. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of tomato evolution based on the genome sequences of 360 accessions. We provide evidence that domestication and improvement focused on two independent sets of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), resulting in modern tomato fruit ∼100 times larger than its ancestor. Furthermore, we discovered a major genomic signature for modern processing tomatoes, identified the causative variants that confer pink fruit color and precisely visualized the linkage drag associated with wild introgressions. This study outlines the accomplishments as well as the costs of historical selection and provides molecular insights toward further improvement.

  17. Neural networks for predicting breeding values and genetic gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Nunes Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis using Artificial Neural Networks has been described as an approach in the decision-making process that, although incipient, has been reported as presenting high potential for use in animal and plant breeding. In this study, we introduce the procedure of using the expanded data set for training the network. Wealso proposed using statistical parameters to estimate the breeding value of genotypes in simulated scenarios, in addition to the mean phenotypic value in a feed-forward back propagation multilayer perceptron network. After evaluating artificial neural network configurations, our results showed its superiority to estimates based on linear models, as well as its applicability in the genetic value prediction process. The results further indicated the good generalization performance of the neural network model in several additional validation experiments.

  18. Molecular classification of Maize cytoplasms in a breeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo. N * , Presello, D.A. , Kandus M. , G.E. Eyherabide and J.C. Salerno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is maternally inherited in most of higher plants species. Together with nuclear restorer genes (Rf, CMS cytoplasms contribute significantly to the efficient production of hybrid seed. Three main types of male sterile cytoplasms are known in maize: T, S and C, which can be distinguished by crossing with specific restorer lines. Recently, PCR markers have been developed allowing the identification of different cytoplasms quickly and accurately. Our objective was to classify the cytoplasm type of maize inbred lines used in our breeding program and F1s obtained from crosses between CMS lines and elite maize lines using PCR multiplex. A multiplex PCR protocol was optimized for our conditions. We obtained the molecular classification of the analyzed cytoplasms. The optimized protocol is a valuable tool to trace male sterile cytoplasms and determine hybrid seed purity in our maize breeding program.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chiu, Ing L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in breeding kennel dogs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Kimura, Yuya; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio

    2015-03-01

    The present study is the first to show overall prevalences of intestinal parasites among breeding kennel dogs in Japan. A total of 573 fresh fecal samples were collected from dogs at 12 breeding kennels. Giardia-specific coproantigen was examined by ELISA kit (SNAP(®) Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Maine, USA). Other intestinal parasites were determined microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. Overall prevalences of two genera of protists, Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp., were 25.7 and 1.2 %, respectively. The prevalence of helminthes was recorded as: Toxocara canis 0.2 %, Toxascaris leonina 0.9 %, Ancylostoma caninum 0.2 %, Trichuris vulpis 2.1 %, and Spirometra erinacei 0.4 %. According to age categories, Giardia spp., Cystoisospora spp., and T. leonina in intestinal parasite infections were found at the high prevalent, ranging from 16.0 to 70.0 %.

  1. Simple intervention to reduce mosquito breeding in waste stabilisation ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Mukhtar, Muhammad; van der Hoek, Wim;

    2007-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) are the preferred method for treatment of urban wastewater in low-income countries but, especially in arid regions, the pond systems can be important breeding sites for mosquitoes of medical importance. In a WSP system in Faisalabad, Pakistan, we assessed the impact...... of simple environmental interventions on mosquito occurrence and abundance. Reducing the amount of floating matter in the ponds, eliminating emergent vegetation and repairing cracks in the cement structure reduced the number of mosquito-positive samples in the intervention ponds to almost zero, whereas...... the control ponds had a significant number of positive samples. This suggests that a combination of simple low-cost interventions is a feasible environmental management strategy for vector control in WSP systems that are located in areas where medically important mosquitoes may breed in the shallow ponds....

  2. Towards social acceptance of plant breeding by genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Motoko; Ishii, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Although genome-editing technologies facilitate efficient plant breeding without introducing a transgene, it is creating indistinct boundaries in the regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Rapid advances in plant breeding by genome-editing require the establishment of a new global policy for the new biotechnology, while filling the gap between process-based and product-based GMO regulations. In this Opinion article we review recent developments in producing major crops using genome-editing, and we propose a regulatory model that takes into account the various methodologies to achieve genetic modifications as well as the resulting types of mutation. Moreover, we discuss the future integration of genome-editing crops into society, specifically a possible response to the 'Right to Know' movement which demands labeling of food that contains genetically engineered ingredients.

  3. Streptococcus canis arthritis in a cat breeding colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglauer, F; Kunstýr, I; Mörstedt, R; Farouq, H; Wullenweber, M; Damsch, S

    1991-01-01

    This is the first description of a pathologic condition--arthritis in cats affecting mainly one joint, i.e. monarthritis--caused by Streptococcus canis (S. canis), of the Lancefield serologic group G. Six cases were recorded in a closed cat breeding colony during a 6 month period in 1988, and one additional case in 1990. Therapy with penicillin and streptomycin led to full recovery in four of six cases. The bacterium had been detected from different purulent processes sporadically--including one case of purulent arthritis in 1982--as a nosocomial infection since 1980, the year the breeding colony was established. A possible genetic predisposition (high inbreeding) may have contributed to the accumulation of the six cases in 1988. Although S. canis was isolated in mouse, rat, rabbit and dog, cat and man seem to be more frequently affected. There are some similarities between S. canis-arthritis in cat and man.

  4. Cacao breeding in Bahia, Brazil - strategies and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uilson Vanderlei Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cacao was introduced in Bahia in 1756, becoming later the largest producer state in the country. In order to supportthe planting of cacao in the region, a breeding program was established by CEPEC at the beginning of the 1970s. For a long time,the program consisted in testing new hybrids (full-sibs and releasing a mixture of the best ones to farmers. Lately, particularly afterthe witches´ broom arrival in the region, in 1989, recurrent breeding strategies were implemented, aiming mainly the developmentof clones. From 1993 to 2010, more than 500 progenies, accumulating 30 thousand trees, were developed by crossing many parentswith resistance to witches´ broom, high yield and other traits. In this period, more than 500 clones were put in trials and 39 clonesand 3 hybrids were released to farmers. In this paper the strategies and results achieved by the program are reviewed. Overall theprogram has good interface with pathology and genomic programs.

  5. Breeding value estimation in the Hungarian Sport Horse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posta, János; Komlósi, István; Mihók, Sándor

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters for a range of traits in Hungarian Sport Horses, and to compare several methods of estimating breeding value (BV) in this breed. The analyses were based on the Hungarian Sport Horse Studbook, results of self-performance tests (SPTs) and show-jumping competition results. An SPT comprises subjective judgement of conformation traits, movement analysis traits and free-jumping performance, assessed via ordinal scores. Genetic parameters of SPTs were estimated with an animal model. Different measurements of the competition performance were compared using the same repeatability model. Estimates of BV for sport were made with random regression models using a first-order Legendre polynomial. Heritability was found to increase and permanent environmental variance to decrease continuously with age. BVs can be estimated at different ages and from these a composite BV index can be computed. It is possible to weight BVs for the specific age of a horse.

  6. A survey of dystocia in the Boxer breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persson Gunilla

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dystocia occurs more commonly in some breeds of dogs than others. The Boxer breed is one of the highrisk breeds for whelping problems. The aim of this study was to document some reproductive parameters and the frequency of dystocia in Boxers. Methods Two questionnaires were sent to the breeders of Boxers in Sweden during 1994 to 1997. Data from 253 whelpings and 1671 pups was received, which constitutes 56.5% of all Boxer litters registered with the Swedish Kennel Club during these years. Data was analysed using Chi-square test, and Fischer's exact test. Results Dystocia occurred in 32% of the individual bitches, and in 27.7% of all the whelpings. Caesarian section was performed in 22.8% of all the whelpings and in 80.1% of the cases of dystocia. Medical treatment was tried in 20 cases but was successful only in 5 (25%. The dystocia was of maternal origin in 68.6% and of fetal origin in 28.6% of cases. The most common reasons for dystocia were primary uterine inertia (60% and malpresentation of the fetus (26%. Dystocia increased with increasing age of the bitch from four years of age. Average litter size was 6.6 (± 2.2 pups born, and 5.0 (± 2.1 pups registered. Pup mortality was 24%. Stillbirths accounted for 6.1% of the pup deaths and 1% died in the neonatal period, while 15.6% of the pups were euthanised, the majority because they had disqualifying white coat colour. Cryptorchidism was observed in 9.8% of the male pups born and in 13.4% of the male pups that were registered. Conclusion The Boxer suffers a high frequency of dystocia, mainly due to uterine inertia, but also fetal malpresentation. Breeders should be adviced to include easy whelpings in their breeding program.

  7. Developments in amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Gemma; Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2016-04-01

    Captive breeding and reintroduction remain high profile but controversial conservation interventions. It is important to understand how such programs develop and respond to strategic conservation initiatives. We analyzed the contribution to conservation made by amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction since the launch of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP) in 2007. We assembled data on amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction from a variety of sources including the Amphibian Ark database and the IUCN Red List. We also carried out systematic searches of Web of Science, JSTOR, and Google Scholar for relevant literature. Relative to data collected from 1966 to 2006, the number of species involved in captive breeding and reintroduction projects increased by 57% in the 7 years since release of the ACAP. However, there have been relatively few new reintroductions over this period; most programs have focused on securing captive-assurance populations (i.e., species taken into captivity as a precaution against extinctions in the wild) and conservation-related research. There has been a shift to a broader representation of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians within programs and an increasing emphasis on threatened species. There has been a relative increase of species in programs from Central and South America and the Caribbean, where amphibian biodiversity is high. About half of the programs involve zoos and aquaria with a similar proportion represented in specialist facilities run by governmental or nongovernmental agencies. Despite successful reintroduction often being regarded as the ultimate milestone for such programs, the irreversibility of many current threats to amphibians may make this an impractical goal. Instead, research on captive assurance populations may be needed to develop imaginative solutions to enable amphibians to survive alongside current, emerging, and future threats.

  8. Analytical and Decision Support Tools for Genomics-Assisted Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Varshney, Rajeev K.; Singh, Vikas K; Hickey, John M.; Xun, Xu; Marshall, David F; Wang, Jun; Edwards, David; Ribaut, Jean-Marcel

    2016-01-01

    To successfully implement genomics-assisted breeding (GAB) in crop improvement programs, efficient and effective analytical and decision support tools (ADSTs) are 'must haves' to evaluate and select plants for developing next-generation crops. Here we review the applications and deployment of appropriate ADSTs for GAB, in the context of next-generation sequencing (NGS), an emerging source of massive genomic information. We discuss suitable software tools and pipelines for marker-based approac...

  9. Ten inherited disorders in purebred dogs by functional breed groupings

    OpenAIRE

    Oberbauer, A. M.; Belanger, J. M.; Bellumori, T.; Bannasch, D.L.; Famula, T. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Analysis of 88,635 dogs seen at the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1995 to 2010 identified ten inherited conditions having greater prevalence within the purebred dog population as compared to the mixed-breed dog population: aortic stenosis, atopy/allergic dermatitis, gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV), early onset cataracts, dilated cardiomyopathy, elbow dysplasia, epilepsy, hypothyroidism, intervertebral disk disease (IVDD), and hepatic po...

  10. Husbandry and enclosure influences on penguin behavior and conservation breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrew R; Deere, Nicolas J; Little, Holly A; Snipp, Ross; Goulder, Jackie; Mayer-Clarke, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    Multi-zoo comparisons of animal welfare are rare, and yet vital for ensuring continued improvement of zoo enclosures and husbandry. Methods are not standardized for the development of zoo enclosures based on multiple indicators, and case study species are required. This study compares behavior and breeding success to various enclosure and husbandry parameters for the Humboldt penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, for the development of improved enclosure design. Behavioral sampling was completed at Flamingo Land over a period of 8 months. Further data on behavior, enclosure design, and breeding success were collected via questionnaires, visits to zoos, and literature review. Breeding success was primarily influenced by colony age and number of breeding pairs, suggesting an important social influence on reproduction. Across zoos, there was also significant variation in behavior. The proportion of time spent in water varied between zoos (2-23%) and was used as an indicator of physical activity and natural behavior. Regression models revealed that water-use was best predicted by total enclosure area per penguin, followed by land area, with some evidence for positive influence of pool surface area per penguin. Predominantly linear/curvilinear increases in our biological indicators with enclosure parameters suggest that optimal conditions for S. humboldti were not met among the selected zoos. We propose revised minimum conditions for S. humboldti enclosure design, which exceed those in the existing husbandry guidelines. We present a framework for the evaluation of zoo enclosures and suggest that a rigorous scientific protocol be established for the design of new enclosures, based on multivariate methods. Zoo Biol. 35:385-397, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Utilization of Cotton DNA Markers in Cotton Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CANTRELL Roy G; XIAO Jin-hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ Informative,portable,and efficient DNA markers have the potential to accelerate genetic gain in cotton breeding.Discovery and widespread application of DNA markers to cotton has traditionally lagged behind other major crop species.The reasons are well known to ICGI participants.The foundation for widespread development and application of DNA markers has been laid by ICGI and research within the private sector.

  12. Cephalic morphology in the Cavall Pirinenc Català breed

    OpenAIRE

    Pere-Miquel Parés i Casanova

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-five metric parameters were taken on 19 skulls belonging to adult Cavall Pirinenc Català horse breed and were subjected to a Principal Component Analysis. Parameters related with neurocranium width, ventral lengths and those related with ocular orbit are poorly discriminants. On the other hand, parameters related with viscerocranium are strongly discriminant. Our study strengths the importance in using parameters linked to viscerocranium, and frontal length, in equine racial studies on...

  13. Environmental correlates of breeding in the Crested Caracara (Caracara Cheriway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, J.L.; Pias, Kyle E.; Cohen, J.B.; Catlin, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of weather on reproduction of the Crested Caracara (Caracara cheriway) in an agricultural landscape in south-central Florida. We used a mixed logistic-regression modeling approach within an information-theoretic framework to examine the influence of total rainfall, rainfall frequency, and temperature on the number of breeding pairs, timing of breeding, nest success, and productivity of Crested Caracaras during 1994-2000. The best models indicated an influence of rainfall frequency and laying period on reproduction. More individuals nested and more pairs nested earlier during years with more frequent rainfall in late summer and early fall. Pairs that nested later in each breeding season had smaller clutches, lower nest success and productivity, and higher probability of nest failure. More frequent rainfall during early spring months that are usually characterized by water deficit (March-May), more frequent rainfall during the fall drawdown period (September-November), and a shorter winter dry period showed some association with higher probability of brood reduction and lower nest success. The proportion of nests that failed was higher in "wet" years, when total rainfall during the breeding season (September-April) was >10% above the 20-year average. Rainfall may influence reproduction in Crested Caracaras indirectly through food resources. As total rainfall increased during February-April, when most pairs are feeding nestlings or dependent fledglings, the proportion of drawdown-dependent species (those that become available as rainfall decreases and wetlands become isolated and shallow) in the diet of Crested Caracaras declined, which may indicate reduced availability of foraging habitat for this primarily terrestrial raptor. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2009.

  14. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, C A; Clarke, J M; Duguid, S; Chaney, R L

    2008-02-15

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet.

  15. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, C.A. [AAFC Brandon Research Centre, Box 1000A, R.R. 3, Brandon, MB, R7A 5Y3 (Canada)], E-mail: cgrant@agr.gc.ca; Clarke, J.M. [AAFC Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Swift Current, SK, S9H 3X2 (Canada); Duguid, S. [AAFC Morden Research Station, Morden, MB, R6M 1Y5 (Canada); Chaney, R.L. [USDA, ARS, Animal Manure and Byproducts Laboratory, Room 013, Building 007, BARC-West, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet.

  16. Breeding and trade of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnen, V V; Remor, J O; Lima, R E M

    2012-02-01

    The wildlife trade is becoming increasingly more relevant in discussions concerning conservation biology and the sustainable management of natural resources. The aim of this study was to document the trade and breeding of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, in southern Brazil. Data was collected from annual reports (1996-2008) of wildlife breeders which were sent to IBAMA. By the end of 2008, there were 79 wildlife breeders and 11 wildlife traders distributed in Santa Catarina. Commercial breeding accounted for the highest number of breeders (51%). In total, there are 213 species of wild animals bred in the state: 177 birds, 19 mammals and 17 reptiles. Of these, 48% are native to Santa Catarina, 32% occur in other Brazilian states and 20% are exotic to Brazil. Nine percent of the species bred are vulnerable or endangered. It was observed that some breeders reported breeding unauthorized species. Altogether, 93 species are bred illegally by 19 breeders. Of these species, 48 are native to Santa Catarina and three are classified as vulnerable or in danger of extinction. We hope the data presented in this paper contributes to the development of conservation strategies and conscious use of wildlife resources in Brazil.

  17. Charge state breeding experiences and plans at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, F., E-mail: ames@triumf.ca; Marchetto, M.; Mjøs, A.; Morton, A. C. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T2A3 (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    At the Isotope Separation and ACceleration (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been set up for the charge state breeding of radioactive ions. In order to reduce background from stable ions generated in the ECRIS, several measures, including changing materials for the plasma chamber and the surrounding components, have been implemented. Further reduction has been achieved by using the post-accelerator chain as a mass filter. Since the implementation of those measures in 2013, physics experiments with accelerated radioactive isotopes of Rb, Sr, K, and Mg have been performed. In most cases, a charge breeding efficiency of several percent has been achieved. With the planned expansion of the isotope production capabilities at TRIUMF within the Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory project, two new target stations, one using photo-fission induced by a high-power electron beam at 50 MeV and the other one using 480 MeV protons as at ISAC, will be put into operation within the next 5 yr. Additionally, a new electron beam ion source (EBIS) based charge state breeding system will be installed. Background from such a source is expected to be much lower. The drawback is that for the efficient operation of such a system, pulsed beam operation is required, which makes the installation of an additional ion buncher in front of the EBIS necessary.

  18. Breeding and trade of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VV Kuhnen

    Full Text Available The wildlife trade is becoming increasingly more relevant in discussions concerning conservation biology and the sustainable management of natural resources. The aim of this study was to document the trade and breeding of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, in southern Brazil. Data was collected from annual reports (1996-2008 of wildlife breeders which were sent to IBAMA. By the end of 2008, there were 79 wildlife breeders and 11 wildlife traders distributed in Santa Catarina. Commercial breeding accounted for the highest number of breeders (51%. In total, there are 213 species of wild animals bred in the state: 177 birds, 19 mammals and 17 reptiles. Of these, 48% are native to Santa Catarina, 32% occur in other Brazilian states and 20% are exotic to Brazil. Nine percent of the species bred are vulnerable or endangered. It was observed that some breeders reported breeding unauthorized species. Altogether, 93 species are bred illegally by 19 breeders. Of these species, 48 are native to Santa Catarina and three are classified as vulnerable or in danger of extinction. We hope the data presented in this paper contributes to the development of conservation strategies and conscious use of wildlife resources in Brazil.

  19. Contributions to the Study of Sura de Stepa Cattle Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Maciuc

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sura de Stepa breed, which is on the verge of extinction, has been included in a preservation programme for animal genetic resources (H.G. nr. 822/2008, being raised in a reduced nucleus at S.C.D.C.B. – Dancu, Iasi. Researches were carried out on a number of 30 Sura de Stepa cows, focused on: milk production indicators by successive lactations, genetic determinism at the studied characters and at main lacto-proteins systems, the improvement value of breeding. The quantity of milk per normal lactation at Sură de Stepă population from S.C.D.C.B. – Dancu Iasi, has an upward evolution from 1589.64 kg in the first lactation to 2535.43 kg in the fifth lactation which is also the maximum one. First lactation represents 62.69% from maximum lactation, a value which highlighting the tardiness of Sura de Stepa breed in terms of milk production. Heritability analysis of the studied indicators show medium values for the quantity of milk and fat respectively a hereditary influence greater than h2 = 0.71% for percentage of milk fat and h2 = 0.57% for kappa–casein (K-cz from milk. Lacto-proteins systems, beta-lacto globulin (-lg, betacasein (-cz, alpha-casein S1 (S1-cz, have a low to intermediate heritability (0.19 to 0.29%.

  20. Influence of sexually transmitted infections in a horse breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent problems in horses reproduction are generally divided into those of infectious and non infectious etiology. Common causes of infectious diseases are usual­ly viruses and bacteria, and less frequently protozoa, mykoplasma and fungi. In this work there are presented the most important fact about sexually transmitted diseases, their clinical picture, risk factors, preventive measures as well as measures to prevent and eradicate the diseases. The biggest risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases in horses are breeding stallions, both in natural mating and in artificial insemination. Therefore, in order to prevent genital infections in horses, it is essential that the stallions used for breeding are healthy (non-infected. That can be determined with certainty only if the stallions are examined (tested just before the breeding season on most frequent sexually transmitted diseases (CEM,EAV. It is well known that in most cases the clinical picture of sexually transmitted diseses is not manifested on genitals. As well, variations in clinical picture can be expected also in mares, depending on the stage of the disease and its etiology. Harms arising from sexually transmitted diseases can be divided into direct and indirect. Direct damage occurs in the form of endometritis, miscarriage, stillbirths and births of weak foals, and indirect in restricting the traffic of infected and suspicios animals, isolation of the infected ones as well as medical treatment and interrupting mating.