WorldWideScience

Sample records for breeds characterizations review

  1. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  2. Characterization of four indigenous sheep breeds of Balochistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of four indigenous sheep breeds of Balochistan, Pakistan by random amplified polymorphic DNAs. ... The highest number of polymorphic loci 40 was observed in the Mengali breed, while the lowest 28 was in Balochi. Further, 33 and 31 polymorphic loci were seen in Beverigh and Harnai breeds, ...

  3. Genetic characterization of Zanskari breed of horse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, poor management of these animals has led to dilution of their characteristic features to some ex- ... animals of Zanskari breed from its breeding tract in Jammu and Kashmir state. About 10 ml of blood per ..... variation of Polish endangered Bilgoraj horses and two common horse breeds in microsatellite loci. J. Appl.

  4. Characterization of the genetic profile of five Danish dog breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Kristensen, T. N.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Pointing Dog (ODP; n = 24), and 5) Greenland Dog (GD; n = 23). The aims of the investigation were to characterize the genetic profile of the abovementioned dog breeds by quantifying the genetic differentiation among them and the degree of genetic homogeneity within breeds. The genetic profile......This investigation presents results from a genetic characterization of 5 Danish dog breeds genotyped on the CanineHD BeadChip microarray with 170,000 SNP. The breeds investigated were 1) Danish Spitz (DS; n = 8), 2) Danish-Swedish Farm Dog (DSF; n = 18), 3) Broholmer (BR; n = 22), 4) Old Danish...... was determined by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and through a Bayesian clustering method. Both the PCA and the Bayesian clustering method revealed a clear genetic separation of the 5 breeds. The level of genetic variation within the breeds varied. The expected heterozygosity (H) as well...

  5. Characterization of beef cattle breeds by virtue of their performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Average growth and body weight data, which comprised 745 400 weaning records and 14 990 Phase C growth records of young bulls of 16 breeds were obtained from the National Beef Cattle Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme and used in this re-analysis to characterize breeds for a variety of important traits.

  6. Genetic characterization of two Sudanese goat breeds (Capra hircus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Genetic characterization of two Sudanese goat breeds. (Capra hircus) using RAPD molecular markers. Eisa El Gaali* and Mona Satti. Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, National Center for Research, Ministry of Science and. Technology, P. O. Box 2404, Khartoum, Sudan. Accepted 2 ...

  7. Mutation breeding for crop improvement: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    More than 70 years have passed since radiation was used successfully to generate genetic variation in plants. Since the research on theoretical basis of mutagenesis was performed with a peak in the mid sixties. The result of these investigations led to the formulation of methodological principles in the use of various mutagens for the creation and selection of desired variability. The induced genetic variability has been extensively used for evolution of crop varieties as well as in breeding programmes. More than 1800 varieties of 154 plants species have so far been released for commercial cultivation, of which cereals are at the top, demonstrating the economics of the mutation breeding technique. The most frequently occurring mutations have been the short stature and really maturity. In Pakistan, the use of mutation breeding technique for the improvement of crops has also led to the development of 34 cultivars of cotton, rice, wheat, chickpea, mungbean and rapeseed which have played a significant role in increasing crop production in the country. In addition, a wealth of genetic variability has been developed for use in the cross breeding programmes, and the breeders in Pakistan have released six varieties of cotton by using an induced mutant as one of the parents. (author)

  8. Thermo-mechanical characterization of ceramic pebbles for breeding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, Rosa, E-mail: rosa.lofrano@ing.unipi.it; Aquaro, Donato; Scaletti, Luca

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Experimental activities to characterize the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}. • Compression tests of pebbles. • Experimental evaluation of thermal conductivity of pebbles bed at different temperatures. • Experimental test with/without compression load. - Abstract: An open issue for fusion power reactor is to design a suitable breeding blanket capable to produce the necessary quantity of the tritium and to transfer the energy of the nuclear fusion reaction to the coolant. The envisaged solution called Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) breeding blanket foresees the use of lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) or lithium metatitanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) pebble beds. The thermal mechanical properties of the candidate pebble bed materials are presently extensively investigated because they are critical for the feasibility and performances of the numerous conceptual designs which use a solid breeder. This study is aimed at the investigation of mechanical properties of the lithium orthosilicate and at the characterization of the main chemical, physical and thermo-mechanical properties taking into account the production technology. In doing that at the Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering (DICI) of the University of Pisa adequate experiments were carried out. The obtained results may contribute to characterize the material of the pebbles and to optimize the design of the envisaged fusion breeding blankets.

  9. [Book review] Massachusetts breeding bird atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    2005-01-01

    A glance at the dust jacket of this handsome volume drives home the conservation message that breeding bird atlases are designed to promote—that bird populations are changing over vast areas and, unless we become aware of changes in status and take remedial action, some species will disappear from our neighborhoods and even our county or state. A case in point involves the closely related Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) and Blue- winged Warbler (Vermivora pinus). The males are shown in the atlas with their breeding distribution maps. When I was an active birder in the Boston suburbs in the 1930s, the Golden-winged Warbler was a common breeder and it was a treat to find a Blue-winged Warbler. The atlas map 40 years later (1974–1979) shows only five confirmed records statewide for the Golden-winged Warbler, compared with 73 for the Blue-winged Warbler, and the Golden-winged Warbler is now listed as endangered by the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Nationally, it is a species of management concern.

  10. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes. II. Breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry. Ruminant breeding is still an open system where farmers continue to choose their own breeds and strategies. Conversely, pig and poultry breeding is more or less the exclusive domain of international breeding companies which supply farmers with hybrid animals. Innovations in breeding strategies must therefore be adapted to the different species. In developed countries, reorienting current breeding programmes seems to be more effective than developing programmes dedicated to agroecological systems that will struggle to be really effective because of the small size of the populations currently concerned by such systems. Particular attention needs to be paid to determining the respective usefulness of cross-breeding v. straight breeding strategies of well-adapted local breeds. While cross-breeding may offer some immediate benefits in terms of improving certain traits that enable the animals to adapt well to local environmental conditions, it may be difficult to sustain these benefits in the longer term and could also induce an important loss of genetic diversity if the initial pure-bred populations are no longer produced. As well as supporting the value of within-breed diversity, we must preserve between-breed diversity in order to maintain numerous options for adaptation to a variety of production environments and contexts. This may involve specific public policies to maintain and characterize local breeds (in terms of both phenotypes and genotypes), which could

  11. SNPs genotyping technologies and their applications in farm animals breeding programs: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Kharrati Koopaee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are DNA sequence variations that occur when a single nucleotide: adenine (A, thymine (T, cytosine (C or guanine (G in the genome sequence is altered. Traditional and high throughput methods are two main strategies for SNPs genotyping. The SNPs genotyping technologies provide powerful resources for animal breeding programs.Genomic selection using SNPs is a new tool for choosing the best breeding animals. In addition, the high density maps using SNPs can provide useful genetic tools to study quantitative traits genetic variations. There are many sources of SNPs and exhaustive numbers of methods of SNP detection to be considered. For many traits in farm animals, the rate of genetic improvement can be nearly doubled when SNPs information is used compared to the current methods of genetic evaluation. The goal of this review is to characterize the SNPs genotyping methods and their applications in farm animals breeding.

  12. Advances in genome editing for improved animal breeding: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Shakil Ahmad; Malik, Abrar Ahad; Ahmad, Syed Mudasir; Shah, Riaz Ahmad; Ganai, Nazir Ahmad; Shafi, Syed Shanaz; Shabir, Nadeem

    2017-11-01

    Since centuries, the traits for production and disease resistance are being targeted while improving the genetic merit of domestic animals, using conventional breeding programs such as inbreeding, outbreeding, or introduction of marker-assisted selection. The arrival of new scientific concepts, such as cloning and genome engineering, has added a new and promising research dimension to the existing animal breeding programs. Development of genome editing technologies such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease, zinc finger nuclease, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats systems begun a fresh era of genome editing, through which any change in the genome, including specific DNA sequence or indels, can be made with unprecedented precision and specificity. Furthermore, it offers an opportunity of intensification in the frequency of desirable alleles in an animal population through gene-edited individuals more rapidly than conventional breeding. The specific research is evolving swiftly with a focus on improvement of economically important animal species or their traits all of which form an important subject of this review. It also discusses the hurdles to commercialization of these techniques despite several patent applications owing to the ambiguous legal status of genome-editing methods on account of their disputed classification. Nonetheless, barring ethical concerns gene-editing entailing economically important genes offers a tremendous potential for breeding animals with desirable traits.

  13. Advances in genome editing for improved animal breeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakil Ahmad Bhat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Since centuries, the traits for production and disease resistance are being targeted while improving the genetic merit of domestic animals, using conventional breeding programs such as inbreeding, outbreeding, or introduction of marker-assisted selection. The arrival of new scientific concepts, such as cloning and genome engineering, has added a new and promising research dimension to the existing animal breeding programs. Development of genome editing technologies such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease, zinc finger nuclease, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats systems begun a fresh era of genome editing, through which any change in the genome, including specific DNA sequence or indels, can be made with unprecedented precision and specificity. Furthermore, it offers an opportunity of intensification in the frequency of desirable alleles in an animal population through gene-edited individuals more rapidly than conventional breeding. The specific research is evolving swiftly with a focus on improvement of economically important animal species or their traits all of which form an important subject of this review. It also discusses the hurdles to commercialization of these techniques despite several patent applications owing to the ambiguous legal status of genome-editing methods on account of their disputed classification. Nonetheless, barring ethical concerns gene-editing entailing economically important genes offers a tremendous potential for breeding animals with desirable traits.

  14. Breeding for Quality Protein Maize (QPM Varieties: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane N. Tandzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional evaluation of quality protein maize (QPM in feeding trials has proved its nutritional superiority over non-QPM varieties for human and livestock consumption. The present paper reviews some of the most recent achievements in development of QPM varieties using both conventional and molecular breeding under stressed and non-stressed environments. It is evident that numerous QPM varieties have been developed and released around the world over the past few decades. While the review points out some gaps in information or research efforts, challenges associated with adoption QPM varieties are highlighted and suggestions to overcome them are presented. The adoption of released varieties and challenges facing QPM production at the farmer level are also mentioned. Several breeding methods have been conventionally used to develop QPM varieties in stressed (drought, low soil nitrogen, resistance to grey leaf spot, Turcicum leaf blight, ear rot, and Striga and non-stressed environments. At least three genetic loci have been found to be implicated in controlling the levels of a protein synthesis factor correlated with lysine. They have been mapped on chromosomes 2, 4, and 7. While the use of molecular approaches will improve the efficiency and speed of variety development, the cost implications might limit the use of these technologies in the developing world. More emphasis should be given to breeding QPM for tolerance to environmental stresses, such as low soil pH, heat, and combined heat and drought stress. The post-harvest attack of QPM grains should also be considered. The adoption of QPM genotypes by farmers has been found to be limited mainly due to the minimal collaboration between maize breeders, farmers, agricultural extension workers, and other relevant stakeholders, as well as the need for isolating QPM varieties from normal maize. Therefore, there is need to use participatory plant breeding (PPB and/or participatory variety

  15. Application of excilamps in agriculture and animal breeding (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnin, Eduard A.; Chudinova, Yulia V.; Victorova, Irina A.; Volotko, Ivan I.

    2015-12-01

    The paper provides a review of research data on applications of XeCl excilamps in agriculture and animal breeding. The data demonstrate a favorable effect of radiation produced by the excilamps on the fertility of animals (outbred mice and pigs) and on the growth of plants (flaxes, potatoes, carrots, cucumbers, conifers). Excilamp models adapted specially for use in stock-raising and grain storage complexes are now available. The research data obtained in 2012-2015 suggest that XeCl excilamps hold promise for prevention of diseases in indoor-housed pigs and for pre-sowing seed preparation.

  16. Index-in-retrospect and breeding objectives characterizing genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate that relatively little directional selection has been applied to Nguni as a breed, and that historically bulls and heifers were selected according to divergent criteria. Breeding objectives indicated that production, profitability and sustainability goals were largely complementary, but reflected a change from past ...

  17. Characterization of local goat breeds using RAP-DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Barzinji, Yousif M. S.; Hamad, Aram O.

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted on different colors of local goat breeds. A number of 216 does were sampled from the seven groups. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples. From the twenty used RAPD primers 12 of them were amplified, and presence of bands. The total fragment number of 12 primers over all the goat breed samples was 485 fragments. Out of the 485 fragments, 90 of them were Polymorphic fragments numbers (PFN). From all bands obtained, 20 of them possessed unique bands. The highest unique band was found in locus RAP 6 which has 4 unique bands, three of them in the Maraz Brown and one in the local Koor. Nei's gene diversity and Shanon's information index in this study were averaged 0.38 and 0.60, respectively. The genetic distance among several goat breeds ranged from 9.11 to 43.33%. The highest genetic distance 43.33% recorded between Maraz goat and other goat breeds and between local Koor and other goat (except Maraz goats) breeds (37.79%). However, the lowest genetic distance recorded between local white and Pnok. The distance between (local Black and Pnok) and (local Black and local white) was 22.75%. In conclusions, the high distance among these goat breeds, polymorphism and high numbers of unique bands found in present study indicates that these goat breeds have the required amount of genetic variation to made genetic improvement. This study helps us to clarify the image of the genetic diversity of the local goat breeds and the breeders can used it for mating system when need to make the crossing among these goat breeds.

  18. Index-in-retrospect and breeding objectives characterizing genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    2014-06-14

    Jun 14, 2014 ... L.E. Matjuda1,2, M.D. MacNeil1,3,4, A. Maiwashe1,4#, V.R. Leesburg5 & M. Malatje2. 1 ARC-Animal ... However, even across production and marketing systems as widely divergent as those in ... breeding objectives for terminal sires across breeds and marketing systems in the US ranged from 0.74 to.

  19. Microsatellite genetic characterization of the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) breeding ground off Brazil (breeding stock A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypriano-Souza, Ana Lúcia; Fernández, Gabriela P; Lima-Rosa, Carlos André V; Engel, Márcia H; Bonatto, Sandro L

    2010-01-01

    The Southwestern Atlantic Ocean humpback whales wintering ground (breeding stock A) are distributed along the Brazilian coast (5-23 degrees S), and their main mating and calving ground is in the Abrolhos Bank. We investigated genetic diversity, population structure, and relatedness of individuals sampled from the entire Southwest Atlantic humpback whale population. A total of 275 individuals sampled from 2 subregions (Abrolhos Bank, n = 229 and Praia do Forte, n = 46) were screened for 9 microsatellite loci. This population showed a high level of allelic diversity (A = 12.1) and a high mean observed heterozygosity (H(O) = 0.733). No signal of significant genetic bottleneck was detected in accordance with the mitochondrial DNA data. We find no evidence of temporal (between years) genetic structure as well as no genetic differentiation between whales from the 2 subregions of the Brazilian breeding ground. We observed that the proportion of males and females in this population was approximately 1:1, which differs from the male-biased sex ratio observed in other breeding grounds. The data obtained through this study provided no evidence of kinship associations within social groups. Finally, a female sampled off South Georgia Islands showed a putative parent-offspring relationship with a female off Abrolhos Bank, supporting the migratory link between these 2 areas.

  20. Review of the breeding status of birds in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni N. Maurício

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on the breeding biology of birds is essential for improving avian life-history theory and implementing sound management and conservation actions for these organisms. Comprehensive reviews of this kind of information are lacking for most Neotropical regions, including Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost Brazilian state. Aiming to update the knowledge on the reproductive status of birds in Rio Grande do Sul, we reviewed breeding records of all potential breeding species recorded in the state using a set of predefined, restrictive criteria for accepting breeding evidences as effective. Data satisfying our criteria were available for 165 species in the literature. We also collected novel breeding information obtained in the state for an additional 126 species, including observations for several species whose reproductive biology is poorly known. Among these are birds previously unknown to breed in Brazil. This new data and the critical review of the previous information resulted in a total of 291 species for which breeding evidences are accepted as effective. This corresponds to 54.7% of the 532 species considered either confirmed or potential breeders in the state. In addition to providing information on nesting dates, clutch size, nest architecture and breeding behavior of south Brazilian birds, our review serves as a benchmark for the adequate assessment of avian breeding records elsewhere. We hope to stimulate observers to rigorously document breeding events, especially for taxa for which basic information is lacking.

  1. Characterization of four indigenous sheep breeds ofBalochistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-02

    Feb 2, 2012 ... Genetic diversity among four indigenous breeds of sheep namely Mengali, Balochi, Beverigh and. Harnai of Balochistan was detected by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Nineteen. RAPD primers were initially applied and seventeen were chosen for further analysis, based on band.

  2. Prevalence of genetic disorders in dog breeds: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirth, J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic disorders are common in dogs and in the media it is reported that genetic disorders are more frequent in pedigree dogs than in look-a-likes or in mixed-breed dogs. Here, we consider pedigree dogs as purebred dogs (i.e. matching a breed-specific morphology) with a registered and certified

  3. Characteristics of Guinea Fowl Breeding in West Africa: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houndonougbo, PV.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Guinea fowl production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is generally practiced under family and traditional rearing systems mainly for consumption and income generation, but this species plays also a major socio-cultural role in specific ceremonies. Birds are kept in free range or in confinement with outdoor access and fed on grain cereals, vegetables, edible termites and kitchen residues found in nature or occasionally supplied by the farmers. Several Guinea fowl varieties are observed and all are characterized by slow growth, high mortality of young animals and a relatively wild instinct. Although this avian species is resistant to some poultry diseases (Newcastle disease, Marek disease, Gumboro disease, ..., local guinea fowl are very sensitive to other poorly controlled diseases that require further study. These varieties differ greatly by their feather color, their morphological characteristics and growth performance, but further thorough and sustained research is needed to quantify these differences. Several researches established the nutritional requirements of local Guinea fowl but in terms of breeding, little works were done compared to chicken. Some recessive and dominant genes as well as genotypic differences were highlighted between varieties.

  4. Mutation breeding in root and tuber crops, a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukimura, Hisashi

    1988-01-01

    Some breeders argue that mutation breeding is hard to practice because the low frequency of positive mutation which displays useful characters. The effective application of mutation breeding onto root and tuber crops requires clonal progenies developing on a large scale. In most of the successful cases to obtain the desired mutation in such crops, more than thousands of vM 2 materials were dealt with. Even in the conventional cross breeding of potatoes or sweet potatoes, more than ten thousands of F 1 seedlings per year are subjected to the selection at each practical breeding unit. Thus only a single segregant selected over several years may be released as a registered cultivar. Howard (1970) reckoned that in potatoes, the chance of any seedling becoming a useful variety is about one in ten thousand, and in the breeding program using wild species, as low as one in a hundred thousand. In the conventional cross breeding of sweet potatoes carried out for 35 years, the probability of true seeds becoming a useful cultivar is estimated to be 1.37 x 10 -5 . The practical works of mutation breeding in root and tuber crops are still in premature stage, and yet any successful mutant cultivar cannot be found throughout the world. (Kako, I.)

  5. Successes and failures of small ruminant breeding programmes in the tropics: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.; Baker, R.L.; Udo, H.M.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the large numbers and importance of adapted indigenous sheep and goats in the tropics, information on sustainable conventional breeding programmes for them is scarce and often unavailable. This paper reviews within-breed selection strategies for indigenous small ruminants in the tropics,

  6. North European short-tailed breeds of sheep: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dýrmundsson, O R; Niżnikowski, R

    2010-08-01

    The short-tailed sheep, native of an area stretching from Russia to Iceland, are generally considered a primitive type. These robust northern sheep seem to have been spread by Norse vikings to several countries in this area from the late eighth century to the middle of the eleventh century ad. They have several common characteristics in addition to the fluke-shaped and tapered short tail, such as a wide range of colour patterns, dual-coated wool and the ability to thrive under harsh environmental conditions, often in isolated marginal areas. While 34 short-tailed breeds of North European origin can still be identified, it is clear that their population sizes have declined in most cases and several of them are now rare and endangered. Although these breeds have mainly been confined to certain localities, some of them have gained considerable distribution due to their genetic merits, such as prolificacy. Of these, the Finnsheep and the Romanov are best known being exported to several countries in the world where their genetic material has been utilized through crossbreeding with local sheep. This has resulted in the production of some new synthetic breeds. Meat is now generally the main product of the North European short-tailed breeds and their crossbreds, whereas wool, skins and milk are normally regarded as byproducts, yet of considerable economic importance in some cases. Such breeds have clearly a role to play in sustainable grassland-based production systems in the future.

  7. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, Gustavo A.; Hancock, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last 100 years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB) and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent. PMID:26483803

  8. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Lobos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last hundred years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent.

  9. Milk Protein Polymorphism Characterization: a Modern Tool for Sustainable Conservation of Endangered Romanian Cattle Breeds in the Context of Traditional Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Cristian Grădinaru

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to review literature data with respect to Romanian native cattle breeds which are considered at risk of extinction. In the last decades, the number of individuals of Romanian indigenous cows decreased significantly, as a consequence of the intensification and specialization of animal productions and agriculture modernization. Some of the native cattle breeds are already lost, due to their crossing with improved breeds. However, after the accession of Romania to the European Union, various preservation programs were initiated, and most of them included biochemical research and studies of molecular or quantitative genetics. All these, associated with the application of reproduction biotechnologies, give a chance to these animals, which are extremely valuable in terms of their genetic resistance to diseases and environmental factors. The reviewed literature on Romanian indigenous endangered cattle breeds confirms that these animals are carriers of a valuable gene pool, which can be kept and bred while applying different reproductive biotechnologies. Consequently, this paper raises awareness on two issues: the decrease of genetic diversity in two Romanian native cow breeds threatened with extinction (Grey Steppe and Romanian Pinzgauer; and the benefits of genetic diversity of the two breeds.

  10. Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-16

    Over the past 30years there has been a growing interest to unravel the dynamic framework of the milk proteome, and now that available technology is mature enough to enable techniques of protein fractionation and identification, this process is on-going. Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek animals is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. In the present study we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, in depth, the proteome of whey from all pure-breed Greek sheep and goats. A mean of >500 protein groups were identified in whey from each breed of each animal species, reporting for the first time the proteome dataset of this precious biological material. Given its high nutritional value, the protein properties exposed herein will govern future steps in optimizing characteristics and features of sheep and goat milk products. In the present study we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, in depth, the proteome of milk from all pure-breed Greek sheep and goats. A mean of >500 protein groups were identified in milk whey from each breed of each animal species, reporting for the first time the proteome dataset of this precious biological material. Given its high nutritional value, the protein properties exposed herein will govern future steps in optimizing characteristics and features of sheep and goat milk products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic characterization of Gaddi goat breed of Western Himalayas using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the present study, genetic characterization of Gaddi goat breed, a native to north temperate western Himalayan region of India, was carried out for the purpose of breed characterization and assessing existing intra-population genetic diversity. Materials and Methods: Totally, 75 blood samples procured at random from genetically unrelated animals of two sexes and different age groups and true to breed type were collected from different locations in the breeding tract of these goats in Himachal Pradesh, of which only 51 samples with desired quantity and quality were subjected to further processing for DNA isolation. The multi-locus genotype data were generated on 51 Gaddi goats sampled across different regions of the breeding tract in Himachal Pradesh using 15 FAO recommended goat specific microsatellite markers, which gave amplification and observed and effective number of alleles, gene frequency, observed and expected heterozygosity were estimated through PopGene software (1.3.1. Results: A total of 135 distinct alleles were observed with mean observed and effective number of alleles as 9.0000±0.82 and 6.5874±0.56 respectively across all 15 studied loci. The maximum (15 alleles were contributed by loci DRBP1 and P19/DYA and the least (5 by SRCRSP5. The mean heterozygosity was observed to be 0.8347±0.01 ranging from 0.7584 (SRCRSP5 to 0.9156 (P19-DYA across all loci. The mean observed (HO and expected (HE heterozygosities across all loci were 0.7484±0.02 and 0.8431±0.01 respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC value ranged from 0.7148 (SRCPS5 to 0.909 (P19-DYA with mean PIC of 0.8105±0.01 in the present study. The average heterozygosity was observed to be 0.8347±0.01 ranging from 0.7584 (SRCRSP5 to 0.9156 P19 (DYA across all loci. Conclusion: Microsatellite analysis revealed high level of polymorphism across studied microsatellite markers and informativeness of the markers for genetic diversity analysis studies in

  12. Barley yellow dwarf disease as a target of breeding for resistance (short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Golnik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to give a brief review of some points of wide knowledge of barley yellow dwarf (BYD disease and its breeding for resistance program.Yd2 gene has been shortly characterised. Current situation in Poland has been underlined.

  13. Slave Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Sutch, Richard

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical work on slave breeding in the ante-bellum United States. Slave breeding consisted of interference in the sexual life of slaves by their owners with the intent and result of increasing the number of slave children born. The weight of evidence suggests that slave breeding occurred in sufficient force to raise the rate of growth of the American slave population despite evidence that only a minority of slave-owners engaged in such practices.

  14. Review of urban and suburban experiences of animal breeding as an alternative of food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ernesto Seija Flórez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The urban and suburban animal production in tropical countries is a valid strategy to improve human nutrition, family consumption, income generation, savings and living conditions. Through case studies experiences of breeding animal (pigs, aquaculture, dairy, poultry, rabbits and bees were reviewed in some cities around the world to help in solving problems of food supply in urban and suburban areas. It should highlight the constraints (political, legal, health and environmental and intervention strategies to find solutions to problems. It was concluded that the positive experiences from around the world can introduce considerations of sustainability in urban and suburban animal breeding.

  15. Review of the specific measures for support of the autochthonous breeds in Bulgaria

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    Vasil Nikolov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The measures for support of 22 autochthonous breeds in Bulgaria are reviewed. It is concluded, that as a whole the support is more effective in the mountainous and semi-mountainous regions, where the opportunities for alternative agriculture are smaller. The numerous funding prerequisites and administrative formalities are some of the main obstacles to the inclusion of more farmers in the support programmes, and a hurdle to the change of the population trends in positive direction. A serious restriction is the requirement for pastures for herbivorous animals in the plane regions with intensive agriculture. In conclusion it is mentioned that the support for preservation of the local autochthonous breeds should be bound only with requirements for retaining the number of the animals and their rearing in traditional for the breed conditions.

  16. Genetic characterization of Egyptian and Italian sheep breeds using mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2015-06-01

    The matrix of pairwise differences among breeds was used to perform a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. This analysis showed that the Italian breeds are clearly separated from the Egyptian breeds; moreover the Egyptian Barki breed is separated from Ossimi and Rahmani.

  17. Breeding and plutonium characterization analysis on actinides closed water-cooled thorium reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Sidik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2009-01-01

    Higher difficulties (barrier) or more complex design of nuclear weapon, material fabrication and handling and isotopic enrichment can be achieved by a higher isotopic barrier. The isotopic material barrier includes critical mass, heat-generation rate, spontaneous neutron generation and radiation. Those isotopic barriers in case of plutonium isotope is strongly depend on the even mass number of plutonium isotope such as 238 Pu, 240 Pu and 242 Pu and for 233 U of thorium cycle depends on 232 U. In this present study, fuel sustainability as fuel breeding capability and plutonium characterization as main focus of proliferation resistance analysis have been analyzed. Minor actinide (MA) is used as doping material to be loaded into the reactors with thorium fuel. Basic design parameters are based on actinide closed-cycle reactor cooled by heavy water. The evaluation use equilibrium burnup analysis coupled with cell calculation of SRAC and nuclear data library is JENDL.32. Parametrical survey has been done to analyze the effect of MA doping rate, different moderation ratio for several equilibrium burnup cases. Plutonium characterization which based on plutonium isotope composition is strongly depending on MA doping concentration and different moderation conditions. Breeding condition can be achieved and high proliferation resistance level can be obtained by the present reactor systems. Higher isotopic plutonium composition of Pu-238 (more than 40%) can be obtained compared with other plutonium isotopes. In addition, higher moderation ratio gives the isotope composition of 238 Pu increases, however, it obtains lower composition when MA doping is increased and it slightly lower composition for higher burnup. Meanwhile, higher 240 Pu composition can be achieved by higher MA doping rate as well as for obtaining higher breeding capability. (author)

  18. The influence of conservation breeding programs on animal communication and behaviour – a literary review.

    OpenAIRE

    Danial Rioldi, Emmanuela

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This literary review is focused on how conservation breeding programs may influence an animal’s behaviour and communication and if this may affect reintroduction. The expansion of the human population is an increasing threat to all wild animals and their habitats. Animals are forced to survive in smaller areas and the worst case scenario is extinction. Animals communicate with each other using various types of signals to transmit information about their reproductive status, intentio...

  19. A desk evaluation review of project POL/5/006 plant breeding using induced mutations. Project desk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Projects POL/5/006 was initiated in 1985 to assist the Government of Poland in improving the mutation breeding efforts in the country to promote the development of new and higher yielding crop varieties. The difficult economic situation in the country at this time restricted the procurement of special equipment, spare parts and supplies from abroad and, therefore, impeded research and development work in this field. The project was implemented using a distinctive approach and design characterized by having six recipient institutions and the establishment of one central gamma-irradiation facility to be made available to all participating institutions for mutation induction. The project was formally closed in 1989. The review of project POL/5/006 was undertaken in accord with the expressed wishes of the Board of Governors for selected ex-post evaluations of completed projects. The main purpose of the review was to ascertain if the project objectives were achieved, and to determine what impact the technical assistance provided may have had on continued post-project and current plant breeding programmes in Poland

  20. Invited review: Breeding and ethical perspectives on genetically modified and genome edited cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S; Jonas, E; Rydhmer, L; Röcklinsberg, H

    2018-01-01

    The hot topic of genetic modification and genome editing is sometimes presented as a rapid solution to various problems in the field of animal breeding and genetics. These technologies hold potential for future use in agriculture but we need to be aware of difficulties in large-scale application and integration in breeding schemes. In this review, we discuss applications of both classical genetic modifications (GM) using vectors and genome editing in dairy cattle breeding. We use an interdisciplinary approach considering both ethical and animal breeding perspectives. Decisions on how to make use of these techniques need to be made based not only on what is possible, but on what is reasonable to do. Principles of animal integrity, naturalness, risk perception, and animal welfare issues are examples of ethically relevant factors to consider. These factors also influence public perception and decisions about regulations by authorities. We need to acknowledge that we lack complete understanding of the genetic background of complex traits. It may be difficult, therefore, to predict the full effect of certain modifications in large-scale breeding programs. We present 2 potential applications: genome editing to dispense with dehorning, and insertion of human genes in bovine genomes to improve udder health as an example of classical GM. Both of these cases could be seen as beneficial for animal welfare but they differ in other aspects. In the former case, a genetic variant already present within the species is introduced, whereas in the latter case, transgenic animals are generated-this difference may influence how society regards the applications. We underline that the use of GM, as well as genome editing, of farm animals such as cattle is not independent of the context, and should be considered as part of an entire process, including, for example, the assisted reproduction technology that needs to be used. We propose that breeding organizations and breeding companies

  1. Molecular characterization and differentiation of five horse breeds raised in Algeria using polymorphic microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, N; Gaouar, S; Leroy, G; Kdidi, S; Tabet Aouel, N; Saïdi Mehtar, N

    2014-10-01

    In this study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on five horse breeds raised in Algeria (Barb, Arab-Barb, Arabian, Thoroughbred and French Trotter). All microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all the breeds. A total of 123 alleles from 14 microsatellite loci were detected in 201 horses. The average number of alleles per locus was the highest in the Arab-Barb horses (7.86) and lowest in the thoroughbred breed (5.71), whereas the observed and expected heterozygosities per breed ranged from 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.752 (Barb) and 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.77 (Arab-Barb), respectively. The genetic differentiation between the breeds was significant (p horse populations and the other breeds. The Barb and Arab-Barb breeds seem to be the most genetically related and support the decision to consider the breeds as same population. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Invited review: Reproductive and genomic technologies to optimize breeding strategies for genetic progress in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fleming

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle breeders have exploited technological advances that have emerged in the past in regards to reproduction and genomics. The implementation of such technologies in routine breeding programs has permitted genetic gains in traditional milk production traits as well as, more recently, in low-heritability traits like health and fertility. As demand for dairy products increases, it is important for dairy breeders to optimize the use of available technologies and to consider the many emerging technologies that are currently being investigated in various fields. Here we review a number of technologies that have helped shape dairy breeding programs in the past and present, along with those potentially forthcoming. These tools have materialized in the areas of reproduction, genotyping and sequencing, genetic modification, and epigenetics. Although many of these technologies bring encouraging opportunities for genetic improvement of dairy cattle populations, their applications and benefits need to be weighed with their impacts on economics, genetic diversity, and society.

  3. Phenotypic characterization of naturalized swine breeds in Brazil, Uruguay and Colombia

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    Concepta McManus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric data was collected on 859 naturalized swine in Brazil (Piau, Tatu, Nilo, Caruncho, Casco de Burro, Moura, Monteiro and Rabo de Peixe, Colombia (Criolla Zungo, Sanpedreño and Casco de Mula and Uruguay (Mamellado, both on farm and in published material. Information was collected on breed, sex and age, as well as various morphometric measurements. Analysis of variance was carried out using PROC MIXED of SAS ® on phenotypic data. The coefficients of variance varied between 11.50 and 83.81%, and the coefficient of determination was medium to high. Females were in general smaller for most measurements than males, showing sexual dimorphism. The Moura was the closest naturalized breed to the commercial breeds, followed by the Piau, while the Monteiro was the furtherest. The dendrogram obtained from morphological information showed a division of the pigs into three groups. Characterization was possible using morphological and morphometric data.Foram colhidos dados morfométricos de 859 suínos naturalizados do Brasil (Piau, Tatu, Nilo, Caruncho, Casco de Burro, Moura, Monteiro e Rabo de Peixe, Colômbia (Criolla Zungo, Sanpedreño e Casco de Mula e Uruguai (Mamellado Dados sobre raça, sexo e idade foram coletados, assim como varias avaliações morfométricas. A análise de variância foi realizada utilizando-se o procedimento PROC GLM do SAS sobre os dados morfométricos. Os coeficientes de variância oscilaram de 11,50 a 83,81% e o coeficiente de determinação foi de moderado a alto. As fêmeas foram em geral menores na maioria das avaliações em relação aos machos, indicando dimorfismo sexual. A Moura foi a raça naturalizada mais próxima das raças comerciais, seguida da Piau, enquanto a Monteiro apresentou-se mais distante. O dendograma obtido a partir de informações morfológicas apresentou divisão dentro de três grupos. A caracterização foi possível utilizando-se dados morfológicos e morfométricos.

  4. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

  5. Characterization of indigenous Aseel chicken breed for morphological, growth, production, and meat composition traits from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, U; Haunshi, S; Paswan, C; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2017-07-01

    Aseel is an important native chicken breed of India, known for its martial qualities (aggressive fighting abilities), pugnacity, and majestic gait. The aim of the study is to conserve and characterize the Aseel germplasm, which is considered to be endangered. The birds were maintained on deep litter under a simulated backyard type of housing having night shelter and a free-range area. A total of 313 chicks produced in the second generation from the flock collected from native tract in Andhra Pradesh was characterized for morphological, growth, production, and meat quality parameters. Aseel birds were characterized by multicolored plumage (predominantly dark brown, black, golden, etc.) with solid feather patterns and normal distribution. Ear lobes were red (92%) and small in size, while 98% of the birds had red colored pea combs with variations in intensity of color. The shank color was yellow in the majority (65%) of the birds. The skin color was white (98%) with pinkish red coloration on exposed body parts, especially on the breast. The fertility and hatchability on total eggs were 67.2 and 41.4%, respectively. Cocks were heavier (P ≤ 0.05) with distinct sexual dimorphism in Aseel. The body weight of hens and cocks was 1,704.4 ± 23.2 and 2,702.5 ± 28.1 g at 40 wk and 2,333.7 ± 26.1 and 3,793.7 ± 20.8 g at 72 wk of age, respectively. The age at sexual maturity was 214.0 ± 6.0 days. The egg production up to 40, 52, and 64 wk of age was 18.0 ± 1, 30.0 ± 2.0, and 47 ± 3 eggs, respectively. The annual egg production (72 wk) was 64 ± 6 eggs. The proximate composition of breast muscle was; protein 21.5 ± 0.5%, fat 3.4 ± 0.1%, ash 2.0 ± 0.1%, and moisture 73.3 ± 0.5%. The pH of breast muscle was 6.0 ± 0.03 and the cholesterol content was 72.5 ± 6.7 mg/100 g. Efforts are on for improving the productivity in the flock without compromising the original breed characteristics. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Genetic characterization of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds and analysis of their relationship to cosmopolitan dog breeds using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, D; Marelli, S P; Randi, E; Polli, M

    2015-12-01

    Very little research into genetic diversity of Italian native dog breeds has been carried out so far. In this study we aimed to estimate and compare the genetic diversity of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds: the Maremma, Bergamasco, Lupino del Gigante and Oropa shepherds. Therefore, some cosmopolitan dog breeds, which have been widely raised in Italy for a long time past, have also been considered to check possible influence of these dog populations on the Italian autochthonous breeds considered here. A total of 212 individuals, belonging to 10 different dog breeds, were sampled and genotyped using 18 autosomal microsatellite loci. We analyzed the genetic diversity of these breeds, within breed diversity, breed relationship and population structure. The 10 breeds considered in this study were clearly genetically differentiated from each other, regardless of current population sizes and the onset of separate breeding history. The level of genetic diversity explained 20% of the total genetic variation. The level of H E found here is in agreement with that found by other studies. The native Italian breeds showed generally higher genetic diversity compared with the long established, well-defined cosmopolitan dog breeds. As the Border Collie seems closer to the Italian breeds than the other cosmopolitan shepherd dogs considered here, a possible utilization of this breed to improve working performance in Italian traditional working shepherd dogs cannot be ignored. The data and information found here can be utilized in the organization of conservation programs planned to reduce inbreeding and to minimize loss of genetic variability.

  7. NUTRITIONAL, HYGIENIC, HEALTH AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF MEAT OF BOVINE BREED PIEMONTESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Adriano

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The autochthonous “Piemontese” bovine breed is primarily raised for meat due to the high quality of production. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological, nutritional and chemical aspects of samples meat from cattle breeding “Piemontese”.

  8. Genetic Characterization of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) Breeding and Hybrid Lines With Different Geographic Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdui, Emilia M.; Mărghitaş, Liviu A.; Dezmirean, Daniel S.; Paşca, Ioan; Pop, Iulia F.; Erler, Silvio; Schlüns, Ellen A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori L. comprises a large number of geographical breeds and hybrid lines. Knowing the genetic structure of those may provide information to improve the conservation of commercial lines by estimating inbreeding over generations and the consequences of excessive use of those lineages. Here, we analyzed the genetic diversity of seven breeds and eight hybrid lines from Eastern Europe and Asia using highly polymorphic microsatellites markers to determine its genetical impact on their use in global breeding programs. No consistent pattern of deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was found for most breed and hybrids; and the absence of a linkage disequilibrium also suggests that the strains are in equilibrium. A principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear separation of two silkworm breeds from the rest: one (IBV) originated from India and the other one (RG 90 ) from Romania/Japan. The tendency of the other breeds from different geographic origins to cluster together in a general mix might be due to similar selection pressures (climate and anthropogenic factors) in different geographic locations. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the different silkworm breeds but not the hybrids according to their geographic origin and confirmed the pattern found in the principal coordinate analysis. PMID:25502023

  9. Preventive and Prophylactic Measures in Intensive Salmonid Fish Breeding – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Palíková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture represents the fastest growing animal husbandry in many countries word-wide. Intensive fish production has increased the risk of infectious diseases all over the world. Bacterial pathogens probably cause most disease problems in aquaculture. Most infectious bacterial diseases in commercial fish species continue to be controlled by treatment with chemotherapeutic agents although they represent a potential environmental hazard and could also have negative effects on the quality of the final product. The most important problem of antibiotic treatment is the increase in resistant bacteria, the presence of their residues in aquaculture products and the resulting threat to human health. Therefore, it is most effective to prevent the introduction or onset of the disease. Beside preventing the introduction of pathogens, good water quality, reduction of environmental stressors, adequate nutrition and immunization, many substances improving the health status of fish, such as immunostimulants, probiotics, prebiotics, symbiotics and so on, are used in fish breeding. The present review gives an overview of preventive and prophylactic substances which can be used in salmonid fish breeding to improve the health status of fish.

  10. Sequence Characterization of the MC1R Gene in Yak (Poephagus grunniens Breeds with Different Coat Colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yi Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene plays a key role in determining coat color in several species, including the cattle. However, up to now there is no report regarding the MC1R gene and the potential association of its mutations with coat colors in yak (Poephagus grunniens. In this study, we sequenced the encoding region of the MC1R gene in three yak breeds with completely white (Tianzhu breed or black coat color (Jiulong and Maiwa breeds. The predicted coding region of the yak MC1R gene resulted of 954 bp, the same to that of the wild-type cattle sequence, with >99% identity. None of the mutation events reported in cattle was found. Comparing the yak obtained sequences, five nucleotide substitutions were detected, which defined three haplotypes (EY1, EY2, and EY3. Of the five mutations, two, characterizing the EY1 haplotype, were nonsynonymous substitutions (c.340C>A and c.871G>A causing amino acid changes located in the first extracellular loop (p.Q114K and in the seventh transmembrane region (p.A291T. In silico prediction might indicate a functional effect of the latter substitution. However, all three haplotypes were present in the three yak breeds with relatively consistent frequency distribution, despite of their distinguished coat colors, which suggested that there was no across-breed association between haplotypes or genotypes and black/white phenotypes, at least in the investigated breeds. Other genes may be involved in affecting coat color in the analyzed yaks.

  11. Sequence characterization of the MC1R gene in yak (Poephagus grunniens) breeds with different coat colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Yi; Huang, Yi; Zhu, Qing; Fontanesi, Luca; Yao, Yong-Gang; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene plays a key role in determining coat color in several species, including the cattle. However, up to now there is no report regarding the MC1R gene and the potential association of its mutations with coat colors in yak (Poephagus grunniens). In this study, we sequenced the encoding region of the MC1R gene in three yak breeds with completely white (Tianzhu breed) or black coat color (Jiulong and Maiwa breeds). The predicted coding region of the yak MC1R gene resulted of 954 bp, the same to that of the wild-type cattle sequence, with >99% identity. None of the mutation events reported in cattle was found. Comparing the yak obtained sequences, five nucleotide substitutions were detected, which defined three haplotypes (E(Y1), E(Y2), and E(Y3)). Of the five mutations, two, characterizing the E(Y1) haplotype, were nonsynonymous substitutions (c.340C>A and c.871G>A) causing amino acid changes located in the first extracellular loop (p.Q114K) and in the seventh transmembrane region (p.A291T). In silico prediction might indicate a functional effect of the latter substitution. However, all three haplotypes were present in the three yak breeds with relatively consistent frequency distribution, despite of their distinguished coat colors, which suggested that there was no across-breed association between haplotypes or genotypes and black/white phenotypes, at least in the investigated breeds. Other genes may be involved in affecting coat color in the analyzed yaks.

  12. Characterization of Some Breeds and Hybrids of Bombyx mori L. Silkworms through Biological Index of Spawning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotatiu Dezmirean

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to determine the parameters of biological indexes of Bombyx mori L. spawning, in order to obtain adequate larvae for experimental breeding using MSF (Familial Sericulture Modulus. The biological material used for experiments contains the pure breeds AB (Alb Băneasa, B1 (Băneasa 1, AC (Alb de Cislău, AC29 (Alb chinezesc, line 29, AC29/T (Alb Chinezesc, AC/T (Alb de Cislău, RG90, IBV, S8, AJ5/F, C127, AJ17, C108/T, AO/T and the hybrids B1XAC, ACXB1,  ABXAC29, AC29XAB, ACXAB, ABXAC, ABXB1, B1XAB. For each pure breed and hybrid were determinate the number of eggs/spawning, the number of hatching eggs, the hatching percent (% and the number of unhatching eggs. The analyse of these indexes was done in three consecutive years, and the averages and spread parameters, as well as variability coefficients (V% were calculated for each breed and hybrid. The obtained values of biological indexes of spawning were compared with those reported in autochthon and foreigner literature. The main conclusions of our study are that the autochthon breeds and hybrids values are according to the values published by other researchers and correspond for the experimental breeding.

  13. Genetically influenced resistance to stress and disease in salmonids in relation to present-day breeding practice - a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mendel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available While intensive fish production has many advantages, it also has a number of drawbacks as regards disease and stress. To date, there has been no conclusive review of disease resistance at Czech fish farms. The aim of the study was to describe briefly the existing salmonid breeding practice in the Czech Republic and to point out the trends and new possibilities gaining ground around Europe. However, the present situation in the Czech stocks is not rare at all and therefore it is used here as a model example representing numerous breeding practices in Europe. Stress and disease resistance in fish is polygenic and quantitative, making selection for such traits difficult. In recent years, however, fish breeding methods have developed rapidly, with the use of genetic analysis tools, for example, now allowing much greater selection accuracy. Gradual progress in understanding the importance of individual genetic markers offers many new options that can be utilised in breeding practice. New selection methods, such as quantitative trait loci (QTLs and genomic selection, are increasingly employed in European aquaculture. Next generation sequencing techniques now help in the finding of new and promising QTLs that can be used in assisted selection. This review maps the current progress in improving salmonid resistance to stress and disease in aquaculture and at the same time provides the breeders with a short overview of the latest tools of genetically controlled breeding and of the newest products available at the European market.

  14. Spatial distribution & physicochemical characterization of the breeding habitats of Aedes aegypti in & around Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Soumendranath; Chakraborty, Arunima; Sinha, Shuvra Kanti

    2015-12-01

    Dengue infection is endemic in several areas and the dengue virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Thus, it becomes important to understand the breeding ecology of dengue vector and characterize the physicochemical parameters of its breeding habitat. The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical parameters of the breeding habitat of the dengue vector and to find out the nutrient composition of the habitat in and around Kolkata, West Bengal. In addition, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to map the disease prone areas for its effective management and prevention. Water samples were collected from various breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes of Kolkata and adjoining areas and were analysed for various physicochemical properties like acidity, alkalinity, hardness, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, concentration of chloride (Cl - ), sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ), fluoride (F - ) in relation to larval prevalence. Parameters like water pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, electrical conductivity, concentration of chloride, sodium and potassium were seen to vary throughout the year. Certain parameters were found to be dependent on container type, like concentration of fluoride. Significant positive correlations were seen between per dip larval density and total dissolved solids (TDS) and electrical conductivity. Water pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids were seen to play a major role in the ovipositional preferences. Container type did not seem to affect TDS. Tyres had the highest TDS in most of the cases. Nutrient composition like sodium concentration was mostly found in the coconut shells, potassium concentration also showed the same. Thus, container type and various parameters and nutrients play a major role in determining where a gravid female mosquito will lay its eggs. It was observed that by altering various chemical and physical properties of breeding habitats it was possible to control the

  15. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the king pigeon (Columba livia breed king).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Hua; He, Wen-Xiao; Xu, Tong

    2015-06-01

    The king pigeon is a breed of pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding primarily as a utility breed. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of king pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,221 bp with the base composition of 30.14% for A, 24.05% for T, 31.82% for C, and 13.99% for G and an A-T (54.22 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of king pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  16. Genetic characterization of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds and analysis of their relationship to cosmopolitan dog breeds using microsatellite markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigi, D.; Marelli, S. P.; Randi, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Very little research into genetic diversity of Italian native dog breeds has been carried out so far. In this study we aimed to estimate and compare the genetic diversity of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds: the Maremma, Bergamasco, Lupino del Gigante and Oropa shepherds. Therefore, some...

  17. Review: Deciphering animal robustness. A synthesis to facilitate its use in livestock breeding and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friggens, N C; Blanc, F; Berry, D P; Puillet, L

    2017-12-01

    As the environments in which livestock are reared become more variable, animal robustness becomes an increasingly valuable attribute. Consequently, there is increasing focus on managing and breeding for it. However, robustness is a difficult phenotype to properly characterise because it is a complex trait composed of multiple components, including dynamic elements such as the rates of response to, and recovery from, environmental perturbations. In this review, the following definition of robustness is used: the ability, in the face of environmental constraints, to carry on doing the various things that the animal needs to do to favour its future ability to reproduce. The different elements of this definition are discussed to provide a clearer understanding of the components of robustness. The implications for quantifying robustness are that there is no single measure of robustness but rather that it is the combination of multiple and interacting component mechanisms whose relative value is context dependent. This context encompasses both the prevailing environment and the prevailing selection pressure. One key issue for measuring robustness is to be clear on the use to which the robustness measurements will employed. If the purpose is to identify biomarkers that may be useful for molecular phenotyping or genotyping, the measurements should focus on the physiological mechanisms underlying robustness. However, if the purpose of measuring robustness is to quantify the extent to which animals can adapt to limiting conditions then the measurements should focus on the life functions, the trade-offs between them and the animal's capacity to increase resource acquisition. The time-related aspect of robustness also has important implications. Single time-point measurements are of limited value because they do not permit measurement of responses to (and recovery from) environmental perturbations. The exception being single measurements of the accumulated consequence of a

  18. Cave exploitation by an usual epigean species: a review on the current knowledge on fire salamander breeding in cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Manenti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra is a relatively common epigean amphibian, widely distributed throughout Europe, which usually gives birth to aquatic larvae. Even if epigean streams represent the most common places in which the species breeds, in some countries caves with underground waters are also used. To improve our understanding of the habitat features allowing successful breeding of salamanders in underground sites, we combined an exhaustive review of the available literature, especially the grey one, with direct observations performed from 2008 to 2017 in several natural and artificial caves of Lombardy, Liguria and Tuscany (Italy, Ariège and Provence (France. We provide a synthesis of published and unpublished caves in which the fire salamander breeding has been observed, along with a synthesis of the investigated ecological, behavioural and morphological traits. The use of underground sites is reported in several published papers and appears to be a common phenomenon not limited to single karst areas. The absence of predators, the relative stability of the aquatic habitats and the possibility to exploit new ecological resources are environmental factors that favour the breeding of the fire salamander. Our synthesis suggests that breeding of fire salamanders in caves is not a random event, but a widespread phenomenon that may be linked to specific biogeographical factors. Further insights may be obtained by performing genetic analyses on both cave and epigean populations, and considering larger landscape scales for ecological studies as well. Gene flow between salamanders that breed in caves and in streams probably occurs, but on the other hand, assortative mating might limit it, thus allowing the conservation of local adaptations driving successful cave colonisation.

  19. Race Characterization of Phytophthora root rot on Capsicum in Taiwan as a Basis for Anticipatory Resistance Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchenger, Derek W; Sheu, Zong-Ming; Kumar, Sanjeet; Lin, Shih-Wen; Burlakoti, Rishi R; Bosland, Paul W

    2018-02-27

    Peppers (Capsicum sp.) are an increasingly important crop because of their use as a vegetable, spice, and food colorant. The oomycete Phytophthora capsici is one of the most devastating pathogens to pepper production worldwide, causing more than $100 million in losses annually. Developing cultivars resistant to P. capsici is challenging because of the many physiological races that exist and new races that are continuously evolving. This problem is confounded by the lack of a universal system of race characterization. As a basis to develop a global anticipatory breeding program, New Mexico Recombinant Inbred Lines (NMRILs) functioned as a host differential for Phytophthora root rot to characterize the race structure of P. capsici populations in Taiwan. Using the NMRILs, 24 new races were identified, illustrating the utility and usefulness of the NMRILs for anticipatory breeding. Virulence of P. capsici was observed to be geographically specific and in two virulence clusters. Interestingly, all but two isolates collected in 2016 were the A2 mating type, which is a shift from the predominantly A1 mating type isolates collected prior to 2008. The NMRILs host differential provides an approach for scientists to work together on a global scale when breeding for resistance as well as on a local level for regional gene deployment. Additionally, we propose that the current race numbering system, which has no biological meaning, be supplemented with the virulence phenotype, based on the susceptible NMRILs to a given isolate. This work provides insights into the population dynamics of P. capsici and interactions within the highly complex Capsicum-Phytophthora pathosystem, and offers a basis for similar research in other crops.

  20. The Ri chicken breed and livelihoods in North Vietnam: characterization and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Leroy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the last twenty years, the consumption of poultry meat has boomed in Vietnam as in the rest of the developing world. Capital-intensive production has grown rapidly to satisfy this demand. Based on a few numbers of genetically uniform strains, these systems threaten biodiversity. In Vietnam, both rural and urban households still keep indigenous chickens as part of a diversified livelihood portfolio. In line with the national in situ conservation strategy, this study approached the context of local poultry keeping in two rural and one suburban districts of Northern Vietnam. It aimed at understanding households’ willingness, constraints and opportunities for practice improvement, including breeds’ management. As the Ri chicken constitutes the large majority of backyard flocks, two particular objectives of this study are the morpho-biometric characterisation of phenotypic diversity among individuals classified as Ri by farmers and an assessment of their productive potential. Chicken was found to hold a different place in livelihoods of the three districts with consequences on the management of genetic resources. The most favourable conditions for improvement of the Ri breed was found in the rural district of Luong-Son, due to market integration. In the more remote district of Ky-Son, living standards were lower and much would be gained from Ri conservation. Ri breed was the most threatened in the suburban Gia-Lam district, where poultry was a minor side-activity, lacking incentive for genetic management. From motives and constraints, tracks about breeding goals are suggested. Further considerations about conservation, improvement, market integration and livelihoods are proposed.

  1. Whole-Body Barometric Plethysmography Characterizes Upper Airway Obstruction in 3 Brachycephalic Breeds of Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N-C; Adams, V J; Kalmar, L; Ladlow, J F; Sargan, D R

    2016-05-01

    A novel test using whole-body barometric plethysmography (WBBP) was developed recently to diagnose brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) in unsedated French bulldogs. The hypotheses of this study were: (1) respiratory characteristics are different between healthy nonbrachycephalic dogs and brachycephalic dogs; and among pugs, French bulldogs, and bulldogs; and (2) obesity and stenotic nares are risk factors for BOAS. The main objective was to establish a diagnostic test for BOAS in these 3 breeds. A total of 266 brachycephalic dogs (100 pugs, 100 French bulldogs, and 66 bulldogs) and 28 nonbrachycephalic dogs. Prospective study. Exercise tolerance tests with respiratory functional grading, and WBBP were performed on all dogs. Data from WBBP were associated with functional grades to train quadratic discriminant analysis tools to assign dogs to BOAS+ and BOAS- groups. A BOAS index (0-100%) was calculated for each dog. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate classification ability. Minute volume was decreased significantly in asymptomatic pugs (P = .009), French bulldogs (P = .026), and bulldogs (P dogs had a significant increase in trace variation. The BOAS index predicted BOAS status for each breed with 94-97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.9-100%) accuracy (area under the ROC curve). Both obesity (P = .04) and stenotic nares (P = .004) were significantly associated with BOAS. The WBBP can be used as a clinical tool to diagnose BOAS noninvasively and objectively. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Characterizing the population structure and genetic diversity of maize breeding germplasm in Southwest China using genome-wide SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Hua; Li, Lujiang; Lan, Hai; Ren, Zhiyong; Liu, Dan; Wu, Ling; Liu, Hailan; Jaqueth, Jennifer; Li, Bailin; Pan, Guangtang; Gao, Shibin

    2016-08-31

    Maize breeding germplasm used in Southwest China has high complexity because of the diverse ecological features of this area. In this study, the population structure, genetic diversity, and linkage disequilibrium decay distance of 362 important inbred lines collected from the breeding program of Southwest China were characterized using the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip with 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). With respect to population structure, two (Tropical and Temperate), three (Tropical, Stiff Stalk and non-Stiff Stalk), four [Tropical, group A germplasm derived from modern U.S. hybrids (PA), group B germplasm derived from modern U.S. hybrids (PB) and Reid] and six (Tropical, PB, Reid, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic, PA and North) subgroups were identified. With increasing K value, the Temperate group showed pronounced hierarchical structure with division into further subgroups. The Genetic Diversity of each group was also estimated, and the Tropical group was more diverse than the Temperate group. Seven low-genetic-diversity and one high-genetic-diversity regions were collectively identified in the Temperate, Tropical groups, and the entire panel. SNPs with significant variation in allele frequency between the Tropical and Temperate groups were also evaluated. Among them, a region located at 130 Mb on Chromosome 2 showed the highest genetic diversity, including both number of SNPs with significant variation and the ratio of significant SNPs to total SNPs. Linkage disequilibrium decay distance in the Temperate group was greater (2.5-3 Mb) than that in the entire panel (0.5-0.75 Mb) and the Tropical group (0.25-0.5 Mb). A large region at 30-120 Mb of Chromosome 7 was concluded to be a region conserved during the breeding process by comparison between S37, which was considered a representative tropical line in Southwest China, and its 30 most similar derived lines. For the panel covered most of widely used inbred lines in Southwest China, this work

  3. Kriel et al. (1980), in their review of breeding seabirds on Robben ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    2005-10-26

    Oct 26, 2005 ... The 15 nests containing 33 eggs pro- duced 29 fledglings. Kelp gulls scavenge at rubbish tips and take offal discarded by fishing trawlers (Crawford 1997d). Both sources of food are available to kelp gulls breeding on Robben Island. The rubbish tips in the Greater. Cape Town area are already exploited by ...

  4. Breeding biology of the threadstalk milkvetch, Astragalus filipes (Fabaceae), with a review of the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristal M. Watrous; James H. Cane

    2011-01-01

    Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) is an enormous and diverse plant genus with a cosmopolitan distribution, but relatively few breeding biologies are known for its member species. Threadstalk (or basalt) milkvetch, Astragalus filipes Torrey ex. A. Gray, is common and widespread throughout the U.S. Intermountain West, including the Great Basin. It is being studied and ultimately...

  5. A review of studies on breed evaluation and genetic improvement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The programmes involved the use of Zebu × Taurine (e.g. White Fulani × West African Shorthorn) crossbreds, exotic × local (e. g. Friesian × Sanga), or purebred exotics (e. g. Friesian). The exotics and their crossses had better growth rates and milk yields than the local or indigenous breeds. The former genetic groups also ...

  6. Breeding and characterization of homokaryotic heteroplasmic male sterile lines in rice (oryza sativa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Q.; Zhou, X.; Liu, C.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve different Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile (CMS) lines were crossed with 18 rice varieties. From the hybrid with japonica rice Nongken 58, twelve homokaryotic-heteroplasmic male sterile lines were developed in B7F1 after successive back crossing and selection for stable male sterility and desirable agronomic traits such as flowering habit and high out crossing rate. The experimental results demonstrated that expression of the CMS factors were influenced by the corresponding nuclear genes. Three pollen abortion types, including the typical, the spherical and the stained abortion, were observed in the homokaryotic-heteroplasmic male sterile lines. Formation of the aborted pollen grains was influenced by the interaction among specific cytoplasmic and the corresponding nuclear genes. As the CMS carriers, these homokaryotic-heteroplasmic lines will have significant impact on the utilization of multiple types of CMS in hybrid rice breeding. What is more important is that these CMS lines are the invaluable materials for the investigation of the molecular mechanism of CMS formation in rice. (author)

  7. A review of microsatellite markers and their applications in rice breeding programs to improve blast disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Islam, Kh Nurul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2013-11-14

    Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the large amount of allelic variation at each locus. Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR), and they are typically composed of 1-6 nucleotide repeats. These markers are abundant, distributed throughout the genome and are highly polymorphic compared with other genetic markers, as well as being species-specific and co-dominant. For these reasons, they have become increasingly important genetic markers in rice breeding programs. The evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases as well as the pressures of climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders, who would like to increase rice production by introducing resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances in rice genomics have now made it possible to identify and map a number of genes through linkage to existing DNA markers. Among the more noteworthy examples of genes that have been tightly linked to molecular markers in rice are those that confer resistance or tolerance to blast. Therefore, in combination with conventional breeding approaches, marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to monitor the presence or lack of these genes in breeding populations. For example, marker-assisted backcross breeding has been used to integrate important genes with significant biological effects into a number of commonly grown rice varieties. The use of cost-effective, finely mapped microsatellite markers and MAS strategies should provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yield, blast resistance rice cultivars. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the linkage of microsatellite markers to rice blast resistance genes, as well as to explore the use of MAS in rice breeding

  8. A Review of Microsatellite Markers and Their Applications in Rice Breeding Programs to Improve Blast Disease Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdul Latif

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the large amount of allelic variation at each locus. Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR, and they are typically composed of 1–6 nucleotide repeats. These markers are abundant, distributed throughout the genome and are highly polymorphic compared with other genetic markers, as well as being species-specific and co-dominant. For these reasons, they have become increasingly important genetic markers in rice breeding programs. The evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases as well as the pressures of climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders, who would like to increase rice production by introducing resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances in rice genomics have now made it possible to identify and map a number of genes through linkage to existing DNA markers. Among the more noteworthy examples of genes that have been tightly linked to molecular markers in rice are those that confer resistance or tolerance to blast. Therefore, in combination with conventional breeding approaches, marker-assisted selection (MAS can be used to monitor the presence or lack of these genes in breeding populations. For example, marker-assisted backcross breeding has been used to integrate important genes with significant biological effects into a number of commonly grown rice varieties. The use of cost-effective, finely mapped microsatellite markers and MAS strategies should provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yield, blast resistance rice cultivars. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the linkage of microsatellite markers to rice blast resistance genes, as well as to explore the use of MAS

  9. A Review of Microsatellite Markers and Their Applications in Rice Breeding Programs to Improve Blast Disease Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Ismail, Mohd R.; Puteh, Adam B.; Rahim, Harun A.; Islam, Kh. Nurul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the large amount of allelic variation at each locus. Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR), and they are typically composed of 1–6 nucleotide repeats. These markers are abundant, distributed throughout the genome and are highly polymorphic compared with other genetic markers, as well as being species-specific and co-dominant. For these reasons, they have become increasingly important genetic markers in rice breeding programs. The evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases as well as the pressures of climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders, who would like to increase rice production by introducing resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances in rice genomics have now made it possible to identify and map a number of genes through linkage to existing DNA markers. Among the more noteworthy examples of genes that have been tightly linked to molecular markers in rice are those that confer resistance or tolerance to blast. Therefore, in combination with conventional breeding approaches, marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to monitor the presence or lack of these genes in breeding populations. For example, marker-assisted backcross breeding has been used to integrate important genes with significant biological effects into a number of commonly grown rice varieties. The use of cost-effective, finely mapped microsatellite markers and MAS strategies should provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yield, blast resistance rice cultivars. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the linkage of microsatellite markers to rice blast resistance genes, as well as to explore the use of MAS in rice breeding

  10. Biotechnology in soybean breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology can be defined broadly as a set of tools that allows scientists to genetically characterize or improve living organisms. Several emerging technologies, such as molecular characterization and genetic transformation, are already being used extensively for the purpose of plant improvement. Other emerging sciences, including genomics and proteomics, are also starting to impact plant improvement. Tools provided by biotechnology will not replace classical breeding methods, but rather will help provide new discoveries and contribute to improved nutritional value and yield enhancement through greater resistance to disease, herbicides and abiotic factors. In soybeans, biotechnology has and will continue to play a valuable role in public and private soybean breeding programs. Based on the availability and combination of conventional and molecular technologies, a substantial increase in the rate of genetic gain for economically important soybean traits can be predicted in the next decade. In this paper, a short review of technologies for molecular markers analysis in soybean is given as well as achievements in the area of genetic transformation in soybean.

  11. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual

  12. Inventory analysis of West African cattle breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belemsaga, D.M.A.; Lombo, Y.; Sylla, S.; Thevenon, S.

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)

  13. Molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi Isolates of horse breeding farms from an endemic region in South of Brazil by multiplex PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewer, Cristina da Costa; Spricigo, Dênis Augusto; de Avila Botton, Sônia; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Schrank, Irene; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2008-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a gram-positive coco-bacillus and an intracellular opportunistic pathogen which causes pneumonia in foals. It is widely detected in environment and has been isolated from several sources, as soil, feces and gut from health and sick foals. The goal of this study was to characterize the epidemiological status (endemic, sporadic or no infection) of horse breeding farms from Bage County in South of Brazil, using a multiplex PCR. One hundred and eighteen R. equi isolates were identified by biochemical tests and submitted to a specie-specific and vapA multiplex PCR. These isolates were obtained from: three farms where the R. equi infection has been noticed, two farms where the disease has been not reported and one farm where the disease is frequent. All clinical isolates from horse breeding farms where the disease is endemic and/or sporadic were vapA-positive. None environmental isolates were vapA-positive. In three horse breeding farms with sporadic R. equi infection, 11.54% of the isolates from adult horse feces were vapA-positive. The multiplex PCR technique has proven to be effective for the molecular and epidemiological characterization of the R. equi isolates in horse breeding farms. An important finding in this study was the isolation of vapApositive R. equi from adult horse feces, which is an evidence for other routes of dissemination of this pathogen in the farms. PMID:24031201

  14. Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Harun N; Mutuku, Francis M; Ndenga, Bryson A; Musunzaji, Peter S; Mbakaya, Joel O; Aswani, Peter; Irungu, Lucy W; Mukoko, Dunstan; Vulule, John; Kitron, Uriel; LaBeaud, Angelle D

    2017-07-12

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue and other emerging arboviruses, breeds preferentially in various man-made and natural container habitats. In the absence of vaccine, epidemiological surveillance and vector control remain the best practices for preventing dengue outbreaks. Effective vector control depends on a good understanding of larval and adult vector ecology of which little is known in Kenya. In the current study, we sought to characterize breeding habitats and establish container productivity profiles of Ae. aegypti in rural and urban sites in western and coastal Kenya. Twenty sentinel houses in each of four study sites (in western and coastal Kenya) were assessed for immature mosquito infestation once a month for a period of 24 months (June 2014 to May 2016). All water-holding containers in and around the households were inspected for Ae. aegypti larvae and pupae. Collections were made from a total of 22,144 container visits: Chulaimbo (7575) and Kisumu (8003) in the west, and from Msambweni (3199) and Ukunda (3367) on the coast. Of these, only 4-5.6% were positive for Ae. aegypti immatures. In all four sites, significantly more positive containers were located outdoors than indoors. A total of 17,537 Ae. aegypti immatures were sampled from 10 container types. The most important habitat types were buckets, drums, tires, and pots, which produced over 75% of all the pupae. Key outdoor containers in the coast were buckets, drums and tires, which accounted for 82% of the pupae, while pots and tires were the only key containers in the western region producing 70% of the pupae. Drums, buckets and pots were the key indoor containers, producing nearly all of the pupae in the coastal sites. No pupae were collected indoors in the western region. The coastal region produced significantly more Ae. aegypti immatures than the western region both inside and outside the sentinel houses. These results indicate that productive Ae. aegypti larval habitats are

  15. Rapid review on the use of new age induced breeding agent ‘LHRHa’ in Indian finfish seed production sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Roy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A focused review on the use of LHRHa in induced breeding of fishes in India was made. Use of LHRHa is mainly restricted to high value brackish water and marine fish species whose market value generally exceeds INR 300-400/kg (USD 4.5-6/kg. Published information on use of LHRHa in induced breeding of fishes in India could document only twelve species out of which nine were brackishwater or marine fish. Besides length and weight, the egg diameter of female fishes (>0.45–0.7 mm is an important criterion for treating the fishes with LHRHa. LHRHa is either used alone or in combination with HCG (most popular, PGE, 17α-MT and Pimozide. Dosage of 20-70 µg/kg body weight for females and 10-40 µg/kg body weight for males with a latency period of 24-36 hours is most common in India. Experiments with LHRHa are being carried out mainly by ICAR-CIBA, Chennai (dominant and ICAR-CMFRI, Kochi. Standardization and optimization of LHRHa dosage has been attained in Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer, Cobia (Rachycentron canadum, Grey mullet (Mugil cephalus and Spotted scat (Scatophagus argus while in Grouper (Epinephelus tauvina, Moonfish (Monodactylus argenteus, Milk fish (Chanos chanos, Crescent Bass (Terapon jarbua and Silver Pompano (Trachinotus blochii, it is under progress.

  16. Pollination patterns and plant breeding systems in the Galapagos: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Susana; Heleno, Ruben; Olesen, Jens M; McMullen, Conley K; Traveset, Anna

    2012-11-01

    Despite the importance of the Galápagos Islands for the development of central concepts in ecology and evolution, the understanding of many ecological processes in this archipelago is still very basic. One such process is pollination, which provides an important service to both plants and their pollinators. The rather modest level of knowledge on this subject has so far limited our predictive power on the consequences of the increasing threat of introduced plants and pollinators to this unique archipelago. As a first step toward building a unified view of the state of pollination in the Galápagos, a thorough literature search was conducted on the breeding systems of the archipelago's flora and compiled all documented flower-visitor interactions. Based on 38 studies from the last 100 years, we retrieved 329 unique interactions between 123 flowering plant species (50 endemics, 39 non-endemic natives, 26 introduced and eight of unknown origin) from 41 families and 120 animal species from 13 orders. We discuss the emergent patterns and identify promising research avenues in the field. Although breeding systems are known for flower visitors. Dipterans were much more important flower visitors in the humid zone than in the dry zone. Bird and lizard pollination has been occasionally reported in the dry zone. Strong biases were detected in the sampling effort dedicated to different islands, time of day, focal plants and functional groups of visitors. Thus, the existing patterns need to be confronted with new and less biased data. The implementation of a community-level approach could greatly increase our understanding of pollination on the islands and our ability to predict the consequences of plant invasions for the natural ecosystems of the Galápagos.

  17. Breeding of guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus, L. 1758) for meat production in Butembo, Democratic Republic of Congo : Literature review and breeding scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Sikiminywa, K.-L.; Godeau, Jean-Marie; Nyongombe, U.-F.; Hornick, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Providing animal proteins to humans requires choosing the animal species to be raised when access to land is limited. Butembo, is a refuge city of conflicts area in the east of Democratic Republic of Congo, where guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus) is considered as food. Therefore the breeding of this animal is an option to make more meat available. Genetic selection of guinea pigs and popularization of improved farming techniques can contribute to solve problems of food security in the region. The ...

  18. Characterizing physiological status in three breeds of bulls reared under ecological and climate conditions of the Altai region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Osadchuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and climatic factors have an impact on the health, productivity and reproduction of the cattle. The goal of this work is the study of physiological status of servicing bulls reared under ecological and climate conditions of the Altai region, by defining the differences between Red-Steppe, Simmental and Black-and-White breeds in spermatogenic, hormonal, biochemical and hematological parameters. Samples of peripheral blood and ejaculates were taken from 48 grown-up servicing bulls (average age 5.6±0.3 years in autumn period. It was established that Red-Steppe bulls have higher concentrations of nonorganic phosphorus, leucocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in comparison with animals of Simmental breed, and the hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit are also higher in comparison with Black-and-White breed. It was noted that bulls of Black-and-White breed have a higher level of cortisol in comparison with the other breeds. The lowest level of serum urea and total protein and increased serum activity of creatine kinase and γ-glutamyl transferase, as well as the heaviest body weight were observed in Simmental breed bulls. The differences between breeds in a wide spectrum of physiological measures reflect not only genetically determined peculiarities of homeostatic mechanism, but also may reflect different ability to adapt to local ecological and climate conditions of the Altai region. Spermatogenic, biochemical and hematological measures in bull sires reared in the Altai region were similar to those in bulls bred in other Russian regions and some other countries. The measures reported could serve as reference values and therefore represent ‘normal’ values of physiological status for these bull sires reared in this ecological and climatic zone, but could be utilized in further studies for comprehensive monitoring of cattle breeding stock in other ecological and climatic zones of the Siberian

  19. Identification and characterization of hierarchical structures in dog breeding schemes, a novel method applied to the Norfolk Terrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmann, R; Bennewitz, J

    2011-12-01

    Popular sires, a limited population size, and the founder event are widely considered the main reasons for the low genetic diversity observed in many dog breeds. However, these factors have had only a small role in the historic decrease in diversity observed in the Norfolk Terrier breed. We show that the decrease in this breed has been mainly due to large, popular kennels. Dogs from these kennels have, on average, larger genetic contributions to subsequent generations than others. A test for the presence of a popular kennel effect is proposed and applied (P dog breeding schemes, with an asymmetric gene flow predominantly from the nuclei toward the main population. Possible reasons for this structure and implications for future population management are discussed. The main reason is probably that the breed type was established by large, popular kennels and that small kennel breeders used their stud dogs to benefit from the achievements of the popular kennels. Many kennels, however, were unable to make their own substantial genetic contributions to the breed.

  20. A review of the prospects for fusion breeding of fissile material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, J.S.; Bartholomew, G.A.

    1981-10-01

    This report is the result of an eight month study by the AECL Fusion Status Study Group. The objectives of this study were to review the current status of fusion research, to evaluate the neutronic performance of various fusion-breeder systems, and to assess the economic and technological outlook for the fusion breeder as a source of fissile material to support CANDU reactors operating on the thorium fuel cycle

  1. Characterization of introduced breed of sheep and pattenl of conservation of Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep in North Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanto D

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep are highly adapted to the local environment, no seasonal reproductive activity, and highresistance to internal parasite, but they have small body size and low mature body weight. "On Fann research" to identify morphological characteristics of intoduced breed and STT sheep, as well as an altemative conservation pattem were conducted in two location, i.e. Pulahan village, Air Batu District, Asahan Regency as the potensial area for STT sheep and Pulo Gambar village, Galang District, Deli Serdang Regency as the development area of introduced breed of sheep. The approach of Agroecosystem analysis, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of STT and introduced breed of sheep as well as interview to the farmer that raised STT in order to get recommendation of conservation pattern were aplied. The study show that STT sheep were isolated from the other area, and the populations tend to decrease from year to year. Qualitative characteristics of STT indicated smaller linear body measurements than those of introducted breed of sheep at the same age. Qualitative characteristics indicated that STT possess dominance body color of light brown and white (50.93% vs 41.28%. The STT mostly have one body color pattern (61.75%. The dominance spotted pattem were 1-10% of the body (60.29%, while the dominance of the head color was light brown (48.40%. Conservation pattern of STT are through natural process, in which the farmers are directly conserved, therefore the farmers do not have opportunity to develop their sheep farming. Therefore the conservation pattern recomnendation for STT sheep are by defending the location as "in situ conservation" or "on farm conservation" and giving "compensation program" to fanner because STT sheep farming less benefit than those of introduced breed of sheep.

  2. Molecular characterization of GPR50 gene and study of its comparative genetic variability in sheep breeds adapted to different thermo-contrasting climatic regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Davendra; Naqvi, S. M. K.

    2017-04-01

    GPR50, formerly known as a melatonin-related receptor, is one of the three subtypes of melatonin receptor subfamily, together with MTNR1A and MTNR1B. GPR50, despite its high identity with the melatonin receptor family, does not bind melatonin and is considered to be an ortholog of MTNR1C in mammals. GPR50-expressing cells have been found in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, the periventricular nucleus, and the median eminence. Genetic and functional evidence have been recently investigated linking GPR50 to adaptive thermogenesis and torpor, but still, it is an orphan receptor and is yet to be studied conclusively. The aims of the study were to characterize the GPR50 gene of sheep and to study the sequence variability of the gene in Indian sheep breeds of two different thermo-varied agroclimatic conditions. Genomic DNA isolation was done and a 791-bp sequence was amplified using self-designed primers and SNP profiling done out of samples of all the breeds to study the relative frequency of SNPs in each of the breed. Five important non-synonymous mutations were observed in the various breeds studied. T698G, G1097A, G1270A, G1318A, and C1334G lead to the following substitution: valine by glycine, arginine by glutamine, threonine by alanine, isoleucine by valine, and serine by cytosine, respectively. Two synonymous mutations (T663G and C888T) were also observed in some of the studied breeds. G1270A and C888T were the most prevalent SNPs observed in nearly all of the breeds. C888T SNPs were observed in higher prevalence in Chokla, Marwari, and Magra in comparison to Gaddi and Bharat Merino. A PolyPhen-2 analysis, which is used to assess the potential damaging nature of an SNP, revealed that mutation T698G and G1270A were benign while G1097A, G1318A, and C1334G were damaging with a score of 0.987, 0.993, and 0.739, respectively. A 3-D homology model of the protein was prepared using c4zwjA (UniProt sequence ID) as a template using the online version of Phyre2

  3. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Rob; van Dun, Kees; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; van den Berg, Mark; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; Voermans, William; Woudenberg, Leo; de Wit, Jack P C; Reinink, Kees; Schut, Johan W; van der Zeeuw, Eveline; Vogelaar, Aat; Freymark, Gerald; Gutteling, Evert W; Keppel, Marina N; van Drongelen, Paul; Kieny, Matthieu; Ellul, Philippe; Touraev, Alisher; Ma, Hong; de Jong, Hans; Wijnker, Erik

    2009-12-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chromosomes which can be cultured in vitro to generate homozygous doubled haploid plants (DHs). From these DHs, complementary parents can be selected and used to reconstitute the heterozygote in perpetuity. Since the fixation of unknown heterozygous genotypes is impossible in traditional plant breeding, RB could fundamentally change future plant breeding. In this review, we discuss various other applications of RB, including breeding per chromosome.

  4. Organic crop breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Myers, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    This book provides readers with a thorough review of the latest efforts by crop breeders and geneticists to develop improved varieties for organic production. The book opens with chapters looking at breeding efforts that focus on specific valuable traits such as quality, pest and disease resistance

  5. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  6. Invited review: reproductive physiology in commercial and premium pig breeds – history of 30-year-long cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rátky

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation of the Hungarian Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition (ATK with the German Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN goes back many decades. In 1988 the two departments of reproductive biology began a joint project concerning on ovulation investigation in Landrace pigs. This joint project laid the foundation for further joint projects and has existed for almost 30 years. Over the years, the main focus has always been on the events of the female reproductive tract in pigs, i.e., follicular growth, ovulation, transport of gametes in the oviduct, fertilization and early embryonic development. Nearly all studies were done under in vivo circumstances and using different clinical and endocrinological methods, enabling us to obtain more profound knowledge of the dynamics of reproductive processes. Even results considered to be basic scientific achievements were available for utilization in the daily practice of porcine reproductive management. Since the end of the 1990s, the common projects have been gradually shifted to the physiology of the Hungarian indigenous pig breed Mangalica. Research partners were convinced that modern utilization of indigenous pig breeds would open new doors for premium pork production. In addition to the Mangalica breed, this principal was broadened to non-European fatty-type native pig breeds as well and resulted in long-term, intercontinental scientific cooperation.

  7. A review of morphological characteristics relating to the production and reproduction of fat-tailed sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourlis, Aris F

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to survey the literature pertinent to some morphological traits which are related with the production and reproduction of fat-tailed sheep breeds. The fat-tailed breeds were identified according to Food and Agriculture Organization databases. Articles referring to all these sheep breeds were evaluated. The morphology of udders and their measurable variables were collected and described. The particularities of pelt and fleece features which are important from an economic point of view were summarized. Linear, planar, and spatial parameters of body, slaughter, and carcass factors were compared at various ages of breeding. Testicular dimensions and semen characteristics were recorded. Their relationships with productive and reproductive performance were discussed. The pattern of ovarian follicle development and the involution of the genital tract were assessed from the anatomical point of view in normal and untreated animals. The data presented here provide useful baseline information on the normal morphological aspects which are important in the animal production of these breeds.

  8. Genetically influenced resistance to stress and disease in salmonids in relation to present-day breeding practice - a short review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendel, Jan; Jánová, K.; Palíková, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2018), s. 35-45 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1510077 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brook trout * disease resistance * genomic selection * marker assisted selection * molecular breeding * quantitative trait loci * rainbow trout Subject RIV: GL - Fishing OBOR OECD: Fishery Impact factor: 0.415, year: 2016

  9. Invited review: Large-scale indirect measurements for enteric methane emissions in dairy cattle: A review of proxies and their potential for use in management and breeding decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, E; de Haas, Y; Dehareng, F; Dewhurst, R J; Dijkstra, J; Gengler, N; Morgavi, D P; Soyeurt, H; van Gastelen, S; Yan, T; Biscarini, F

    2017-04-01

    Efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of milk production through selection and management of low-emitting cows require accurate and large-scale measurements of methane (CH 4 ) emissions from individual cows. Several techniques have been developed to measure CH 4 in a research setting but most are not suitable for large-scale recording on farm. Several groups have explored proxies (i.e., indicators or indirect traits) for CH 4 ; ideally these should be accurate, inexpensive, and amenable to being recorded individually on a large scale. This review (1) systematically describes the biological basis of current potential CH 4 proxies for dairy cattle; (2) assesses the accuracy and predictive power of single proxies and determines the added value of combining proxies; (3) provides a critical evaluation of the relative merit of the main proxies in terms of their simplicity, cost, accuracy, invasiveness, and throughput; and (4) discusses their suitability as selection traits. The proxies range from simple and low-cost measurements such as body weight and high-throughput milk mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) to more challenging measures such as rumen morphology, rumen metabolites, or microbiome profiling. Proxies based on rumen samples are generally poor to moderately accurate predictors of CH 4 , and are costly and difficult to measure routinely on-farm. Proxies related to body weight or milk yield and composition, on the other hand, are relatively simple, inexpensive, and high throughput, and are easier to implement in practice. In particular, milk MIR, along with covariates such as lactation stage, are a promising option for prediction of CH 4 emission in dairy cows. No single proxy was found to accurately predict CH 4 , and combinations of 2 or more proxies are likely to be a better solution. Combining proxies can increase the accuracy of predictions by 15 to 35%, mainly because different proxies describe independent sources of variation in CH 4 and one proxy can

  10. NMR characterization of polymers: Review and update

    Science.gov (United States)

    NMR spectroscopy is a major technique for the characterization and analysis of polymers. A large number of methodologies have been developed in both the liquid and the solid state, and the literature has grown considerably (1-5). The field now covers a broad spectrum of activities, including polym...

  11. Review: Characterizing and quantifying quantum chaos with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-28

    Sep 28, 2016 ... Keywords. Quantum chaos; random matrix theory; quantum tomography. PACS Nos 05.45.Mt; 03.67.−a; 03.65.Wj; 42.50.−p; 42.50.Ex. 1. Introduction: Classical and quantum chaos. Classical chaos is characterized by the sensitive depen- dence on initial conditions in a deterministic dynamical system [1].

  12. A review of three major fungal diseases of Coffea arabica L. in the rainforests of Ethiopia and progress in breeding for resistance in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Hindorf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In a review of their own research the authors summarize incidences and distributions of the most important fungal diseases in Ethiopia and progress in breeding for resistance. Ethiopia, as the centre of origin for Coffea arabica, hosts a large diversity of germplasm. The incidences of diseases are based on observations in the montane rainforests of the southeast (Harenna and southwest (Bonga, Berhane-Kontir, Yayu of Ethiopia. Major diseases are Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR, Hemileia vastatrix; Coffee Berry Disease (CBD, Colletotrichum kahawae and Coffee Wilt Disease (CWD, Gibberella xylarioides (Fusarium xylarioides. CLR incidences in Ethiopia were present in all regions with highs between January and March and lows between June and October. CBD was present mostly in Bonga (40.0% and Yayu (26.3%, but less frequent in Harenna (18.6% and Berhane-Kontir (6.0%. CWD as a recently developed disease in Arabica coffee could be detected ranging from 2.4% in Berhane-Kontir to 16.9% in Yayu. CLR has been a serious constraint in all production countries since it became prominent in Ceylon in the late 19th century after leaf infection defoliation affects plants. CBD was first observed in Kenya in 1922. The disease is currently confined to the African continent in all countries that grow Arabica coffee. In the mid-1990s in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Tanzania a resurgence of CWD in Robusta coffee and in Ethiopia in Arabica coffee occurred. Over the last 40 years breeding activities have been carried out to combat CLR, CBD and CWD. Breeding for resistance against CLR in Arabica coffee has successfully utilized single or combinations of major genes designated as SH genes. Major gene resistance has also been deployed in breeding for resistance against CBD, whereas in the case of CWD, selections of tolerant Arabica accessions are being pursued from local landraces in Ethiopia.

  13. Cloning and characterization of novel γ-gliadin genes from Aegilops markgrafii in relation to evolution and wheat breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gliadins are the major components of storage proteins in wheat and play an important role in determining the extensibility properties of dough. In the present work, six novel full-length γ-gliadin genes were cloned from the C genome of Aegilops markgrafii using a PCR-based strategy. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that the cloned genes had primary structures that were similar, but not identical, to published γ-gliadins from other wheat-related species. The lengths of the open reading frames (ORFs ranged from 909 to 963 bp, and the repetitive and glutamine-rich domains were mainly responsible for the size of the proteins. An extra cysteine residue was present in the repetitive domain of sequence JX566513. All amino acid sequences of γ-gliadin genes from Ae. markgrafii were searched for the five peptides identified as T cell stimulatory epitopes in celiac disease (CD patients. Peptide Gliγ-3 was present in sequences JX566513 and JX566514. Peptide Gliγ-5 was present only in JX566513. The other γ-gliadins contained no toxic epitopes. These results provide information to better understand the use of Ae. markgrafii in wheat breeding and the evolutionary relationship of the γ-gliadin genes in Ae. markgrafii and other Triticeae species.

  14. Characterization of several milk proteins in Domestic Balkan donkey breed during lactation, using lab-on-a-chip capillary electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic Balkan donkey (Equus asinus asinus is a native donkey breed, primarily found in the northern and eastern regions of Serbia. The objective of the study was to analyze proteins of Domestic Balkan donkey milk during the lactation period (from the 45th to the 280th day by applying Lab-on-a-Chip electrophoresis. The chip-based separations were performed on the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer in combination with the Protein 80 Plus Lab Chip kit. The protein content of Domestic Balkan donkey milk during the lactation period of 280 days ranged from 1.40 % to 1.92 % and the content of αs1-casein, αs2-casein, b-casein, α-, β- lactoglobulin, lysozyme, lactoferrin and serum albumin was relatively quantified. Lysozyme (1040-2970 mg/L, α-lactalbumin 12 kDa (1990-2730 mg/L and α-lactalbumin 17.7 kDa (2240-3090 mg/L were found to be the proteins with the highest relative concentrations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46012

  15. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaranowski, J.; Micke, A.

    1985-01-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  16. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  17. Characterization of Nanoreinforcement Dispersion in Inorganic Nanocomposites: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouari Saheb

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metal and ceramic matrix composites have been developed to enhance the stiffness and strength of metals and alloys, and improve the toughness of monolithic ceramics, respectively. It is possible to further improve their properties by using nanoreinforcement, which led to the development of metal and ceramic matrix nanocomposites, in which case, the dimension of the reinforcement is on the order of nanometer, typically less than 100 nm. However, in many cases, the properties measured experimentally remain far from those estimated theoretically. This is mainly due to the fact that the properties of nanocomposites depend not only on the properties of the individual constituents, i.e., the matrix and reinforcement as well as the interface between them, but also on the extent of nanoreinforcement dispersion. Therefore, obtaining a uniform dispersion of the nanoreinforcement in the matrix remains a key issue in the development of nanocomposites with the desired properties. The issue of nanoreinforcement dispersion was not fully addressed in review papers dedicated to processing, characterization, and properties of inorganic nanocomposites. In addition, characterization of nanoparticles dispersion, reported in literature, remains largely qualitative. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive description of characterization techniques used to evaluate the extent of nanoreinforcement dispersion in inorganic nanocomposites and critically review published work. Moreover, methodologies and techniques used to characterize reinforcement dispersion in conventional composites, which may be used for quantitative characterization of nanoreinforcement dispersion in nanocomposites, is also presented.

  18. Breeds of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067852335

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.

  19. Graphene field emitters: A review of fabrication, characterization and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Leifeng, E-mail: chlf@hdu.edu.cn [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yu, Hu; Zhong, Jiasong; Song, Lihui [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wu, Jun, E-mail: wujun@hdu.edu.cn [Institute of Electron Device & Application, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018 (China); Su, Weitao [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The preparation, characterization and field emission properties for Gs are reviewed. • The review provides an updated progress on design and construction of Gs field emitters. • The review offers fundamental insights into understanding and design of Gs emitters. • The review can broach the subject and inspire readers in field of Gs based emitters. - Abstract: Graphenes are beneficial to electrons field emission due to its high aspect ratio, high carrier density, the larger carrier mobility, excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, excellent mechanical strength and chemical stability. In recent years, graphene or reduced oxide graphene field emitters have been successfully constructed by various methods such as chemical vapor deposition, chemical exfoliation, electrophoretic deposition, screen-printing and chemical synthesis methods. Graphene emitters are tried to construct in distribution with some angles or vertical orientation with respect to the substrate surface. The vertical alignment of graphene sheets or edges arrays can facilitate efficient electron emission from the atomically thick sheets. Therefore they have even more a low turn-on and threshold-field electronic field, high field enhancement factor, high current stability and high luminance. In this review, we shortly survey and discuss recent research progress in graphene field emission properties with particular an emphasis on their preparing method, characterization and applications in devices especially for vertical graphene and single layer graphene, also including their challenges and future prospects.

  20. Ensemble-Based Data Assimilation in Reservoir Characterization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungpil Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of ensemble-based data assimilation for strongly nonlinear problems on the characterization of heterogeneous reservoirs with different production histories. It concentrates on ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF and ensemble smoother (ES as representative frameworks, discusses their pros and cons, and investigates recent progress to overcome their drawbacks. The typical weaknesses of ensemble-based methods are non-Gaussian parameters, improper prior ensembles and finite population size. Three categorized approaches, to mitigate these limitations, are reviewed with recent accomplishments; improvement of Kalman gains, add-on of transformation functions, and independent evaluation of observed data. The data assimilation in heterogeneous reservoirs, applying the improved ensemble methods, is discussed on predicting unknown dynamic data in reservoir characterization.

  1. Karakterisasi Morfometrik dan Jarak Genetik Rumpun-Rumpun Kelinci di Jawa Barat (MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND GENETIC DISTANCE OF RABBIT BREEDS IN WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Dedi Iskandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to assess morphometric characteristics, breeds relationship andvariables that distinguished among breeds of rabbits raised in West Java. This research used 419 rabbitsconsisted of Angora (AG, Dutch (DT, Flemish Giant (FG, Lop (LP, Netherland Dwarf (ND, Composite(PX, Rex (RX, Satin (ST, Reza (XA and New Zealand White (ZW. Head length (PK, head width (LK, earlength (PTL, ear width (LTL, chest width (LD, chest depth (DD, chest circumference (LKD, body length(PB , hips width (LP, length of the scapula bone (PS, humerus length (PH, radius-ulna length (PRU,femur length (PF and tibia length (PT were observed. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance,discriminant and canonical analysis using SAS program ver. 9.1.3 and MEGA5 program to get theconstruction of phenogram tree. FG and ST rabbits were generally larger in size and shape than the otherrabbits breeds, while ND rabbit had the smallest morphological size than other rabbits breeds, except forLK, LD and DD. Results of discriminant analysis showed that LP, RX, ND and XA had a high similarityvalue, otherwise DT, FG, ST, PX, AG and ZW had no the value. The closest genetic distance matrix valueindicated by PX-ZW breeds (1,53 and the farthest genetic distance indicated by FG-ND breeds (6,62.Phenogram tree construction showed that the breeds rabbits divided into five clusters, namely cluster ND,DT; ST clusters; FG cluster; cluster LP, PX, ZW and cluster AG, XA, RX. Phenotypic size that had stronginfluence on the differentiation of rabbit breeds were PTL, LTL, PRU, PH and PF on the canonical 1 alsoPT and PS on canonical 2.

  2. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation

  3. Organic breeding: New trend in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenji Janoš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic breeding is a new trend in plant breeding aimed at breeding of organic cultivars adapted to conditions and expectations of organic plant production. The best proof for the need of organic cultivars is the existence of interaction between the performances of genotypes with the kind of production (conventional or organic (graph. 1. The adaptation to low-input conditions of organic production by more eddicient uptake and utilization of plant nutrients is especially important for organic cultivars. One of the basic mechanism of weed control in organic production is the competition of organic cultivars and weeds i.e. the enhanced ability of organic cultivars to suppress the weeds. Resistance/tolerance to diseases and pests is among the most important expectations toward the organic cultivars. In comparison with the methods of conventional plant breeding, in case of organic plant breeding limitations exist in choice of methods for creation of variability and selection classified as permitted, conditionally permitted and banned. The use of genetically modified organisms and their derivated along with induced mutations is not permitted in organic production. The use of molecular markers in organic plant breeding is the only permitted modern method of biotechnology. It is not permitted to patent the breeding material of organic plant breeding or the organic cultivars. .

  4. Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Review. Part 2: Characterization of Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Justin M; Ludlow, Christy L; Bansberg, Stephen F; Adler, Charles H; Lott, David G

    2017-10-01

    Objective The purpose of this review is to describe the recent advances in characterizing spasmodic dysphonia. Spasmodic dysphonia is a task-specific focal laryngeal dystonia characterized by irregular and uncontrolled voice breaks. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, and there are diagnostic difficulties. Data Sources PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library. Review Methods The data sources were searched using the following search terms: ( spasmodic dysphonia or laryngeal dystonia) and ( etiology, aetiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, or pathophysiology). Conclusion The diagnosis of spasmodic dysphonia can be difficult due to the lack of a scientific consensus on diagnostic criteria and the fact that other voice disorders may present similarly. Confusion can arise between spasmodic dysphonia and muscle tension dysphonia. Spasmodic dysphonia symptoms are tied to particular speech sounds, whereas muscle tension dysphonia is not. With the advent of more widespread use of high-speed laryngoscopy and videokymography, measures of the disruptions in phonation and delays in the onset of vocal fold vibration after vocal fold closure can be quantified. Recent technological developments have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia. Implications for Practice A 3-tiered approach, involving a questionnaire, followed by speech assessment and nasolaryngoscopy is the most widely accepted method for making the diagnosis in most cases. More experimental and invasive techniques such as electromyography and neuroimaging have been explored to further characterize spasmodic dysphonia and aid in diagnosing difficult cases.

  5. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  6. Adnexal masses literature review, detection, characterization and radiological staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Gonzalez, Diana

    2011-01-01

    A literature review was conducted on radiological detection and characterization of major adnexal masses identified in ultrasound, computerized axial tomography and magnetic resonance. The characteristics, and incidence findings have been identified in imaging methods of benign adnexal masses and most common ovarian neoplasms. The proposed new classification of adnexal masses GI-RADS has been released. The report of adnexal ultrasound images were classified into 5 categories. They have relied on morphological findings and the likelihood of benignity or malignancy, in addition to the radiological staging submit. The purpose has been simplifying the diagnosis and better therapeutic for the patient behavior [es

  7. Mechanical characterization of composite materials by optical techniques: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Luigi

    2018-05-01

    The present review provides an overview of work published in recent years dealing with the mechanical characterization of composite materials performed by optical techniques. The paper emphasizes the strengths derived from the employment of full-field methods when the strain field of an anisotropic material must be evaluated. This is framed in contrast to the use of conventional measurement techniques, which provide single values of the measured quantities unable to offer thorough descriptions of deformation distribution. The review outlines the intensity and articulation of work in this research field to date and its ongoing importance not only in the academy, but also in industrial sectors where composite materials represent a strategic resource for development.

  8. Next generation breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabaschi, Delfina; Tondelli, Alessandro; Desiderio, Francesca; Volante, Andrea; Vaccino, Patrizia; Valè, Giampiero; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The genomic revolution of the past decade has greatly improved our understanding of the genetic make-up of living organisms. The sequencing of crop genomes has completely changed our vision and interpretation of genome organization and evolution. Re-sequencing allows the identification of an unlimited number of markers as well as the analysis of germplasm allelic diversity based on allele mining approaches. High throughput marker technologies coupled with advanced phenotyping platforms provide new opportunities for discovering marker-trait associations which can sustain genomic-assisted breeding. The availability of genome sequencing information is enabling genome editing (site-specific mutagenesis), to obtain gene sequences desired by breeders. This review illustrates how next generation sequencing-derived information can be used to tailor genomic tools for different breeders' needs to revolutionize crop improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro culture and characterization of putative porcine embryonic germ cells derived from domestic breeds and yucatan mini pig embryos at days 20-24 of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkov, Stoyan Gueorguiev; Marks, Hendrik; Klein, Tino

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic germ cells (EGC) are cultured pluripotent cells derived from primordial germ cells (PGC). This study explored the possibility of establishing porcine EGC from domestic breeds and Yucatan mini pigs using embryos at Days 17-24 of gestation. In vitro culture of PGC from both pooled...

  10. History of the race structure of Orobanche cumana and the breeding of sunflower for resistance to this parasitic weed: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinero-Ruiz, L.; Delavault, P.; Pérez-Vich, B.; Pacureanu-Joita, M.; Bulos, M.; Altieri, E.; Domínguez, J.

    2015-07-01

    Broomrape, caused by Orobanche cumana, has affected sunflowers since the early 20th century in Eastern Europe. Currently, it limits sunflower oil production in Southern and Eastern Europe and in some areas of Asia, causing around 50% seed losses when susceptible hybrids are grown. Covered in this review are aspects such as: biological processes that are common to Orobanche spp. and/or particular to O. cumana in sunflower, genetic resistance and its mechanisms, races of the parasite identified in different countries throughout the time and their increasing virulence, and breeding for resistance to some herbicides as a novel control option. The main purpose is to present an updated and, as far as possible, complete picture of the way both the parasitic weed and its host crop have evolved in time, and how they co-exist in the current agriculture. Additionally, we propose a system for determining the races of the parasite that can be internationally adopted from now. In the context of minimal harmful effects on the environment, changing patterns of land use in farming systems, and global environment changes, the final goal of this work is to provide all those interested in parasites from field crops and their integrated management compiled information on the sunflower – O. cumana system as a case study. (Author)

  11. History of the race structure of Orobanche cumana and the breeding of sunflower for resistance to this parasitic weed: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinero-Ruiz, L.; Delavault, P.; Pérez-Vich, B.; Pacureanu-Joita, M.; Bulos, M.; Altieri, E.; Domínguez, J.

    2015-01-01

    Broomrape, caused by Orobanche cumana, has affected sunflowers since the early 20th century in Eastern Europe. Currently, it limits sunflower oil production in Southern and Eastern Europe and in some areas of Asia, causing around 50% seed losses when susceptible hybrids are grown. Covered in this review are aspects such as: biological processes that are common to Orobanche spp. and/or particular to O. cumana in sunflower, genetic resistance and its mechanisms, races of the parasite identified in different countries throughout the time and their increasing virulence, and breeding for resistance to some herbicides as a novel control option. The main purpose is to present an updated and, as far as possible, complete picture of the way both the parasitic weed and its host crop have evolved in time, and how they co-exist in the current agriculture. Additionally, we propose a system for determining the races of the parasite that can be internationally adopted from now. In the context of minimal harmful effects on the environment, changing patterns of land use in farming systems, and global environment changes, the final goal of this work is to provide all those interested in parasites from field crops and their integrated management compiled information on the sunflower – O. cumana system as a case study. (Author)

  12. History of the race structure of Orobanche cumana and the breeding of sunflower for resistance to this parasitic weed: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leire Molinero-Ruiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Broomrape, caused by Orobanche cumana, has affected sunflowers since the early 20th century in Eastern Europe. Currently, it limits sunflower oil production in Southern and Eastern Europe and in some areas of Asia, causing around 50% seed losses when susceptible hybrids are grown. Covered in this review are aspects such as: biological processes that are common to Orobanche spp. and/or particular to O. cumana in sunflower, genetic resistance and its mechanisms, races of the parasite identified in different countries throughout the time and their increasing virulence, and breeding for resistance to some herbicides as a novel control option. The main purpose is to present an updated and, as far as possible, complete picture of the way both the parasitic weed and its host crop have evolved in time, and how they co-exist in the current agriculture. Additionally, we propose a system for determining the races of the parasite that can be internationally adopted from now. In the context of minimal harmful effects on the environment, changing patterns of land use in farming systems, and global environment changes, the final goal of this work is to provide all those interested in parasites from field crops and their integrated management compiled information on the sunflower – O. cumana system as a case study.

  13. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    There have been a number of important events related to the activity of the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme in the past six months. The joint FAO/IAEA RCMs on 'Molecular characterization of mutated genes controlling important traits for seed crop improvement' and 'Mutational analysis of root characters in annual food plants related to plant performance' were held in June, in Krakow, Poland. It was the third RCM of the CRP on crop plant genomics and the second in the CRP on root systems. More than 40 scientists from twenty countries participated in the meeting. Significant progress was achieved in presented projects of diverse areas of both CRPs. Although genomics and root genetics are methodologically among the most rapidly developing disciplines, the participants successfully tried to follow the latest developments. The Consultants Meeting on 'Physical mapping technologies for the identification and characterization of mutated genes contributing to crop quality' was also held in June, in Vienna. Physical mapping technologies provide new tools for the rapid advancement of breeding programs and are highly applicable to neglected crops in developing countries. Furthermore, they open new opportunities for developing modern approaches to plant improvement research. Consultants recommended the organization of a Co-ordinated Research Project dealing with application of these new technologies to breeding programmes with the use of induced mutations for crop improvement. It is expected that the new CRP will be initiated this year. In close collaboration with EU COST 851 'Gametic cells and molecular breeding for crop improvement' project we started with preparation and editing of a book on 'Doubled haploid production in crop plants. A manual'. More than 40 manuscripts were collected, reviewed by a team of EU COST 851 experts and are now in the final editing phase. Similarly, we finished editorial work on publishing the training material from the FAO/IAEA Training

  14. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  15. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes: I-selection goals and criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses natural processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to ensure production while limiting the environmental footprint of livestock and crop production systems. Selecting to achieve a maximization of target production criteria has long proved detrimental to fitness traits. However, since the 1990s, developments in animal breeding have also focussed on animal robustness by balancing production and functional traits within overall breeding goals. We discuss here how an agroecological perspective should further shift breeding goals towards functional traits rather than production traits. Breeding for robustness aims to promote individual adaptive capacities by considering diverse selection criteria which include reproduction, animal health and welfare, and adaptation to rough feed resources, a warm climate or fluctuating environmental conditions. It requires the consideration of genotype×environment interactions in the prediction of breeding values. Animal performance must be evaluated in low-input systems in order to select those animals that are adapted to limiting conditions, including feed and water availability, climate variations and diseases. Finally, we argue that there is no single agroecological animal type, but animals with a variety of profiles that can meet the expectations of agroecology. The standardization of both animals and breeding conditions indeed appears contradictory to the agroecological paradigm that calls for an adaptation of animals to local opportunities and constraints in weakly artificialized systems tied to their physical environment.

  16. Induced mutations in sesame breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashri, A.

    2001-01-01

    The scope of induced mutations in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) breeding is reviewed. So far in Egypt, India, Iraq, Rep. of Korea, and Sri Lanka, 14 officially released varieties have been developed through induced mutations: 12 directly and 2 through cross breeding (one using the 'dt45' induced mutant from Israel). For another variety released in China there are no details. The induced mutations approach was adopted primarily in order to obtain genetic variability that was not available in the germplasm collection. The mutagens commonly applied have been gamma rays, EMS and sodium azide. Sesame seeds can withstand high mutagen doses, and there are genotypic differences in sensitivity between varieties. The mutants induced in the above named countries and others include better yield, improved seed retention, determinate habit, modified plant architecture and size, more uniform and shorter maturation period, earliness, resistance to diseases, genic male sterility, seed coat color, higher oil content and modified fatty acids composition. Some of the induced mutants have already given rise to improved varieties, the breeding value of other mutants is now being assessed and still others can serve as useful markers in genetic studies and breeding programmes. (author)

  17. Domestication and Breeding of Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Juan M; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2016-12-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha) has a high, untapped potential to contribute towards sustainable production of food and bioenergy, rehabilitation of degraded land, and reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tremendous progress in jatropha domestication and breeding has been achieved during the past decade. This review: (i) summarizes current knowledge about the domestication and breeding of jatropha; (ii) identifies and prioritizes areas for further research; and (iii) proposes strategies to exploit the full genetic potential of this plant species. Altogether, the outlook is promising for accelerating the domestication of jatropha by applying modern scientific methods and novel technologies developed in plant breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Implementation in breeding programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffey, M.P.; McParland, S.; Bastin, C.; Wall, E.; Berry, D.P.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic improvement is easy when selecting for one heritable and well-recorded trait at a time. Many industrialised national dairy herds have overall breeding indices that incorporate a range of traits balanced by their known or estimated economic value. Future breeding goals will contain more

  19. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) originated in the Andean region of South America; this species is associated with exceptional grain nutritional quality and is highly valued for its ability to tolerate abiotic stresses. However, its introduction outside the Andes has yet to take off on a large...... scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  20. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    , unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While......, a number of potential risks are discussed, including detrimental genetic trends for non-measured welfare traits, the increased chance of spreading unfavourable mutations, reduced sharing of information arising from concerns over patents, and an increased monopoly within dairy cattle breeding that may make...... negative effects on animal welfare and to invest in breeding for increased animal welfare. Researchers are encouraged to further investigate the long-term effects of various breeding schemes that rely on genomic breeding values....

  1. Surface characterization and clinical review of two commercially available implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Silvia; Jimbo, Ryo; Andersson, Martin; Bryington, Matthew; Albrektsson, Tomas

    2013-10-01

    To characterize topographically and chemically the surfaces of 2 commercially available implants. Furthermore, to gather an overview of the clinical results of these implant systems. Two commercially available oral implants were analyzed using optical interferometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In addition, a literature search for all the clinical articles on the same implants was performed. No significant differences of topographical parameters were found between the 2 implants, except for the hybrid parameter Sdr presenting significant higher values for the Ankylos implants. Both surfaces had a homogenous microporosity. At higher magnifications of scanning electron microscope images, evenly distributed nanostructures (approximately 10 nm) were visible. Chemically, mainly titanium, oxygen and carbon were detected. Fifty-six clinical articles were included for the review. The implant survival rates (minimum follow-up: 5 years) ranged between 87.7% and 100%. The examined commercially available implants showed a moderately rough surface, with a homogenous microporosity. Nanofeatures were detected on the surface of both implants. The clinical performances of these implants were comparable to that of other commercialized implant systems.

  2. Performance Parameters and Characterizations of Nanocrystals: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasi M. Chogale

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Poor bioavailability of drugs associated with their poor solubility limits the clinical effectiveness of almost 40% of the newly discovered drug moieties. Low solubility, coupled with a high log p value, high melting point and high dose necessitates exploration of alternative formulation strategies for such drugs. One such novel approach is formulation of the drugs as “Nanocrystals”. Nanocrystals are primarily comprised of drug and surfactants/stabilizers and are manufactured by “top-down” or “bottom-up” methods. Nanocrystals aid the clinical efficacy of drugs by various means such as enhancement of bioavailability, lowering of dose requirement, and facilitating sustained release of the drug. This effect is dependent on the various characteristics of nanocrystals (particle size, saturation solubility, dissolution velocity, which have an impact on the improved performance of the nanocrystals. Various sophisticated techniques have been developed to evaluate these characteristics. This article describes in detail the various characterization techniques along with a brief review of the significance of the various parameters on the performance of nanocrystals.

  3. Safflower: genetics and breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    A review of genetic studies related to the breeding of improved cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) indicated that it was possible to modify the following over a wide range: duration of the rosette stage, stem length, branching habit, degree of spininess, head number, head size, flower morphology, mating system, seed size, hull thickness and thereby oil and protein contents, and fatty acid composition of the oil. Safflower breeders have concentrated most of their efforts on identifying and evaluating the great range of variability in cultivated safflower and its closely related wild species, and not on exploring means to increase variability. Limited experiments with gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate indicated that additional variability could be induced. Mutagenic agents should be used to obtain the following: resistance to foliar diseases where resistant germplasm is not available, increased levels of resistance to Phytophthora root rot, resistance to dodder and orobanche, resistance to insect pests, earlier maturity, and additional modifications in the fatty acid composition of the oil. (author)

  4. Misuse of antimicrobials and selection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains in breeding kennels: genetic characterization of bacteria after a two-year interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, A; Milani, C; Corrò, M; Drigo, I; Börjesson, S

    2013-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) strains have been isolated from dogs with increasing frequency; prolonged or excessive use of antimicrobials is associated with the selection of MRSP, and misuse of antimicrobials is frequent in breeding kennels. This study was carried out in two breeding kennels (A and B) in which we had isolated MRSP in 2008: the aim was to assess colonization of previously positive bitches and of other bitches sharing the same environment and to assess the genetic profile of both the old and the new strains [spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing and Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)]. Six animals from Kennel A (two from 2008) and eight from Kennel B (one from 2008) were tested: 16 MRSP strains were isolated only from bitches housed in Kennel B. Old and new isolates were mecA positive, resulted spa type t02 and carried SSCmec II-III. PGFE showed that all isolates were related and belonged to the main clone lineage dominating in Europe, ST71-J-t02-II-III. Kennels A and B differ in the use of antimicrobials, which has been reduced over time in Kennel A, while has remained excessive in Kennel B, where many agents belonging to different classes (third-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolids) are administered to dogs, without veterinary supervision, especially around parturition. Misuse of antimicrobials is the key factor for the selection of MRSP strains in healthy dogs and for their persistence over time. Dog breeders should be aware that infections caused by multiresistant bacteria have very limited therapeutical options and represent a huge challenge for animal health. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  6. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  7. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  8. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  9. Will genomic selection be a practical method for plant breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Akihiro; Isobe, Sachiko N

    2012-11-01

    Genomic selection or genome-wide selection (GS) has been highlighted as a new approach for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in recent years. GS is a form of MAS that selects favourable individuals based on genomic estimated breeding values. Previous studies have suggested the utility of GS, especially for capturing small-effect quantitative trait loci, but GS has not become a popular methodology in the field of plant breeding, possibly because there is insufficient information available on GS for practical use. In this review, GS is discussed from a practical breeding viewpoint. Statistical approaches employed in GS are briefly described, before the recent progress in GS studies is surveyed. GS practices in plant breeding are then reviewed before future prospects are discussed. Statistical concepts used in GS are discussed with genetic models and variance decomposition, heritability, breeding value and linear model. Recent progress in GS studies is reviewed with a focus on empirical studies. For the practice of GS in plant breeding, several specific points are discussed including linkage disequilibrium, feature of populations and genotyped markers and breeding scheme. Currently, GS is not perfect, but it is a potent, attractive and valuable approach for plant breeding. This method will be integrated into many practical breeding programmes in the near future with further advances and the maturing of its theory.

  10. QTLomics in Soybean: A Way Forward for Translational Genomics and Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Giriraj; Gupta, Sanjay; Ratnaparkhe, Milind B.; Maranna, Shivakumar; Satpute, Gyanesh K.

    2016-01-01

    and breeding of quantitative traits in legume crops. In this review, we summarize current status of identification and characterization of genes underlying QTLs for various quantitative traits in soybean and their significance in translational genomics and breeding of other legume crops. PMID:28066449

  11. Characterisation of White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali cattle breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in Bauchi state between January, and July, 1997 to characterize White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali cattle breeds. Thirty animals of both sexes from each breed were randomly selected from fifteen farms/herds. Observations were carried out on both quantitative and qualitative characters. Sokoto ...

  12. Review of geophysical characterization methods used at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GV Last; DG Horton

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a review of geophysical methods used at Hanford in two parts: (1) shallow surface-based geophysical methods and (2) borehole geophysical methods. This review was not intended to be ''all encompassing'' but should represent the vast majority (>90% complete) of geophysical work conducted onsite and aimed at hazardous waste investigations in the vadose zone and/or uppermost groundwater aquifers. This review did not cover geophysical methods aimed at large-scale geologic structures or seismicity and, in particular, did not include those efforts conducted in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. This review focused primarily on the more recent efforts

  13. Review of geophysical characterization methods used at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GV Last; DG Horton

    2000-03-23

    This paper presents a review of geophysical methods used at Hanford in two parts: (1) shallow surface-based geophysical methods and (2) borehole geophysical methods. This review was not intended to be ``all encompassing'' but should represent the vast majority (>90% complete) of geophysical work conducted onsite and aimed at hazardous waste investigations in the vadose zone and/or uppermost groundwater aquifers. This review did not cover geophysical methods aimed at large-scale geologic structures or seismicity and, in particular, did not include those efforts conducted in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. This review focused primarily on the more recent efforts.

  14. Breeding soundness evaluation and reproductive management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometric characterization, breeding soundness evaluation and reproductive management of 33 sport horses (14 mares and 19 stallions) belonging to Palace Administration was carried out for 6 months from January to June/2014. Animals were also subjected to condition scoring, and detailed evaluation through ...

  15. Economic evaluation of genomic breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, S; Simianer, H; Willam, A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare a conventional dairy cattle breeding program characterized by a progeny testing scheme with different scenarios of genomic breeding programs. The ultimate economic evaluation criterion was discounted profit reflecting discounted returns minus discounted costs per cow in a balanced breeding goal of production and functionality. A deterministic approach mainly based on the gene flow method and selection index calculations was used to model a conventional progeny testing program and different scenarios of genomic breeding programs. As a novel idea, the modeling of the genomic breeding program accounted for the proportion of farmers waiting for daughter records of genotyped young bulls before using them for artificial insemination. Technical and biological coefficients for modeling were chosen to correspond to a German breeding organization. The conventional breeding program for 50 test bulls per year within a population of 100,000 cows served as a base scenario. Scenarios of genomic breeding programs considered the variation of costs for genotyping, selection intensity of cow sires, proportion of farmers waiting for daughter records of genotyped young bulls, and different accuracies of genomic indices for bulls and cows. Given that the accuracies of genomic indices are greater than 0.70, a distinct economic advantage was found for all scenarios of genomic breeding programs up to factor 2.59, mainly due to the reduction in generation intervals. Costs for genotyping were negligible when focusing on a population-wide perspective and considering additional costs for herdbook registration, milk recording, or keeping of bulls, especially if there is no need for yearly recalculation of effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Genomic breeding programs generated a higher discounted profit than a conventional progeny testing program for all scenarios where at least 20% of the inseminations were done by genotyped young bulls without

  16. Effects on milk production in F1 crossbred of Alpine goat breed (♂ and Albanian goat breed (♀

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Hajno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available About 950,000 goats, farmed mostly in hilly and mountainous areas of Albania, contribute about 8% of the country’s total milk production. In order to increase milk production, farmers are currently using crosses of the local goat breed with exotic breeds, mainly the Alpine breed from France. This study examines milk production data of first lactation from 45 goats of the local breed, 82 goats of the Alpine breed and 58 F1 crosses (♂Alpine breed x ♀local breed. The goats were kept on small-scale farms according to the traditional Albanian system. Milking was carried out in the morning and evening. Kids were weaned at 65 days of age after which milking started. Milk yield was recorded twice with a 15-day interval between the two readings. Total milk yield was calculated using the Fleischmann method. The F1 goats produced 37.8 kg more milk than local breed goats although the lactation length (P<0.05 of F1 goats was six days shorter compared to that of local breed goats (P<0.05. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 of the genotype factor on milk production. The average Cappio-Borlino curves of three genotypes indicated that the lactation curves of local breed and F1 crosses were similar. Although the F1 cross goats had 50% of their genomes from a genetically improved breed they were still able to deal with the difficult conditions that characterize the traditional extensive farming systems in Albania. Breeding pure Alpine breed or its crosses with the local goat breed improved milk production in an extensive traditional system.

  17. Accuracy, intermethod agreement, and inter-reviewer agreement for use of magnetic resonance imaging and myelography in small-breed dogs with naturally occurring first-time intervertebral disk extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Alexandra Squires; Brisson, Brigitte A; Nykamp, Stephanie G; Poma, Roberto; Foster, Robert A

    2012-04-15

    To determine accuracy, intermethod agreement, and inter-reviewer agreement for multisequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2-view orthogonal myelography in small-breed dogs with first-time intervertebral disk (IVD) extrusion. Prospective evaluation study. 24 dogs with thoracolumbar IVD extrusion. Each dog underwent MRI and myelography. Images obtained with each modality were independently evaluated and assigned standardized scores in a blinded manner by 3 reviewers. Results were compared with surgical findings. Inter-reviewer and intermethod agreements were assessed via κ statistics. Accuracy was assessed as the percentage of dogs for which ≥ 2 of 3 reviewers recorded findings identical to those determined surgically. Inter-reviewer agreement was substantial for site (κ = 0.70) and side of IVD extrusion (κ = 0.62) in T2-weighted magnetic resonance images and was substantial for site (κ = 0.72) and fair for side of extrusion (κ = 0.37) in myelographic images. Agreement for site between each modality and surgical findings was near perfect (κ = 0.94 and 0.88 for MRI and myelography, respectively). Intermethod agreement was substantial for site (κ = 0.71) and moderate for side of extrusion (κ = 0.40). Accuracy of MRI for site and side was 100% when results for T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences were combined. Accuracy of myelography was 90.9% and 54.5% for site and side, respectively. Agreement between imaging results and surgical findings for identification of IVD extrusion sites in small-breed dogs was similar for MRI and myelography. However, MRI appeared to be more accurate than myelography and allowed evaluation of extradural compressive mass composition.

  18. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Opportunities for Products of New Plant Breeding Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Smulders, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Various new plant breeding techniques (NPBT) have a similar aim, namely to produce improved crop varieties that are difficult to obtain through traditional breeding methods. Here, we review the opportunities for products created using NPBTs. We categorize products of these NPBTs into three product

  20. On the Breeds of Cattle - Historic and Current Classifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felius, Marleen; Koolmees, Peter A; Theunissen, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Classification of cattle breeds contributes to our understanding of the history of cattle and is essential for an effective conservation of genetic diversity. Here we review the various classifications over the last two centuries and compare the most recent classifications with genetic data....... This is largely in agreement with the breed clusters indicated by a biochemical and molecular genetic analysis, which reflect either groups of breeds with a common geographic origin or single breeds that have expanded by export and/or crossbreeding. We propose that this information is also relevant for managing...

  1. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.; Goldringer, I.; Hoad, S.; Kovacs, G.M.; Loschenberger, F.; Miedaner, T.; Ostergard, H.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local, in

  2. REVIEW OF CURRENT PRACTICE IN CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Characterization and monitoring are important parts of environmental remediation of contaminated sites by the Department of Energy--Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). The actual remediation process often cannot begin or even be planned until characterization is complete. Monitoring is essential to verify the progress of remediation and of the waste stream. However, some contaminated sites are difficult, costly, or have a high exposure risk to personnel to characterize or monitor using the baseline technology or current practice. Therefore, development of new characterization and monitoring technologies is time-critical to remediate these sites. The main task of the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program (CMST-CP) is to develop and deploy innovative characterization and monitoring technologies that improve performance and reduce personnel exposure, cost, and detection limits. However, to evaluate different proposals for new technologies to decide which ones to develop or deploy, it is necessary to compare their cost and performance to the baseline technology. The goal of this project is to facilitate the direct comparison of new technologies to the baseline technology by documenting the current practices for site characterization and monitoring at DOE sites and by presenting the information in an easy-to-use, concise database. The database will assist the CMST-CP and others in evaluating or designing new technologies by identifying the baseline technologies and describing their performance and cost. The purpose of this document is to report on the completion of this project and to describe the database. Section 2.0 describes the data assessment methodology. Section 3.0 presents the database and serves as a user manual. Section 4.0 lists the references used for each baseline technology in the database. The full references can be found in the Appendix

  3. REVIEW OF CURRENT PRACTICE IN CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A.Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Characterization and monitoring are important parts of environmental remediation of contaminated sites by the Department of Energy--Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). The actual remediation process often cannot begin or even be planned until characterization is complete. Monitoring is essential to verify the progress of remediation and of the waste stream. However, some contaminated sites are difficult, costly, or have a high exposure risk to personnel to characterize or monitor using the baseline technology or current practice. Therefore, development of new characterization and monitoring technologies is time-critical to remediate these sites. The main task of the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program (CMST-CP) is to develop and deploy innovative characterization and monitoring technologies that improve performance and reduce personnel exposure, cost, and detection limits. However, to evaluate different proposals for new technologies to decide which ones to develop or deploy, it is necessary to compare their cost and performance to the baseline technology. The goal of this project is to facilitate the direct comparison of new technologies to the baseline technology by documenting the current practices for site characterization and monitoring at DOE sites and by presenting the information in an easy-to-use, concise database. The database will assist the CMST-CP and others in evaluating or designing new technologies by identifying the baseline technologies and describing their performance and cost. The purpose of this document is to report on the completion of this project and to describe the database. Section 2.0 describes the data assessment methodology. Section 3.0 presents the database and serves as a user manual. Section 4.0 lists the references used for each baseline technology in the database. The full references can be found in the Appendix.

  4. Genetic breeding of silkworms: from traditional hybridization to molecular design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, San-Yuan; Xia, Qing-You

    2017-11-20

    Sericulture is one of the great inventions of the Chinese people and has become an important cultural feature of China. As China is the long-lasting center of silk production, genetic breeding of silkworm was highly developed historically, and has formed a comprehensive system for breeding and preservation of new varieties. However, silkworm breeding reached a bottleneck recently, because most of the traditional genetic resources have been utilized and silkworm strains have become homogeneous. Meanwhile, sericulture in China meets huge challenges in the 21 st century. In recent years, with the development and rapid application of molecular biology, genomics, transgene and genome editing, silkworm genetic breeding has entered a new era. In this review, we summarize the development of silkworm genetic breeding, especially the progress and perspective of transgene and genome editing in genetic engineering of silkworms. We also discuss the future development of silkworm genetic breeding.

  5. 10 CFR 60.18 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of site characterization activities. 2 60.18 Section 60.18 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES... Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. Accordingly, neither the issuance of a site characterization...

  6. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of site characterization activities. 2 63.16 Section 63.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES... recommendations or stating objections to DOE's site characterization program. The Director shall invite public...

  7. Large-Scale Standardized Phenotyping of Strawberry in RosBREED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathey, M.M.; Mookerjee, S.; Gündüz, K.; Hancock, J.F.; Iezzoni, A.F.; Mahoney, L.; Davis, T.; Bassil, N.V.; Hummer, K.E.; Stewart, P.; Whitaker, V.M.; Sargent, D.J.; Denoyes, B.; Amaya, I.; Weg, van de W.E.; Finn, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to implement marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae, many traits need to be characterized in diverse germplasm. The USDA-NIFA Specialty Crop Research Initiative-funded RosBREED project includes breeding programs of four Rosaceae crops (apple, peach, cherry and strawberry). Phenotyping

  8. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  9. Mutation breeding in mangosteen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Mohd Zain

    2002-01-01

    Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)

  10. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370632656

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  11. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  12. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great

  13. Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajbir, S. Sangwan

    2017-01-01

    Chromosomes contain genes responsible of different traits of any organism. Induced mutation using chemical mutagens and radiation to modify molecular structure of plants played a major role in the development of high genetic variability and help develop new superior crop varieties. The Mutation Breeding is applicable to all plants and has generated lot of agronomically interesting mutants, both in vegetatively and seed propagated plants. The technique is easy but long and challenging to detect, isolate and characterize the mutant and gene. A specific dose of irradiation has to be used to obtain desired mutants. However, with modern molecular technique, the gene responsible for mutation can be identified. The CRISPR-Cas9 allows the removal of a specific gene which is responsible of unwanted trait and replacing it with a gene which induces a desired trait. There have been more than 2700 officially released mutant varieties from 170 different plant species in more than 60 countries throughout the world and A more participatory approach, involving all stakeholders in plant breeding, is needed to ensure that it is demand/farmers driven.

  14. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  15. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.

    2008-01-01

    The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...... and between years, underlines the need to try to select for specific adaptation in target environments. The difficulty of doing so can be helped by decentralised breeding with farmer participation and the use of crops buffered by variety mixtures or populations. Varieties for OA need efficient nutrient uptake...

  16. A 100-year review: Carbohydrates - characterization, digestion, and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our knowledge of the role of carbohydrates in dairy cattle nutrition has advanced substantially during the 100 years in which the Journal of Dairy Science has been published. In this review, we traced the history of scientific investigation and discovery from crude fiber, nitrogen-free extract, and ...

  17. Characterizing supply chain visibility – A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somapa, Sirirat; Cools, Martine; Dullaert, Wout

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review that aims to provide insight into the characteristics and effectiveness of supply chain visibility (SCV), as well as to identify metrics that capture these aspects in business processes. Design/methodology/approach – A systematic

  18. Characterization of hyperparathyroidism in youth and adolescents: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Ryan; Metrailer, Aaron M; Bodenner, Donald L; Stack, Brendan C

    2013-03-01

    To systematically review the preoperative diagnostic modalities, surgical treatments, and glandular pathologies associated with primary hyperparathyroidism in children and adolescents under 20 years of age. We searched PUBMED, Cochrane databases, OVID, Web of Science (SCIE and SSCI), CINAHL, and Health Source: Nursing academic for articles involving surgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism in the pediatric population on 5/2012. Literature review, database review, and retrospective review studies date were used from 1986 until 2012. Ages ranged for 0-19 years old. Of the 230 cases of pediatric primary hyperparathyroidism reported since 1987, solitary adenomas (SA), multiple gland hyperplasia disease (MGHD), double adenomas (DA), and normal parathyroid gland pathology occurred in 80%, 16.5%, 0.9%, and 2.6% respectively. Of the MGHD patients (38 pts), 1/2 (19 pts) of the cases were attributed to MEN I, MEN II, or familial non MEN hyperparathyroidism. Tc(99m)-sestamibi and ultrasound were 86% (37/43) and 74.5% (70/94) sensitive, respectively for localizing parathyroid disease. Limited data exists on pediatric and adolescent patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Sufficient data exists demonstrating single adenomas are most common and young patients are usually more symptomatic than adults. One may conclude that spontaneous primary hyperparathyroidism may be approached and managed similarly to adults. The incidence of primary hyperparathyroidism in this population may be under appreciated and a lower threshold for ordering a screening serum calcium should be considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Review of Physical and Chemical Methods for Characterization of Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    benzenes, indans, tetralins, indenes , naphtalenes, and tricyclic aromatics in middle distillates. LIMITATIONS: The given precision data may not be...University, Norfolk, VA, Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp 197-201, February 1981. S-042: Application of FTIR detection to the size separation of... FTIR is advantageous over conventional dispersive methods for the characterization of highly adsorbing materials. Benzene- and pyridine-solubles are

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities

  1. Selection of High Laccase-Producing Coriolopsis gallica Strain T906: Mutation Breeding, Strain Characterization, and Features of the Extracellular Laccases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoli; Feng, Lei; Han, Zhenya; Luo, Sishi; Wu, Ai'min; Xie, Jun

    2016-09-28

    Commercial application of laccase is often hampered by insufficient enzyme stocks, with very low yields obtained from natural sources. This study aimed to improve laccase production by mutation of a Coriolopsis gallica strain and to determine the biological properties of the mutant. The high-yield laccase strain C. gallica TCK was treated with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and ultraviolet light. Among the mutants isolated, T906 was found to be a high-production strain of laccases. The mutant strain T906 was stabilized via dozens of passages, and the selected ones were further processed for optimization of metallic ion, inducers, and nutritional requirements, which resulted in the optimized liquid fermentation medium MF9. The incubation temperature and pH were optimized to be 30°C and 4.5, respectively. The mutant strain T906 showed 3-times higher laccase activity than the original strain TCK under optimized conditions, and the maximum laccase production (303 U/ml) was accomplished after 13 days. The extracellular laccase isoenzyme 1 was purified and characterized from the two strains, respectively, and their cDNA sequence was determined. Of note, the laccase isoenzyme 1 transcription levels were overtly increased in T906 mycelia compared with values obtained for strain TCK. These findings provide a basis for C. gallica modification for the production of high laccase amounts.

  2. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This issue reports on the creation of the Agency's Subprogramme of Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production Systems (E1) through the merger of the Soils and Plant Breeding and Genetics Subprogrammes together with part of the Entomology Subprogramme activities. Implementation of a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Effects of Mutagenic Agents on the DNA Sequence in Plants, and the successful submission of a new CRP proposal on Pyramiding of Mutated Genes Contributing to Crop Quality and Resistance to Stress Affecting Quality were among the major activities of our Subprogramme during the last six months. We actively participated in the International Year of Rice (IYR 2004) events such as the Meeting of the Informal International Working Group on the International Year of Rice (IIWG) and the FAO Rice Conference on Rice in Global Markets and Sustainable Production Systems (Rome, Italy), both in February this year. A lot of work has been concentrated this last semester on the preparation of Programme and Budget for the biennium 2006-2007 and the appraisal of TC proposals for the biennium 2005-2006. The Mutation Breeding Newsletter and the Mutation Breeding Review will merge to become the Mutation Breeding Newsletter and Reviews (MBN and R). Starting at the end of July, the MBN and R will appear on a regular basis

  3. A review of medical image compression methods - general characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przelaskowski, A.; Kazubek, M.; Jamrogiewicz, T. [Politechnika Warszawska, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. Radioelektroniki

    1995-12-31

    The general view of the popular and often applied lossless and lossy compression techniques is presented. The lossless methods of either single image (intraframe methods ) or sequence of correlated images (interframe methods) are shortly characterized. Often used lossy methods are also introduced. A class of medical images has not specific features which could be used for improving the compression efficiency. The effective natural image lossless compression techniques are also efficient in the applications to medical image systems. The limit of achievable compression ratios is about 4. Techniques based on linear prediction methods are largely the most effective in reduction of spatial redundancy. An optimisation of prediction model allows to decrease bit rates of about 10% (over standard DPCM method). there is strong dependence of a conception of compression technique optimum conditions on specific application and realisation possibilities of the technique. (author). 35 refs, 2 fig.

  4. Characteristics important for organic breeding of vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable development and application of new genetic The Institute for Vegetable Crops possesses a rich germplasm collection of vegetables, utilized as gene resource for breeding specific traits. Onion and garlic breeding programs are based on chemical composition improvement. There are programs for identification and use of genotypes characterized by high tolerance to economically important diseases. Special attention is paid to breeding cucumber and tomato lines tolerant to late blight. As a result, late blight tolerant pickling cucumber line, as well as late blight tolerant tomato lines and hybrids are realized. Research on bean drought stress tolerance is initiated. Lettuce breeding program including research on spontaneous flora is started and interspecies hybrids were observed as possible genetic variability source. It is important to have access to a broad range of vegetable genotypes in order to meet the needs of organic agriculture production. Appreciating the concept of sustainable agriculture, it is important to introduce organic agriculture programs in breeding institutions.

  5. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This third issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter highlights forthcoming events including regional (Afra) training course on 'molecular characterization of genetic biodiversity in traditional and neglected crops selected for improvement through mutation techniques' and seminar on 'mutation techniques and biotechnology for tropical and subtropical plant improvement in Asia and Pacific regions'. Status of existing co-ordinated and technical co-operation research projects is also summarized

  6. Critical Review on Nanofluids: Preparation, Characterization, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamoud Jama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer fluids are a crucial parameter that affects the size and costs of heat exchangers. However, the available coolants like water and oils have low thermal conductivities, which put many limitations to the development of heat transfer to achieve high performance cooling. The need for development of new classes of fluids which enhance the heat transfer capabilities attracted the attention of many researchers. In the last few decades, modern nanotechnology developed nanoparticles, which have unique thermal and electrical properties that could help improve heat transfer using nanofluids. A “nanofluid” is a fluid with suspended fine nanoparticles which increases the heat transfer properties compared with the original fluid. Nanofluids are considered a new generation of heat transfer fluids and are considered two-phase fluids of liquid solid mixtures. The efficiency of the fluid could be improved by enhancing its thermal properties, especially the thermal conductivity, and it is expected that the nanofluids will have a greater thermal conductivity than the base fluids. This paper reviews the preparation of metallic and nonmetallic nanofluids along with the stability of the produced nanofluids. Physical and thermal properties as well as a range of applications are also discussed in detail.

  7. A review of dynamic mechanical characterization of high temperature PMR polyimides and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Ruth H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the applications of dynamic mechanical characterization for high-temperature PMR polyimides and their graphite-fiber-reinforced composites. This characterization technique provides insights into the processability, performance, and structure property relationships of the polyimides and composites. The dynamic mechanical properties of various molding powders, commercially obtained prepregs, neat resins, and as-fabricated as well as aged composites are presented. Some applied aspects of the dynamic mechanical data are discussed.

  8. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-03-27

    In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the

  9. Experimental and computational characterization of biological liquid crystals: a review of single-molecule bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Kilho; Yang, Jaemoon; Park, Jinsung; Yoon, Gwonchan; Soo Sohn, Young; Park, Shinsuk; Yoon, Dae Sung; Na, Sungsoo; Kwon, Taeyun

    2009-09-10

    Quantitative understanding of the mechanical behavior of biological liquid crystals such as proteins is essential for gaining insight into their biological functions, since some proteins perform notable mechanical functions. Recently, single-molecule experiments have allowed not only the quantitative characterization of the mechanical behavior of proteins such as protein unfolding mechanics, but also the exploration of the free energy landscape for protein folding. In this work, we have reviewed the current state-of-art in single-molecule bioassays that enable quantitative studies on protein unfolding mechanics and/or various molecular interactions. Specifically, single-molecule pulling experiments based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been overviewed. In addition, the computational simulations on single-molecule pulling experiments have been reviewed. We have also reviewed the AFM cantilever-based bioassay that provides insight into various molecular interactions. Our review highlights the AFM-based single-molecule bioassay for quantitative characterization of biological liquid crystals such as proteins.

  10. A Morphometric Survey among Three Iranian Horse Breeds with Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosseini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three Iranian horse breeds, Turkoman, Caspian, and Kurdish, are the most important Iranian horse breeds which are well known in all around of the world because of their beauty, versatility, great stamina, and  intelligence. Phenotypic characterization was used to identify and document the diversity within and between distinct breeds, based on their observable attributes. Phenotypic characterization and body biometric in 23 traits were measured in 191 purebred horses belonging to three breeds, i.e. Turkoman (70 horses, Kurdish (77 horses, and Caspian (44 horses.  Caspian breed was  sampled from the Provinces of Alborz and Gilan. Kurdish breed was sampled from the Provinces of Kurdistan, Kermanshah, and Hamadan. Turkoman breed was sampled from the Provinces of Golestan, Markazi, and Isfahan. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was implemented. In addition, Canonical Discriminate Analysis (CDA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and Custer analysis were executed for assessing the relationship among the breeds. All statistical analysis was executed by SAS statistical program. The results of our investigation represented the breeds classification into 3 different classes (Caspian, Turkoman, and Kurdish based on different morphometrical traits. Caspian breed with smaller size in most variables was detached clearly from the others with more distance than Kurdish and Turkoman breeds. The result showed that the most variably trait for classification was Hind Hoof Length. Adaptation with different environments causes difference in morphology and difference among breeds. We can identify and classify domestic population using PCA, CDA, and cluster analysis.

  11. Short review on chemical bath deposition of thin film and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugle, Dhananjay, E-mail: dhananjayforu@gmail.com; Jadhav, Ghanshyam, E-mail: ghjadhav@rediffmail.com [Depertment of Physics, Shri Chhatrapati Shivaji College, Omerga-413606 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This reviews the theory of early growth of the thin film using chemical deposition methods. In particular, it critically reviews the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method for preparation of thin films. The different techniques used for characterizations of the chemically films such as X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Electrical conductivity and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) are discussed. Survey shows the physical and chemical properties solely depend upon the time of deposition, temperature of deposition.

  12. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified

  13. Research on the Morphological Characteristics Variability of Three Horse Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Cătălin Prisacaru; Ancuţa Elena Coşuleanu; Ioan Gîlcă; Vasile Ujică

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was the characterization of some morphological parameters of some horse population improvedwith stallion of Arab, Hucul and English thoroughbred breeds. The biological material was represented by thestallions belonging to the three breeds and the population improved with them. Measurements have been made inorder to determine the height at withers, oblique length of the trunk, cannon girth and weight. The height at witherspresented smaller dimensions at the Arab and Engli...

  14. Characterization of the Peer Review Network at the Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health

    OpenAIRE

    Boyack, Kevin W.; Chen, Mei-Ching; Chacko, George

    2014-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the largest source of funding for biomedical research in the world. This funding is largely effected through a competitive grants process. Each year the Center for Scientific Review (CSR) at NIH manages the evaluation, by peer review, of more than 55,000 grant applications. A relevant management question is how this scientific evaluation system, supported by finite resources, could be continuously evaluated and improved for maximal benefit to the sci...

  15. A Review of Analytical Methods for the Identification and Characterization of Nano Delivery Systems in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luykx, D.M.A.M.; Peters, R.J.B.; Ruth, van S.M.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2008-01-01

    Detection and characterization of nano delivery systems is an essential part of understanding the benefits as well as the potential toxicity of these systems in food. This review gives a detailed description of food nano delivery systems based on lipids, proteins, and/or polysaccharides and

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Membranes Formed by Nonsolvent Induced Phase Separation: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Guillen, Gregory R.

    2011-04-06

    The methods and mechanisms of nonsolvent induced phase separation have been studied for more than fifty years. Today, phase inversion membranes are widely used in numerous chemical industries, biotechnology, and environmental separation processes. The body of knowledge has grown exponentially in the past fifty years, which suggests the need for a critical review of the literature. Here we present a review of nonsolvent induced phase separation membrane preparation and characterization for many commonly used membrane polymers. The key factors in membrane preparation discussed include the solvent type, polymer type and concentration, nonsolvent system type and composition, additives to the polymer solution, and film casting conditions. A brief introduction to membrane characterization is also given, which includes membrane porosity and pore size distribution characterization, membrane physical and chemical properties characterization, and thermodynamic and kinetic evaluation of the phase inversion process. One aim of this review is to lay out the basics for selecting polymer solvent nonsolvent systems with appropriate film casting conditions to produce membranes with the desired performance, morphology, and stability, and to choose the proper way to characterize these properties of nonsolvent induced phase inversion membranes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    A. Blasco

    2008-01-01

    Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries) and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selec...

  18. Genetic characterization of Zanskari breed of horse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Allele size range, number of alleles (observed no, effective ne), observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity. (He), polymorphism ... 196–206. 5. 4.10. 0.59. 0.76. 0.75. 0.213. NVHEQ5. 151–161. 6. 5.64. 0.59. 0.82. 0.82. 0.277. NVHEQ11. 120–130. 6. 5.01. 0.52. 0.80. 0.80. 0.346. NVHEQ18. 118–134. 7. 6.55.

  19. New agrophysics divisions: application of ANFIS, fuzzy indicator modeling, physic-technical bases of plant breeding, and materials based on humic acids (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work is devoted to review the new scientific divisions that emerged in agrophysics in the last 10-15 years. Among them are the following: 1) application of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), 2) development and application of fuzzy indicator modeling, 3) agrophysical and physic-tech...

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions

  1. Phyto-assisted synthesis, characterization and applications of gold nanoparticles – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Santhoshkumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is the formation, running and use of operation at the nanomaterial size scale (1–100 nm. Nanoscale materials can also be obtained by biological synthesis materials via eco-friendly green chemistry based technique. Current development and numerous strategies involved in the green synthesis of nanoparticles were focussed. This review mainly focused on plants which include scientific name, family name, common name, plant parts, its characterization, size and shape of the nanoparticles. Plant extract which was done experimentally gives its various characterization which leads to the identification of compounds of different nano size and shape. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles is in different shapes like spherical, rod, cubic, triangle and also in different sizes. Various application and importance of gold nanoparticles in numerous fields were discussed. The mark of the review is to provide an overview of recent learning in biosynthesized nanoparticles, its characterization and their potential applications.

  2. Towards social acceptance of plant breeding by genome editing

    OpenAIRE

    Araki, Motoko; Ishii, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Although genome-editing technologies facilitate efficient plant breeding without introducing a transgene, it is creating indistinct boundaries in the regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Rapid advances in plant breeding by genome-editing require the establishment of a new global policy for the new biotechnology, while filling the gap between process-based and product-based GMO regulations. In this Opinion article we review recent developments in producing major crops using gen...

  3. Characterization of the peer review network at the Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin W Boyack

    Full Text Available The National Institutes of Health (NIH is the largest source of funding for biomedical research in the world. This funding is largely effected through a competitive grants process. Each year the Center for Scientific Review (CSR at NIH manages the evaluation, by peer review, of more than 55,000 grant applications. A relevant management question is how this scientific evaluation system, supported by finite resources, could be continuously evaluated and improved for maximal benefit to the scientific community and the taxpaying public. Towards this purpose, we have created the first system-level description of peer review at CSR by applying text analysis, bibliometric, and graph visualization techniques to administrative records. We identify otherwise latent relationships across scientific clusters, which in turn suggest opportunities for structural reorganization of the system based on expert evaluation. Such studies support the creation of monitoring tools and provide transparency and knowledge to stakeholders.

  4. Characterization of the peer review network at the Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyack, Kevin W; Chen, Mei-Ching; Chacko, George

    2014-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the largest source of funding for biomedical research in the world. This funding is largely effected through a competitive grants process. Each year the Center for Scientific Review (CSR) at NIH manages the evaluation, by peer review, of more than 55,000 grant applications. A relevant management question is how this scientific evaluation system, supported by finite resources, could be continuously evaluated and improved for maximal benefit to the scientific community and the taxpaying public. Towards this purpose, we have created the first system-level description of peer review at CSR by applying text analysis, bibliometric, and graph visualization techniques to administrative records. We identify otherwise latent relationships across scientific clusters, which in turn suggest opportunities for structural reorganization of the system based on expert evaluation. Such studies support the creation of monitoring tools and provide transparency and knowledge to stakeholders.

  5. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR

  6. Over-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Greenhouse Effect has fuzzy parameters, as do the consequences of acid rain, accidental nuclear fallout, deforestation, even the depletion of oil and natural gas reserves, and other threatening calamities. But the consequences of human over-breeding do not fall within fuzzy parameters. Reliable demographic studies predict a world population by the year 2020 of twice the present four billion or so living human beings. Some of us will see that year. But the population will again have doubled by the year 2090: sixteen billion people. The author suggests in this paper some morally permissible steps that might be taken to circumvent what otherwise is most assuredly an impending world tragedy. We have an ethical obligation to future generations. They have the moral right to a qualitatively fulfilling life, not just on allotted number of years. Some of my suggestions will not be palatable to some readers. But I urge those readers seriously to consider and if possible, hopefully, to propose alternatives

  7. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    . Perhaps as a consequence, long-distance migratory songbirds are declining rapidly compared to their sedentary counterparts. To understand what is driving these declines in European-Afrotropical migratory bird populations we need to understand the full annual migration cycle of these birds. Recent...... technological advances are currently enabling us to track yet smaller songbirds throughout their migration cycle providing valuable insight into the life cycle of individual birds. However, direct tracking of migratory birds has so far mainly been conducted on single populations and our understanding of entire......) in the period 2009-2015. We found that populations used the same migration routes and staging sites, but segregated spatially at the main non-breeding grounds in southern Africa. This finding suggest a far more complex migration pattern than what has recently been described for European-Afrotropical migrants...

  8. ["Breeding for distress" in fowl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, T

    1995-03-01

    During the last hundred years the fancying and breeding of exhibition poultry became very popular as free time activity. Certain breeding standards were set, and the aim of actual breeding endeavours is to meet these standards through selective breeding. Not only were serious defects established as standard qualities (e.g. domestic ducks with feather crests, rumplessness, and ear-tufts in the domestic fowl), but certain distinctive marks were changed into excessive formations (e.g. pigeon breeds with large, cauliflower-like wattles, or enlarged crops and severe behaviour changes). Accurate analysis of such breeding efforts shows that these breeds are to be called defective and abnormal in the sense of section 11b of the German protection of animals legislation. Whether an increased embryonic mortality, especially during the hatching period, constitutes a condemnable state of cruelty against is recently being discussed. Criticised are also standard features which handicap, in varying degrees, certain functional systems of the natural behaviour patterns. Section 11b of the German protection of animal legislation in its present wording is definitely no sufficient mean to control the contemporary excess in breeding of domestic animals.

  9. R and D activities on radiation induced mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapade, A.G.; Asencion, A.B.; Santos, I.S.; Grafia, A.O.; Veluz, AM.S.; Barrida, A.C.; Marbella, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the accomplishments, prospects and future plans of mutation breeding for crop improvement at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). Mutation induction has become a proven way creating variation within a crop variety and inducing desired attributes that cannot be found in nature or have been lost during evolution. Several improved varieties with desirable traits were successfully developed through induced mutation breeding at our research institute. In rice, mutation breeding has resulted in the development of new varieties: (1) PARC 2, (2) Milagrosa mutant, (3) Bengawan mutant and (4) Azmil mutant. Mutation breeding in leguminous crops has led to the induction of an improved L 114 soybean mutant that is shorter that the original variety but yield about 40% more. Several PAEC mungbean varieties characterized with long pods that are non-shattering were also induced. In asexually propagated crops, an increase in yield and chlorophyll mutants were obtained in sweet potatos. Likewise, chlorophyll mutant which look-like 'ornamental bromeliads' and a mutant with reduced spines have been developed in pineapple Queen variety. At present, we have started a new project in mutation breeding in ornamentals. Tissue culture is being utilized in our mutation breeding program. In the near future, radiation induced mutagenesis coupled with in vitro culture techniques on protoplast culture and somatic hybridization will be integrated into our mutation breeding program to facilitate the production of new crop varieties. (author)

  10. ROOT VEGETABLES, BREEDING TRENDS, RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of root vegetables is their unique specificity and high economic importance. The benefits and medicinal properties of root vegetables being highly demanded by the market requirements to the commodity are highlighted in the article. The main directions of breeding program for root vegetable crops, including species of Apiaceae family with carrot, parsnips; Chenopodioideae family with red beet; Brassicaceae family with radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga. Initial breeding accessions of carrot, red beet, radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga have been selected out to be used for breeding program for heterosis. The mf and ms breeding lines were developed, and with the use of them the new gene pool was created. Variety supporting breeding program and methods were also proposed. 

  11. The Current Status, Problems, and Prospects of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Breeding in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangli Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current status, methodology, achievements, and prospects of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. breeding in China. There are 77 cultivars that have been registered in the country, these include 36 cultivars bred through breeding programs, 17 introduced from overseas, 5 domesticated from wild ecotypes, and 19 through regional collection/breeding programs. Cultivars have been selected for cold resistance, disease resistance, salt tolerance, grazing tolerance, high yield, and early maturity. Most of these cultivars have been developed through conventional breeding techniques, such as selective and cross breeding, and some are now being evaluated that have been developed through the application of transgenic technology. The major problems for alfalfa breeding in China include low success rate, slow progress to breed resistant varieties, lack of breeding materials and their systematic collection, storage and evaluation, lack of advanced breeding techniques, and low adoption rate of new cultivars. There are gaps in alfalfa breeding between China and the developed world. Improvement of alfalfa breeding techniques, development of cultivars with adaptations to different regions within China, and the protection and utilization of alfalfa germplasm resources have been identified as major strategies to improve the efficiency of alfalfa breeding in China.

  12. Clonal forestry, heterosis and advanced-generation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, G.A.

    1997-08-01

    This report discusses the clonal planting stock offers many advantages to the forest products industry. Advanced-generation breeding strategies should be designed to maximize within-family variance and at the same time allow the capture of heterosis. Certainly there may be a conflict in the choice of breeding strategy based on the trait of interest. It may be that the majority of the traits express heterosis due to overdominance. Alternatively, disease resistance is expressed as the lack of a specific metabolite or infection court then the homozygous recessive genotype may be the most desirable. Nonetheless, as the forest products industry begins to utilize the economic advantages of clonal forestry, breeding strategies will have to be optimized for these commercial plant materials. Here, molecular markers can be used to characterize the nature of heterosis and therefore define the appropriate breeding strategy.

  13. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M 1 . At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M 1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth

  14. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  15. Future directions in breeding for disease resistance in aquaculture species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D. Houston

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Infectious disease is a major constraint for all species produced via aquaculture. The majority of farmed fish and shellfish production is based on stocks with limited or no selective breeding. Since disease resistance is almost universally heritable, there is huge potential to select for improved resistance to key diseases. This short review discusses the current methods of breeding more resistant aquaculture stocks, with success stories and current bottlenecks highlighted. The current implementation of genomic selection in breeding for disease resistance and routes to wider-scale implementation and improvement in aquaculture are discussed. Future directions are highlighted, including the potential of genome editing tools for mapping causative variation underlying disease resistance traits and for breeding aquaculture animals with enhanced resistance to disease.

  16. Genome-editing technologies and their potential application in horticultural crop breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jin-Song; Ding, Jing; Li, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Plant breeding, one of the oldest agricultural activities, parallels human civilization. Many crops have been domesticated to satisfy human's food and aesthetical needs, including numerous specialty horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, ornamental flowers, shrubs, and trees. Crop varieties originated through selection during early human civilization. Other technologies, such as various forms of hybridization, mutation, and transgenics, have also been invented and applied to crop breeding over the past centuries. The progress made in these breeding technologies, especially the modern biotechnology-based breeding technologies, has had a great impact on crop breeding as well as on our lives. Here, we first review the developmental process and applications of these technologies in horticultural crop breeding. Then, we mainly describe the principles of the latest genome-editing technologies and discuss their potential applications in the genetic improvement of horticultural crops. The advantages and challenges of genome-editing technologies in horticultural crop breeding are also discussed. PMID:26504570

  17. Achievements in NS rapeseed hybrids breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is evident on a global scale, but also in Serbia in the last decade. Rapeseed is used primarily for vegetable oil and processing industry, but also as a source of protein for animal feed and green manure. Following the cultivation of varieties, breeding and cultivation of hybrid rapeseed started in the 1990's, to take advantage of heterosis in F1 generation, while protecting the breeder's rights during seed commercialization. The breeding of hybrid oilseed rape requires high quality starting material (lines with good combining abilities for introduction of male sterility. Ogura sterility system is primarily used at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. To use this system, separate lines are modified with genes for cytoplasmic male sterility (cms female line - mother line and restoration of fertility (Rf male lines - father line. In order to maintain the sterility of the mother line it is necessary to produce a maintainer line of cytoplasmic male sterility. Creation of these lines and hybrids at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops was successfully monitored with intense use of cytogenetic laboratory methods. The structure and vitality of pollen, including different phases during meiosis were checked so that cms stability was confirmed during the introduction of these genes into different lines. Rapeseed breeding program in Serbia resulted in numerous varieties through collaboration of researchers engaged in breeding and genetics of this plant species. So far, in addition to 12 varieties of winter rapeseed and two varieties of spring rapeseed, a new hybrid of winter rapeseed NS Ras was registered in Serbia. NS Ras is an early-maturing hybrid characterized by high seed yield and oil content. Average yield of NS Ras for two seasons and three sites was 4256 kg ha-1 of seed and 1704 kg ha-1 of oil. Three promising winter rapeseed hybrids are in the process of

  18. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagel, Z.; Tutluer, M. I.; Peskircioglu, H.; Kantoglu, Y.; Kunter, B.

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parent varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 had been used in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight.

  19. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  20. Domesticated species form a treasure-trove for molecular characterization of Mendelian traits by exploiting the specific genetic structure of these species in across-breed genome wide association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megens, H.J.W.C.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Domesticated species have been important models for understanding phenotypic consequences of selection and genetics in the past 150 years. Among the most famous examples, is the work by Charles Darwin on the breeding of fancy pigeons that formed one of the pillars of his theory of evolution. Unknown

  1. Experimental and Computational Characterization of Biological Liquid Crystals: A Review of Single-Molecule Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungsoo Na

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative understanding of the mechanical behavior of biological liquid crystals such as proteins is essential for gaining insight into their biological functions, since some proteins perform notable mechanical functions. Recently, single-molecule experiments have allowed not only the quantitative characterization of the mechanical behavior of proteins such as protein unfolding mechanics, but also the exploration of the free energy landscape for protein folding. In this work, we have reviewed the current state-of-art in single-molecule bioassays that enable quantitative studies on protein unfolding mechanics and/or various molecular interactions. Specifically, single-molecule pulling experiments based on atomic force microscopy (AFM have been overviewed. In addition, the computational simulations on single-molecule pulling experiments have been reviewed. We have also reviewed the AFM cantilever-based bioassay that provides insight into various molecular interactions. Our review highlights the AFM-based single-molecule bioassay for quantitative characterization of biological liquid crystals such as proteins.

  2. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This year seems to be very promising for the Plant Breeding and Genetic sub-Programme. At the demand of geneticists, plant breeders, and more recently molecular geneticists for information on released mutant varieties of specific crops, the FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database (MVD) was transferred to the web site and is now available through Internet under the following URL: http://www-mvd.iaea.org. The idea to collect and transfer information on crop varieties developed with the use of mutation techniques to plant breeders ws conceived at almost the same time as the establishment of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section (PBG), Joint FAO/IAEA Division. The first classified list of induced mutant varieties was presented by Sigurbjoernsson at the Pullman Symposium, and published in 1969. Since the first issue of the MBNL (May, 1972) information on newly released mutant varieties was published at the end of each issue under the title 'List of Mutant Varieties'. The full list of 2252 mutant varieties has been published in the Mutation Breeding Review No. 12 (December 2000) to close this period of collecting data on mutant varieties. Such condensed but full information on mutant varieties should help geneticists, molecular biologists and plant breeders to asses the value of mutation techniques in germplasm enhancement, and stimulate the use of induced variation

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  16. Mutation Breeding Newsletter. No. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter contains a brief account of FAO/IAEA meetings held in 1990 on plant breeding involving the use of induced mutations. It also features a list of commercially available plant cultivars produced by such techniques. Refs and tabs

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-05-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  1. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. MtDNA diversity among four Portuguese autochthonous dog breeds: a fine-scale characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa-Rita Pedro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The picture of dog mtDNA diversity, as obtained from geographically wide samplings but from a small number of individuals per region or breed, has revealed weak geographic correlation and high degree of haplotype sharing between very distant breeds. We aimed at a more detailed picture through extensive sampling (n = 143 of four Portuguese autochthonous breeds – Castro Laboreiro Dog, Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog, Portuguese Sheepdog and Azores Cattle Dog-and comparatively reanalysing published worldwide data. Results Fifteen haplotypes belonging to four major haplogroups were found in these breeds, of which five are newly reported. The Castro Laboreiro Dog presented a 95% frequency of a new A haplotype, while all other breeds contained a diverse pool of existing lineages. The Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog, the most heterogeneous of the four Portuguese breeds, shared haplotypes with the other mainland breeds, while Azores Cattle Dog shared no haplotypes with the other Portuguese breeds. A review of mtDNA haplotypes in dogs across the world revealed that: (a breeds tend to display haplotypes belonging to different haplogroups; (b haplogroup A is present in all breeds, and even uncommon haplogroups are highly dispersed among breeds and continental areas; (c haplotype sharing between breeds of the same region is lower than between breeds of different regions and (d genetic distances between breeds do not correlate with geography. Conclusion MtDNA haplotype sharing occurred between Serra da Estrela Mountain dogs (with putative origin in the centre of Portugal and two breeds in the north and south of the country-with the Castro Laboreiro Dog (which behaves, at the mtDNA level, as a sub-sample of the Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog and the southern Portuguese Sheepdog. In contrast, the Azores Cattle Dog did not share any haplotypes with the other Portuguese breeds, but with dogs sampled in Northern Europe. This suggested that the

  1. Sol-gel synthesized ZnO for optoelectronics applications: a characterization review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Kausar; Hussain, Fayaz; Purwanto, Agus; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Zawadzka, Anna; Azmin Mohamad, Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    The rapid growth in green technology has resulted in a marked increase in the incorporation of ZnO in energy and optoelectronic devices. Research involving ZnO is being given renewed attention in the quest to fully exploit its promising properties. The purity and state of defects in the ZnO system are optimized through several modifications to the synthesis conditions and the starting materials. These works have been verified through a series of characterizations. This review covers the essential characterization outcomes of pure ZnO nanoparticles. Emphasis is placed on recent techniques, examples and some issues concerning sol-gel synthesized ZnO nanoparticles. Thermal, phase, structural and morphological observations are combined to ascertain the level of purity of ZnO. The subsequent elemental and optical characterizations are also discussed. This review would be the collective information and suggestions at one place for investigators to focus on the best development of ZnO-based optical and energy devices.

  2. Possibilities for marker-assisted selection in aquaculture breeding schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonesson, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    FAO estimates that there are around 200 species in aquaculture. However, only a few species have ongoing selective breeding programmes. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is not used in any aquaculture breeding scheme today. The aim of this chapter, therefore, is to review briefly the current status of aquaculture breeding schemes and to evaluate the possibilities for MAS of aquaculture species. Genetic marker maps have been published for some species in culture. The marker density of these maps is, in general, rather low and the maps are composed of many amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers anchored to few microsatellites. Some quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for economically important traits, but they are not yet mapped at a high density. Computer simulations of within-family MAS schemes show a very high increase in genetic gain compared with conventional family-based breeding schemes, mainly due to the large family sizes that are typical for aquaculture breeding schemes. The use of genetic markers to identify individuals and their implications for breeding schemes with control of inbreeding are discussed. (author)

  3. Root phenotyping: from component trait in the lab to breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijken, René C P; van Eeuwijk, Fred A; Marcelis, Leo F M; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2015-09-01

    In the last decade cheaper and faster sequencing methods have resulted in an enormous increase in genomic data. High throughput genotyping, genotyping by sequencing and genomic breeding are becoming a standard in plant breeding. As a result, the collection of phenotypic data is increasingly becoming a limiting factor in plant breeding. Genetic studies on root traits are being hampered by the complexity of these traits and the inaccessibility of the rhizosphere. With an increasing interest in phenotyping, breeders and scientists try to overcome these limitations, resulting in impressive developments in automated phenotyping platforms. Recently, many such platforms have been thoroughly described, yet their efficiency to increase genetic gain often remains undiscussed. This efficiency depends on the heritability of the phenotyped traits as well as the correlation of these traits with agronomically relevant breeding targets. This review provides an overview of the latest developments in root phenotyping and describes the environmental and genetic factors influencing root phenotype and heritability. It also intends to give direction to future phenotyping and breeding strategies for optimizing root system functioning. A quantitative framework to determine the efficiency of phenotyping platforms for genetic gain is described. By increasing heritability, managing effects caused by interactions between genotype and environment and by quantifying the genetic relation between traits phenotyped in platforms and ultimate breeding targets, phenotyping platforms can be utilized to their maximum potential. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Breeding of ozone resistant rice: Relevance, approaches and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations have been rising across Asia, and will continue to rise during the 21st century. Ozone affects rice yields through reductions in spikelet number, spikelet fertility, and grain size. Moreover, ozone leads to changes in rice grain and straw quality. Therefore the breeding of ozone tolerant rice varieties is warranted. The mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) using bi-parental populations identified several tolerance QTL mitigating symptom formation, grain yield losses, or the degradation of straw quality. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated substantial natural genotypic variation in ozone tolerance in rice, and revealed that the genetic architecture of ozone tolerance in rice is dominated by multiple medium and small effect loci. Transgenic approaches targeting tolerance mechanisms such as antioxidant capacity are also discussed. It is concluded that the breeding of ozone tolerant rice can contribute substantially to the global food security, and is feasible using different breeding approaches. - Highlights: • Tropospheric ozone affects millions of hectares of rice land. • Ozone affects rice yield and quality. • Breeding approaches to adapt rice to high ozone are discussed. • Challenges in the breeding of ozone resistant rice are discussed. - This review summarizes the effects of tropospheric ozone on rice and outlines approaches and challenges in the breeding of adapted varieties

  5. LOCAL PIG BREEDS AND PORK PRODUCTS IN CROATIA AND SLOVENIA – UNEXPLOITED TREASURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Kušec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rationale, the concept and key challenges of the H2020 project TREASURE dealing with local pig breeds is presented and discussed. The action addresses the phenotypic and genetic characterization, performance of local pig breeds in diverse production systems and their environmental impact, specific quality of their products and market potential. The goal is to build up the capacities to develop sustainable pork chains based on local pig breeds. A special emphasis is given to describe the workplan for Black Slavonian and Turopolje local pig breeds from Croatia and Slovenian Krškopolje pig.

  6. Advanced phenotyping offers opportunities for improved breeding of forage and turf species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Achim; Studer, Bruno; Kölliker, Roland

    2012-01-01

    improvement programmes, in particular, where breeding populations and cultivars are characterized by high genetic diversity and substantial genotype × environment interactions, precise and efficient phenotyping is essential to meet future challenges imposed by climate change, growing demand and declining....... Conclusions Progress in cutting-edge molecular breeding tools is beginning to be matched by progress in automated non-destructive imaging methods. Joint application of precise phenotyping machinery and molecular tools in optimized breeding schemes will improve forage and turf breeding in the near future...

  7. Breeding and Selection of New Switchgrass Varieties for Increased Biomass Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taliaferro, C.M.

    2003-05-27

    Switchgrass breeding and genetics research was conducted from 1992-2002 at the Oklahoma State University as part of the national DOE-Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) effort to develop the species as a bioenergy feedstock crop. The fundamental objective of the program was to implement and conduct a breeding program to increase biomass yield capability in switchgrass and develop cultivars for the central and southern United States. Supporting research objectives included: (1) switchgrass germplasm collection, characterization, and enhancement; (2) elucidation of cytogenetic and breeding behavior; and (3) identification of best breeding procedures.

  8. Engineered nanostructures: A review of their synthesis, characterization and toxic hazard considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad S. Al-Mubaddel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research work on the synthesis, designing and characterization of nanostructures has been extensively documented in the last decades. This in-depth documentation not only enabled researchers to understand the relationship between the nanostructure properties, size, shape, and composition but also have given them immense control over their manufacturing. This enhanced knowledge, cemented the switching of academic nanotechnology research into industrial products. However; despite the recent accomplishment in synthesis, characterization and application of the nanostructure materials, a complete knowledge/information of their interactions with biological systems is still not available. Hence, it is difficult to forecast the injurious biological responses of these novel nanostructures to humans, animals, insects and plants. Due to this hesitancy, safety regulatory authorities and general public have raised their concerns to the manufacturing and use of nanostructure-based products. Consequently, it is vital for the researchers to concentrate more on safe designing, manufacturing and characterization of nanostructures before these could meet human and communal needs. This review is taking an overview of the increasing investments in nanotechnology, designing, synthesis and characterization of nanostructures and their in vitro and in vivo toxicities.

  9. Review of the emerging role of optical polarimetry in characterization of pathological myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2017-10-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI), a cause of significant morbidity and mortality, is typically followed by microstructural alterations where the necrotic myocardium is steadily replaced with a collagen scar. Engineered remodeling of the fibrotic scar via stem cell regeneration has been shown to improve/restore the myocardium function after MI. Nevertheless, the heterogeneous nature of the scar patch may impair the myocardial electrical integrity, leading to the formation of arrhythmogenesis. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) offers an effective treatment for focal arrhythmias where local heating generated via electric current at specific spots in the myocardium ablate the arrhythmogenic foci. Characterization of these myocardial pathologies (i.e., infarcted, stem cell regenerated, and RFA-ablated myocardial tissues) is of potential clinical importance. Optical polarimetry, the use of light to map and characterize the polarization signatures of a sample, has emerged as a powerful imaging tool for structural characterization of myocardial tissues, exploiting the underlying highly fibrous tissue nature. This study aims to review the recent progress in optical polarimetry pertaining to the characterization of myocardial pathologies while describing the underlying biological rationales that give rise to the optical imaging contrast in various pathologies of the myocardium. Future possibilities of and challenges to optical polarimetry in cardiac imaging clinics are also discussed. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  10. Microstructural characterization of catalysis product of nanocement based materials: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutan, Norsuzailina Mohamed; Izaitul Akma Ideris, Nur; Taib, Siti Noor Linda; Lee, Delsye Teo Ching; Hassan, Alsidqi; Kudnie Sahari, Siti; Mohamad Said, Khairul Anwar; Rahman Sobuz, Habibur

    2018-03-01

    Cement as an essential element for cement-based products contributed to negative environmental issues due to its high energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission during its production. These issues create the need to find alternative materials as partial cement replacement where studies on the potential of utilizing silica based materials as partial cement replacement come into picture. This review highlights the effectiveness of microstructural characterization techniques that have been used in the studies that focus on characterization of calcium hydroxide (CH) and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) formation during hydration process of cement-based product incorporating nano reactive silica based materials as partial cement replacement. Understanding the effect of these materials as cement replacement in cement based product focusing on the microstructural development will lead to a higher confidence in the use of industrial waste as a new non-conventional material in construction industry that can catalyse rapid and innovative advances in green technology.

  11. A review on flow characterization methods for cereal grain-based powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, R P Kingsly; Jan, Shumaila; Siliveru, Kaliramesh

    2016-01-30

    Flow difficulties during handling, storage, and processing are common in cereal grain-based powder industries. The many studies that focus on the flow properties of powders can be classified as flow indicators, shear properties, and dynamic flow properties. The non-uniformity of physical and chemical characteristics of the individual particles that make up the bulk solid of cereal grain-based powders adds complexity to the characterization of flow behavior. Even so, knowledge of flow behavior is critical to the design of productive and cost-effective equipment for handling and processing of these powders. Because many factors influence flow, a single property/index value may not satisfactorily quantify the flow or no-flow of powders. For powders of biological origin, chemical composition and environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity complicate flow characterization. This review focuses on the specific flow characteristics that directly affect powder flow during handling, processing, and storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Microstructural characterization of catalysis product of nanocement based materials: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sutan Norsuzailina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement as an essential element for cement-based products contributed to negative environmental issues due to its high energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission during its production. These issues create the need to find alternative materials as partial cement replacement where studies on the potential of utilizing silica based materials as partial cement replacement come into picture. This review highlights the effectiveness of microstructural characterization techniques that have been used in the studies that focus on characterization of calcium hydroxide (CH and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H formation during hydration process of cement-based product incorporating nano reactive silica based materials as partial cement replacement. Understanding the effect of these materials as cement replacement in cement based product focusing on the microstructural development will lead to a higher confidence in the use of industrial waste as a new non-conventional material in construction industry that can catalyse rapid and innovative advances in green technology.

  13. Methods to characterize the structure of food powders - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Thao M; Truong, Tuyen; Bhandari, Bhesh R

    2017-04-01

    Food powders can exist in amorphous, crystalline or mixed structure depending on the order of molecular arrangement in the powder particle matrices. In food production, the structure of powders has a greatly effect on their stability, functionality, and applicability. The undesirable structure of powders can be accidentally formed during production. Therefore, characterization of powder structure as well as quantification of amorphous-crystalline proportions presenting in the powders are essential to control the quality of products during storage and further processing. For these purposes, many analytical techniques with large differences in the degree of selectivity and sensitivity have been developed. In this review, differences in the structure of food powders are described with a focus being placed on applications of amorphous powders. Essentially, applicability of common analytical techniques including X-ray, microscopic, vapor adsorption, thermal, and spectroscopic approaches for quantitative and qualitative structural characterization of food powders is also discussed.

  14. Managing mainland salt marshes for breeding birds

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Wadden Sea region is one of the most important breeding areas in Western Europe for coastal breeding bird species. It is expected that management of salt marshes is important for successful conservation of breeding bird populations but the impact of management on the habitat quality for breeding birds is still not fully understood. In this study the effects of management on the three crucial habitat characteristics for breeding birds were studied on mainland salt marshes: effects of manag...

  15. A comparison of phenotypic traits related to trypanotolerance in five west african cattle breeds highlights the value of shorthorn taurine breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Berthier

    Full Text Available Animal African Trypanosomosis particularly affects cattle and dramatically impairs livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa. African Zebu (AFZ or European taurine breeds usually die of the disease in the absence of treatment, whereas West African taurine breeds (AFT, considered trypanotolerant, are able to control the pathogenic effects of trypanosomosis. Up to now, only one AFT breed, the longhorn N'Dama (NDA, has been largely studied and is considered as the reference trypanotolerant breed. Shorthorn taurine trypanotolerance has never been properly assessed and compared to NDA and AFZ breeds.This study compared the trypanotolerant/susceptible phenotype of five West African local breeds that differ in their demographic history. Thirty-six individuals belonging to the longhorn taurine NDA breed, two shorthorn taurine Lagune (LAG and Baoulé (BAO breeds, the Zebu Fulani (ZFU and the Borgou (BOR, an admixed breed between AFT and AFZ, were infected by Trypanosoma congolense IL1180. All the cattle were genetically characterized using dense SNP markers, and parameters linked to parasitaemia, anaemia and leukocytes were analysed using synthetic variables and mixed models. We showed that LAG, followed by NDA and BAO, displayed the best control of anaemia. ZFU showed the greatest anaemia and the BOR breed had an intermediate value, as expected from its admixed origin. Large differences in leukocyte counts were also observed, with higher leukocytosis for AFT. Nevertheless, no differences in parasitaemia were found, except a tendency to take longer to display detectable parasites in ZFU.We demonstrated that LAG and BAO are as trypanotolerant as NDA. This study highlights the value of shorthorn taurine breeds, which display strong local adaptation to trypanosomosis. Thanks to further analyses based on comparisons of the genome or transcriptome of the breeds, these results open up the way for better knowledge of host-pathogen interactions and

  16. Definition of animal breeding goals for sustainable production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, I; Groen, A F; Gjerde, B

    2000-03-01

    What we do is determined by the way we "view" a complex issue and what sample of issues or events we choose to deal with. In this paper, a model based on a communal, cultural, or people-centered worldview, informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology, is considered. Definitions and interpretations of sustainable agriculture are reviewed. Common elements in published definitions of sustainable agriculture and animal production among those who seek long-term and equitable solutions for food production are resource efficiency, profitability, productivity, environmental soundness, biodiversity, social viability, and ethical aspects. Possible characteristics of future sustainable production systems and further development are presented. The impact of these characteristics on animal breeding goals is reviewed. The need for long-term biologically, ecologically, and sociologically sound breeding goals is emphasized, because animal breeding determined only by short-term market forces leads to unwanted side effects. Hence, a procedure for defining animal breeding goals with ethical priorities and weighing of market and non-market values is suggested. Implementation of non-market as well as market economic trait values in the aggregate genotype, as suggested, may allow for breeding programs that contribute to sustainable production systems. Examples of breeding goals in salmon, cattle, and pigs are given, and the resulting genetic responses are evaluated with respect to economic profit (or costs) and other criteria of sustainability. Important prerequisites for breeding programs for sustainable production are appropriate governmental policies, awareness of our way of thinking, and a more communal worldview informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and prospective applications of nitrogen-doped graphene: A short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni Yadav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphene is a high crystalline material possessing the high electronic qualities. Doping of nitrogen in graphene is to tailor/control the electronic, chemical and structural properties of graphene by manipulating it through the means of doping such as its surface area and functional sites. Different configurations i.e. Pyridinic N, Pyrrolic N, Graphitic N are obtained while doping nitrogen into graphene. This review paper focusses on various synthesis and characterization techniques for the analysis of structural configurations of the nitrogen-doped graphene and its potential applications in various fields such as nanoelectronics, energy storage and electrochemical biosensing.

  18. A review of electrical characterization techniques for ultrathin FDSOI materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristoloveanu, Sorin; Bawedin, Maryline; Ionica, Irina

    2016-03-01

    The characterization of nanosize SOI materials and devices is challenging because multiple oxides, interfaces and channels coexist. Conventional measurement methods need to be replaced, or at least updated. We review the routine techniques that proved efficient for the evaluation of bare SOI wafers (essentially the pseudo-MOSFET) and of MOS structures (transistors and gated diodes). Informative examples are selected to illustrate the typical properties of advanced SOI wafers and MOSFETs. We will show how the ultrathin film and short-channel effects affect the interpretation of the experimental data.

  19. Review on the elaboration and characterization of ceramics refractories based on magnesite and dolomite

    OpenAIRE

    Chaouki Sadik; Omar Moudden; Abdselam El Bouari; Iz-Eddine El Amrani

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important elements of furnaces, boilers and other heating units is the structure (lining), usually made of silica–alumina, basic or special refractories. The basic refractories are materials that are increasingly in demand and whose manufacturing involves necessarily the use of MgO and CaO. In this article, the description and characterization of magnesite (MgCO3) and dolomite (Mg,Ca(CO3)2) and their contribution in industrial ceramics-refractories have been reviewed.

  20. Review on the elaboration and characterization of ceramics refractories based on magnesite and dolomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaouki Sadik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important elements of furnaces, boilers and other heating units is the structure (lining, usually made of silica–alumina, basic or special refractories. The basic refractories are materials that are increasingly in demand and whose manufacturing involves necessarily the use of MgO and CaO. In this article, the description and characterization of magnesite (MgCO3 and dolomite (Mg,Ca(CO32 and their contribution in industrial ceramics-refractories have been reviewed.

  1. Breeding Potential in Danish Apple Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne

    The diversity in plant genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of cultivated crop species. Lack of in-depth characterization and evaluation of gene bank accessions is a major obstacle for their potential utilization. The Danish apple (Malus domestica L.) gene bank collection...... previously reported. Unique fingerprints were obtained for all accessions except for distinctive subclonal sports and synonym accessions. The cultivar ensemble was shown to hold 22% triploid accessions. We developed a new protocol for genotyping S-RNase alleles in apple and revealed 25 different alleles....... In addition, several of the SNP markers presented can be used directly in selection for specific traits in breeding lines. However, further characterization and evaluation of additional important horticultural traits are still needed for upmost utilization of the apple gene bank collection....

  2. BREEDING ECOLOGY OF HOODED CROW (CORVUS CORNIX L. POPULATIONS IN TRANSFORMED LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsyura A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of hooded crow breeding ecology was performed for Zhitomir region in 2010-2011 in terms of rural and urban distinctions. Height of trees, tree species diversity in breeding biotopes, nest size, and breeding success of hooded crows were considered for agricultural and urban landscapes. Definite patterns of breeding ecology were estimated for urban and rural populations of hooded crows. On average, the breeding density of hooded crows was 7-8 individuals/km2in Zhitomir region.Positive correlation was found between the breeding density of hooded crows and degree of transformation and urbanization of landscape of Zhytomyr region. The main breeding habitats of hooded crows in the Zhitomir region were the wetland sites. Communities of urban birds were characterized by earlier terms of nest building, more higher position of nests in the trees and high diversity of tree breeding habitats. In urbanized landscape we determined high proportion of large (6 eggs and small clutches of hooded crow (3 eggs. On average the breeding success of crows in Zhytomyr region is 51.1%. We suggested that the main factor was high level of elimination of embryos and chicks of hooded crow. In urbanized landscapes the breeding success (50% is somewhat higher than that in rural areas (43.5%. This can be explained by specific features of ecological niches - in cities the bird communities have few natural predators that kill chicks and destroy clutches, and potentially have more available food resources.

  3. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  4. Effect of breed on mineral composition of meat from light lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Barać

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition and mineral content of light lambs muscle (derived from Istrian and Dalmatian Pramenka breeds were studied. The M. Longissimus dorsi (MLD samples of 30 carcasses were analysed and the effects of breed and sex were studied. Although lambs of investigated breeds were similar for slaughter age (2.5 months, Dalmatian Pramenka had significantly higher carcass weights (CW; P<0.05. Breed had a significant influence on moisture and fat contents, whilst mineral composition (with the exception of selenium was scarcely affected by breed and sex. Fat and moisture contents were significantly correlated with cold CW. The magnesium, calcium, manganese and selenium contents were significantly correlated (r=0.50, -0.46, 0.44, 0.54; P<0.05 respectively with CW. This study contributes to characterization of lamb carcasses from Istrian Sheep and Dalmatian Pramenka breeds and provides new data on the composition of the MLD of light lambs.

  5. Breeding drought tolerant cowpea: constraints, accomplishments, and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agbicodo, A.C.M.E.; Fatokun, C.A.; Muranaka, S.; Visser, R.G.F.; Linden, van der C.G.

    2009-01-01

    This review presents an overview of accomplishments on different aspects of cowpea breeding for drought tolerance. Furthermore it provides options to enhance the genetic potential of the crop by minimizing yield loss due to drought stress. Recent efforts have focused on the genetic dissection of

  6. Genetic markers and their application in livestock breeding in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ultimate use of DNA markers would be to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in order to practice genotypic selection. This paper reviews DNA markers (RAPD, DFP, RFLP AFLP, minisatellites, microsatellites, SNP) and provides a brief overview of the current application of these markers in animal breeding.

  7. Disease burden in four populations of dog and cat breeds compared to mixed-breed dogs and European shorthair cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, S F A; Meijndert, L E; Fieten, H; Carrière, B J; van Steenbeek, F G; Leegwater, P A J; Rothuizen, J; Nielen, M

    2017-05-01

    Current public and professional opinion is that many dog breeds suffer from health issues related to inherited diseases or extreme phenotypes. The aim of this historical comparative observational study was to evaluate the breed-related disease burden in three purebred dog populations (Chihuahua, French bulldog, Labrador retriever) and one purebred cat breed (Persian cats) in the Netherlands by comparison to a control population of mixed-breed dogs and European Shorthair cats. A qualitative query was performed, consisting of a literature review and collecting the expert opinions of University veterinary specialists, to gather insight into potential diseases of the study population. Next, a referral clinic case control study of the patients referred to specific medical disciplines in the University Clinic was performed. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated to determine the likelihood of a patient referred to a particular medical discipline being a certain breed. Together, the qualitative query and the case control study resulted in a list of potentially relevant diseases limited to five organ systems per breed. These were analysed in data from primary practices. Patient files from ten primary practices over a period of two years were manually extracted and examined. Four-hundred individual patient records per breed as well as 1000 non-breed records were randomly selected from the 10 practices, weighted per practice size. Records were then examined and the presence or absence of certain diseases was identified. To evaluate the disease burden per breed, proportional difference (PD) was estimated, as well as the animal's age at presentation in months. The results of the referral clinic case control study showed an overrepresentation (Odds Ratio>1.5) of the selected breeds in several medical specialties, while median age at presentation was in some cases significantly lower than in the non-breed animals. Results of the practice-based extended cross-sectional study showed

  8. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  9. A review of characterization of tocotrienols from plant oils and foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Haseeb; Ahad, Amjid; Siddiqui, Waseem A

    2015-04-01

    Tocotrienols, members of the vitamin E family, are natural compounds found in a number of vegetable oils, wheat germ, barley and certain types of nuts and grains. Vegetable oils provide the best sources of these vitamin E forms, particularly palm oil and rice bran oil contain higher amounts of tocotrienols. Other sources of tocotrienols include grape fruit seed oil, oats, hazelnuts, maize, olive oil, buckthorn berry, rye, flax seed oil, poppy seed oil and sunflower oil. Tocotrienols are of four types, viz. alpha (α), beta (β), gamma (γ) and delta (δ). Unlike tocopherols, tocotrienols are unsaturated and possess an isoprenoid side chain. A number of researchers have developed methods for the extraction, analysis, identification and quantification of different types of vitamin E compounds. This article constitutes an in-depth review of the chemistry and extraction of the unsaturated vitamin E derivatives, tocotrienols, from various sources using different methods. This review article lists the different techniques that are used in the characterization and purification of tocotrienols such as soxhlet and solid-liquid extractions, saponification method, chromatography (thin layer, column chromatography, gas chromatography, supercritical fluid, high performance), capillary electrochromatography and mass spectrometry. Some of the methods described were able to identify one form or type while others could analyse all the analogues of tocotrienol molecules. Hence, this article will be helpful in understanding the various methods used in the characterization of this lesser known vitamin E variant.

  10. Sport horses : breeding specialist from a single breeding programme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection,

  11. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    production and marketing system, identification of sources of income and expense in commercial herds, determination of ..... decreasing marginal returns with an increase in the scale of the enterprise and thus, if operating at an optimum, the farm could ..... Training and Accreditation School Handbook. Anim. Genet. Breed.

  12. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... traits influencing income and expense, derivation of economic values, choice of selection criteria, and estimation of phenotypic and genetic parameters. The modelling methods to derive economic weights can be divided into simulation, dynamic programming and profit functions. Keywords: Beef cattle, Breeding objectives ...

  13. Breed base representation in dairy animals of 5 breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance of DNA from different dairy breeds can be determined by genotyping, just as individual ancestors such as parents, grandparents, or even great grandparents can be identified correctly in a high percentage of the cases by genotyping even if not reported or reported incorrectly in pedigrees...

  14. In Situ Analytical Characterization of Contaminated Sites Using Nuclear Spectrometry Techniques. Review of Methodologies and Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Past and current human activities can result in the contamination of sites by radionuclides and heavy metals. The sources of contamination are various. The most important sources for radionuclide release include global fallout from nuclear testing, nuclear and radiological accidents, waste production from nuclear facilities, and activities involving naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Contamination of the environment by heavy metals mainly originates from industrial applications and mineralogical background concentration. Contamination of sites by radionuclides and heavy metals can present a risk to people and the environment. Therefore, the estimation of the contamination level and the identification of the source constitute important information for the national authorities with the responsibility to protect people and the environment from adverse health effects. In situ analytical techniques based on nuclear spectrometry are important tools for the characterization of contaminated sites. Much progress has been made in the design and implementation of portable systems for efficient and effective monitoring of radioactivity and heavy metals in the environment directly on-site. Accordingly, the IAEA organized a Technical Meeting to review the current status and trends of various applications of in situ nuclear spectrometry techniques for analytical characterization of contaminated sites and to support Member States in their national environmental monitoring programmes applying portable instrumentation. This publication represents a comprehensive review of the in situ gamma ray spectrometry and field portable X ray fluorescence analysis techniques for the characterization of contaminated sites. It includes papers on the use of these techniques, which provide useful background information for conducting similar studies, in the following Member States: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania

  15. Importance of adaptation and genotype × environment interactions in tropical beef breeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, H M

    2012-05-01

    This paper examines the relative importance of productive and adaptive traits in beef breeding systems based on Bos taurus and tropically adapted breeds across temperate and (sub)tropical environments. In the (sub)tropics, differences that exist between breeds in temperate environments are masked by the effects of environmental stressors. Hence in tropical environments, breeds are best categorised into breed types to compare their performance across environments. Because of the presence of environmental stressors, there are more sources of genetic variation in tropical breeding programmes. It is therefore necessary to examine the genetic basis of productive and adaptive traits for breeding programmes in those environments. This paper reviews the heritabilities and genetic relationships between economically important productive and adaptive traits relevant to (sub)tropical breeding programmes. It is concluded that it is possible to simultaneously genetically improve productive and adaptive traits in tropically adapted breeds of beef cattle grazed in tropical environments without serious detrimental consequences for either adaptation or production. However, breed-specific parameters are required for genetic evaluations. The paper also reviews the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions impacting on production and adaptation of cattle, where 'genotype' is defined as breed (within a crossbreeding system), sire within breed (in a within-breed selection programme) or associations between economically important traits and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs - within a marker-assisted selection programme). It is concluded that re-ranking of breeds across environments is best managed by the use of the breed type(s) best suited to the particular production environment. Re-ranking of sires across environments is apparent in poorly adapted breed types across extreme tropical and temperate environments or where breeding animals are selected in a temperate

  16. Mutation breeding in pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daskalov, S.

    1986-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum sp.) is an important vegetable and spice crop widely grown in tropical as well as in temperate regions. Until recently the improvement programmes were based mainly on using natural sources of germ plasma, crossbreeding and exploiting the heterosis of F 1 hybrids. However, interest in using induced mutations is growing. A great number of agronomically useful mutants as well as mutants valuable for genetic, cytological and physiological studies have been induced and described. In this review information is presented about suitable mutagen treatment procedures with radiation as well as chemicals, M 1 effects, handling the treated material in M 1 , M 2 and subsequent generations, and mutant screening procedures. This is supplemented by a description of reported useful mutants and released cultivars. Finally, general advice is given on when and how to incorporate mutation induction in Capsicum improvement programmes. (author)

  17. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...

  18. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" [1].

  19. Genomic Selection in Plant Breeding: Methods, Models, and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossa, José; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Cuevas, Jaime; Montesinos-López, Osval; Jarquín, Diego; de Los Campos, Gustavo; Burgueño, Juan; González-Camacho, Juan M; Pérez-Elizalde, Sergio; Beyene, Yoseph; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Singh, Ravi; Zhang, Xuecai; Gowda, Manje; Roorkiwal, Manish; Rutkoski, Jessica; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2017-11-01

    Genomic selection (GS) facilitates the rapid selection of superior genotypes and accelerates the breeding cycle. In this review, we discuss the history, principles, and basis of GS and genomic-enabled prediction (GP) as well as the genetics and statistical complexities of GP models, including genomic genotype×environment (G×E) interactions. We also examine the accuracy of GP models and methods for two cereal crops and two legume crops based on random cross-validation. GS applied to maize breeding has shown tangible genetic gains. Based on GP results, we speculate how GS in germplasm enhancement (i.e., prebreeding) programs could accelerate the flow of genes from gene bank accessions to elite lines. Recent advances in hyperspectral image technology could be combined with GS and pedigree-assisted breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Research fields, challenges and opportunities in European oilseed crops breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincourt Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the geographical specialization in oilseed world production, Europe has a major role to play in winter oilseed rape and sunflower breeding. Mainly based on the most recen t results, this review aims to identify the main research and breeding targets for these two crops, as seen through publications, with an attempt to suggest what are opportunities and challenges in these research fields. Growing a healthy and yielding crop remains the key driver for agronomic production. However sustainability and environmental profiles of the cultivar are now entering the field of play: The sustainability concern invested the field of resistance to diseases. Nitrogen use efficiency became an important target for Brassica napus, and crop resilience toward drought stresses is the way chosen in Helianthus annuus breeding for yield improvement. Significant advances are underway for quality traits, but the uncertainty on nutritional and industrial demand may explain why the product diversification remains low.

  1. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windig Jack J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. Non-genetic aspects included threats (e.g. low population size, low preferences by farmers and current merits (economic, ecological and cultural merits. Threat analysis identified eight of the 14 breeds as threatened. Analysis of current merits showed that sub-alpine and arid-lowland breeds contribute most to farmer livelihoods in comparison to other breeds. The highest contribution to the genetic diversity conserved was from the Simien breed. Simien showed high between-breed (low between-breed kinship = 0.04 as well as high within-breed diversity (low within-breed kinship = 0.09 and high HE = 0.73 and allelic richness = 6.83. We combined the results on threat status, current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity to produce a ranking of the 14 breeds for conservation purposes. Our results balance the trade-offs between conserving breeds as insurance against future uncertainties and current sustainable utilization. The ranking of breeds provides a basis for conservation strategies for Ethiopian sheep and contributes to a regional or global conservation plan.

  2. Breeding for plant heat tolerance at vegetative and reproductive stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedonks, Nicky; Rieu, Ivo; Vriezen, Wim H

    2016-06-01

    Thermotolerant crop research. Global warming has become a serious worldwide threat. High temperature is a major environmental factor limiting crop productivity. Current adaptations to high temperature via alterations to technical and management systems are insufficient to sustain yield. For this reason, breeding for heat-tolerant crops is in high demand. This review provides an overview of the effects of high temperature on plant physiology, fertility and crop yield and discusses the strategies for breeding heat-tolerant cultivars. Generating thermotolerant crops seems to be a challenging task as heat sensitivity is highly variable across developmental stages and processes. In response to heat, plants trigger a cascade of events, switching on numerous genes. Although breeding has made substantial advances in developing heat-tolerant lines, the genetic basis and diversity of heat tolerance in plants remain largely unknown. The development of new varieties is expensive and time-consuming, and knowledge of heat tolerance mechanisms would aid the design of strategies to screen germplasm for heat tolerance traits. However, gains in heat tolerance are limited by the often narrow genetic diversity. Exploration and use of wild relatives and landraces in breeding can increase useful genetic diversity in current crops. Due to the complex nature of plant heat tolerance and its immediate global concern, it is essential to face this breeding challenge in a multidisciplinary holistic approach involving governmental agencies, private companies and academic institutions.

  3. Evolutionary routes to non-kin cooperative breeding in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Christina

    2013-12-07

    Cooperatively breeding animals live in social groups in which some individuals help to raise the offspring of others, often at the expense of their own reproduction. Kin selection--when individuals increase their inclusive fitness by aiding genetic relatives--is a powerful explanation for the evolution of cooperative breeding, particularly because most groups consist of family members. However, recent molecular studies have revealed that many cooperative groups also contain unrelated immigrants, and the processes responsible for the formation and maintenance of non-kin coalitions are receiving increasing attention. Here, I provide the first systematic review of group structure for all 213 species of cooperatively breeding birds for which data are available. Although the majority of species (55%) nest in nuclear family groups, cooperative breeding by unrelated individuals is more common than previously recognized: 30% nest in mixed groups of relatives and non-relatives, and 15% nest primarily with non-relatives. Obligate cooperative breeders are far more likely to breed with non-kin than are facultative cooperators, indicating that when constraints on independent breeding are sufficiently severe, the direct benefits of group membership can substitute for potential kin-selected benefits. I review three patterns of dispersal that give rise to social groups with low genetic relatedness, and I discuss the selective pressures that favour the formation of such groups. Although kin selection has undoubtedly been crucial to the origin of most avian social systems, direct benefits have subsequently come to play a predominant role in some societies, allowing cooperation to persist despite low genetic relatedness.

  4. Choice of genetic resources needed for achievement of relevant breeding objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    The author points out the importance of exploration, conservation and documentation of genetic resources and reviews the current status of utilization of available genetic resources and the present breeding strategies

  5. Ecological problems in horse-breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Zachinyaew

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article is represented general information devoted to environmental problems in the horse- breeding. The concept of development of ecological explorations in the horse-breeding is considered as well.

  6. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  7. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  8. Review of sensors for the in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, K.R.; Mayes, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the Technical Task Plan (TTP) SF-2112-03 subtask 2, is responsible for the conceptual design of a Raman probe for inclusion in the in-tank cone penetrometer. As part of this task, LLNL is assigned the further responsibility of generating a report describing a review of sensor technologies other than Raman that can be incorporated in the in-tank cone penetrometer for the chemical analysis of the tank environment. These sensors would complement the capabilities of the Raman probe, and would give information on gaseous, liquid, and solid state species that are insensitive to Raman interrogation. This work is part of a joint effort involving several DOE laboratories for the design and development of in-tank cone penetrometer deployable systems for direct UST waste characterization at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID)

  9. Review of sensors for the in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, K.R.; Mayes, E.L.

    1994-07-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the Technical Task Plan (TTP) SF-2112-03 subtask 2, is responsible for the conceptual design of a Raman probe for inclusion in the in-tank cone penetrometer. As part of this task, LLNL is assigned the further responsibility of generating a report describing a review of sensor technologies other than Raman that can be incorporated in the in-tank cone penetrometer for the chemical analysis of the tank environment. These sensors would complement the capabilities of the Raman probe, and would give information on gaseous, liquid, and solid state species that are insensitive to Raman interrogation. This work is part of a joint effort involving several DOE laboratories for the design and development of in-tank cone penetrometer deployable systems for direct UST waste characterization at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID).

  10. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for the characterization of membranes : A short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS is a highly sensitive fluorescence microscopy technique that can be used to probe a wide range of biophysical processes including diffusion, Ligand-receptor binding and molecular aggregation on artificial and cell membranes. FCS is able to measure very small volumes at nanomolar concentrations. In this work, we review the different types of diffusion on cell membranes,describe the theory of FCS and illustrate several of its applications for the characterization of membranes and membrane associated proteins. For comparison with other techniques we discuss the differences of FCS and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP,a widely used technique for diffusion measurements on membranes, in detail

  11. Instructional Review: An Introduction to Optical Methods for Characterizing Liquid Crystals at Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel S.; Carlton, Rebecca J.; Mushenheim, Peter C.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2013-01-01

    This Instructional Review describes methods and underlying principles that can be used to characterize both the orientations assumed spontaneously by liquid crystals (LCs) at interfaces and the strength with which the LCs are held in those orientations (so-called anchoring energies). The application of these methods to several different classes of LC interfaces is described, including solid and aqueous interfaces as well as planar and non-planar interfaces (such as those that define a LC-in-water emulsion droplet). These methods, which enable fundamental studies of the ordering of LCs at polymeric, chemically-functionalized and biomolecular interfaces, are described in this article at a level that can be easily understood by a non-expert reader such as an undergraduate or graduate student. We focus on optical methods because they are based on instrumentation that is found widely in research and teaching laboratories. PMID:23347378

  12. REVIEW ARTICLE: Nucleation, growth and characterization of cubic boron nitride (cBN) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W. J.; Chong, Y. M.; Bello, I.; Lee, S. T.

    2007-10-01

    Cubic BN (cBN) has a set of extreme properties similar or even superior to diamond. The advance of science and technology of cBN has however been severely hampered by the poor quality of the material available (random orientation, limited film thickness, poor crystallinity and adhesion with substrates due to a non-cubic BN interlayer). This paper reviews the recent progress in the nucleation, growth and characterization techniques of cBN films. It describes various successful approaches in interface engineering and growth techniques in increasing film thickness, improving crystallinity and adhesion of cBN films to the substrate, which are the major issues hindering cBN films for both mechanical and electronic applications. Based on observations of the surface and interface structures, we further discuss the growth mechanisms of cBN films via physical and chemical routes.

  13. Isolation, structural characterization, and potential applications of hemicelluloses from bamboo: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Pai; She, Diao

    2014-11-04

    Bamboo is one of the mostly fast growing natural resources and has great potential to be used as a valuable feedstock for biorefinery. The hemicelluloses, next to cellulose, represent a diverse group of polysaccharides in plant cell wall. Elucidation and understanding of the hemicelluloses from bamboo play an important role in the efficient conversion of bamboo into biofuels and bioproducts. This review summarized the recent reports on hemicelluloses from bamboo, including immunohistochemical localization, focused on extraction and purification methods, chemical components, characterization of structural features, as well as physicochemical properties. In addition, attention was also paid to derivatives prepared from bamboo hemicelluloses and to potential applications of bamboo hemicelluloses in a variety of areas such as biomaterials, biofuel, and food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. FATTENING CAPACITIES AND MEAT QUALITY OF JAPANESE QUAILS OF FARAON AND WHITE ENGLISH BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Genchev

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the fatting capacity and the meat quality of the combined (meat+eggs White English breed and to compare with the same of the meat Faraon breed. Logically, the live weight of 31-day old male Faraon-birds was by 5,9 % higher and of the female ones – by 7,9 % compared to the birds of White English breed. Feed conversion ratio for the experimental period (3-31 days for the White English quails was to 9,95% less effective, compared to the Faraon birds. The meat of Faraon quails contained more dry matter and protein compared to the meat of White English breed. Fat content in the quail bodies of White English breed was signifi cantly lower compared to Faraon breed /Р≤0,05/. Quail meat of White English breed was characterized by its better capacity for technological processing due to the lower loss of moisture – by 18,8 % for breast and 22,4 % for leg muscles /Р≤0,05/. The established results characterize the combined White English breed as suitable for producing both of eggs and meat from quails.

  15. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This is the second issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  16. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This is the first issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  17. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the pl...

  18. Experimental strategies for the identification and characterization of adhesive proteins in animals: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Elise; Maldonado, Barbara; Ladurner, Peter; Flammang, Patrick; Santos, Romana

    2015-01-01

    Adhesive secretions occur in both aquatic and terrestrial animals, in which they perform diverse functions. Biological adhesives can therefore be remarkably complex and involve a large range of components with different functions and interactions. However, being mainly protein based, biological adhesives can be characterized by classical molecular methods. This review compiles experimental strategies that were successfully used to identify, characterize and obtain the full-length sequence of adhesive proteins from nine biological models: echinoderms, barnacles, tubeworms, mussels, sticklebacks, slugs, velvet worms, spiders and ticks. A brief description and practical examples are given for a variety of tools used to study adhesive molecules at different levels from genes to secreted proteins. In most studies, proteins, extracted from secreted materials or from adhesive organs, are analysed for the presence of post-translational modifications and submitted to peptide sequencing. The peptide sequences are then used directly for a BLAST search in genomic or transcriptomic databases, or to design degenerate primers to perform RT-PCR, both allowing the recovery of the sequence of the cDNA coding for the investigated protein. These sequences can then be used for functional validation and recombinant production. In recent years, the dual proteomic and transcriptomic approach has emerged as the best way leading to the identification of novel adhesive proteins and retrieval of their complete sequences. PMID:25657842

  19. A review of the different techniques for solid surface acid-base characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chenhang; Berg, John C

    2003-09-18

    In this work, various techniques for solid surface acid-base (AB) characterization are reviewed. Different techniques employ different scales to rank acid-base properties. Based on the results from literature and the authors' own investigations for mineral oxides, these scales are compared. The comparison shows that Isoelectric Point (IEP), the most commonly used AB scale, is not a description of the absolute basicity or acidity of a surface, but a description of their relative strength. That is, a high IEP surface shows more basic functionality comparing with its acidic functionality, whereas a low IEP surface shows less basic functionality comparing with its acidic functionality. The choice of technique and scale for AB characterization depends on the specific application. For the cases in which the overall AB property is of interest, IEP (by electrokinetic titration) and H(0,max) (by indicator dye adsorption) are appropriate. For the cases in which the absolute AB property is of interest such as in the study of adhesion, it is more pertinent to use chemical shift (by XPS) and the heat of adsorption of probe gases (by calorimetry or IGC).

  20. Real-time chemical characterization of atmospheric particulate matter in China: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong Jie; Sun, Yele; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xue; Li, Mei; Zhou, Zhen; Chan, Chak K.

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) pollution has become a major health threat accompanying the rapid economic development in China. For decades, filter-based offline chemical analyses have been the most widely adopted means to investigate PM and have provided much information for understanding this type of pollution in China. However, offline analyses have low time resolutions and the chemical information thus obtained fail to reflect the dynamic nature of the sources and the rapid processes leading to the severe PM pollution in China. In recent years, advances in real-time PM chemical characterization have created a new paradigm for PM studies in China. In this review, we summarize those advances, focusing on the most widely used mass spectrometric and ion chromatographic techniques. We describe the findings from those studies in terms of spatiotemporal variabilities, degree of neutralization and oxygenation, source apportionment, secondary formation, as well as collocated measurements of the chemical and physical (hygroscopic and optical) properties of PM. We also highlight the new insights gained from those findings and suggest future directions for further advancing our understanding of PM pollution in China via real-time chemical characterization.

  1. Atomic Force Microscopy in Characterizing Cell Mechanics for Biomedical Applications: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Dang, Dan; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao

    2017-09-01

    Cell mechanics is a novel label-free biomarker for indicating cell states and pathological changes. The advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a powerful tool for quantifying the mechanical properties of single living cells in aqueous conditions. The wide use of AFM in characterizing cell mechanics in the past two decades has yielded remarkable novel insights in understanding the development and progression of certain diseases, such as cancer, showing the huge potential of cell mechanics for practical applications in the field of biomedicine. In this paper, we reviewed the utilization of AFM to characterize cell mechanics. First, the principle and method of AFM single-cell mechanical analysis was presented, along with the mechanical responses of cells to representative external stimuli measured by AFM. Next, the unique changes of cell mechanics in two types of physiological processes (stem cell differentiation, cancer metastasis) revealed by AFM were summarized. After that, the molecular mechanisms guiding cell mechanics were analyzed. Finally the challenges and future directions were discussed.

  2. Instrumental methods and techniques for structural and physicochemical characterization of biomaterials and bone tissue: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Žarko; Stolić, Aleksandra; Stojanović, Sanja; Najman, Stevo; Ignjatović, Nenad; Nikolić, Goran; Trajanović, Miroslav

    2017-10-01

    A review of recent advances in instrumental methods and techniques for structural and physicochemical characterization of biomaterials and bone tissue is presented in this paper. In recent years, biomaterials attracted great attention primarily because of the wide range of biomedical applications. This paper focuses on the practical aspects of instrumental methods and techniques that were most often applied (X-ray methods, vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman), magnetic-resonance spectroscopy (NMR and ESR), mass spectrometry (MS), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) in the structural investigation and physicochemical characterization of biomaterials and bone tissue. The application of some other physicochemical methods was also discussed. Hands-on information is provided about these valuable research tools, emphasizing practical aspects such as typical measurement conditions, their limitations and advantages, interpretation of results and practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Polymer blend microspheres for controlled drug release: the techniques for preparation and characterization: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasan, K Priya; Rekha, C

    2012-11-01

    The use of polymers and their microspheres in drug delivery is well known for they are being widely used in the field of drug delivery. The polymer entraps a drug which is to be released in a predesigned manner in the body through biodegradation. The blending of polymers is one way of modifying and enhancing the properties of polymer- based products which is also a cost effective procedure rather than developing a new product. The molecular weight of the polymer, the composition of the blend, the sphere porosity and size, and drug distribution are found to be controllable factors on which drug delivery depends. Polymer blends are obtained by allowing two polymers to combine as one material which has the advantage of two or more polymers. Polymer microspheres are small spherical particles with diameters in the micrometer range between 1μm to 1000μm which are manufactured from various natural and synthetic materials. Microspheres are used to administer medication in a rate- controlled manner and sometimes in a targeted manner. This review presents various polymer blend- combinations in different ratios, the different processing techniques adopted and the details of their characterization through examples found in a literature survey. The characterization of the different polymer blends or microspheres showed changes in structure, increase in drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity.

  4. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding

  5. Population structure of ice-breeding seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Corey S; Stirling, Ian; Strobeck, Curtis; Coltman, David W

    2008-07-01

    The development of population genetic structure in ice-breeding seal species is likely to be shaped by a combination of breeding habitat and life-history characteristics. Species that return to breed on predictable fast-ice locations are more likely to exhibit natal fidelity than pack-ice-breeding species, which in turn facilitates the development of genetic differentiation between subpopulations. Other aspects of life history such as geographically distinct vocalizations, female gregariousness, and the potential for polygynous breeding may also facilitate population structure. Based on these factors, we predicted that fast-ice-breeding seal species (the Weddell and ringed seal) would show elevated genetic differentiation compared to pack-ice-breeding species (the leopard, Ross, crabeater and bearded seals). We tested this prediction using microsatellite analysis to examine population structure of these six ice-breeding species. Our results did not support this prediction. While none of the Antarctic pack-ice species showed statistically significant population structure, the bearded seal of the Arctic pack ice showed strong differentiation between subpopulations. Again in contrast, the fast-ice-breeding Weddell seal of the Antarctic showed clear evidence for genetic differentiation while the ringed seal, breeding in similar habitat in the Arctic, did not. These results suggest that the development of population structure in ice-breeding phocid seals is a more complex outcome of the interplay of phylogenetic and ecological factors than can be predicted on the basis of breeding substrate and life-history characteristics.

  6. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  7. Characterization of prostate neuroendocrine cancers and therapeutic management: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargos, P; Ferretti, L; Gross-Goupil, M; Orre, M; Cornelis, F; Henriques de Figueiredo, B; Houédé, N; Merino, C; Roubaud, G; Dallaudiére, B; Richaud, P; Fléchon, A

    2014-09-01

    Neuroendocrine prostate cancers (NEPCs) are rare. The current lack of consensus for clinical, biological and pathological characterization as well as therapeutic approach makes the management of those tumors a clinical challenge. This literature review aims to summarize available data on the characterization and management of patients with prostate cancer with a neuroendocrine element. We try to identify major controversies and uncertainties in order to understand all aspects of this particular entity. We searched for all articles published and registered in the MEDLINE database before 31 November 2013 with the following search terms: (('prostatic neoplasms' (MeSH Terms)) AND ('carcinoma, neuroendocrine' (MeSH Terms)) OR ('carcinoma, small cell' (MeSH Terms))) AND (English (Language)). Case reports, letters or comments were excluded. We then selected relevant articles from titles and abstracts. Overall, 278 articles published between 1976 and November 2013 were identified. No definition of NEPC seems to be clearly established. Natural history of the disease reveals poor prognosis with median survival of up to 10 to 13 months. Histological characterization appears difficult. Serum markers could be helpful with some controversies in terms of prognostic significance. Concerning management, the majority of patients received local treatment combined with chemotherapy in case of early and localized disease. Few clinical trials described strategy for metastatic disease. The exploration of the different pathways implicated in the neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancers is essential for the comprehension of castration-resistance mechanisms. It will enable the identification of optimal therapeutic strategies for which no recommendation is currently established. Inclusion in prospective clinical trials appears necessary to identify the adequate strategy.

  8. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  9. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    Implementation of a new CRP on Physical mapping technologies for the identification and characterization of mutated genes contributing to crop quality, organization of mutant germplasm database and repository, implementation of new TC projects and activation of work on molecular characterization of Musa putative germplasm as well as sequencing of BAC clones were the major activities of our sub-Programme on Plant Breeding and Genetics during the last six months. A lot of work has been concentrated on organizing a mutant germplasm repository. The first collections of rice and linseed mutants have already arrived and their descriptions have been introduced into the mutated germplasm database. We found this activity especially important to stimulate exchange of crop germplasm among plant breeders. Similarly there is an urgent need to collect mutants of various crops as necessary material for functional genomics and germplasm enhancement. Nevertheless, many crop research institutes are initiating large-scale mutation programmes with the use of their own plant material. To help them in selecting the mutagen, doses and mutation treatment procedure, we published the third issue of Mutation Breeding Newsletter Index of No. 21-44. The Index is also available through our website http://www.iaea.org/programmes/nafa/d2/index.html. The numerous requests for issues of the Mutation Breeding Newsletter already received from various countries indicate the value of this 80-page index for plant breeders and research institutes. We were invited to present the activities, achievements and trends of our sub-Programme at two very important, international meetings: The International Conference on the Status of Plant and Animal Genome Research, known as the Plant and Animal Genome (PAG XI), and The International Congress on 'In the Wake of the Double Helix - From the Green Revolution to the Gene Revolution'. At this last meeting, an initiative was taken to organize the Crop Root Research

  10. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The most important event related to the activity of the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme in the past six months was the 2nd FAO/IAEA Interregional Training Course on 'Mutant Germplasm Characterization using Molecular Markers' which was held at Seibersdorf, 4-29 November 2002. In addition to basic molecular and marker techniques, which were also a subject of the first training course last year, fluorescence in situ hybridisation methods were included in the teaching and demonstration programme. As we informed you in the last edition of this Newsletter, a laboratory manual was published with detailed protocols on molecular markers techniques entitled 'Mutant germplasm characterization using molecular markers. A Manual'. (IAEA Training Course Series No. 19). (available for free distribution under conditions provided on page 11 of this Newsletter). We have also finished editing a book on 'Doubled haploid production in crop plants. A Manual.' This book was prepared in close collaboration with EU COST 851 activities. Ken Kasha (Canada), Brian Forster (UK) and lwona Szarejko (Poland) helped to edit more than 40 protocols for doubled haploid production in at least 23 crop species. The preparation of this manual reflects our our interest in the development and application of this technology for crop improvement. Two CRPs and numerous Technical Co-operation projects greatly contributed to the development of doubled haploid methods and also to implementation of this technology in crop improvement programmes of many countries. Numerous other important activities have been undertaken by the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme during the last 6 months. A consultants meeting on 'Low cost technology in plant tissue culture' was held in Vienna and its results will be summarized in the form of an IAEA-TECDOC which is now in the final stage of preparation. In addition to the implementation of five Co-ordinated Research Projects, nine workshops and national or regional

  11. Issues and perspectives in dairy sheep breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierlorenzo Secchiari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review consists of two parts. In the first part, the authors briefly describe the state of the art of breedingprogrammes for Italian dairy sheep; then they report new models for genetic evaluation and consider the problem ofgenotype x environment interaction and the impact of farming systems on the genetic merit of animals. In the secondpart new breeding goals regarding the evolution of milk quality concept and the increasing importance of functional traitsare reported. Regarding milk quality, the authors especially focus on the traits related to cheese-making ability and onthe nutraceutical aspects of milk. Among functional traits, resistance to diseases (mastitis and Scrapie has been highlightedfor its great importance in livestock species. Finally, the perspectives of marker-assisted selection have also beenreported.

  12. Current trends in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalani, B.S.; Rajanaidu, N.

    2000-01-01

    The current world population is 6 billion and it is likely to reach 7 billion in 2010 and 8 billion 2025. Sufficient food must be produced for the ever increasing human population. The available suitable land for intensive agriculture is limited. We have to produce more food from less land, pesticide, labour and water resources. Hence, increase in crop productivity are essential to feed the world in the next century. Plant breeding provides the avenue to increase the food production to feed the growing world population. Development of a cultivar involves (I) Construction of a genetic model (II) creating a gene pool (III) selection among plants and (IV) testing the selected genotypes for adaptation to the biotic and abiotic environments (Frey, 1999). This paper discusses the trends in plant breeding using the oil palm as a model. It covers (i) genetic resources (ii) physiological traits (III) exploitation of genotype x environment interaction (IV) oil palm clones, and (v) biotechnology application. (Author)

  13. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailer Frank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This newsletter contains short descriptions of research methods for the use of radiation to induce mutations and facilitate plant breeding. This method is used to develop species of plants that can survive in harsh climates and thus provide a food supply for humans and animals. Some of the mutants discussed include a salt tolerant barley, a disease resistant shrub, a cold tolerant chickpea, a highly productive Canavalia virosa and productive tomato. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This issue contains a number of contributions from readers describing experiments in plant breeding (the individual items are indexed separately) and a report on the 30th Gamma-Field Symposium held in Tsukuba, Japan in July 1991. Also included is a list of officially released mutant varieties of seed-propagated crops taken from the FAO/IAEA database of mutant varieties. It is planned to organize a database on available crop plant mutant variety germplasm collections. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Genomic selection in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mark A; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a method to predict the genetic value of selection candidates based on the genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) predicted from high-density markers positioned throughout the genome. Unlike marker-assisted selection, the GEBV is based on all markers including both minor and major marker effects. Thus, the GEBV may capture more of the genetic variation for the particular trait under selection.

  17. fat-tailed sheep breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barresi-e asar-e sen va Jens barehay-e zel- e mazanderan bar tavan-e parvari va khosusiat-e lasheh (Study of age and sex effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Mazanderan Zel sheep breed) pajuhesh va sazandegi 37, 97-. 99 (in Persian). McClinton, O.W. & Carson, A.F., 2000. Growth and carcass ...

  18. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa's smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamushamba, G B; Mapiye, C; Tada, O; Halimani, T E; Muchenje, V

    2017-05-01

    The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.

  19. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa’s smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Nyamushamba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.

  20. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  1. Development of breeding materials in rice by use of induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Etsuo

    1988-01-01

    On this 25th Gamma Field Symposium, it may be worth while to review the world situation of mutation breeding, the possibility expected to mutation methods suggested by the ever progressing genetics in rice plant, and some of the activities in the Institute of Radiation Breeding. By the help of a small computer, the key word search analysis of 'Mutation Breeding Newsletter and Mutation Breeding Review' was tried, and the results are included in this review to see the present status. The studies on artificially induced mutation suggested that the possibility of dominant mutation is less. It might be probable that the inactivation of genes is the mechanism of mutation. Still the possibility of using mutation breeding techniques for many genetic characters was suggested. After the experience for 25 years, detailed genetical and fine structure analyses became important. The studies on the expression of mutant phenotypes including molecular genetics will help to develop radiation breeding into an effective means to enrich the genetic resources for breeding. The situation in the world, the genes reported in rice, the possibility to induce useful mutants against environmental stress, the mutation in the protein content in grains, the mutants of storage carbohydrate, the possibility to widen gene resources and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. The GCP molecular marker toolkit, an instrument for use in breeding food security crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Veerle; Gómez-Paniagua, Humberto; de Vicente, M Carmen

    2011-12-01

    Crop genetic resources carry variation useful for overcoming the challenges of modern agriculture. Molecular markers can facilitate the selection of agronomically important traits. The pervasiveness of genomics research has led to an overwhelming number of publications and databases, which are, nevertheless, scattered and hence often difficult for plant breeders to access, particularly those in developing countries. This situation separates them from developed countries, which have better endowed programs for developing varieties. To close this growing knowledge gap, we conducted an intensive literature review and consulted with more than 150 crop experts on the use of molecular markers in the breeding program of 19 food security crops. The result was a list of effectively used and highly reproducible sequence tagged site (STS), simple sequence repeat (SSR), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), and sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. However, only 12 food crops had molecular markers suitable for improvement. That is, marker-assisted selection is not yet used for Musa spp., coconut, lentils, millets, pigeonpea, sweet potato, and yam. For the other 12 crops, 214 molecular markers were found to be effectively used in association with 74 different traits. Results were compiled as the GCP Molecular Marker Toolkit, a free online tool that aims to promote the adoption of molecular approaches in breeding activities.

  3. A review of transcranial magnetic stimulation and multimodal neuroimaging to characterize post-stroke neuroplasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Michelle Auriat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Following stroke, the brain undergoes various stages of recovery where the central nervous system can reorganize neural circuitry (neuroplasticity both spontaneously and with the aid of behavioural rehabilitation and non-invasive brain stimulation. Multiple neuroimaging techniques can characterize common structural and functional stroke-related deficits, and importantly, help predict recovery of function. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI typically reveals increased overall diffusivity throughout the brain following stroke, and is capable of indexing the extent of white matter damage. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS provides an index of metabolic changes in surviving neural tissue after stroke, serving as a marker of brain function. The neural correlates of altered brain activity after stroke have been demonstrated by abnormal activation of sensorimotor cortices during task performance, and at rest, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Electroencephalography (EEG has been used to characterize motor dysfunction in terms of increased cortical amplitude in the sensorimotor regions when performing upper-limb movement, indicating abnormally increased cognitive effort and planning in individuals with stroke. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS work reveals changes in ipsilesional and contralesional cortical excitability in the sensorimotor cortices. The severity of motor deficits indexed using TMS has been linked to the magnitude of activity imbalance between the sensorimotor cortices. In this paper we will provide a narrative review of data from studies utilizing DTI, MRS, fMRI, EEG and brain stimulation techniques focusing on TMS and its combination with uni and multi-modal neuroimaging methods to assess recovery after stroke. Approaches that delineate the best measures with which to predict or positively alter outcomes will be highlighted.

  4. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: rationale and methodology for Argonne-conducted reviews of site characterization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Ditmars, J.D.; Tisue, M.W.; Hambley, D.F.; Fenster, D.F.; Rote, D.M.

    1985-07-01

    Both regulatory and technical concerns must be addressed in Argonne-conducted peer reviews of site characterization programs for individual sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository in salt. This report describes the regulatory framework within which reviews must be conducted and presents background information on the structure and purpose of site characterization programs as found in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 4.17 and Title 10, Part 60, of the Code of Federal Regulations. It also presents a methodology to assist reviewers in addressing technical concerns relating to their respective areas of expertise. The methodology concentrates on elements of prime importance to the US Department of Energy's advocacy of a given salt repository system during the NRC licensing process. Instructions are given for reviewing 12 site characterization program elements, starting with performance objectives, performance issues, and levels of performance of repository subsystem components; progressing through performance assessment; and ending with plans for data acquisition and evaluation. The success of a site characterization program in resolving repository performance issues will be determined by judging the likelihood that the proposed data acquisition activities will reduce uncertainties in the performance predictions. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Genomic selection needs to be carefully assessed to meet specific requirements in livestock breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eJonas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection is a promising development in agriculture, aiming improved production by exploiting molecular genetic markers to design novel breeding programs and to develop new markers-based models for genetic evaluation. It opens opportunities for research, as novel algorithms and lab methodologies are developed. Genomic selection can be applied in many breeds and species. Further research on the implementation of genomic selection in breeding programs is highly desirable not only for the common good, but also the private sector (breeding companies. It has been projected that this approach will improve selection routines, especially in species with long reproduction cycles, late or sex-limited or expensive trait recording and for complex traits. The task of integrating genomic selection into existing breeding programs is, however, not straightforward. Despite successful integration into breeding programs for dairy cattle, it has yet to be shown how much emphasis can be given to the genomic information and how much additional phenotypic information is needed from new selection candidates. Genomic selection is already part of future planning in many breeding companies of pigs and beef cattle among others, but further research is needed to fully estimate how effective the use of genomic information will be for the prediction of the performance of future breeding stock. Genomic prediction of production in crossbreeding and across-breed schemes, costs and choice of individuals for genotyping are reasons for a reluctance to fully rely on genomic information for selection decisions. Breeding objectives are highly dependent on the industry and the additional gain when using genomic information has to be considered carefully. This review synthesizes some of the suggested approaches in selected livestock species including cattle, pig, chicken and fish. It outlines tasks to help understanding possible consequences when applying genomic information in

  6. BREEDING AND UTILIZATION OF ARABIAN HORSE TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Arab horse raising has a hundred year old tradition. A real stud farm raising started by purchasing original reproductive material from Asia in 1895, 1897 and 1899. Apart from state stud in Goražde, Arab horse was also raised in several private stud farms, especially in Slavonia and Srijem region. By the end of the II World war Arab horse raising was restricted to only 2-3 stud farms, regardless the above mentioned oldest Arab stud farm Goražde. According to reports refering to end of 1940 in former Yugoslavia there were slightly more than 150 grown up thoroughbred Arab heads, stallions and mares in both private and public property. A number of well known stud farms was reduced, thus, Arab horse raising was limited only to stud farms Goražde, Inocens Dvor and Karađorđevo. Sires were mostly used in Bosnian-mountain horse breeding whereas in plain areas they were used for ceossing with heavy draft mares or raising of, in that time numerous represented, nonius breed. The year 1970 was characterized by Arab horses reduction, thereby raising stagnation. Horse raising was closed, so, 77 Sabich stallion, bought in Germany, started again Arab horse raising, firstly in Goražde. It was also attributed by raising establishment of agricultural economy Višnjica near Slatina. At the same time Arab horse raising increased slowly at individual raisers in Kutina, Vrbovsko, Istria, Čađavica and Zagreb vicinity. According to available data from 1999 there were approx. 132 stallions and mares due to horse raisers scattered throught Croatia. All male and female reproductive heads were mostly used as raising heads for thoroughbred raising or for crossing with other breeds which is justified by the data from the period 1930-1935. On the other hand one part of reproductive heads, especially males, were used as sports heads for gallop races and distance riding as Arab horses were used by their arrival to present areas and by Arab horse raising tradition.

  7. RESULTS AND PROSPECTS OF PEA BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Kotlyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the laboratory of leguminous crops of the “All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of vegetable breeding and seed production”, more than 100 samples of pea are studied annually. As a result, pre-breeding collection of the sources of agronomical valuable traits was developed. It is utilized for development of new pea varieties resistant to lodging. In 2012- 2014, the crossing were conducted. As a result of selection in F2-F6, the lines of different groups of maturity with lodging resistance were selected. These transgressing forms are suitable for canning, deep freezing, and drying. The following samples are recommended for development of high yielded varieties: «102- 82А5Б4» is the middle-early variety, the progenitor of early ripening cv. «Korsar» applied for the state variety trial in 2015 and two promising samples «15 КСИ 15» and «9 КСИ». The «16-05» is the middle-early variety, the transgressive form for the trait «seed amount per nod» with high attachment of lower bean. The sample «K-8915» is the middle-early genotype, high productive, with high attachment of lower bean. The sample «Troyika» is recommended for development of high productive, late ripening initial breeding material. As a result of step crossing this sample is characterized by late maturity, by three bean per nod, and by high attaching of lower bean. The sample «CM-10 m» is distinct in the aphyllous type of leaf, resistance to powdery mildew, paired bean, suitable for canning and drying. This sample was selected as a transgressive form for stem anatomy structure (spongy cell tissue from sample developed by complex step hybridization. Owing the distinctive feature in the stem anatomy structure, this sample can be recommended as a main parental form for development of varieties resistant to lodging.

  8. Genomic-based-breeding tools for tropical maize improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakradhar, Thammineni; Hindu, Vemuri; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar

    2017-12-01

    Maize has traditionally been the main staple diet in the Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and widely grown by millions of resource poor small scale farmers. Approximately, 35.4 million hectares are sown to tropical maize, constituting around 59% of the developing worlds. Tropical maize encounters tremendous challenges besides poor agro-climatic situations with average yields recorded <3 tones/hectare that is far less than the average of developed countries. On the contrary to poor yields, the demand for maize as food, feed, and fuel is continuously increasing in these regions. Heterosis breeding introduced in early 90 s improved maize yields significantly, but genetic gains is still a mirage, particularly for crop growing under marginal environments. Application of molecular markers has accelerated the pace of maize breeding to some extent. The availability of array of sequencing and genotyping technologies offers unrivalled service to improve precision in maize-breeding programs through modern approaches such as genomic selection, genome-wide association studies, bulk segregant analysis-based sequencing approaches, etc. Superior alleles underlying complex traits can easily be identified and introgressed efficiently using these sequence-based approaches. Integration of genomic tools and techniques with advanced genetic resources such as nested association mapping and backcross nested association mapping could certainly address the genetic issues in maize improvement programs in developing countries. Huge diversity in tropical maize and its inherent capacity for doubled haploid technology offers advantage to apply the next generation genomic tools for accelerating production in marginal environments of tropical and subtropical world. Precision in phenotyping is the key for success of any molecular-breeding approach. This article reviews genomic technologies and their application to improve agronomic traits in tropical maize breeding has been reviewed in

  9. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blasco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selection is not exhausting genetic variability (there are several experiments showing that, and genetic variability within breeds is large. We need reasons to keep breeds in danger in extinction. A breed is a tool, and we can decide to keep it when it is useful because it is specially adapted to some environments (although in this case it should not be in danger of extinction, it can be useful in crossbreeding to shorten the way of obtaining response to selection, or it has some extreme values for traits that may be useful in the future (in this case we have to define clearly which traits and how we expect the future to be. We can add cultural reasons when we have money enough to spend in culture.

  10. Evaluation of the conformation of stallions of selected horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Petlachová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the conformation of stallions of the breeds American Quarter Horse (AQH, American Paint Horse (APH, Appaloosa (Appa, the Lipizzaner horse (LH and the Old Kladruby horse (OKH. Representatives of these breeds are characterized as the descendants of horses on the base of the Arab-Berber blood. Western breeds (AQH, APH, Appa due to different environmental conditions, nutrition and the other structure under the influence of a different type of use, type of riding demands differed considerably from the original Spanish-type horses. It was measured a total of 24 body dimensions. Representatives of The American western breeds are statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 in 23 of the 24 observed effects. To be precise, they are: smaller wither height as measured by stick, lower at the tail-set, longer neck, narrower chest, longer oblique body length, wider front pelvis length, longer pelvis bones, longer femur bones, shorter hind cannons.A statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 was found in the length of the humerus, where the Old Kladruby Horse has a humerus that is longer by 2.34 cm than that of the APH. The Lipizzaner horse differs statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 from the Appaloosa and Old Kladruby horse in the tape length of its head.

  11. Developing a typology for local cattle breed farmers in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, K; Diaz, C; Gandini, G; de Haas, Y; Lilja, T; Martin-Collado, D; Pizzi, F; Hiemstra, S J

    2012-12-01

    Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six European countries, a typology of local breed farmers was designed and profiles for each of the farmer types were developed to assist these policy needs. Three main farmer types were constructed: production-oriented, product and service-oriented and hobby-oriented farmers. In addition, seven subtypes were characterized under the main types: sustainable producers, opportunists, multi-users, brand makers, traditionalists, pragmatists and newcomers. These types have many similarities to the 'productivist', 'multifunctional' and 'post-productivist' farmer types. The typology not only reveals the high level of diversity among local cattle breed farmers in Europe, which presents an opportunity for the in situ conservation of animal genetic resources, but also a challenge for policy to meet the differing requirements of the farmer types. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Research on the Morphological Characteristics Variability of Three Horse Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Cătălin Prisacaru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the characterization of some morphological parameters of some horse population improvedwith stallion of Arab, Hucul and English thoroughbred breeds. The biological material was represented by thestallions belonging to the three breeds and the population improved with them. Measurements have been made inorder to determine the height at withers, oblique length of the trunk, cannon girth and weight. The height at witherspresented smaller dimensions at the Arab and English thoroughbred breeds and at the Hucul breed the stallions had aheight at withers of 140 cm and the improved population 143.80 cm. Oblique length of the trunk presented valuesslightly lower at the improved horses in comparison with the stallions used at mount. The English thoroughbredpresented a value of 21.50 cm of the cannon girth at the improved population in comparison with the value of 19.5cm obtained at the mount stallions. The weight has been lower at the improved populations than the one of thestallions. Most of the morphological characteristics of the improved population are close to the ones if the stallionsused at mount.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization, Uses and Applications of Porous Clays Heterostructures: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecilia, J A; García-Sancho, C; Vilarrasa-García, E; Jiménez-Jiménez, J; Rodriguez-Castellón, E

    2018-02-27

    Porous clay heterostructures (PCH) are obtained by the insertion of an organic bulky cation in the interlayer spacing of a smectite, causing a swelling of the clay mineral. Right after, oxides species, mainly silicon oxide, are incorporated as pillars galleries between adjacent layers to form a porous structure after the removal of the template. The ordering of the clay mineral as well the organic cation incorporated in the synthetic step favors the modulation of the textural properties of the PCH. In addition, the incorporation of heteroatoms in the pillars galleries can also modulate the acidity of the PCH. The modulation of the pore size and the acid properties provides to these materials a wide range of applications in the fields of adsorption and catalysis. This paper carries out a detailed review of the synthesis of PCH, characterization as well as uses and application reported in the literature. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Characterization of Plant Peroxidases and Their Potential for Degradation of Dyes: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsoom, Umme; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Asgher, Muhammad

    2015-07-01

    Peroxidases are ubiquitously found in all vascular plants and are promising biocatalysts for oxidization of wide range of aromatic substrates including various industrial dyes. Peroxidases can catalyze degradation of chemical structure of aromatic dyes either by precipitation or by opening the aromatic ring structure. Both soluble and immobilized peroxidases have been successfully used in batches as well as in continuous processes for the treatment of aromatic dyes present in industrial effluents. Plant peroxidases are stable catalysts that retain their activities over a broad range of pH and temperatures. The performance of an enzyme for degradation process depends upon the structure of dyes and the operational parameters like concentration of enzyme, H2O2 and dye, incubation time, pH, and temperature. Recalcitrant dyes can also be mineralized by plant peroxidases in the presence of redox mediators. Thus, plant peroxidases are easily available, inexpensive, and ecofriendly biocatalysts for the treatment of wastewaters containing a wide spectrum of textile and non-textile synthetic dyes. This article reviews the recent developments in isolation and characterization of plant peroxidases and their applications for bioremediation of synthetic dyes.

  15. Antimicrobial N-halamine polymers and coatings: a review of their synthesis, characterization, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Franck; Debiemme-Chouvy, Catherine

    2013-03-11

    Antimicrobial N-halamine polymers and coatings have been studied extensively over the past decade thanks to their numerous qualities such as effectiveness toward a broad spectrum of microorganisms, long-term stability, regenerability, safety to humans and environment and low cost. In this review, recent developments are described by emphasizing the synthesis of polymers and/or coatings having N-halamine moieties. Actually, three main approaches of preparation are given in detail: polymerization, generation by electrochemical route with proteins as monomers and grafting with precursor monomers. Identification and characterization of the formation of the N-halamine bonds (>N-X with X = Cl or Br or I) by physical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and by chemical reactions are described. In order to check the antimicrobial activity of the N-halamine compounds, bacterial tests are also described. Finally, some examples of application of these N-halamines in the water treatment, paints, healthcare equipment, and textile industries are presented and discussed.

  16. Honeydew Honeys: A Review on the Characterization and Authentication of Botanical and Geographical Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita-Calvo, Consuelo; Vázquez, Manuel

    2018-03-21

    The commercial interest in honeydew honeys (from the secretions of plants or the excretions of plant-sucking insects found on plants) is increasing because of their higher therapeutic properties compared with those of most blossom honeys (from nectar). However, honeydew honeys have been less studied than blossom honeys. In this work, studies carried out to characterize and authenticate honeydew honeys by their botanical and geographical origins have been reviewed. The identification of honey origins has been approached by two ways: by the analysis of chemical markers and by the development of analytical methodologies combined with multivariate analyses. Some compounds have been suggested as specific botanical markers of several honeydew honeys, such as quercitol and trans-oak lactone for oak honey, 2-aminoacetophenone and propylanisol for holm oak honey, and 1-chloro-octane and tridecane for pine honey. The presence of 3-carene and an unidentified compound in samples was proposed as a way discriminate between Greek and Turkish pine honeys. Chemometric analyses have been applied on chemical compositions and on physicochemical, microscopic, and spectral parameters and have proved to be valuable methods for authenticating honeydew honeys. Analytical methods based on spectral information are suitable for the routine control of honeydew-honey origins because they are fast and require easy sample preparations.

  17. Characterizing the Intestinal Microbiome in Infantile Colic: Findings Based on an Integrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Nancy E; Gregory, Katherine E

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 20% of newborns will develop symptoms of infantile colic starting around 2 weeks of age. While health care providers have a greater understanding of the impact that inconsolable crying has on family dynamics, maternal-infant bonding, and health care resources, opportunities for study still exist in the area of intestinal microbiome research. Advances in molecular technologies utilizing 16S ribosomal RNA and ribosomal DNA created the opportunity for researchers to index the intestinal microbial composition to better understand its association with infantile colic. This integrative review provides a synopsis of the findings from five recent studies that utilized nonculture-based approaches to characterize the intestinal microbiome of infants with colic. Articles were identified through PubMed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar using the search terms colic, crying, fussiness, microbiome, and microbiota. The general aim of the research studies was to better understand the potential association of intestinal dysbiosis with the development of colic symptoms. The research found that infants who expressed symptoms of colic were colonized with significantly higher levels of Proteobacteria and exhibited lower bacterial diversity when compared to their unaffected counterparts. Additionally, colonization levels of Actinobacteria Bifidobacterium and Firmicute Lactobacilli were inversely related to the amount of crying and fussiness in newborns. The observed association of an imbalanced colonization of the intestines by noncommensal bacteria with the expression of infantile colic symptoms warrants further exploration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. A review on syntheses, properties, characterization and bioanalytical applications of fluorescent carbon dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Pengli; Lu, Xiuhua; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Yuhan; He, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dots (C-dots) are a kind of fluorescent nanoparticles that are strongly fluorescent, non-blinking, and can be easily synthesized at low cost. Their emission color can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelength. Their properties make them strong competitors to semiconductor quantum dots. Synthetic approaches for C-dots can be classified into two categories, viz. top-down and bottom-up methods. Surface passivated and functionalized C-dots can be utilized to sense pH values, metal ions and organic molecules. Owing to their low cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and impressive photostability, long-term observations become possible. C-dots also show promise as labels and for bioimaging. This review (with 142 refs.) is divided into several sections. The first covers commonly used methods for preparation of C-dots including laser ablation, arc discharge, electrochemical methods, pyrolytic processes, template based methods, microwave assisted methods, chemical oxidation methods, reverse micelle based methods, etc. The first section also covers methods for surface functionalization and passivation. We continue by discussing the spectroscopic properties and other physical and chemical properties of C-dots (fluorescence, up-conversion fluorescence, methods for enhancing photoluminescence, effects of pH value, cytotoxicity, etc.). Another section covers the characterization including TEM and XRD. Applications in biology are summarized and subdivided into in vitro imaging, in vivo imaging, chemical probe, quantitation of biomacromolecules, but also in drug delivery, photoacoustic imaging and anticancer therapy. We finally discuss current challenges and perspectives in this promising field. (author)

  19. Indium nitride (InN): A review on growth, characterization, and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Ashraful Ghani; Hashimoto, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Akio

    2003-09-01

    During the last few years the interest in the indium nitride (InN) semiconductor has been remarkable. There have been significant improvements in the growth of InN films. High quality single crystalline InN film with two-dimensional growth and high growth rate are now routinely obtained. The background carrier concentration and Hall mobility have also improved. Observation of strong photoluminescence near the band edge is reported very recently, leading to conflicts concerning the exact band gap of InN. Attempts have also been made on the deposition of InN based heterostructures for the fabrication of InN based electronic devices. Preliminary evidence of two-dimensional electron gas accumulation in the InN and studies on InN-based field-effect transistor structure are reported. In this article, the work accomplished in the InN research, from its evolution to till now, is reviewed. The In containing alloys or other nitrides (AlGaInN, GaN, AlN) are not discussed here. We mainly concentrate on the growth, characterization, and recent developments in InN research. The most popular growth techniques, metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy, are discussed in detail with their recent progress. Important phenomena in the epitaxial growth of InN as well as the problems remaining for future study are also discussed.

  20. A Review of the Multilevel Slug Test for Characterizing Aquifer Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Shyun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All aquifers are heterogeneous to a certain degree. The spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity K(x, y, z, or aquifer heterogeneity, significantly influences the groundwater flow movement and associated solute transport. Of particular importance in designing an in-situ remediation plan is a knowledge of low-K layers because they are less accessible to remedial agents and form a bottleneck in remediation. The characterization of aquifer heterogeneity is essential to the solution of many practical and scientific groundwater problems. This article reviews the field technique using the multilevel slug test (MLST, which determines a series of K estimates at depths of interest in a well by making use of a double-packer system. The K(z obtained manifests the vertical variation of hydraulic conductivity in the vicinity of the test well, and the combination of K(z from different wells gives rise to a three-dimensional description of K(x, y, z. The MLST response is rather sensitive to hydraulic conductivity variation; e.g., it is oscillatory for highly permeable conditions (K > 5 × 10-4 m s-1 and a nonoscillatory for K < 5 × 10-4 m s-1. In this article we discuss the instrumentation of the double-packer system, the implementation of the depth-specific slug test, the data analysis methods for a spectrum of response characteristics usually observed in the field, and field applications of the MLST.

  1. Activated sludge characterization through microscopy: A review on quantitative image analysis and chemometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Daniela P. [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Amaral, A. Luís [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Ferreira, Eugénio C., E-mail: ecferreira@deb.uminho.pt [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2013-11-13

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Quantitative image analysis shows potential to monitor activated sludge systems. •Staining techniques increase the potential for detection of operational problems. •Chemometrics combined with quantitative image analysis is valuable for process monitoring. -- Abstract: In wastewater treatment processes, and particularly in activated sludge systems, efficiency is quite dependent on the operating conditions, and a number of problems may arise due to sludge structure and proliferation of specific microorganisms. In fact, bacterial communities and protozoa identification by microscopy inspection is already routinely employed in a considerable number of cases. Furthermore, quantitative image analysis techniques have been increasingly used throughout the years for the assessment of aggregates and filamentous bacteria properties. These procedures are able to provide an ever growing amount of data for wastewater treatment processes in which chemometric techniques can be a valuable tool. However, the determination of microbial communities’ properties remains a current challenge in spite of the great diversity of microscopy techniques applied. In this review, activated sludge characterization is discussed highlighting the aggregates structure and filamentous bacteria determination by image analysis on bright-field, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. An in-depth analysis is performed to summarize the many new findings that have been obtained, and future developments for these biological processes are further discussed.

  2. Epitaxial Graphene on SiC: A Review of Growth and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Yazdi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to one of the most promising two-dimensional (2D materials, graphene. Graphene can be prepared by different methods and the one discussed here is fabricated by the thermal decomposition of SiC. The aim of the paper is to overview the fabrication aspects, growth mechanisms, and structural and electronic properties of graphene on SiC and the means of their assessment. Starting from historical aspects, it is shown that the most optimal conditions resulting in a large area of one ML graphene comprise high temperature and argon ambience, which allow better controllability and reproducibility of the graphene quality. Elemental intercalation as a means to overcome the problem of substrate influence on graphene carrier mobility has been described. The most common characterization techniques used are low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM, angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM in different modes, Hall measurements, etc. The main results point to the applicability of graphene on SiC in quantum metrology, and the understanding of new physics and growth phenomena of 2D materials and devices.

  3. Oral controlled release drug delivery system and Characterization of oral tablets; A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral route of drug administration is considered as the safest and easiest route of drug administration. Control release drug delivery system is the emerging trend in the pharmaceuticals and the oral route is most suitable for such kind of drug delivery system. Oral route is more convenient for It all age group including both pediatric and geriatrics. There are various systems which are adopted to deliver drug in a controlled manner to different target sites through oral route. It includes diffusion controlled drug delivery systems; dissolution controlled drug delivery systems, osmotically controlled drug delivery systems, ion-exchange controlled drug delivery systems, hydrodynamically balanced systems, multi-Particulate drug delivery systems and microencapsulated drug delivery system. The systems are formulated using different natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic polymers. The purpose of the review is to provide information about the orally controlled drug delivery system, polymers which are used to formulate these systems and characterizations of one of the most convenient dosage form which is the tablets. 

  4. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  5. Congruence between selection on breeding values and farmers' selection criteria in sheep breeding under conventional nucleus breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; Getachew, T; Tibbo, M; Haile, A; Dessie, T

    2011-05-01

    Designing breeding schemes suitable for smallholder livestock production systems in developing regions has hitherto been a challenge. The suggested schemes either do not address farmers' breeding goals (centralized station-based nucleus schemes) or yield slow genetic progress (village-based schemes). A new breeding scheme that integrates the merits of previously suggested schemes has been designed for Menz sheep improvement in Ethiopia. It involves selection based on breeding values in nucleus flocks to produce elite rams, a one-time only provision of improved rams to villagers and a follow-up village-based selection to sustain genetic progress in village flocks. Here, we assessed whether conventional selection of breeding rams based on breeding values for production traits, which is the practice in station-based nucleus flocks, meets farmers' breeding objectives. We also elicited determinants of farmers' ram choice. Low but significant correlations were found between rankings of rams based on farmers' selection criteria, estimated breeding values (EBV) and body weight (BW). Appearance traits (such as color and horn) and meat production traits (BW and linear size traits) significantly determined farmers' breeding ram choice. The results imply that conventional selection criteria based solely on EBV for production traits do not address farmers' trait preferences fully, but only partially. Thus, a two-stage selection procedure involving selection on breeding values in nucleus centers followed by farmers' selection among top- ranking candidate rams is recommended. This approach accommodates farmers' preferences and speeds up genetic progress in village-based selection. The Menz sheep scheme could be applied elsewhere with similar situations to transform conventional station-based nucleus breeding activities into participatory breeding programs.

  6. Stay-green: a potentiality in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Souza Luche

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the new demands of the global agricultural scenario, the search for more productive, efficient and stress adapted genotypes has attracted attention of plant breeders regarding plants with improved physiological characteristics. Therefore, the stay-green trait has taken proeminence as an important strategy to overcome the current yield plateaus allied with yield adaptability and stability. This review has aimed to bring light the main aspects of the stay-green character, showing their employment potential of plant breeding.

  7. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  8. The bald and the beautiful: hairlessness in domestic dog breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alexander; Dreger, Dayna L.; Davis, Brian W.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2017-01-01

    An extraordinary amount of genomic variation is contained within the chromosomes of domestic dogs, manifesting as dramatic differences in morphology, behaviour and disease susceptibility. Morphology, in particular, has been a topic of enormous interest as biologists struggle to understand the small window of dog domestication from wolves, and the division of dogs into pure breeding, closed populations termed breeds. Many traits related to morphology, including body size, leg length and skull shape, have been under selection as part of the standard descriptions for the nearly 400 breeds recognized worldwide. Just as important, however, are the minor traits that have undergone selection by fanciers and breeders to define dogs of a particular appearance, such as tail length, ear position, back arch and variation in fur (pelage) growth patterns. In this paper, we both review and present new data for traits associated with pelage including fur length, curl, growth, shedding and even the presence or absence of fur. Finally, we report the discovery of a new gene associated with the absence of coat in the American Hairless Terrier breed. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity’. PMID:27994129

  9. Genomic tools in pea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim eTAYEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22-25 percent protein, complex starch and fibre constituents and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tonnes produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel’s experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress towards deciphering the pea genome.

  10. Molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates of horse breeding farms from an endemic region in South of Brazil by multiplex PCR PCR multiplex para caracterização molecular de isolados de Rhodococcus equi provenientes de haras de uma região endêmica no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina da Costa Krewer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi is a gram-positive coco-bacillus and an intracellular opportunistic pathogen which causes pneumonia in foals. It is widely detected in environment and has been isolated from several sources, as soil, feces and gut from health and sick foals. The goal of this study was to characterize the epidemiological status (endemic, sporadic or no infection of horse breeding farms from Bage County in South of Brazil, using a multiplex PCR. One hundred and eighteen R. equi isolates were identified by biochemical tests and submitted to a specie-specific and vapA multiplex PCR. These isolates were obtained from: three farms where the R. equi infection has been noticed, two farms where the disease has been not reported and one farm where the disease is frequent. All clinical isolates from horse breeding farms where the disease is endemic and/or sporadic were vapA-positive. None environmental isolates were vapA-positive. In three horse breeding farms with sporadic R. equi infection, 11.54% of the isolates from adult horse feces were vapA-positive. The multiplex PCR technique has proven to be effective for the molecular and epidemiological characterization of the R. equi isolates in horse breeding farms. An important finding in this study was the isolation of vapA-positive R. equi from adult horse feces, which is an evidence for other routes of dissemination of this pathogen in the farms.Rhodococcus equi é um coco-bacilo gram positivo que causa pneumonia em potros. Trata-se de um patógeno oportunista amplamente detectado no ambiente e isolado de várias fontes, como solo, fezes e intestino de potros doentes e sadios. O presente estudo visa caracterizar a situação epidemiológica de criatórios eqüinos da região de Bagé, RS, Brasil, pela técnica de PCR multiplex. Cento e dezoito isolados de R. equi foram identificados por testes bioquímicos e, posteriormente, submetidos a um PCR multiplex para caracterização da espécie e da presença do

  11. Breeding of speciality maize for industrial purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Zorica; Radosavljević Milica; Filipović Milomir; Todorović Goran; Srdić Jelena; Pavlov Milovan

    2010-01-01

    The breeding programme on speciality maize with specific traits was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, several decades ago. The initial material was collected, new methods applying to breeding of speciality maize, i.e. popping maize, sweet maize and white-seeded maize, were introduced. The aim was to enhance and improve variability of the initial material for breeding these three types of maize. Then, inbred lines of good combining abilities were developed and used as c...

  12. Use of induced mutations in soybean breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakri, A.H.; Jalani, B.S.; Ng, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Artificial induction of mutation in plants is carried out using #betta#-irradiation and ethyl metanesulphonate (EMS) to expand the genetic variability of locally-grown soybean. This aspect of mutation breeding complements of conventional breeding approach undertaken by the Joint Malaysia Soybean Breeding Project group. Recovery of agronomically-important mutants such as earliness, lateness, bigger seed size and improved plant architecture were recorded. The significance of these findings is discussed. (author)

  13. The Power of CRISPR-Cas9-Induced Genome Editing to Speed Up Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieu X. Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome editing with engineered nucleases enabling site-directed sequence modifications bears a great potential for advanced plant breeding and crop protection. Remarkably, the RNA-guided endonuclease technology (RGEN based on the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9 is an extremely powerful and easy tool that revolutionizes both basic research and plant breeding. Here, we review the major technical advances and recent applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for manipulation of model and crop plant genomes. We also discuss the future prospects of this technology in molecular plant breeding.

  14. The Power of CRISPR-Cas9-Induced Genome Editing to Speed Up Plant Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqin; Le, Hien T. T.

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing with engineered nucleases enabling site-directed sequence modifications bears a great potential for advanced plant breeding and crop protection. Remarkably, the RNA-guided endonuclease technology (RGEN) based on the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) is an extremely powerful and easy tool that revolutionizes both basic research and plant breeding. Here, we review the major technical advances and recent applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for manipulation of model and crop plant genomes. We also discuss the future prospects of this technology in molecular plant breeding. PMID:28097123

  15. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  16. Guidelines for success in mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshua, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    There is renewed interest to induce mutations and to use them in plant breeding for crop improvement. But, often the projects on mutation breeding remain incomplete without achieving the desired specific objectives. A thorough knowledge of the various aspects of this technology is imperative to benefit from these experiments. With this in view, the essential basic information regarding mutagens, their mode of action, mutagenic treatment, sample size, handling the M 1 and M 2 generations, screening the mutants and their use in basic and applied fields are dealt with in this paper. This is meant to help those who are entering this field of plant breeding without previous experience in mutation breeding. (author)

  17. Application of molecular techniques to crop mutation breeding in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Duy Quy [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Tuliem, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2002-02-01

    The molecular markers have been effectively applied in mutation breeding, recently. The studies have been mainly looked for the differences at genome structure level between original variety and mutant lines. Many genes have been identified and tagged with various kinds of molecular markers. Studies on gene tagging can provide the information on the number of genes controlling characters and the map location of those genes. The mapped genes have been used to pyramid into crops via marker aided selection (MAS). Many genes were cloned from different creatures, some genes controlling good agronomic traits. In Vietnam, many crops have been released and popularly grown by the farmers, via mutation breeding. However, almost all of the mutation breeding varieties only selected based on morphological parameters which much depended on the environmental conditions, plant physiological status and stage of gene expression. In order to resolve the limitations when using traditional methods, we have planned to apply the molecular techniques to characterize the mutant genotypes obtained in mutation breeding. In this study, we carried out to analyze mutant genotypes of soybean, green pea and map TGMS gene in mutant rice line using molecular techniques. Three markers were mainly used to comprise RFLP, AFLP, and RAPD. RFLP and AFLP markers were used to map TGMS gene that located in genome of the TGMS-1 mutant rice line, and RAPD markers helped to analyze the mutant genome of soybean and green pea lines. Based on the result of study, we concluded that the TGMS gene located on chromosome 2. Application of molecular markers to crop breeding is a necessary and effective approach in Vietnam. (M. Suetake)

  18. An international peer review of the biosphere modelling programme of the US Department of Energy's Yucca mountain site characterization project. Report of the IAEA International Review Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has a project for characterizing the site of a facility for disposing of radioactive waste located at Yucca Mountain Nevada, USA (the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project). This Project has developed an approach for assessing the future potential impact of any releases of radionuclides to the biosphere from a potential disposal facility sited at Yucca Mountain The DOE requested the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to organize an independent international expert review of the assessment methodology being used in its biosphere modelling programme. The IAEA accepted the request in the context of its statutory obligation to provide for the application of its established international standards of safety for the protection of health, at the request of a State, to any of that State's activities in the field of atomic energy. The terms of reference of the peer review were to review the biosphere assessment methodology being used for the total system performance assessment of the potential disposal facility. The main purpose was to analyze critically the proposed rationale and methodology and to identify consistencies and inconsistencies between methods being used in the frame of the Project and those established in international standards or in international programmes such as the IAEA's Biosphere Modelling and Assessment Programme (BIOMASS). This report presents the consensus view of the international experts convened by the IAEA for carrying out the review

  19. Molecular genetic analysis of a cattle population to reconstitute the extinct Algarvia breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel-Figueiredo Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decisions to initiate conservation programmes need to account for extant variability, diversity loss and cultural and economic aspects. Molecular markers were used to investigate if putative Algarvia animals could be identified for use as progenitors in a breeding programme to recover this nearly extinct breed. Methods 46 individuals phenotypically representative of Algarvia cattle were genotyped for 27 microsatellite loci and compared with 11 Portuguese autochthonous and three imported breeds. Genetic distances and factorial correspondence analyses (FCA were performed to investigate the relationship among Algarvia and related breeds. Assignment tests were done to identify representative individuals of the breed. Y chromosome and mtDNA analyses were used to further characterize Algarvia animals. Gene- and allelic-based conservation analyses were used to determine breed contributions to overall genetic diversity. Results Genetic distance and FCA results confirmed the close relationship between Algarvia and southern Portuguese breeds. Assignment tests without breed information classified 17 Algarvia animals in this cluster with a high probability (q > 0.95. With breed information, 30 cows and three bulls were identified (q > 0.95 that could be used to reconstitute the Algarvia breed. Molecular and morphological results were concordant. These animals showed intermediate levels of genetic diversity (MNA = 6.0 ± 1.6, Rt = 5.7 ± 1.4, Ho = 0.63 ± 0.19 and He = 0.69 ± 0.10 relative to other Portuguese breeds. Evidence of inbreeding was also detected (Fis = 0.083, P st = 0.028, P > 0.05. Algarvia cattle provide an intermediate contribution (CB = 6.18, CW = -0.06 and D1 = 0.50 to the overall gene diversity of Portuguese cattle. Algarvia and seven other autochthonous breeds made no contribution to the overall allelic diversity. Conclusions Molecular analyses complemented previous morphological findings to identify 33 animals that

  20. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The activities of the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-Programme concentrated, during the last six months, on organization of a new Coordinated Research Programmes and numerous training courses. To establish and implement the CRP on Effect of Mutagenic Agents on DNA Sequence in Plants a consultants meeting was held in Vienna, July 2003. As a result is was possible to implement this CRP with the participation of 12 institutes from nine.countries. Similarly, another consultant meeting was held in November to initiate a new CRP on Identification and pyramiding of genes responsible for crop quality characters and resistance to quality affecting stresses. It is expected that the CRP will be implemented in the beginning of 2004. Rapid development of molecular markers technology generated strong interest in identification and characterization of mutated genes. To meet this expectation numerous training courses and workshops were organized in the second half of the year, mainly related to regional Technical Cooperation projects implemented in Asia and Africa. Among them were training courses on: Application of induced mutations and biotechnology for crop improvement, organized by Horticultural Crop Research and Development Institute in Peradeniya, Sri Lanka; Selection methods for low phytic acid mutants in rice, Hangzhou, China; Methodology for multi-location trials and selection of mutants tolerant to abiotic stresses, ICRISAT, India standardization of crop breeding methods for the improvement of drought tolerance, Lusaka, Zambia; First workshop on Improvement of plant salt tolerance for sustainable food and feed production in saline lands, Bangkok, Thailand. It was also possible to organize the 3rd Interregional Training Course on Mutant Germplasm Characterization using Molecular Markers. Twenty participants from all regions of the world participated in this event organized as usually in Seibersdorf, Austria. The last two years we have been very much involved in

  1. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...... of the secretory pathway and the endosome, while one of them is directly imported from the cytoplasm. The proteases are synthesized as precursors which undergo many post-translational modifications before the final active form is generated. Proteolytic activation by developments in the analysis of the functions...

  2. Charge breeding of radioactive ions with EBIS and EBIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenander, F.

    2010-10-01

    A charge state breeder, which transforms externally injected singly charged ions to a higher charge state q+, is an important tool which has applications within atomic, nuclear and even particle physics. The charge breeding concept of radioactive ions has already been demonstrated at REX-ISOLDE/CERN with the use of an Electron beam Ion Source (EBIS) and at several facilities employing Electron Resonance Cyclotron Ion Sources (ECRIS). As will be demonstrated in this paper, EBIS and Electron Beam Ion Traps (EBIT), are well suited for the task as they are capable of delivering clean, highly charged beams within a short transformation time. The increasing demand for highly charged ions of all kind of elements and isotopes, stable and radioactive, to be used for low-energy experiments such as TITAN at TRIUMF and MATS at FAIR, but also for post-acceleration to higher energies, is now pushing the development of the breeders. The next challenge will be to satisfy the needs, for example space-charge capacity, of the second generation radioactive beam facilities presently under construction or in the design stage, such as the MSU re-accelerator (ReA3), SPIRAL2, SPES and later on EURISOL. Radioactive trap facilities will also require high performance breeders geared towards rapid breeding times. The requirements and the critical issues of the breeding concept will be discussed and a review of the different facilities, operational and planned, will be given. The paper does furthermore feature a summary of the extensive breeding experience gained under operational conditions at REX-ISOLDE, including results from dedicated beam cleaning tests, isotope production using in-trap decay, high-current and continuous ion injection into the breeder, and closed-shell breeding.

  3. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  4. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Komen, J.; Windig, J.J.; Hanotte, O.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer

  5. Sire breed and breed genotype of dam effects in crossbreeding beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of sire breed and breed genotype of dam on birth and weaning mass in calves of Afrikaner, Hereford,. Simmentaler and Bonsmara cattle, as well as Fl> and two- and three-breed rotational crosses between Afrikaner,. Hereford and Simmentaler were investigated. Afrikaner bulls sired calves with lower birth and ...

  6. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed...

  7. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim...

  8. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of

  9. FIRST BREEDING RECORDS OF KELP GULLS LARUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first recorded breeding of kelp gulls Larus dominicanus vetula on Robben Island, Western Cape, South Africa, took place in 2000, when five nests were recorded. In 2001, there were 15 nests and 29 fledglings. The initiation of breeding by kelp gulls on Robben Island is likely a response to the reduction of disturbance ...

  10. Studies on mutation techniques in rice breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei

    2001-01-01

    Synthetical techniques for improving rice mutation breeding efficiency were studied. The techniques consist of corresponding relationship between radiosensitivity and mutation frequency, choosing appropriate materials, combination of physical and chemical mutagens, mutagenic effects of the new mutagenic agents as proton, ions, synchronous irradiation and space mutation. These techniques and methods for inducing mutations are very valuable to increase inducing mutation efficiency and breeding level

  11. USE OF GROWTH CHAMBERS FOR CABBAGE BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Bondareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the growth chambers for cabbage breeding allows the reducing of certain stages of the breeding process and the growing biennial varieties of cabbage in a one-year cycle. In these growth chambers, the nutritional conditions, temperature, and lighting of plants are under control; the open pollination is eliminated.

  12. Relationship between production characteristics and breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At an average age of 24.7 months the bulls were subjected to a libido test and overall breeding soundness evaluation (OBE). The bulls were categorised into independent breeding potential categories according to the scores they obtained for the measured reproductive traits. The categories included sperm morphology and ...

  13. Genomic analyses of modern dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Heidi G

    2012-02-01

    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized worldwide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog, resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other.

  14. Genetic diversity of 11 European pig breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavall, G.; Iannuccelli, N.; Legault, C.; Milan, D.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Andersson, L.; Fredholm, M.; Geldermann, H.; Foulley, J.L.; Chevalet, C.; Ollivier, L.

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed

  15. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stephen Baenziger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal, followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region beginning with the F6 generation. Yield analyses from replicated trials at two organic breeding sites and 7 conventional breeding sites from F6 through F12 nurseries revealed, using analyses of variance, biplots, and comparisons of selected lines that it is inappropriate to use data from conventional testing for making germplasm selections for organic production. Selecting and testing lines under organic production practices in different ecological regions was also needed and cultivar selections for organic production were different than those for conventional production. Modifications to this breeding protocol may include growing early generation bulks in an organic cropping system. In the future, our selection efforts should also focus on using state-of-the-art, non-transgenic breeding technologies (genomic selection, marker-assisted breeding, and high throughput phenotyping to synergistically improve organic and conventional wheat breeding.

  16. POPULATION AND BREEDING OF THE GENTOO PENGUIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The numbers of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua breeding at subantarctic Marion Island fell by 40% from 1994/95 to 2002/03, from 1 352 pairs to 806 pairs. Apart from a slight increase in 1998/99, there was a steady decrease in numbers breeding between 1995/96 and 2000/01, when the population stabilized. There is ...

  17. Impact of selective breeding on European aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.; Chavanne, H.; Berentsen, P.; Komen, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the combined market share of breeding companies in aquaculture production in Europe, to describe the main characteristics of breeding companies and their programs, and to provide per species estimates on cumulative genetic gain in growth performance.

  18. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burócziová, Monika; Riha, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2009), s. 375-377 ISSN 1234-1983 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Breed discrimination * Genetics diversity * Horse breeds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.324, year: 2009

  19. Genetic structure of pig breeds from Korea and China using microsatellite loci analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T H; Kim, K S; Choi, B H; Yoon, D H; Jang, G W; Lee, K T; Chung, H Y; Lee, H Y; Park, H S; Lee, J W

    2005-10-01

    To understand molecular genetic characteristics of Korean pigs, the genetic relationships of nine pig breeds including two Korean pigs (Korean native pig and Korean wild pig), three Chinese pigs (Min pig, Xiang pig, and Wuzhishan pig), and four European breeds (Berkshire, Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire) were characterized from a 16-microsatellite loci analysis. The mean heterozygosity within breeds ranged from 0.494 to 0.703. Across multiple loci, significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in most pig breeds, except for two Chinese pigs (Min pig and Wuzhishan pig). This deviation was in the direction of heterozygote deficit. Across population loci, 36 of 144 significantly deviated (P Relationship trees based on the Nei's DA genetic distance and scatter diagram from principal component analysis consistently displayed pronounced genetic differentiation among the Korean wild pig, Xiang pig, and Wuzhishan pig. Individual assignment test using a Bayesian method showed 100% success in assigning Korean and Chinese individual pigs into their correct breeds of origin and 100% exclusion success from all alternative reference populations at P China pig breed with a black coat color. Considering the close genetic relationship of Korean pigs to the Western breeds such as Berkshire and Landrace, our findings can be used as valuable genetic information for the preservation and further genetic improvement of the Korean native pig.

  20. Cacao breeding in Bahia, Brazil - strategies and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uilson Vanderlei Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cacao was introduced in Bahia in 1756, becoming later the largest producer state in the country. In order to supportthe planting of cacao in the region, a breeding program was established by CEPEC at the beginning of the 1970s. For a long time,the program consisted in testing new hybrids (full-sibs and releasing a mixture of the best ones to farmers. Lately, particularly afterthe witches´ broom arrival in the region, in 1989, recurrent breeding strategies were implemented, aiming mainly the developmentof clones. From 1993 to 2010, more than 500 progenies, accumulating 30 thousand trees, were developed by crossing many parentswith resistance to witches´ broom, high yield and other traits. In this period, more than 500 clones were put in trials and 39 clonesand 3 hybrids were released to farmers. In this paper the strategies and results achieved by the program are reviewed. Overall theprogram has good interface with pathology and genomic programs.

  1. Towards social acceptance of plant breeding by genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Motoko; Ishii, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Although genome-editing technologies facilitate efficient plant breeding without introducing a transgene, it is creating indistinct boundaries in the regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Rapid advances in plant breeding by genome-editing require the establishment of a new global policy for the new biotechnology, while filling the gap between process-based and product-based GMO regulations. In this Opinion article we review recent developments in producing major crops using genome-editing, and we propose a regulatory model that takes into account the various methodologies to achieve genetic modifications as well as the resulting types of mutation. Moreover, we discuss the future integration of genome-editing crops into society, specifically a possible response to the 'Right to Know' movement which demands labeling of food that contains genetically engineered ingredients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dressing percentage in Romanian spotted breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eleonora nistor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are significant differences in terms of carcass weight, forequarters, hindquarters and the dressing percentage among Romanian Spotted breed steers and first generation crossbreed obtained between Romanian Spotted and Holstein at slaughter age of 12 and 17 months respectively. Study was done on Romanian Spotted breed steer aged 12 months (36 heads and 17 months (19 heads; Romanian Spotted x Holstein first generation crossbreed of aged 12 months (29 heads and 17 months (20 heads. The Romanian Spotted breed steer, show superiority in terms of carcass weight compared to crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein, therefore this breed has a better suitability for fattening for meat. Regarding dressing percentage is higher in crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein compared with Romanian Spotted breed steers, but the difference is insignificant.

  3. Genetic diversity in Tunisian horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jemmali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at screening genetic diversity and differentiation in four horse breeds raised in Tunisia, the Barb, Arab-Barb, Arabian, and English Thoroughbred breeds. A total of 200 blood samples (50 for each breed were collected from the jugular veins of animals, and genomic DNA was extracted. The analysis of the genetic structure was carried out using a panel of 16 microsatellite loci. Results showed that all studied microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all breeds. Overall, a total of 147 alleles were detected using the 16 microsatellite loci. The average number of alleles per locus was 7.52 (0.49, 7.35 (0.54, 6.3 (0.44, and 6 (0.38 for the Arab-Barb, Barb, Arabian, and English Thoroughbred breeds, respectively. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.63 (0.03 in the English Thoroughbred to 0.72 in the Arab-Barb breeds, whereas the expected heterozygosities were between 0.68 (0.02 in the English Thoroughbred and 0.73 in the Barb breeds. All FST values calculated by pairwise breed combinations were significantly different from zero (p  <  0.05 and an important genetic differentiation among breeds was revealed. Genetic distances, the factorial correspondence, and principal coordinate analyses showed that the important amount of genetic variation was within population. These results may facilitate conservation programs for the studied breeds and enhance preserve their genetic diversity.

  4. Wetland selection by breeding and foraging black terns in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Valerie A.; Powell, Abby N.

    2012-01-01

    We examined wetland selection by the Black Tern (Chlidonias niger), a species that breeds primarily in the prairie pothole region, has experienced population declines, and is difficult to manage because of low site fidelity. To characterize its selection of wetlands in this region, we surveyed 589 wetlands throughout North and South Dakota. We documented breeding at 5% and foraging at 17% of wetlands. We created predictive habitat models with a machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, to explore the relative role of local wetland characteristics and those of the surrounding landscape and to evaluate which characteristics were important to predicting breeding versus foraging. We also examined area-dependent wetland selection while addressing the passive sampling bias by replacing occurrence of terns in the models with an index of density. Local wetland variables were more important than landscape variables in predictions of occurrence of breeding and foraging. Wetland size was more important to prediction of foraging than of breeding locations, while floating matted vegetation was more important to prediction of breeding than of foraging locations. The amount of seasonal wetland in the landscape was the only landscape variable important to prediction of both foraging and breeding. Models based on a density index indicated that wetland selection by foraging terns may be more area dependent than that by breeding terns. Our study provides some of the first evidence for differential breeding and foraging wetland selection by Black Terns and for a more limited role of landscape effects and area sensitivity than has been previously shown.

  5. Review on characterization methods applied to HTR-fuel element components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizlik, K.

    1976-02-01

    One of the difficulties which on the whole are of no special scientific interest, but which bear a lot of technical problems for the development and production of HTR fuel elements is the proper characterization of the element and its components. Consequently a lot of work has been done during the past years to develop characterization procedures for the fuel, the fuel kernel, the pyrocarbon for the coatings, the matrix and graphite and their components binder and filler. This paper tries to give a status report on characterization procedures which are applied to HTR fuel in KFA and cooperating institutions. (orig.) [de

  6. Goals and hurdles for a successful implementation of genomic selection in breeding programme for selected annual and perennial crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Elisabeth; de Koning, Dirk Jan

    Genomic Selection is an important topic in quantitative genetics and breeding. Not only does it allow the full use of current molecular genetic technologies, it stimulates also the development of new methods and models. Genomic selection, if fully implemented in commercial farming, should have a major impact on the productivity of various agricultural systems. But suggested approaches need to be applicable in commercial breeding populations. Many of the published research studies focus on methodologies. We conclude from the reviewed publications, that a stronger focus on strategies for the implementation of genomic selection in advanced breeding lines, introduction of new varieties, hybrids or multi-line crosses is needed. Efforts to find solutions for a better prediction and integration of environmental influences need to continue within applied breeding schemes. Goals of the implementation of genomic selection into crop breeding should be carefully defined and crop breeders in the private sector will play a substantial part in the decision-making process. However, the lack of published results from studies within, or in collaboration with, private companies diminishes the knowledge on the status of genomic selection within applied breeding programmes. Studies on the implementation of genomic selection in plant breeding need to evaluate models and methods with an enhanced emphasis on population-specific requirements and production environments. Adaptation of methods to breeding schemes or changes to breeding programmes for a better integration of genomic selection strategies are needed across species. More openness with a continuous exchange will contribute to successes.

  7. Mediterranean breeds of cattle, sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, I.L.

    1988-01-01

    Breeds of cattle, sheep and goats in the Mediterranean region are considered. Cattle: original longhorned breeds in Spain, Portugal and southern France; original shorthorned breeds in North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean and Sardinia; Grey Steppe in Balkan lowlands and central and southern Italy; Brown Swiss and its crosses in parts of Spain, northern Italy, north-west Turkey and the Maghreb; Simmental in Yugoslavia and Hungary; Friesian now dominant in western Europe and spreading in North Africa, the Near East and eastern Europe. Sheep: original coarse woolled thin tailed breeds in Algeria, Morocco, parts of Spain, Portugal, Italy and the Balkans; Merino in Spain has produced new breeds in Portugal, southern France, and Italy and is now being used in the Balkans, Turkey and Egypt; fat tailed coarse woolled breeds in Africa and Asia from Tunisia to Turkey. Goats: short eared dairy breeds in Spain and Italy; black, long haired, lop eared, screw horned goats from Turkey to North Africa; Maltese (dairy) goats in several countries. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab

  8. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Soo Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  9. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress.

  10. LINE CONSTRUCTION OF NONIUS BREED IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  11. Characterization and review of dosimetric procedures for movies Gafchromic ETB3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Azorin, J. F.; Ramos Garcia, L. I.; Ortiz de Zarate Vivanco, R.; Espinosa Sola, J. M.; Celeiro Gonzalez, J.; Lupiani Castellanos, J.; Alcibar-Arechuluaga, C.; Trueba Carayo, I.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the new radiochromic EBT3 movies, presentation of dosimetry procedure followed in our department as well as comparison of our the most relevant procedure found in the literature. (Author)

  12. Zinc-responsive dermatosis in mixed breed dog - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Fonseca Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Fonseca-Alves C.E., Vicente I.S.T., Parente L.M.L. & Conceição M. [Zinc-responsive dermatosis in mixed breed dog - Case report.] Dermatose responsiva a zinco em cão sem raça definida - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:120-122, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Julio de Mesquita Filho”-Unesp, Distrito de Rubião Jr s/n, Botucatu, SP 18618-970, Brasil. E-mail: carloseduardofa@hotmail.com Zinc is an essential mineral of the diet and it deficiency can happen in the dietary lack and in genetic abnormalities. Zinc deficiency is characterized for alterations in immune system, in growth and development, as well as lesions gastro-intestinal and in the skin. A male dog mixed breed, with eight years of age, was assisted at the Veterinary Hospital, presenting compatible clinical signs with that deficiency. The animal received supplementation with zinc with metionine, with total improvement of the process. The paper reports a case of zinc deficiency in a mixed breed dog.

  13. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  14. Mutation breedings in ornamental plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Hisao

    1984-01-01

    Several methods of obtaining somatic mutant plants by γ-ray irradiation on pieces of tissues as in vitro adventitious bud technique or small cutting methods with repeated pruning are described. 1) The irradiation to the adventitious buds in the small pieces of organ cultured in vitro and to the small cuttings are employed. Culture beds of agar or of Japanese Kanuma soil were used in vitro culture. In these experiments, Japanese Kanuma soil bed in in vitro culture worked well for root development and transplant of the induced mutants. 2) Combination with in vitro culture and repeated pruning technique were used for isolation and fixation of solid somatic mutant from small sectorial mutation induced by irradiation. This method was successful for begonia, chrysanthemum, aberia and winter daphne. 3) These data indicates that most of the induced mutant plants were non-chimeric, while a few others were chimeric. Among the new varieties, ''Gin-Sei'', ''Ryoku-Ha'', ''Big-Cross'', ''Kaede-Iron'', ''Mei-Fu-Hana-Tsukubane-Utsugi'' and ''Daphne-γ-3'' are non-chimeric, and ''Mini-Mini-Iron'' and ''Orange-Iron'' are chimeric. Moreover, these new varieties have remarkably differed in size and in color pattern from original variety. From the experimental results of somatic mutation, it is indicated that plant tissue culture have enormous potential in radiation breeding and in rapid propagation of the somatic mutant. (author)

  15. II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads.

  16. Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated fruit tree, Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae ): Implications for fruit production, selective breeding, and conservation of genetic resources.

  17. Genetic analysis of three South African horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Cothran

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability at 7 blood-group and 10 biochemical genetic loci was examined in 3 South African horse breeds, the Nooitgedacht, Boerperd and Basuto Pony. Observed heterozygosity for these breeds was intermediate for domestic horses, with the highest heterozygosity in the Boerperd and the lowest in the Basuto Pony. The 3 breeds show greater genetic similarity to each other than to other domestic horse breeds. Compared to other breeds, the South African breeds show greater genetic similarity to breeds such as the Thoroughbred, Holstein, Trakehner and Hanovarian and also to North American breeds such as the Saddlebred, Standardbred and Morgan Horse.

  18. Mutation breeding in diffrent types of pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This project was carried out under the collaboration of TAEK, SANAEM, and BATEM within 1999-2005 period. The aim of this project was to create new pepper varieties in Sera Demre 8 (green pepper) and ST59 (green pepper) cultivars which are important greenhouse cultivars by using mutation breeding methods. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED50) was calculated by linear regression analyses. According to results, 166 Gy dose was found as ED50. At the end of the breeding cycle 14 new mutant lines were obtained from mutant population. These mutant lines are still using as genitor for F1 hybrid pepper breeding programs

  19. In vitro technology for mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The ultimate aim of the Co-ordinated Research Programme on In Vitro Technology for Mutation Breeding is to provide new effective tools for plant breeders to construct new cultivars, thus increasing agricultural production of food, feed and industrial raw material, particularly in developing countries. The participants of the research co-ordination meetings considered the potential of new advances of agricultural biotechnology, especially the use of in vitro techniques for mutation breeding. They discussed and co-ordinated plans in conjunction with the impact on plant breeding of novel technologies, such as use of somaclonal variation, cell hybridization and molecular genetics

  20. Environmental correlates of breeding in the Crested Caracara (Caracara cheriway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, J.L.; Pias, Kyle E.; Cohen, J.B.; Catlin, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of weather on reproduction of the Crested Caracara (Caracara cheriway) in an agricultural landscape in south-central Florida. We used a mixed logistic-regression modeling approach within an information-theoretic framework to examine the influence of total rainfall, rainfall frequency, and temperature on the number of breeding pairs, timing of breeding, nest success, and productivity of Crested Caracaras during 1994–2000. The best models indicated an influence of rainfall frequency and laying period on reproduction. More individuals nested and more pairs nested earlier during years with more frequent rainfall in late summer and early fall. Pairs that nested later in each breeding season had smaller clutches, lower nest success and productivity, and higher probability of nest failure. More frequent rainfall during early spring months that are usually characterized by water deficit (March–May), more frequent rainfall during the fall drawdown period (September–November), and a shorter winter dry period showed some association with higher probability of brood reduction and lower nest success. The proportion of nests that failed was higher in “wet” years, when total rainfall during the breeding season (September–April) was >10% above the 20-year average. Rainfall may influence reproduction in Crested Caracaras indirectly through food resources. As total rainfall increased during February–April, when most pairs are feeding nestlings or dependent fledglings, the proportion of drawdown-dependent species (those that become available as rainfall decreases and wetlands become isolated and shallow) in the diet of Crested Caracaras declined, which may indicate reduced availability of foraging habitat for this primarily terrestrial raptor.

  1. Application of genomic technologies to the breeding of trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Badenes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent introduction of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS technologies represents a major revolution in providing new tools for identifying the genes and/or genomic intervals controlling important traits for selection in breeding programs. In perennial fruit trees with long generation times and large sizes of adult plants, the impact of these techniques is even more important. High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have provided complete annotated sequences in many important tree species. Most of the high-throughput genotyping platforms described are being used for studies of genetic diversity and population structure. Dissection of complex traits became possible through the availability of genome sequences along with phenotypic variation data, which allow to elucidate the causative genetic differences that give rise to observed phenotypic variation. Association mapping facilitates the association between genetic markers and phenotype in unstructured and complex populations, identifying molecular markers for assisted selection and breeding. Also, genomic data provide in silico identification and characterization of genes and gene families related to important traits, enabling new tools for molecular marker assisted selection in tree breeding.Deep sequencing of transcriptomes is also a powerful tool for the analysis of precise expression levels of each gene in a sample. It consists in quantifying short cDNA reads, obtained by NGS technologies, in order to compare the entire transcriptomes between genotypes and environmental conditions. The miRNAs are non-coding short RNAs involved in the regulation of different physiological processes, which can be identified by high-throughput sequencing of RNA libraries obtained by reverse transcription of purified short RNAs, and by in silico comparison with known miRNAs from other species. All together, NGS techniques and their applications have increased the resources for plant breeding in tree species

  2. Beyond promiscuity: mate-choice commitments in social breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    Obligate eusociality with distinct caste phenotypes has evolved from strictly monogamous sub-social ancestors in ants, some bees, some wasps and some termites. This implies that no lineage reached the most advanced form of social breeding, unless helpers at the nest gained indirect fitness values via siblings that were identical to direct fitness via offspring. The complete lack of re-mating promiscuity equalizes sex-specific variances in reproductive success. Later, evolutionary developments towards multiple queen-mating retained lifetime commitment between sexual partners, but reduced male variance in reproductive success relative to female's, similar to the most advanced vertebrate cooperative breeders. Here, I (i) discuss some of the unique and highly peculiar mating system adaptations of eusocial insects; (ii) address ambiguities that remained after earlier reviews and extend the monogamy logic to the evolution of soldier castes; (iii) evaluate the evidence for indirect fitness benefits driving the dynamics of (in)vertebrate cooperative breeding, while emphasizing the fundamental differences between obligate eusociality and cooperative breeding; (iv) infer that lifetime commitment is a major driver towards higher levels of organization in bodies, colonies and mutualisms. I argue that evolutionary informative definitions of social systems that separate direct and indirect fitness benefits facilitate transparency when testing inclusive fitness theory. PMID:23339241

  3. Population Structure and Genomic Breed Composition in an Angus–Brahman Crossbred Cattle Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Gobena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Crossbreeding is a common strategy used in tropical and subtropical regions to enhance beef production, and having accurate knowledge of breed composition is essential for the success of a crossbreeding program. Although pedigree records have been traditionally used to obtain the breed composition of crossbred cattle, the accuracy of pedigree-based breed composition can be reduced by inaccurate and/or incomplete records and Mendelian sampling. Breed composition estimation from genomic data has multiple advantages including higher accuracy without being affected by missing, incomplete, or inaccurate records and the ability to be used as independent authentication of breed in breed-labeled beef products. The present study was conducted with 676 Angus–Brahman crossbred cattle with genotype and pedigree information to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of using genomic data to determine breed composition. We used genomic data in parametric and non-parametric methods to detect population structure due to differences in breed composition while accounting for the confounding effect of close familial relationships. By applying principal component analysis (PCA and the maximum likelihood method of ADMIXTURE to genomic data, it was possible to successfully characterize population structure resulting from heterogeneous breed ancestry, while accounting for close familial relationships. PCA results offered additional insight into the different hierarchies of genetic variation structuring. The first principal component was strongly correlated with Angus–Brahman proportions, and the second represented variation within animals that have a relatively more extended Brangus lineage—indicating the presence of a distinct pattern of genetic variation in these cattle. Although there was strong agreement between breed proportions estimated from pedigree and genetic information, there were significant discrepancies between these two methods for certain animals

  4. Husbandry and enclosure influences on penguin behavior and conservation breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrew R; Deere, Nicolas J; Little, Holly A; Snipp, Ross; Goulder, Jackie; Mayer-Clarke, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    Multi-zoo comparisons of animal welfare are rare, and yet vital for ensuring continued improvement of zoo enclosures and husbandry. Methods are not standardized for the development of zoo enclosures based on multiple indicators, and case study species are required. This study compares behavior and breeding success to various enclosure and husbandry parameters for the Humboldt penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, for the development of improved enclosure design. Behavioral sampling was completed at Flamingo Land over a period of 8 months. Further data on behavior, enclosure design, and breeding success were collected via questionnaires, visits to zoos, and literature review. Breeding success was primarily influenced by colony age and number of breeding pairs, suggesting an important social influence on reproduction. Across zoos, there was also significant variation in behavior. The proportion of time spent in water varied between zoos (2-23%) and was used as an indicator of physical activity and natural behavior. Regression models revealed that water-use was best predicted by total enclosure area per penguin, followed by land area, with some evidence for positive influence of pool surface area per penguin. Predominantly linear/curvilinear increases in our biological indicators with enclosure parameters suggest that optimal conditions for S. humboldti were not met among the selected zoos. We propose revised minimum conditions for S. humboldti enclosure design, which exceed those in the existing husbandry guidelines. We present a framework for the evaluation of zoo enclosures and suggest that a rigorous scientific protocol be established for the design of new enclosures, based on multivariate methods. Zoo Biol. 35:385-397, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A Peer Review of the Strategy for Characterizing Ransuranics and Technetium Contamination in Uranium Hexafluoride Tails Cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, S.K.; Randich, E.; Avci, H.I.; Steindler, M.J.; Brumburgh, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the findings from a peer review of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Hightower 2000 study, which set forth a strategy for characterization of low levels of radioactive contaminants in depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) cylinders at the Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plants. The information from that study will be used in a DOE-issued request for proposal (RFP) for conversion services from the private sector, to assist vendors in reducing costs associated with contingencies relating to handling this DUF 6 with elevated transuranics (TRUs) and technetium (Tc). The Hightower study developed a general strategy for DUF 6 sampling and analysis in accordance with their task but also recommended the following courses of action: (a) Collect and analyze liquid samples from the two identified Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) feed cylinders, feed the DUF 6 into the cascades, and conduct an analysis on the resulting heels by washing and analyzing the wash rinsate; (b) Characterize the cylinder coatings to determine the extent and levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination; and (c) Verify the characterization of the cylinder inventory's compliance with Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) pressure vessel code In addition to the above recommendations, the study also concluded that additional characterization is not likely to result in lower bids by prospective vendors, and that direct sampling of many older tails cylinders may be impractical

  6. Transgenesis and genomics in molecular breeding of pasture grasses and legumes for forage quality and other traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangenberg, G.

    2005-01-01

    Significant advances in the establishment of the methodologies required for the molecular breeding of temperate forage grasses (Lolium and Festuca species) and legumes (Trifolium and Medicago species) are reviewed. Examples of current products and approaches for the application of these methodologies to forage grass and legume improvement are outlined. The plethora of new technologies and tools now available for high-throughput gene discovery and genome-wide expression analysis have opened up opportunities for innovative applications in the identification, functional characterization and use of genes of value in forage production systems and beyond. Selected examples of current work in pasture plant genomics, xenogenomics, symbiogenomics and micro-array-based molecular phenotyping are discussed. (author)

  7. Manual on mutation breeding. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The manual is a compilation of work done on the use of induced mutations in plant breeding, and presents general methods and techniques in this field. The use of chemical mutagens and ionizing radiations (X-rays, gamma rays, α- and β-particles, protons, neutrons) are described as well as the effects of these mutagens. The different types of mutations achieved can be divided into genome mutations, chromosome mutations and extra nuclear mutations. Separate chapters deal with mutation techniques in breeding seed-propagated species and asexually propagated plants (examples of development of cultivars given). Plant characters which can be improved by mutation breeding include yield, ripening time, growth habit, disease resistance and tolerance to environmental factors (temperature, salinity etc.). The use of mutagens for some specific plant breeding problems is discussed and attention is also paid to somatic cell genetics in connection with induced mutations. The manual contains a comprehensive bibliography (60 p. references) and a subject index

  8. Sugarbeet breeding: Situation, prospectives and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačev L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Breeders of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. use a variety of conventional breeding methods and novel techniques striving to protect, maintain and expand the genetic variability of the crop, develop superior hybrids, and multiply their seed. In recent years, a new methodology of genetic transformations has been extensively used in sugar beet breeding. The new methodology is used with the intention of introducing desirable genes, those that cannot be introduced by the classical breeding methods or which take a lengthy process to be introduced due to genetic barriers occur­ring during crossing. Conventional breeding methods and genetic engineering methods have been used to improve the sugar beet genome by the introduction of genes for resistance to Cercospora, rhizomania and nematodes. Presently, genes that modify the carbohydrate metabolism and genes that confer resistance to the active substances in certain herbicides may be introduced only by means of genetic engineering methods. .

  9. Combining chromatography and chemometrics for the characterization and authentication of fats and oils from triacylglycerol compositional data--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Sendra, Juan M; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis; Ruiz-Samblás, Cristina; de la Mata, A Paulina

    2012-04-29

    The characterization and authentication of fats and oils is a subject of great importance for market and health aspects. Identification and quantification of triacylglycerols in fats and oils can be excellent tools for detecting changes in their composition due to the mixtures of these products. Most of the triacylglycerol species present in either fats or oils could be analyzed and identified by chromatographic methods. However, the natural variability of these samples and the possible presence of adulterants require the application of chemometric pattern recognition methods to facilitate the interpretation of the obtained data. In view of the growing interest in this topic, this paper reviews the literature of the application of exploratory and unsupervised/supervised chemometric methods on chromatographic data, using triacylglycerol composition for the characterization and authentication of several foodstuffs such as olive oil, vegetable oils, animal fats, fish oils, milk and dairy products, cocoa and coffee. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  11. Breeding performance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Raje, P.C.; Joshi, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    The key factor in success of a Macrobrachium hatchery is to yield maximum number of larvae with minimum number of brooders. Suitable environmental conditions were provided and the breeding performance of females of M. rosenbergii was observed. A total number of 140 females brought from wild were used for this purpose. Each female was tagged and given a code number which made it possible to record the gestation period, interbreed period, number of breeding and larval yield of individual female...

  12. Application of Genomic Tools in Plant Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-de-Castro, A.M.; Vilanova, S.; Cañizares, J.; Pascual, L.; Blanca, J.M.; Díez, M.J.; Prohens, J.; Picó, B.

    2012-01-01

    Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic...

  13. Cashmere Quality of Iranian Goat Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari-Renani, H. R

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the cashmere quality in different Iranian cashmere goat breeds to determine the scope for improvement of fiber quality. In April 2009 midside cashmere samples were taken from a total of 168 male and female cashmere goats of 1, 2, 3, and 4 yr of age. The goats were randomly chosen from Raeini, Birjandi, and Nadoushan breeds respectively from Kerman, South Khorasan, and Yazd provinces. Cashmere yield (CY) was determined from the percentage of weight of dehaired cashmere to w...

  14. BIBI: Bayesian inference of breed composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, C A; Khare, K; Elzo, M A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop statistical models to estimate individual breed composition based on the previously proposed idea of regressing discrete random variables corresponding to counts of reference alleles of biallelic molecular markers located across the genome on the allele frequencies of each marker in the pure (base) breeds. Some of the existing regression-based methods do not guarantee that estimators of breed composition will lie in the appropriate parameter space, and none of them account for uncertainty about allele frequencies in the pure breeds, that is, uncertainty about the design matrix. To overcome these limitations, we proposed two Bayesian generalized linear models. For each individual, both models assume that the counts of the reference allele at each marker locus follow independent Binomial distributions, use the logit link and pose a Dirichlet prior over the vector of regression coefficients (which corresponds to breed composition). This prior guarantees that point estimators of breed composition such as the posterior mean pertain to the appropriate space. The difference between these models is that model termed BIBI does not account for uncertainty about the design matrix, while model termed BIBI2 accounts for such an uncertainty by assigning independent Beta priors to the entries of this matrix. We implemented these models in a data set from the University of Florida's multibreed Angus-Brahman population. Posterior means were used as point estimators of breed composition. In addition, the ordinary least squares estimator proposed by Kuehn et al. () (OLSK) was also computed. BIBI and BIBI2 estimated breed composition more accurately than OLSK, and BIBI2 had a 7.69% improvement in accuracy as compared to BIBI. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    OpenAIRE

    Baenziger, P. Stephen; Salah, Ibrahim; Little, Richard S.; Santra, Dipak K.; Regassa, Teshome; Wang, Meng Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal), followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region) beginning with the F 6 generation. Yield a...

  16. Forensic Characterization of Liquor Samples by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K. Yadav

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a subject of forensic research across the world. The forensic characterization of alcoholic beverages is required in cases of death and crimes due to alcohol consumption. In many cases, determining the geographic origin becomes a very important part of the investigation. Therefore, it is important to develop more sensitive methods for the analysis of alcoholic beverages. In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize the work accomplished so far in the field of analysis and detection of alcoholic beverages. In this review, various sample preparation techniques for GC-MS analysis of alcoholic beverages have been discussed along with its applications. GC-MS based analysis is less time consuming, more sensitive and more accurate.   Keywords: Forensic Sciences, Alcoholic beverages, Mortality, Analysis, GC-MS

  17. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  18. Genetic evaluation of the breeding population of a valuable reforestation conifer Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuqing; Ma, Yongpeng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Xian-Ge; Huang, Li-Sha; Li, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng

    2016-10-10

    Platycladus orientalis, a widespread conifer with long lifespan and significant adaptability. It is much used in reforestation in north China and commonly planted in central Asia. With the increasing demand for plantation forest in central to north China, breeding programs are progressively established for this species. Efficient use of breeding resources requires good understanding of the genetic value of the founder breeding materials. This study investigated the distribution of genetic variation in 192 elite trees collected for the breeding program for the central range of the species. We developed first set of 27 polymorphic EST-derived SSR loci for the species from transcriptome/genome data. After examination of amplification quality, 10 loci were used to evaluate the genetic variation in the breeding population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average H e  = 0.348) and low population differentiation (Fst = 0.011). Extensive admixture and no significant geographic population structure characterized this set of collections. Our analyses of the diversity and population structure are important steps toward a long-term sustainable deployment of the species and provide valuable genetic information for conservation and breeding applications.

  19. Problems of bovine leucosis control and prophylaxis in industrial breeding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belev, N; Ourouchev, K; Naidenova, N

    1978-01-01

    Industrial cattle-breeding in Bulgaria is characterized by large cattle-breeding complexes holding 500, 1,000 or 2,000 dairy cows; farms specialized in rearing calves for breeding purposes, and calves fattening units holding 2,000, 5,000 or 10,000 animals. A specific technology has been introduced for management purposes. This high concentration and specialization creates specific organisational problems for antiepizootic control measures. Bovine leucosis has been brought from abroad by imported breedings animals. A complex system for leucosis prophylaxis and control is obligatorily implemented. It is supervized and financed by the state. Particular care is taken of ensuring protective measures for import breeding animals. The infected farms are put under strict quarantine. The animals which show a positive reaction during complex diagnostic tests are slaughtered and the meat is used after heat-processing. The milk is heat-processed too and sent for further utilization. Calves born in infected farms are not fit for breeding purposes but for fattening only.

  20. Genetic evaluation of the breeding population of a valuable reforestation conifer Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuqing; Ma, Yongpeng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Xian-Ge; Huang, Li-Sha; Li, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Platycladus orientalis, a widespread conifer with long lifespan and significant adaptability. It is much used in reforestation in north China and commonly planted in central Asia. With the increasing demand for plantation forest in central to north China, breeding programs are progressively established for this species. Efficient use of breeding resources requires good understanding of the genetic value of the founder breeding materials. This study investigated the distribution of genetic variation in 192 elite trees collected for the breeding program for the central range of the species. We developed first set of 27 polymorphic EST-derived SSR loci for the species from transcriptome/genome data. After examination of amplification quality, 10 loci were used to evaluate the genetic variation in the breeding population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average He = 0.348) and low population differentiation (Fst = 0.011). Extensive admixture and no significant geographic population structure characterized this set of collections. Our analyses of the diversity and population structure are important steps toward a long-term sustainable deployment of the species and provide valuable genetic information for conservation and breeding applications.

  1. A fine structure genetic analysis evaluating ecoregional adaptability of a Bos taurus breed (Hereford.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H D Blackburn

    Full Text Available Ecoregional differences contribute to genetic environmental interactions and impact animal performance. These differences may become more important under climate change scenarios. Utilizing genetic diversity within a species to address such problems has not been fully explored. In this study Hereford cattle were genotyped with 50K Bead Chip or 770K Bovine Bead Chip to test the existence of genetic structure in five U.S. ecoregions characterized by precipitation, temperature and humidity and designated: cool arid (CA, cool humid (CH, transition zone (TZ, warm arid (WA, and warm humid (WH. SNP data were analyzed in three sequential analyses. Broad genetic structure was evaluated with STRUCTURE, and ADMIXTURE software using 14,312 SNPs after passing quality control variables. The second analysis was performed using principal coordinate analysis with 66 Tag SNPs associated in the literature with various aspects of environmental stressors (e.g., heat tolerance or production (e.g., milk production. In the third analysis TreeSelect was used with the 66 SNPs to evaluate if ecoregional allelic frequencies deviated from a central frequency and by so doing are indicative of directional selection. The three analyses suggested subpopulation structures associated with ecoregions from where animals were derived. ADMIXTURE and PCA results illustrated the importance of temperature and humidity and confirm subpopulation assignments. Comparisons of allele frequencies with TreeSelect showed ecoregion differences, in particular the divergence between arid and humid regions. Patterns of genetic variability obtained by medium and high density SNP chips can be used to acclimatize a temperately derived breed to various ecoregions. As climate change becomes an important factor in cattle production, this study should be used as a proof of concept to review future breeding and conservation schemes aimed at adaptation to climatic events.

  2. A roadmap for breeding orphan leafy vegetable species: a case study ofGynandropsis gynandra(Cleomaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogbohossou, E O Deedi; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G; Maundu, Patrick; Solberg, Svein; Deguenon, Edgar M S; Mumm, Rita H; Hale, Iago; Van Deynze, Allen; Schranz, M Eric

    2018-01-01

    Despite an increasing awareness of the potential of "orphan" or unimproved crops to contribute to food security and enhanced livelihoods for farmers, coordinated research agendas to facilitate production and use of orphan crops by local communities are generally lacking. We provide an overview of the current knowledge on leafy vegetables with a focus on Gynandropsis gynandra , a highly nutritious species used in Africa and Asia, and highlight general and species-specific guidelines for participatory, genomics-assisted breeding of orphan crops. Key steps in genome-enabled orphan leafy vegetables improvement are identified and discussed in the context of Gynandropsis gynandra breeding, including: (1) germplasm collection and management; (2) product target definition and refinement; (3) characterization of the genetic control of key traits; (4) design of the 'process' for cultivar development; (5) integration of genomic data to optimize that 'process'; (6) multi-environmental participatory testing and end-user evaluation; and (7) crop value chain development. The review discusses each step in detail, with emphasis on improving leaf yield, phytonutrient content, organoleptic quality, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and post-harvest management.

  3. Immature Aedes mosquitoes colonize Culex quinquefasciatus breeding sites in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda, State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane Alves dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The present study shows the colonization of Aedes mosquitoes in breeding sites specific for Culex quinquefasciatus in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda. Methods Samples were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 from breeding sites positive for Cx. quinquefasciatus by using a ladle and manual suction pump. Results Aedes aegypti (0.12%, Aedes albopictus (0.03%, and Cx. quinquefasciatus (99.8% were found across the breeding sites. Conclusions The presence of Aedes ssp. in several Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding sites with a heavy load of organic material demonstrates the need to review the concepts and methods used for treatment, as the use of specific larvicide for breeding sites of Culex.

  4. Prevalence of congenital heart disease in 76,301 mixed-breed dogs and 57,025 mixed-breed cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrope, Donald P

    2015-09-01

    Assess the prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in a large population of mixed-breed dogs and cats. 76,301 mixed-breed dogs and 57,025 mixed-breed cats. Retrospective review of records and examinations based on specified diagnostic criteria. Among mixed-breed dogs, the prevalence of CHD was 0.13% (51.4% female) and of innocent murmurs was 0.10% (53.0% male). Pulmonic stenosis was the most common defect followed by patent ductus arteriosus, aortic stenosis, and ventricular septal defect. Among mixed-breed cats, prevalence of CHD was 0.14% (55.2% male) and of innocent murmurs was 0.16% (54.4% male). When the 25 cats with dynamic left or right ventricular outflow obstruction were counted with cases of innocent murmurs, the overall prevalence was 0.2%. Ventricular septal defects were the most common feline CHD followed closely by aortic stenosis and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. There was no overall sex predilection for CHD in mixed-breed cats or dogs, and no significant difference in CHD prevalence between cats or dogs. Among dogs, subvalvular aortic stenosis and mitral valve dysplasia had a male predisposition while patent ductus arteriosus had a female predisposition. Among cats, valvular pulmonic stenosis, subvalvular and valvular aortic stenosis, and ventricular septal defects had a male predisposition while pulmonary artery stenosis had a female predisposition. The prevalence of CHD in a mixed-breed dogs and cats is lower than for prior studies, perhaps due to the lack of purebreds in the study population or actual changes in disease prevalence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Yam ( Dioscorea spp.) molecular breeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some progress has been made in recent years in germplasm characterization and the development of molecular markers for genome analysis. A genetic linkage map based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers has been constructed for Guinea and water yams. These linkage maps were used to scan ...

  6. A review of the role of active remote sensing and data fusion for characterizing forest in wildlife habitat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Vogeler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatially explicit maps of wildlife habitat relationships have proven to be valuable tools for conservation and management applications including evaluating how and which species may be impacted by large scale climate change, ongoing fragmentation of habitat, and local land-use practices. Studies have turned to remote sensing datasets as a way to characterize vegetation for the examination of habitat selection and for mapping realized relationships across the landscape. Potentially one of the more difficult habitat types to try to characterize with remote sensing are the vertically and horizontally complex forest systems. Characterizing this complexity is needed to explore which aspects may represent driving and/or limiting factors for wildlife species. Active remote sensing data from lidar and radar sensors has thus caught the attention of the forest wildlife research and management community in its potential to represent three dimensional habitat features. The purpose of this review was to examine the applications of active remote sensing for characterizing forest in wildlife habitat studies through a keyword search within Web of Science. We present commonly used active remote sensing metrics and methods, discuss recent advances in characterizing aspects of forest habitat, and provide suggestions for future research in the area of new remote sensing data/techniques that could benefit forest wildlife studies that are currently not represented or may be underutilized within the wildlife literature. We also highlight the potential value in data fusion of active and passive sensor data for representing multiple dimensions and scales of forest habitat. While the use of remote sensing has increased in recent years within wildlife habitat studies, continued communication between the remote sensing, forest management, and wildlife communities is vital to ensure appropriate data sources and methods are understood and utilized, and so that creators of

  7. Genetics similarity among four breeds of goat in Saudi Arabia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogeny analysis using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was performed for studying genetic variation in four Saudi Arabia goat breeds, namely: Harri, Ardi, Habsi and Masri. Six goats from Harri breed, four each from both Ardi and Habsi breeds and five from Masri breed were used for the experiment.

  8. Genetic improvement of Eucalyptus grandis using breeding seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis is commercially important in Zimbabwe and a breeding program has been in progress since 1962. A classical breeding strategy was used initially but, in 1981, the Multiple Population Breeding Strategy (MPBS) was implemented and the concept of the Breeding Seedling Orchard (BSO) became central to ...

  9. Genetics similarity among four breeds of goat in Saudi Arabia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... Phylogeny analysis using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was performed for studying genetic variation in four Saudi Arabia goat breeds, namely: Harri, Ardi, Habsi and Masri. Six goats from Harri breed, four each from both Ardi and Habsi breeds and five from Masri breed were used.

  10. Breeding biology of House Crows ( Corvus splendens ) in Durban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Details of nestling growth, and fledging and post-fledging dependence periods, are provided. Breeding success was relatively poor. Early breeding attempts were more successful than late breeding attempts. Breeding failure was suspected, or known, to be associated with observer disturbance, egg breakage, failure of ...

  11. Experimental tests of endocrine function in breeding and nonbreeding raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Julio; Sergio, Fabrizio; Wingfield, John C; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Many long-lived avian species defer reproduction for several years, often displaying a "floating" behavior characterized by the lack of mates and exclusive territories. Understanding the proximate mechanisms regulating floating behavior is a relevant topic of research for physiologists, behavioral ecologists, and population biologists because a prolonged period of nonbreeding can negatively affect lifetime fitness and change population dynamics. Here we tested two hypotheses linking endocrine function to floating status: (a) floaters undergo a period of sexual immaturity characterized by lower gonadal function (hypothesis of sexual immaturity), and (b) floating status is socially imposed by dominant conspecifics and revealed by the adrenocortical response to stress (hypothesis of social subordination). The two hypotheses were tested in a population of free-living black kites Milvus migrans in Doñana National Park (southwest Spain), where breeders coexist with young floaters that defer reproduction for 3-7 yr. Hypophysial-gonadal function, estimated as androgen production in response to experimental challenge with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (c-GnRH-I), was similar in magnitude and timing between floating and breeding males. The same treatment was, however, unable to elicit any response in terms of increasing estradiol or total androgen levels in females regardless of their breeding status. Following experimental capture and restraint, the adrenocortical response to stress (estimated as circulating corticosterone levels) was higher in floating than in breeding males, while females showed the opposite pattern (i.e., lower response to stress in young floaters compared with breeders). Contrary to the hypothesis of sexual immaturity, our results suggest that floating males are physiologically capable of reproducing. The reported differences in adrenocortical function support the idea that floaters are socially subordinate to breeders, and corticosterone responses

  12. CLASSICAL AND MOLECULAR CYTOGENETIC STUDIES FOR BREEDING AND SELECTION OF TULIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Popescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their extreme popularity as fresh cut flowers and garden plants, and being used extensively for landscaping, tulips undergone a continuous process of selective breeding. For almost nine decades, classical cytogenetic studies, mainly the chromosome counts, have been an important part in the breeding programme for polyploid tulips. The efficiency of breeding is greatly aided by a thorough knowledge of the occurrence of polyploidy in the plant material. While the traditional cytogenetic approaches are still highly useful in selecting polyploids and aneuploids arising from crosses involving (most often parents of different ploidy or from the material subjected to ploidy manipulation, the new strategies for inducing polyploidy in tulips, either in vivo or in vitro, and advances in molecular cytogenetics are expected to allow a significant increase in breeding efficiency. Together with the shortening of breeding cycle, major genetic improvements could be made for specific traits. In this we review the development of cytogenetic studies in tulips, and the most relevant achievements so far, providing an overview of what we consider to be valuable tools for the processes of selective breeding .

  13. Breeding schemes for the implementation of genomic selection in wheat (Triticum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Filippo M; Bentley, Alison R; Charmet, Gilles; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Crossa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade the breeding technology referred to as 'genomic selection' (GS) has been implemented in a variety of species, with particular success in animal breeding. Recent research shows the potential of GS to reshape wheat breeding. Many authors have concluded that the estimated genetic gain per year applying GS is several times that of conventional breeding. GS is, however, a new technology for wheat breeding and many programs worldwide are still struggling to identify the best strategy for its implementation. This article provides practical guidelines on the key considerations when implementing GS. A review of the existing GS literature for a range of species is provided and used to prime breeder-oriented considerations on the practical applications of GS. Furthermore, this article discusses potential breeding schemes for GS, genotyping considerations, and methods for effective training population design. The components of selection intensity, progress toward inbreeding in half- or full-sibs recurrent schemes, and the generation of selection are also presented. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The key elements for genetic response in Finnish dairy cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. JUGA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some key elements of Finnish animal breeding research contributing to the Finnish dairy cattle breeding programme and discusses the possibilities and problems in collecting data for genetic evaluation, prediction of breeding values both within and across countries, estimation of the economic value of important traits, and selection of bulls and cows. Economic values are calculated for fertility, udder health and production traits when one genetic standard deviation unit (gen. sd. is changed in each trait independently and the financial returns from selection response in the Finnish dairy cattle breeding programme are estimated. The following components were used to calculate the economic value of mastitis treatments: 1 cost of mastitis including discarded milk and treatment costs, 2 reduction in milk price due to higher somatic cell count, 3 replacement costs and 4 lower production level of the herd due to involuntary culling of cows because of udder problems. A high somatic cell count lowers the price of milk and eventually leads to involuntary culling. For treatments for fertility disorders the following costs were included: 1 treatment costs 2 higher replacement costs and 3 decreased milk production in the herd. Days open included the following costs: 1 extra insemination, 2 reduced annual milk yield and 3 fewer calves born. Animal breeding was found to be a very cost effective investment, yielding returns of FIM 876.9 per cow from one round of selection when the gene flow was followed for over 25 years in the Finnish dairy cattle breeding programme.;

  15. Identification of Genomic Regions Associated with Phenotypic Variation between Dog Breeds using Selection Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrien, Thomas; Axelsson, Erik; Rosengren Pielberg, Gerli; Sigurdsson, Snaevar; Fall, Tove; Seppälä, Eija H.; Hansen, Mark S. T.; Lawley, Cindy T.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Bannasch, Danika; Vilà, Carles; Lohi, Hannes; Galibert, Francis; Fredholm, Merete; Häggström, Jens; Hedhammar, Åke; André, Catherine; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Hitte, Christophe; Webster, Matthew T.

    2011-01-01

    The extraordinary phenotypic diversity of dog breeds has been sculpted by a unique population history accompanied by selection for novel and desirable traits. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis using multiple test statistics to identify regions under selection in 509 dogs from 46 diverse breeds using a newly developed high-density genotyping array consisting of >170,000 evenly spaced SNPs. We first identify 44 genomic regions exhibiting extreme differentiation across multiple breeds. Genetic variation in these regions correlates with variation in several phenotypic traits that vary between breeds, and we identify novel associations with both morphological and behavioral traits. We next scan the genome for signatures of selective sweeps in single breeds, characterized by long regions of reduced heterozygosity and fixation of extended haplotypes. These scans identify hundreds of regions, including 22 blocks of homozygosity longer than one megabase in certain breeds. Candidate selection loci are strongly enriched for developmental genes. We chose one highly differentiated region, associated with body size and ear morphology, and characterized it using high-throughput sequencing to provide a list of variants that may directly affect these traits. This study provides a catalogue of genomic regions showing extreme reduction in genetic variation or population differentiation in dogs, including many linked to phenotypic variation. The many blocks of reduced haplotype diversity observed across the genome in dog breeds are the result of both selection and genetic drift, but extended blocks of homozygosity on a megabase scale appear to be best explained by selection. Further elucidation of the variants under selection will help to uncover the genetic basis of complex traits and disease. PMID:22022279

  16. Pre-breeding: a link between genetic resources and maize breeding Pré-melhoramento: uma ponte entre os recursos genéticos e o melhoramento de milho

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Lourenço Nass; Ernesto Paterniani

    2000-01-01

    Activities related to genetic resources are characterized by high cost and long term return. Thus the conservation of genetic variability for the future and the efficient utilization of available accessions are two important goals to be attained. However, the low utilization of germplasm banks is not restricted to Brazil but to other developing countries as well. Therefore, pre-breeding is a promising alternative to link genetic resources and breeding programs. Several aspects for maize are d...

  17. Milk yield and quality of Aosta cattle breeds in Alpine pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bianchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine breeding systems are an example of sustainable integration between land management and productive processes; the inherent forage exploitation has characterized and modified landscape and environment. Moreover, alpine pasture has increased its importance for the multifunctional features attributed in the recent years to mountain productive activities (Agabriel et al., 2001.

  18. NIR and Py-mbms coupled with multivariate data analysis as a high-throughput biomass characterization technique: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li; Wei, Hui; Himmel, Michael E; Jameel, Hasan; Kelley, Stephen S

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing the use of lignocellulosic biomass as the feedstock for renewable energy production is currently being developed globally. Biomass is a complex mixture of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignins, extractives, and proteins; as well as inorganic salts. Cell wall compositional analysis for biomass characterization is laborious and time consuming. In order to characterize biomass fast and efficiently, several high through-put technologies have been successfully developed. Among them, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry (Py-mbms) are complementary tools and capable of evaluating a large number of raw or modified biomass in a short period of time. NIR shows vibrations associated with specific chemical structures whereas Py-mbms depicts the full range of fragments from the decomposition of biomass. Both NIR vibrations and Py-mbms peaks are assigned to possible chemical functional groups and molecular structures. They provide complementary information of chemical insight of biomaterials. However, it is challenging to interpret the informative results because of the large amount of overlapping bands or decomposition fragments contained in the spectra. In order to improve the efficiency of data analysis, multivariate analysis tools have been adapted to define the significant correlations among data variables, so that the large number of bands/peaks could be replaced by a small number of reconstructed variables representing original variation. Reconstructed data variables are used for sample comparison (principal component analysis) and for building regression models (partial least square regression) between biomass chemical structures and properties of interests. In this review, the important biomass chemical structures measured by NIR and Py-mbms are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of conventional data analysis methods and multivariate data analysis methods are introduced, compared and evaluated. This review

  19. Industrial fouling: problem characterization, economic assessment, and review of prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    A comprehensive overview of heat exchanger fouling in the manufacturing industries is provided. Specifically, this overview addresses: the characteristics of industrial fouling problems; the mitigation and accommodation techniques currently used by industry; and the types and magnitude of costs associated with industrial fouling. A detailed review of the fouling problems, costs and mitigation techniques is provided for the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemical, petroleum, cement, glass and primary metals industries.

  20. The influence of cross-breeding Zlotnicka Spotted native breed sows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To sum up, it is possible to say that the raw meat of Zlotnicka Spotted pigs and their cross-breeds with Duroc and Polish Large White breeds is characterised by good quality and because of its considerable intramuscular fat content, it has a high culinary and processing value, especially for ripening products. Key words: Pigs ...

  1. Artificiat insemination vercus natural breeding in a multi.breed beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were the Bos taurus types. Cows bred naturally conceived earlier and thus calved earlier in the season leading to an increased calving-to-breeding period the following breeding season and a reduced intercalving interval. The higher conception rate of the naturally bred group resulted in a 35,6 7o greater total weaning.

  2. Sire breed and breed genotype of dam effects in crossbreeding beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cows bred to Afrikaner bulls were less (P < 0.05) productive than cows bred to other Bos taurus sires. An increase in proportion Afrikaner breeding in dam resulted in longer calving intervals and a decline in cow productivity, but these differences were not always significant. A breeding strategy for the retainment of superior ...

  3. Ecological factors associated with the breeding and migratory phenology of high-latitude breeding western sandpipers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehaus, A.C.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental conditions influence the breeding and migratory patterns of many avian species and may have particularly dramatic effects on longdistance migrants that breed at northern latitudes. Environment, however, is only one of the ecological variables affecting avian phenology, and recent work

  4. Geology of Uruguay review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.

    2011-01-01

    This work is about the Uruguay geology review.This country has been a devoted to breeding cattle and agriculture.The evolution of geological knowledge begun with Dr. Karl Walther who published 53 papers between 1909 and 1948.

  5. Trends in analytical techniques applied to particulate matter characterization: A critical review of fundaments and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Elson Silva; Santos, Jane Meri; Lima, Ana Teresa; Reis, Neyval Costa; Orlando, Marcos Tadeu D'Azeredo; Stuetz, Richard Michael

    2018-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown the association of airborne particulate matter (PM) size and chemical composition with health problems affecting the cardiorespiratory and central nervous systems. PM also act as cloud condensation nuclei (CNN) or ice nuclei (IN), taking part in the clouds formation process, and therefore can impact the climate. There are several works using different analytical techniques in PM chemical and physical characterization to supply information to source apportionment models that help environmental agencies to assess damages accountability. Despite the numerous analytical techniques described in the literature available for PM characterization, laboratories are normally limited to the in-house available techniques, which raises the question if a given technique is suitable for the purpose of a specific experimental work. The aim of this work consists of summarizing the main available technologies for PM characterization, serving as a guide for readers to find the most appropriate technique(s) for their investigation. Elemental analysis techniques like atomic spectrometry based and X-ray based techniques, organic and carbonaceous techniques and surface analysis techniques are discussed, illustrating their main features as well as their advantages and drawbacks. We also discuss the trends in analytical techniques used over the last two decades. The choice among all techniques is a function of a number of parameters such as: the relevant particles physical properties, sampling and measuring time, access to available facilities and the costs associated to equipment acquisition, among other considerations. An analytical guide map is presented as a guideline for choosing the most appropriated technique for a given analytical information required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Resistance Genes in Global Crop Breeding Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, K A; Andersen, K F; Asche, F; Bowden, R L; Forbes, G A; Kulakow, P A; Zhou, B

    2017-10-01

    Resistance genes are a major tool for managing crop diseases. The networks of crop breeders who exchange resistance genes and deploy them in varieties help to determine the global landscape of resistance and epidemics, an important system for maintaining food security. These networks function as a complex adaptive system, with associated strengths and vulnerabilities, and implications for policies to support resistance gene deployment strategies. Extensions of epidemic network analysis can be used to evaluate the multilayer agricultural networks that support and influence crop breeding networks. Here, we evaluate the general structure of crop breeding networks for cassava, potato, rice, and wheat. All four are clustered due to phytosanitary and intellectual property regulations, and linked through CGIAR hubs. Cassava networks primarily include public breeding groups, whereas others are more mixed. These systems must adapt to global change in climate and land use, the emergence of new diseases, and disruptive breeding technologies. Research priorities to support policy include how best to maintain both diversity and redundancy in the roles played by individual crop breeding groups (public versus private and global versus local), and how best to manage connectivity to optimize resistance gene deployment while avoiding risks to the useful life of resistance genes. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license .

  7. Morphometric Characterization of Minahasa Horse for Breeding and Conservation Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Takaendengan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate morphometric variation of Minahasa horses. Body measurements and live-weight were taken on 195 mare and 310 stallion of Minahasa horse. A multivariate approach was adopted to provide description of both body shape and body size of four Minahasa local horse populations, i.e. Tomohon, Manado, South Minahasa, and Minahasa. Statistical methods employed in this study were general linear model, simple discriminant analysis, and principle component analysis were used to construct phylogenic trees. The results showed that Tomohon’s horse population had higher body weights and body measurements (P<0.05 than those from three other areas (Manado, South Minahasa, and Minahasa. The hip width is the most discriminant variable to determine the differences among Minahasa local horse population. The results support establishment of strategy to promote the use and the development of local adapted horse.

  8. Phenotypic Characterization of the Bunaji Cattle Breed in Oyo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STD), body length (BLT), heart girth (HTG), height at withers (HTW), canon circumference (CCR), tail length (TLT), horn length (HLT) and ear length (ELT). Phenotypic traits such as dewlap, coat color, horn type, ear type, hump type and navel flap ...

  9. Characterization of beef cattle breeds by virtue of their performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic relationship between growth traits in Bonsmara heiler and bull calves on different nutritional regimes. S 4fr. J Anim. Sci. 24,67. THIESSEN. R.8., HNIZDO, E., MAXWELL, D.A.G., GIBSON, D., &. TAYLOR, St C. S., 1984. Multibreed comparisons of British cattle. Variation in body weight, growth rate and food intake.

  10. An overview of the analytical characterization of nanostructured drug delivery systems: Towards green and sustainable pharmaceuticals: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingo, Concepción; Saurina, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analytical evaluation of nanostructured drug delivery systems prepared by scCO 2 . ► Physicochemical characterization by chromatography and spectroscopy. ► Particle characterization by microscopy and thermal analysis. ► Release assessment by batch, continuous and diffusion devices. - Abstract: The analytical characterization of drug delivery systems prepared by means of green manufacturing technologies using CO 2 as a processing fluid is here reviewed. The assessment of the performance of nanopharmaceuticals designed for controlled drug release may result in a complex analytical issue and multidisciplinary studies focused on the evaluation of physicochemical, morphological and textural properties of the products may be required. The determination of the drug content as well as the detection of impurities and solvent residues are often carried out by chromatography. Assays on solid state samples relying on X-ray, vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies are of great interests to study the composition and structure of pharmaceutical forms. The morphology and size of particles are commonly checked by microscopy and complementary chemical information can be extracted in combination with spectroscopic accessories. Regarding the thermal behavior, calorimetric and thermogravimetric techniques are applied to assess the thermal transitions and stability of the samples. The evaluation of drug release profiles from the nanopharmaceuticals can be based on various experimental set-ups depending on the administration route to be considered. Kinetic curves showing the evolution of the drug concentration as a function of time in various physiological conditions (e.g., gastric, plasmatic or topical) are recorded commonly by UV–vis spectroscopy and/or chromatography. Representative examples are commented in detail to illustrate the characterization strategies.

  11. Review and comment on the US Department of Energy Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    The ''Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report,'' as prepared by the United States Department of Energy and its contractors, depicts the conceptual designs being proposed for the Yucca Mountain, Nevada High-Level Waste Repository. Much of the report is comprised of designs based on large assumptions that lead to inconclusiveness in terms of technical integrity and reasonableness. As a result, the likely success of the designs proposed within the report is highly questionable from a technical and even constructibility standpoint. Grave deficiencies have been found throughout the report ranging from the over-simplification of the geologic and geohydrologic setting to the incorrect determination of the repository horizon's host rock strength. All of these deficiencies found within the report relate directly to the probable outcome of the site characterization of Yucca Mountain and the possible design and construction of a high-level waste repository at the site. It does not appear that a concerted effort has been put forth to develop many of the concepts within the report to a reasonable level of engineering and scientific integrity that would be suitable to meet the needs of and provide the results to the Nation's High-Level Waste Program

  12. Concise Review: Multifaceted Characterization of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Use in Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonraj, Rebekah M; Raghunath, Michael; Nurcombe, Victor; Hui, James H; van Wijnen, Andre J; Cool, Simon M

    2017-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) hold great potential for regenerative medicine because of their ability for self-renewal and differentiation into tissue-specific cells such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. MSCs orchestrate tissue development, maintenance and repair, and are useful for musculoskeletal regenerative therapies to treat age-related orthopedic degenerative diseases and other clinical conditions. Importantly, MSCs produce secretory factors that play critical roles in tissue repair that support both engraftment and trophic functions (autocrine and paracrine). The development of uniform protocols for both preparation and characterization of MSCs, including standardized functional assays for evaluation of their biological potential, are critical factors contributing to their clinical utility. Quality control and release criteria for MSCs should include cell surface markers, differentiation potential, and other essential cell parameters. For example, cell surface marker profiles (surfactome), bone-forming capacities in ectopic and orthotopic models, as well as cell size and granularity, telomere length, senescence status, trophic factor secretion (secretome), and immunomodulation, should be thoroughly assessed to predict MSC utility for regenerative medicine. We propose that these and other functionalities of MSCs should be characterized prior to use in clinical applications as part of comprehensive and uniform guidelines and release criteria for their clinical-grade production to achieve predictably favorable treatment outcomes for stem cell therapy. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:2173-2185. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  13. Essential Oils’ Chemical Characterization and Investigation of Some Biological Activities: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhifi, Wissal; Bellili, Sana; Jazi, Sabrine; Bahloul, Nada; Mnif, Wissem

    2016-01-01

    This review covers literature data summarizing, on one hand, the chemistry of essential oils and, on the other hand, their most important activities. Essential oils, which are complex mixtures of volatile compounds particularly abundant in aromatic plants, are mainly composed of terpenes biogenerated by the mevalonate pathway. These volatile molecules include monoterpenes (hydrocarbon and oxygenated monoterpens), and also sesquiterpenes (hydrocarbon and oxygenated sesquiterpens). Furthermore, they contain phenolic compounds, which are derived via the shikimate pathway. Thanks to their chemical composition, essential oils possess numerous biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, etc…) of great interest in food and cosmetic industries, as well as in the human health field. PMID:28930135

  14. A document review to characterize Atomic International SNAP fuels shipped to INEL 1966--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahnschaffe, S.D.; Lords, R.E.; Kneff, D.W.; Nagel, W.E.; Pearlman, H.; Schaubert, V.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides the results of a document search and review study to obtain information on the spent fuels for the following six Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) reactor cores now stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL): SNAP-2 Experimental Reactor, SNAP-2 Development Reactor, SNAP-10A Ground Test Reactor, SNAP-8 Experimental Reactor, SNAP-8 Development Reactor, and Shield Test Reactor. The report also covers documentation on SNAP fuel materials from four in-pile materials tests: NAA-82-1, NAA-115-2, NAA-117-1, and NAA-121. Pieces of these fuel materials are also stored at INEL as part of the SNAP fuel shipments

  15. Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of 1-D Cerium Oxide Nanomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Song Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides a comprehensive overview of the recent progress of research work toward developing new one dimensional (1-D ceria (CeO2 nanomaterials. The review has been classified into three parts: the preparation procedures with identification of the existing different dimensional ceria nanomaterials, the formation mechanisms, and an analysis of their applications. From literature survey, it is inaugurated that the fundamental structures of the ceria nanomaterials constructively dominate their properties and applications. In addition, this work will also provide a perspective on the future technical trends for the development of different dimensional CeO2 nanomaterials.

  16. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  17. Surface Reservoir Characterization and Stratigraphic Studies Using Rock Magnetism and EPR in Venezuela: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, M.; Diaz, M.; Costanzo-Alvarez, V.

    2007-05-01

    During the last years, the Paleomagnetic and Rock Magnetic Laboratory at the Simon Bolivar University has incorporated studies of rock magnetism and non conventional techniques in geophysics (as Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance or EPR) to solve diverse problems at the Venezuelan oil industry. Particularly, surface reservoir characterization and EPR-Magnetostratigraphic studies have been performed. At some Venezuelan oil fields (Guafita, La Victoria and Furrial) rock magnetic properties studies (e.g. Magnetic Susceptibility (MS)), extractable organic matter (EOM) and organic matter free radical concentration (OMFRC obtained via EPR) analysis have been applied trying to identified, at shallow levels, the "oil magnetic signature" of subjacent reservoirs. The results obtained in non consolidated samples from the first 1500 m of producers and non producers wells, show the existence of MS, EOM and OMFRC anomalies at shallow levels that are associated with an underlying reservoir and/or oil migration. Authigenic spherical aggregates of submicronic FE-rich magnetic crystals, observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), are responsible for the detected MS anomalies. These studies allowed to establish a set of criteria (i.e. EPR, EOM and SEM) in order to link, with a minimum uncertainty, near-surface MS anomalies with the underlying reservoir. We have also explored the application of EPR, combined with petrographic, MS analysis, Qn and S-ratios, to characterize stratigraphic facies and identifying depositional environments at various sections in southwestern Venezuela. The different paramagnetic species that have been identified (e.g. manganese, free radicals and different Fe forms) together with the rock magnetic parameters, seem to give valuable information regarding the lithological characteristics of the studied sections. According to our results, as manganese content is related with the redox conditions, it can be used as a paleoenvironmental change index in

  18. Characterization of Dietary Energy in Swine Feed and Feed Ingredients: A Review of Recent Research Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Velayudhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed is single most expensive input in commercial pork production representing more than 50% of the total cost of production. The greatest proportion of this cost is associated with the energy component, thus making energy the most important dietary in terms of cost. For efficient pork production, it is imperative that diets are formulated to accurately match dietary energy supply to requirements for maintenance and productive functions. To achieve this goal, it is critical that the energy value of feeds is precisely determined and that the energy system that best meets the energy needs of a pig is used. Therefore, the present review focuses on dietary supply and needs for pigs and the available energy systems for formulating swine diets with particular emphasis on the net energy system. In addition to providing a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the animal in an ingredient and the subsequent diet, diets formulated using the this system are typically lower in crude protein, which leads to additional benefits in terms of reduced nitrogen excretion and consequent environmental pollution. Furthermore, using the net energy system may reduce diet cost as it allows for increased use of feedstuffs containing fibre in place of feedstuffs containing starch. A brief review of the use of distiller dried grains with solubles in swine diets as an energy source is included.

  19. Characterization of hybrid aluminum matrix composites for advanced applications – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaswinder Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid aluminum matrix composites (HAMCs are the second generation of composites that have potential to substitute single reinforced composites due to improved properties. This paper investigates the feasibility and viability of developing low cost-high performance hybrid composites for automotive and aerospace applications. Further, the fabrication characteristics and mechanical behavior of HAMCs fabricated by stir casting route have also been reviewed. The optical micrographs of the HAMCs indicate that the reinforcing particles are fairly distributed in the matrix alloy and the porosity levels have been found to be acceptable for the casted composites. The density, hardness, tensile behavior and fracture toughness of these composites have been found to be either comparable or superior to the ceramic reinforced composites. It has been observed from the literature that the direct strengthening of composites occurs due to the presence of hard ceramic phase, while the indirect strengthening arises from the thermal mismatch between the matrix alloy and reinforcing phase during solidification. Based on the database for material properties, the application area of HAMCs has been proposed in the present review. It has been concluded that the hybrid composites offer more flexibility and reliability in the design of possible components depending upon the reinforcement's combination and composition.

  20. Emerging surface characterization techniques for carbon steel corrosion: a critical brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, D; Lepkova, K; Becker, T

    2017-03-01

    Carbon steel is a preferred construction material in many industrial and domestic applications, including oil and gas pipelines, where corrosion mitigation using film-forming corrosion inhibitor formulations is a widely accepted method. This review identifies surface analytical techniques that are considered suitable for analysis of thin films at metallic substrates, but are yet to be applied to analysis of carbon steel surfaces in corrosive media or treated with corrosion inhibitors. The reviewed methods include time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray absorption spectroscopy methods, particle-induced X-ray emission, Rutherford backscatter spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission electron microscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectometry, and conversion electron Moessbauer spectrometry. Advantages and limitations of the analytical methods in thin-film surface investigations are discussed. Technical parameters of nominated analytical methods are provided to assist in the selection of suitable methods for analysis of metallic substrates deposited with surface films. The challenges associated with the applications of the emerging analytical methods in corrosion science are also addressed.

  1. Emerging surface characterization techniques for carbon steel corrosion: a critical brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, D.; Lepkova, K.; Becker, T.

    2017-03-01

    Carbon steel is a preferred construction material in many industrial and domestic applications, including oil and gas pipelines, where corrosion mitigation using film-forming corrosion inhibitor formulations is a widely accepted method. This review identifies surface analytical techniques that are considered suitable for analysis of thin films at metallic substrates, but are yet to be applied to analysis of carbon steel surfaces in corrosive media or treated with corrosion inhibitors. The reviewed methods include time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray absorption spectroscopy methods, particle-induced X-ray emission, Rutherford backscatter spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission electron microscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectometry, and conversion electron Moessbauer spectrometry. Advantages and limitations of the analytical methods in thin-film surface investigations are discussed. Technical parameters of nominated analytical methods are provided to assist in the selection of suitable methods for analysis of metallic substrates deposited with surface films. The challenges associated with the applications of the emerging analytical methods in corrosion science are also addressed.

  2. The Dead Sea Mud and Salt: A Review of Its Characterization, Contaminants, and Beneficial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawab, Abeer Al; Bozeya, Ayat; Abu-Mallouh, Saida; Abu Irmaileh, Basha'er; Daqour, Ismail; Abu-Zurayk, Rund A.

    2018-02-01

    The Dead Sea has been known for its therapeutic and cosmetic properties. The unique climatic conditions in the Dead Sea area make it a renowned site worldwide for the field of climatotherapy, which is a natural approach for the provision of medications for many human diseases including unusual exclusive salt composition of the water, a special natural mud, thermal mineral springs, solar irradiation, oxygen-rich and bromine-rich haze. This review focuses on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the Dead Sea mud and salts, in addition to their contaminants, allowing this review to serve as a guide to interested researchers to their risks and the importance of treatment. Beneficial effects of Dead Sea mud and salts are discussed in terms of therapy and cosmetics. Additional benefits of both Dead Sea mud and salts are also discussed, such as antimicrobial action of the mud in relation to its therapeutic properties, and the potency of mud and salts to be a good medium for the growth of a halophilic unicellular algae, used for the commercial production of β-carotene Dunaliella.

  3. Study of space mutation breeding in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xianfang; Zhang Long; Dai Weixu; Li Chunhua

    2004-01-01

    This paper described the status of space mutation breeding in China. It emphasized that since 1978 Chinese space scientists and agricultural biologists have send 50 kg seeds of more than 70 crops including cereals, cotton, oil, vegetable, fruit and pasture to the space using the facilities such as return satellite 9 times, Shenzhou aircraft twice and high balloon 4 times. New varieties of 19 with high yield, high quality and disease-resistance, have been bred though years of breeding at the earth at more than 70 Chinese research institutes in 22 provinces. The new varieties include five rice varieties, two wheat varieties, two cotton varieties, one sweat pepper, one tomato variety, one sesame variety, three water melon varieties, three lotus varieties and one ganoderma lucidum variety. In addition more than 50 new lines and many other germplasm resources have been obtained. Study on space breeding mechanism, such as biological effect of space induction, genetic variation by cell and molecular techniques and simulated study at the earth, has been conducted, and some progresses have been achieved. Many space-breeding bases have been established in some provinces. Space varieties have been extended up to 270000 hectares, and some useful scientific achievements and social economic benefit had been made. The study of Chinese space mutation breeding is going ahead in the world. The paper also introduced the contribution and results made by return satellites of the first three generation in space science. Some basic parameters involved in the study on space mutation breeding of return satellites were listed

  4. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt Must

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82% and the Persian had the highest (60.00%. According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.

  5. LIFETIME PRODUCTION OF SLOVENIAN LOCAL GOAT BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Žan Lotrič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to analyze lifetime production data for two Slovenian locally adapted dairy breeds: Slovenian Saanen goat (334 and Slovenian Alpine goat (1105 and for the dairy type of Dreznica goat (141 which is the only Slovenian autochthonous goat breed. Dataset included records from 54 farms. Data for does born after 2002 have been obtained from the database of the National selection program for small ruminants, collected by the ICAR standards. The contribution of farm to phenotypic variance was estimated. Data was analyzed by MIXED procedure in SAS/STAT. The results showed significant effect of breed, farm and year of culling on all traits studied, except the effect of breed on completed lactations in lifetime and number of liveborn kids. The lifetime milk yield was higher in Slovenian Alpine goat compared to Slovenian Saanen goat by 413.26±172.52 kg. The difference in lifetime protein yield between Slovenian Alpine goat and Slovenian Saanen goat amounted to 11.76±5.21 kg. Dreznica goat did not differ in lifetime milk production and protein yield compared to both intensive goat breeds. Dreznica goat yielded about 25.50±5.21 kg more fat in lifetime compared to Slovenian Saanen goat. However, compared to Slovenian Alpine goat the difference was not significant. Comparison of Slovenian Saanen goat and Slovenian Alpine goat revealed higher lifetime fat yield of Slovenian Alpine goat by 13.28±5.21 kg. The results suggested reasonably good performance and adaptation of the autochthonous breed Dreznica goat in local agro climatic conditions.

  6. Mini-review: novel non-destructivein situbiofilm characterization techniques in membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2016-05-12

    Membrane systems are commonly used in the water industry to produce potable water and for advanced wastewater treatment. One of the major drawbacks of membrane systems is biofilm formation (biofouling), which results in an unacceptable decline in membrane performance. Three novel in situ biofouling characterization techniques were assessed: (i) optical coherence tomography (OCT), (ii) planar optodes, and (iii) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The first two techniques were assessed using a biofilm grown on the surface of nanofiltration (NF) membranes using a transparent membrane fouling simulator that accurately simulates spiral wound modules, modified for in situ biofilm imaging. For the NMR study, a spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane module was used. Results show that these techniques can provide information to reconstruct the biofilm accurately, either with 2-D (OCT, planar optodes and NMR), or 3-D (OCT and NMR) scans. These non-destructive tools can elucidate the interaction of hydrodynamics and mass transport on biofilm accumulation in membrane systems. Oxygen distribution in the biofilm can be mapped and linked to water flow and substrate characteristics; insights on the effect of crossflow velocity, flow stagnation, and feed spacer presence can be obtained, and in situ information on biofilm structure, thickness, and spatial distribution can be quantitatively assessed. The combination of these novel non-destructive in situ biofilm characterization techniques can provide real-time observation of biofilm formation at the mesoscale. The information obtained with these tools could potentially be used for further improvement in the design of membrane systems and operational parameters to reduce impact of biofouling on membrane performance. © 2016 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  7. Breeding replacement gilts for organic pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenhouwers, J I; Ten Napel, J; Hanenberg, E H A T; Merks, J W M

    2011-02-01

    In this study, breeding structures and commercial sow lines were evaluated by economic and genetic simulation studies for their suitability to provide the Dutch organic pig sector with replacement gilts. Sow and litter performance from over 2000 crossbred sows from 2006 to 2007 were collected on 11 to 14 Dutch organic pig herds, respectively, and compared with conventional herds. Results showed that organic herds had lower farrowing rates (3.6% to 7.5%), more live born piglets per litter (0.4% to 1.2%) and higher preweaning mortality rates (7% to 13%) compared to conventional herds. These results were used to simulate economic performance of various combinations of breeding structures and sow lines under organic conditions, under the assumption of absence of genotype-environment interactions. Sow and litter performance data under organic conditions (total piglets born/litter, stillborn piglets/litter, mortality until weaning, lactation length, interval weaning-oestrus and sow culling rate) and the costprice calculation for the Dutch organic pig sector were used as input for the economic simulation studies. The expected genetic progress was simulated for three potential breeding structures of the organic sector: organic breeding herds producing F1 gilts (OrgBS), a flower breeding system (FlowerBS) and a two-line rotation breeding system (RotBS). In FlowerBS, an organic purebred sow line is bred, using on-farm gilt replacement. The OrgBS with a Yorkshire × Landrace cross had the highest margin per sow place (€779), followed by RotBS with Yorkshire × Landrace cross (€706) and FlowerBS with Yorkshire sow line (€677). In case that an organic purebred sow population of 5000 sows would be available, FlowerBS gave the highest genetic progress in terms of cost price reduction (€3.72/slaughter pig per generation), followed by RotBS and OrgBS (€3.60/slaughter pig per generation). For FlowerBS, additional costs will be involved for maintaining a dedicated breeding

  8. Review on Characterization and Mechanical Performance of Self-cleaning Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailan Siti Norsaffirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-cleaning concrete is an effective alternative to provide cleaner environment which contribute to sustainability and towards a green environment. It is in accordance with the requirements of environmental issues on huge energy consumption and air pollution from carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. Photocatalyst in self-cleaning concrete accelerates the decomposition of organic particulates, hence pollution could be reduced through photocatalytic degradation of gaseous pollutants. Mechanical performances of self-cleaning concrete were improved by adding photocatalytic materials. Self cleaning abilities were evaluated in the photocatalytic activity test under UV light and photocatalytic degradation of gaseous pollutant was measured by depollution test. This review aims to give an overview about the characteristics of photocatalytic materials and mechanical performances of self-cleaning concrete.

  9. Tribochemical Characterization and Tribocorrosive Behavior of CoCrMo Alloys: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Wei Quan; Tan, Xipeng; Bhowmik, Ayan; Liu, Erjia; Tor, Shu Beng

    2017-12-26

    Orthopedic implants first started out as an all-metal hip joint replacement. However, poor design and machinability as well as unsatisfactory surface finish subjected the all-metal joint replacement to being superseded by a polyethylene bearing. Continued improvement in manufacturing techniques together with the reality that polyethylene wear debris can cause hazardous reactions in the human body has brought about the revival of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joints in recent years. This has also led to a relatively new research area that links tribology and corrosion together. This article aims at reviewing the commonly used tribochemical methods adopted in the analysis of tribocorrosion and putting forward some of the models and environmental factors affecting the tribocorrosive behavior of CoCrMo alloys, a widely-used class of biomaterial for orthopedic implants.

  10. Tribochemical Characterization and Tribocorrosive Behavior of CoCrMo Alloys: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Quan Toh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthopedic implants first started out as an all-metal hip joint replacement. However, poor design and machinability as well as unsatisfactory surface finish subjected the all-metal joint replacement to being superseded by a polyethylene bearing. Continued improvement in manufacturing techniques together with the reality that polyethylene wear debris can cause hazardous reactions in the human body has brought about the revival of metal-on-metal (MOM hip joints in recent years. This has also led to a relatively new research area that links tribology and corrosion together. This article aims at reviewing the commonly used tribochemical methods adopted in the analysis of tribocorrosion and putting forward some of the models and environmental factors affecting the tribocorrosive behavior of CoCrMo alloys, a widely-used class of biomaterial for orthopedic implants.

  11. Primary complement C5 deficiencies – Molecular characterization and clinical review of two families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schejbel, Lone; Fadnes, Dag; Permin, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    not reveal any differences between C5 deficient and sufficient individuals with regard to clinical presentation, apart from the susceptibility to Neisseria infections. Of note, one of the patients described here, and several C5 deficient patients from the literature had Neisseria meningitidis serotype B......Inherited deficiency states of the terminal complement component C5 are rare and often associated with increased risk of recurrent Neisseria infections. More than 50 cases with primary C5 deficiency have been reported. In spite of this, the molecular basis has only been documented in a few cases...... of the Norwegian patient, previously diagnosed as homozygous C5 deficient and suffering four Neisseria infections, an additional case of C5 deficiency was discovered, who had experienced one episode of Neisseria infections. Detailed review of the clinical history of the patients and their healthy relatives did...

  12. [Characterization of the assistance practices in mental health care networking: an integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Eduardo Oliveira Salinas; Nasi, Cintia; Camatta, Marcio Wagner; Schneider, Jacó Fernando

    2012-12-01

    This study is an integrative literature review that aims to identify and analyze the characteristics of assistance practices in mental health Primary Health Care in Brazil. The sample consisted in nine articles, from databases consulted in the period between 2001 and 2009. In data analyses, results were grouped in two themes: activities and principles of psychiatric reform. Results show that even when the substitute services adopt some activities/principles from psychiatric reform, yet there is a valorization of physician-focused activities, which lead to a persistence of the old paradigms and practices. The multidisciplinary team of mental health, needs to restructure its assistance and its knowledge, so that practices focused on the principles of psychiatric reform can be permanent.

  13. A Review of Advances in the Identification and Characterization of Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems Using Geospatial Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C. Pérez Hoyos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater Dependent Ecosystem (GDE protection is increasingly being recognized as essential for the sustainable management and allocation of water resources. GDE services are crucial for human well-being and for a variety of flora and fauna. However, the conservation of GDEs is only possible if knowledge about their location and extent is available. Several studies have focused on the identification of GDEs at specific locations using ground-based measurements. However, recent progress in remote sensing technologies and their integration with Geographic Information Systems (GIS has provided alternative ways to map GDEs at a much larger spatial extent. This paper presents a review of the geospatial methods that have been used to map and delineate GDEs at spatial different extents. Additionally, a summary of the satellite sensors useful for identification of GDEs and the integration of remote sensing data with ground-based measurements in the process of mapping GDEs is presented.

  14. Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter, No. 31, July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    induction) and capacity built; technology packages are further tested and debugged in research networks (CRPs); and then the technology is transferred to our counterparts in Member States through Technical Cooperation projects. Two CRPs will close in 2013. You will find more information about CRP D2.40.12, ''Enhancing the Efficiency of Induced Mutagenesis through an Integrated Biotechnology Pipeline'', in this issue. This CRP proposed to address efficiency of mutation induction through the assembly, adaptation and interlacing of novel cellular and molecular biology techniques to achieve a seamless dove- tailing of validated processes into a modular pipeline: cellular and molecular biology techniques addressing the bottlenecks imposed by the need to generate large mutant populations rapidly in appropriate genetic backgrounds (homozygous for the mutation events, devoid of chimeras and in contemporary breeding materials). By scrutinizing target genes for desired changes, the need for field trials of large populations will be precluded. Milestones include the development of rapid techniques for dissolution of chimeras in vegetatively propagated banana; establishment of barley TILLING for targeting genes controlling drought; microspore mutagenesis for instant production of homozygous true breeding mutant lines; reduced representation next-generation sequencing approaches to screen mutant rice populations; and development and validation of low cost methods for mutant screening. Major milestones have been reached in CRP D2.40.23, ''Isolation and Characterization of Genes Involved in Mutagenesis of Crop Plants''. Genes encoding core proteins of the repair pathway in rice have been cloned and are being characterized. Whole genome scanning in soybean is under way for naturally mutated and selected genes. A chloroplast mutator gene and mutations caused by it have been identified in barley, and three putative DNA repair genes in pea are currently under study. Mutant populations of rice

  15. Genetic analysis in the Collaborative Cross breeding population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, Vivek [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokoloff, Greta [ORNL; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl [Jackson Laboratory, The, Bar Harbor, ME; Striz, Martin [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Branstetter, Lisa R [ORNL; Beckmann, Melissa [ORNL; Spence, Jason S [ORNL; Jackson, Barbara L [ORNL; Galloway, Leslie D [ORNL; Barker, Gene [ORNL; Wymore, Ann M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hunsicker, Patricia R [ORNL; Durtschi, David W [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Shaw, Ginger S [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Shinpock, Sarah G [ORNL; Manly, Kenneth F [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Miller, Darla R [ORNL; Donahue, Kevin [University at Buffalo, NY; Culiat, Cymbeline T [ORNL; Churchill, Gary A [Jackson Laboratory, The, Bar Harbor, ME; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Palmer, Abraham [University of Chicago; O' Hara, Bruce [University of Kentucky; Voy, Brynn H [ORNL; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Genetic reference populations in model organisms are critical resources for systems genetic analysis of disease related phenotypes. The breeding history of these inbred panels may influence detectable allelic and phenotypic diversity. The existing panel of common inbred strains reflects historical selection biases, and existing recombinant inbred panels have low allelic diversity. All such populations may be subject to consequences of inbreeding depression. The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a mouse reference population with high allelic diversity that is being constructed using a randomized breeding design that systematically outcrosses eight founder strains, followed by inbreeding to obtain new recombinant inbred strains. Five of the eight founders are common laboratory strains, and three are wild-derived. Since its inception, the partially inbred CC has been characterized for physiological, morphological, and behavioral traits. The construction of this population provided a unique opportunity to observe phenotypic variation as new allelic combinations arose through intercrossing and inbreeding to create new stable genetic combinations. Processes including inbreeding depression and its impact on allelic and phenotypic diversity were assessed. Phenotypic variation in the CC breeding population exceeds that of existing mouse genetic reference populations due to both high founder genetic diversity and novel epistatic combinations. However, some focal evidence of allele purging was detected including a suggestive QTL for litter size in a location of changing allele frequency. Despite these inescapable pressures, high diversity and precision for genetic mapping remain. These results demonstrate the potential of the CC population once completed and highlight implications for development of related populations. Supplementary material consists of Supplementary Table 1 Phenotypic means, variances, ranges and heritabilities for all traits and generations, Supplementary Table

  16. Dynamic modeling approaches to characterize the functioning of health systems: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela Y; Ogbuoji, Osondu; Atun, Rifat; Verguet, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is one of the targets for the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3. The impetus for UHC has led to an increased demand for time-sensitive tools to enhance our knowledge of how health systems function and to evaluate impact of system interventions. We define the field of "health system modeling" (HSM) as an area of research where dynamic mathematical models can be designed in order to describe, predict, and quantitatively capture the functioning of health systems. HSM can be used to explore the dynamic relationships among different system components, including organizational design, financing and other resources (such as investments in resources and supply chain management systems) - what we call "inputs" - on access, coverage, and quality of care - what we call "outputs", toward improved health system "outcomes", namely increased levels and fairer distributions of population health and financial risk protection. We undertook a systematic review to identify the existing approaches used in HSM. We identified "systems thinking" - a conceptual and qualitative description of the critical interactions within a health system - as an important underlying precursor to HSM, and collated a critical collection of such articles. We then reviewed and categorized articles from two schools of thoughts: "system dynamics" (SD)" and "susceptible-infected-recovered-plus" (SIR+). SD emphasizes the notion of accumulations of stocks in the system, inflows and outflows, and causal feedback structure to predict intended and unintended consequences of policy interventions. The SIR + models link a typical disease transmission model with another that captures certain aspects of the system that impact the outcomes of the main model. These existing methods provide critical insights in informing the design of HSM, and provide a departure point to extend this research agenda. We highlight the opportunity to advance modeling methods to further understand

  17. NIR and Py-mbms coupled with multivariate data analysis as a high-throughput biomass characterization technique : a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eXiao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing the use of lignocellulosic biomass as the feedstock for renewable energy production is currently being developed globally. Biomass is a complex mixture of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignins, extractives, and proteins; as well as inorganic salts. Cell wall compositional analysis for biomass characterization is laborious and time consuming. In order to characterize biomass fast and efficiently, several high through-put technologies have been successfully developed. Among them, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR and pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry (Py-mbms are complementary tools and capable of evaluating a large number of raw or modified biomass in a short period of time. NIR shows vibrations associated with specific chemical structures whereas Py-mbms depicts the full range of fragments from the decomposition of biomass. Both NIR vibrations and Py-mbms peaks are assigned to possible chemical functional groups and molecular structures. They provide complementary information of chemical insight of biomaterials. However, it is challenging to interpret the informative results because of the large amount of overlapping bands or decomposition fragments contained in the spectra. In order to improve the efficiency of data analysis, multivariate analysis tools have been adapted to define the significant correlations among data variables, so that the large number of bands/peaks could be replaced by a small number of reconstructed variables representing original variation. Reconstructed data variables are used for sample comparison (principal component analysis and for building regression models (partial least square regression between biomass chemical structures and properties of interests. In this review, the important biomass chemical structures measured by NIR and Py-mbms are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of conventional data analysis methods and multivariate data analysis methods are introduced, compared and evaluated

  18. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  19. Regulatory framework for gene editing and other new breeding techniques (NBTs) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Agustina I; Lema, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    "New Breeding Techniques" (NBTs) are a group of recent innovations in plant breeding using molecular biology tools. It is becoming evident that NBTs can introduce advantageous traits for agriculture that could be commercially available very soon However, there is still a need of clarifying its regulatory status, particularly in regards to worldwide regulations on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). This article reviews the meaning of the NBTs concept, performs an overall regulatory analysis of these technologies and reports the first regulation in the world that is applied to these technologies, which was issued by the Argentine Government.

  20. Semi-dwarf cereal mutants and their use in cross-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The proceedings include 12 papers presented at the Research Co-ordination Meeting organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development and held in Vienna, 2-6 March 1981. At the meeting, participants reviewed the present status of genetic studies and several aspects of breeding for semi-dwarf plant type in cereals, discussed methods of evaluating semi-dwarfing genes for use in cross-breeding programmes and took decisions regarding future work plans. Nine papers give information on radiation induced semi-dwarf mutants of wheat, barley and rice and are input into INIS

  1. Mutation Breeding Newsletter. No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter contains brief articles on the use of radiation to induce mutations in plants; radiation-induced mutants in Chrysanthemum; disrupting the association between oil and protein content in soybean seeds; mutation studies on bougainvillea; a new pepper cultivar; and the use of mutation induction to improve the quality of yam beans. A short review of the seminar on the use of mutation and related biotechnology for crop improvement in the Middle East and Mediterranean regions, and a description of a Co-ordinated Research Programme on the application of DNA-based marker mutations for the improvement of cereals and other sexually reproduced crop species are also included. Two tables are given: these are based on the ''FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database'' and show the number of mutated varieties and the number of officially released mutant varieties in particular crops/species. Refs and tabs

  2. GENETIC DIVERSITY, PARENTAGE VERIFICATION AND GENETIC BOTTLENECKS EVALUATION IN IRANIAN TURKMEN HORSE BREED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Mianji, G; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Farhadi, A

    2015-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to genetically evaluate Turkmen horses for genetic diversity and to evaluate whether they have experienced any recent genetic bottlenecks. A total of 565 individuals from Turkmen horses were characterized for within breed diversity using 12 microsatellite markers. The estimated mean allelic diversity was (9.42 ± 1.78) per locus, with a total of 131 alleles in genotyped samples. A high level of genetic variability within this breed was observed in terms of high values of effective number of alleles (4.70 ± 1.36), observed heterozygosity (0.757 ± 0.19), expected Nei's heterozygosity (0.765 ± 0.13), and polymorphism information content (0.776 ± 0.17). The estimated cumulative probability of exclusion of wrongly named parents (PE) was high, with an average value of 99.96% that indicates the effectiveness of applied markers in resolving of parentage typing in Turkmen horse population. The paternity testing results did not show any misidentification and all selected animals were qualified based on genotypic information using a likelihood-based method. Low values of Wright's fixation index, F(IS) (0.012) indicated low levels of inbreeding. A significant heterozygote excess on the basis of different models, as revealed from Sign and Wilcoxon sign rank test suggested that Turkmen horse population is not in mutation-drift equilibrium. But, the Mode-shift indicator test showed a normal 'L' shaped distribution for allelic class and proportion of alleles, thus indicating the absence of bottleneck events in the recent past history of this breed. Further research work should be carrying out to clarify the cause of discrepancy observed forbottleneck results in this breed. In conclusion, despite unplanned breeding in Turkmen horse population, this breed still has sufficient genetic variability and could provide a valuable source of genetic material that may use for meeting the demands of future breeding programs.

  3. Polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA in the Brazilian Canindé goat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N M V; Pimenta Filho, E C; Arandas, J K G; Gomes Filho, M A; Ferreira, E; Del Cerro, I; Fonseca, C; Ribeiro, M N

    2017-05-18

    The success of the geographical distribution of goat populations around the world is a consequence of the adaptive potential of these breeds. Several relevant traits to the success of the species in colonizing different ecosystems (and use by man) evolved before domestication. These features were relevant for the selection of different breeds. Each breed represents a genetic heritage that may be unique and essential for maintaining the species. The objective of this study was to catalog the mtDNA haplotypes of the Brazilian autochthonous Canindé goat breed and to characterize the genetic diversity observed in subpopulations by sequencing a 481-bp fragment corresponding to the first portion of the control region in 178 individuals from 10 herds, sampled in six Brazilian states. The global population displays a total of 29 haplotypes and 56 polymorphic sites. About one-third (10) of the haplotypes were common to all subpopulations while the remaining (19) were exclusive to a single subpopulation. The population exhibited high average haplotype diversity (0.82), with maximum and minimum values of 0.90 and 0.56 in individual subpopulations, respectively. In contrast, nucleotide diversity was 0.014, with maximum and minimum values of 0.020 and 0.004, respectively. The spatial analysis of molecular variance did not detect structure within the Canindé goat breed, and analysis of molecular variance revealed that 88.4% of the variation observed in the population was due to differences among individuals in the same subpopulation. Only 11.4% of the genetic variation referred to differences among subpopulations. About one-third (33.1%) of the individuals within population shared the same haplotype, which may be due not only to the breed developing from a small number of matrilines. The Brazilian autochthonous Canindé breed was classified as haplogroup A, a haplotype predominant in the Europe region.

  4. Activity patterns of collared pratincoles Glareola pratincola in a breeding colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galván, I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The collared pratincole Glareola pratincola is a declining wader species, but most aspects of its biology are poorly known. In this study, an attempt is made to characterize the basic behavioural repertoire of the species, searching for differences between sexes. Focal observations of the most common activities were obtained in a breeding colony in southwestern Spain. Pratincoles did not equally distribute their time among types of activity, but spent more time in alert behaviour than feeding and moving, and more time preening than moving in the colony site. Males devoted more time to vigilance for predators than females, and both sexes increased the time spent resting and decreased the time for vigilance as the breeding season progressed. These sex–related and seasonal effects on the vigilance behaviour suggest that competition for females and ambient temperature influence the daily activity pattern of collared pratincoles during breeding.

  5. EFFECT OF REARING SYSTEM ON THE MUSCLE FIBRE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHICKEN BREEDS WITH DIFFERENT GROWTH SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Avellini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the influence of the rearing system on the muscle fibre characteristics of two meat chicken breeds such as the Ross and the Livorno characterized by extremely fast and extremely slow growth speed respectively. No differences between the breeds were found in the conventional rearing system except for muscle fibre area. On the other hand, in the free range rearing system, differences in muscle fibre composition were evidenced between the breeds especially in the Ileotibialis lateralis muscle with the Livorno having a greater percentage of αR fibres (57,71 vs 36,65. A higher percentage of αR fibres (57,71 vs 46,90 was found in the Ileotibialis lateralis of the free range reared Livorno chickens compared to the conventionally reared ones.

  6. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  7. Characterization of Movement Disorder Phenomenology in Genetically Proven, Familial Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasca-Salas, Carmen; Masellis, Mario; Khoo, Edwin; Shah, Binit B; Fisman, David; Lang, Anthony E; Kleiner-Fisman, Galit

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in granulin (PGRN) and tau (MAPT), and hexanucleotide repeat expansions near the C9orf72 genes are the most prevalent genetic causes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Although behavior, language and movement presentations are common, the relationship between genetic subgroup and movement disorder phenomenology is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature characterizing the spectrum and prevalence of movement disorders in genetic frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Electronic databases were searched using terms related to frontotemporal lobar degeneration and movement disorders. Articles were included when cases had a proven genetic cause. Study-specific prevalence estimates for clinical features were transformed using Freeman-Tukey arcsine transformation, allowing for pooled estimates of prevalence to be generated using random-effects models. The mean age at onset was earlier in those with MAPT mutations compared to PGRN (pphenomenology in genetic frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Standardized prospective collection of clinical information in conjunction with genetic characterization will be crucial for accurate clinico-genetic correlation.

  8. Advanced Nanoscale Characterization of Cement Based Materials Using X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Chae, Sejung R.

    2013-05-22

    We report various synchrotron radiation laboratory based techniques used to characterize cement based materials in nanometer scale. High resolution X-ray transmission imaging combined with a rotational axis allows for rendering of samples in three dimensions revealing volumetric details. Scanning transmission X-ray microscope combines high spatial resolution imaging with high spectral resolution of the incident beam to reveal X-ray absorption near edge structure variations in the material nanostructure. Microdiffraction scans the surface of a sample to map its high order reflection or crystallographic variations with a micron-sized incident beam. High pressure X-ray diffraction measures compressibility of pure phase materials. Unique results of studies using the above tools are discussed-a study of pores, connectivity, and morphology of a 2,000 year old concrete using nanotomography; detection of localized and varying silicate chain depolymerization in Al-substituted tobermorite, and quantification of monosulfate distribution in tricalcium aluminate hydration using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy; detection and mapping of hydration products in high volume fly ash paste using microdiffraction; and determination of mechanical properties of various AFm phases using high pressure X-ray diffraction. © 2013 The Author(s).

  9. Physical characterization of component particles included in dry powder inhalers. I. Strategy review and static characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Anthony J; Mansour, Heidi M; Telko, Martin J; Xu, Zhen; Smyth, Hugh D C; Mulder, Tako; McLean, Richard; Langridge, John; Papadopoulos, Dimitris

    2007-05-01

    The performance of dry powder aerosols for the delivery of drugs to the lungs has been studied extensively in the last decade. The focus for different research groups has been on aspects of the powder formulation, which relate to solid state, surface and interfacial chemistry, bulk properties (static and dynamic) and measures of performance. The nature of studies in this field, tend to be complex and correlations between specific properties and performance seem to be rare. Consequently, the adoption of formulation approaches that on a predictive basis lead to desirable performance has been an elusive goal but one that many agree is worth striving towards. The purpose of this paper is to initiate a discussion of the use of a variety of techniques to elucidate dry particle behavior that might guide the data collection process. If the many researchers in this field can agree on this, or an alternative, guide then a database can be constructed that would allow predictive models to be developed. This is the first of two papers that discuss static and dynamic methods of characterizing dry powder inhaler formulations. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. Motor learning characterization in people with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íbis Ariana Peña de Moraes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder primarily characterized by deficits in social interaction, communication and implicit skill learning. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the results of research on "motor learning" and the means used for measuring "autistic disorder". METHODS: A systematic literature search was done using Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, BVS (virtual health library, and PsycINFO. We included articles that contained the keywords "autism" and "motor learning". The variables considered were the methodological aspects; results presented, and the methodological quality of the studies. RESULTS: A total of 42 studies were identified; 33 articles were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted from nine eligible studies and summarized. CONCLUSION: We concluded that although individuals with ASD showed performance difficulties in different memory and motor learning tasks, acquisition of skills still takes place in this population; however, this skill acquisition is related to heterogeneous events, occurring without the awareness of the individual.

  11. A systematic review characterizing on-farm sources of Campylobacter spp. for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  12. A Systematic Review Characterizing On-Farm Sources of Campylobacter spp. for Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  13. A systematic review characterizing on-farm sources of Campylobacter spp. for broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Agunos

    Full Text Available Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95 conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32, animals (n = 57, humans (n = 26, environment (n = 54, and water (n = 63. Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping

  14. Sudden acquired retinal degeneration in dogs: breed distribution of 495 canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Amanda R; van der Woerdt, Alexandra; Gaarder, James E; Sapienza, John S; Hernandez-Merino, Elena; Abrams, Kenneth; Church, Melanie L; La Croix, Noelle

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breed, age, gender, and weight distribution of dogs affected with sudden acquired retinal degeneration (SARD) and to investigate whether SARD is more common in small breed dogs. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with SARD confirmed by an electroretinogram were reviewed. Breed, age, gender, and weight were recorded when available. The same data were obtained for dogs with SARD described in the veterinary literature. Three hundred and two dogs were included from the ophthalmology practices and 193 dogs from the veterinary literature. Sixty breeds were present in the study. Mixed-breed dogs were the most common at 108 dogs (21.8%), followed by the Dachshund (68, 13.7%), Chinese Pug (44, 8.9%), Miniature Schnauzer (39, 7.9%), Maltese (23, 4.6%), Cocker Spaniel (22, 4.4%), Bichon Frise (18, 3.6%), Beagle (16, 3.2%), Brittany (15, 3.0%), and Pomeranian (10, 2.0%). Fifty other breeds were represented by 1-9 dogs each. The median age was 9 years (range = 10 months-16 years). The weight was known for 197 dogs. About 60.9% of dogs were less than 25 pounds, 31.5% were between 25 and 50 pounds, and 7.6% were greater than 50 pounds. Gender was recorded in 393 dogs: 217 female dogs and 176 male dogs. As previously reported, SARD is most common in middle-aged to older dogs. Smaller dogs of less than 25 pounds appear overrepresented, while large/giant breed dogs of greater than 50 pounds are infrequently diagnosed. In this study, there was no statistical significance between female and male dogs. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. Cranial Suture Closure in Domestic Dog Breeds and Its Relationships to Skull Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Madeleine; Haussman, Sinah

    2016-04-01

    Bulldog-type brachycephalic domestic dog breeds are characterized by a relatively short and broad skull with a dorsally rotated rostrum (airorhynchy). Not much is known about the association between a bulldog-type skull conformation and peculiar patterns of suture and synchondrosis closure in domestic dogs. In this study, we aim to explore breed-specific patterns of cranial suture and synchondrosis closure in relation to the prebasial angle (proxy for airorhynchy and thus bulldog-type skull conformation) in domestic dogs. For this purpose, we coded closure of 18 sutures and synchondroses in 26 wolves, that is, the wild ancestor of all domestic dogs, and 134 domestic dogs comprising 11 breeds. Comparisons of the relative amount of closing and closed sutures and synchondroses (closure scores) in adult individuals showed that bulldog-type breeds have significantly higher closure scores than non-bulldog-type breeds and that domestic dogs have significantly higher closure scores than the wolf. We further found that the prebasial angle is significantly positively correlated with the amount of closure of the basispheno-presphenoid synchondrosis and sutures of the nose (premaxillo-nasal and maxillo-nasal) and the palate (premaxillo-maxillary and interpalatine). Our results show that there is a correlation between patterns of suture and synchondrosis closure and skull shape in domestic dogs, although the causal relationships remain elusive. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF ECO-FRIENDLY CONCRETE USING INDUSTRIAL WASTE – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present in India, about 960 million metric tons of solid was te is being generated annually as byproducts during industrial, mining, municipal, agricultural and other processes. Advances in solid waste management resulted in alter native construction materials as a substitute to traditional materials like bricks, blocks, tiles, aggregates, ceramics, cement, lime, soil, timber and paint. To safeguard th e environment, efforts are being made for recycling different wastes and to utilize th em in value added applications. The cement industries have been making significan t progress in reducing carbon dioxide (CO 2 emissions through improvements in process technology and enhancements in process efficiency, but further improvements ar e limited because CO 2 production is inherent to the basic process of calcinations of limestone. In the past two decades, various investigations have been conducted on industri al wastes like flyash, blast furnace slag, Silica fume, rice husks and other industria l waste materials to act as cement replacements .This paper consist of a review extensively conducted on publications related to utilization of waste materials as cemen t replacement with an intention to develop a process so as to produce an eco-friendly concrete having similar or higher strength and thus simultaneously providing a remedy t o environmental hazards resulting from waste material disposal.

  17. Preparation and characterization of masonry units, lightweight concrete based and agro-industrial wastes: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Fuentes, C. X.

    2013-11-01

    Discussion about the new composite materials that integrate agro industrial residues for the masonry unit's production, which are directed towards its implementation in projects of affordable housing, is a subject of interest to the public and productive sector of the country. For this reason, it presents a descriptive review of primary and secondary sources, which support the project under study. The methodology consisted in finding research articles in databases supported by the scientific community, which are ordered, integrated and prioritized, creating a matrix synthesis, which condensed the objectives, type of material, studied properties and main results found. It was found that the composite materials for masonry use mainly clay or cement as matrix and as reinforcement, agro waste like paper fibers, bamboo, rice husks, among others are used. Moreover, the properties that determine its potential use are low density, stress resistance and low thermal conductivity. Comparing the results with traditional specimens as the block of clay, concrete, adobe vs. experimental models made of the compounds analyzed, favorable results were obtained in the case of integrating waste materials into its composition, optimized their properties. Thus, science and architecture converge through recognition of the properties of materials that expand the alternatives of building spaces, economic and environmentally sustainable.

  18. Characterizing Golden Eagle risk to lead and anticoagulant rodenticide exposure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Buck, Jeremy A.

    2017-01-01

    Contaminant exposure is among the many threats to Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) populations throughout North America, particularly lead poisoning and anticoagulant rodenticides (AR). These threats may act in concert with others (e.g., lead poisoning and trauma associated with striking objects) to exacerbate risk. Golden Eagles are skilled hunters but also exploit scavenging opportunities, making them particularly susceptible to contaminant exposure from ingesting tissues of poisoned or shot animals. Lead poisoning has long been recognized as an important source of mortality for Golden Eagles throughout North America. More recently, ARs have been associated with both sublethal and lethal effects in raptor species worldwide. In this review, we examine the current state of knowledge for lead and AR exposure in Golden Eagles, drawing from the broader raptor contaminant ecology literature. We examine lead and AR sources within Golden Eagle habitats, exposure routes and toxicity, effects on individuals and populations, synergistic effects, and data and information needs. Continued research addressing data needs and information gaps will help with Golden Eagle conservation planning.

  19. Review Recent progress in identification and characterization of loci associated with sex-linked congenital cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D D; Du, J Z; Topolewski, J; Wang, X M

    2016-07-29

    Congenital cataract is a common cause of blindness in children; however, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Genetic factors have been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of congenital cataract. The current genetic models of congenital cataract include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and sex-linked inheritance. Sex-linked congenital cataract could be inherited through the X or Y chromosome. Congenital cataract is a symptom associated with several X-linked disorders, including Nance-Horan syndrome, Lowe syndrome, Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome, and Alport syndrome. On the other hand, the mechanism and characteristics of Y-linked congenital cataract remains to be identified. Despite its rarity, sex-linked congenital cataract has been known to seriously affect the quality of life of patients. In this review, we present our current understanding of the genes and loci associated with sex-linked congenital cataract. This could help identify novel approaches for the prevention, early diagnosis, and comprehensive disease treatment.

  20. Material characterization with top-hat cw laser induced photothermal techniques: A short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrath, N G C; Shen, J; Astrath, F B G; Zhou, J; Baesso, M L; Malacarne, L C; Pedreira, P R B; Bento, A C

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present a short review of the recent development of the theoretical models for top-hat cw laser induced spectroscopies of thermal lens and thermal mirror. With the same probe and top-hat excitation lasers, an apparatus is set up to concurrently measure both thermal lens and thermal mirror effects of transparent samples. With the theoretical models and the experimental apparatus, not only optical and thermal properties are measured, but also the fluorescence quantum coefficient and the temperature coefficient of the optical path length of a fluorescent sample are simultaneously determined with no need of any reference sample. Mechanical properties also could be measured. Opaque samples are also studied using top-hat cw laser thermal mirror and top-hat photothermal deflection techniques to determine thermal properties (e.g., thermal conductivity and unit volume specific heat). This work shows that the combined top-hat cw laser photothermal techniques are useful for nondestructive evaluation of both transparent and opaque samples with a less expensive non-TEM 00 Gaussian laser.