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Sample records for breeding value

  1. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachman, Stephen D; Spangler, Matthew L; Bennett, Gary L; Hanford, Kathryn J; Kuehn, Larry A; Snelling, Warren M; Thallman, R Mark; Saatchi, Mahdi; Garrick, Dorian J; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Pollak, E John

    2013-08-16

    Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training set, across- and within-breed trained

  2. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Vinzent; Johnston, David J; Tier, Bruce

    2014-10-24

    The major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, Brahman, Belmont Red, Santa Gertrudis and Tropical Composite. This paper presents accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV) that were calculated from these PE in the commercial pure-breed beef cattle seed stock sector. PE derived by the Beef CRC from multi-breed and pure-breed training populations were applied to genotyped Angus, Limousin and Brahman sires and young animals, but with no pure-breed Limousin in the training population. The accuracy of the resulting GEBV was assessed by their genetic correlation to their phenotypic target trait in a bi-variate REML approach that models GEBV as trait observations. Accuracies of most GEBV for Angus and Brahman were between 0.1 and 0.4, with accuracies for abattoir carcass traits generally greater than for live animal body composition traits and reproduction traits. Estimated accuracies greater than 0.5 were only observed for Brahman abattoir carcass traits and for Angus carcass rib fat. Averaged across traits within breeds, accuracies of GEBV were highest when PE from the pooled across-breed training population were used. However, for the Angus and Brahman breeds the difference in accuracy from using pure-breed PE was small. For the Limousin breed no reasonable results could be achieved for any trait. Although accuracies were generally low compared to published accuracies estimated within breeds, they are in line with those derived in other multi-breed populations. Thus PE developed by the Beef CRC can contribute to the implementation of genomic selection in

  3. Validating the breeding value for maternal gain from birth to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mike MacNeil

    Validating the breeding value for maternal preweaning gain in beef cattle with measured milk ... maternal breeding value for preweaning gain may be nearly as effective in changing milk production as direct selection. ... eastern Montana and the Northern Great Plains Region provided annual support for a cow-calf pair on.

  4. Predicting breeding values in animals by kalman filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karacaören, Burak; Janss, Luc; Kadarmideen, Haja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate usefulness of Kalman Filter (KF) Random Walk methodology (KF-RW) for prediction of breeding values in animals. We used body condition score (BCS) from dairy cattle for illustrating use of KF-RW. BCS was measured by Swiss Holstein Breeding Association during...

  5. Reliabilities of genomic estimated breeding values in Danish Jersey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Su, Guosheng

    2012-01-01

    In order to optimize the use of genomic selection in breeding plans, it is essential to have reliable estimates of the genomic breeding values. This study investigated reliabilities of direct genomic values (DGVs) in the Jersey population estimated by three different methods. The validation methods...... of DGV. The data set consisted of 1003 Danish Jersey bulls with conventional estimated breeding values (EBVs) for 14 different traits included in the Nordic selection index. The bulls were genotyped for Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using the Illumina 54 K chip. A Bayesian method was used...

  6. Breeding value estimation for somatic cell score in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two fixed regression testday models were applied for variance component estimation and prediction of breeding values for somatic cell score, using testday records of the first three lactations of South African Holstein and Jersey cows. The first model (ML-model) considered the testdays of the different lactations as different ...

  7. Derivation of economic values for the Simmentaler breed in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper was to derive economic values for beef production, carcass quality and fitness traits for the Simmentaler breed in Southern Africa. Income was partitioned between weaners, surplus heifers and cull cows. Expenses were calculated for all classes and included feed cost, husbandry cost and ...

  8. Validating the breeding value for maternal preweaning gain in beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to validate the maternal breeding value for preweaning gain as a predictor of genetic differences in milk production. Phenotypic variation in preweaning gain and in milk production measured by the weigh-suckle-weigh method was partitioned into genetic and non-genetic components.

  9. Reducing dimensionality for prediction of genome-wide breeding values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolliams John A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Partial least square regression (PLSR and principal component regression (PCR are methods designed for situations where the number of predictors is larger than the number of records. The aim was to compare the accuracy of genome-wide breeding values (EBV produced using PLSR and PCR with a Bayesian method, 'BayesB'. Marker densities of 1, 2, 4 and 8 Ne markers/Morgan were evaluated when the effective population size (Ne was 100. The correlation between true breeding value and estimated breeding value increased with density from 0.611 to 0.681 and 0.604 to 0.658 using PLSR and PCR respectively, with an overall advantage to PLSR of 0.016 (s.e = 0.008. Both methods gave a lower accuracy compared to the 'BayesB', for which accuracy increased from 0.690 to 0.860. PLSR and PCR appeared less responsive to increased marker density with the advantage of 'BayesB' increasing by 17% from a marker density of 1 to 8Ne/M. PCR and PLSR showed greater bias than 'BayesB' in predicting breeding values at all densities. Although, the PLSR and PCR were computationally faster and simpler, these advantages do not outweigh the reduction in accuracy, and there is a benefit in obtaining relevant prior information from the distribution of gene effects.

  10. Unique cultural values of Madura cattle: is cross-breeding a threat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tri Satya Mastuti Widi, Tri; Udo, H.M.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.; Budisatria, I.G.S.; Baliarti, E.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesia, cross-breeding local cattle with European beef breeds is widely promoted to stimulate beef production. This cross-breeding is threatening local breeds that have often different functions, including cultural roles. This study analysed the cultural values of Madura cattle and the effects

  11. Persistency of accuracy of genomic breeding values for different simulated pig breeding programs in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanno, E C; Schenkel, F S; Sargolzaei, M; Friendship, R M; Robinson, J A B

    2014-10-01

    Genetic improvement of pigs in tropical developing countries has focused on imported exotic populations which have been subjected to intensive selection with attendant high population-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD). Presently, indigenous pig population with limited selection and low LD are being considered for improvement. Given that the infrastructure for genetic improvement using the conventional BLUP selection methods are lacking, a genome-wide selection (GS) program was proposed for developing countries. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the option of using 60 K SNP panel and observed amount of LD in the exotic and indigenous pig populations. Several scenarios were evaluated including different size and structure of training and validation populations, different selection methods and long-term accuracy of GS in different population/breeding structures and traits. The training set included previously selected exotic population, unselected indigenous population and their crossbreds. Traits studied included number born alive (NBA), average daily gain (ADG) and back fat thickness (BFT). The ridge regression method was used to train the prediction model. The results showed that accuracies of genomic breeding values (GBVs) in the range of 0.30 (NBA) to 0.86 (BFT) in the validation population are expected if high density marker panels are utilized. The GS method improved accuracy of breeding values better than pedigree-based approach for traits with low heritability and in young animals with no performance data. Crossbred training population performed better than purebreds when validation was in populations with similar or a different structure as in the training set. Genome-wide selection holds promise for genetic improvement of pigs in the tropics. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Risk aversion affects economic values of blue fox breeding scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peura, J; Kempe, R; Strandén, I; Rydhmer, L

    2016-12-01

    The profit and production of an average Finnish blue fox farm was simulated using a deterministic bio-economic farm model. Risk was included using Arrow-Prat absolute risk aversion coefficient and profit variance. Risk-rated economic values were calculated for pregnancy rate, litter loss, litter size, pelt size, pelt quality, pelt colour clarity, feed efficiency and eye infection. With high absolute risk aversion, economic values were lower than with low absolute risk aversion. Economic values were highest for litter loss (18.16 and 26.42 EUR), litter size (13.27 and 19.40 EUR), pregnancy (11.99 and 18.39 EUR) and eye infection (12.39 and 13.81 EUR). Sensitivity analysis showed that selection pressure for improved eye health depended strongly on proportion of culled animals among infected animals and much less on the proportion of infected animals. The economic value of feed efficiency was lower than expected (6.06 and 8.03 EUR). However, it was almost the same magnitude as pelt quality (7.30 and 7.30 EUR) and higher than the economic value of pelt size (3.37 and 5.26 EUR). Risk factors should be considered in blue fox breeding scheme because they change the relative importance of traits. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. EM algorithm for Bayesian estimation of genomic breeding values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwata Hiroyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In genomic selection, a model for prediction of genome-wide breeding value (GBV is constructed by estimating a large number of SNP effects that are included in a model. Two Bayesian methods based on MCMC algorithm, Bayesian shrinkage regression (BSR method and stochastic search variable selection (SSVS method, (which are called BayesA and BayesB, respectively, in some literatures, have been so far proposed for the estimation of SNP effects. However, much computational burden is imposed on the MCMC-based Bayesian methods. A method with both high computing efficiency and prediction accuracy is desired to be developed for practical use of genomic selection. Results EM algorithm applicable for BSR is described. Subsequently, we propose a new EM-based Bayesian method, called wBSR (weighted BSR, which is a modification of BSR incorporating a weight for each SNP according to the strength of its association to a trait. Simulation experiments show that the computational time is much reduced with wBSR based on EM algorithm and the accuracy in predicting GBV is improved by wBSR in comparison with BSR based on MCMC algorithm. However, the accuracy of predicted GBV with wBSR is inferior to that with SSVS based on MCMC algorithm which is currently considered to be a method of choice for genomic selection. Conclusions EM-based wBSR method proposed in this study is much advantageous over MCMC-based Bayesian methods in computational time and can predict GBV more accurately than MCMC-based BSR. Therefore, wBSR is considered a practical method for genomic selection with a large number of SNP markers.

  14. [Phenotypic trends and breeding values for canine congenital sensorineural deafness in Dalmatian dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Meike; Distl, Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, breeding values for canine congenital sensorineural deafness, the presence of blue eyes and patches have been predicted using multivariate animal models to test the reliability of the breeding values for planned matings. The dataset consisted of 6669 German Dalmatian dogs born between 1988 and 2009. Data were provided by the Dalmatian kennel clubs which are members of the German Association for Dog Breeding and Husbandry (VDH). The hearing status for all dogs was evaluated using brainstem auditory evoked potentials. The reliability using the prediction error variance of breeding values and the realized reliability of the prediction of the phenotype of future progeny born in each one year between 2006 and 2009 were used as parameters to evaluate the goodness of prediction through breeding values. All animals from the previous birth years were used for prediction of the breeding values of the progeny in each of the up-coming birth years. The breeding values based on pedigree records achieved an average reliability of 0.19 for the future 1951 progeny. The predictive accuracy (R2) for the hearing status of single future progeny was at 1.3%. Combining breeding values for littermates increased the predictive accuracy to 3.5%. Corresponding values for maternal and paternal half-sib groups were at 3.2 and 7.3%. The use of breeding values for planned matings increases the phenotypic selection response over mass selection. The breeding values of sires may be used for planned matings because reliabilities and predictive accuracies for future paternal progeny groups were highest.

  15. Comparison of collinearity mitigation techniques used in predicting BLUP breeding values and genetic gains over generations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Eatwell, KA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available predicted breeding values of parents (forward prediction) with those realised in progeny (backward prediction of parents). Numeric precision had an impact on intergenerational correlations of BLUPs of some scenarios, indicating that it may not always...

  16. Economic values for production traits for different sheep breeds in Kosovo

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    Hysen Bytyqi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally, all traits of economic importance should be included in the breeding goal of livestock breeding programmes. The main aim of this study was to examine economic values for a combination of dairy and meat traits of the dual purpose Bardhoka (BAR, Balusha (BAL, Sharri (SHA and Kosova (KOS sheep breeds in Kosovo. The underlying herd model is based on a deterministic approach considering a sheep flock with milk production, lamb fattening and replacement stock. In order to examine the economic impact for different sheep breeds, the production traits considered were milk (milk yield and fattening (daily gain. For each lactation cycle among the breeds the main revenues resulted from selling milk (€ 61.82/46.03/26.37/27.22 and fattened lambs (€ 34.06/39.88/35.42/33.92 for BAR/BAL/ SHA/KOS, respectively. For BAR and BAL the economic value per average ewe place and year was € 37.7 for both breeds, while for SHA and KOS it was € 35.1 and € 32.5, respectively. For lamb fattening, daily gain was found to have the highest economic value at € 7.00 for BAL, SHA and KOS, while for BAR it was € 6.67. The relative economic values for milk yield and daily gain for BAR, BAL, SHA and KOS were 84.96:15.04, 84.42:15.58, 83.45:16.55, and 82.36:17.64, respectively.

  17. Hot topic: Definition and implementation of a breeding value for feed efficiency in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, J E; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Nieuwhof, G; Wales, W J; Coffey, M P; Hayes, B J; Goddard, M E

    2015-10-01

    A new breeding value that combines the amount of feed saved through improved metabolic efficiency with predicted maintenance requirements is described. The breeding value includes a genomic component for residual feed intake (RFI) combined with maintenance requirements calculated from either a genomic or pedigree estimated breeding value (EBV) for body weight (BW) predicted using conformation traits. Residual feed intake is only available for genotyped Holsteins; however, BW is available for all breeds. The RFI component of the "feed saved" EBV has 2 parts: Australian calf RFI and Australian lactating cow RFI. Genomic breeding values for RFI were estimated from a reference population of 2,036 individuals in a multi-trait analysis including Australian calf RFI (n=843), Australian lactating cow RFI (n=234), and UK and Dutch lactating cow RFI (n=958). In all cases, the RFI phenotypes were deviations from a mean of 0, calculated by correcting dry matter intake for BW, growth, and milk yield (in the case of lactating cows). Single nucleotide polymorphism effects were calculated from the output of genomic BLUP and used to predict breeding values of 4,106 Holstein sires that were genotyped but did not have RFI phenotypes themselves. These bulls already had BW breeding values calculated from type traits, from which maintenance requirements in kilograms of feed per year were inferred. Finally, RFI and the feed required for maintenance (through BW) were used to calculate a feed saved breeding value and expressed as the predicted amount of feed saved per year. Animals that were 1 standard deviation above the mean were predicted to eat 66 kg dry matter less per year at the same level of milk production. In a data set of genotyped Holstein sires, the mean reliability of the feed saved breeding value was 0.37. For Holsteins that are not genotyped and for breeds other than Holsteins, feed saved is calculated using BW only. From April 2015, feed saved has been included as part of

  18. Passive hip laxity in Estrela Mountain Dog--distraction index, heritability and breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginja, Mário M D; Silvestre, António M; Ferreira, António J A; Gonzalo-Orden, José M; Orden, Maria A; Melo-Pinto, Pedro; Llorens-Pena, Maria P; Colaço, Jorge

    2008-09-01

    Two hundred and fifteen Estrela Mountain Dogs (EMD) were examined using the PennHIP method between 2002 and 2006. Passive hip laxity (PHL) was estimated calculating the distraction index (DI). Pedigree information was obtained from the Portuguese Kennel Club. The heritability and breeding values were estimated using the linear Animal Model. The DI, using as reference the worst joint of each animal, ranged from 0.15 to 1.12 (0.55 +/- 0.19). The PHL was equal in right and left sides, and was higher in females than in males (P > 0.05 and P breeding values for PHL were stable in EMD born between 1991 and 2003, and showed an improvement in 2004 and 2005. The data confirm high PHL in breeds with high prevalence and severity of canine hip dysplasia. The high heritability indicates that the DI could be reduced in the breed if PHL were used as a selection criterion. The early favourable evolution of DI breeding values could be related with the increase of voluntary radiographic hip screening in the last years, and the subsequent introduction of hip quality as a breeding criterion.

  19. A sampling method for estimating the accuracy of predicted breeding values in genetic evaluation

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    Laloë Denis

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A sampling-based method for estimating the accuracy of estimated breeding values using an animal model is presented. Empirical variances of true and estimated breeding values were estimated from a simulated n-sample. The method was validated using a small data set from the Parthenaise breed with the estimated coefficient of determination converging to the true values. It was applied to the French Salers data file used for the 2000 on-farm evaluation (IBOVAL of muscle development score. A drawback of the method is its computational demand. Consequently, convergence can not be achieved in a reasonable time for very large data files. Two advantages of the method are that a it is applicable to any model (animal, sire, multivariate, maternal effects... and b it supplies off-diagonal coefficients of the inverse of the mixed model equations and can therefore be the basis of connectedness studies.

  20. Comparison between genomic predictions using daughter yield deviation and conventional estimated breeding value as response variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Gang; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Zhang, Y

    2010-01-01

    This study compared genomic predictions using conventional estimated breeding values (EBV) and daughter yield deviations (DYD) as response variables based on simulated data. Eight scenarios were simulated in regard to heritability (0.05 and 0.30), number of daughters per sire (30, 100, and unequal...... scenarios, the EBV approach was as effective as or slightly better than the DYD approach at predicting breeding value, dependent on simulated scenarios and statistical models. Applying a Bayesian common prior model (the same prior distribution of marker effect variance) and a linear mixed model (GBLUP......), the EBV and DYD approaches provided similar genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) reliabilities, except for scenarios with unequal numbers of daughters and half of sires without genotype, for which the EBV approach was superior to the DYD approach (by 1.2 and 2.4%). Using a Bayesian mixture prior model...

  1. Study of QTL Effects Distribution on Accuracy of Genomic Breeding values Estimated Using Bayesian Method

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    nazanin mahmoudi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Genetic evaluation and estimation of breeding value are one of the most fundamental elements of breeding programmes for genetic improvement. Recently, genomic selection has become an efficient method to approach this aim. The accuracy of estimated Genomic breeding value is the most important factor in genomic selection. Different studies have been performed addressing the factors affecting the accuracy of estimated Genomic breeding value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of beta and gamma distributions on the accuracy of genetic evaluation. Materials and Methods A genome consisted of 10 chromosomes with 200 cm length was simulated. Markers were spaced on 0.2 cm intervals and different numbers of QTL with random distribution were simulated. Only additive gene effects were considered. The base population was simulated with an effective size of 100 animals and this structure continued up to generation 50 to creating linkage disequilibrium between the markers and QTL. The population size was increased to 1000 animals in generation 51 (reference generation. Marker effects were calculated from the genomic and phenotypic information. Genomic breeding value was computed in generations 52 to 57 (training generation. Effects of gamma 1 distribution (shape=0.4, scale=1.66, gamma 2 distribution (shape=0.4, scale=1 and beta distribution (shape1=3.11, shape2=1.16 were studied in the reference and training groups. The heritability values were 0.2 and 0.05. Results and Discussion The results showed that accuracy of genomic breeding value reduced with passing generation (from 51 to 57 for two gamma distributions and beta distribution; this decrease may be due to two factors: recombination has negative impact on accuracy of genomic breeding value and selection reduces genetic variance as the number of generations increases. Accuracy of genomic estimated breeding value increased as the heritability increased so that the high

  2. Parentage testing and effect of misidentification on the estimation of breeding value in Gir cattle

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    Erica E. Baron

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A correct relationship among sires is essential for an efficient breeding program. Microsatellite markers were used in progeny tests, to assess the paternity of seventy-four probable offspring of nine Gir dairy sires. A 36% misidentification rate was observed; however, these errors had minimal effects on the ranking of the nine bulls with regard to their genetic values. The results suggest that paternity tests should be performed in breeding programs, in order to prevent inappropriate paternities from influencing the genetic value of bulls in the future.

  3. Breeding Value of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. for Pod and Bean Traits: A Consequential Advance in Nigerian Cocoa Breeding Program

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    Daniel Babasola ADEWALE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the generated hybrids’ breeding value gives a measure of probable advances in a breeding program. Four cocoa genotypes (testers were crossed with two distinct lines (T65/7 and T86/2. The parents and the hybrids were separately established in randomized complete block design with six replications. The fourteen genotypes were evaluated for pod length (PL, weight (PW, beans/pod (NoB, bean length (BL, width (Bwi and thickness (BT. The treatment, parent, crosses and Line x Tester sources of variation were significant (P ≤ 0.05. Hybrids from the same maternal parent differed significantly (P < 0.05 for the six traits. Contribution to the total variance of PL, PW and Bwi were in the following order: Tester > Line x Tester > Lines. The highest general combining ability (0.42 occurred in T65/7 for PW; the least (-0.081 occurred in T86/2 for PL. Cross combination T65/7xT57/22 produced the highest specific ability of combination (4.33 for NoB. Variance of GCA and SCA were significant (P < 0.05 for the six traits. The GCA/SCA ratios revealed the inheritance of PL, PW, Bwi and BT to be additive. Non-additive gene effect controlled NoB and BL. Heterosis for the six traits ranged between -17.82% for BT (T65/7xT57/22 to 52.40% for PW (T65/7xT53/8. Increased productivity in cocoa is possible through hybrid breeding programs.

  4. Estimation of variance components and prediction of breeding values in rubber tree breeding using the REML/BLUP procedure

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    Renata Capistrano Moreira Furlani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with estimation of variance components, prediction of breeding values and selection in a population of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Müell.-Arg.] from Rio Branco, State of Acre, Brazil. The REML/BLUP (restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction procedure was applied. For this purpose, 37 rubber tree families were obtained and assessed in a randomized complete block design, with three unbalanced replications. The field trial was carried out at the Experimental Station of UNESP, located in Selvíria, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The quantitative traits evaluated were: girth (G, bark thickness (BT, number of latex vessel rings (NR, and plant height (PH. Given the unbalanced condition of the progeny test, the REML/BLUP procedure was used for estimation. The narrow-sense individual heritability estimates were 0.43 for G, 0.18 for BT, 0.01 for NR, and 0.51 for PH. Two selection strategies were adopted: one short-term (ST - selection intensity of 8.85% and the other long-term (LT - selection intensity of 26.56%. For G, the estimated genetic gains in relation to the population average were 26.80% and 17.94%, respectively, according to the ST and LT strategies. The effective population sizes were 22.35 and 46.03, respectively. The LT and ST strategies maintained 45.80% and 28.24%, respectively, of the original genetic diversity represented in the progeny test. So, it can be inferred that this population has potential for both breeding and ex situ genetic conservation as a supplier of genetic material for advanced rubber tree breeding programs.

  5. Genomic estimated breeding values using genomic relationship matrices in a cloned population of loblolly pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Valenzuela, Jaime; Whetten, Ross W; Neale, David; McKeand, Steve; Isik, Fikret

    2013-05-20

    Replacement of the average numerator relationship matrix derived from the pedigree with the realized genomic relationship matrix based on DNA markers might be an attractive strategy in forest tree breeding for predictions of genetic merit. We used genotypes from 3461 single-nucleotide polymorphism loci to estimate genomic relationships for a population of 165 loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) individuals. Phenotypes of the 165 individuals were obtained from clonally replicated field trials and were used to estimate breeding values for growth (stem volume). Two alternative methods, based on allele frequencies or regression, were used to generate the genomic relationship matrices. The accuracies of genomic estimated breeding values based on the genomic relationship matrices and breeding values estimated based on the average numerator relationship matrix were compared. On average, the accuracy of predictions based on genomic relationships ranged between 0.37 and 0.74 depending on the validation method. We did not detect differences in the accuracy of predictions based on genomic relationship matrices estimated by two different methods. Using genomic relationship matrices allowed modeling of Mendelian segregation within full-sib families, an important advantage over a traditional genetic evaluation system based on pedigree. We conclude that estimation of genomic relationships could be a powerful tool in forest tree breeding because it accurately accounts both for genetic relationships among individuals and for nuisance effects such as location and replicate effects, and makes more accurate selection possible within full-sib crosses.

  6. Future breeding for organic and low-input agriculture: integrating values and modern breeding tools for improving robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    Organic production and also the attention for plant breeding for organic agriculture is still increasing in Europe. The question often raised is how much does plant breeding for the organic sector differ from modern plant breeding and does a ban on GMO also include refraining from molecular marker

  7. Integration of external estimated breeding values and associated reliabilities using correlations among traits and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenplas, J.; Colinet, F.G.; Glorieux, G.; Bertozzi, C.; Gengler, N.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a Bayesian view of linear mixed models, several studies showed the possibilities to integrate estimated breeding values (EBV) and associated reliabilities (REL) provided by genetic evaluations performed outside a given evaluation system into this genetic evaluation. Hereafter, the term

  8. Comparison of breeding values among cows with exceptional longevity and their contemporary herdmates in German Holsteins

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    K. Abfalter

    2016-02-01

    whereas milk production (RZM showed a negative correlation. An increase in the number of cows with exceptional longevity may be possible through a relative total breeding value with high positive weights for RZN, RZS, and RZFit but negative weights for RZM and type (RZE.

  9. Genetic parameters and breeding values for semen characteristics in Hanoverian stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labitzke, D; Sieme, H; Martinsson, G; Distl, O

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to show whether semen traits of 30 Hanoverian stallions regularly used in AI may be useful for breeding purposes. Semen characteristics were studied using 15 149 ejaculates from 30 Hanoverian stallions of the State Stud Celle of Lower Saxony. Semen samples were collected between 2005 and 2009. Traits analysed were gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total and motile sperm number and progressive motility. A linear multivariate animal model was employed to estimate heritabilities and permanent environmental variances for stallions. The same model was used to predict breeding values for all traits simultaneously. Heritabilities were high for gel-free volume (h(2) = 0.43) and moderate for total number of sperm (h(2) = 0.29) and progressive motility (h(2) = 0.20). Gel-free volume, sperm concentration and total number of sperm were genetically negatively correlated with progressive motility. The effect of the permanent environment for stallions accounted for 9-55% of the trait variance. The total variance among stallions explained 37-69% of the trait variance. The average reliabilities of the breeding values were 0.43-0.76 for the 30 Hanoverian stallions. In conclusion, the study could demonstrate large effects of stallions, routinely employed in a breeding programme, on semen characteristics analysed here. We could demonstrate that estimated breeding values (EBV) with sufficient high reliabilities can be predicted using data from these stallions and these EBV are useful in horse breeding programmes to achieve genetic improvement in semen quality. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Prediction of haplotypes for ungenotyped animals and its effect on marker-assisted breeding value estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In livestock populations, missing genotypes on a large proportion of animals are a major problem to implement the estimation of marker-assisted breeding values using haplotypes. The objective of this article is to develop a method to predict haplotypes of animals that are not genotyped using mixed model equations and to investigate the effect of using these predicted haplotypes on the accuracy of marker-assisted breeding value estimation. Methods For genotyped animals, haplotypes were determined and for each animal the number of haplotype copies (nhc) was counted, i.e. 0, 1 or 2 copies. In a mixed model framework, nhc for each haplotype were predicted for ungenotyped animals as well as for genotyped animals using the additive genetic relationship matrix. The heritability of nhc was assumed to be 0.99, allowing for minor genotyping and haplotyping errors. The predicted nhc were subsequently used in marker-assisted breeding value estimation by applying random regression on these covariables. To evaluate the method, a population was simulated with one additive QTL and an additive polygenic genetic effect. The QTL was located in the middle of a haplotype based on SNP-markers. Results The accuracy of predicted haplotype copies for ungenotyped animals ranged between 0.59 and 0.64 depending on haplotype length. Because powerful BLUP-software was used, the method was computationally very efficient. The accuracy of total EBV increased for genotyped animals when marker-assisted breeding value estimation was compared with conventional breeding value estimation, but for ungenotyped animals the increase was marginal unless the heritability was smaller than 0.1. Haplotypes based on four markers yielded the highest accuracies and when only the nearest left marker was used, it yielded the lowest accuracy. The accuracy increased with increasing marker density. Accuracy of the total EBV approached that of gene-assisted BLUP when 4-marker haplotypes were used with a

  11. Prediction of Breeding Values and Selection Responses With Genetic Heterogeneity of Environmental Variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, H. A.; Bijma, P.; Hill, W. G.

    2007-01-01

    There is empirical evidence that genotypes differ not only in mean, but also in environmental variance of the traits they affect. Genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance may indicate genetic differences in environmental sensitivity. The aim of this study was to develop a general framework for prediction of breeding values and selection responses in mean and environmental variance with genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance. Both means and environmental variances were treated as heritable traits. Breeding values and selection responses were predicted with little bias using linear, quadratic, and cubic regression on individual phenotype or using linear regression on the mean and within-family variance of a group of relatives. A measure of heritability was proposed for environmental variance to standardize results in the literature and to facilitate comparisons to “conventional” traits. Genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance can be considered as a trait with a low heritability. Although a large amount of information is necessary to accurately estimate breeding values for environmental variance, response in environmental variance can be substantial, even with mass selection. The methods developed allow use of the well-known selection index framework to evaluate breeding strategies and effects of natural selection that simultaneously change the mean and the variance. PMID:17277375

  12. Comparison of selective genotyping strategies for prediction of breeding values in a population undergoing selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boligon, A A; Long, N; Albuquerque, L G; Weigel, K A; Gianola, D; Rosa, G J M

    2012-12-01

    Genomewide marker information can improve the reliability of breeding value predictions for young selection candidates in genomic selection. However, the cost of genotyping limits its use to elite animals, and how such selective genotyping affects predictive ability of genomic selection models is an open question. We performed a simulation study to evaluate the quality of breeding value predictions for selection candidates based on different selective genotyping strategies in a population undergoing selection. The genome consisted of 10 chromosomes of 100 cM each. After 5,000 generations of random mating with a population size of 100 (50 males and 50 females), generation G(0) (reference population) was produced via a full factorial mating between the 50 males and 50 females from generation 5,000. Different levels of selection intensities (animals with the largest yield deviation value) in G(0) or random sampling (no selection) were used to produce offspring of G(0) generation (G(1)). Five genotyping strategies were used to choose 500 animals in G(0) to be genotyped: 1) Random: randomly selected animals, 2) Top: animals with largest yield deviation values, 3) Bottom: animals with lowest yield deviations values, 4) Extreme: animals with the 250 largest and the 250 lowest yield deviations values, and 5) Less Related: less genetically related animals. The number of individuals in G(0) and G(1) was fixed at 2,500 each, and different levels of heritability were considered (0.10, 0.25, and 0.50). Additionally, all 5 selective genotyping strategies (Random, Top, Bottom, Extreme, and Less Related) were applied to an indicator trait in generation G(0,) and the results were evaluated for the target trait in generation G(1), with the genetic correlation between the 2 traits set to 0.50. The 5 genotyping strategies applied to individuals in G(0) (reference population) were compared in terms of their ability to predict the genetic values of the animals in G(1) (selection

  13. Significance of pH-value for meat quality of broilers: Influence of breed lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristic M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For determination of poultry quality shortly after slaughtering, physical criteria (pH-value, conductivity, colour, juice retention are of importance. However, they are affected by breeding, transport, cooling and the storage period. PH-values of breast meat (genetically structured material were recorded shortly after slaughtering (15 min p.m. and differences between breeding line and gender were found (n=5109. The pH1-values ranged from 5.50 to 6.79. Male broilers showed significantly lower pH1-values than female ones (6.02:6.10. There were also significant differences concerning breeding line and gender. Meat quality (PSE, DFD of broilers can be recorded quickly and accurately determining the pH1-value of breast meat. Threshold ranges to be considered are ≤ 5.8 (PSE, 5.9-6.2 (standard meat properties and ≥ 6.3 (DFD. This classification is not to be compared to the deviation of pork.

  14. Persistence of accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values over generations in layer chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The predictive ability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) originates both from associations between high-density markers and QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) and from pedigree information. Thus, GEBV are expected to provide more persistent accuracy over successive generations than breeding values estimated using pedigree-based methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of GEBV in a closed population of layer chickens and to quantify their persistence over five successive generations using marker or pedigree information. Methods The training data consisted of 16 traits and 777 genotyped animals from two generations of a brown-egg layer breeding line, 295 of which had individual phenotype records, while others had phenotypes on 2,738 non-genotyped relatives, or similar data accumulated over up to five generations. Validation data included phenotyped and genotyped birds from five subsequent generations (on average 306 birds/generation). Birds were genotyped for 23,356 segregating SNP. Animal models using genomic or pedigree relationship matrices and Bayesian model averaging methods were used for training analyses. Accuracy was evaluated as the correlation between EBV and phenotype in validation divided by the square root of trait heritability. Results Pedigree relationships in outbred populations are reduced by 50% at each meiosis, therefore accuracy is expected to decrease by the square root of 0.5 every generation, as observed for pedigree-based EBV (Estimated Breeding Values). In contrast the GEBV accuracy was more persistent, although the drop in accuracy was substantial in the first generation. Traits that were considered to be influenced by fewer QTL and to have a higher heritability maintained a higher GEBV accuracy over generations. In conclusion, GEBV capture information beyond pedigree relationships, but retraining every generation is recommended for genomic selection in closed breeding populations. PMID:21693035

  15. Backtest and novelty behavior of female and castrated male piglets, with diverging social breeding values for growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimert, I.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Ursinus, W.W.; Duijvesteijn, N.; Camerlink, I.; Kemp, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Pigs housed together in a group influence each other’s growth. Part of this effect is genetic and can be represented in a social breeding value. It is unknown, however, which traits are associated with social breeding values. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether personality

  16. The importance of information on relatives for the prediction of genomic breeding values and the implications for the makeup of reference data sets in livestock breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Samuel A; Hickey, John M; Daetwyler, Hans D; van der Werf, Julius H J

    2012-02-09

    The theory of genomic selection is based on the prediction of the effects of genetic markers in linkage disequilibrium with quantitative trait loci. However, genomic selection also relies on relationships between individuals to accurately predict genetic value. This study aimed to examine the importance of information on relatives versus that of unrelated or more distantly related individuals on the estimation of genomic breeding values. Simulated and real data were used to examine the effects of various degrees of relationship on the accuracy of genomic selection. Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (gBLUP) was compared to two pedigree based BLUP methods, one with a shallow one generation pedigree and the other with a deep ten generation pedigree. The accuracy of estimated breeding values for different groups of selection candidates that had varying degrees of relationships to a reference data set of 1750 animals was investigated. The gBLUP method predicted breeding values more accurately than BLUP. The most accurate breeding values were estimated using gBLUP for closely related animals. Similarly, the pedigree based BLUP methods were also accurate for closely related animals, however when the pedigree based BLUP methods were used to predict unrelated animals, the accuracy was close to zero. In contrast, gBLUP breeding values, for animals that had no pedigree relationship with animals in the reference data set, allowed substantial accuracy. An animal's relationship to the reference data set is an important factor for the accuracy of genomic predictions. Animals that share a close relationship to the reference data set had the highest accuracy from genomic predictions. However a baseline accuracy that is driven by the reference data set size and the overall population effective population size enables gBLUP to estimate a breeding value for unrelated animals within a population (breed), using information previously ignored by pedigree based BLUP methods.

  17. Effect of misidentification on the estimation of breeding value and heritability in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldermann, H; Pieper, U; Weber, W E

    1986-12-01

    For daughter groups of 15 test bulls, controls of paternity were performed by using blood group factors and biochemical polymorphisms. Data of incorrectly assigned daughters influenced the estimation of breeding values, heritabilities and correlations for milk performance traits. Formulae are given that show the effects of variable misidentification rates on estimation of breeding values, selection intensities, heritabilities, and genetic gains. For example, for milk fat yield, the genetic gains drop at a misidentification rate of 15% between 8.7% (for h2 = .5) and 16.9% (for h2 = .2) below values attained without misidentifications. Consequently, decreasing misidentification rates in progeny of test bulls can be used to diminish the progeny size per test bull for constant genetic gain, to achieve more precise ranking of all or distinct test bulls according to their "true" breeding values and(or) to increase the number of test bulls by using the same amount of test inseminations and the same precision of ranking. Actions to reduce misidentification rates in cattle populations are discussed.

  18. Estimation of genomic breeding values for milk yield in UK dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, S; Mrode, R; MacLaren-Lee, I; Coffey, M; Conington, J

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genomic breeding values for milk yield in crossbred dairy goats. The research was based on data provided by 2 commercial goat farms in the UK comprising 590,409 milk yield records on 14,453 dairy goats kidding between 1987 and 2013. The population was created by crossing 3 breeds: Alpine, Saanen, and Toggenburg. In each generation the best performing animals were selected for breeding, and as a result, a synthetic breed was created. The pedigree file contained 30,139 individuals, of which 2,799 were founders. The data set contained test-day records of milk yield, lactation number, farm, age at kidding, and year and season of kidding. Data on milk composition was unavailable. In total 1,960 animals were genotyped with the Illumina 50K caprine chip. Two methods for estimation of genomic breeding value were compared-BLUP at the single nucleotide polymorphism level (BLUP-SNP) and single-step BLUP. The highest accuracy of 0.61 was obtained with single-step BLUP, and the lowest (0.36) with BLUP-SNP. Linkage disequilibrium (r(2), the squared correlation of the alleles at 2 loci) at 50 kb (distance between 2 SNP) was 0.18. This is the first attempt to implement genomic selection in UK dairy goats. Results indicate that the single-step method provides the highest accuracy for populations with a small number of genotyped individuals, where the number of genotyped males is low and females are predominant in the reference population. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Piglet use of the creep area - Effects of breeding value and farrowing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasdal, Guro; Andersen, Inger Lise; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate piglet use of the creep area, comparing litters of sows with a high vs. low breeding value for piglet survival in the first 5 days postpartum, that were either housed in crates or individual pens during farrowing and lactation. Seventy-five Yorkshire...... × Danish Landrace sows were video recorded for 4 days after farrowing, and the analysis was conducted using instantaneous sampling every 10 min commencing 24 h after the birth of the first piglet for a period of 72 h. Breeding value for piglet survival had no effect on piglet use of the creep area or time spent...... in any location of the farrowing environment. Farrowing environment had significant effects on piglet location; during all days there were significantly more piglets in the creep area in the crates compared to the pens (P 

  20. Prediction of Breeding Values for Dairy Cattle Using Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Shahinfar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production.

  1. Prediction of Breeding Values for Dairy Cattle Using Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production. PMID:22991575

  2. Prediction of breeding values for dairy cattle using artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A

    2012-01-01

    Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production.

  3. Canine hip dysplasia: phenotypic scoring and the role of estimated breeding value analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, M; Worth, Aj

    2015-03-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a developmental orthopaedic disease of the coxofemoral joints with a multifactorial mode of inheritance. Multiple gene effects are influenced by environmental factors; therefore, it is unlikely that a simple genetic screening test with which to identify susceptible individuals will be developed in the near future. In the absence of feasible methods for objectively quantifying clinical CHD, radiographic techniques have been developed and widely used to identify dogs for breeding which are less affected by the disease. A hip-extended ventrodorsal view of the pelvis has been traditionally used to identify dogs with subluxation and/or osteoarthritis of the coxofemoral joints. More recently, there has been emphasis on the role of coxofemoral joint laxity as a determinant of CHD and methods have been developed to measure passive hip laxity. Though well-established worldwide, the effectiveness of traditional phenotypic scoring schemes in reducing the prevalence of CHD has been variable. The most successful implementation of traditional CHD scoring has occurred in countries or breeding colonies with mandatory scoring and open registries with access to pedigree records. Several commentators have recommended that for quantitative traits like CHD, selection of breeding stock should be based on estimated breeding values (EBV) rather than individual hip score/grade. The EBV is a reflection of the genetic superiority of an animal compared to its counterparts and is calculated from the phenotype of an individual and its relatives and their pedigree relationship. Selecting breeding stock on the basis of a dog's genetic merit, ideally based on a highly predictive phenotype, will confer the breeder with greater selection power, accelerate genetic improvement towards better hip conformation and thus more likely decrease the prevalence of CHD.

  4. Prediction of genomic breeding values for growth, carcass and meat quality traits in a multi-breed sheep population using a HD SNP chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luiz F; Clarke, Shannon M; McEwan, John C; Miller, Stephen P; Pickering, Natalie K; Bain, Wendy E; Dodds, Ken G; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Schenkel, Flávio S

    2017-01-26

    New Zealand has some unique Terminal Sire composite sheep breeds, which were developed in the last three decades to meet commercial needs. These composite breeds were developed based on crossing various Terminal Sire and Maternal breeds and, therefore, present high genetic diversity compared to other sheep breeds. Their breeding programs are focused on improving carcass and meat quality traits. There is an interest from the industry to implement genomic selection in this population to increase the rates of genetic gain. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to determine the accuracy of predicted genomic breeding values for various growth, carcass and meat quality traits using a HD SNP chip and to evaluate alternative genomic relationship matrices, validation designs and genomic prediction scenarios. A large multi-breed population (n = 14,845) was genotyped with the HD SNP chip (600 K) and phenotypes were collected for a variety of traits. The average observed accuracies (± SD) for traits measured in the live animal, carcass, and, meat quality traits ranged from 0.18 ± 0.07 to 0.33 ± 0.10, 0.28 ± 0.09 to 0.55 ± 0.05 and 0.21 ± 0.07 to 0.36 ± 0.08, respectively, depending on the scenario/method used in the genomic predictions. When accounting for population stratification by adjusting for 2, 4 or 6 principal components (PCs) the observed accuracies of molecular breeding values (mBVs) decreased or kept constant for all traits. The mBVs observed accuracies when fitting both G and A matrices were similar to fitting only G matrix. The lowest accuracies were observed for k-means cross-validation and forward validation performed within each k-means cluster. The accuracies observed in this study support the feasibility of genomic selection for growth, carcass and meat quality traits in New Zealand Terminal Sire breeds using the Ovine HD SNP chip. There was a clear advantage on using a mixed training population instead of

  5. Breeding objectives for pigs in Kenya. II: economic values incorporating risks in different smallholder production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuthia, Jackson Mwenda; Rewe, Thomas Odiwuor; Kahi, Alexander Kigunzu

    2015-02-01

    This study estimated economic values for production traits (dressing percentage (DP), %; live weight for growers (LWg), kg; live weight for sows (LWs), kg) and functional traits (feed intake for growers (FEEDg), feed intake for sow (FEEDs), preweaning survival rate (PrSR), %; postweaning survival (PoSR), %; sow survival rate (SoSR), %, total number of piglets born (TNB) and farrowing interval (FI), days) under different smallholder pig production systems in Kenya. Economic values were estimated considering two production circumstances: fixed-herd and fixed-feed. Under the fixed-herd scenario, economic values were estimated assuming a situation where the herd cannot be increased due to other constraints apart from feed resources. The fixed-feed input scenario assumed that the herd size is restricted by limitation of feed resources available. In addition to the tradition profit model, a risk-rated bio-economic model was used to derive risk-rated economic values. This model accounted for imperfect knowledge concerning risk attitude of farmers and variance of input and output prices. Positive economic values obtained for traits DP, LWg, LWs, PoSR, PrSR, SoSR and TNB indicate that targeting them in improvement would positively impact profitability in pig breeding programmes. Under the fixed-feed basis, the risk-rated economic values for DP, LWg, LWs and SoSR were similar to those obtained under the fixed-herd situation. Accounting for risks in the EVs did not yield errors greater than ±50 % in all the production systems and basis of evaluation meaning there would be relatively little effect on the real genetic gain of a selection index. Therefore, both traditional and risk-rated models can be satisfactorily used to predict profitability in pig breeding programmes.

  6. Accuracy of estimation of genomic breeding values in pigs using low-density genotypes and imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Yvonne M; Bates, Ronald O; Ernst, Catherine W; Fix, Justin; Steibel, Juan P

    2014-04-16

    Genomic selection has the potential to increase genetic progress. Genotype imputation of high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes can improve the cost efficiency of genomic breeding value (GEBV) prediction for pig breeding. Consequently, the objectives of this work were to: (1) estimate accuracy of genomic evaluation and GEBV for three traits in a Yorkshire population and (2) quantify the loss of accuracy of genomic evaluation and GEBV when genotypes were imputed under two scenarios: a high-cost, high-accuracy scenario in which only selection candidates were imputed from a low-density platform and a low-cost, low-accuracy scenario in which all animals were imputed using a small reference panel of haplotypes. Phenotypes and genotypes obtained with the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip were available for 983 Yorkshire boars. Genotypes of selection candidates were masked and imputed using tagSNP in the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler (10K). Imputation was performed with BEAGLE using 128 or 1800 haplotypes as reference panels. GEBV were obtained through an animal-centric ridge regression model using de-regressed breeding values as response variables. Accuracy of genomic evaluation was estimated as the correlation between estimated breeding values and GEBV in a 10-fold cross validation design. Accuracy of genomic evaluation using observed genotypes was high for all traits (0.65-0.68). Using genotypes imputed from a large reference panel (accuracy: R(2) = 0.95) for genomic evaluation did not significantly decrease accuracy, whereas a scenario with genotypes imputed from a small reference panel (R(2) = 0.88) did show a significant decrease in accuracy. Genomic evaluation based on imputed genotypes in selection candidates can be implemented at a fraction of the cost of a genomic evaluation using observed genotypes and still yield virtually the same accuracy. On the other side, using a very small reference panel of haplotypes to impute training animals and candidates for

  7. Estimation of genetic parameters and breeding values across challenged environments to select for robust pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Medrano, J M; Mathur, P K; ten Napel, J; Rashidi, H; Alexandri, P; Knol, E F; Mulder, H A

    2015-04-01

    Robustness is an important issue in the pig production industry. Since pigs from international breeding organizations have to withstand a variety of environmental challenges, selection of pigs with the inherent ability to sustain their productivity in diverse environments may be an economically feasible approach in the livestock industry. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and breeding values across different levels of environmental challenge load. The challenge load (CL) was estimated as the reduction in reproductive performance during different weeks of a year using 925,711 farrowing records from farms distributed worldwide. A wide range of levels of challenge, from favorable to unfavorable environments, was observed among farms with high CL values being associated with confirmed situations of unfavorable environment. Genetic parameters and breeding values were estimated in high- and low-challenge environments using a bivariate analysis, as well as across increasing levels of challenge with a random regression model using Legendre polynomials. Although heritability estimates of number of pigs born alive were slightly higher in environments with extreme CL than in those with intermediate levels of CL, the heritabilities of number of piglet losses increased progressively as CL increased. Genetic correlations among environments with different levels of CL suggest that selection in environments with extremes of low or high CL would result in low response to selection. Therefore, selection programs of breeding organizations that are commonly conducted under favorable environments could have low response to selection in commercial farms that have unfavorable environmental conditions. Sows that had experienced high levels of challenge at least once during their productive life were ranked according to their EBV. The selection of pigs using EBV ignoring environmental challenges or on the basis of records from only favorable environments

  8. Determination of non-market values to inform conservation strategies for the threatened Alistana-Sanabresa cattle breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Collado, D; Diaz, C; Drucker, A G; Carabaño, M J; Zander, K K

    2014-08-01

    Livestock breed-related public good functions are often used to justify support for endangered breed conservation despite the fact that little is known about such non-market values. We show how stated preference techniques can be used to assess the non-market values that people place on livestock breeds. Through the application of a case study choice experiment survey in Zamora province, Spain, the total economic value (TEV) of the threatened Alistana-Sanabresa (AS) cattle breed was investigated. An analysis of the relative importance of the non-market components of its TEV and an assessment of the socio-economic variables that influence people's valuation of such components is used to inform conservation strategy design. Overall, the findings reveal that the AS breed had significant non-market values associated with it and that the value that respondents placed on each specific public good function also varied significantly. Functions related with indirect use cultural and existence values were much more highly valued than landscape maintenance values. These high cultural and existence values (totalling over 80% of TEV) suggest that an AS in situ conservation strategy will be required to secure such values. As part of such a strategy, incentive mechanisms will be needed to permit farmers to capture some of these public good values and thus be able to afford to maintain breed population numbers at socially desirable levels. One such mechanism could be related to the development of breed-related agritourism initiatives, with a view to enhancing private good values and providing an important addition to continued direct support. Where linked with cultural dimensions, niche product market development, including through improving AS breed-related product quality and brand recognition may also have a role to play as part of such an overall conservation and use strategy. We conclude that livestock breed conservation strategies with the highest potential to maximise

  9. Genome-Enabled Prediction of Breeding Values for Feedlot Average Daily Weight Gain in Nelore Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana L. Somavilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nelore is the most economically important cattle breed in Brazil, and the use of genetically improved animals has contributed to increased beef production efficiency. The Brazilian beef feedlot industry has grown considerably in the last decade, so the selection of animals with higher growth rates on feedlot has become quite important. Genomic selection (GS could be used to reduce generation intervals and improve the rate of genetic gains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prediction of genomic-estimated breeding values (GEBV for average daily weight gain (ADG in 718 feedlot-finished Nelore steers. Analyses of three Bayesian model specifications [Bayesian GBLUP (BGBLUP, BayesA, and BayesCπ] were performed with four genotype panels [Illumina BovineHD BeadChip, TagSNPs, and GeneSeek High- and Low-density indicus (HDi and LDi, respectively]. Estimates of Pearson correlations, regression coefficients, and mean squared errors were used to assess accuracy and bias of predictions. Overall, the BayesCπ model resulted in less biased predictions. Accuracies ranged from 0.18 to 0.27, which are reasonable values given the heritability estimates (from 0.40 to 0.44 and sample size (568 animals in the training population. Furthermore, results from Bos taurus indicus panels were as informative as those from Illumina BovineHD, indicating that they could be used to implement GS at lower costs.

  10. Comparison of analyses of the XVth QTLMAS common dataset III: Genomic Estimations of Breeding Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeure Olivier

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The QTLMAS XVth dataset consisted of pedigree, marker genotypes and quantitative trait performances of animals with a sib family structure. Pedigree and genotypes concerned 3,000 progenies among those 2,000 were phenotyped. The trait was regulated by 8 QTLs which displayed additive, imprinting or epistatic effects. The 1,000 unphenotyped progenies were considered as candidates to selection and their Genomic Estimated Breeding Values (GEBV were evaluated by participants of the XVth QTLMAS workshop. This paper aims at comparing the GEBV estimation results obtained by seven participants to the workshop. Methods From the known QTL genotypes of each candidate, two "true" genomic values (TV were estimated by organizers: the genotypic value of the candidate (TGV and the expectation of its progeny genotypic values (TBV. GEBV were computed by the participants following different statistical methods: random linear models (including BLUP and Ridge Regression, selection variable techniques (LASSO, Elastic Net and Bayesian methods. Accuracy was evaluated by the correlation between TV (TGV or TBV and GEBV presented by participants. Rank correlation of the best 10% of individuals and error in predictions were also evaluated. Bias was tested by regression of TV on GEBV. Results Large differences between methods were found for all criteria and type of genetic values (TGV, TBV. In general, the criteria ranked consistently methods belonging to the same family. Conclusions Bayesian methods - A

  11. A proposed selection index for feedlot profitability based on estimated breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, R R; van der Westhuizen, J

    2009-04-22

    It is generally accepted that feed intake and growth (gain) are the most important economic components when calculating profitability in a growth test or feedlot. We developed a single post-weaning growth (feedlot) index based on the economic values of different components. Variance components, heritabilities and genetic correlations for and between initial weight (IW), final weight (FW), feed intake (FI), and shoulder height (SHD) were estimated by multitrait restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The estimated breeding values (EBVs) and the economic values for IW, FW and FI were used in a selection index to estimate a post-weaning or feedlot profitability value. Heritabilities for IW, FW, FI, and SHD were 0.41, 0.40, 0.33, and 0.51, respectively. The highest genetic correlations were 0.78 (between IW and FW) and 0.70 (between FI and FW). EBVs were used in a selection index to calculate a single economical value for each animal. This economic value is an indication of the gross profitability value or the gross test value (GTV) of the animal in a post-weaning growth test. GTVs varied between -R192.17 and R231.38 with an average of R9.31 and a standard deviation of R39.96. The Pearson correlations between EBVs (for production and efficiency traits) and GTV ranged from -0.51 to 0.68. The lowest correlation (closest to zero) was 0.26 between the Kleiber ratio and GTV. Correlations of 0.68 and -0.51 were estimated between average daily gain and GTV and feed conversion ratio and GTV, respectively. These results showed that it is possible to select for GTV. The selection index can benefit feedlotting in selecting offspring of bulls with high GTVs to maximize profitability.

  12. Genomic prediction of breeding values in the New Zealand sheep industry using a 50K SNP chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvray, B; McEwan, J C; Newman, S-A N; Lee, M; Dodds, K G

    2014-10-01

    The aim of genomic prediction is to predict breeding value from genomic data. We describe the development of genomic prediction equations and accuracies for molecular breeding values (MBV) for industry use, focusing on the methodology used to deal with predictions for the New Zealand sheep population structure. This is made up of a mixture of pure and crossbred animals, but principally Romney based. In particular, we used pedigree-based EBV for 8 traits (weaning weight as a direct effect, weaning weight as a maternal effect, live weight at 8 mo, live weight at 12 mo, greasy fleece weight at 12 mo, lamb fleece weight, adult fleece weight, and number of lambs born) and Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip genotypes from 13,420 animals to investigate BLUP with different genomic relationship matrices (GRM) based on SNP markers and to investigate varying sets of older animals (training sets) to predict the MBV of younger animals (validation sets). The GRM tested included modifications to account for allele frequency differences between breeds, rescaling so that the mean GRM is equal to the mean of the traditional pedigree numerator relationship matrix A: , and combining of the GRM with A: using a convex combination with a weight estimated by maximizing a conditional restricted likelihood. We found that these modifications were beneficial and recommend using a breed-adjusted GRM combined with A: . Training data sets with Romney, Coopworth, and Perendale animals all together usually predicted better than using just a pure breed training data set for all traits. But predictions for the breed Perendale were more accurate with a Perendale training set for 3 of the 8 traits. We concluded that using a mixed-breed training set for all combinations of traits and breeds was best but advise that increasing the number of Perendale animals genotyped should be a priority to increase the MBV accuracies obtained for that breed.

  13. Why breeding values estimated using familial data should not be used for genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekine, Chinyere C; Rowe, Suzanne J; Bishop, Stephen C; de Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2014-02-19

    In animal breeding, the genetic potential of an animal is summarized as its estimated breeding value, which is derived from its own performance as well as the performance of related individuals. Here, we illustrate why estimated breeding values are not suitable as a phenotype for genome-wide association studies. We simulated human-type and pig-type pedigrees with a range of quantitative trait loci (QTL) effects (0.5-3% of phenotypic variance) and heritabilities (0.3-0.8). We analyzed 1000 replicates of each scenario with four models: (a) a full mixed model including a polygenic effect, (b) a regression analysis using the residual of a mixed model as a trait score (so called GRAMMAR approach), (c) a regression analysis using the estimated breeding value as a trait score, and (d) a regression analysis that uses the raw phenotype as a trait score. We show that using breeding values as a trait score gives very high false-positive rates (up 14% in human pedigrees and >60% in pig pedigrees). Simulations based on a real pedigree show that additional generations of pedigree increase the type I error. Including the family relationship as a random effect provides the greatest power to detect QTL while controlling for type I error at the desired level and providing the most accurate estimates of the QTL effect. Both the use of residuals and the use of breeding values result in deflated estimates of the QTL effect. We derive the contributions of QTL effects to the breeding value and residual and show how this affects the estimates.

  14. Apparent metabolizable and net energy values of corn and soybean meal for broiler breeding cocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Liu, G H; Liao, R B; Chang, Y L; Huang, X Y; Wu, Y B; Yang, H M; Yan, H J; Cai, H Y

    2017-01-01

    The AME and net energy (NE) values of 4 corn varieties, including 2 normal corn varieties (Zheng Dan 958 and Xian Yu 335), and one each of waxy corn and sweet corn, and 2 soybean meal samples including regular (RSBM) and dehulled soybean meal (DSBM), were determined in 2 experiments for broiler breeding cocks using the indirect calorimetry method. The 4 test diets in Experiment 1 consisted of each test corn, which replaced 40% of the corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the test diets in Experiment 2 contained 25% RSBM or DSBM, which was used to replace the corn basal diet. Thirty (Experiment 1) or 18 (Experiment 2) 50-week-old Arbor Acre (AA) broiler breeding cocks were used in a completely randomized design. After a 7 d dietary adaptation period, 6 birds as replicates from each treatment were assigned to individual respiration chambers for energy measurement via gaseous exchange and total excreta collection for 10 d. In Experiment 1, the AME, ME intake (MEI), retained energy (RE), NE, and NE:AME ratio values were higher (P < 0.001) in the test diets as compared with the corn-soybean meal basal diet. The AME and NE values in the sweet corn diet were higher (P < 0.05) than those values in the other 3 test diets. The heat production (HP), fasting heat production (FHP), and respiration quotient (RQ) were not influenced by the various experimental diets. The respective AME and NE values were 3,785, 3,775, 3,738, and 3,997 kcal/kg (DM basis), and 2,982, 3,006, 2,959, and 3,146 kcal/kg (DM basis) for Zheng Dan 958, Xian Yu 335, waxy corn, and sweet corn. Birds fed a corn basal diet in Experiment 2 had higher AME, MEI, RE, NE, and NE:AME ratio values (P < 0.001). Soybean meal substitution had no effect on HP, FHP, or RQ. The average AME and NE content was 2,492 and 1,581 kcal/kg (DM basis) for RSBM, and 2,580 and 1,654 kcal/kg (DM basis) for DSBM, respectively. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Preliminary investigation on reliability of genomic estimated breeding values in the Danish and Swedish Holstein Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Gregersen, V R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the reliability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) in the Danish Holstein population. The data in the analysis included 3,330 bulls with both published conventional EBV and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. After data editing, 38,134 SNP markers...... were available. In the analysis, all SNP were fitted simultaneously as random effects in a Bayesian variable selection model, which allows heterogeneous variances for different SNP markers. The response variables were the official EBV. Direct GEBV were calculated as the sum of individual SNP effects...... for all 18 index traits. Reliability of GEBV was assessed by squared correlation between GEBV and conventional EBV (r2GEBV, EBV), and expected reliability was obtained from prediction error variance using a 5-fold cross validation. Squared correlations between GEBV and published EBV (without any...

  16. Estimating Breeding Values With Molecular Relatedness and Reconstructed Pedigrees in Natural Mating Populations of Common Sole, Solea Solea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonk, Robbert J. W.; Komen, Hans; Kamstra, Andries; van Arendonk, Johan A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Captive populations where natural mating in groups is used to obtain offspring typically yield unbalanced population structures with highly skewed parental contributions and unknown pedigrees. Consequently, for genetic parameter estimation, relationships need to be reconstructed or estimated using DNA marker data. With missing parents and natural mating groups, commonly used pedigree reconstruction methods are not accurate and lead to loss of data. Relatedness estimators, however, infer relationships between all animals sampled. In this study, we compared a pedigree relatedness method and a relatedness estimator (“molecular relatedness”) method using accuracy of estimated breeding values. A commercial data set of common sole, Solea solea, with 51 parents and 1953 offspring (“full data set”) was used. Due to missing parents, for 1338 offspring, a pedigree could be reconstructed with 10 microsatellite markers (“reduced data set”). Cross-validation of both methods using the reduced data set showed an accuracy of estimated breeding values of 0.54 with pedigree reconstruction and 0.55 with molecular relatedness. Accuracy of estimated breeding values increased to 0.60 when applying molecular relatedness to the full data set. Our results indicate that pedigree reconstruction and molecular relatedness predict breeding values equally well in a population with skewed contributions to families. This is probably due to the presence of few large full-sib families. However, unlike methods with pedigree reconstruction, molecular relatedness methods ensure availability of all genotyped selection candidates, which results in higher accuracy of breeding value estimation. PMID:19858283

  17. Implications of the difference between true and predicted breeding values for the study of natural selection and micro-evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, E.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to predict individual breeding values in natural populations with known pedigrees has provided a powerful tool to separate phenotypic values into their genetic and environmental components in a nonexperimental setting. This has allowed sophisticated analyses of selection, as well as

  18. Effect of imputing markers from a low-density chip on the reliability of genomic breeding values in Holstein populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dassonneville, R; Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Druet, T

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the imputation error and loss of reliability of direct genomic values (DGV) or genomically enhanced breeding values (GEBV) when using genotypes imputed from a 3,000-marker single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel to a 50,000-marker SNP panel. Data co...

  19. Comparison of analyses of the XVth QTLMAS common dataset III: Genomic Estimations of Breeding Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Pascale; Filangi, Olivier; Demeure, Olivier; Elsen, Jean-Michel

    2012-05-21

    The QTLMAS XVth dataset consisted of pedigree, marker genotypes and quantitative trait performances of animals with a sib family structure. Pedigree and genotypes concerned 3,000 progenies among those 2,000 were phenotyped. The trait was regulated by 8 QTLs which displayed additive, imprinting or epistatic effects. The 1,000 unphenotyped progenies were considered as candidates to selection and their Genomic Estimated Breeding Values (GEBV) were evaluated by participants of the XVth QTLMAS workshop. This paper aims at comparing the GEBV estimation results obtained by seven participants to the workshop. From the known QTL genotypes of each candidate, two "true" genomic values (TV) were estimated by organizers: the genotypic value of the candidate (TGV) and the expectation of its progeny genotypic values (TBV). GEBV were computed by the participants following different statistical methods: random linear models (including BLUP and Ridge Regression), selection variable techniques (LASSO, Elastic Net) and Bayesian methods. Accuracy was evaluated by the correlation between TV (TGV or TBV) and GEBV presented by participants. Rank correlation of the best 10% of individuals and error in predictions were also evaluated. Bias was tested by regression of TV on GEBV. Large differences between methods were found for all criteria and type of genetic values (TGV, TBV). In general, the criteria ranked consistently methods belonging to the same family. Bayesian methods - AValue considered (with the notable exception of the MSEP of the TBV). The selection variable procedures (LASSO, Elastic Net and some adaptations) performed similarly, probably at a much lower computing cost. The TABLUP, which combines BayesB and GBLUP, generally did well. The simplest methods, GBLUP or Ridge Regression, and even worst, the fixed linear model, were much less efficient.

  20. A Bayesian method and its variational approximation for prediction of genomic breeding values in multiple traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic selection is an effective tool for animal and plant breeding, allowing effective individual selection without phenotypic records through the prediction of genomic breeding value (GBV. To date, genomic selection has focused on a single trait. However, actual breeding often targets multiple correlated traits, and, therefore, joint analysis taking into consideration the correlation between traits, which might result in more accurate GBV prediction than analyzing each trait separately, is suitable for multi-trait genomic selection. This would require an extension of the prediction model for single-trait GBV to multi-trait case. As the computational burden of multi-trait analysis is even higher than that of single-trait analysis, an effective computational method for constructing a multi-trait prediction model is also needed. Results We described a Bayesian regression model incorporating variable selection for jointly predicting GBVs of multiple traits and devised both an MCMC iteration and variational approximation for Bayesian estimation of parameters in this multi-trait model. The proposed Bayesian procedures with MCMC iteration and variational approximation were referred to as MCBayes and varBayes, respectively. Using simulated datasets of SNP genotypes and phenotypes for three traits with high and low heritabilities, we compared the accuracy in predicting GBVs between multi-trait and single-trait analyses as well as between MCBayes and varBayes. The results showed that, compared to single-trait analysis, multi-trait analysis enabled much more accurate GBV prediction for low-heritability traits correlated with high-heritability traits, by utilizing the correlation structure between traits, while the prediction accuracy for uncorrelated low-heritability traits was comparable or less with multi-trait analysis in comparison with single-trait analysis depending on the setting for prior probability that a SNP has zero

  1. Use of Genomic Estimated Breeding Values Results in Rapid Genetic Gains for Drought Tolerance in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Vivek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of the 19 million ha of maize ( L. in tropical Asia is rainfed and prone to drought. The breeding methods for improving drought tolerance (DT, including genomic selection (GS, are geared to increase the frequency of favorable alleles. Two biparental populations (CIMMYT-Asia Population 1 [CAP1] and CAP2 were generated by crossing elite Asian-adapted yellow inbreds (CML470 and VL1012767 with an African white drought-tolerant line, CML444. Marker effects of polymorphic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were determined from testcross (TC performance of F families under drought and optimal conditions. Cycle 1 (C1 was formed by recombining the top 10% of the F families based on TC data. Subsequently, (i C2[PerSe_PS] was derived by recombining those C1 plants that exhibited superior per se phenotypes (phenotype-only selection, and (ii C2[TC-GS] was derived by recombining a second set of C1 plants with high genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs derived from TC phenotypes of F families (marker-only selection. All the generations and their top crosses to testers were evaluated under drought and optimal conditions. Per se grain yields (GYs of C2[PerSe_PS] and that of C2[TC-GS] were 23 to 39 and 31 to 53% better, respectively, than that of the corresponding F population. The C2[TC-GS] populations showed superiority of 10 to 20% over C2[PerSe-PS] of respective populations. Top crosses of C2[TC-GS] showed 4 to 43% superiority of GY over that of C2[PerSe_PS] of respective populations. Thus, GEBV-enabled selection of superior phenotypes (without the target stress resulted in rapid genetic gains for DT.

  2. Effect of predictor traits on accuracy of genomic breeding values for feed intake based on a limited cow reference population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszczola, M; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Wall, E; Strabel, T; Calus, M P L

    2013-11-01

    The genomic breeding value accuracy of scarcely recorded traits is low because of the limited number of phenotypic observations. One solution to increase the breeding value accuracy is to use predictor traits. This study investigated the impact of recording additional phenotypic observations for predictor traits on reference and evaluated animals on the genomic breeding value accuracy for a scarcely recorded trait. The scarcely recorded trait was dry matter intake (DMI, n = 869) and the predictor traits were fat-protein-corrected milk (FPCM, n = 1520) and live weight (LW, n = 1309). All phenotyped animals were genotyped and originated from research farms in Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Multi-trait REML was used to simultaneously estimate variance components and breeding values for DMI using available predictors. In addition, analyses using only pedigree relationships were performed. Breeding value accuracy was assessed through cross-validation (CV) and prediction error variance (PEV). CV groups (n = 7) were defined by splitting animals across genetic lines and management groups within country. With no additional traits recorded for the evaluated animals, both CV- and PEV-based accuracies for DMI were substantially higher for genomic than for pedigree analyses (CV: max. 0.26 for pedigree and 0.33 for genomic analyses; PEV: max. 0.45 and 0.52, respectively). With additional traits available, the differences between pedigree and genomic accuracies diminished. With additional recording for FPCM, pedigree accuracies increased from 0.26 to 0.47 for CV and from 0.45 to 0.48 for PEV. Genomic accuracies increased from 0.33 to 0.50 for CV and from 0.52 to 0.53 for PEV. With additional recording for LW instead of FPCM, pedigree accuracies increased to 0.54 for CV and to 0.61 for PEV. Genomic accuracies increased to 0.57 for CV and to 0.60 for PEV. With both FPCM and LW available for evaluated animals, accuracy was highest (0.62 for CV and 0.61 for PEV in

  3. Values of apoptosis of lymphocytes and granulocytes in peripheral blood of Polish mixed-breed rabbits in the annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2017-03-28

    The objective of the study was to determine values of apoptosis for peripheral blood lymphocytes and granulocytes, including dependency on the season of the year, in Polish mixed-breed rabbits and in mixed-breed rabbits with the addition of blood of meat-breed rabbits. The study was carried out in four seasons of the year (spring, summer, autumn, winter) involving 120 Polish mixed-breed rabbits - group I, and 120 Polish mixed-breed rabbits with addition of meat-breed rabbit blood - group II. Assessment of apoptosis of lymphocytes and granulocytes was performed using as FACScan cytometer by Becton Dickinson with FACSDiva software (USA), using as ApoFluor® Green Caspase reagent kit (MP Biomedicals, USA) to detect the activity of the total caspase pool 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 in granulocytes and lymphocytes of rabbit peripheral blood. The results for apoptosis of lymphocytes and granulocytes in peripheral blood in the animals investigated (group I and II) were subjected to statistical analysis with the t'Student test at p=0.05. It was noted that, in rabbits from group I, the values for apoptosis of lymphocytes were the highest in winter and autumn (36.02% and 31.24%, respectively), and the lowest in spring and summer (26.73% and 22.72%, respectively), whereas in the case of granulocytes the highest values were in summer and spring (14.69% and 12.95%, respectively), and the lowest in winter and autumn (8.16% and 8.57%, respectively). In mixed-breed rabbits with the addition of meat-breed blood (group II), the values for apoptosis of lympocytes were the highest in spring (29.13%), and the lowest in summer (25.43%); whereas in the case of granulocytes the highest values were in summer and spring (14.0% and 11.15%, respectively), and the lowest in autumn and winter (7.46% and 7.64%, respectively).

  4. Genome-association analysis of Korean Holstein milk traits using genomic estimated breeding value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyun Shin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective Holsteins are known as the world’s highest-milk producing dairy cattle. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic regions strongly associated with milk traits (milk production, fat, and protein using Korean Holstein data. Methods This study was performed using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chip data (Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip of 911 Korean Holstein individuals. We inferred each genomic estimated breeding values based on best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP and ridge regression using BLUPF90 and R. We then performed a genome-wide association study and identified genetic regions related to milk traits. Results We identified 9, 6, and 17 significant genetic regions related to milk production, fat and protein, respectively. These genes are newly reported in the genetic association with milk traits of Holstein. Conclusion This study complements a recent Holstein genome-wide association studies that identified other SNPs and genes as the most significant variants. These results will help to expand the knowledge of the polygenic nature of milk production in Holsteins.

  5. Accuracy of Predicted Genomic Breeding Values in Purebred and Crossbred Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, André M.; Bastiaansen, John W. M.; Lopes, Marcos S.; Harlizius, Barbara; Groenen, Martien A. M.; de Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection has been widely implemented in dairy cattle breeding when the aim is to improve performance of purebred animals. In pigs, however, the final product is a crossbred animal. This may affect the efficiency of methods that are currently implemented for dairy cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of predicted breeding values in crossbred pigs using purebred genomic and phenotypic data. A second objective was to compare the predictive ability of SNPs when training is done in either single or multiple populations for four traits: age at first insemination (AFI); total number of piglets born (TNB); litter birth weight (LBW); and litter variation (LVR). We performed marker-based and pedigree-based predictions. Within-population predictions for the four traits ranged from 0.21 to 0.72. Multi-population prediction yielded accuracies ranging from 0.18 to 0.67. Predictions across purebred populations as well as predicting genetic merit of crossbreds from their purebred parental lines for AFI performed poorly (not significantly different from zero). In contrast, accuracies of across-population predictions and accuracies of purebred to crossbred predictions for LBW and LVR ranged from 0.08 to 0.31 and 0.11 to 0.31, respectively. Accuracy for TNB was zero for across-population prediction, whereas for purebred to crossbred prediction it ranged from 0.08 to 0.22. In general, marker-based outperformed pedigree-based prediction across populations and traits. However, in some cases pedigree-based prediction performed similarly or outperformed marker-based prediction. There was predictive ability when purebred populations were used to predict crossbred genetic merit using an additive model in the populations studied. AFI was the only exception, indicating that predictive ability depends largely on the genetic correlation between PB and CB performance, which was 0.31 for AFI. Multi-population prediction was no better than within

  6. Breeding Value of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. for Pod and Bean Traits: A Consequential Advance in Nigerian Cocoa Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Babasola ADEWALE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the generated hybrids’ breeding value gives a measure of probable advances in a breeding program. Four cocoa genotypes (testers were crossed with two distinct lines (T65/7 and T86/2. The parents and the hybrids were separately established in randomized complete block design with six replications. The fourteen genotypes were evaluated for pod length (PL, weight (PW, beans/pod (NoB, bean length (BL, width (Bwi and thickness (BT. The treatment, parent, crosses and Line x Tester sources of variation were significant (P ≤ 0.05. Hybrids from the same maternal parent differed significantly (P < 0.05 for the six traits. Contribution to the total variance of PL, PW and Bwi were in the following order: Tester > Line x Tester > Lines. The highest general combining ability (0.42 occurred in T65/7 for PW; the least (-0.081 occurred in T86/2 for PL. Cross combination T65/7xT57/22 produced the highest specific ability of combination (4.33 for NoB. Variance of GCA and SCA were significant (P < 0.05 for the six traits. The GCA/SCA ratios revealed the inheritance of PL, PW, Bwi and BT to be additive. Non-additive gene effect controlled NoB and BL. Heterosis for the six traits ranged between -17.82% for BT (T65/7xT57/22 to 52.40% for PW (T65/7xT53/8. Increased productivity in cocoa is possible through hybrid breeding programs.

  7. Estimation of heritabilities, genetic correlations, and breeding values of four traits that collectively define hip dysplasia in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwu; Zhu, Lan; Sandler, Jody; Friedenberg, Steven S; Egelhoff, Jill; Williams, Alma J; Dykes, Nathan L; Hornbuckle, William; Krotscheck, Ursula; Moise, N Sydney; Lust, George; Todhunter, Rory J

    2009-04-01

    OBJECTIVE-To estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations among 4 traits of hip joints (distraction index [DI], dorsolateral subluxation [DLS] score, Norberg angle [NA], and extended-hip joint radiograph [EHR] score) and to derive the breeding values for these traits in dogs. ANIMALS-2,716 dogs of 17 breeds (1,551 dogs in which at least 1 hip joint trait was measured). PROCEDURES-The NA was measured, and an EHR score was assigned. Hip joint radiographs were obtained from some dogs to allow calculation of the DI and DLS score. Heritabilities, genetic correlations, and breeding values among the DI, DLS score, NA, and EHR score were calculated by use of a set of multiple-trait, derivative-free, restricted maximum likelihood computer programs. RESULTS-Among 2,716 dogs, 1,411 (52%) had an estimated inbreeding coefficient of 0%; the remaining dogs had a mean inbreeding coefficient of 6.21%. Estimated heritabilities were 0.61, 0.54, 0.73, and 0.76 for the DI, DLS score, NA, and EHR score, respectively. The EHR score was highly genetically correlated with the NA (r = -0.89) and was moderately genetically correlated with the DI (r = 0.69) and DLS score (r = -0.70). The NA was moderately genetically correlated with the DI (r = -0.69) and DLS score (r = 0.58). Genetic correlation between the DI and DLS score was high (r = -0.91). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Establishment of a selection index that makes use of breeding values jointly estimated from the DI, DLS score, NA, and EHR score should enhance breeding programs to reduce the incidence of hip dysplasia in dogs.

  8. Accuracy of breeding values in small genotyped populations using different sources of external information-A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonov, S; Lourenco, D A L; Fragomeni, B O; Masuda, Y; Pocrnic, I; Tsuruta, S; Misztal, I

    2017-01-01

    Genetically linked small and large dairy cattle populations were simulated to test the effect of different sources of information from foreign populations on the accuracy of predicting breeding values for young animals in a small population. A large dairy cattle population (PL) with >20 generations was simulated, and a small subpopulation (PS) with 3 generations was formed as a related population, including phenotypes and genomic information. Predicted breeding values for young animals in the small population were calculated using BLUP and single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) in 4 different scenarios: (S1) 3,166 phenotypes, 22,855 pedigree animals, and 1,000 to 6,000 genotypes for PS; (S2) S1 plus genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) for 4,475 sires from PL as external information; (S3) S1 plus 221,580 phenotypes, 402,829 pedigree animals, and 53,558 genotypes for PL; and (S4) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects calculated based on PL data. The ability to predict true breeding value was assessed in the youngest third of the genotyped animals in the small population. When data only from the small population were used and 1,000 animals were genotyped, the accuracy of GEBV was only 1 point greater than the estimated breeding value accuracy (0.32 vs. 0.31). Adding external GEBV for sires from PL did not considerably increase accuracy (0.33 vs. 0.32 in S1). Combining phenotypes, pedigree, and genotypes for PS and PL was beneficial for predicting accuracy of GEBV in the small population, and the prediction accuracy of GEBV in this scenario was 0.38 compared with 0.31 from estimated breeding values. When SNP effects from PL were used to predict GEBV for young genotyped animals from PS, accuracy was greatest (0.56). With 6,000 genotyped animal in PS, accuracy was greatest (0.61) with the combined populations. In a small population with few genotypes, the highest accuracy of evaluation may be obtained by using SNP effects derived from a related large population

  9. Analysis of genetic and cultural conservation value of three indigenous Croatian cattle breeds in a local and global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramljak, J; Ivanković, A; Veit-Kensch, C E; Förster, M; Medugorac, I

    2011-02-01

    It is widely accepted that autochthonous cattle breeds can be important genetic resources for unforeseeable environmental conditions in the future. Apart from that, they often represent local culture and tradition and thus assist in the awareness of ethnic identity of a country. In Croatia, there are only three indigenous cattle breeds, Croatian Buša, Slavonian Syrmian Podolian and Istrian Cattle. All of them are threatened but specialized in a particular habitat and production system. We analysed 93 microsatellites in 51 animals of each breed to get thorough information about genetic diversity and population structure. We further set them within an existing frame of additional 16 breeds that have been genotyped for the same marker set and cover a geographical area from the domestication centre near Anatolia, through the Balkan and alpine regions, to the north-west of Europe. The cultural value was evaluated regarding the role in landscape, gastronomy, folklore and handicraft. The overall results recognize Croatian Buša being partly admixed but harbouring an enormous genetic diversity comparable with other traditional unselected Buša breeds in the Anatolian and Balkan areas. The Podolian cattle showed the lowest genetic diversity at the highest genetic distance to all remaining breeds but are playing an important role as part of the cultural landscape and thus contribute to the tourist industry. The genetic diversity of the Istrian cattle was found in the middle range of this study. It is already included in the tourist industry as a local food speciality. Current and future conservation strategies are discussed. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. [Multivariate prediction of breeding values for canine hip and elbow dysplasia as well as humeral osteochondrosis in the Bernese mountain dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Peter; Stock, Kathrin-Friederike; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was the multivariate prediction of breeding values for canine hip dysplasia (CHD), elbow dysplasia (ED) and humeral osteochondrosis (OCD) for Bernese mountain dogs of the Schweizer Sennenhund-Verein für Deutschland e. V. (SSV). For the analysis the pedigrees of eight generations and radiographic screening results of the birth cohorts from 1995-2008 were used. The number of dogs with scores for CHD was 5513, for ED 5175 and OCD 1240. Breeding values were multivariately predicted using a mixed linear model for CHD, ED and OCD as well as for the occurrence of a fragmented coronoid process of the medial ulna (FCP) and the ED-score without FCP. The pedigree breeding value (eRZWp) which is used as the selection criterion reached a reliability to predict the phenotype of the offspring at 2.8-2.9% for CHD, 2.9% for ED, 1.1% for ED without FCP, 1.8% for FCP and 0.8-1.3% for OCD. The reason for the low predictive value of the eRZW(P) is caused by the very high influence of the own performance of the animal and the very uniform distribution of contributions of the breeding values of the relatives.These results indicate that even a multivariate prediction of breeding values does not lead to a faster progress in breeding against CHD and ED, however, does allow breeding against OCD in the Bernese mountain dog. In comparison to phenotypic selection, there is some improvement in the selection response when using breeding values. Due to the general low predictive power of breeding values better approaches for selection of future breeding animals are urgently warranted to achieve improvements in breeding Bernese mountain dogs.

  11. Prediction of Genomic Breeding Values for feed efficiency and related traits in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Janss, Luc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    Improvement of feed efficiency is essential in pig breeding and selection for reduced residual feed intake (RFI) is an option. Accuracy of genomic prediction (GP) relies on assumptions of genetic architecture of the traits. This study applied five different Bayesian Power LASSO (BPL) models with ...

  12. Varying pasture growth and commodity prices change the value of traits in sheep breeding objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.; Mulder, H.A.; Thompson, P.N.; Werf, van der J.H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Breeding programs for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system. Economic weights are commonly based on average conditions. In pasture based livestock production systems the cost of feed is an important profit driver, but

  13. Blood gas and electrolyte values of (Capra hircus Canindé breed goats raised in the northeastern semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talyta Lins Nunes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Nunes T.L., Oliveira M.G.C., Paiva A.L.C., Bezerra T.C.G., Barrêto Júnior R.A. & Paula V.V. [Blood gas and electrolyte values of (Capra hircus Canindé breed goats raised in the northeastern semiarid.] Valores hemogasométricos de caprinos (Capra hircus da raça Canindé criados no semiárido nordestino. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:255-260, 2014. Departamento de Ciências Animais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, BR 110, Km 47, Bairro Presidente Costa e Silva, Mossoró, RN 59625-900, Brasil. E-mail: talyta_lins@hotmail.com Canindé goat breed is native of northeastern Brazil and is in danger of extinction. The objective of this research was to determine blood gas and electrolytes values in Canindé goat breed reared in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, establishing baseline data for the breed in the semi-arid conditions. Blood samples from 83 clinically healthy animals were collected and distributed in four groups: Group I comprised of 32 pregnant females, Group II, 29 non-pregnant, Group III, 10 males, and group IV consisted of 12 pups. The blood sample was submitted for blood gas analysis, determining the concentration of sodium, potassium, chloride, total carbon dioxide, pH, carbon dioxide partial pressure, sodium bicarbonate, excess base, and anion gap. Data with normal distribution were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test; those which did not have a normal distribution were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Spearman. The results were expressed as mean and standard deviation. The values obtained were similar to those found in other studies with different goat and sheep breeds, and thus may serve as reference for the Canindé breed. The data suggest an influence of age, sex and reproductive status in the variables analyzed.

  14. Effects of correcting missing daily feed intake values on the genetic parameters and estimated breeding values for feeding traits in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tetsuya; Fukawa, Kazuo; Kamikawa, Mai; Nikaidou, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Arakawa, Aisaku; Tanaka, Genki; Mikawa, Satoshi; Furukawa, Tsutomu; Hirose, Kensuke

    2018-01-01

    Daily feed intake (DFI) is an important consideration for improving feed efficiency, but measurements using electronic feeder systems contain many missing and incorrect values. Therefore, we evaluated three methods for correcting missing DFI data (quadratic, orthogonal polynomial, and locally weighted (Loess) regression equations) and assessed the effects of these missing values on the genetic parameters and the estimated breeding values (EBV) for feeding traits. DFI records were obtained from 1622 Duroc pigs, comprising 902 individuals without missing DFI and 720 individuals with missing DFI. The Loess equation was the most suitable method for correcting the missing DFI values in 5-50% randomly deleted datasets among the three equations. Both variance components and heritability for the average DFI (ADFI) did not change because of the missing DFI proportion and Loess correction. In terms of rank correlation and information criteria, Loess correction improved the accuracy of EBV for ADFI compared to randomly deleted cases. These findings indicate that the Loess equation is useful for correcting missing DFI values for individual pigs and that the correction of missing DFI values could be effective for the estimation of breeding values and genetic improvement using EBV for feeding traits. © 2017 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Welfare of the mealworm (Tenebrio molitor breeding with regard to nutrition value and food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adámková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock welfare is an important condition for obtaining high-quality and safe food. According to the legislation edible insects are classified as livestock; and for this reason it is necessary to comply with the edible insect welfare conditions. This article focuses on selected welfare conditions for mealworm (Tenebrio molitor breeding, with special focus on the fat content influenced by different breeding temperature (17 °C, 23 °C and 28 °C. Maximum fat content 24.56% was observed at 23 °C. To obtain maximum fat content this appears to be the optimal breeding temperature. Another evaluated aspect was the nutritional stress and a way of killing, and their impact on fat content, which showed to decrease with the nutrient stress. The most decline was detected towards the end of the observation period. The analysis showed that in terms of preservation of the fat content, the best way is killing by freezing, due to the metabolism slowdown. We also analysed the content of heavy metals in a mealworm larvae using cyclic voltammetry with subsequent evaluation. In the measured sample concentrations of heavy metals did not exceed the maximum allowable concentration of heavy metals in this commodity. From this point of view mealworm appears to be a safe food.

  16. Preferred natural food of breeding Kakapo is a high value source of calcium and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hurst, P R; Moorhouse, R J; Raubenheimer, D

    2016-11-01

    The Kakapo, a large NZ native parrot, is under severe threat of extinction. Kakapo breed only in years when the local podocarps, including rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum), are fruiting heavily, and the fruit are the preferred food both in the diet of breeding females and for provisioning chicks. Attempts to provide a supplementary food during years of poor fruit supply have failed to encourage breeding. Nutrient analysis of rimu berries reveals high calcium content (8.4mg/g dry matter) which would be essential for both egg shell production and the growing skeleton of the chick. Vitamin D is also critical for these processes and for the maintenance of calcium homeostasis, but the source of vitamin D for these nocturnal, ground-dwelling vegetarians is unknown. To examine the vitamin D status of adult Kakapo, and to investigate the possibility that rimu berries provide vitamin D as well as calcium, thus differentiating them from the supplementary foods provided to date. Previously collected and frozen serum from 10 adult birds (6 females, 4 males) was assayed for 25(OH)D3 and D2. Two batches of previously frozen rimu berries were analysed for vitamin D3 and D2. Vitamin D status of the 10 adult birds was very low; mean 4.9nmol/l, range 1-14nmol/l 25(OH)D3. No 25(OH)D2 was detected in any of the birds. High levels of D2 and moderate levels of D3 were found in the rimu berries. Traditionally it has been considered that the D3 isoform of this endogenously produced secosteroid is produced only in animals. However, D3 has been reported in the leaves of plants of the Solanacae family (tomato, potato, capsicum). The avian vitamin D receptor (VDR) is thought to have a much greater affinity for the D3 form. Therefore if rimu fruit are able to provide breeding Kakapo with D3, and are a plentiful source of calcium, they could be the perfect food package for breeding and nesting birds. Of wider importance, this finding challenges conventional understanding that D3 production is

  17. Effects of excluding a set of random effects on prediction error variance of breeding value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantet, R J

    1997-01-12

    The effects of excluding a set of random effects (U-effects) uncorrelated to breeding values (BV) on prediction error variance (PEV) is studied analytically. Two situations are considered for model comparison: (a) existence of a 'true' model, (b) uncertainty about which of the competing models is 'true'. Models compared are the 'long' one, which includes BV + U-effects, and the 'short' one which includes BV's as the only random systematic effect. Expressions for PEV(BV) were obtained for the long model (PEVL); the short model (PEVS); and the short model assuming the long model is the correct one (PEVSI). It is shown that in general PEVS ≤ PEVL ≤ PEVSI. Results are exemplified by means of an example including a computer simulation. RESUMEN: En este trabajo se estudia analiticamente el efecto de excluir una variable aleatoria (efecto U) no correlacionada con el valor de cría (BV), sobre la varianza del error de predicción de este último (PEV(BV)). Para ello se utilizan dos enfoques de comparación de modelos: (a) existencia de un modelo 'verdadero', (b) incertidumbre respecto de cuál de ambos modelos alternativos es el correcto. Los modelos que se comparan son: el 'largo', que incluye BV+U, y el 'corto', el cuál solo incluye BV. Se obtienen las expresiones para PEV(BV) en las siguientes situaciones: (1) en el modelo largo (PEVL), (2) en el modelo corto (PEVS), y (3) en el modelo corto pero asumiendo que el largo es el verdadero (PEVSI). Se demuestra que en general PEVS ≤ PEVL ≤ PEVSI. Los resultados obtenidos son ilustrados mediante un ejemplo que incluye una simulación estocástica. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Veränderung der Fehlervarianz der Zuchtwertvoraussage durch Vernachlässigung einer Gruppe zufäliger Wirkungen. Es wird die Auswirkung der Ausschaltung einer Gruppe zufälliger Wirkungen (U-effects), die mit Zuchtwerten (BV) nicht korreliert sind, auf die Varianz des Voraussage-Fehlers (PEV) analytisch untersucht. Zwei Modelle werden betrachtet: (a

  18. Comparison of three models to estimate breeding values for percentage of loin intramuscular fat in Duroc swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcom, D W; Baas, T J; Stalder, K J; Schwab, C R

    2005-04-01

    Three selection models were evaluated to compare selection candidate rankings based on EBV and to evaluate subsequent effects of model-derived EBV on the selection differential and expected genetic response in the population. Data were collected from carcass- and ultrasound-derived estimates of loin i.m. fat percent (IMF) in a population of Duroc swine under selection to increase IMF. The models compared were Model 1, a two-trait animal model used in the selection experiment that included ultrasound IMF from all pigs scanned and carcass IMF from pigs slaughtered to estimate breeding values for both carcass (C1) and ultrasound IMF (U1); Model 2, a single-trait animal model that included ultrasound IMF values on all pigs scanned to estimate breeding values for ultrasound IMF (U2); and Model 3, a multiple-trait animal model including carcass IMF from slaughtered pigs and the first three principal components from a total of 10 image parameters averaged across four longitudinal ultrasound images to estimate breeding values for carcass IMF (C3). Rank correlations between breeding value estimates for U1 and C1, U1 and U2, and C1 and C3 were 0.95, 0.97, and 0.92, respectively. Other rank correlations were 0.86 or less. In the selection experiment, approximately the top 10% of boars and 50% of gilts were selected. Selection differentials for pigs in Generation 3 were greatest when ranking pigs based on C1, followed by U1, U2, and C3. In addition, selection differential and estimated response were evaluated when simulating selection of the top 1, 5, and 10% of sires and 50% of dams. Results of this analysis indicated the greatest selection differential was for selection based on C1. The greatest loss in selection differential was found for selection based on C3 when selecting the top 10 and 1% of boars and 50% of gilts. The loss in estimated response when selecting varying percentages of boars and the top 50% of gilts was greatest when selection was based on C3 (16.0 to 25

  19. Breeding value prediction for production traits in layer chickens using pedigree or genomic relationships in a reduced animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Genomic selection involves breeding value estimation of selection candidates based on high-density SNP genotypes. To quantify the potential benefit of genomic selection, accuracies of estimated breeding values (EBV) obtained with different methods using pedigree or high-density SNP genotypes were evaluated and compared in a commercial layer chicken breeding line. Methods The following traits were analyzed: egg production, egg weight, egg color, shell strength, age at sexual maturity, body weight, albumen height, and yolk weight. Predictions appropriate for early or late selection were compared. A total of 2,708 birds were genotyped for 23,356 segregating SNP, including 1,563 females with records. Phenotypes on relatives without genotypes were incorporated in the analysis (in total 13,049 production records). The data were analyzed with a Reduced Animal Model using a relationship matrix based on pedigree data or on marker genotypes and with a Bayesian method using model averaging. Using a validation set that consisted of individuals from the generation following training, these methods were compared by correlating EBV with phenotypes corrected for fixed effects, selecting the top 30 individuals based on EBV and evaluating their mean phenotype, and by regressing phenotypes on EBV. Results Using high-density SNP genotypes increased accuracies of EBV up to two-fold for selection at an early age and by up to 88% for selection at a later age. Accuracy increases at an early age can be mostly attributed to improved estimates of parental EBV for shell quality and egg production, while for other egg quality traits it is mostly due to improved estimates of Mendelian sampling effects. A relatively small number of markers was sufficient to explain most of the genetic variation for egg weight and body weight. PMID:21255418

  20. Breeding value prediction for production traits in layer chickens using pedigree or genomic relationships in a reduced animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic selection involves breeding value estimation of selection candidates based on high-density SNP genotypes. To quantify the potential benefit of genomic selection, accuracies of estimated breeding values (EBV obtained with different methods using pedigree or high-density SNP genotypes were evaluated and compared in a commercial layer chicken breeding line. Methods The following traits were analyzed: egg production, egg weight, egg color, shell strength, age at sexual maturity, body weight, albumen height, and yolk weight. Predictions appropriate for early or late selection were compared. A total of 2,708 birds were genotyped for 23,356 segregating SNP, including 1,563 females with records. Phenotypes on relatives without genotypes were incorporated in the analysis (in total 13,049 production records. The data were analyzed with a Reduced Animal Model using a relationship matrix based on pedigree data or on marker genotypes and with a Bayesian method using model averaging. Using a validation set that consisted of individuals from the generation following training, these methods were compared by correlating EBV with phenotypes corrected for fixed effects, selecting the top 30 individuals based on EBV and evaluating their mean phenotype, and by regressing phenotypes on EBV. Results Using high-density SNP genotypes increased accuracies of EBV up to two-fold for selection at an early age and by up to 88% for selection at a later age. Accuracy increases at an early age can be mostly attributed to improved estimates of parental EBV for shell quality and egg production, while for other egg quality traits it is mostly due to improved estimates of Mendelian sampling effects. A relatively small number of markers was sufficient to explain most of the genetic variation for egg weight and body weight.

  1. Angolan vegetable crops have unique genotypes of potential value for future breeding programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Domingos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out in Angola with the aim of collecting vegetable crops. Collecting expeditions were conducted in Kwanza-Sul, Benguela, Huíla and Namibe Provinces and a total of 80 accessions belonging to 22 species was collected from farmers and local markets. Species belonging to the Solanaceae (37 accessions and Cucurbitaceae (36 accessions families were the most frequently found with pepper and eggplant being the predominant solanaceous crops collected. Peppers were sold in local markets as a mixture of different types, even different species: Capsicum chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens and C. pubescens. Most of the eggplant accessions collected belonged to Solanum aethiopicum L. Gilo Group, the so-called ‘scarlet eggplant’. Cucurbita genus was better represented than the other cucurbit crops. A high morphological variation was present in the Cucurbita maxima and C. moschata accessions. A set of 22 Cucurbita accessions from Angola, along with 32 Cucurbita controls from a wide range of origins, was cultivated in Valencia, Spain and characterised based on morphology and molecularity using a set of 15 microsatellite markers. A strong dependence on latitude was found in most of the accessions and as a result, many accessions did not set fruit. The molecular analysis showed high molecular variability and uniqueness in the collected accessions, as shown by their segregation from the set of global controls. In summary, the material collected is quite valuable because of its uniqueness and the potential of the breeding characteristics it possesses.

  2. Estimated breeding values for canine hip dysplasia radiographic traits in a cohort of Australian German Shepherd dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bethany J; Nicholas, Frank W; James, John W; Wade, Claire M; Thomson, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a serious and common musculoskeletal disease of pedigree dogs and therefore represents both an important welfare concern and an imperative breeding priority. The typical heritability estimates for radiographic CHD traits suggest that the accuracy of breeding dog selection could be substantially improved by the use of estimated breeding values (EBVs) in place of selection based on phenotypes of individuals. The British Veterinary Association/Kennel Club scoring method is a complex measure composed of nine bilateral ordinal traits, intended to evaluate both early and late dysplastic changes. However, the ordinal nature of the traits may represent a technical challenge for calculation of EBVs using linear methods. The purpose of the current study was to calculate EBVs of British Veterinary Association/Kennel Club traits in the Australian population of German Shepherd Dogs, using linear (both as individual traits and a summed phenotype), binary and ordinal methods to determine the optimal method for EBV calculation. Ordinal EBVs correlated well with linear EBVs (r = 0.90-0.99) and somewhat well with EBVs for the sum of the individual traits (r = 0.58-0.92). Correlation of ordinal and binary EBVs varied widely (r = 0.24-0.99) depending on the trait and cut-point considered. The ordinal EBVs have increased accuracy (0.48-0.69) of selection compared with accuracies from individual phenotype-based selection (0.40-0.52). Despite the high correlations between linear and ordinal EBVs, the underlying relationship between EBVs calculated by the two methods was not always linear, leading us to suggest that ordinal models should be used wherever possible. As the population of German Shepherd Dogs which was studied was purportedly under selection for the traits studied, we examined the EBVs for evidence of a genetic trend in these traits and found substantial genetic improvement over time. This study suggests the use of ordinal EBVs could increase the

  3. Estimated breeding values for canine hip dysplasia radiographic traits in a cohort of Australian German Shepherd dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany J Wilson

    Full Text Available Canine hip dysplasia (CHD is a serious and common musculoskeletal disease of pedigree dogs and therefore represents both an important welfare concern and an imperative breeding priority. The typical heritability estimates for radiographic CHD traits suggest that the accuracy of breeding dog selection could be substantially improved by the use of estimated breeding values (EBVs in place of selection based on phenotypes of individuals. The British Veterinary Association/Kennel Club scoring method is a complex measure composed of nine bilateral ordinal traits, intended to evaluate both early and late dysplastic changes. However, the ordinal nature of the traits may represent a technical challenge for calculation of EBVs using linear methods. The purpose of the current study was to calculate EBVs of British Veterinary Association/Kennel Club traits in the Australian population of German Shepherd Dogs, using linear (both as individual traits and a summed phenotype, binary and ordinal methods to determine the optimal method for EBV calculation. Ordinal EBVs correlated well with linear EBVs (r = 0.90-0.99 and somewhat well with EBVs for the sum of the individual traits (r = 0.58-0.92. Correlation of ordinal and binary EBVs varied widely (r = 0.24-0.99 depending on the trait and cut-point considered. The ordinal EBVs have increased accuracy (0.48-0.69 of selection compared with accuracies from individual phenotype-based selection (0.40-0.52. Despite the high correlations between linear and ordinal EBVs, the underlying relationship between EBVs calculated by the two methods was not always linear, leading us to suggest that ordinal models should be used wherever possible. As the population of German Shepherd Dogs which was studied was purportedly under selection for the traits studied, we examined the EBVs for evidence of a genetic trend in these traits and found substantial genetic improvement over time. This study suggests the use of ordinal EBVs could

  4. Increased genetic gains in sheep, beef and dairy breeding programs from using female reproductive technologies combined with optimal contribution selection and genomic breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granleese, Tom; Clark, Samuel A; Swan, Andrew A; van der Werf, Julius H J

    2015-09-14

    Female reproductive technologies such as multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) and juvenile in vitro embryo production and embryo transfer (JIVET) can boost rates of genetic gain but they can also increase rates of inbreeding. Inbreeding can be managed using the principles of optimal contribution selection (OCS), which maximizes genetic gain while placing a penalty on the rate of inbreeding. We evaluated the potential benefits and synergies that exist between genomic selection (GS) and reproductive technologies under OCS for sheep and cattle breeding programs. Various breeding program scenarios were simulated stochastically including: (1) a sheep breeding program for the selection of a single trait that could be measured either early or late in life; (2) a beef breeding program with an early or late trait; and (3) a dairy breeding program with a sex limited trait. OCS was applied using a range of penalties (severe to no penalty) on co-ancestry of selection candidates, with the possibility of using multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) and/or juvenile in vitro embryo production and embryo transfer (JIVET) for females. Each breeding program was simulated with and without genomic selection. All breeding programs could be penalized to result in an inbreeding rate of 1 % increase per generation. The addition of MOET to artificial insemination or natural breeding (AI/N), without the use of GS yielded an extra 25 to 60 % genetic gain. The further addition of JIVET did not yield an extra genetic gain. When GS was used, MOET and MOET + JIVET programs increased rates of genetic gain by 38 to 76 % and 51 to 81 % compared to AI/N, respectively. Large increases in genetic gain were found across species when female reproductive technologies combined with genomic selection were applied and inbreeding was managed, especially for breeding programs that focus on the selection of traits measured late in life or that are sex-limited. Optimal contribution selection was

  5. Bayesian methods for jointly estimating genomic breeding values of one continuous and one threshold trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chonglong; Li, Xiujin; Qian, Rong; Su, Guosheng; Zhang, Qin; Ding, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    Genomic selection has become a useful tool for animal and plant breeding. Currently, genomic evaluation is usually carried out using a single-trait model. However, a multi-trait model has the advantage of using information on the correlated traits, leading to more accurate genomic prediction. To date, joint genomic prediction for a continuous and a threshold trait using a multi-trait model is scarce and needs more attention. Based on the previously proposed methods BayesCπ for single continuous trait and BayesTCπ for single threshold trait, we developed a novel method based on a linear-threshold model, i.e., LT-BayesCπ, for joint genomic prediction of a continuous trait and a threshold trait. Computing procedures of LT-BayesCπ using Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm were derived. A simulation study was performed to investigate the advantages of LT-BayesCπ over BayesCπ and BayesTCπ with regard to the accuracy of genomic prediction on both traits. Factors affecting the performance of LT-BayesCπ were addressed. The results showed that, in all scenarios, the accuracy of genomic prediction obtained from LT-BayesCπ was significantly increased for the threshold trait compared to that from single trait prediction using BayesTCπ, while the accuracy for the continuous trait was comparable with that from single trait prediction using BayesCπ. The proposed LT-BayesCπ could be a method of choice for joint genomic prediction of one continuous and one threshold trait.

  6. Accuracy of genomic prediction using deregressed breeding values estimated from purebred and crossbred offspring phenotypes in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, A M; Bastiaansen, J W M; Lopes, M S; Veroneze, R; Groenen, M A M; de Koning, D-J

    2015-07-01

    Genomic selection is applied to dairy cattle breeding to improve the genetic progress of purebred (PB) animals, whereas in pigs and poultry the target is a crossbred (CB) animal for which a different strategy appears to be needed. The source of information used to estimate the breeding values, i.e., using phenotypes of CB or PB animals, may affect the accuracy of prediction. The objective of our study was to assess the direct genomic value (DGV) accuracy of CB and PB pigs using different sources of phenotypic information. Data used were from 3 populations: 2,078 Dutch Landrace-based, 2,301 Large White-based, and 497 crossbreds from an F1 cross between the 2 lines. Two female reproduction traits were analyzed: gestation length (GLE) and total number of piglets born (TNB). Phenotypes used in the analyses originated from offspring of genotyped individuals. Phenotypes collected on CB and PB animals were analyzed as separate traits using a single-trait model. Breeding values were estimated separately for each trait in a pedigree BLUP analysis and subsequently deregressed. Deregressed EBV for each trait originating from different sources (CB or PB offspring) were used to study the accuracy of genomic prediction. Accuracy of prediction was computed as the correlation between DGV and the DEBV of the validation population. Accuracy of prediction within PB populations ranged from 0.43 to 0.62 across GLE and TNB. Accuracies to predict genetic merit of CB animals with one PB population in the training set ranged from 0.12 to 0.28, with the exception of using the CB offspring phenotype of the Dutch Landrace that resulted in an accuracy estimate around 0 for both traits. Accuracies to predict genetic merit of CB animals with both parental PB populations in the training set ranged from 0.17 to 0.30. We conclude that prediction within population and trait had good predictive ability regardless of the trait being the PB or CB performance, whereas using PB population(s) to predict

  7. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H. J.; Lim, J. H.; Woo, S. M.; Hwang, M. J.; Pyo, S. H.; Woo, J. S. [Phygen Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    It is necessary to induce the improved strains of ornamental plants with more disease-resistant and useful for landscape or phytoremediation. Mutation breeding has played an important role in crop improvement, and more than 2,000 mutant cultivars have been released. For the induction of mutation, gamma rays and X-rays are widely used as a mutagen. Proton beam had higher energy than -ray and worked with localized strength, so that proton-beam radiation could be valuable tool to induce useful strains of ornamental plants. Proton ion beam irradiation was used to induce a useful mutant in rice, chrysanthemum, carnation, and so on in Japan. Also, proton ion beam was used to select a useful host strain, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a member of biodegradable plastic, could be overproduced in Korea. Therefore, we surmise that the effects of proton beam is different from those of gamma rays and X-rays, and we expect proton beam to be a new mutagen. This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of the various ornamental plants like as Albizia julibrissin, Ficus religiosa, Rhus chinensis, Sorbaria sorbilfolia and Spiraea chinensis, to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0{approx}2kGy of proton beam at room temperature. Proton beam energy level was 45 MeV and was irradiated at dose of 0{approx}2kGy by MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. By the proton beam radiation, the germination rate decreased at the higher dose. The other hand, the germination rate of Rhus chinensis increased the dose higher, so that it need to investigate the germination rate over 2kGy radiation. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia

  8. Georeferenced evaluation of genetic breeding value patterns in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N S; Hermuche, P; Cobuci, J A; Paiva, S R; Guimaraes, R F; Carvalho, O A; Gomes, R A T; Costa, C N; McManus, C M

    2014-11-27

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between environmental and genetic values for milk production and type traits in Holstein cattle in Brazil. The genetic value of 65,383 animals for milk production and 53,626 for type classification were available. Socioeconomic and environmental data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Institute of Meteorology. Five to six clusters were generated for each of the groups of type traits and production levels. The relationships between these traits were assessed using the STEPDISC, DISCRIM and CANDISC procedures in SAS(®). Traits within the clusters behaved differently, but, in general, animals with lower genetic values were found in environments that were more stressful for animal production. These differences were mainly associated with temperature, humidity, precipitation and the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index. Genetic values for milk production showed best discrimination between different environments, while type traits showed poor discrimination, possibly because farmers mainly select for milk production. Environmental variations for genetic values in dairy cattle in Brazil should be further examined.

  9. QTL mapping and breeding value estimation through pedigree-based analysis of fruit size and weight in four diverse peach breeding programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Frett, Terrence J.; Sandefur, Paul J.; Bink, Marco C.A.M.; Weg, van de Eric

    2016-01-01

    The narrow genetic base of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) challenges efforts to accurately dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. Standardized phenotypic assessment of pedigree-linked breeding germplasm and new molecular strategies and analytical approaches developed and conducted

  10. Changing values of Farm Animal Genomic Resources. From historical breeds to the Nagoya Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakari eTamminen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the history of AnGRs and claims that over the course of history they have been conceptually transformed from economic, ecologic and scientific life forms into political objects, reflecting in the way in which any valuation of AnGRs is today inherently imbued with national politics and its values enacted by legally binding global conventions. Historically, the first calls to conservation were based on the economic, ecological and scientific values of the AnGR. While the historical arguments are valid and still commonly proposed values for conservation, the AnGR have become highly politicized since the adoption of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD, the subsequent Interlaken Declaration, the Global Plan for Action (GPA and the Nagoya Protocol. The scientific and political definitions of the AnGRs were creatively reshuffled within these documents and the key criteria by which they are now identified and valued today were essentially redefined. The criteria of in-situ condition has become the necessary starting point for all valuation efforts of AnGRs, effectively transforming their previous nature as natural property and global genetic club commons into objects of national concern pertaining to territorially discrete national genetic landscapes, regulated by the sovereign powers of the parties to the global conventions.

  11. Genome-wide association study using deregressed breeding values for cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia in two pig lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, Claudia A; Lopes, Marcos S; Harlizius, Barbara; Hanenberg, Egiel H A T; Knol, Egbert F; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2015-03-21

    Cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia are the most frequent congenital defects in pigs. Identification of genomic regions that control these congenital defects is of great interest to breeding programs, both from an animal welfare point of view as well as for economic reasons. The aim of this genome-wide association study (GWAS) was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with these congenital defects. Genotypes were available for 2570 Large White (LW) and 2272 Landrace (LR) pigs. Breeding values were estimated based on 1 359 765 purebred and crossbred male offspring, using a binary trait animal model. Estimated breeding values were deregressed (DEBV) and taken as the response variable in the GWAS. Heritability estimates were equal to 0.26 ± 0.02 for cryptorchidism and to 0.31 ± 0.01 for scrotal/inguinal hernia. Seven and 31 distinct QTL regions were associated with cryptorchidism in the LW and LR datasets, respectively. The top SNP per region explained between 0.96% and 1.10% and between 0.48% and 2.77% of the total variance of cryptorchidism incidence in the LW and LR populations, respectively. Five distinct QTL regions associated with scrotal/inguinal hernia were detected in both LW and LR datasets. The top SNP per region explained between 1.22% and 1.60% and between 1.15% and 1.46% of the total variance of scrotal/inguinal hernia incidence in the LW and LR populations, respectively. For each trait, we identified one overlapping region between the LW and LR datasets, i.e. a region on SSC8 (Sus scrofa chromosome) between 65 and 73 Mb for cryptorchidism and a region on SSC13 between 34 and 37 Mb for scrotal/inguinal hernia. The use of DEBV in combination with a binary trait model was a powerful approach to detect regions associated with difficult traits such as cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia that have a low incidence and for which affected animals are generally not available for genotyping. Several novel

  12. Value-added performance of processed cardboard and farm breeding compost by pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, L; Rouissi, T; Brar, S K; López-González, D; Ramirez, A A; Godbout, S

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to underline the huge potential in Canada of adding value to cardboard and compost as a renewable fuel with a low ecological footprint. The slow pyrolysis process of lined cardboard and compost blend was investigated. Thermal behavior was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). The thermal profiles are presented in the form of TGA/DTG curves. With a constant heating rate of 10 °C/min, two parameters, temperature and time were varied. Cardboard decomposition occurred mostly between 203 °C and 436 °C, where 77% of the sample weight was decomposed. Compost blend decomposition occurred mostly between 209 °C and 373 °C, with 23% of weight. The principal gaseous products that evolved during the pyrolysis were H2O, CO and CO2. As a result, slow pyrolysis led to the formation of biochar. High yield of biochar from cardboard was found at 250 °C for a duration of 60 min (87.5%) while the biochar yield from the compost blend was maintained constant at about 31%. Finally, kinetic parameters and a statistical analysis for the pyrolysis process of the cardboard and compost samples have been investigated. Both materials showed a favorable thermochemical behavior. However, unlike cardboard, compost pyrolysis does not seem a promising process because of the low superior calorific and biochar values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictive ability of genomic selection models for breeding value estimation on growth traits of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanchao; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-09-01

    Genomic selection (GS) can be used to accelerate genetic improvement by shortening the selection interval. The successful application of GS depends largely on the accuracy of the prediction of genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV). This study is a first attempt to understand the practicality of GS in Litopenaeus vannamei and aims to evaluate models for GS on growth traits. The performance of GS models in L. vannamei was evaluated in a population consisting of 205 individuals, which were genotyped for 6 359 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers by specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) and phenotyped for body length and body weight. Three GS models (RR-BLUP, BayesA, and Bayesian LASSO) were used to obtain the GEBV, and their predictive ability was assessed by the reliability of the GEBV and the bias of the predicted phenotypes. The mean reliability of the GEBVs for body length and body weight predicted by the different models was 0.296 and 0.411, respectively. For each trait, the performances of the three models were very similar to each other with respect to predictability. The regression coefficients estimated by the three models were close to one, suggesting near to zero bias for the predictions. Therefore, when GS was applied in a L. vannamei population for the studied scenarios, all three models appeared practicable. Further analyses suggested that improved estimation of the genomic prediction could be realized by increasing the size of the training population as well as the density of SNPs.

  14. Association of an insulin-like growth factor 1 gene microsatellite with phenotypic variation and estimated breeding values of growth traits in Canchim cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, P C; Grossi, D A; Paz, C C P; Alencar, M M; Regitano, L C A; Munari, D P

    2008-10-01

    A population of 1398 Canchim (CA) cattle was genotyped to assess the association of an insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) gene microsatellite with phenotypic variation and estimated breeding values of pre-weaning, weaning and post-weaning growth traits. After an initial analysis, the IGF1 genotype only had a significant effect (P weaning weight adjusted to 240 days (WW240). For these two traits, direct and maternal breeding values were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood (reml). Two analyses were carried out. In the first (Model I), all fixed effects were fitted. In the second (Model II), the fixed effect of the IGF1 genotype was omitted. The estimated genetic and phenotypic components of variance were similar for every trait in both models. For Model I, estimated direct and maternal heritabilities were 0.26 and 0.16 for BW and 0.23 and 0.14 for WW240 respectively. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between BW and WW240 were 0.38 and 0.38 (Model I) and 0.19 and 0.38 (Model II) respectively. Fifty animals were classified according to their direct and maternal breeding values for both traits. Spearman rank-order correlation between animal rankings in the two models was used to assess the effect of including the IGF1 genotype in the model. Non-significant values from this correlation were indicative of a difference in breeding value rankings between the two approaches. The IGF1 gene was found to be associated with phenotypic variation and breeding values in the early phase of growth.

  15. Estimation of breeding values for uniformity of growth in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using pedigree relationships or single-step genomic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sae-Lim, Panya; Kause, Antti; Lillehammer, Marie; Mulder, Herman

    2017-01-01

    Background: In farmed Atlantic salmon, heritability for uniformity of body weight is low, indicating that the accuracy of estimated breeding values (EBV) may be low. The use of genomic information could be one way to increase accuracy and, hence, obtain greater response to selection. Genomic

  16. Reference values of two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic measurements as a function of body size in various equine breeds and in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haidar, A; Moula, N; Leroux, A; Farnir, F; Deleuze, S; Sandersen, C; Amory, H

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish echocardiographic reference values for the equine species using allometric regression equations based on body weight (BW) and thoracic circumference (TC). A total of 239 horses or ponies were studied, including 65 warmbloods, 33 Standardbreds, 41 Thoroughbreds, 32 Arabian horses, 28 draft horses, and 40 ponies aged from 1 day to 30 years, weighing from 18 to 890 kg, with no evidence of cardiac disease. For each horse or pony, a two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography was performed. Within each breed, the relationships between BW or TC and echocardiographic dimensions were examined using power regression equations. Predictions and their 95% prediction intervals were calculated for the echocardiographic measurements. Within each breed, all echocardiographic measurements showed a significant and positive relationship with a high coefficient of determination for the estimation of the regression equations using BW and TC as the main explanatory variables. Breed-specific power regression equations as well as the 95% prediction intervals were calculated for each echocardiographic measurement as a function of BW and TC. In the future, the body size-corrected and breed-specific echocardiographic reference values calculated in the present study could be used to discriminate between normal and abnormal values in a given animal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Best Linear Unbiased Prediction of Genomic Breeding Values Using a Trait-Specific Marker-Derived Relationship Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Liu, Jianfeng; Ding, Xiangdong; Bijma, Piter; de Koning, Dirk-Jan; Zhang, Qin

    2010-01-01

    Background With the availability of high density whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism chips, genomic selection has become a promising method to estimate genetic merit with potentially high accuracy for animal, plant and aquaculture species of economic importance. With markers covering the entire genome, genetic merit of genotyped individuals can be predicted directly within the framework of mixed model equations, by using a matrix of relationships among individuals that is derived from the markers. Here we extend that approach by deriving a marker-based relationship matrix specifically for the trait of interest. Methodology/Principal Findings In the framework of mixed model equations, a new best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) method including a trait-specific relationship matrix (TA) was presented and termed TABLUP. The TA matrix was constructed on the basis of marker genotypes and their weights in relation to the trait of interest. A simulation study with 1,000 individuals as the training population and five successive generations as candidate population was carried out to validate the proposed method. The proposed TABLUP method outperformed the ridge regression BLUP (RRBLUP) and BLUP with realized relationship matrix (GBLUP). It performed slightly worse than BayesB with an accuracy of 0.79 in the standard scenario. Conclusions/Significance The proposed TABLUP method is an improvement of the RRBLUP and GBLUP method. It might be equivalent to the BayesB method but it has additional benefits like the calculation of accuracies for individual breeding values. The results also showed that the TA-matrix performs better in predicting ability than the classical numerator relationship matrix and the realized relationship matrix which are derived solely from pedigree or markers without regard to the trait. This is because the TA-matrix not only accounts for the Mendelian sampling term, but also puts the greater emphasis on those markers that explain more of the

  18. Best linear unbiased prediction of genomic breeding values using a trait-specific marker-derived relationship matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available With the availability of high density whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism chips, genomic selection has become a promising method to estimate genetic merit with potentially high accuracy for animal, plant and aquaculture species of economic importance. With markers covering the entire genome, genetic merit of genotyped individuals can be predicted directly within the framework of mixed model equations, by using a matrix of relationships among individuals that is derived from the markers. Here we extend that approach by deriving a marker-based relationship matrix specifically for the trait of interest.In the framework of mixed model equations, a new best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP method including a trait-specific relationship matrix (TA was presented and termed TABLUP. The TA matrix was constructed on the basis of marker genotypes and their weights in relation to the trait of interest. A simulation study with 1,000 individuals as the training population and five successive generations as candidate population was carried out to validate the proposed method. The proposed TABLUP method outperformed the ridge regression BLUP (RRBLUP and BLUP with realized relationship matrix (GBLUP. It performed slightly worse than BayesB with an accuracy of 0.79 in the standard scenario.The proposed TABLUP method is an improvement of the RRBLUP and GBLUP method. It might be equivalent to the BayesB method but it has additional benefits like the calculation of accuracies for individual breeding values. The results also showed that the TA-matrix performs better in predicting ability than the classical numerator relationship matrix and the realized relationship matrix which are derived solely from pedigree or markers without regard to the trait. This is because the TA-matrix not only accounts for the Mendelian sampling term, but also puts the greater emphasis on those markers that explain more of the genetic variance in the trait.

  19. Estimation of economic values in three breeding perspectives for longevity and milk production traits in Holstein dairy cattle in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolahad Shadparvar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate economic values (EVs for three production traits (milk, fat and protein yields and longevity and to develop a national selection index. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of three other countries in the world. A simple and appropriate model was used to describe the Holstein dairy cattle industry under an Iranian production system. Production parameters and economic data were collected from two Holstein dairy farms in Tehran province. The EVs were estimated at farm level for three breeding perspectives (maximized profit, minimized costs, and economic efficiency and two restrictions in production system (fixed herd size and fixed total input. The average absolute EVs on profit perspective and herd size restriction for milk, fat, and protein yields (based on $/kg and longevity ($/month were 0.11, 0.89, -0.20, and 6.20, respectively. The average absolute EVs under minimized costs per unit of product interest for milk, fat, protein yields and longevity were -0.30, -3.43, 0.88 and -20.40, respectively. The average absolute EVs under maximized economic efficiency for milk, fat and protein yields and longevity were 0.34, 2.73, -0.99 and 36.33, respectively. Relative emphasis for three production traits and longevity were 59.7, 14.3, -3.0 and 23.1, respectively. The comparison of the proposed Iranian index with those countries where most of the semen and embryos are imported points out that developing a national selection index to improve cow profitability and optimum generic trends is necessary. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the influence of milk payment changes on EVs was the greatest as its influence on fat and protein EVs is substantial. EVs for milk and fat yields, with respect to price changes (milk, feed and non-feed, were the least sensitive and most sensitive, respectively.

  20. Effects of the number of markers per haplotype and clustering of haplotypes on the accuracy of QTL mapping and prediction of genomic breeding values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the effect of haplotype definition on the precision of QTL-mapping and on the accuracy of predicted genomic breeding values. In a multiple QTL model using identity-by-descent (IBD) probabilities between haplotypes, various haplotype definitions were tested i.e. including 2, 6, 12 or 20 marker alleles and clustering base haplotypes related with an IBD probability of > 0.55, 0.75 or 0.95. Simulated data contained 1100 animals with known genotypes and phenotypes and 1000 animals with known genotypes and unknown phenotypes. Genomes comprising 3 Morgan were simulated and contained 74 polymorphic QTL and 383 polymorphic SNP markers with an average r2 value of 0.14 between adjacent markers. The total number of haplotypes decreased up to 50% when the window size was increased from two to 20 markers and decreased by at least 50% when haplotypes related with an IBD probability of > 0.55 instead of > 0.95 were clustered. An intermediate window size led to more precise QTL mapping. Window size and clustering had a limited effect on the accuracy of predicted total breeding values, ranging from 0.79 to 0.81. Our conclusion is that different optimal window sizes should be used in QTL-mapping versus genome-wide breeding value prediction. PMID:19284677

  1. Effects of the number of markers per haplotype and clustering of haplotypes on the accuracy of QTL mapping and prediction of genomic breeding values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrooten Chris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper was to compare the effect of haplotype definition on the precision of QTL-mapping and on the accuracy of predicted genomic breeding values. In a multiple QTL model using identity-by-descent (IBD probabilities between haplotypes, various haplotype definitions were tested i.e. including 2, 6, 12 or 20 marker alleles and clustering base haplotypes related with an IBD probability of > 0.55, 0.75 or 0.95. Simulated data contained 1100 animals with known genotypes and phenotypes and 1000 animals with known genotypes and unknown phenotypes. Genomes comprising 3 Morgan were simulated and contained 74 polymorphic QTL and 383 polymorphic SNP markers with an average r2 value of 0.14 between adjacent markers. The total number of haplotypes decreased up to 50% when the window size was increased from two to 20 markers and decreased by at least 50% when haplotypes related with an IBD probability of > 0.55 instead of > 0.95 were clustered. An intermediate window size led to more precise QTL mapping. Window size and clustering had a limited effect on the accuracy of predicted total breeding values, ranging from 0.79 to 0.81. Our conclusion is that different optimal window sizes should be used in QTL-mapping versus genome-wide breeding value prediction.

  2. A comparison of five methods to predict genomic breeding values of dairy bulls from genome-wide SNP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tier Bruce

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic selection (GS uses molecular breeding values (MBV derived from dense markers across the entire genome for selection of young animals. The accuracy of MBV prediction is important for a successful application of GS. Recently, several methods have been proposed to estimate MBV. Initial simulation studies have shown that these methods can accurately predict MBV. In this study we compared the accuracies and possible bias of five different regression methods in an empirical application in dairy cattle. Methods Genotypes of 7,372 SNP and highly accurate EBV of 1,945 dairy bulls were used to predict MBV for protein percentage (PPT and a profit index (Australian Selection Index, ASI. Marker effects were estimated by least squares regression (FR-LS, Bayesian regression (Bayes-R, random regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP, partial least squares regression (PLSR and nonparametric support vector regression (SVR in a training set of 1,239 bulls. Accuracy and bias of MBV prediction were calculated from cross-validation of the training set and tested against a test team of 706 young bulls. Results For both traits, FR-LS using a subset of SNP was significantly less accurate than all other methods which used all SNP. Accuracies obtained by Bayes-R, RR-BLUP, PLSR and SVR were very similar for ASI (0.39-0.45 and for PPT (0.55-0.61. Overall, SVR gave the highest accuracy. All methods resulted in biased MBV predictions for ASI, for PPT only RR-BLUP and SVR predictions were unbiased. A significant decrease in accuracy of prediction of ASI was seen in young test cohorts of bulls compared to the accuracy derived from cross-validation of the training set. This reduction was not apparent for PPT. Combining MBV predictions with pedigree based predictions gave 1.05 - 1.34 times higher accuracies compared to predictions based on pedigree alone. Some methods have largely different computational requirements, with PLSR and RR

  3. Genome wide association study using deregressed breeding values for cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia in two pig lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevillano Del Aguila, C.A.; Soares Lopes, M.; Harlizius, B.; Hanenberg, E.H.A.T.; Knol, E.F.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia are the most frequent congenital defects in pigs. Identification of genomic regions that control these congenital defects is of great interest to breeding programs, both from an animal welfare point of view as well as for economic reasons. The

  4. Economic values for traits in breeding objectives for sheep in the tropics: impact of tangible and intangible benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Baker, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    In traditional management systems in the tropics, sheep constitute a source of easily convertible capital for financing purposes and insurance, a means of cultural and ceremonial functions, and a source of prestige, meat, manure and skins. In this study, breeding objectives were derived for an

  5. Six Different Models for Estimation of Genetic Parameters and Breeding Values for Pre-weaning and Post-weaning Weights in Suckler Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ulutaş, Zafer

    2001-01-01

    Estimates of (co)variance components and breeding values for pre-weaning (100-day) and post-weaning (300-day) weights were obtained for a commercial herd of Welsh Black cattle recorded from 1976 to 1996. Estimates were obtained from six animal models ranging from a model with only an additive direct effect to a model that also included an additive maternal effect, a maternal permanent environmental effect and a covariance between additive direct and additive maternal effects. The most appropr...

  6. Genome wide association study using deregressed breeding values for cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia in two pig lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sevillano Del Aguila, C.A.; Soares Lopes, M.; Harlizius, B; Hanenberg, E.H.A.T.; Knol, E F; Bastiaansen, J. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia are the most frequent congenital defects in pigs. Identification of genomic regions that control these congenital defects is of great interest to breeding programs, both from an animal welfare point of view as well as for economic reasons. The aim of this genome-wide association study (GWAS) was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with these congenital defects. Genotypes were available for 2570 L...

  7. Genome-wide association study using deregressed breeding values for cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia in two pig lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sevillano, Claudia A.; Marcos S. Lopes; Harlizius, Barbara; Hanenberg, Egiel HAT; Knol, Egbert F; Bastiaansen, John WM

    2015-01-01

    Background Cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia are the most frequent congenital defects in pigs. Identification of genomic regions that control these congenital defects is of great interest to breeding programs, both from an animal welfare point of view as well as for economic reasons. The aim of this genome-wide association study (GWAS) was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with these congenital defects. Genotypes were available for 2570 L...

  8. Accuracy of genomic breeding values revisited: Assessment of two established approaches and a novel one to determine the accuracy in two-step genomic prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, G; Kipp, S; Simianer, H; Erbe, M

    2017-06-01

    Selection decisions in genomic selection schemes are made based on genomic breeding values (GBV) of candidates. Thus, the accuracy of GBV is a relevant parameter, as it reflects the stability of prediction and the possibility that the GBV might change when more information becomes available. Accuracy of genomic prediction defined as the correlation between GBV and true breeding values (TBV), however, is difficult to assess, considering TBV of the candidates are not available in reality. In previous studies, several methods were proposed to assess the accuracy of GBV including methods using population parameters or parameters inferred from mixed-model equations. In practice, most approaches tended to overestimate the accuracy of genomic prediction. We thus tested approaches used in previous studies in order to assess the magnitude of bias. Analyses were performed based on simulated data under a variety of scenarios mimicking different livestock breeding programmes. Furthermore, we proposed a novel method and tested it both with simulated data and in a real Holstein data set. The new method provided a better prediction for the accuracy of GBV in the simulated scenarios. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Contribution of domestic production records, Interbull estimated breeding values, and single nucleotide polymorphism genetic markers to the single-step genomic evaluation of milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přibyl, J; Madsen, P; Bauer, J; Přibylová, J; Simečková, M; Vostrý, L; Zavadilová, L

    2013-03-01

    Estimated breeding values (EBV) for first-lactation milk production of Holstein cattle in the Czech Republic were calculated using a conventional animal model and by single-step prediction of the genomic enhanced breeding value. Two overlapping data sets of milk production data were evaluated: (1) calving years 1991 to 2006, with 861,429 lactations and 1,918,901 animals in the pedigree and (2) calving years 1991 to 2010, with 1,097,319 lactations and 1,906,576 animals in the pedigree. Global Interbull (Uppsala, Sweden) deregressed proofs of 114,189 bulls were used in the analyses. Reliabilities of Interbull values were equivalent to an average of 8.53 effective records, which were used in a weighted analysis. A total of 1,341 bulls were genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip V2 (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Among the genotyped bulls were 332 young bulls with no daughters in the first data set but more than 50 daughters (88.41, on average) with performance records in the second data set. For young bulls, correlations of EBV and genomic enhanced breeding value before and after progeny testing, corresponding average expected reliabilities, and effective daughter contributions (EDC) were calculated. The reliability of prediction pedigree EBV of young bulls was 0.41, corresponding to EDC=10.6. Including Interbull deregressed proofs improved the reliability of prediction by EDC=13.4 and including genotyping improved prediction reliability by EDC=6.2. Total average expected reliability of prediction reached 0.67, corresponding to EDC=30.2. The combination of domestic and Interbull sources for both genotyped and nongenotyped animals is valuable for improving the accuracy of genetic prediction in small populations of dairy cattle. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genomic breeding value prediction for simple maize hybrid yield using total effects of associated markers, under different imbalance levels and environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantelmo, N F; Von Pinho, R G; Balestre, M

    2016-03-11

    The main objective of a maize breeding program is to generate hybrid combinations that are more productive than those pre-existing in the market. However, the number of parents, and consequently the number of crosses, increases so rapidly that the phenotypic evaluation of all the possible combinations becomes economically and technically infeasible. In this context, predicting the performance of the most promising genotypes may increase the genetic gains with increased selection intensity and reduced breeding cycles. Thus, the present study aimed to use the total effects of associated markers method to predict genomic breeding values (GBVs) via cross-validation and by using different imbalance levels (10, 30, 50, and 70%). A set of 51 genotyped strains was used with 79 microsatellite markers and 273 hybrids that were generated by a partial diallel. A total of 186 and 272 hybrids were analyzed in the experiments within the southern and central regions of Brazil, respectively. The GBVs were, thus, predicted for each location in both the regions, and for training in one region and validation in another region. The correlation between the predicted and observed GBVs ranged from 0.48 to 0.91, depending on the imbalance level and the region analyzed. Overall, the results obtained in the present study were promising, particularly considering that a small number of markers were used and that the training and predictions occurred in the very distinct regions of southern and central Brazil.

  11. Assisted reproductive techniques for cattle breeding in developing countries: a critical appraisal of their value and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2012-01-01

    Commercialization of animal biotechnologies, including those related to reproduction [also known as assisted reproductive techniques (ARTS)], is an increasing reality in developing countries, following the enormous flow of information around us and the increasing global commercial interests in areas where cattle production has its major assets. The present review discusses the achievements of various biotechnological tools for reproduction in cattle including semen handling for artificial insemination (AI), superovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro handling of oocytes and production of embryos, reproductive cloning and emerging technologies (sex selection, gene targeting and nuclear transfer for livestock transgenesis, genomics for marker-assisted selection, etc.). The application of these technologies for cattle breeding is critically discussed in relation to their impact in the improvement of the efficiency of dairy and beef production in developed and - particularly - in developing countries, which ultimately rule the possibilities of a competitive and sound production of food for human consumption. Despite the remarkable progress made and the punctual importance of some of the above-mentioned technologies, AI remains the most important assisted reproductive technology (ART) in developing countries. Any attempt to gain widespread of any other ART under the predominant economical conditions in developing countries ought to match the simplicity and the success of AI as a breeding tool. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  13. Comparison between direct and indirect methods for exploiting Fourier transform spectral information in estimation of breeding values for fine composition and technological properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfatti, V; Vicario, D; Degano, L; Lugo, A; Carnier, P

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the common method of exploiting infrared spectral data in animal breeding; that is, estimating the breeding values for the traits predicted by infrared spectroscopy, and an alternative approach based on the direct use of spectral information (direct prediction, DP) to predict the estimated breeding values (EBV). Traits were pH, milk coagulation properties, contents of the main casein and whey protein fractions, cheese yield measured by micro-cheese making, lactoferrin, Ca, and fat composition. For the DP method, the number of spectral variables was reduced by principal components analysis to 8 latent traits that explained 99% of the original spectral variation. Restricted maximum likelihood was used to estimate variance components of the latent traits. (Co)variance components of the original spectral traits were obtained by back-transformation and EBV of all derived milk traits were then predicted as traits correlated with the genetic information of the spectra. The rank correlation between the EBV obtained for the infrared-predicted traits and those obtained from the DP method was variable across traits. Rank correlations ranged from 0.07 (for the content of saturated fatty acids expressed as g/100 g of fat) to 0.96 (for dry matter cheese yield, %) and, for most traits, was <0.5. This result can be explained by the nature of the principal components analysis: it does not take into account the covariance between the spectral variables and the reference traits but produces latent traits that maximize the spectral variance explained. Thus, the direct approach is more likely to be effective for traits more related to the main sources of spectral variation (i.e., protein and fat). More research is required to study spectral genetic variation and to determine the best way to choose spectral regions and the type and number of considered latent traits for potential applications. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association

  14. Improving the reliability of female fertility breeding values using type and milk yield traits that predict energy status in Australian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Recio, O; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to propose changing the selection criteria trait for evaluating fertility in Australia from calving interval to conception rate at d 42 after the beginning of the mating season and (2) to use type traits as early fertility predictors, to increase the reliability of estimated breeding values for fertility. The breeding goal in Australia is conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season. Currently, the Australian model to predict fertility breeding values (expressed as a linear transformation of calving interval) is a multitrait model that includes calving interval (CVI), lactation length (LL), calving to first service (CFS), first nonreturn rate (FNRR), and conception rate. However, CVI has a lower genetic correlation with the breeding goal (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) than conception rate. Milk yield, type, and fertility data from 164,318 cow sired by 4,766 bulls were used. Principal component analysis and genetic correlation estimates between type and fertility traits were used to select type traits that could subsequently be used in a multitrait analysis. Angularity, foot angle, and pin set were chosen as type traits to include in an index with the traits that are included in the multitrait fertility model: CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and conception rate at d 42 (CR42). An index with these 8 traits is expected to achieve an average bull first proof reliability of 0.60 on the breeding objective (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) compared with reliabilities of 0.39 and 0.45 for CR42 only or the current 5-trait Australian model. Subsequently, we used the first eigenvector of a principal component analysis with udder texture, bone quality, angularity, and body condition score to calculate an energy status indicator trait. The inclusion of the energy status indicator trait composite in a multitrait index with CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and CR42 achieved a 12-point increase in

  15. The use of genomic information increases the accuracy of breeding value predictions for sea louse (Caligus rogercresseyi) resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Katharina; Bangera, Rama; Figueroa, René; Lhorente, Jean P; Yáñez, José M

    2017-01-31

    Sea lice infestations caused by Caligus rogercresseyi are a main concern to the salmon farming industry due to associated economic losses. Resistance to this parasite was shown to have low to moderate genetic variation and its genetic architecture was suggested to be polygenic. The aim of this study was to compare accuracies of breeding value predictions obtained with pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction (P-BLUP) methodology against different genomic prediction approaches: genomic BLUP (G-BLUP), Bayesian Lasso, and Bayes C. To achieve this, 2404 individuals from 118 families were measured for C. rogercresseyi count after a challenge and genotyped using 37 K single nucleotide polymorphisms. Accuracies were assessed using fivefold cross-validation and SNP densities of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 25 and 37 K. Accuracy of genomic predictions increased with increasing SNP density and was higher than pedigree-based BLUP predictions by up to 22%. Both Bayesian and G-BLUP methods can predict breeding values with higher accuracies than pedigree-based BLUP, however, G-BLUP may be the preferred method because of reduced computation time and ease of implementation. A relatively low marker density (i.e. 10 K) is sufficient for maximal increase in accuracy when using G-BLUP or Bayesian methods for genomic prediction of C. rogercresseyi resistance in Atlantic salmon.

  16. HERITABILITY AND BREEDING VALUE OF SHEEP FERTILITY ESTIMATED BY MEANS OF THE GIBBS SAMPLING METHOD USING THE LINEAR AND THRESHOLD MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIUSZ Piwczynski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out on 4,030 Polish Merino ewes born in the years 1991- 2001, kept in 15 flocks from the Pomorze and Kujawy region. Fertility of ewes in subsequent reproduction seasons was analysed with the use of multiple logistic regression. The research showed that there is a statistical influence of the flock, year of birth, age of dam, flock year interaction of birth on the ewes fertility. In order to estimate the genetic parameters, the Gibbs sampling method was applied, using the univariate animal models, both linear as well as threshold. Estimates of fertility depending on the model equalled 0.067 to 0.104, whereas the estimates of repeatability equalled respectively: 0.076 and 0.139. The obtained genetic parameters were then used to estimate the breeding values of the animals in terms of controlled trait (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction method using linear and threshold models. The obtained animal breeding values rankings in respect of the same trait with the use of linear and threshold models were strongly correlated with each other (rs = 0.972. Negative genetic trends of fertility (0.01-0.08% per year were found.

  17. Can more be learned from selection experiments of value in animal breeding programmes? Or is it time for an obituary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, W G

    2011-04-01

    Selection experiments in laboratory animals and livestock have provided a wealth of information on genetic parameters of quantitative traits and on the effectiveness of selection in the short and long term on both directly selected and correlated traits. They have stimulated developments in theory and tests of it, and extreme selected lines continue to be source material for biological study. Some of the main questions and findings are briefly reviewed. Yet much of successful animal breeding practice has been based essentially on statistical methods, assuming where necessary the infinitesimal model, and new developments such as genomic selection are similarly not based on selection experiments. Information on the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is provided by selection experiments, but new methods for deeper studies of the biology are available. I discuss the future role for selection experiments in view of changes in funding streams and technology and conclude that there is little case for starting new experiments, but retention of existing long-term lines is desirable and DNA should be collected from all lines on a continuing basis. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Application of risk-rated profit model functions in estimation of economic values for indigenous chicken breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeno, Tobias O; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

    2012-08-01

    The economic values for productive (egg number, average daily gain, live weight, and mature weight) and functional (fertility, hatchability, broodiness, survival rate, feed intake, and egg weight) traits were derived for three production systems utilizing indigenous chicken in Kenya. The production systems considered were free-range, semi-intensive, and intensive system and were evaluated based on fixed flock size and fixed feed resource production circumstances. A bio-economic model that combined potential performances, feeding strategies, optimum culling strategies, farmer's preferences and accounted for imperfect knowledge concerning risk attitude of farmers and economic dynamics was employed to derive risk-rated economic values. The economic values for all the traits were highest in free-range system under the two production circumstances and decreased with level of intensification. The economic values for egg number, average daily gain, live weight, fertility, hatchability, and survival rate were positive while those for mature weight, broodiness, egg weight, and feed intake were negative. Generally, the economic values estimated under fixed feed resource production circumstances were higher than those derived under fixed flock size. The difference between economic values estimated using simple (traditional) and risk-rated profit model functions ranged from -47.26% to +67.11% indicating that inclusion of risks in estimation of economic values is important. The results of this study suggest that improvement targeting egg number, average daily gain, live weight, fertility, hatchability, and survival rate would have a positive impact on profitability of indigenous chicken production in Kenya.

  19. Breeding goals for the Kenya dual purpose goat. II. Estimation of economic values for production and functional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, R C; Kosgey, I S; Bebe, B O; Kahi, A K

    2007-10-01

    Economic values for production traits (milk yield, MY, kg; 12-month sale weight, LW, kg; consumable meat percentage, CMP) and functional traits (doe live weight, DoWT, kg; number of kids weaned, NKW; kidding frequency, KF; kidding rate, KR, %; doe weaning rate, DoWR, %; doe survival rate, DoSR, %; post-weaning survival rate, PoSR, %; pre-weaning survival rate, PrSR, % and; residual feed intake of yearlings, RFIgamma, kg and does RFId, kg) were estimated for the Kenya Dual Purpose goat (KDPG) for systems under two bases of evaluation. The production systems included smallholder low-potential (SLP), smallholder medium-potential (SMP) and smallholder high-potential (SHP), while the bases of evaluation considered were fixed flock-size and fixed feed resource. Under both bases of evaluation, economic values were highest in SMP apart from the economic values for feed intake-related traits (RFIy and RFId). In SMP, the economic values under fixed flock-size scenario were KSh 71.61 (LW), 20.90 (MY), 45.20 (CMP), 13.68 (NKW), 3.61 (KF), 6.52 (KR), 12.39 (DoWR), 22.96 (DoSR), 22.87 (PoSR), 13.18 (PrSR), -2.76 (RFIy) and -3.00 (RFId). The corresponding economic values under fixed feed resources scenario were KSh 73.28, 29.39, 45.20, 16.91, 4.76, 9.45, 13.84, 25.67, 25.15, 16.19, -2.76 and -3.00. Generally in all production systems, economic values for most traits were higher under fixed feed resource than under fixed flock-size scenario. In all systems, the economic values for most of the traits were sensitive to changes in prices of feed, milk and meat. The positive economic values for most traits under fixed flock-size scenario and fixed feed resource indicates that a unit increase in genetic merit for the traits would have a positive effect on the profitability of the systems.

  20. Genomic selection models double the accuracy of predicted breeding values for bacterial cold water disease resistance compared to a traditional pedigree-based model in rainbow trout aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Roger L; Leeds, Timothy D; Gao, Guangtu; Parsons, James E; Martin, Kyle E; Evenhuis, Jason P; Fragomeni, Breno O; Wiens, Gregory D; Palti, Yniv

    2017-02-01

    Previously, we have shown that bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) resistance in rainbow trout can be improved using traditional family-based selection, but progress has been limited to exploiting only between-family genetic variation. Genomic selection (GS) is a new alternative that enables exploitation of within-family genetic variation. We compared three GS models [single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP), weighted ssGBLUP (wssGBLUP), and BayesB] to predict genomic-enabled breeding values (GEBV) for BCWD resistance in a commercial rainbow trout population, and compared the accuracy of GEBV to traditional estimates of breeding values (EBV) from a pedigree-based BLUP (P-BLUP) model. We also assessed the impact of sampling design on the accuracy of GEBV predictions. For these comparisons, we used BCWD survival phenotypes recorded on 7893 fish from 102 families, of which 1473 fish from 50 families had genotypes [57 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array]. Naïve siblings of the training fish (n = 930 testing fish) were genotyped to predict their GEBV and mated to produce 138 progeny testing families. In the following generation, 9968 progeny were phenotyped to empirically assess the accuracy of GEBV predictions made on their non-phenotyped parents. The accuracy of GEBV from all tested GS models were substantially higher than the P-BLUP model EBV. The highest increase in accuracy relative to the P-BLUP model was achieved with BayesB (97.2 to 108.8%), followed by wssGBLUP at iteration 2 (94.4 to 97.1%) and 3 (88.9 to 91.2%) and ssGBLUP (83.3 to 85.3%). Reducing the training sample size to n = ~1000 had no negative impact on the accuracy (0.67 to 0.72), but with n = ~500 the accuracy dropped to 0.53 to 0.61 if the training and testing fish were full-sibs, and even substantially lower, to 0.22 to 0.25, when they were not full-sibs. Using progeny performance data, we showed that the accuracy of genomic predictions is substantially higher

  1. Estimation of economic values in three breeding perspectives for longevity and milk production traits in Holstein dairy cattle in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolahad Shadparvar; Ardeshir Nejati-Javaremi; Mohammad Moradi-Shahrbabak; Ali Ali Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate economic values (EVs) for three production traits (milk, fat and protein yields) and longevity and to develop a national selection index. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of three other countries in the world. A simple and appropriate model was used to describe the Holstein dairy cattle industry under an Iranian production system. Production parameters and economic data were collected from two Holstein dairy...

  2. Sire carcass breeding values affect body composition in lambs--2. Effects on fat and bone weight and their distribution within the carcass as measured by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F; Williams, A; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of paternal Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post weaning c-site eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT), and post weaning weight (PWWT) on the composition of lamb carcasses. Composition was measured using computed tomography scans of 1665 lambs which were progeny of 85 Maternal, 115 Merino and 155 Terminal sires. Reducing sire PFAT decreased carcass fat weight by 4.8% and increased carcass bone by 1.3% per unit of PFAT (range 5.1 mm). Increasing sire PEMD reduced carcass fat weight by 3.8% in Maternal and 2% in Terminal sired lambs per unit of PEMD (range 4.3 and 7.8 mm), with no impact on bone. Increasing sire PWWT reduced carcass fat weight, but only at some experimental locations. Differences in composition varied between sire types with Maternal sired lambs having the most fat and Merino sired lambs the greatest bone weight. Genetic effects on fatness were greater than the environmental or production factor effects, with the converse true of bone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Genome Based Estimated Breeding Values for Meat Quality in a Berkshire Population Using High Density Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baby

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV was evaluated for sixteen meat quality traits in a Berkshire population (n = 1,191 that was collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Korea. The animals were genotyped with the Illumina porcine 62 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP bead chips, in which a set of 36,605 SNPs were available after quality control tests. Two methods were applied to evaluate GEBV accuracies, i.e. genome based linear unbiased prediction method (GBLUP and Bayes B, using ASREML 3.0 and Gensel 4.0 software, respectively. The traits composed different sets of training (both genotypes and phenotypes and testing (genotypes only data. Under the GBLUP model, the GEBV accuracies for the training data ranged from 0.42±0.08 for collagen to 0.75±0.02 for water holding capacity with an average of 0.65±0.04 across all the traits. Under the Bayes B model, the GEBV accuracy ranged from 0.10±0.14 for National Pork Producers Council (NPCC marbling score to 0.76±0.04 for drip loss, with an average of 0.49±0.10. For the testing samples, the GEBV accuracy had an average of 0.46±0.10 under the GBLUP model, ranging from 0.20±0.18 for protein to 0.65±0.06 for drip loss. Under the Bayes B model, the GEBV accuracy ranged from 0.04±0.09 for NPCC marbling score to 0.72±0.05 for drip loss with an average of 0.38±0.13. The GEBV accuracy increased with the size of the training data and heritability. In general, the GEBV accuracies under the Bayes B model were lower than under the GBLUP model, especially when the training sample size was small. Our results suggest that a much greater training sample size is needed to get better GEBV accuracies for the testing samples.

  4. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  5. Random forest estimation of genomic breeding values for disease susceptibility over different disease incidences and genomic architectures in simulated cow calibration groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, S; Yin, T; König, S

    2016-09-01

    A simulation study was conducted to investigate the performance of random forest (RF) and genomic BLUP (GBLUP) for genomic predictions of binary disease traits based on cow calibration groups. Training and testing sets were modified in different scenarios according to disease incidence, the quantitative-genetic background of the trait (h(2)=0.30 and h(2)=0.10), and the genomic architecture [725 quantitative trait loci (QTL) and 290 QTL, populations with high and low levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD)]. For all scenarios, 10,005 SNP (depicting a low-density 10K SNP chip) and 50,025 SNP (depicting a 50K SNP chip) were evenly spaced along 29 chromosomes. Training and testing sets included 20,000 cows (4,000 sick, 16,000 healthy, disease incidence 20%) from the last 2 generations. Initially, 4,000 sick cows were assigned to the testing set, and the remaining 16,000 healthy cows represented the training set. In the ongoing allocation schemes, the number of sick cows in the training set increased stepwise by moving 10% of the sick animals from the testing set to the training set, and vice versa. The size of the training and testing sets was kept constant. Evaluation criteria for both GBLUP and RF were the correlations between genomic breeding values and true breeding values (prediction accuracy), and the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Prediction accuracy and AUROC increased for both methods and all scenarios as increasing percentages of sick cows were allocated to the training set. Highest prediction accuracies were observed for disease incidences in training sets that reflected the population disease incidence of 0.20. For this allocation scheme, the largest prediction accuracies of 0.53 for RF and of 0.51 for GBLUP, and the largest AUROC of 0.66 for RF and of 0.64 for GBLUP, were achieved using 50,025 SNP, a heritability of 0.30, and 725 QTL. Heritability decreases from 0.30 to 0.10 and QTL reduction from 725 to 290 were associated

  6. Reliability of molecular breeding values for Warner-Bratzler shear force and carcass traits of beef cattle - an independent validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanno, E C; Plastow, G; Woodward, B W; Bauck, S; Okut, H; Wu, X-L; Sun, C; Aalhus, J L; Moore, S S; Miller, S P; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2014-07-01

    Interest in genetic improvement of carcass and tenderness traits of beef cattle using genome-based selection (GS) and marker-assisted management programs is increasing. The success of such a program depends on the presence of linkage disequilibrium between the observed markers and the underlying QTL as well as on the relationship between the discovery, validation, and target populations. For molecular breeding values (MBV) predicted for a target population using SNP markers, reliabilities of these MBV can be obtained from validation analyses conducted in an independent population distinct from the discovery set. The objective of this study was to test MBV predicted for carcass and tenderness traits of beef cattle in a Canadian-based validation population that is largely independent of a United States-based discovery set. The discovery data set comprised of genotypes and phenotypes from >2,900 multibreed beef cattle while the validation population consisted of 802 crossbred feeder heifers and steers. A bivariate animal model that fitted actual phenotype and MBV was used for validation analyses. The reliability of MBV was defined as square of the genetic correlation (R(2) g) that represents the proportion of the additive genetic variance explained by the SNP markers. Several scenarios involving different starting marker panels (384, 3K, 7K, and 50K) and different sets of SNP selected to compute MBV (50, 100, 200, 375, 400, 600, and 800) were investigated. Validation results showed that the most reliable MBV (R(2) g) were 0.34 for HCW, 0.36 for back fat thickness, 0.28 for rib eye area, 0.30 for marbling score, 0.25 for yield grade, and 0.38 for Warner-Bratzler shear force across the different scenarios explored. The results indicate that smaller SNP panels can be developed for use in genetic improvement of beef carcass and tenderness traits to exploit GS benefits.

  7. Simulated Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemi, Tatsuo

    This chapter describes a basic framework of simulated breeding, a type of interactive evolutionary computing to breed artifacts, whose origin is Blind Watchmaker by Dawkins. These methods make it easy for humans to design a complex object adapted to his/her subjective criteria, just similarly to agricultural products we have been developing over thousands of years. Starting from randomly initialized genome, the solution candidates are improved through several generations with artificial selection. The graphical user interface helps the process of breeding with techniques of multifield user interface and partial breeding. The former improves the diversity of individuals that prevents being trapped at local optimum. The latter makes it possible for the user to fix features he/she already satisfied. These methods were examined through artistic applications by the author: SBART for graphics art and SBEAT for music. Combining with a direct genome editor and exportation to another graphical or musical tool on the computer, they can be powerful tools for artistic creation. These systems may contribute to the creation of a type of new culture.

  8. Estimation of breeding values for uniformity of growth in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using pedigree relationships or single-step genomic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Lim, Panya; Kause, Antti; Lillehammer, Marie; Mulder, Han A

    2017-03-07

    In farmed Atlantic salmon, heritability for uniformity of body weight is low, indicating that the accuracy of estimated breeding values (EBV) may be low. The use of genomic information could be one way to increase accuracy and, hence, obtain greater response to selection. Genomic information can be merged with pedigree information to construct a combined relationship matrix ([Formula: see text] matrix) for a single-step genomic evaluation (ssGBLUP), allowing realized relationships of the genotyped animals to be exploited, in addition to numerator pedigree relationships ([Formula: see text] matrix). We compared the predictive ability of EBV for uniformity of body weight in Atlantic salmon, when implementing either the [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] matrix in the genetic evaluation. We used double hierarchical generalized linear models (DHGLM) based either on a sire-dam (sire-dam DHGLM) or an animal model (animal DHGLM) for both body weight and its uniformity. With the animal DHGLM, the use of [Formula: see text] instead of [Formula: see text] significantly increased the correlation between the predicted EBV and adjusted phenotypes, which is a measure of predictive ability, for both body weight and its uniformity (41.1 to 78.1%). When log-transformed body weights were used to account for a scale effect, the use of [Formula: see text] instead of [Formula: see text] produced a small and non-significant increase (1.3 to 13.9%) in predictive ability. The sire-dam DHGLM had lower predictive ability for uniformity compared to the animal DHGLM. Use of the combined numerator and genomic relationship matrix ([Formula: see text]) significantly increased the predictive ability of EBV for uniformity when using the animal DHGLM for untransformed body weight. The increase was only minor when using log-transformed body weights, which may be due to the lower heritability of scaled uniformity, the lower genetic correlation of transformed body weight with its

  9. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  10. Mean EPDs reported by different breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef cattle genetic evaluations result in expected progeny differences (EPDs), which can be used to select animals for growth, productivity, carcass composition, and, most recently, economic value. Breed averages allow producers to compare the genetic value of potential breeding stock against their ...

  11. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano P. Marelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  12. Penning-trap Q-value determination of the Ga-71(v, e(-))Ge-71 reaction using threshold charge breeding of on-line produced isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frekers, D.; Simon, M.C.; Andreoiu, C.; Bale, J. C.; Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Delheij, P.; Ejiri, H.; Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A. T.; Gavrin, V.; Grossheim, A.; Harakeh, M. N.; Jang, F.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Lassen, J.; Lennarz, A.; Luichtl, M.; Ma, T.; Macdonald, T. D.; Mane, E.; Robertson, D.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, V. V.; Teigelhoefer, A.; Dilling, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a first direct Q-value measurement of the Ga-71(v, e(-))Ge-71 reaction using the TITAN mass-measurement facility at ISAC/TRIUMF. The measurements were performed in a Penning trap on neon-like Ga-71(21+) and Ge-71(22+) using isobar separation of the on-line produced mother and daughter

  13. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of

  14. Genomic evaluation of cattle in a multi-breed context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens Sandø; Su, Guosheng; Janss, Luc

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain accurate genomic breeding values a large number of reference animals with both phenotype and genotype data are needed. This poses a challenge for breeds with small reference populations. One option to overcome this obstacle is to use a multi-breed reference population. However...... that the effect of multi-breed reference populations on the accuracy of genomic prediction is highly affected by the genetic distance between breeds. When combining populations of the same breeds from different countries, large increases in accuracy are seen, whereas for admixed populations with some exchange...

  15. Objetivos de seleção e valores econômicos em sistemas de produção de gado de corte no Brasil Breeding goals and economic values for beef cattle production systems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Jorge Júnior

    2007-10-01

    importance of possible traits to be included in breeding goals, for different production systems of Nelore cattle. Two types of production systems (cow-calf and complete breeding cycles were simulated for two types of herds. Herd 1 was defined as a nucleus herd (where selection was carried out and a percentage of animals were also raised for commercial purposes, with cow-calf (Cc, complete breeding cycle (Cbc and complete breeding cycle with sales of animals for reproduction (CbcR. Herd 2 was defined as an exclusively commercial herd, with cow-calf cycle (Cc and complete breeding cycle (Cbc. Using a bio-economic model, economic values were calculated for the following traits: weaning weight (WW, weaning rate (WR, mature weight (MW, average daily gain in feed-lot (DAG, slaughter (WS and carcass weights (WC, young bulls' final weight (FWYB, dressing percentage (DP, feed-lot (FLFI and pasture feed intakes (PFI. The economic values for Cbc and CbcR (herds 1 and 2 ranged from R$ 0.34 to R$ 0.40 for WW, R$ 3.51 to R$ 10.15 for WR, -R$ 0.16 to R$ 0.09 for MW, R$ 0.32 to R$ 0.76 for FLFI, R$ 1.09 to R$ 1.17 for WS; R$ 2.03 to R$ 2.19 for WC, R$ 23.89 to R$ 28.61 for YG, R$ 11.85 for FWYB, - R$ 0.45 for FLFI and - R$ 0.03 for PFI. WR and DP presented the largest impacts on annual profits in both herds. Sensitivity analyses indicated that, in general, possible changes in prices of production components and products would exert a greater influence on the economic values for those production systems with higher prices in the basic situation.

  16. Concepts and Strategies of Organic Plant Breeding in Light of Novel Breeding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Nuijten

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the development of a set of guiding principles for the evaluation of breeding techniques by the organic sector over time. The worldwide standards of organic agriculture (OA do not allow genetic engineering (GE or any products derived from genetic engineering. The standards in OA are an expression of the underlying principles of health, ecology, fairness and care. The derived norms are process and not product oriented. As breeding is considered part of the process in agriculture, GE is not a neutral tool for the organic sector. The incompatibility between OA and GE is analyzed, including the “novel breeding techniques”. Instead, alternative breeding approaches are pursued based on the norms and values of organic agriculture not only on the technical level but also on the social and organizational level by including other value chain players and consumers. The status and future perspectives of the alternative directions for organic breeding are described and discussed.

  17. The biodiversity and genetic structure of Balearic sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, A L; Landi, V; Martinez, A; Delgado, J V

    2015-06-01

    The Balearic sheep breeds, Mallorquina, Menorquina, Roja Mallorquina, Ibicenca and one possible new genetic group, Formentera, constitute a unique genetic resource in the Mediterranean farming landscape, displaying high genetic diversity levels and being well differentiated among themselves and with respect to the continental sheep breeds. We used a microsatellite panel of markers to study genetic diversity and relationships with other Spanish breeds. The results reported in this study have important implications for the use, conservation and breeding of Balearic sheep stocks. A mean number of 7.59 alleles was found among the Balearic sheep breeds for the microsatellites scored. The whole mean value of observed heterozygosity amounted to 0.62, whereas the expected heterozygosity value was 0.69, suggesting the presence of a great degree of genetic variability, although a significant deficit of heterozygotes was detected for some markers. Genetic distance estimates showed that Balearic sheep are differentiated from the other Spanish breeds and in particular, from the Merino type. The Ibicenca breed showed the highest distance value from other breeds. The neighbour-net method of analysis clustered the Roja Mallorquina, Menorquina and Mallorquina breeds. The Structure results clearly demonstrated the genetic differentiation among the four Balearic sheep breeds, with the Ibicenca and Formentera races joined, with slight migration among them. Few external genetic influences from the Spanish mainland breeds were detected. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Buffaloes breeding in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bernardes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.

  19. Efeito de valores discrepantes em grupos de contemporâneos na predição dos valores genéticos Effect of outliers in contemporary groups on breeding value prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Leme Franco Geraldini Sirol

    2007-08-01

    replication was divided into three different sets of contemporary (CG and progeny groups. The first set (I was formed by 1,000 contemporary groups, 100 observations each and 10 progenies/sire. The second set (II included 2,500 CG, 40 observations and 4 progenies/sire. The third set (III consisted of 5,000 CG, 20 observations and two progenies/sire. The number of records per group and sire and the number of sires per group varied within the same set. In each population, GMD1 was transformed by DIAS1=100/GMD1. The contribution of CG to sire breeding value predictions were calculated for GMD1 (Cx and DIAS1 (Cy. The maximum and the average of DIAS1 effects on Cy absolute value were significant, but the R² were low (maximum of 16%. The minimum value of DIAS1 has not influenced Cy. The maximum and the minimum of GMD1 on Cx were significant, but the R² were very low (maximum 2%. The GMD1 average has not affected Cx. The effect of the minimum value of DIAS1 was important to determine the CG effect on breeding value of sires with progeny in the set. A very low value of GMD1 for an animal corresponds to a high value of DIAS1 and affects the values of the other animals and the CG average. This effect has an impact on the evaluation of their sires and will be an important source of error in the genetic evaluation of the herd. Thus, the replacement of GMD1 by DIAS1 as selection criteria for growth is not recommended because it will reduce the possibility of genetic gain.

  20. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) originated in the Andean region of South America; this species is associated with exceptional grain nutritional quality and is highly valued for its ability to tolerate abiotic stresses. However, its introduction outside the Andes has yet to take off on a large...... scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  1. Animal breeding in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, W.J.; Baars, T. (Theodor); Groen, A.F.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Roep, D.

    2001-01-01

    After a general introduction into the available breeding techniques for animal breeding and an overview of the organic principles, points for discussion are identified and scenario's for organically accepted breeding methods are discussed.

  2. LINE CONSTRUCTION OF NONIUS BREED IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  3. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  4. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  5. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  6. Wallpaper May Breed Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166850.html Wallpaper May Breed Toxins: Study Fungus on the walls might ... 2017 FRIDAY, June 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Wallpaper may contribute to "sick building syndrome," a new study ...

  7. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2011 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  8. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2010 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  9. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual

  10. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  11. Objetivos de seleção para sistemas de produção de gado de corte em pasto: ponderadores econômicos Economic values for breeding goal traits for Brazilian beef cattle production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.C. Bittencourt

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram desenvolvidos objetivos de seleção para gado de corte criado nas condições de produção típicas do Brasil Central. As características consideradas foram: número de bezerros desmamados por vaca/ano (NBD, peso da carcaça (PC, peso à desmama (PD e consumo de alimento. Foram adotados dois sistemas de produção, um que considerava somente a cria e outro, o ciclo completo (cria, recria e engorda. No primeiro, as receitas foram a venda de bezerros à desmama, novilhas excedentes e vacas de descarte. No segundo, a receita foi a venda das novilhas excedentes, vacas de descarte e novilhos para o abate. Em ambas as situações, o lucro (USD/vaca/ano foi estimado pela diferença entre receita e despesa. Os valores econômicos estimados foram expressos em dólar por unidade de mudança na característica, calculados na base vaca/ano. O valor econômico foi calculado avaliando-se a alteração ocorrida no lucro quando a característica era incrementada de uma unidade, permanecendo as demais inalteradas. A característica que apresentou maior valor bruto do ponderador econômico foi o NBD, seguida pelo consumo, PC e PD. Quando se considerou o valor econômico, em unidades de desvio-padrão genético-aditivo, a ordem de importância foi consumo, PC, NBD e PD.Breeding objectives were developed for beef cattle production under typical economic and environmental conditions of central Brazil. The traits considered were: calves weaned per cow/year (NCW, weaning weight (WW, carcass weight (CW and food intake. In the study, two systems were examined, a cow-calf system (surplus calves sold after weaning and a cow-calf enterprise (in which surplus calves are raised for slaughter. In the first, income is from the sale of male calves and surplus heifers after weaning and of culled cows. In the second, the income is from the sale of steers, surplus heifers and culled cows. For both situations, the profit (US$/cow/year was estimated by the difference

  12. Challenges of Participatory Plant Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Messmer, Monika

    2012-01-01

    FiBL Plant breeding strategies - Why participatory plant breeding ? - Level of participation - Principles of participatory research - Challenges of participatory plant breeding - Who to get started - Communication / Common language - Definition of common goals - Long term engagement & Gender aspect - Implementation of PPB & Struggle with on farm trials - Data assessment & sample handling - Legal aspects and financing - Impact of participative plant breeding

  13. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  15. Ocular biometry by computed tomography in different dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwitt, Carolin L H; Baines, Stephen J; Mahoney, Paul; Tanner, Andrew; Heinrich, Christine L; Rhodes, Michael; Featherstone, Heidi J

    2017-09-01

    To (i) correlate B-mode ocular ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) (prospective pilot study), (ii) establish a reliable method to measure the normal canine eye using CT, (iii) establish a reference guide for some dog breeds, (iv) compare eye size between different breeds and breed groups, and (v) investigate the correlation between eye dimensions and body weight, gender, and skull type (retrospective study). B-mode US and CT were performed on ten sheep cadaveric eyes. CT biometry involved 100 adult pure-bred dogs with nonocular and nonorbital disease, representing eleven breeds. Eye length, width, and height were each measured in two of three planes (horizontal, sagittal, and equatorial). B-mode US and CT measurements of sheep cadaveric eyes correlated well (0.70-0.71). The shape of the canine eye was found to be akin to an oblate spheroid (a flattened sphere). A reference guide was established for eleven breeds. Eyes of large breed dogs were significantly larger than those of medium and small breed dogs (P dogs were significantly larger than those of small breed dogs (P guide was established for eleven breeds. Eye size correlated with breed size and body weight. Because correlation between B-mode US and CT was shown, the obtained values can be applied in the clinical setting, for example, for the diagnosis of microphthalmos and buphthalmos. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  16. Breeding objectives for Holstein cattle in South Africa | Banga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Well-defined breeding objectives form the basis of sound genetic improvement programmes. Breeding objectives for Holstein cattle in South Africa were developed in the current study. Economic values were calculated for those economically relevant traits that had adequate bio-economic data, namely milk volume, fat yield, ...

  17. Pedigree analysis of an ostrich breeding flock

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    are selected by truncation on estimated breeding values across age classes results in increased genetic gains, but also increased rates of inbreeding. This poses the threat of inbreeding depression, which may hamper selection response and genetic diversity in the long run (Bijma et al., 2001). Inbreeding and the rate of.

  18. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370632656

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  19. Travelling to breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, RJ; Fox, AD; Stahl, J

    Traditionally, investigation of the dynamics of avian migration has been heavily biased towards the autumn return trip to the wintering quarters. Since the migratory prelude to breeding has direct fitness consequences, the European Science Foundation recently redressed the balance and sponsored a

  20. Lettuce and spinach breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce and spinach production is beset by numerous biotic an abiotic challenges. This report to the California Leafy Greens Research Program annual meeting provides an update by the ‘Genetic Enhancement of Lettuce, Spinach, Melon, and Related Species’ project at Salinas on the genetics and breeding...

  1. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  2. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great

  3. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  4. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, R.; Dun, van K.P.M.; Snoo, de B.; Berg, van den M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, de J.P.C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Wijnker, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on

  5. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes. II. Breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry. Ruminant breeding is still an open system where farmers continue to choose their own breeds and strategies. Conversely, pig and poultry breeding is more or less the exclusive domain of international breeding companies which supply farmers with hybrid animals. Innovations in breeding strategies must therefore be adapted to the different species. In developed countries, reorienting current breeding programmes seems to be more effective than developing programmes dedicated to agroecological systems that will struggle to be really effective because of the small size of the populations currently concerned by such systems. Particular attention needs to be paid to determining the respective usefulness of cross-breeding v. straight breeding strategies of well-adapted local breeds. While cross-breeding may offer some immediate benefits in terms of improving certain traits that enable the animals to adapt well to local environmental conditions, it may be difficult to sustain these benefits in the longer term and could also induce an important loss of genetic diversity if the initial pure-bred populations are no longer produced. As well as supporting the value of within-breed diversity, we must preserve between-breed diversity in order to maintain numerous options for adaptation to a variety of production environments and contexts. This may involve specific public policies to maintain and characterize local breeds (in terms of both phenotypes and genotypes), which could

  6. Assessing genetic variability in two ancient chicken breeds of Padova area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in two ancient indigenous chicken breeds of the Veneto region was assessed using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP markers. A total of 63 individuals were analysed using three selected AFLP primer combinations that produced 66 clear polymorphisms. The breeds analyzed were the Padovana and the Polverara (two ancient breeds and a reference broiler line. The expected heterozygosity (Het did not differ significantly among breeds. The variability at AFLP loci was largely maintained across breeds, as indicated by the coefficient of genetic differentiation (Gst value. The lowest genetic distance is found between the Padovana and Polverara breeds suggesting that they could be genetically close.

  7. Development of a Molecular Breeding Strategy for the Integration of Transgenic Traits in Outcrossing Perennial Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter E. Badenhorst

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular breeding tools, such as genetic modification, provide forage plant breeders with the opportunity to incorporate high value traits into breeding programs which, in some cases, would not be available using any other methodology. Despite the potential impact of these traits, little work has been published that seeks to optimize the strategies for transgenic breeding or incorporate transgenic breeding with other modern genomics-assisted breeding strategies. As the number of new genomics assisted breeding tools become available it is also likely that multiple tools may be used within the one breeding program. In this paper we propose a strategy for breeding genetically-modified forages using perennial ryegrass as an example and demonstrate how this strategy may be linked with other technologies, such as genomic selection. Whilst the model used is perennial ryegrass the principles outlined are valid for those designing breeding strategies for other outcrossing forage species.

  8. Predição de valores genéticos para a produção de leite no dia do controle e para a produção acumulada até 305 dias Predicting breeding values for test-day records and accumulated 305 day milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenira El Faro

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estimados valores genéticos para as produções de leite no dia do controle de animais da raça Caracu, usando modelo unicaracterístico padrão (TDMO e modelo de regressão aleatória (MRA. Os animais foram classificados com base na produção acumulada até 305 (PTA305, como tradicionalmente é feito em gado de leite. Além das produções na semana do controle, o MRA proporcionou predições de valores genéticos para produção até 305 dias, obtidos pela soma dos valores genéticos diários (MRA305. Foram estimadas as correlações de ordem (spearman entre os valores genéticos estimados pelas diferentes metodologias, observando-se coincidência de touros classificados como deca 1 (10% melhores touros. As curvas de lactação genéticas para os cinco melhores touros foram comparadas. As correlações de ordem entre os valores genéticos para as produções de leite na semana do controle, preditos do TDMO foram menores que 0,80. Para o MRA as correlações de ordem foram maiores, variando de 0,41 a 1,00. Entre PTA305 e MRA305 a correlação de ordem foi de 0,87 para touros. Esse valor indica que, apesar de alta, essa correlação não assegura coincidência de classificação para os touros. Verificou-se também que os melhores touros para PTA305 não apresentaram as melhores curvas de lactação genéticas estimadas pelo MRA. O MRA parece ser mais adequado que o TDMO para substituir a produção acumulada até 305 dias em programas de avaliação genética.Breeding values were predicted for test day milk yields of Caracu cows, using univariate model (TDMO and random regression model (RRM. The ranks were based on traditional 305-day milk yield breeding values (PTA305. For RRM, breeding values were predicted for individual test-day milk yield and for sum of all test-days (RRM305. Spearman correlation were estimated among predicted breeding values from different methodos (TDMO and RRM and the coincidence of rank of 10% best sires were

  9. Accelerating plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, Gerald N; Frei, Ursula K; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The growing demand for food with limited arable land available necessitates that the yield of major food crops continues to increase over time. Advances in marker technology, predictive statistics, and breeding methodology have allowed for continued increases in crop performance through genetic improvement. However, one major bottleneck is the generation time of plants, which is biologically limited and has not been improved since the introduction of doubled haploid technology. In this opinion article, we propose to implement in vitro nurseries, which could substantially shorten generation time through rapid cycles of meiosis and mitosis. This could prove a useful tool for speeding up future breeding programs with the aim of sustainable food production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Breeding implications resulting from classification of patellae luxation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grevenhof, E M; Hazewinkel, H A W; Heuven, H C M

    2016-08-01

    Patellar luxation (PL) is one of the major hereditary orthopaedic abnormalities observed in a variety of dog breeds. When the patellae move sideways out of the trochlear groove, this is called PL. The PL score varies between dogs from normal to very severe. Reducing the prevalence of PL by breeding could prevent surgery, thereby improve welfare. Orthopaedic specialists differentiate between normal and loose patellae, where the patellae can be moved to the edge of the trochlear groove, considering scoring loose patellae as normal in the future. Loose patellae are considered acceptable for breeding so far by the breeding organization. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic background of PL to decide on the importance of loose patellae when breeding for healthy dogs. Data are available from two dog breeds, that is Flat-coated Retrievers (n = 3808) and Kooiker dogs (n = 794), with a total of 4602 dogs. Results show that loose patellae indicate that dogs are genetically more susceptible to develop PL because family members of the dogs with loose patellae showed more severe PL. In addition, the estimated breeding values for dogs with loose patellae indicate that breeding values of dogs with loose patellae were worse than breeding values obtained for dogs with a normal score. Given these results, it is advised to orthopaedic specialists to continue to score loose patellae as a separate class and to dog breeders to minimize the use of dogs in breeding with a genetically higher susceptibility for PL. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Rob; van Dun, Kees; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; van den Berg, Mark; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; Voermans, William; Woudenberg, Leo; de Wit, Jack P C; Reinink, Kees; Schut, Johan W; van der Zeeuw, Eveline; Vogelaar, Aat; Freymark, Gerald; Gutteling, Evert W; Keppel, Marina N; van Drongelen, Paul; Kieny, Matthieu; Ellul, Philippe; Touraev, Alisher; Ma, Hong; de Jong, Hans; Wijnker, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chromosomes which can be cultured in vitro to generate homozygous doubled haploid plants (DHs). From these DHs, complementary parents can be selected and used to reconstitute the heterozygote in perpetuity. Since the fixation of unknown heterozygous genotypes is impossible in traditional plant breeding, RB could fundamentally change future plant breeding. In this review, we discuss various other applications of RB, including breeding per chromosome. PMID:19811618

  12. Changes in sunflower breeding over the last fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vear Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses changes in sunflower breeding objectives since the introduction of hybrid varieties 50 years ago. After a reminder of the importance of some early programmes, Canadian in particular, the present situation for each breeding objective is compared with those encountered earlier. Breeding for yield has changed from maximum possible yield under intensive agriculture to yield with resistance to abiotic stresses, moderate droughts and shallow soils in particular, helped by collaboration with agronomists to produce crop models. Breeding for oil has changed from quantity to quality and the value of seed meal is again becoming economically important. Necessary disease resistances vary with agronomic practises and selection pressure on pathogens according to varietal genetics. The possibilities of new types of sunflower are also discussed. Advances in genomics will change breeding procedures, but with rapidly changing molecular techniques, international collaboration is particularly important.

  13. Breed differences in natriuretic peptides in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, K.; Wess, G.; Ljungvall, I.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of plasma concentration of natriuretic peptides (NPs) is suggested to be of value in diagnosis of cardiac disease in dogs, but many factors other than cardiac status may influence their concentrations. Dog breed potentially is 1 such factor. OBJECTIVE: To investigate breed...... variation in plasma concentrations of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide 31-67 (proANP 31-67) and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: 535 healthy, privately owned dogs of 9 breeds were examined at 5 centers as part of the European Union (EU) LUPA project. METHODS: Absence...... the median concentration in Doberman Pinschers. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Considerable interbreed variation in plasma NP concentrations was found in healthy dogs. Intrabreed variation was large in several breeds, especially for NT-proBNP. Additional studies are needed to establish breed...

  14. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  15. Charge Breeding Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F

    2004-01-01

    The numerous newly built and forthcoming post-accelerators for radioactive ions, produced with the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique, all have a need for an efficient method to accelerate the precious primary ions. By increasing the ion charge-to-mass ratio directly after the radioactive ion production stage, a short and compact linear accelerator can be employed. Not only the efficiency, but also the rapidity of such a charge-to-mass increasing process, called charge breeding, is a crucial factor for the often short-lived radioisotopes. The traditional foil or gas stripping technique was challenged some five to ten years ago by novel schemes for charge breeding. The transformation from 1+ to n+ charged ions takes place inside an Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) or Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source/Trap (ECRIS/T) by electron-ion collisions. These charge breeders are located in the low-energy part of the machine before the accelerating structures. Because of the capability of these devices...

  16. STUDIES ON HAEMATOLOGICAL TRAITS IN DIFFERENT BREEDS OF DOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goswami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on dog during the period of June-September, 2009 at the Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences , Belgachia, Kolkata , West Bengal, India. This study comprised of a total of 58 dogs belonging to the 7 different breeds namely Spitz : 21, German shepherd : 6, Labrador : 9, Mongrel : 8, Golden Retriever : 5, Dalmatian : 4, Cockerspaniel : 5. The overall mean value of haemoglobin concentration( g/dl , erythrocyte diameter( µ and SARBC (µ2 were estimated as 14.586 ± 0.103, 7.086 ± 0.256 and 39.453 ± 0.296. The mean HbC in g/dl was observed to be the highest in the Dalmatian breed (15.40 ± 0.14. The lowest value for haemoglobin concentration was found to be in German Shepherd breed (13.70 ± 0.12. The mean erythrocyte diameter was observed to be highest in the Golden Retriever breed (7.19 ± 0.03 and the lowest was in German Shepherd breed ( 6.99 ± 0.03. The mean erythrocytic area (SARBC in µ2 was found to be highest in Golden Retriever breed of dog whereas the lowest mean erythrocytic area was in cockerspaniel breed of dog. The respective estimates were accounted for 40.645 ± 0.336 and 38.129 ± 0.336 µ2. The present study indicated highly significant (P<0.01 differences between breeds for three haematological traits. It was observed that Haemoglobin concentration has highly significant association with erythrocyte diameter and Erythrocyte surface area. The estimated values were 0.344 and 0.347, respectively. It was also observed that erythrocyte diameter and SARBC had cent percent association.

  17. Breed distribution of dogs with diabetes mellitus admitted to a tertiary care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R S; Kass, P H; Ward, C R

    2000-05-01

    To determine which dog breeds are at low and high risk for developing diabetes mellitus (DM). Cohort study. Hospital population of 221 dogs with DM and 42,882 dogs without DM during 5.5 years. 165 breeds (including a mixed-breed category) were represented in the hospital population. Breed-specific expected numbers of dogs with DM were calculated by multiplying the proportion of all dogs admitted to the hospital that were determined to have DM during the study period by the breed-specific totals during the study period. Breeds or breed groups evaluated in the analysis (n = 20) were restricted to those that had a combined observed and expected count > 5 to document breeds at low and high risk for developing DM. Proportionate changes in the risk of developing DM by breed were calculated and presented using exact odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and P values. Mixed-breed dogs were chosen as the reference breed. Samoyeds, Miniature Schnauzers, Miniature Poodles, Pugs, and Toy Poodles were at high risk for developing DM. Dog breeds found to be at low risk for developing DM were German Shepherd Dog, Golden Retriever, and American Pit Bull Terrier. The finding that certain dog breeds are at low or high risk for developing DM suggests that some genetic defects may predispose dogs to development of DM, whereas other genetic factors may protect dogs from development of DM.

  18. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students

    OpenAIRE

    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR (University and Research Centre).

  19. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR

  20. Feeding and Breeding Biology of Amblypharyngodon mola – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Gupta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Amblypharyngodon mola is a popular food fish of Indian sub-continent due to its high nutritional value. Earlier many workers have carried out studies on feeding and breeding biology of this fish species but consolidated information on the same is not available. So, a survey of published literatures on the feeding and breeding biology of A. mola has been carried out to consolidate the available information.  Lacunae of information has been pointed out for further study mainly on age group wise variation in food preference and correlation of breeding periodicity with hydrological parameters and photoperiod.

  1. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  2. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental change....... Perhaps as a consequence, long-distance migratory songbirds are declining rapidly compared to their sedentary counterparts. To understand what is driving these declines in European-Afrotropical migratory bird populations we need to understand the full annual migration cycle of these birds. Recent...... technological advances are currently enabling us to track yet smaller songbirds throughout their migration cycle providing valuable insight into the life cycle of individual birds. However, direct tracking of migratory birds has so far mainly been conducted on single populations and our understanding of entire...

  3. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  4. The role of water in animal breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Serrantoni

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of water in animal breeding must be extended to a wider context than the animal production area, considering that 70% of the water used in the world is consumed by the whole production chain (agriculture and animal production. Therefore has a great importance the connection with other fields of the chain, as the fodder-growing and the cereal-growing, together with the evaluation and quantification of the environmental impacts. Water, that plays an essential role in the breeding, assumes different importance in relation to the animal class (birds, fish and mammals and to the animal species. Therefore are extremely different the water requirements and the water consumptions, that are moreover strongly influenced by many factors, such as the dry matter, the climatic breeding conditions, together with the individual animal features. All that represents the starting point to determine the strategies and the ways of the water giving in animal breeding, related to the technological, project and management aspects. Besides the quantitative aspects, water must be considered as food, because it is necessary to animal survival. The importance of the quality of water used in animal breeding and its nutritional role is closely related to the qualitative characteristics and to the presence of residual and polluting substances. The animal production chain, moreover, can produce environmental impacts on the aquatic ecosystems and therefore a particular attention goes to end uses of water as output of the whole animal production chain and to the quantification of the impacts, that is extremely complicate and difficult, depending on many variables. The considerations related to animal production chain assume a different value in the productive context of the management of the water resources in the third countries.

  5. Potato breeding in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de H.

    1953-01-01

    A remarkable feature of potato breeding in the Netherlands is the great number of private breeders who have concentrated their efforts on the improvement of the potato. The author calls attention to some circumstances and measures that have made potato breeding attractive in the Netherlands

  6. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...

  7. SCREENING OF BREEDING BULLS OF DIFFERENT BREEDS THROUGH KARYOTYPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ahmad, K. Javed1 and A. Sattar

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of chromosomal analysis for 200 breeding bulls of different breeds of cattle (Jersey, Holstein Friesian, Sahiwal and Cross-bred and Nili-Ravi buffalo, maintained at Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad and Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey (Pattoki was carried out. Micromethod was adopted for leukocyte culture and chromosomes were trapped at metaphase stage. The diploid number of chromosomes in all breeds of cattle was found to be 60 (58 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes: XY, while this number in Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was 50 (48 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes: XY. All the autosomes and sex chromosomes in males of both species were found normal.

  8. Effectiveness of breeding guidelines for reducing the prevalence of syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowler, S P; McFadyen, A K; Rusbridge, C

    Several toy breed dogs are predisposed to syringomyelia (SM), a spinal cord disorder, characterised by fluid-filled cavitation. SM is a complex trait with a moderately high heritability. Selective breeding against SM is confounded by its complex inheritance, its late onset nature and high prevalence in some breeds. This study investigated the early outcome of existing SM breeding guidelines. Six hundred and forty-three dogs, 550 Cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS) and 93 Griffon Bruxellois (GB), were identified as having either one (454 dogs) or both parents (189 dogs) with MRI-determined SM status. Offspring without SM were more common when the parents were both clear of SM (SM-free; CKCS 70 per cent, GB 73 per cent). Conversely, offspring with SM were more likely when both parents had SM (SM-affected; CKCS 92 per cent, GB 100 per cent). A mating of one SM-free parent with an SM-affected parent was risky for SM affectedness with 77 per cent of CKCS and 46 per cent of GB offspring being SM-affected. It is recommended that all breeding dogs from breeds susceptible to SM be MRI screened; that the SM status at five years old is established; and all results submitted to a central database that can be used by dog breeders to better enable mate selection based on estimated breeding values.

  9. Evaluation of random forest regression for prediction of breeding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Model-based techniques have been widely used for prediction of breeding values of genotypes from genomewide association studies. However, application of the random forest (RF), a model-free ensemble learning method, is not widely used for prediction. In this study, the optimum values of tuning parameters of RF have ...

  10. Breeding for societally-important traits in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, E.; Greef, de K.H.; Hiemstra, A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Pig breeding programs traditionally focus on the genetic improvement of production and reproduction traits that have a clear economic value. Because citizens and consumers increasingly attach value to traits that have little or no direct relationship to production costs or to the price of a product,

  11. Breeding objectives for Jersey cattle in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cuthbert

    2014-07-31

    Jul 31, 2014 ... herd model for pasture-based and concentrate-fed systems in South Africa was used to calculate economic values by ... Alternative payment systems were used from four major milk buyers in South Africa. ... Calculation of economic values is a crucial step in the development of breeding objectives. The.

  12. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  13. Molecular markers in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treskić Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the marker assisted selection (MAS is being routinely applied in breeding programs of large private companies. However, the implementation of molecular markers for commercial use in small companies and public sec- tor is on a considerably smaller scale. Numerous researches on QTL mapping, theoretical analysis and simulation models for MAS give impetus to new research on the validation of quantitative trait loci and the application of molecular markers in maize breeding. This paper presents basic concepts related to MAS, the principles of QTL mapping, marker-trait association analysis and examples of successful application of markers in breeding for qualitative and quantitative traits.

  14. Genetic diversity revealed by AFLP markers in Albanian goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Anila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP technique with three EcoRI/TaqI primer combinations was used in 185 unrelated individuals, representative of 6 local goat breeds of Albania, and 107 markers were generated. The mean Nei’s expected heterozygosity value for the whole population was 0.199 and the mean Shannon index was 0.249, indicating a high level of within-breed diversity. Wright’s FST index, Nei’s unbiased genetic distance and Reynolds’ genetic distance were calculated. Pairwise Fst values among the populations ranged from 0.019 to 0.047. A highly significant average FST of 0.031 was estimated, showing a low level of breed subdivision. Most of the variation is accounted for by differences among individuals. Cluster analysis based on Reynolds’ genetic distance between breeds and PCA were performed. An individual UPGMA tree based on Jaccard’s similarity index showed clusters with individuals from all goat breeds. Analysis of population structure points to a high level of admixture among breeds.

  15. Accuracy of genomic selection in European maize elite breeding populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Liu, Wenxin; Würschum, Tobias; Maurer, Hans P; Longin, Friedrich H; Ranc, Nicolas; Reif, Jochen C

    2012-03-01

    Genomic selection is a promising breeding strategy for rapid improvement of complex traits. The objective of our study was to investigate the prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values through cross validation. The study was based on experimental data of six segregating populations from a half-diallel mating design with 788 testcross progenies from an elite maize breeding program. The plants were intensively phenotyped in multi-location field trials and fingerprinted with 960 SNP markers. We used random regression best linear unbiased prediction in combination with fivefold cross validation. The prediction accuracy across populations was higher for grain moisture (0.90) than for grain yield (0.58). The accuracy of genomic selection realized for grain yield corresponds to the precision of phenotyping at unreplicated field trials in 3-4 locations. As for maize up to three generations are feasible per year, selection gain per unit time is high and, consequently, genomic selection holds great promise for maize breeding programs.

  16. Understanding Swedish dairy farmers’ view on breeding goals - ethical aspects of longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röcklinsberg, H.; Gamborg, Christian; Gjerris, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    What values underlie farmers’ choice of breeding goals? Typical dairy breeding goals cover production traits (e.g. yield, feed conversion, and lactation curve) and functional traits (e.g. leg health, fertility and calving ability). One central and multifunctional trait correlated to all these tra......What values underlie farmers’ choice of breeding goals? Typical dairy breeding goals cover production traits (e.g. yield, feed conversion, and lactation curve) and functional traits (e.g. leg health, fertility and calving ability). One central and multifunctional trait correlated to all...

  17. The effect of dual-hemisphere breeding on stallion fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walbornn, S R; Love, C C; Blanchard, T L; Brinsko, S P; Varner, D D

    2017-05-01

    Breeding records were analyzed from 24 Thoroughbred stallions that were subjected to dual-hemisphere breeding (DH), including novice (first-year; NOV; n = 11) and experienced (EXP; n = 13) stallions. Fertility variables included seasonal pregnancy rate, pregnancy rate per cycle, and first-cycle pregnancy rate. In addition, values for book size, total number of covers, distribution of mare type (maiden, foaling, and barren) within a stallion's book, cycles per mare, and mare age were examined. Some data were also categorized by mare type (maiden-M, foaling-F, and barren-B). Five separate analyses of the data were performed. For Analyses 1-3, the effects of hemisphere (northern hemisphere [NH] vs. southern hemisphere [SH]) and breeding order (refers to the first [O1] or second [O2] season within the first year of dual-hemisphere breeding) were examined for all stallions (combined group [CG]), NOV stallions only, and EXP stallions only, respectively. Fertility values were generally higher in the SH than the NH (P fertility of O1 was generally similar to O2 (P > 0.05). For Analysis 4, fertility of DH breeding seasons was compared to single hemisphere (SIN) breeding seasons within the same 16 stallions and was found to be similar between the two groups (P > 0.05). For Analysis 5, the effect of the number of consecutive DH breeding seasons on fertility was examined and was found to remain unchanged (P > 0.05). In summary, no adverse effects of DH breeding on fertility were detected. Fertility was higher when stallions were bred in the SH, as compared to the NH. Potential reasons for higher fertility achieved in the SH were smaller book sizes and better mare reproductive quality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Relationships between type and longevity in the Holstein breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroque, Hélène; Ducrocq, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between type traits and longevity was studied in the French Holstein breed using a survival analysis model. In this model, the phenotypic value adjusted for systematic fixed effects, the estimated breeding value, or the residual value (defined as the difference between the adjusted phenotypic value and the estimated breeding value) of the cow for each type trait was included as a risk factor. This was done separately for two subpopulations (registered and nonregistered herds) and with or without adjustment for production traits, i.e., considering true or functional longevity. For both types of herds, udder traits (and above all, udder depth) clearly influenced the length of productive life. There seemed to be a more pronounced voluntary culling on type traits in registered herds. The correction for the within herd-year class of production traits, as a way to approximate functional longevity, increased the importance of udder traits and decreased the weight of capacity traits. The same results were obtained when the phenotypic value of the cow for type was replaced by her estimated breeding value, whereas residuals had little impact. The relationship between longevity and type traits was most often nonlinear, in particular for udder traits, but in this study, no trait with a clear intermediate optimum was found. PMID:11268313

  19. Relationships between type and longevity in the Holstein breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducrocq Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between type traits and longevity was studied in the French Holstein breed using a survival analysis model. In this model, the phenotypic value adjusted for systematic fixed effects, the estimated breeding value, or the residual value (defined as the difference between the adjusted phenotypic value and the estimated breeding value of the cow for each type trait was included as a risk factor. This was done separately for two subpopulations (registered and nonregistered herds and with or without adjustment for production traits, i.e., considering true or functional longevity. For both types of herds, udder traits (and above all, udder depth clearly influenced the length of productive life. There seemed to be a more pronounced voluntary culling on type traits in registered herds. The correction for the within herd-year class of production traits, as a way to approximate functional longevity, increased the importance of udder traits and decreased the weight of capacity traits. The same results were obtained when the phenotypic value of the cow for type was replaced by her estimated breeding value, whereas residuals had little impact. The relationship between longevity and type traits was most often nonlinear, in particular for udder traits, but in this study, no trait with a clear intermediate optimum was found.

  20. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  1. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  2. Genetic distinctiveness of the Herdwick sheep breed and two other locally adapted hill breeds of the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Dianna; Carson, Amanda; Isaac, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some native breeds of sheep continue to be commercially farmed only in highly localised geographical regions to which they are adapted. This study focuses on three of these breeds, selected for their adaptation to near identical environments and their geographical concentration in regions close to one another. Our objective has been to use retrotyping, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the origins of the breeds and whether, despite their similar adaptations and proximity, they are genetically distinctive. We find the three breeds each have a surprisingly different pattern of retrovirus insertions into their genomes compared with one another and with other UK breeds. Uniquely, there is a high incidence of the R0 retrotype in the Herdwick population, characteristic of a primitive genome found previously in very few breeds worldwide and none in the UK mainland. The Herdwick and Rough Fells carry two rare retroviral insertion events, common only in Texels, suggesting sheep populations in the northern uplands have a historical association with the original pin-tail sheep of Texel Island. Microsatellite data and analyses of SNPs associated with RXFP2 (horn traits) and PRLR (reproductive performance traits) also distinguished the three breeds. Significantly, an SNP linked to TMEM154, a locus controlling susceptibility to infection by Maedi-Visna, indicated that all three native hill breeds have a lower than average risk of infection to the lentivirus.

  3. Genetic Distinctiveness of the Herdwick Sheep Breed and Two Other Locally Adapted Hill Breeds of the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Dianna; Carson, Amanda; Isaac, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some native breeds of sheep continue to be commercially farmed only in highly localised geographical regions to which they are adapted. This study focuses on three of these breeds, selected for their adaptation to near identical environments and their geographical concentration in regions close to one another. Our objective has been to use retrotyping, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the origins of the breeds and whether, despite their similar adaptations and proximity, they are genetically distinctive. We find the three breeds each have a surprisingly different pattern of retrovirus insertions into their genomes compared with one another and with other UK breeds. Uniquely, there is a high incidence of the R0 retrotype in the Herdwick population, characteristic of a primitive genome found previously in very few breeds worldwide and none in the UK mainland. The Herdwick and Rough Fells carry two rare retroviral insertion events, common only in Texels, suggesting sheep populations in the northern uplands have a historical association with the original pin-tail sheep of Texel Island. Microsatellite data and analyses of SNPs associated with RXFP2 (horn traits) and PRLR (reproductive performance traits) also distinguished the three breeds. Significantly, an SNP linked to TMEM154, a locus controlling susceptibility to infection by Maedi-Visna, indicated that all three native hill breeds have a lower than average risk of infection to the lentivirus. PMID

  4. Canine Hip Dysplasia: Breed Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, S W; Kirby, K.; Pennock, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a refinement of previous studies in that only suitably radiographed dogs were included in the data base. The rate of hip dysplasia varied widely by breed from five percent in siberian huskies to eighty-three percent in english bulldogs. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of dysplasia within at least two breeds; golden retrievers and old english sheepdogs. Physical size per se did not appear to be an important determinant of hip dysplasia.

  5. Genetic diversity within and between European pig breeds using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanCristobal, M; Chevalet, C; Haley, C S; Joosten, R; Rattink, A P; Harlizius, B; Groenen, M A M; Amigues, Y; Boscher, M-Y; Russell, G; Law, A; Davoli, R; Russo, V; Désautés, C; Alderson, L; Fimland, E; Bagga, M; Delgado, J V; Vega-Pla, J L; Martinez, A M; Ramos, M; Glodek, P; Meyer, J N; Gandini, G C; Matassino, D; Plastow, G S; Siggens, K W; Laval, G; Archibald, A L; Milan, D; Hammond, K; Cardellino, R

    2006-06-01

    An important prerequisite for a conservation programme is a comprehensive description of genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to use anonymous genetic markers to assess the between- and the within-population components of genetic diversity for European pig breeds at the scale of the whole continent using microsatellites. Fifty-eight European pig breeds and lines were analysed including local breeds, national varieties of international breeds and commercial lines. A sample of the Chinese Meishan breed was also included. Eleven additional breeds from a previous project were added for some analyses. Approximately 50 individuals per breed were genotyped for a maximum of 50 microsatellite loci. Substantial within-breed variability was observed, with the average expected heterozygosity and observed number of alleles per locus being 0.56 [range 0.43-0.68] and 4.5 respectively. Genotypic frequencies departed from Hardy-Weinberg expectations (P < 0.01) in 15 European populations, with an excess of homozygotes in 12 of them. The European breeds were on average genetically very distinct, with a Wright F(ST) index value of 0.21. The Neighbour-Joining tree drawn from the Reynolds distances among the breeds showed that the national varieties of major breeds and the commercial lines were mostly clustered around their breeds of reference (Duroc, Hampshire, Landrace, Large White and Piétrain). In contrast, local breeds, with the exception of the Iberian breeds, exhibited a star-like topology. The results are discussed in the light of various forces, which may have driven the recent evolution of European pig breeds. This study has consequences for the interpretation of biodiversity results and will be of importance for future conservation programmes.

  6. Valores de referência do eritrograma de bovinos da raça Jersey criados no Estado de São Paulo Reference values of the erythrogram of Jersey breed, raised in São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H. Birgel Junior

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estabelecer os valores de referência do eritrograma de bovinos da raça Jersey, criados no Estado de São Paulo, e avaliar a influência exercida pelos fatores etários realizaram-se exames em amostras de sangue colhidas de 253 fêmeas clinicamente sadias (não reagentes ao antígeno glicoprotéico gp 51 da cápsula do vírus da leucose dos bovinos. Nas amostras de sangue, que continham EDTA como anticoagulante, foram realizadas as seguintes provas: contagem do número de hemácias em câmara de Neubauer modificada, utilizando líquido de Gower como diluidor; determinação do volume globular pelo método do microematócrito; dosagem de hemoglobina pelo método de cianometaemoglobina e cálculo dos índices hematimétricos absolutos (volume corpuscular médio - VCM, hemogloina corpuscular média - HCM, concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média - CHCM. Observou-se influência dos fatores etários sobre os valores do eritrograma, sendo o número de hemácias e o volume globular significativamente maiores nos animais jovens, enquanto que os teores de hemoglobina não variaram em função da idade. Os valores de referência para o número de hemácias, volume globular e hemoglobina foram, respectivamente, 6,62±1,47 células × 10(6/mm³, 31,6±3,5% e 10,45±1,29 g/dl. Os resultados médios dos índices hematimétricos absolutos aumentaram com o desenvolvimento etário, sendo os valores de referência para o VCM, HCM e CHCM, 49,18±8,28mim³; 16,37±3,37pg e 33,14±2,57%, respectivamente.In order to determine erythrogram reference values for Jersey cattle raised in São Paulo State, Brazil, and the influence of bovine of leukosis virus (BLV, 253 BLV-negative blood samples were obtained from clinically healthy females. Samples were collected with EDTA and submitted to erythrocyte counting (Neubauer chamber; Gower diluent, determination of the packed cell volume (microhematocrit, evaluation of hemoglobin content

  7. Breeding phenology of African Black Oystercatchers Haematopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2003/04 breeding season was the shortest and had the lowest breeding productivity. The 2002/03 breeding season had a lower breeding productivity than 2001/02 because of the loss of a large number of nests during storm surge and spring high tides. The start and duration of the egg-laying period are influenced by ...

  8. Breeding gains of sodium-cooled oxide-fueled fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mougniot, J. C.; Barre, J. Y.; Clauzon, P.; Ciacometti, C.; Neviere, G.; Ravier, J.; Sichard, B.

    1975-12-01

    Calculated values are presented for the breeding gains of French fast reactors, and the experimental uncertainties are discussed. The effect of various choices of planning on the breeding gains is next analyzed within the framework of classical concepts. In the final part, a new concept involving heterogeneous cores with a single enrichment zone is presented. This concept permits a significant improvement in the breeding gain and doubling time of fast reactors.

  9. [Prospects of molecular breeding in medical plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Jun; Mo, Chang-Ming

    2017-06-01

    The molecular-assisted breeding, transgenic breeding and molecular designing breeding are three development directions of plant molecular breeding. Base on these three development directions, this paper summarizes developing status and new tendency of research field of genetic linkage mapping, QTL mapping, association mapping, molecular-assisted selections, pollen-mediated transformations, agrobacterium-mediated transformations, particle gun-mediated transformations, genome editing technologies, whole-genome sequencing, transcriptome sequencing, proteome sequencing and varietal molecular designing. The objective and existing problem of medical plant molecular breeding were discussed the prospect of these three molecular breeding technologies application on medical plant molecular breeding was outlooked. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Charge breeding simulations for radioactive ion beam production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variale, V; Rainò, A C; Clauser, T

    2012-02-01

    The charge breeding technique is used for radioactive ion beam (RIB) production in order of optimizing the re-acceleration of the radioactive element ions produced by a primary beam in a thick target. Charge breeding is achieved by means of a device capable of increasing the ion charge state from 1+ to a desired value n+. In order to get high intensity RIB, experiments with charge breeding of very high efficiency could be required. To reach this goal, the charge breeding simulation could help to optimize the high charge state production efficiency by finding more proper parameters for the radioactive 1+ ions. In this paper a device based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is considered. In order to study that problem, a code already developed for studying the ion selective containment in an EBIS with RF quadrupoles, BRICTEST, has been modified to simulate the ion charge state breeding rate for different 1+ ion injection conditions. Particularly, the charge breeding simulations for an EBIS with a hollow electron beam have been studied.

  11. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium and genetic structure in Sicilian dairy sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Tolone, Marco; Tortorici, Lina; Sardina, Maria Teresa; Portolano, Baldassare

    2014-10-10

    The recent availability of sheep genome-wide SNP panels allows providing background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals. The aim of this work was to investigate the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD), the genetic diversity and population structure in Valle del Belice, Comisana, and Pinzirita dairy sheep breeds using the Illumina Ovine SNP50K Genotyping array. Average r (2) between adjacent SNPs across all chromosomes was 0.155 ± 0.204 for Valle del Belice, 0.156 ± 0.208 for Comisana, and 0.128 ± 0.188 for Pinzirita breeds, and some variations in LD value across chromosomes were observed, in particular for Valle del Belice and Comisana breeds. Average values of r (2) estimated for all pairwise combinations of SNPs pooled over all autosomes were 0.058 ± 0.023 for Valle del Belice, 0.056 ± 0.021 for Comisana, and 0.037 ± 0.017 for Pinzirita breeds. The LD declined as a function of distance and average r (2) was lower than the values observed in other sheep breeds. Consistency of results among the several used approaches (Principal component analysis, Bayesian clustering, F ST, Neighbor networks) showed that while Valle del Belice and Pinzirita breeds formed a unique cluster, Comisana breed showed the presence of substructure. In Valle del Belice breed, the high level of genetic differentiation within breed, the heterogeneous cluster in Admixture analysis, but at the same time the highest inbreeding coefficient, suggested that the breed had a wide genetic base with inbred individuals belonging to the same flock. The Sicilian breeds were characterized by low genetic differentiation and high level of admixture. Pinzirita breed displayed the highest genetic diversity (He, Ne) whereas the lowest value was found in Valle del Belice breed. This study has reported for the first time estimates of LD and genetic diversity from a genome-wide perspective in Sicilian dairy sheep breeds. Our results indicate that breeds formed non

  12. Morphological and milkability breed differences of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bobić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical characteristics of dairy cattle are not equal for all breeds, meaning that the morphological traits of udder and teats could favor an individual performance or a determined breed. Changes in teat tissue after machine milking occur because of the negative influence of the vacuum and mechanical forces of the teat cup liner. Duration and performance of machine milking also depend on the udder and teat conformation and milkability traits of cows. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in morphological characteristics of Simmental and Holstein cows before and after machine milking, as well as to elaborate the differences in some of milkability traits of the cows during process of milking. A correlation (from -0.30 to 0.37 was determined between exterior and interior traits of teats and the performance of milkability traits. In both cow breeds, statistically significant difference (p<0.0001 was found between the pre- and post-milking values in all investigated traits, with exception of teat end width. Holstein cows had significantly (p<0.001 higher amount of milk per milking, maximum and average milk flow, while cows of the Simmental breed had longer milking time duration, but without statistical significance. In comparison to Holstein breed, results of internal morphological traits of teats showed that cows of Simmental breed had longer teat canals and wider teat ends for both front and rear teats. Holstein breed compared to Simmental had thinner teats wall, but wider teat cistern. If compared to pre-milking stage, differences in teat cistern width and teat wall thickness that occur after milking were more expressed in the Holstein breed than in Simmental. Simmental cows had significantly (p<0.05 longer and wider rear teats. Future research should focus on proving the differences in changes of teat tissue due to milking between different groups of cows, as depending on the milk flow. Ultrasound method of recording can be

  13. Population structure and genetic differentiation of livestock guard dog breeds from the Western Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceh, E; Dovc, P

    2014-08-01

    Livestock guard dog (LGD) breeds from the Western Balkans are a good example of how complex genetic diversity pattern observed in dog breeds has been shaped by transition in dog breeding practices. Despite their common geographical origin and relatively recent formal recognition as separate breeds, the Karst Shepherd, Sarplaninac and Tornjak show distinct population dynamics, assessed by pedigree, microsatellite and mtDNA data. We genotyped 493 dogs belonging to five dog breeds using a set of 18 microsatellite markers and sequenced mtDNA from 94 dogs from these breeds. Different demographic histories of the Karst Shepherd and Tornjak breeds are reflected in the pedigree data with the former breed having more unbalanced contributions of major ancestors and a realized effective population size of less than 20 animals. The highest allelic richness was found in Sarplaninac (5.94), followed by Tornjak (5.72), whereas Karst Shepherd dogs exhibited the lowest allelic richness (3.33). Similarly, the highest mtDNA haplotype diversity was found in Sarplaninac, followed by Tornjak and Karst Shepherd, where only one haplotype was found. Based on FST differentiation values and high percentages of animals correctly assigned, all breeds can be considered genetically distinct. However, using microsatellite data, common ancestry between the Karst Shepherd and Sarplaninac could not be reconstructed, despite pedigree and mtDNA evidence of their historical admixture. Using neighbour-joining, STRUCTURE or DAPC methods, Sarplaninac and Caucasian Shepherd breeds could not be separated and additionally showed close proximity in the NeighborNet tree. STRUCTURE analysis of the Tornjak breed demonstrated substructuring, which needs further investigation. Altogether, results of this study show that the official separation of these dog breeds strongly affected the resolution of genetic differentiation and thus suggest that the relationships between breeds are not only determined by breed

  14. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  15. Study of polymorphisms in the promoter region of ovine β-lactoglobulin gene and phylogenetic analysis among the Valle del Belice breed and other sheep breeds considered as ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, S; Sardina, M T; Riggio, V; Portolano, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to sequence the promoter region of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene in four sheep breeds, in order to identify polymorphisms, infer and analyze haplotypes, and phylogenetic relationship among the Valle del Belice breed and the other three breeds considered as ancestors. Sequencing analysis and alignment of the obtained sequences showed the presence of 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one deletion. A total of 22 haplotypes found in "best" reconstruction were inferred considering the 37 polymorphic sites identified. Haplotypes were used for the reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree using the Neighbor-Joining algorithm. The number of polymorphisms identified showed high variability within breeds. Analysis of genetic diversity indexes showed that the Sarda breed presented the lowest nucleotide diversity, whereas the Comisana breed presented the highest one. Comparing the nucleotide diversity among breeds, the highest value was obtained between Valle del Belice and Pinzirita breeds, whereas the lowest one was between Valle del Belice and Sarda breeds. Considering that polymorphisms in the promoter region of BLG gene could have a functional role associated with milk composition, the lowest value of nucleotide diversity between Valle del Belice and Sarda breeds may be related to a higher similarity of milk composition of these two breeds compared to the others. Further analyses will be conducted in order to evaluate the possible correlation between the genetic diversity indexes and the BLG content in milk of our breeds.

  16. Integrating genomic selection into dairy cattle breeding programmes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, A; Juga, J

    2013-05-01

    Extensive genetic progress has been achieved in dairy cattle populations on many traits of economic importance because of efficient breeding programmes. Success of these programmes has relied on progeny testing of the best young males to accurately assess their genetic merit and hence their potential for breeding. Over the last few years, the integration of dense genomic information into statistical tools used to make selection decisions, commonly referred to as genomic selection, has enabled gains in predicting accuracy of breeding values for young animals without own performance. The possibility to select animals at an early stage allows defining new breeding strategies aimed at boosting genetic progress while reducing costs. The first objective of this article was to review methods used to model and optimize breeding schemes integrating genomic selection and to discuss their relative advantages and limitations. The second objective was to summarize the main results and perspectives on the use of genomic selection in practical breeding schemes, on the basis of the example of dairy cattle populations. Two main designs of breeding programmes integrating genomic selection were studied in dairy cattle. Genomic selection can be used either for pre-selecting males to be progeny tested or for selecting males to be used as active sires in the population. The first option produces moderate genetic gains without changing the structure of breeding programmes. The second option leads to large genetic gains, up to double those of conventional schemes because of a major reduction in the mean generation interval, but it requires greater changes in breeding programme structure. The literature suggests that genomic selection becomes more attractive when it is coupled with embryo transfer technologies to further increase selection intensity on the dam-to-sire pathway. The use of genomic information also offers new opportunities to improve preservation of genetic variation. However

  17. Analysis of the genetic structure of endangered bovine breeds from the Western Pyrenees using DNA microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendo, F; Iriondo, M; Jugo, B M; Aguirre, A; Mazón, L I; Vicario, A; Gómez, M; Estonba, A

    2004-04-01

    In the Western Pyrenees, three out of four native cattle breeds are in grave danger of extinction. Genetic variation of all four breeds was assessed by analyzing 478 animals using 11 microsatellite markers. A moderate/high within-breed variability was found, a favorable factor to consider when planning conservation and improvement programs. Interestingly, the only selected commercial breed, the Pirenaica, showed depressed heterozygosity levels and a low average number of alleles, perhaps explainable by intensive human selection exacerbated by a bottleneck effect. The Pirenaica also exhibited pronounced genetic differences and was the largest contributor of diversity among the breeds from the Western Pyrenees. Among endangered cattle breeds from this region, our results highlight the singularity of the Betizu. Geographic isolation among herds may be responsible for the large F(IS) value found in the Betizu breed. Lastly, our study suggests that the use of highly selected breeds may be one of the causes of distortion in phylogenetic analyses.

  18. Development of a genetic tool for product regulation in the diverse British pig breed market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkinson Samantha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of DNA markers for the identification of biological samples from both human and non-human species is widespread and includes use in food authentication. In the food industry the financial incentive to substituting the true name of a food product with a higher value alternative is driving food fraud. This applies to British pork products where products derived from traditional pig breeds are of premium value. The objective of this study was to develop a genetic assay for regulatory authentication of traditional pig breed-labelled products in the porcine food industry in the United Kingdom. Results The dataset comprised of a comprehensive coverage of breed types present in Britain: 460 individuals from 7 traditional breeds, 5 commercial purebreds, 1 imported European breed and 1 imported Asian breed were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 beadchip. Following breed-informative SNP selection, assignment power was calculated for increasing SNP panel size. A 96-plex assay created using the most informative SNPs revealed remarkably high genetic differentiation between the British pig breeds, with an average FST of 0.54 and Bayesian clustering analysis also indicated that they were distinct homogenous populations. The posterior probability of assignment of any individual of a presumed origin actually originating from that breed given an alternative breed origin was > 99.5% in 174 out of 182 contrasts, at a test value of log(LR > 0. Validation of the 96-plex assay using independent test samples of known origin was successful; a subsequent survey of market samples revealed a high level of breed label conformity. Conclusion The newly created 96-plex assay using selected markers from the PorcineSNP60 beadchip enables powerful assignment of samples to traditional breed origin and can effectively identify mislabelling, providing a highly effective tool for DNA analysis in food forensics.

  19. Estimação de componentes de (covariâncias e predição de DEP's para características de crescimento pós-desmama de bovinos da raça Nelore, usando diferentes modelos estatísticos Variance components and breeding values for post weaning growth traits of Nellore cattle, from different statistical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.C. Bittencourt

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estimados parâmetros genéticos, fenotípicos e valores genéticos de pesos padronizados aos 365 (P365 e 455 (P455 dias de idade de animais pertencentes ao programa de melhoramento genético da raça Nelore, desenvolvido pelo Departamento de Genética da USP. Quatro modelos foram utilizados para obter estimativas de parâmetros genéticos REML: o modelo 1 incluiu apenas os efeitos genético direto e residual; o 2, incluiu o efeito de ambiente permanente e os efeitos incluídos no modelo 1; o modelo 3 incluiu o efeito genético materno e os efeitos incluídos no modelo 1; o modelo 4 é o completo, com a inclusão dos efeitos genéticos direto e materno e de ambiente permanente. Para P365, as herdabilidades obtidas foram: 0,48, 0,32, 0,28 e 0,27 para os modelos 1, 2, 3 e 4, respectivamente. Para P455, os valores observados foram: 0,48, 0,38, 0,35 e 0,34 para os modelos 1, 2, 3 e 4, respectivamente. A comparação entre os modelos indicou que os efeitos maternos não foram importantes na variação do P455, mas podem ter alguma importância no peso aos 365 dias de idade.Data from the Genetic Improvement Program of the Nellore Breed of Genetic Department-USP were used to estimate genetic parameters and breeding values for weights at 365 (P365 and 455 (P455 days of age. Four animal models were used to obtain REML estimates of genetic parameters aiming to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of a random maternal genetic effect and a permanent environmental effect on variance component estimates. The model 1 included genetic and residual random effects; model 2 and model 3 were based on model 1 but included permanent environmental (2 and maternal genetic (3 effects; model 4 included genetic, maternal and permanent environmental effects. The heritability estimates for P365 were 0.48, 0.32, 0.28 and 0.27 using models 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. For P455, the values were 0.48, 0.38, 0.35 e 0.34 with the same models. The results suggest that

  20. Microsatellite loci analysis for the genetic variability and the parentage test of five dog breeds in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byeong-Teck; Kim, Kyung-Seok; Min, Mi-Sook; Chae, Young-Jin; Kang, Jung-Won; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Jihye; Seong, Je-Kyung; Park, Han-Chan; An, Junghwa; Lee, Mun-Han; Park, Hee-Myung; Lee, Hang

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the population structure of five dog breeds in South Korea and to validate polymorphic microsatellite markers for the parentage test, microsatellite loci analyses were conducted for two Korean native dog breeds, Poongsan and Jindo, and three imported dog breeds, German Shepherd, Beagle and Greyhound. Overall genetic diversity was high across all dog breeds (expected heterozygosity range: 0.71 to 0.85), although breeds differed in deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Significant reduction of heterozygosity in the Poongsan and Greyhound breeds was caused by non-random mating and population substructure within these breeds (the Wahlund effects). The close relationship and high degree of genetic diversity for two Korean native dog breeds were substantial. The mean polymorphism information content value was highest in Jindos (0.82) and Poongsans (0.81), followed by Beagles (0.74), Greyhounds (0.72), and German Shepherds (0.66). Accumulated exclusion power values, as an indication of marker validity for parentage tests, were varied but very high across breeds, 0.9999 for Jindos, Poongsans, and Beagles, 0.9997 for Greyhounds, and 0.9995 for German Shepherds. Taken together, the microsatellite loci investigated in this study can serve as suitable markers for the parentage test and as individual identification to establish a reliable pedigree verification system of dog breeds in South Korea. This study also stresses that the population subdivision within breeds can become an important cause of deviation from HWE in dog breeds.

  1. MILK FATTY ACID PROFILE IN DIFFERENT BREEDS OF DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kirchnerová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to extend the knowledge about current fatty acids (FAs profile of cow milk fat at herds of cows held in dairy farms in Slovakia. 368 milk samples were taken in total from cows of 5 different breeds, namely Holstein (H, n = 105, Red Holstein (R, n = 120, Pinzgau (P, n = 74, Slovak Pied (S, n = 61, and Braunvieh (B, n = 8. Single milk samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose content, minerals and fatty acid composition of milk fat using gas chromatography, where 54 FAs were identified and expressed relatively in percentage of peak areas (% and evaluated in segments in accord with their biosynthetic origine. The combination of acids C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0, as expressed in the sum HCHFA (46.86% for S and 47.35% for P, and also the value of the so-calculated. atherogenic index (2.82 for S and 3.10 for P are the lowest, and thus the most favorable for human health at the breeds S and P. Medically desirable MUFA (27.11% for the S and 25.84% for P and PUFA (3.55% for S and 3.26% for P in these breeds are represented in the highest percentage shares. We conclude that among the observed breeds of dairy cows the Pinzgau and Simental breeds showed a better value of the composition of milk fat from a health perspective.

  2. Breeding barley for quality in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Yuksel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated a total of 411 genotypes, including 334 breeding lines with 77 checks from Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Breeding Program of Turkey (BBPT, based upon their grain yield (GY and quality traits (namely protein content-PC, acid detergent fiber-ADF, thousand kernel weight-TKW, kernel size-KS and test weight-TW, during the 5 consecutive cropping seasons, from 2007-2008 to 2011-2012. Broad-sense heritability (H values for quality traits were moderate (0.57-0.65, while it was low (0.43 for grain yield. Accordingly, grain physical features (namely TW, KS and TKW were positively significantly correlated with GY, but negatively significantly correlated with PC. Results of our study showed that selection for GY and quality traits was less efficient than we expected, due to undesirable multi-variate correlations such as GY vs PC and low to moderate H values. Therefore, we tried to put suggestions forward to the BBPT, by following discussing about our ability to select for high GY and acceptable quality in barley.

  3. Breed base representation in dairy animals of 5 breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance of DNA from different dairy breeds can be determined by genotyping, just as individual ancestors such as parents, grandparents, or even great grandparents can be identified correctly in a high percentage of the cases by genotyping even if not reported or reported incorrectly in pedigrees...

  4. Sport horses : breeding specialist from a single breeding programme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection,

  5. Genetic diversity of five goat breeds in China based on microsatellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic diversity of five goat breeds in China was surveyed using 15 microsatellites. The five goat breeds included Tangshan dairy goat (TSD), Liaoning cashmere goat (LNC), Nanjiang yellow goat (NJY), Chengde polled goat (CDP) and Leizhou black goat (LZB). The mean polymorphism information content value ...

  6. Evaluation of random forest regression for prediction of breeding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cation of the random forest (RF), a model-free ensemble learning method, is not widely used for prediction. In this study, the ... [Sarkar R. K., Rao A. R., Meher P. K., Nepolean T. and Mohapatra T. 2015 Evaluation of random forest regression for prediction of breeding value from .... Ten-fold cross validation technique (Stone.

  7. Genetic parameter estimates in the South African Jersey breed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-11-01

    Nov 1, 1997 ... Discarding records that do not meet a minimum lactation length results in biased genetic evaluations (Norman et al., 1985), especially when the animal model is used in estimating breeding values for both male and female animals. Standard practice has been to project/extend lactations of different length to ...

  8. Genetic relationships between three indigenous cattle breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study provides the first account of genetic relationships between three indigenous cattle breeds from Mozambique. Forty-two blood group factors and six blood proteins revealed genetic variation of 84% (Angone), 88% (Bovine de Tete) and 90% (Landim) at the loci studied. Average heterozygosity values ranged from ...

  9. Breeding value of primary synthetic wheat genotypes for grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    To introduce new genetic diversity into the bread wheat gene pool from its progenitor, Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmalh, 33 primary synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes (SYN) were crossed to 20 spring bread wheat (BW) cultivars at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center. Modified single...

  10. Comparison of breeding values and genetic trends for production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The other set was obtained in the 2004 South African National Genetic Evaluation, using a Fixed Regression Test-day Model (TDM). This comparison is made for Ayrshire, Guernsey, Holstein and Jersey cows participating in the South African Dairy Animal Improvement Scheme. Specific differences between the two models ...

  11. Breeding value estimation for somatic cell score in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernice Mostert

    Peer-reviewed paper: Joint South African Society for Animal Science/Grassland Society of Southern Africa Congress. 32 ... different traits in a multiple-trait animal model and the second analysis (RM-model) treated later lactation records as repeated .... computer time in terms of national and international genetic evaluations.

  12. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation

  13. Breeding Ecology of Birds -22 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ogy, conservation biology and popular science writing. Keywords. Birds. nesting. territory, coloniality, heronries. ecology, nesting strate- gies. Abdul Jamil Urli. One of the most fascinating aspects in the life of birds is their breeding phase, which is intimately tied to the distri- bution and abundance of food resources in their ...

  14. Plant mutation breeding and biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shu, Q. Y; Forster, Brian P; Nakagawa, H

    2012-01-01

    ... (FAO / IAEA) Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, with its global coordinating and synergistic roles, that plant mutation breeding became a common tool available to plant breeders worldwide. Since these early days the Joint Division continues to play a considerable role in fostering the use of mutation techni...

  15. Genomic selection & association mapping in rice: effect of trait genetic architecture, training population composition, marker number & statistical model on accuracy of rice genomic selection in elite, tropical rice breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic Selection (GS) is a new breeding method in which genome-wide markers are used to predict the breeding value of individuals in a breeding population. GS has been shown to improve breeding efficiency in dairy cattle and several crop plant species, and here we evaluate for the first time its ef...

  16. Ethics of Plant Breeding: The IFOAM Basic Principles as a Guide for the Evolution of Organic Plant Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    The basic values of organic agriculture is laid down in the IFOAM four basic principles: the principle of health, the principle of ecology, the principle of fairness and the principle of care. These principles and the consequences and challenges for the further development of organic plant breeding

  17. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  18. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  19. Tokamak fusion reactors with less than full tritium breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K. Jr.; Gilligan, J.G.; Jung, J.

    1983-05-01

    A study of commercial, tokamak fusion reactors with tritium concentrations and tritium breeding ratios ranging from full deuterium-tritium operation to operation with no tritium breeding is presented. The design basis for these reactors is similar to those of STARFIRE and WILDCAT. Optimum operating temperatures, sizes, toroidal field strengths, and blanket/shield configurations are determined for a sequence of reactor designs spanning the range of tritium breeding, each having the same values of beta, thermal power, and first-wall heat load. Additional reactor parameters, tritium inventories and throughputs, and detailed costs are calculated for each reactor design. The disadvantages, advantages, implications, and ramifications of tritium-depleted operation are presented and discussed.

  20. Breeding of hexaploid triticale for drought resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. В. Щипак

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Analysis of hexaploid triticale breeding process for drought resistance through the use of systemic ecological tests in contrasting conditions. Methods. Dialectical, field, laboratory and statistical ones. Results. Medium-grown (‘Amos’, ‘Nikanor’, ‘Rarytet’, ‘Yaroslava’ and low-stem (‘HAD 69’, ‘HAD 86’, ‘HAD 110’, ‘Timofei’ multiline varieties of winter and alternate hexaploid triticale were developed with higher adaptability, potential yield of 9–12 tons per ha and high bread-making properties. Among the most drought resistant genotypes, such varieties as ‘Amos’, ‘Buket’, ‘Harne’, ‘Markiian’, ‘Kharroza’, ‘Shalanda’, ‘Nicanor’ and ‘Yaroslava’ showed high values of yield, plasticity and stability. Conclusions. The use of interspecific hybridization instead of intergeneric one in hexaploid triticale breeding, together with systemic testing of the hybrid material in contrasting agro-ecological zones, ensured the creation of multiline competitive varieties with an optimal combination of yield and adaptive properties

  1. Hybrid reactors: Nuclear breeding or energy production?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piera, Mireia [UNED, ETSII-Dp Ingenieria Energetica, c/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lafuente, Antonio; Abanades, Alberto; Martinez-Val, J.M. [ETSII-UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    After reviewing the long-standing tradition on hybrid research, an assessment model is presented in order to characterize the hybrid performance under different objectives. In hybrids, neutron multiplication in the subcritical blanket plays a major role, not only for energy production and nuclear breeding, but also for tritium breeding, which is fundamental requirement in fusion-fission hybrids. All three objectives are better achieved with high values of the neutron multiplication factor (k-eff) with the obvious and fundamental limitation that it cannot reach criticality under any event, particularly, in the case of a loss of coolant accident. This limitation will be very important in the selection of the coolant. Some general considerations will be proposed, as guidelines for assessing the hybrid potential in a given scenario. Those guidelines point out that hybrids can be of great interest for the future of nuclear energy in a framework of Sustainable Development, because they can contribute to the efficient exploitation of nuclear fuels, with very high safety features. Additionally, a proposal is presented on a blanket specially suited for fusion-fission hybrids, although this reactor concept is still under review, and new work is needed for identifying the most suitable blanket composition, which can vary depending on the main objective of the hybrid. (author)

  2. Development of a breeding objective for Estonian Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PÄRNA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic weights for milk carrier (water plus lactose, fat and protein yields, calving interval, age at first service, interval between the first service and conception of heifers and length of productive life of Estonian Holsteins were estimated under assumed milk production quota and for non-quota conditions. A bio-economic model of an integrated production system of a closed herd was used. Economic values of milk carrier yield and length of productive life differed between quota and non-quota conditions, but there were only minor differences between those marketing systems in economic values for functional traits. The standardised economic values of the most important traits varied in magnitude between18 to 81% of the economic value for milk yield. Discounting had a substantial impact on the economic value of length of productive life. When defining the breeding objective for Estonian Holstein, the interval between the first service and conception of heifers, and the length of productive life should be included in the breeding goal along with the traits with the highest economic value, milk, fat and protein yield. In the optimum breeding objective, relative weights of production vs. functional traits were 79 and 21%, respectively.;

  3. Emperor Penguins Breeding on Iceshelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T.; Trathan, Phil N.; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin’s reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as “near threatened” in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species. PMID:24416381

  4. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  5. Breeding in a den of thieves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw, de Jimmy; Bom, Roeland A.; Klaassen, Raymond H.G.; Müskens, Gerard J.D.M.; Vries, de Peter P.; Popov, Igor Yu; Kokorev, Yakov I.; Ebbinge, Bart; Nolet, Bart A.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding success of many Arctic-breeding bird populations varies with lemming cycles due to prey switching behavior of generalist predators. Several bird species breed on islands to escape from generalist predators like Arctic fox Vulpes lagopus, but little is known about how these species

  6. Population structure of ice-breeding seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Corey S; Stirling, Ian; Strobeck, Curtis; Coltman, David W

    2008-07-01

    The development of population genetic structure in ice-breeding seal species is likely to be shaped by a combination of breeding habitat and life-history characteristics. Species that return to breed on predictable fast-ice locations are more likely to exhibit natal fidelity than pack-ice-breeding species, which in turn facilitates the development of genetic differentiation between subpopulations. Other aspects of life history such as geographically distinct vocalizations, female gregariousness, and the potential for polygynous breeding may also facilitate population structure. Based on these factors, we predicted that fast-ice-breeding seal species (the Weddell and ringed seal) would show elevated genetic differentiation compared to pack-ice-breeding species (the leopard, Ross, crabeater and bearded seals). We tested this prediction using microsatellite analysis to examine population structure of these six ice-breeding species. Our results did not support this prediction. While none of the Antarctic pack-ice species showed statistically significant population structure, the bearded seal of the Arctic pack ice showed strong differentiation between subpopulations. Again in contrast, the fast-ice-breeding Weddell seal of the Antarctic showed clear evidence for genetic differentiation while the ringed seal, breeding in similar habitat in the Arctic, did not. These results suggest that the development of population structure in ice-breeding phocid seals is a more complex outcome of the interplay of phylogenetic and ecological factors than can be predicted on the basis of breeding substrate and life-history characteristics.

  7. Vision of breeding for organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.; Groen, A.; Roep, D.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Baars, T.

    2003-01-01

    Taking the current breeding situation as the starting point, a number of scenarios are described for each animal sector which could gradually lead to a system of breeding which is more organic both in its aims and in the chain-based approach. The naturalness of the breeding techniques is an

  8. Can I compare EPD's across breeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper comparison of the genetic merit of animals across breeds can be difficult and confusion for beef cattle producers. With the advent of a new genetic evaluation system where several breeds are evaluated in the same genetic analysis, confusion on direct comparison of animals across breeds has i...

  9. Effect of mortality rate, breed type and breed on total herd efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composite breed types normally performed well, indicating that use of such breeds in a variety of environments is a good choice. This study also indicated that bio-diversity does exist between breeds and further research is needed on breed characterization, since no framework currently exists for the charucterrzation of ...

  10. Sire breed and breed genotype of dam effects in crossbreeding beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sire breed and breed genotype of dam effects in crossbreeding beef cattle in the subtropics. 1. Birth and ... Simmentaler and Bonsmara cattle, as well as Fl> and two- and three-breed rotational crosses between Afrikaner,. Hereford and Simmentaler were ... ination and semen evaluation of bulls. Breeding lasted from.

  11. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  12. Influence of Duroc breed inclusion into Polish Landrace maternal line on pork meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Głąbski, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-05-31

    Crossbreeding with Duroc breed allows to improve meat quality, but no data is available regarding specific influence of Duroc breed on characteristics of meat in the case of crossbreeding with various breeds. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Polish Landrace dames with Duroc sires on quality features of meat in reference to Polish Landrace breed. The objects of the study were Longissimus dorsi lumborum pork muscles obtained from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed animals. Sarcomere length measurements were conducted using microscopic method and basic chemical composition measurement was analyzed using spectrophotometric scanning. Texture analysis of meat samples, performed after thermal treatment was expressed by Warner-Bratzler shear force and color analysis was obtained using CIE L*a*b* color system. No differences in sarcomere length, shear force as well as components of color values between pork meat originated from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed were observed. Analysis of basic chemical composition revealed higher fat and lower ash contents in the case of meat of Polish Landrace breed animals. It was concluded that the actual impact of breed on meat characteristics is possibly altered by other factors. It may be suggested that influence of basic chemical composition on color of meat is breed-related.

  13. The differentiation of camel breeds based on meat measurements using discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Atiyat, Raed Mahmoud; Suliman, Gamal; AlSuhaibani, Entissar; El-Waziry, Ahmad; Al-Owaimer, Abdullah; Basmaeil, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    The meat productivity of camel in the tropics is still under investigation for identification of better meat breed or type. Therefore, four one-humped Saudi Arabian (SA) camel breeds, Majaheem, Maghateer, Hamrah, and Safrah were experimented in order to differentiate them from each other based on meat measurements. The measurements were biometrical meat traits measured on six intact males from each breed. The results showed higher values of the Majaheem breed than that obtained for the other breeds except few cases such dressing percentage and rib-eye area. In differentiation analysis, the most discriminating meat variables were myofibrillar protein index, meat color components (L* and a*, b*), and cooking loss. Consequently, the Safrah and the Majaheem breeds presented the largest dissimilarity as evidenced by their multivariate means. The canonical discriminant analysis allowed an additional understanding of the differentiation between breeds. Furthermore, two large clusters, one formed by Hamrah and Maghateer in one group along with Safrah. These classifications may assign each breed into one cluster considering they are better as meat producers. The Majaheem was clustered alone in another cluster that might be a result of being better as milk producers. Nevertheless, the productivity type of the camel breeds of SA needs further morphology and genetic descriptions.

  14. Genetic analysis, breed assignment and conservation priorities of three native Danish horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirstrup, J P; Pertoldi, C; Loeschcke, V

    2008-10-01

    A genetic analysis was performed on three indigenous Danish horse breeds using 12 microsatellite markers from a standard kit for parental testing. These three breeds are all considered endangered based on their small population sizes. Genetic variation in these three breeds was comparable to other horse breeds in Europe, and they do not seem to be at immediate danger of extinction caused by genetic deterioration. The Knabstrupper breed had more genetic variation, as measured by expected heterozygosity and allelic richness, than the other two breeds (Frederiksborg and Jutland). F(ST) statistics and population assignments confirmed population differentiation into three distinct breeds. The Frederiksborg and Knabstrupper breeds were closer to each other than to the Jutland breed. When establishing conservation priorities for the breeds, the priorities will depend on the conservation goals. Different methods for establishing conservation priorities are also discussed.

  15. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailer Frank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic

  16. Does hatching failure breed infidelity?

    OpenAIRE

    Malika Ihle; Bart Kempenaers; Wolfgang Forstmeier

    2013-01-01

    In socially monogamous species, the reasons for female infidelity are still controversial. It has been suggested that females could seek extra-pair copulations as an insurance against hatching failure caused by male infertility or incompatibility. In species where couples breed repeatedly, females could use previous hatching success as a cue to assess their partner’s infertility (or incompatibility). Hence, it has been predicted that females should increase their infidelity after experiencing...

  17. Ten inherited disorders in purebred dogs by functional breed groupings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbauer, A M; Belanger, J M; Bellumori, T; Bannasch, D L; Famula, T R

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of 88,635 dogs seen at the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1995 to 2010 identified ten inherited conditions having greater prevalence within the purebred dog population as compared to the mixed-breed dog population: aortic stenosis, atopy/allergic dermatitis, gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV), early onset cataracts, dilated cardiomyopathy, elbow dysplasia, epilepsy, hypothyroidism, intervertebral disk disease (IVDD), and hepatic portosystemic shunt. The objective of the present study was to ascertain if disorders with higher prevalence in purebreds were restricted to particular breed group classifications within the purebred population, specifically the American Kennel Club breed grouping or groups with genomic similarities based upon allele sharing. For each disorder, healthy controls seen at the hospital during that same time period were matched for age, weight, and sex to each affected dog to determine risk of disease presentation in the purebred group as compared to that of the mixed-breed population. To enhance reliability of the analyses, sampling of matched healthy to affected dogs was repeated 50 times. For each comparison, the purebred subgroups to mixed-breed odds ratio was determined as was the mean P value used to test this ratio. For aortic stenosis, GDV, early onset cataracts, dilated cardiomyopathy, elbow dysplasia, epilepsy, and portosystemic shunt, most purebred groups were not statistically distinct from the mixed-breed population with higher prevalence in purebreds restricted to distinct subsets of purebred dogs. The conditions of atopy/allergic dermatitis, hypothyroidism, and IVDD were more pervasive across the purebred population with many groups having higher prevalence than the mixed-breed population. The prevalence of IVDD in purebred terrier groups was statistically lower than that observed for mixed-breed dogs. The results offer an assessment of the distribution of inherited disorders

  18. The scurs inheritance: new insights from the French Charolais breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier Mathieu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polled animals are valued in cattle industry because the absence of horns has a significant economic impact. However, some cattle are neither polled nor horned but have so-called scurs on their heads, which are corneous growths loosely attached to the skull. A better understanding of the genetic determinism of the scurs phenotype would help to fine map the polled locus. To date, only one study has attempted to map the scurs locus in cattle. Here, we have investigated the inheritance of the scurs phenotype in the French Charolais breed and examined whether the previously proposed localisation of the scurs locus on bovine chromosome 19 could be confirmed or not. Results Our results indicate that the inheritance pattern of the scurs phenotype in the French Charolais breed is autosomal recessive with complete penetrance in both sexes, which is different from what is reported for other breeds. The frequency of the scurs allele (Sc reaches 69.9% in the French Charolais population. Eleven microsatellite markers on bovine chromosome 19 were genotyped in 267 offspring (33 half-sib and full-sib families. Both non-parametric and parametric linkage analyses suggest that in the French Charolais population the scurs locus may not map to the previously identified region. A new analysis of an Angus-Hereford and Hereford-Hereford pedigree published in 1978 enabled us to calculate the frequency of the Sc allele in the Hereford breed (89.4% and to study the penetrance of this allele in males heterozygous for both polled and scurs loci (40%. This led us to revise the inheritance pattern of the scurs phenotype proposed for the Hereford breed and to suggest that allele Sc is not fully but partially dominant in double heterozygous males while it is always recessive in females. Crossbreeding involving the Charolais breed and other breeds gave results similar to those reported in the Hereford breed. Conclusion Our results suggest the existence of

  19. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  20. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  1. Evaluation of the stallion for breeding soundness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtgen, J P

    1992-04-01

    The breeding soundness evaluation of a stallion is a thorough investigation of a stallion's libido, mating ability, and semen quality. The evaluation should include historical data about the medical aspects of the horse's performance and breeding career, observations and breeding behavior characteristics, collection and evaluation of semen, tests to determine freedom from infectious or contagious disease, and production of foals free of genetic defects. This information should allow the examiner to anticipate the impact of the stallion on the reproductive efficiency of a group of mares. The breeding soundness evaluation should also assist farm management in optimizing stallion, mare, veterinary, and management influences on total herd breeding performance.

  2. Some hematological and biochemical parameters of different goat breeds in Sultanate of Oman "A preliminary study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bulushi, Shahab; Shawaf, Turke; Al-Hasani, Afaf

    2017-04-01

    In Sultanate of Oman, goats are considered as one of the most important livestock in which there are many breeds of goat such as Batinah, Jabali, Dhofari, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam. Little hematological and biochemical information is known on Omani goat breeds; therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine reference baseline data regarding hematological and biochemical values of different Omani goat breeds. A total of 30 healthy animals of different Omani goat breeds (Jabali, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam) were selected randomly from different areas in Sultanate of Oman. The blood samples were collected from the jugular vein into two tubes for blood hematology and biochemical analysis. Statistical analysis was applied by using GraphPad Prism 7 software to calculate the minimum and maximum values to determine the range, mean, standard deviation of the mean and the p value. No statistically significant variation in most hematological and biochemical parameters was found among the Omani goat breeds. The results of blood hematology revealed that the mean white blood cells (14.6±3.32 ×103/µL), and the percentage of neutrophils in Omani goats (60.87±8.46%) were higher than that in most goat breeds. Higher values of red blood cells (12.8±1.28 ×106/µL), hemoglobin (10.4±1.92 g/dl), hematocrit (38.29±4.06%), and lower values of mean corpuscular HGB concentration (27.05±3.5 g/dl) were observed in Omani goat breeds comparing to that in the other goat breeds. Lower values of total bilirubin (0.22±0.03 mg/dl), blood urea nitrogen (14.62±2.66 mg/dl), and cholesterol (48.58±19.05 mg/dl) were found in Omani goat breeds when compared to that of the other goat breeds. The obtained results are considered as the first values to be published for the different Omani goat breeds. This study is considered as preliminary study which can be used as a reference for further studies to determine reference values for the studied

  3. Some hematological and biochemical parameters of different goat breeds in Sultanate of Oman "A preliminary study"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Al-Bulushi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In Sultanate of Oman, goats are considered as one of the most important livestock in which there are many breeds of goat such as Batinah, Jabali, Dhofari, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam. Little hematological and biochemical information is known on Omani goat breeds; therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine reference baseline data regarding hematological and biochemical values of different Omani goat breeds. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 healthy animals of different Omani goat breeds (Jabali, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam were selected randomly from different areas in Sultanate of Oman. The blood samples were collected from the jugular vein into two tubes for blood hematology and biochemical analysis. Statistical analysis was applied by using GraphPad Prism 7 software to calculate the minimum and maximum values to determine the range, mean, standard deviation of the mean and the p value. Results: No statistically significant variation in most hematological and biochemical parameters was found among the Omani goat breeds. The results of blood hematology revealed that the mean white blood cells (14.6±3.32 x103/μL, and the percentage of neutrophils in Omani goats (60.87±8.46% were higher than that in most goat breeds. Higher values of red blood cells (12.8±1.28 x106/μL, hemoglobin (10.4±1.92 g/dl, hematocrit (38.29±4.06%, and lower values of mean corpuscular HGB concentration (27.05±3.5 g/dl were observed in Omani goat breeds comparing to that in the other goat breeds. Lower values of total bilirubin (0.22±0.03 mg/dl, blood urea nitrogen (14.62±2.66 mg/dl, and cholesterol (48.58±19.05 mg/dl were found in Omani goat breeds when compared to that of the other goat breeds. Conclusion: The obtained results are considered as the first values to be published for the different Omani goat breeds. This study is considered as preliminary study which can be used as a reference for further

  4. Shelf life of beef from local Spanish cattle breeds stored under modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, K; Beriain, M J; Purroy, A; Alberti, P; Gorraiz, C; Alzueta, M J

    2001-03-01

    Beef steaks from six Spanish cattle breeds (Asturiana de los Valles, Morucha, Parda Alpina, Pirenaica, Rubia Gallega and Retinta) were packaged under modified atmosphere (60% O(2), 30% CO(2) and 10% N(2)). Water loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid values (TBA), aerobic plate counts, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae counts, CIE L*a*b* colour values and the sensory properties of odour and colour were recorded before packaging (day 0) and after 5, 10 and 15 days of storage. A significant interaction (Pmeat from Retinta breed and between days 10 and 15 in meat from the other breeds, shelf life was probably limited by lipid oxidation.

  5. Comparison and Correlation Analysis of Different Swine Breeds Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. X. Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the influence of pig breed and gender on the ultimate pH and physicochemical properties of pork. The correlations between pH and pork quality traits directly related to carcass grade, and consumer’s preference were also evaluated. The pH and meat grading scores for cold carcasses of 215 purebred pigs (Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire from four different farms were obtained. Meat quality parameters of the pork loin were analyzed. Duroc and female animals were more affected compared to other breeds and male pigs. Duroc animals had the highest ultimate pH, carcass back fat thickness, marbling scores, yellowness, and fat content (p<0.05. Landrace pigs had the highest color lightness and cooking loss values (p<0.05. Among all trait parameters, marbling scores showed the highest significant differences when evaluating the impact of breed and gender on meat quality characteristics (p<0.001. Ultimate pH was positively correlated with carcass weight (0.20, back fat thickness (0.19, marbling score (0.17, and color score (0.16 while negatively correlated with cooking loss (−0.24 and shear force (−0.20. Therefore, pork samples with lower ultimate pH had lower cooking loss, higher lightness, and higher shear force values irrespective of breed.

  6. Cholistan and Cholistani Breed of Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq, H. A. Samad*, F. Sher1, M. Asim1 and M. Arif Khan2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholistan, once a green and prosperous land with the source of water being the ancient Hakra River, was also the cradle of great Hakra Valley Civilization. It is sprawled at an area of 26,000 Km2, located between the latitudes 27º42´and 29º45´North and longitudes 69º52´and 75º24´East. The bioclimatic system of Cholistan falls under the category of “tropical desert” with very scanty rainfall. Geomorphologically, the soils of Cholistan are a complex blend of river alluvium and Aeolin sands. Based on topography, type of soil and vegetation, this desert is divided into two geomorphic regions: the Lesser Cholistan (the Northern 7,770 Km² region and the Greater Cholistan (the Southern 18,130 Km² region. The primary source of water is rainfall which is utilized through natural depressions or man-made ponds called “Tobas” and “Dahars.” The secondary source is underground water which is brackish and salty and not fit for human/animal consumption. Two livestock production systems prevail under pastoralism in Cholistan viz. transhumanie and nomadic. Despite an uncertain, unpredictable rainfall, low humidity and extremes in temperatures, Cholistan has long been famous for raising different breeds of livestock, contributing a significant share to national milk, meat and wool output. The total livestock population estimated during 2006 was 12,09528, out of which 47% were cattle. Cholistani cattle are considered to be ancestor of the Sahiwal and are a thermo-tolerant, tick-resistant breed. Preliminary data on some productive and reproductive traits of Cholistani cows maintained at Govt. Livestock Station, Jugait Peer, Bahawalpur during the period 2005 to 2009 revealed the avergae values for the productive traits i.e. lactation length, lactation yield, dry period, service period and fat percentage in milk as 165 days, 1235 liters, 155 days, 121 days and 4.8%, respectively. Similarly, the average values for reproductive traits i.e. age at

  7. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, G; Iannuccelli, N; Legault, C; Milan, D; Groenen, M A; Giuffra, E; Andersson, L; Nissen, P H; Jørgensen, C B; Beeckmann, P; Geldermann, H; Foulley, J L; Chevalet, C; Ollivier, L

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall F(ST)= 0.27), and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.

  8. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foulley Jean-Louis

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall FST = 0.27, and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.

  9. Predictors of breeding site occupancy by amphibians in montane landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Luke A.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Calhoun, Aram J.K.

    2017-01-01

    Ecological relationships and processes vary across species’ geographic distributions, life stages and spatial, and temporal scales. Montane landscapes are characterized by low wetland densities, rugged topographies, and cold climates. Consequently, aquatic-dependent and low-vagility ectothermic species (e.g., pool-breeding amphibians) may exhibit unique ecological associations in montane landscapes. We evaluated the relative importance of breeding- and landscape-scale features associated with spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) wetland occupancy in Maine's Upper Montane-Alpine Zone ecoregion, and we determined whether models performed better when the inclusive landscape-scale covariates were estimated with topography-weighted or circular buffers. We surveyed 135 potential breeding sites during May 2013–June 2014 and evaluated environmental relationships with multi-season implicit dynamics occupancy models. Breeding site occupancy by both species was influenced solely by breeding-scale habitat features. Spotted salamander occupancy probabilities increased with previous or current beaver (Castor canadensis) presence, and models generally were better supported when the inclusive landscape-scale covariates were estimated with topography-weighted rather than circular buffers. Wood frog occupancy probabilities increased with site area and percent shallows, but neither buffer type was better supported than the other. Model rank order and support varied between buffer types, but model inferences did not. Our results suggest pool-breeding amphibian conservation in montane Maine include measures to maintain beaver populations and large wetlands with proportionally large areas of shallows ≤1-m deep. Inconsistencies between our study and previous studies substantiate the value of region-specific research for augmenting species’ conservation management plans and suggest the application of out-of-region inferences may promote

  10. Integration of genomic information into sport horse breeding programs for optimization of accuracy of selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, A M; König von Borstel, U; Simianer, H; König, S

    2012-09-01

    Reliable selection criteria are required for young riding horses to increase genetic gain by increasing accuracy of selection and decreasing generation intervals. In this study, selection strategies incorporating genomic breeding values (GEBVs) were evaluated. Relevant stages of selection in sport horse breeding programs were analyzed by applying selection index theory. Results in terms of accuracies of indices (r(TI) ) and relative selection response indicated that information on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes considerably increases the accuracy of breeding values estimated for young horses without own or progeny performance. In a first scenario, the correlation between the breeding value estimated from the SNP genotype and the true breeding value (= accuracy of GEBV) was fixed to a relatively low value of r(mg) = 0.5. For a low heritability trait (h(2) = 0.15), and an index for a young horse based only on information from both parents, additional genomic information doubles r(TI) from 0.27 to 0.54. Including the conventional information source 'own performance' into the before mentioned index, additional SNP information increases r(TI) by 40%. Thus, particularly with regard to traits of low heritability, genomic information can provide a tool for well-founded selection decisions early in life. In a further approach, different sources of breeding values (e.g. GEBV and estimated breeding values (EBVs) from different countries) were combined into an overall index when altering accuracies of EBVs and correlations between traits. In summary, we showed that genomic selection strategies have the potential to contribute to a substantial reduction in generation intervals in horse breeding programs.

  11. Breed effect between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line and finishing feed effect of commercial fodder or corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, D; Rois, D; Vázquez, J A; Purriños, L; González, R; Lorenzo, J M

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the Mos rooster breed growth performance, carcass, and meat quality. The breed effect (Mos vs. Sasso T-44) and finishing feed in the last month (fodder vs. corn) on animal growth, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty and amino acid profiles were studied using a randomized block design with initial weight as covariance. In total, 80 roosters (n = 30 of Sasso T-44 line and n = 50 of Mos breed) were used. They were separated by breed and allocated to 2 feeding treatment groups (concentrate and corn). Each feeding treatment group consisted of 15 and 25 roosters, for Sasso T-44 line and Mos breed, respectively. Finishing feeding did not affect growth parameters in the 2 genotypes of rooster tested (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, the comparison between both types of roosters led to significant differences in growth parameters (P 0.05) were found, and as expected, carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. However, drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in the Mos breed than in the hybrid line. In color instrumental traits, roosters feeding with corn showed breast meat with significantly (P < 0.001) higher a* and b* values than those of cocks feeding with commercial fodder. Values of shear force were less than 2 kg for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Finishing with corn significantly increased (P < 0.001) the polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the breast; the Mos breed had a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.73. The amino acid profile of the indigenous breed was not similar to that of the commercial strain. Finishing feeding treatment had a greater influence than breed effect on amino acid profile.

  12. Genetic rescue of an endangered domestic animal through outcrossing with closely related breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stronen, Astrid Vik; Salmela, Elina; Baldursdottir, Birna K.

    2017-01-01

    : Norwegian Buhund, Icelandic Sheepdog, and Norrbottenspets. Examination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes based on 165K loci in 48 dogs from the four breeds revealed substantially lower genetic diversity for the Lundehund (H-E 0.035) than for other breeds (H-E 0.209-0.284). Analyses...... of genetic structure with > 15K linkage disequilibrium-pruned SNPs showed four distinct genetic clusters. Pairwise F-ST values between Lundehund and the candidate breeds were highest for Icelandic Sheepdog, followed by Buhund and Norrbottenspets. We assessed the presence of outlier loci among candidate...... development. We suggest crossbreeding with multiple breeds as the best strategy to increase genetic diversity for the Lundehund and to reduce the incidence of health problems. For this project, the three candidate breeds were first selected based on phenotypes and then subjected to genetic investigation...

  13. Strategies for use of reproductive technologies in genomic dairy cattle breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    of genomic breeding values. The breeding schemes were evaluated according to genetic gain and rate of inbreeding. The relative gain by use of reproductive technologies is 11 to 84 percent points depending on the choice of other breeding scheme parameters. A large donor program with high selection intensity......A simulation study was performed for testing the effect of using reproductive technologies in a genomic dairy cattle young bull breeding scheme. The breeding scheme parameters: 1) number of donors, 2) number of progeny per donor, 3) age of the donor, 4) number of sires, and 5) reliability...... of sires provides the highest genetic gain. A relatively higher genetic gain is obtained for higher reliability of GEBV. Extending the donor program and number of selected bulls has a major effect of reducing the rate of inbreeding without compromising genetic gain....

  14. Is crossbreeding the answer to questions of dairy breed utilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, A J

    2002-09-01

    The current interest in crossbreeding in the commercial dairy industry, even though it is quite limited, raises questions of breed utilization. Fewer than 5% of US dairy cattle are other than purebred or grade Holsteins. The large advantage of Holsteins for additive genetic merit for lactation milk yield is apparently responsible for this trend. Why, then, this interest in crossbreeding? The economic importance of traits such as reproduction, health, and survival in dairy production systems is likely the basis for the interest in crossbreeding, even though these traits are secondary to milk yield. Several US studies and a Canadian study confirmed that while several crossbred groups were equivalent to Holsteins for lactation milk yield, none were superior. Two crossbred groups in the Canadian study had lifetime yields, milk value, and net returns equivalent to Holsteins. In the New Zealand study, Friesian-Jersey reciprocal crossbreds were predicted to exceed Friesians in first-lactation fat yield. Crossbred performance is dictated by a combination of additive and nonadditive genetic effects. Evidence exists for direct. maternal, heterosis, and cytoplasmic maternal effects. Heterosis of 15 to 20% for lifetime traits was found in two studies. Results from previous crossbreeding studies have something to recommend for inclusion of Holstein, Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, and Jersey breeds in a crossbreeding scheme. However, multiple-generation lifetime performance on an array of purebreds and crossbreds under US condition does not exist. Full unique identification of individual animals, including breed composition, would permit the use of DHIA data to estimate additive and nonadditive genetic parameters for the traits recorded therein. Survival data from birth and health data would need to be fully recorded to provide complete data on lifetime performance. Self-propagation of crossbred replacements is mandatory if any crossbreeding system is to be successful. Based on current

  15. [Progress and countermeasures of Dendrobium officinale breeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; He, Bo-wei; Yu, Qiao-xian

    2013-02-01

    The standandized cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials is based on variety. With the rapid development of Dendrobium officinale industry and increasing demand of improved varieties, many studies have concentrated on the variety breeding of D. officinale and subsequently achieved remarkable success. This paper systematically expounds the research progress of D. officinale breeding, e. g. the collection and differentiated evaluation for germplasm, theory and practice for variety breeding, tissue culture and efficient production with low-carbon for germchit, and DNA molecular marker-assisted breeding, and then indicates the main problems of the current breeding of D. officinale. Furthermore, the priorities and keys for the further breeding of D. officinale have been pointed out.

  16. Objetivos de seleção e valores econômicos de características de importância econômica para um sistema de produção de leite a pasto na Região Sudeste Breeding goals and economic values for pasture based milk production systems in the Southeast region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Cardoso

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de um estudo para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de seleção envolvendo animais da raça Holandesa e mestiços (Holandês x Zebu na região sudeste do Brasil, foram derivados valores econômicos para volume de leite (V, produção de gordura (G e de proteína (P, idade ao primeiro parto (IPP, peso adulto (PA e vida útil no rebanho (VU, para um sistema de produção de leite a pasto com vacas mestiças (Holandês x Zebu. O manejo alimentar foi baseado no pastejo rotacionado de capim-elefante durante a estação chuvosa e suplementação volumosa de silagem de milho na época da seca. O fornecimento de concentrados foi na base de 1 kg de concentrado para 2,5 kg de leite, quando as produções individuais excediam 6 kg de leite/dia. Foram realizadas análises de sensibilidade para avaliar o impacto das mudanças no sistema de pagamento e variações no preço do leite sobre os valores econômicos das características estudadas. Foram também derivados valores econômicos considerando-se como fonte alternativa de suplementação volumosa na seca a mistura cana-de-açúcar + uréia. Os valores econômicos (US$, de acordo com o sistema de pagamento corrente para V, G, P, IPP, PA e VU, foram, respectivamente, 0,15; -0,48; -0,31; -0,11; 0,08 e 0,04. Os resultados das análises de sensibilidade são apresentados e discutidos.As part of a preliminary study on the design of a breeding program involving Holstein Friesian and crossbred cattle (Holstein x Zebu in the Southeast region of Brazil, economic values for milk volume (V, fat (F and protein (P production, age at first calving (AFC, mature body weight (MBW and herd life (HL were derived for a pasture based milk production system of crossbred cattle (Holstein x Zebu. The feeding regime was based on rotational grazing of elephantgrass during the rainy season and grazing plus maize silage during the dry season. Concentrates were fed when daily individual productions exceed 6-kg milk (1 kg

  17. Derivation of economic values for production traits in aquaculture species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.P.E.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Besson, M.B.; Komen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background:
    In breeding programs for aquaculture species, breeding goal traits are often weighted based on the desired gains but economic gain would be higher if economic values were used instead. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a bio-economic model to derive economic values

  18. Breed structure of Senepol cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A R; Hupp, H D; Thompson, C E; Grimes, L W

    1988-01-01

    Data were collected by the Virgin Islands Beef Cattle Improvement Program and the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station staff to establish the breed structure of the Senepol cattle. Data for the analysis were limited to the two Virgin Islands Senepol breeders with the most complete and largest set of records, representing approximately 65% of the entire Senepol population. Inbreeding (F) and coancestry relationship coefficients (rAB) and the theoretical inbreeding (FT) were determined from each data set and for the combined data from both farms, for each year, ranging from 1947 to 1984 for Annaly Farms, and from 1967 to 1984 for Castle Nugent Farm. The data sets for both farms were examined for the possibility of separation into families. Actual F within the Senepol population was relatively low, averaging less than 1.00%. Some separation into families occurred within Annaly Farms' cattle. The F and FT decreased (1.6 to 0.7% and 1.0 to 0.2%, respectively) as population numbers increased. The low F was accomplished through the breeding programs and exchanges of animals between farms on the island.

  19. Sunflower breeding for resistance to Fusarium

    OpenAIRE

    Gontcharov S.V.; Antonova T.S.; Saukova S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium fungi have grown from a minor pathogen of sunflower crop to a major problem of sunflowers in Russia. The aim of this work was breeding for resistance to this new major pathogen, combining field and laboratory testing in the framework of VNIIMK hybrid sunflower breeding program. Four segregated hybrid combinations selected on the basis of their field resistance to different pathogens were used as breeding material. Three of them were doublecross combinations: F3 R-14 × (VK-591 × VK-53...

  20. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency and the regu...... attempted to answer this question by investigating what the use of the term `value' leads to in ethical discourses, i.e., what moral implications it has for ethics to focus on the concept of value....... parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What...... is the value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections...

  1. Genomic Analyses of Modern Dog Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Heidi G.

    2012-01-01

    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized world-wide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog resulting in a unique gen...

  2. The effect of genomic information on optimal contribution selection in livestock breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Samuel A; Kinghorn, Brian P; Hickey, John M; van der Werf, Julius H J

    2013-10-30

    Long-term benefits in animal breeding programs require that increases in genetic merit be balanced with the need to maintain diversity (lost due to inbreeding). This can be achieved by using optimal contribution selection. The availability of high-density DNA marker information enables the incorporation of genomic data into optimal contribution selection but this raises the question about how this information affects the balance between genetic merit and diversity. The effect of using genomic information in optimal contribution selection was examined based on simulated and real data on dairy bulls. We compared the genetic merit of selected animals at various levels of co-ancestry restrictions when using estimated breeding values based on parent average, genomic or progeny test information. Furthermore, we estimated the proportion of variation in estimated breeding values that is due to within-family differences. Optimal selection on genomic estimated breeding values increased genetic gain. Genetic merit was further increased using genomic rather than pedigree-based measures of co-ancestry under an inbreeding restriction policy. Using genomic instead of pedigree relationships to restrict inbreeding had a significant effect only when the population consisted of many large full-sib families; with a half-sib family structure, no difference was observed. In real data from dairy bulls, optimal contribution selection based on genomic estimated breeding values allowed for additional improvements in genetic merit at low to moderate inbreeding levels. Genomic estimated breeding values were more accurate and showed more within-family variation than parent average breeding values; for genomic estimated breeding values, 30 to 40% of the variation was due to within-family differences. Finally, there was no difference between constraining inbreeding via pedigree or genomic relationships in the real data. The use of genomic estimated breeding values increased genetic gain in

  3. An Age-Associated Decline in Thymic Output Differs in Dog Breeds According to Their Longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Holder

    Full Text Available The age associated decline in immune function is preceded in mammals by a reduction in thymic output. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence of a link between immune competence and lifespan. One approach to determining thymic output is to quantify signal joint T cell receptor excision circles (sj-TRECs, a method which has been developed and used in several mammalian species. Life expectancy and the rate of aging vary in dogs depending upon their breed. In this study, we quantified sj-TRECs in blood samples from dogs of selected breeds to determine whether there was a relationship between longevity and thymic output. In Labrador retrievers, a breed with a median expected lifespan of 11 years, there was an age-associated decline in sj-TREC values, with the greatest decline occurring before 5 years of age, but with sj-TREC still detectable in some geriatric animals, over 13 years of age. In large short-lived breeds (Burnese mountain dogs, Great Danes and Dogue de Bordeaux, the decline in sj-TREC values began earlier in life, compared with small long-lived breeds (Jack Russell terriers and Yorkshire terriers, and the presence of animals with undetectable sj-TRECs occurred at a younger age in the short-lived breeds. The study findings suggest that age-associated changes in canine sj-TRECs are related to breed differences in longevity, and this research highlights the use of dogs as a potential model of immunosenescence.

  4. The key elements for genetic response in Finnish dairy cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. JUGA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some key elements of Finnish animal breeding research contributing to the Finnish dairy cattle breeding programme and discusses the possibilities and problems in collecting data for genetic evaluation, prediction of breeding values both within and across countries, estimation of the economic value of important traits, and selection of bulls and cows. Economic values are calculated for fertility, udder health and production traits when one genetic standard deviation unit (gen. sd. is changed in each trait independently and the financial returns from selection response in the Finnish dairy cattle breeding programme are estimated. The following components were used to calculate the economic value of mastitis treatments: 1 cost of mastitis including discarded milk and treatment costs, 2 reduction in milk price due to higher somatic cell count, 3 replacement costs and 4 lower production level of the herd due to involuntary culling of cows because of udder problems. A high somatic cell count lowers the price of milk and eventually leads to involuntary culling. For treatments for fertility disorders the following costs were included: 1 treatment costs 2 higher replacement costs and 3 decreased milk production in the herd. Days open included the following costs: 1 extra insemination, 2 reduced annual milk yield and 3 fewer calves born. Animal breeding was found to be a very cost effective investment, yielding returns of FIM 876.9 per cow from one round of selection when the gene flow was followed for over 25 years in the Finnish dairy cattle breeding programme.;

  5. Retrospective and statistical analysis of breeding management on the Italian Heavy Draught Horse breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, R; Sartori, C; Pigozzi, G

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated some aspects of breeding management in the Italian Heavy Draught Horse breed, aiming at improving its efficiency at stud farm level. A first aim was to evaluate the risk of unsuccessful reproduction in mares after an early (3 years) or normal (4 years) age at first foaling, in interaction with different stud rearing systems. A second objective was the examination of the mean time length in which young 2-year-old stallions maintain a genetic superiority on older proven stallions, identifying a 'genetic lifespan' in which young stallions can be safely used for reducing the cost of services. Reproductive performance at first and second foaling of 1513 mares were used. Mares had a normal first foal at 3 (n = 745) or 4 years of age (n = 768) in stud farms on the basis of stable (n = 488), feral (n = 345) or semi-feral (n = 680) rearing systems. Logistic regression analysis was performed by modeling the risk of unsuccessful reproduction in the subsequent season (i.e., results at second foaling), as affected by the interaction of age at first foaling × rearing system (six classes). Genetic lifespan of young stallions was estimated by regressing the least square means from a mixed model analysis for repeated measures of individual differences in 'total merit' estimated breeding values (EBVs) between young stallions (mean no. of 45/year) and the mean EBV of all proven stallions in a given year of genetic evaluation (mean no. of 483/year). Young stallions born between 1999 and 2005 were used, following each generation (i.e., birth year) from 2 to 7 subsequent yearly genetic evaluations. In comparison with the best reproductive success of second foaling at 4 years in stable systems, the greatest risk of unsuccessful reproduction was at 3 years in feral (+167%) and 3 years in semi-feral conditions (+91%). Young stallions showed a 0.50 s.d. greater EBV at the first evaluation than proven stallions, with a mean annual decrease in EBV of 0.07 s.d./year on

  6. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" [1].

  7. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios K. Anagnostopoulos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article “Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics” [1].

  8. Breeding better cultivars, faster: applications of new technologies for the rapid deployment of superior horticultural tree crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nocker, Steve; Gardiner, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Woody perennial plants, including trees that produce fruits and nuts of horticultural value, typically have long breeding cycles, and development and introduction of improved cultivars by plant breeders may require many breeding cycles and dozens of years. However, recent advances in biotechnologies and genomics have the potential to accelerate cultivar development greatly in all crops. This mini-review summarizes approaches to reduce the number and the duration of breeding cycles for horticultural tree crops, and outlines the challenges that remain to implement these into efficient breeding pipelines. PMID:26504538

  9. Genetic trends for live weight traits reflect breeding strategies in registered Charolais Farms in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Bracamonte, G M; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Morris, S T; Sifuentes-Rincón, A M; Lopez-Bustamante, L A

    2016-12-01

    Genetic trends are commonly used to verify genetic improvement; however, there are few reports on beef cattle in Mexico. Data from 1998 to 2013 from four Charolais bull breeding farms were examined to verify the genetic responses to different breeding management and selection criteria. Analysis included the comparison of regression lines of breeding values for birth (BW), weaning (WW) and yearling weights (YW), and maternal weaning weight (MWW) on the year of birth of the animals. Results revealed differential genetic progress for BW and YW and indicated that the overall analysis may have diluted the perception of genetic progress from the farmer's point of view. The use of breeding values as a tool for selection is effective to achieve genetic progress, even in negatively correlated traits, such as birth weight and yearling weight.

  10. There is room for selection in a small local pig breed when using optimum contribution selction: A simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gourdine, Jean-Luc; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Rydhmer, Lotta

    2012-01-01

    of genetic diversity. However, in local breeds, optimum contribution selection can be applied to control the rate of inbreeding and to avoid reduced performance in traits with high market value. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which a breeding program aiming for improved product quality...

  11. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  12. Genetic analysis, breed assignment and conservation priorities of three native Danish horse breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, J P; Pertoldi, C; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    horse breeds in Europe, and they do not seem to be at immediate danger of extinction caused by genetic deterioration. The Knabstrupper breed had more genetic variation, as measured by expected heterozygosity and allelic richness, than the other two breeds (Frederiksborg and Jutland). F(ST) statistics...

  13. Breeding programmes for smallholder sheep farming systems: II. Optimization of cooperative village breeding schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Valle-Zarate, A.; Haile, A.; Rischkowsky, B.; Dessie, T.; Mwai, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as

  14. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  15. Implementation of genomic prediction in Lolium perenne (L. breeding populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastasiya F Grinberg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. is one of the most widely grown forage grasses in temperate agriculture. In order to maintain and increase its usage as forage in livestock agriculture, there is a continued need for improvement in biomass yield, quality, disease resistance and seed yield. Genetic gain for traits such as biomass yield has been relatively modest. This has been attributed to its long breeding cycle, and the necessity to use population based breeding methods. Thanks to recent advances in genotyping techniques there is increasing interest in genomic selection from which genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV are derived. In this paper we compare the classical RRBLUP model with state-of-the-art machine learning (ML techniques that should yield themselves easily to use in GS and demonstrate their application to predicting quantitative traits in a breeding population of L. perenne. Prediction accuracies varied from 0 to 0.59 depending on trait, prediction model and composition of the training population. The BLUP model produced the highest prediction accuracies for most traits and training populations. Forage quality traits had the highest accuracies compared to yield related traits. There appeared to be no clear pattern to the effect of the training population composition on the prediction accuracies. The heritability of the forage quality traits was generally higher than for the yield related traits, and could partly explain the difference in accuracy. Some population structure was evident in the breeding populations, and probably contributed to the varying effects of training population on the predictions. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD between adjacent markers ranged from 0.121 to 0.215. Higher marker density and larger training population closely related with the test population are likely to improve the prediction accuracy.

  16. Rock coasts and seabird breeding sites : a common optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Eveillard-Buchoux

    2014-05-01

    The North-West coasts of Europe support a lot of part of Northern hemisphere breeding seabirds. In that context, Scotland has a preponderant place and Brittany has southernmost limit of these species areas, for most of them. Outside the breeding season these species live mainly on the open sea and when they do visit the land to breed, they nest on a specific sites : almost all the time they breed on the rock coasts, often on seacliffs. This specific habitat are defines by geomorphological characteristics which offer special forms of the coast. The forms of rock coasts are originally and different because of several proprieties of geology, of lithology, of structures. Breeding seabird, occupying these sites, reveals, in a new light, the richness of these forms and the originals geographic location of the coastline : seabirds prefer nest in exposed coastline like rock caps, rocky points or islands. Seabirds and rock coasts are research topics in environmental geography since several years. However, these combination studies is a new approach in this field and enlargement in the heritage field allows supplement scientific approach. For example, it show that in most important touristic sites, environmental protection measures focused on landscape, habitat or bird, but much more rarely on rock coasts for these intrinsic values. Indeed, in Brittany or in Scotland, seabirds are often stars species in lot of coastal nature reserves, where they're considered like greater ecological heritage. We could see it in touristic promotion field : bird is everywhere, cliff is mostly kept in the dark, as well in leaflets as in speech visitor's guides - without, for example, as a part of this landscape. In all cases, combination of these two heritages is extremely rare. Yet, this current research illustrates the interest and the issue of development of this comparative approach seabirds / rock coasts for optimization of nature tourism and geotourism.

  17. Long-term genetic selection reduced prevalence of hip and elbow dysplasia in 60 dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbauer, A M; Keller, G G; Famula, T R

    2017-01-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and elbow dysplasia (ED) impact the health and welfare of all dogs. The first formally organized assessment scheme to improve canine health centered on reducing the prevalence of these orthopedic disorders. Phenotypic screening of joint conformation remains the currently available strategy for breeders to make selection decisions. The present study evaluated the efficacy of employing phenotypic selection on breed improvement of hips and elbows using the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals complete database spanning the 1970-2015 time period. Sixty breeds having more than 1000 unique hip evaluations and 500 elbow evaluations (1,056,852 and 275,129 hip and elbow records, respectively) were interrogated to derive phenotypic improvement, sex and age at time of assessment effects, correlation between the two joints, heritability estimates, estimated breeding values (EBV), and effectiveness of maternal/paternal selection. The data demonstrated that there has been overall improvement in hip and elbow conformation with a reduction in EBV for disease liability, although the breeds differed in the magnitude of the response to selection. Heritabilities also differed substantially across the breeds as did the correlation of the joints; in the absence of a universal association of these differences with breed size, popularity, or participation in screening, it appears that the breeds themselves vary in genetic control. There was subtle, though again breed specific, impact of sex and older ages on CHD and ED. There was greater paternal impact on a reduction of CHD. In the absence of direct genetic tests for either of these two diseases, phenotypic selection has proven to be effective. Furthermore, the data underscore that selection schemes must be breed specific and that it is likely the genetic profiles will be unique across the breeds for these two conditions. Despite the advances achieved with phenotypic selection, incorporation of EBVs into selection

  18. What Value "Value Added"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  19. The effect of paternal bull on milk fat composition of dairy cows of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kirchnerová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intake of milk fat in human nutrition is important because of unsaturated and especially essential fatty acids (FAs, linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of paternal bulls on fatty acids composition in milk fat of dairy cows of different breeds. The milk samples were taken in total from 299 dairy cows from 11 dairy farms. In experiment Holstein (H, n = 105, Red Holstein (R, n = 120 and Pinzgau (P, n = 74 breeds originated from different bulls were used. Individual milk samples were analyzed for fatty acids in milk fat using gas chromatography (apparatus GC Varian 3800, Techtron, USA, using FID detector in capillary column Omegawax 530; 30 m. In the chromatography records there were identified 54 fatty acids inclusive of particular isomers. Their relative proportions were expressed in percent's (%. Among the studied breeds, the highest content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA - 0.67%, essential FAs (EFA - 2.98%, monounsaturated FAs (MUFA - 25.84% and the lowest atherogenic index (AI - 3.10 was at breed P. Within this breed there was high variability and daughters of bull COS1 achieved significant above-average values of CLA content 1.07%, EFA 3.71%, MUFA 29.93% and under breed average AI = 2.40. The group of daughters of NOB3 was significant lower in CLA, 0.50% as compared with an average of P breed. . From the breed H bull MTY2 showed significantly higher value of 0.62% CLA, EFA 3.42%, 34.29% MUFA and lower value of AI, 1.9 as compared to H breed average. Statistically significantly lower levels of CLA 0.29% and 21.46% MUFA and higher AI 3.72 in milk fat of his daughters, bull STY3 may be considered as potential worser of these properties. At the breed R bull MOR506 showed in compar to the breed average significantly higher value of the EFA 3.80% and also the higher content of CLA 0.50% and MUFA 25

  20. Genetic conservation in applied tree breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Johnson; B. St. Clair; S. Lipow

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews how population size and structure impacts the maintenance of genetic variation in breeding and gene resource populations. We discuss appropriate population sizes for low frequency alleles and point out some examples of low frequency alleles in the literature. Development of appropriate breeding populations and gene resource populations are discussed...

  1. Broiler breeding strategies using indirect carcass measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerehdaran, S.; Vereijken, A.L.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Waaij, van der E.H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the consequences of using indirect carcass measurements on the genetic response and rate of inbreeding in broiler breeding programs. In the base breeding scheme, selection candidates were evaluated based on direct carcass measurements on relatives.

  2. Genetic diversity of 11 European pig breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavall, G.; Iannuccelli, N.; Legault, C.; Milan, D.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Andersson, L.; Fredholm, M.; Geldermann, H.; Foulley, J.L.; Chevalet, C.; Ollivier, L.

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed

  3. Progress in a Crambe cross breeding programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastebroek, H.D.; Lange, W.

    1997-01-01

    Crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex Fries) is an annual cruciferous oilseed crop with a high content of erucic acid (55-60%) in the seed oil. Since 1990, a breeding programme in crambe has been carried out at the DLO-Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research. Three accessions, two early

  4. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stephen Baenziger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal, followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region beginning with the F6 generation. Yield analyses from replicated trials at two organic breeding sites and 7 conventional breeding sites from F6 through F12 nurseries revealed, using analyses of variance, biplots, and comparisons of selected lines that it is inappropriate to use data from conventional testing for making germplasm selections for organic production. Selecting and testing lines under organic production practices in different ecological regions was also needed and cultivar selections for organic production were different than those for conventional production. Modifications to this breeding protocol may include growing early generation bulks in an organic cropping system. In the future, our selection efforts should also focus on using state-of-the-art, non-transgenic breeding technologies (genomic selection, marker-assisted breeding, and high throughput phenotyping to synergistically improve organic and conventional wheat breeding.

  5. POPULATION AND BREEDING OF THE GENTOO PENGUIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The numbers of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua breeding at subantarctic Marion Island fell by 40% from 1994/95 to 2002/03, from 1 352 pairs to 806 pairs. Apart from a slight increase in 1998/99, there was a steady decrease in numbers breeding between 1995/96 and 2000/01, when the population stabilized. There is ...

  6. Relationship between production characteristics and breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... have a negative effect on the breeding potential of a bull. None of the measured reproductive and production traits had a significant effect on libido score and thus, cannot be used to predict the libido of young extensively maintained bulls. Keywords: Bovine, breeding potential, libido, production parameters, semen quality, ...

  7. Genomic analyses of modern dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Heidi G

    2012-02-01

    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized worldwide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog, resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other.

  8. FIRST BREEDING RECORDS OF KELP GULLS LARUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first recorded breeding of kelp gulls Larus dominicanus vetula on Robben Island, Western Cape, South Africa, took place in 2000, when five nests were recorded. In 2001, there were 15 nests and 29 fledglings. The initiation of breeding by kelp gulls on Robben Island is likely a response to the reduction of disturbance ...

  9. Towards F1 Hybrid Seed Potato Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhout, P.; Meijer, D.A.; Schotte, T.; Hutten, R.C.B.; Visser, R.G.F.; Eck, van H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Compared to other major food crops, progress in potato yield as the result of breeding efforts is very slow. Genetic gains cannot be fixed in potato due to obligatory out-breeding. Overcoming inbreeding depression using diploid self-compatible clones should enable to replace the current method of

  10. Lamb meat quality of two breeds with protected origin designation. Influence of breed, sex and live weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A; Batista, S; Delfa, R; Cadavez, V

    2005-11-01

    Lamb meat quality of two Portuguese products was examined. The influences of slaughter weight, sex and breed on eating quality were evaluated. Data were obtained from 72 lambs of two different breeds with protected designation origin. In accord with the normal slaughter weight in the region three classes were considered: A: 9-14kg live weight; B: 14-19kg live weight and C: 19-24kg live weight. pH of M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle (MTL) was measured 1h and 24h after slaughter. Meat colour was estimated in the M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle (MTL) muscle on the 12th rib using the L*a*b* system. Shear force was evaluated 72h after slaughter. Sensorial analysis was assessed by a trained taste panel of 12 members. The pH values found could be considered within the normal pH range, between 5.5 and 5.9. When the pH measurement was made 24h after slaughter, the heavy lambs had significant higher value than the light lambs. In relation to colour variables, live weight, sex and breed had no effect on the red index (a*). Lightness (L) decreased with increasing live weight and the light lambs had higher yellow index (b*) than the heavier lambs. Shear force increased with live weight and the Bragançano breed had a greater mean shear force than the Mirandesa (7.8 vs. 6.8kg/cm(2)). The heavy carcasses had more flavour intensity than the light ones. Mirandesa lambs had significantly lower values for toughness, stringy and odour intensity than Bragançana lambs.

  11. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...... of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998-2009.......Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim...

  12. Defining a breeding objective for Nile tilapia that takes into account the diversity of smallholder production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omasaki, S K; van Arendonk, J A M; Kahi, A K; Komen, H

    2016-10-01

    In general, livestock and fish farming systems in developing countries tend to be highly diverse in terms of agro-ecological conditions and market orientation. There are no studies that have investigated if and how this diversity translates to varying preferences for breeding objective traits. This is particularly important for breeding programmes that are organized on a national level (e.g. government-supported nucleus breeding programmes). The aim of this study was to investigate whether Nile tilapia farmers with diverse production systems and economic constraints have different preferences for breeding objective traits. The second objective was to derive a consensus breeding goal, using weighted goal programming that could be used for a national breeding programme for Nile tilapia. A survey was conducted among 100 smallholder Nile tilapia farmers in Kenya to obtain preference values for traits of economic importance, by using multiple pairwise comparisons. Individual and group preference values were estimated using analytical hierarchy process. Low-income farmers preferred harvest weight, while medium- and high-income farmers preferred growth rate and survival. Grouping farmers according to market objective (fingerling production or fattening) showed that fingerling producers preferred growth rate and survival, while fattening farmers preferred harvest weight, height and thickness. Weighted goal programming was used to obtain consensus preference values, and these were used to derive desired gains for a breeding goal of a national breeding programme that takes into account the diversity of smallholder production systems. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Genomic breed prediction in New Zealand sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Ken G; Auvray, Benoît; Newman, Sheryl-Anne N; McEwan, John C

    2014-09-16

    Two genetic marker-based methods are compared for use in breed prediction, using a New Zealand sheep resource. The methods were a genomic selection (GS) method, using genomic BLUP, and a regression method (Regp) using the allele frequencies estimated from a subset of purebred animals. Four breed proportions, Romney, Coopworth, Perendale and Texel, were predicted, using Illumina OvineSNP50 genotypes. Both methods worked well with correlations of predicted proportions and recorded proportions ranging between 0.91 and 0.97 across methods and prediction breeds, except for the Regp method for Perendales, where the correlation was 0.85. The Regp method gives predictions that appear as a gradient (when viewed as the first few principal components of the genomic relatedness matrix), decreasing away from the breed centre. In contrast the GS method gives predictions dominated by the breeds of the closest relatives in the training set. Some Romneys appear close to the main Perendale group, which is why the Regp method worked less well for predicting Perendale proportion. The GS method works better than the Regp method when the breed groups do not form tight, distinct clusters, but is less robust to breed errors in the training set (for predicting relatives of those animals). Predictions were found to be similar to those obtained using STRUCTURE software, especially those using Regp. The methods appear to overpredict breed proportions in animals that are far removed from the training set. It is suggested that the training set should include animals spanning the range where predictions are made. Breeds can be predicted using either of the two methods investigated. The choice of method will depend on the structure of the breeds in the population. The use of genomic selection methodology for breed prediction appears promising. As applied, it worked well for predicting proportions in animals that were predominantly of the breed types present in the training set, or to put it

  14. Blood biochemical parameters in male American mink (Neovison vison before and during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Lasota

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at selected blood biochemical parameters in the male American mink before (September-November and during the breeding (January-March season. Blood from 143 Black and Sapphire male mink at one year age was collected. The plasma was assayed for the concentration of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, HDL and LDL fractions, triacylglycerides (TG, and the activity of ALT and AST. Concentrations of glucose, protein, total and HDL/LDL cholesterol, and AST activity were generally slightly higher during the breeding season than during the non-breeding season, but remained within the reference range. In the case of ALT activity and TG concentration, the relations were reversed. The parameters studied in the Sapphire mink showed greater variation, both in- and out of the season. In Black and Sapphire males of the American mink, the studied parameters revealed slightly higher values during the breeding season than the non-breeding season. This will vary depending on the color variety. The decrease in TG concentration during the breeding season may indicate an increased energy demand due to ambient temperature falls, and/or may be a sign of increased energy consumption associated with physical exertion during mating. Consideration should be given to the nutrition of male mink during the breeding season.

  15. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Soo Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  16. Potential benefits of genomic selection on genetic gain of small ruminant breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumbusho, F; Raoul, J; Astruc, J M; Palhiere, I; Elsen, J M

    2013-08-01

    In conventional small ruminant breeding programs, only pedigree and phenotype records are used to make selection decisions but prospects of including genomic information are now under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the potential benefits of genomic selection on the genetic gain in French sheep and goat breeding designs of today. Traditional and genomic scenarios were modeled with deterministic methods for 3 breeding programs. The models included decisional variables related to male selection candidates, progeny testing capacity, and economic weights that were optimized to maximize annual genetic gain (AGG) of i) a meat sheep breeding program that improved a meat trait of heritability (h(2)) = 0.30 and a maternal trait of h(2) = 0.09 and ii) dairy sheep and goat breeding programs that improved a milk trait of h(2) = 0.30. Values of ±0.20 of genetic correlation between meat and maternal traits were considered to study their effects on AGG. The Bulmer effect was accounted for and the results presented here are the averages of AGG after 10 generations of selection. Results showed that current traditional breeding programs provide an AGG of 0.095 genetic standard deviation (σa) for meat and 0.061 σa for maternal trait in meat breed and 0.147 σa and 0.120 σa in sheep and goat dairy breeds, respectively. By optimizing decisional variables, the AGG with traditional selection methods increased to 0.139 σa for meat and 0.096 σa for maternal traits in meat breeding programs and to 0.174 σa and 0.183 σa in dairy sheep and goat breeding programs, respectively. With a medium-sized reference population (nref) of 2,000 individuals, the best genomic scenarios gave an AGG that was 17.9% greater than with traditional selection methods with optimized values of decisional variables for combined meat and maternal traits in meat sheep, 51.7% in dairy sheep, and 26.2% in dairy goats. The superiority of genomic schemes increased with the size of the

  17. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  18. Breeding strategies for increasing yield potential in super hybrid rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihua CHENG,Xiaodeng ZHAN,Liyong CAO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Super hybrid rice breeding is a new breeding method combining semi-dwarf breeding and heterosis breeding using germplasm and gene-environment interactions. This paper reviews the breeding strategies of super hybrid rice breeding in China, focusing on the utilization of heterosis of indica and japonica subspecies, construction of ideal plant architecture and pyramiding of disease resistant genes in restorer lines. To develop super hybrid rice, considerable effort should be made to explore genes related with high yield, good quality, resistance to pests and diseases, tolerance to stresses. Molecular breeding methods in combination with crossing techniques should be adopted in super hybrid rice breeding.

  19. Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated fruit tree, Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae ): Implications for fruit production, selective breeding, and conservation of genetic resources.

  20. New biotechnology enhances the application of cisgenesis in plant breeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hou, Hongwei; Atlihan, Neslihan; Lu, Zhen-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    .... It can avoid linkage drag, enhance the use of existing gene alleles. This approach combines traditional breeding techniques with modern biotechnology and dramatically speeds up the breeding process...

  1. MORE ON THE APPROVAL OF ANTONINSKO-ZOZULENETSKIY CARPS OF UKRAINIAN BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oleksiyenko

    2015-12-01

    back constitution and without any signs of defects and diseases were selected. An important role during the selection was also given the distinct manifestation of secondary sexual features in males and females. The high productive qualities of domestic carp contributed to their spread in the near abroad and far abroad countries as well. They were exported to Russia, Moldova, Romania, China, with the aim of pure breeding and improvement of native carp forms. Based on the analysis of long-term studies on the rearing of Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy arrays of Ukrainian framed and scaly breeds, it was found that their fish breeding and biological indicators comply with the requirements of the Regulation on testing of selection achievements in animal breeding and can be submitted to the relevant authorities for consideration and approval as a type of inbreeding Ukrainian framed and scaly carp breeds. Originality. The analysis of fish breeding and biological indicators of Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy carp of Ukrainian framed and Ukrainian scaly breeds serve as the basis for submission them in the status of inbreed types and approval as a selection achievement. Practical value. Growing of Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy carps in production conditions will promote an increase in fish production in ponds and production of marketable fish.

  2. Breeding behavior of immature mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, H.D.; Blankenship, L.H.

    1966-01-01

    Some immature mourning doves (Zenaidura mncroura) are capable of breeding in their first (calendar) year of life. The breeding activities of immatures observed in this study included calling, copulating, and nesting. Development of sexual structures such as cloacal papillae, oviduct openings, and gonads was also regarded as evidence of breeding potential. Immatures were identified principally by white-tipped wing coverts. Sexes were distinguished by behavioral characteristics. Males coo, perform flights, carry nest material, and attend nests during the day and females attend nests at night. Immatures were involved in at least ten nestings on two areas near Tucson, Arizona, in 1963. Five young fledged from these nests.

  3. Domestication and Breeding of Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Juan M; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2016-12-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha) has a high, untapped potential to contribute towards sustainable production of food and bioenergy, rehabilitation of degraded land, and reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tremendous progress in jatropha domestication and breeding has been achieved during the past decade. This review: (i) summarizes current knowledge about the domestication and breeding of jatropha; (ii) identifies and prioritizes areas for further research; and (iii) proposes strategies to exploit the full genetic potential of this plant species. Altogether, the outlook is promising for accelerating the domestication of jatropha by applying modern scientific methods and novel technologies developed in plant breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic diversity of a New Zealand multi-breed sheep population and composite breeds' history revealed by a high-density SNP chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luiz F; McEwan, John C; Miller, Stephen P; Pickering, Natalie K; Bain, Wendy E; Dodds, Ken G; Schenkel, Flávio S; Clarke, Shannon M

    2017-03-14

    Knowledge about the genetic diversity of a population is a crucial parameter for the implementation of successful genomic selection and conservation of genetic resources. The aim of this research was to establish the scientific basis for the implementation of genomic selection in a composite Terminal sheep breeding scheme by providing consolidated linkage disequilibrium (LD) measures across SNP markers, estimating consistency of gametic phase between breed-groups, and assessing genetic diversity measures, such as effective population size (Ne), and population structure parameters, using a large number of animals (n = 14,845) genotyped with a high density SNP chip (606,006 markers). Information generated in this research will be useful for optimizing molecular breeding values predictions and managing the available genetic resources. Overall, as expected, levels of pairwise LD decreased with increasing distance between SNP pairs. The mean LD r2 between adjacent SNP was 0.26 ± 0.10. The most recent effective population size for all animals (687) and separately per breed-groups: Primera (974), Lamb Supreme (380), Texel (227) and Dual-Purpose (125) was quite variable. The genotyped animals were outbred or had an average low level of inbreeding. Consistency of gametic phase was higher than 0.94 for all breed pairs at the average distance between SNP on the chip (~4.74 kb). Moreover, there was not a clear separation between the breed-groups based on principal component analysis, suggesting that a mixed-breed training population for calculation of molecular breeding values would be beneficial. This study reports, for the first time, estimates of linkage disequilibrium, genetic diversity and population structure parameters from a genome-wide perspective in New Zealand Terminal Sire composite sheep breeds. The levels of linkage disequilibrium indicate that genomic selection could be implemented with the high density SNP panel. The moderate to high consistency of

  5. Genomic prediction unifies animal and plant breeding programs to form platforms for biological discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hickey, John M.; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Mackay, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The rate of annual yield increases for major staple crops must more than double relative to current levels in order to feed a predicted global population of 9 billion by 2050. Controlled hybridization and selective breeding have been used for centuries to adapt plant and animal species for human...... use. However, achieving higher, sustainable rates of improvement in yields in various species will require renewed genetic interventions and dramatic improvement of agricultural practices. Genomic prediction of breeding values has the potential to improve selection, reduce costs and provide a platform...... that unifies breeding approaches, biological discovery, and tools and methods. Here we compare and contrast some animal and plant breeding approaches to make a case for bringing the two together through the application of genomic selection. We propose a strategy for the use of genomic selection as a unifying...

  6. Genomic prediction unifies animal and plant breeding programs to form platforms for biological discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, John M; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Mackay, Ian; Powell, Wayne

    2017-08-30

    The rate of annual yield increases for major staple crops must more than double relative to current levels in order to feed a predicted global population of 9 billion by 2050. Controlled hybridization and selective breeding have been used for centuries to adapt plant and animal species for human use. However, achieving higher, sustainable rates of improvement in yields in various species will require renewed genetic interventions and dramatic improvement of agricultural practices. Genomic prediction of breeding values has the potential to improve selection, reduce costs and provide a platform that unifies breeding approaches, biological discovery, and tools and methods. Here we compare and contrast some animal and plant breeding approaches to make a case for bringing the two together through the application of genomic selection. We propose a strategy for the use of genomic selection as a unifying approach to deliver innovative 'step changes' in the rate of genetic gain at scale.

  7. Dataset of milk whey proteins of three indigenous Greek sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios K. Anagnostopoulos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance and unique biological traits, as well as the growing financial value, of milk from small Greek ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. In this regard the construction of a reference dataset of the milk of the Greek sheep breeds is of great interest. In order to obtain such a dataset we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, the proteome of milk from the three indigenous Greek sheep breeds Mpoutsko, Karagouniko and Chios. In total, more than 1300 protein groups were identified in milk whey from these breeds, reporting for the first time the most detailed proteome dataset of this precious biological material. The present results are further discussed in the research paper “Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics” (Anagnostopoulos et al. 2016 [1].

  8. Genetic diversity and relationships among Italian Merino derived breeds assessed by microsatellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Maria Sarti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of genetic variability is one of the main objectives in the field of genetics applied to domestic livestock. Among molecular markers, microsatellites are particularly appreciated and widely utilized for the study of animal genome. In this study a genetic characterization of three Italian Merino derived sheep breeds was carried out by 30 microsatellites markers; the genetic relationships between these breeds and the Spanish ancestors were also investigated. All the microsatellites examined resulted polymorphic and a total of 375 alleles were detected. FIS values of the three Italian Merinos demonstrate a low level of inbreeding. The results show a good genetic variability of all the studied breeds; at the same time, the genetic identity of each breed is confirmed. These molecular data can be utilized to improve the present selection schemes and the plans to preserve genetic diversity.

  9. Climate change and the characterization, breeding and conservation of animal genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Irene

    2010-05-01

    Livestock production both contributes to and is affected by climate change. In addition to the physiological effects of higher temperatures on individual animals, the consequences of climate change are likely to include increased risk that geographically restricted rare breed populations will be badly affected by disturbances. Indirect effects may be felt via ecosystem changes that alter the distribution of animal diseases or affect the supply of feed. Breeding goals may have to be adjusted to account for higher temperatures, lower quality diets and greater disease challenge. Species and breeds that are well adapted to such conditions may become more widely used. Climate change mitigation strategies, in combination with ever increasing demand for food, may also have an impact on breed and species utilization, driving a shift towards monogastrics and breeds that are efficient converters of feed into meat, milk and eggs. This may lead to the neglect of the adaptation potential of local breeds in developing countries. Given the potential for significant future changes in production conditions and in the objectives of livestock production, it is essential that the value provided by animal genetic diversity is secured. This requires better characterization of breeds, production environments and associated knowledge; the compilation of more complete breed inventories; improved mechanisms to monitor and respond to threats to genetic diversity; more effective in situ and ex situ conservation measures; genetic improvement programmes targeting adaptive traits in high-output and performance traits in locally adapted breeds; increased support for developing countries in their management of animal genetic resources; and wider access to genetic resources and associated knowledge.

  10. Radiographic assessment of humeroulnar congruity in a medium and a large breed of dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pimenta, Sofia; Colaço, Bruno; Fernandes, Armando M; Gonçalves, Lio; Colaço, Jorge; Melo-Pinto, Pedro; Ginja, Mário M

    2017-11-01

    Elbow joint incongruity is recognized as an important factor in the development, treatment, and prognosis of canine elbow dysplasia. Elbow incongruity has been measured based on radiographic joint space widths, however these values can be affected by the degree of elbow joint flexion. Recent studies have reported radiographic curvature radii as more precise measures of humeroulnar congruity in dogs. The aim of this prospective observational study was to describe radiographic curvature radii measured from flexed and extended elbow radiographs for a sample of dogs representing a medium breed (Portuguese Pointing Dog) and a large breed (Estrela Mountain Dog). The curvature radii from the ulnar trochlear notch and humeral trochlea were measured in 114 mediolateral elbow extended radiographic views (30 Portuguese Pointing Dog and 27 Estrela Mountain Dog), and 84 mediolateral flexed views (22 Portuguese Pointing Dog and 20 Estrela Mountain Dog). The sampled animals' ages ranged from 12 to 84 months (34.6 ± 17.8 months). Good agreement was observed between curvature radii measurements for flexed vs. extended views in both breed groups. Ulnar trochlear notch curvature radii measurements were greater than humeral trochlea curvature radii measurements in both breed groups. Both curvature radii were greater in the large-breed dog group vs. the medium-breed dog group. Both breed groups had ulnar and humeral curves with similar typology. However, the large breed group had greater intermediate differences between the humeroulnar surface curvature radii. Results from this study supported the use of curvature radii as measures of humeroulnar congruity in mediolateral flexed elbow radiographs of medium and large breed dogs. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  11. The Ascent of Cat Breeds: Genetic Evaluations of Breeds and Worldwide Random Bred Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Monika J.; Froenicke, Lutz; Baysac, Kathleen C.; Billings, Nicholas C.; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Levy, Alon M.; Longeri, Maria; Niini, Tirri; Ozpinar, Haydar; Slater, Margaret R.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2008-01-01

    The diaspora of the modern cat was traced with microsatellite markers from the presumed site of domestication to distant regions of the world. Genetic data were derived from over 1100 individuals, representing seventeen random bred populations from five continents and twenty-two breeds. The Mediterranean was reconfirmed to be the probable site of domestication. Genetic diversity has remained broad throughout the world, with distinct genetic clustering in the Mediterranean basin, Europe/America, Asia and Africa. However, Asian cats appeared to have separated early and expanded in relative isolation. Most breeds were derived from indigenous cats of their purported regions of origin. However, the Persian and Japanese Bobtail were more aligned with European/American than Mediterranean basin or Asian clusters. Three recently derived breeds were not distinct from their parental breeds of origin. Pure breeding was associated with a loss of genetic diversity, however, this loss did not correlate with breed popularity or age. PMID:18060738

  12. Slaughter performance and meat quality of three Italian chicken breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Chiericato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out to study the slaughter performance and the meat quality of three Italian dual-purpose chicken breeds: Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER, Robusta lionata (RL and Robusta maculata (RM. Females were studied from June to October from 47 days of life until slaughtered age, at 138 (I age and 168 (II age days of age. Each genotype had access to outdoor and indoor spaces. RL and RM birds showed a higher final body weight, and provided heavier carcass and commercial cuts than ER (P<0.01, at both ages. The dressing-out percentage of RL and RM females was more favourable than ER ones, in particular at II age (P<0.01. Differences in carcass conformation were observed at II age: the ER carcass showed a higher (P<0.01 proportion of leg and wing. The RM carcass had a higher (P<0.01 proportion of breast. The thigh meat/ bone ratio was higher in RL at I age (P<0.01 and II (P<0.05 age. Significant differences in breast colour were observed among the breeds; ER thigh showed the highest (P<0.05 a* value. At II age, lipids were lower (P<0.01 in ER breast; thigh lipids were similar among the groups. Slaughtering at I age seem to be more advantageous for the ER breed since it is more precocious.

  13. Beyond promiscuity: mate-choice commitments in social breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    Obligate eusociality with distinct caste phenotypes has evolved from strictly monogamous sub-social ancestors in ants, some bees, some wasps and some termites. This implies that no lineage reached the most advanced form of social breeding, unless helpers at the nest gained indirect fitness values via siblings that were identical to direct fitness via offspring. The complete lack of re-mating promiscuity equalizes sex-specific variances in reproductive success. Later, evolutionary developments towards multiple queen-mating retained lifetime commitment between sexual partners, but reduced male variance in reproductive success relative to female's, similar to the most advanced vertebrate cooperative breeders. Here, I (i) discuss some of the unique and highly peculiar mating system adaptations of eusocial insects; (ii) address ambiguities that remained after earlier reviews and extend the monogamy logic to the evolution of soldier castes; (iii) evaluate the evidence for indirect fitness benefits driving the dynamics of (in)vertebrate cooperative breeding, while emphasizing the fundamental differences between obligate eusociality and cooperative breeding; (iv) infer that lifetime commitment is a major driver towards higher levels of organization in bodies, colonies and mutualisms. I argue that evolutionary informative definitions of social systems that separate direct and indirect fitness benefits facilitate transparency when testing inclusive fitness theory. PMID:23339241

  14. Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey was initiated experimentally in 1947 and became operational in 1955. It is conducted cooperatively by the U.S....

  15. Tackling the welfare issues of dog breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispin, Sheila

    2011-01-15

    Sheila Crispin is chair of the new Advisory Council on the Welfare Issues of Dog Breeding. Here, she describes the background to the Council, outlines its priorities and offers some thoughts on the issues that need to be addressed.

  16. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1986. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  17. Central Quebec: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Central Quebec during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  18. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1995 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 37 sites along the coast of California. This 7% decrease in breeding population size from 1994 brings to an end the trend since...

  19. Relationship between production characteristics and breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    r = 0.33) was recorded between pre-weaning growth rate and percentage morphologically normal sperm, while a negative correlation (r ... Keywords: Bovine, breeding potential, libido, production parameters, semen quality, spermatozoa ...

  20. Final Performance Report : Snowy Plover Breeding Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of breeding populations and nesting habitat of the snowy plover were conducted from January to August, 1989 along the Gulf Coast of Florida and Alabama....

  1. BIBI: Bayesian inference of breed composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, C A; Khare, K; Elzo, M A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop statistical models to estimate individual breed composition based on the previously proposed idea of regressing discrete random variables corresponding to counts of reference alleles of biallelic molecular markers located across the genome on the allele frequencies of each marker in the pure (base) breeds. Some of the existing regression-based methods do not guarantee that estimators of breed composition will lie in the appropriate parameter space, and none of them account for uncertainty about allele frequencies in the pure breeds, that is, uncertainty about the design matrix. To overcome these limitations, we proposed two Bayesian generalized linear models. For each individual, both models assume that the counts of the reference allele at each marker locus follow independent Binomial distributions, use the logit link and pose a Dirichlet prior over the vector of regression coefficients (which corresponds to breed composition). This prior guarantees that point estimators of breed composition such as the posterior mean pertain to the appropriate space. The difference between these models is that model termed BIBI does not account for uncertainty about the design matrix, while model termed BIBI2 accounts for such an uncertainty by assigning independent Beta priors to the entries of this matrix. We implemented these models in a data set from the University of Florida's multibreed Angus-Brahman population. Posterior means were used as point estimators of breed composition. In addition, the ordinary least squares estimator proposed by Kuehn et al. () (OLSK) was also computed. BIBI and BIBI2 estimated breed composition more accurately than OLSK, and BIBI2 had a 7.69% improvement in accuracy as compared to BIBI. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Briefing note on animal breeding and genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Historically, adoption of breeding technologies by sheep and beef farmers has been slow and variable. This research aimed to understand why, and if the context of reducing methane emissions was likely to change adoption rates. Sheep and beef farmers around the UK were interviewed to find out if they would adopt a range of technologies to reduce methane emissions.* The farmers interviewed were less than convinced that breeding could be effective in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Diwyanto

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of  livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999   KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.

  4. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  5. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  6. "Boldness" in the domestic dog differs among breeds and breed groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-07-01

    "Boldness" in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies on boldness in dogs have found differences among breeds, but grouping breeds on the basis of behavioural similarities has been elusive. This study investigated differences in the expression of boldness among dog breeds, kennel club breed groups, and sub-groups of kennel club breed groups by way of a survey on dog personality circulated among Australian dog-training clubs and internet forums and lists. Breed had a significant effect on boldness (F=1.63, numDF=111, denDF=272, pbreed group (F=10.66, numDF=8, denDF=772, pbreed purpose. Retrievers were significantly bolder than flushing and pointing breeds (Reg. Coef.=2.148; S.E.=0.593; pbreeds were bolder than heading and cattle-herding breeds (Reg. Coef.=1.744; S.E.=0.866; p=0.045 and Reg. Coef.=1.842; S.E.=0.693; p=0.0084, respectively). This study supports the existence of the shy-bold continuum in dogs. Differences in boldness among groups and sub-groups suggest that behavioural tendencies may be influenced by historical purpose regardless of whether that purpose still factors in selective breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    For a meat enterprise, w is the carcass weight of individual animals sold and α is a constant. The exponents ..... when the economic value of a trait depends on management decisions (e.g. herd size, cost of buildings, age ..... reduce the level of risk and uncertainty, increase the protection and effective management of natural.

  8. Livestock breeding for sustainability to mitigate global warming, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock breeding for sustainability to mitigate global warming, with the emphasis on developing countries. ... Proper definition of breeding objectives and trait definition is essential in implementing efficient breeding systems to cope with climate change. Sophisticated statistical models continue to support animal breeding ...

  9. Genetics similarity among four breeds of goat in Saudi Arabia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogeny analysis using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was performed for studying genetic variation in four Saudi Arabia goat breeds, namely: Harri, Ardi, Habsi and Masri. Six goats from Harri breed, four each from both Ardi and Habsi breeds and five from Masri breed were used for the experiment.

  10. Effect of breeding timing on White-breasted Cormorant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White-breasted Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) breeding timing and reproductive success were documented in 1995 and 1996 at Lake Naivasha, Kenya (0°49'S), considered to be seasonally constant. In both years, pairs breeding earlier fledged significantly more chicks per breeding attempt than pairs breeding later.

  11. Efficient SNP Discovery by Combining Microarray and Lab-on-a-Chip Data for Animal Breeding and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Wei; Lin, Yu-Tsung; Ding, Shih-Torng; Lo, Ling-Ling; Wang, Pei-Hwa; Lin, En-Chung; Liu, Fang-Wei; Lu, Yen-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The genetic markers associated with economic traits have been widely explored for animal breeding. Among these markers, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) are gradually becoming a prevalent and effective evaluation tool. Since SNPs only focus on the genetic sequences of interest, it thereby reduces the evaluation time and cost. Compared to traditional approaches, SNP genotyping techniques incorporate informative genetic background, improve the breeding prediction accuracy and acquiesce breeding quality on the farm. This article therefore reviews the typical procedures of animal breeding using SNPs and the current status of related techniques. The associated SNP information and genotyping techniques, including microarray and Lab-on-a-Chip based platforms, along with their potential are highlighted. Examples in pig and poultry with different SNP loci linked to high economic trait values are given. The recommendations for utilizing SNP genotyping in nimal breeding are summarized. PMID:27600241

  12. Breeding for Improved Disease Resistance in Organic Farming – Possibilities and Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson Ulf

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Lowered incidences of disease may be reached in several ways: management and rearing measures, vaccination programmes and preventive medications as well as breeding for improved disease resistance. Here the focus is on breeding for improved resistance to infectious diseases. In comparison to conventional farming, one has to acknowledge that the spectrum of diseases in animals reared under organic conditions is different and that the proportion of the breeding stock of animals in organic farming is considerably smaller. There are at least four different approaches that may be used in breeding towards resistance to infectious diseases. The most obvious is to record disease incidence in the progeny and select those parents that produce the progeny with the lowest incidences of disease. Another approach is to use breeders possessing certain major histo-compatibility complex antigens suggested being associated with resistance to certain infections. A third approach is to analyse the heritability of a set of immune functions or related traits crucial for resistance to infections and then use the traits with high heritability in breeding programmes. Finally, one may genetically select animals for high immune response using an index that combines estimated breeding values for several immunological traits. Examples of these various approaches are given and the feasibility for using these in organic farming are discussed.

  13. Genetic diversity and genomic signatures of selection among cattle breeds from Siberia, eastern and northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso-Touru, T; Tapio, M; Vilkki, J; Kiseleva, T; Ammosov, I; Ivanova, Z; Popov, R; Ozerov, M; Kantanen, J

    2016-12-01

    Domestication in the near eastern region had a major impact on the gene pool of humpless taurine cattle (Bos taurus). As a result of subsequent natural and artificial selection, hundreds of different breeds have evolved, displaying a broad range of phenotypic traits. Here, 10 Eurasian B. taurus breeds from different biogeographic and production conditions, which exhibit different demographic histories and have been under artificial selection at various intensities, were investigated using the Illumina BovineSNP50 panel to understand their genetic diversity and population structure. In addition, we scanned genomes from eight breeds for signatures of diversifying selection. Our population structure analysis indicated six distinct breed groups, the most divergent being the Yakutian cattle from Siberia. Selection signals were shared (experimental P-value selection signals in the Yakutian cattle were found on chromosomes 7 and 21, where a miRNA gene and genes related to immune system processes are respectively located. In general, genomic regions indicating selection overlapped with known QTL associated with milk production (e.g. on chromosome 19), reproduction (e.g. on chromosome 24) and meat quality (e.g. on chromosome 7). The selection map created in this study shows that native cattle breeds and their genetic resources represent unique material for future breeding. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  14. Genetic evaluation of the breeding population of a valuable reforestation conifer Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuqing; Ma, Yongpeng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Xian-Ge; Huang, Li-Sha; Li, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Platycladus orientalis, a widespread conifer with long lifespan and significant adaptability. It is much used in reforestation in north China and commonly planted in central Asia. With the increasing demand for plantation forest in central to north China, breeding programs are progressively established for this species. Efficient use of breeding resources requires good understanding of the genetic value of the founder breeding materials. This study investigated the distribution of genetic variation in 192 elite trees collected for the breeding program for the central range of the species. We developed first set of 27 polymorphic EST-derived SSR loci for the species from transcriptome/genome data. After examination of amplification quality, 10 loci were used to evaluate the genetic variation in the breeding population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average He = 0.348) and low population differentiation (Fst = 0.011). Extensive admixture and no significant geographic population structure characterized this set of collections. Our analyses of the diversity and population structure are important steps toward a long-term sustainable deployment of the species and provide valuable genetic information for conservation and breeding applications.

  15. Bitter Gourd: Botany, Horticulture, Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter gourd fruits are a good source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals and have the highest nutritive value among cucurbits. Moreover, the crude protein content (11.4-20.9 g.kg-1) of bitter gourd fruits is higher than that of tomato and cucumber. This book chapter focuses on the ...

  16. Across-Breed EPD Tables for the Year 2010 Adjusted to Breed Differences for Birth Year of 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  17. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2012 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  18. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2011 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  19. Across-Breed EPD Tables for the Year 2009 Adjusted to Breed Differences for Birth Year of 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 11 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  20. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2016 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records of progeny of 18 breeds were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects of weaning weight, among 15 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling and ribeye area and among 14 of the 18 breeds for fat depth and carcass weight. The r...

  1. Genome-wide haplotype changes produced by artificial selection during modern rice breeding in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Yamamoto, Toshio; Ebana, Kaworu; Yamamoto, Eiji; Nagasaki, Hideki; Shibaya, Taeko; Yano, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    During the last 90 years, the breeding of rice has delivered cultivars with improved agronomic and economic characteristics. Crossing of different lines and successive artificial selection of progeny based on their phenotypes have changed the chromosomal constitution of the ancestors of modern rice; however, the nature of these changes is unclear. The recent accumulation of data for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in rice has allowed us to investigate the change in haplotype structure and composition. To assess the impact of these changes during modern breeding, we studied 177 Japanese rice accessions, which were categorized into three groups: landraces, improved cultivars developed from 1931 to 1974 (the early breeding phase), and improved cultivars developed from 1975 to 2005 (the late breeding phase). Phylogenetic tree and structure analysis indicated genetic differentiation between non-irrigated (upland) and irrigated (lowland) rice groups as well as genetic structuring within the irrigated rice group that corresponded to the existence of three subgroups. Pedigree analysis revealed that a limited number of landraces and cultivars was used for breeding at the beginning of the period of systematic breeding and that 11 landraces accounted for 70% of the ancestors of the modern improved cultivars. The values for linkage disequilibrium estimated from SNP alleles and the haplotype diversity determined from consecutive alleles in five-SNP windows indicated that haplotype blocks became less diverse over time as a result of the breeding process. A decrease in haplotype diversity, caused by a reduced number of polymorphisms in the haplotype blocks, was observed in several chromosomal regions. However, our results also indicate that new haplotype polymorphisms have been generated across the genome during the breeding process. These findings will facilitate our understanding of the association between particular haplotypes and desirable phenotypes in

  2. Genetic differentiation in pointing dog breeds inferred from microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, D; Méndez, S; Cañón, J; Dunner, S

    2008-02-01

    Recent studies presenting genetic analysis of dog breeds do not focus specifically on genetic relationships among pointing dog breeds, although hunting was among the first traits of interest when dogs were domesticated. This report compares histories with genetic relationships among five modern breeds of pointing dogs (English Setter, English Pointer, Epagneul Breton, Deutsch Drahthaar and German Shorthaired Pointer) collected in Spain using mitochondrial, autosomal and Y-chromosome information. We identified 236 alleles in autosomal microsatellites, four Y-chromosome haplotypes and 18 mitochondrial haplotypes. Average F(ST) values were 11.2, 14.4 and 13.1 for autosomal, Y-chromosome microsatellite markers and mtDNA sequence respectively, reflecting relatively high genetic differentiation among breeds. The high gene diversity observed in the pointing breeds (61.7-68.2) suggests contributions from genetically different individuals, but that these individuals originated from the same ancestors. The modern English Setter, thought to have arisen from the Old Spanish Pointer, was the first breed to cluster independently when using autosomal markers and seems to share a common maternal origin with the English Pointer and German Shorthaired Pointer, either via common domestic breed females in the British Isles or through the Old Spanish Pointer females taken to the British Isles in the 14th and 16th centuries. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence indicates the isolation of the Epagneul Breton, which has been formally documented, and shows Deutsch Drahthaar as the result of crossing the German Shorthaired Pointer with other breeds. Our molecular data are consistent with historical documents.

  3. Participatory definition of breeding objectives and selection indexes for sheep breeding in traditional systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Lemma, S.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    A farmer participatory approach was used to define breeding objectives and selection indexes for short-fat-tailed sheep in sheep–barley systems and Black Head Somali sheep in pastoral systems in Ethiopia. Breeding-objective traits were identified based on producers' preferences for traits collected

  4. Breeding programmes for smallholder sheep farming systems: II. Optimization of cooperative village breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; van Arendonk, J A M; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; Rischkowsky, B; Dessie, T; Mwai, A O

    2014-10-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as under three cooperative flock sizes, ewe to ram mating ratios and durations of ram use for breeding. Under fully controlled breeding, that is, when there is no gene flow between participating (P) and non-participating (NP) flocks, profits ranged from Birr 36.9 at 90% of participation to Birr 21.3 at 10% of participation. However, genetic progress was not affected adversely. When there was gene flow from the NP to P flocks, profits declined from Birr 28.6 to Birr -3.7 as participation declined from 90 to 10%. Under the two-way gene flow model (i.e. when P and NP flocks are herded mixed in communal grazing areas), NP flocks benefited from the genetic gain achieved in the P flocks, but the benefits declined sharply when participation declined beyond 60%. Our results indicate that a cooperative breeding group can be established with as low as 600 breeding ewes mated at a ratio of 45 ewes to one ram, and the rams being used for breeding for a period of two years. This study showed that farmer cooperation is crucial to effect genetic improvement under smallholder low-input sheep farming systems. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka spotted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was the estimation of the cross-breeding influence of Zlotnicka spotted sows with boars of polish large white and Duroc breeds on carcass traits of fatteners. 50 pigs were divided into four groups: Zlotnicka spotted (ZS), Zlotnicka spotted x polish large white (ZS x PLW), Zlotnicka spotted x Duroc (ZS x D) ...

  6. Artificiat insemination vercus natural breeding in a multi.breed beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    British cross Charolais types (> 6 %), indicating that the Bos in- dicus types were less suited to the A.l. method practised than were the Bos taurus types. Cows bred naturally conceived earlier and thus calved earlier in the season leading to an increased calving-to-breeding period the following breeding season and a.

  7. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZUZA

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... The aim of this study was the estimation of the cross-breeding influence of Zlotnicka spotted sows with boars of polish large white and Duroc breeds on carcass traits of fatteners. 50 pigs were divided into four groups: Zlotnicka spotted (ZS), Zlotnicka spotted x polish large white (ZS x PLW), Zlotnicka.

  8. Ecological factors associated with the breeding and migratory phenology of high-latitude breeding western sandpipers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehaus, A.C.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental conditions influence the breeding and migratory patterns of many avian species and may have particularly dramatic effects on longdistance migrants that breed at northern latitudes. Environment, however, is only one of the ecological variables affecting avian phenology, and recent work

  9. Sugar beets combinability analyzes throghut two cycles of recurrent breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. О. Корнєєва

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yield and sugar content genetic analyzes for hybrids developed engaging pollinating lines of the first and the second inbred generations throughout two cycles of recurrent breeding has underpinned the determination of regularities for combinability expression in crossing components and the change of their gene interaction types. This unveiled the lack of correlation between the parents descriptions as selected from groups that displayed contrast combining of productivity components and the lines combinability derived thereof. This provided a ground for correcting the breeding technology of the development of MS hybrids through the exclusion of individual polarization as phenotype based breeding method with replacing this by the assessment of economical value of the topcrossing components. The genetic value was determined for pollinator lines of І1 first hybrid generation by productivity components derived from multiple seed populations by Ulad breeding. 7 economically valuable lines were derived from U752 population by yield and 17 by sugar content, whereas 6 and 10 limes were derived from КМ2, respectively . This provided a ground for the development of synthetic varieties that displayed yield and sugar content characteristics improved, respectively, by 9,4 and 2,4% (U752 initial population and by 4,4 and 8,3% ( КМ2 initial population compared to group standard. The structure of genetic variability of MS hybrids productivity as developed engaging І2 .first and second inbred generation. In the genotype variation of characteristics of hybrids derived from І1 pollinators of recurrent breeding first cycle the additive effects of both parental forms prevailed, and as regards the hybrids developed engaging І2 pollinators of the second cycle of recurrent breeding non-additive effects of the components interaction prevailed. In the second cycle of recurrent breeding 7 І2 lines valuable for combining were singled out, which had high general

  10. Influence of gender and age on haematological indicators of Polbar’s breed chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryzińska Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the values of selected haematological indices of the Polbar breed of chickens by gender and age. There was a significant WBC difference in cocks and hens with age. In each of the periods, cocks were characterized by a lower than hens number of LY. LY and NE declined with increasing age. Most values showed significant (P ≤ 0.05 differences for birds at different ages. These results of the haematological indices from consolidated Polbar breed can be used for comparisons with other breeds of poultry. The study deepens and organizes the knowledge within the possibilities of using and interpreting levels of haematological indicators for monitoring health of hens. In this paper, we managed to obtain information on the level of indicators rarely determined in chickens.

  11. Determination of genetic polymorphism in Guney Karaman local Turkish sheep breed by using STR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karslı, Taki; Balcıoǧlu, Murat Soner

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess genetic diversity of Güney Karaman Turkish local sheep breed. A total of 29 samples were genotyped by using 14 STR markers. All markers were polymorphic. The number of alleles in Güney Karaman sheep breed ranged from 3 to 11 per locus, with a mean of 7.42. The average observed and expected heterozygosity was 0.659 and 0.794, respectively. Mean inbreeding coefficient (Fis) value was found 0.175. The PIC values ranged from 0.569 to 0.860 with a mean of 0.743. The findings of this research demonstrate at moderate level gene diversity and heterozygosity with lower inbreeding in Güney Karaman sheep breed.

  12. [Historic treasures of Swiss horse breeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, H

    2017-01-01

    Both a mandate of the Bernese Government (1705) and statements in the Georgica Helvetica of 1706 prove that Swiss horse breeding was lucrative and of good quality at that time. However, the political turmoil at the transition from the 18th to 19th century and excessive sales to France and Italy led to a severe drop in quantity as well in quality. The exhibition of horses in Aarau in 1865 showed a wretched state of the material. In the same year, Rudolf Zangger wrote a guide for the discussion of horse breeding in Switzerland. In the following year (1866), Johann Jakob Rychner published a report on horse breeding, and a further treatise on Swiss horse breeding by Johann Heinrich Hirzel followed in 1883. These publications created good and comprehensive fundamentals, which can still be considered valid. However history shows that the results and recommendations of these analyses barely led to improvements. Todays genomics with their possibilities open up a new era of animal breeding and raise bigger demands than ever.

  13. Resistance Genes in Global Crop Breeding Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, K A; Andersen, K F; Asche, F; Bowden, R L; Forbes, G A; Kulakow, P A; Zhou, B

    2017-10-01

    Resistance genes are a major tool for managing crop diseases. The networks of crop breeders who exchange resistance genes and deploy them in varieties help to determine the global landscape of resistance and epidemics, an important system for maintaining food security. These networks function as a complex adaptive system, with associated strengths and vulnerabilities, and implications for policies to support resistance gene deployment strategies. Extensions of epidemic network analysis can be used to evaluate the multilayer agricultural networks that support and influence crop breeding networks. Here, we evaluate the general structure of crop breeding networks for cassava, potato, rice, and wheat. All four are clustered due to phytosanitary and intellectual property regulations, and linked through CGIAR hubs. Cassava networks primarily include public breeding groups, whereas others are more mixed. These systems must adapt to global change in climate and land use, the emergence of new diseases, and disruptive breeding technologies. Research priorities to support policy include how best to maintain both diversity and redundancy in the roles played by individual crop breeding groups (public versus private and global versus local), and how best to manage connectivity to optimize resistance gene deployment while avoiding risks to the useful life of resistance genes. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license .

  14. Genome-wide association and genomic selection in animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ben; Goddard, Mike

    2010-11-01

    Results from genome-wide association studies in livestock, and humans, has lead to the conclusion that the effect of individual quantitative trait loci (QTL) on complex traits, such as yield, are likely to be small; therefore, a large number of QTL are necessary to explain genetic variation in these traits. Given this genetic architecture, gains from marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs using only a small number of DNA markers to trace a limited number of QTL is likely to be small. This has lead to the development of alternative technology for using the available dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information, called genomic selection. Genomic selection uses a genome-wide panel of dense markers so that all QTL are likely to be in linkage disequilibrium with at least one SNP. The genomic breeding values are predicted to be the sum of the effect of these SNPs across the entire genome. In dairy cattle breeding, the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) that can be achieved and the fact that these are available early in life have lead to rapid adoption of the technology. Here, we discuss the design of experiments necessary to achieve accurate prediction of GEBV in future generations in terms of the number of markers necessary and the size of the reference population where marker effects are estimated. We also present a simple method for implementing genomic selection using a genomic relationship matrix. Future challenges discussed include using whole genome sequence data to improve the accuracy of genomic selection and management of inbreeding through genomic relationships.

  15. Bird-window collisions in the summer breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B. Hager

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds that reside in urban settings face numerous human-related threats to survival, including mortality from bird-window collisions (BWCs. Our current understanding of this issue has largely been driven by data collected during spring and fall migration, and patterns of collision mortality during the summer breeding season remain relatively unexplored. We assessed BWCs during four breeding seasons (2009–2012 at a site in northwestern Illinois, USA, by comparing the abundance, richness, migratory class, and age of the species living around buildings to species mortally wounded by window collisions. We also systematically assessed the daily timing of BWCs throughout the breeding season. We documented BWCs in 4 of 25 (16% species and 7 of 21 (33% species in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The relationship between BWCs and abundance depended on age. For adults, BWCs were highest in the least abundant species, e.g., Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus, and lowest in species with high abundance values, e.g., Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina. For juveniles, mortality was greatest for the most abundant species, and the American Robin (Turdus migratorius accounted for 62% of all juvenile carcasses. Early in the breeding season, collision mortality was restricted to adults of Long-distance Migrants, whereas juveniles of all three migratory guilds (Long-distance and Short-distance Migrants and Permanent Residents died at windows from late June through early August. Daily mortality for all species was highest between sunrise–1600 h and lowest from 1600 h–sunrise the next day. Generally, the species observed as carcasses matched birds considered a ‘high risk’ for BWCs, e.g., Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris, and those considered ‘low risk’ were not observed as carcasses, e.g., Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea. Our results suggest that the number of BWCs during the breeding season does not necessarily increase with

  16. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  17. Polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA in the Brazilian Canindé goat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N M V; Pimenta Filho, E C; Arandas, J K G; Gomes Filho, M A; Ferreira, E; Del Cerro, I; Fonseca, C; Ribeiro, M N

    2017-05-18

    The success of the geographical distribution of goat populations around the world is a consequence of the adaptive potential of these breeds. Several relevant traits to the success of the species in colonizing different ecosystems (and use by man) evolved before domestication. These features were relevant for the selection of different breeds. Each breed represents a genetic heritage that may be unique and essential for maintaining the species. The objective of this study was to catalog the mtDNA haplotypes of the Brazilian autochthonous Canindé goat breed and to characterize the genetic diversity observed in subpopulations by sequencing a 481-bp fragment corresponding to the first portion of the control region in 178 individuals from 10 herds, sampled in six Brazilian states. The global population displays a total of 29 haplotypes and 56 polymorphic sites. About one-third (10) of the haplotypes were common to all subpopulations while the remaining (19) were exclusive to a single subpopulation. The population exhibited high average haplotype diversity (0.82), with maximum and minimum values of 0.90 and 0.56 in individual subpopulations, respectively. In contrast, nucleotide diversity was 0.014, with maximum and minimum values of 0.020 and 0.004, respectively. The spatial analysis of molecular variance did not detect structure within the Canindé goat breed, and analysis of molecular variance revealed that 88.4% of the variation observed in the population was due to differences among individuals in the same subpopulation. Only 11.4% of the genetic variation referred to differences among subpopulations. About one-third (33.1%) of the individuals within population shared the same haplotype, which may be due not only to the breed developing from a small number of matrilines. The Brazilian autochthonous Canindé breed was classified as haplogroup A, a haplotype predominant in the Europe region.

  18. SOME EFFECTS ON GESTATION LENGTH OF TRADITIONAL HORSE BREEDS IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Bene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The national database of the use of stallions, supplied by the Department of Animal Registration and Breeding Organization of the Hungarian National Food Safety Authority was analyzed for the purpose of this research. 680 foaling data of 7 horse breeds was processed during the work. The factors effecting gestation length were examined by univariate analysis of variance (GLM. Breed, month of mating, method of fertilization, age of the mare, and sex of the foal were considered as fixed effects, and the sire was used as random effect in the study. The population genetic parameters of gestation length and the breeding value of sires were also estimated. The overall mean value of gestation length was 334.1±2.62 days. The longest gestation length (336.2 days was detected in the Kisberi breed while the Shagya had the shortest (333.3 days. Differences between the breeds were not significant. The effect of month of mating and effect of sex of foal on the gestation length were statistically proven (P<0.01. The mares fertilized in March and April had the longest gestation lengths 342.4 days, 341.4 days, respectively. In the cases of mares fertilized in later months of the year the gestation length was about 10 days shorter. Fillies had longer gestation length (335.6 days, than colts (333.5 days. Method of fertilization and age of the mare had no significant effect on the gestation length. The effects of sire on the gestation length were significant (P<0.05. The heritability (h2 of gestation length was 0.18. Based on the analysis it can be presumed, that if the mares are kept in a suitable environment (professional nutrition, good health and breeding practices, well-balanced gestation parameters can be expected in the case of any genotypes.

  19. Maize breeding: How to provide further progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocković Đorđe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the first crop in the world concerning total production in tones per year. A big money and many scientific workers are working in the maize breeding. Millions of new hybrid combinations are tested every year in order to find the best of new hybrids. In spite off that currently hybrids has a pretty narrow genetic basis. The main goal in maize breeding is to create a new high yielding hybrid with good adaptability and yield stability. For that modern maize hybrid has to poses genes for tolerance against stress (drought and high temperatures, diseases and pest. Genetic variability in maize and conventional and modern technics of biotechnology will provide enough capability to ensure progress in maize breeding continually as until now. It means that we can expect even better maize hybrids in future. .

  20. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  1. Breeding vegetables tolerant to environmental stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoner, A.K.

    1978-12-01

    Much progress has been made in breeding vegetables tolerant to environmental stresses. However, in many cases the authors have only begun to exploit the potential of germplasm collections. Progress in breeding for stress tolerance will probably always be slow, but it can be maximized by improved support and better cooperation within and outside organizations. Better cooperation is needed among breeders and scientists of other disciplines and among breeders from different organizations. Vegetable breeders must also be willing to tackle and follow through on difficult problems. Many of the easier breeding problems have been solved. In instances where breeders are discouraged from working on difficult problems, the system needs to be changed to encourage and reward breeders. More effort must be devoted to developing stress tolerant vegetable cultivars if the US vegetable industry is to continue to meet consumer demands for reasonable priced, high-quality vegetables.

  2. Does recognized genetic management in supportive breeding prevent genetic changes in life-history traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chargé, Rémi; Sorci, Gabriele; Saint Jalme, Michel; Lesobre, Loïc; Hingrat, Yves; Lacroix, Frédéric; Teplitsky, Céline

    2014-05-01

    Supportive breeding is one of the last resort conservation strategies to avoid species extinction. Management of captive populations is challenging because several harmful genetic processes need to be avoided. Several recommendations have been proposed to limit these deleterious effects, but empirical assessments of these strategies remain scarce. We investigated the outcome of a genetic management in a supportive breeding for the Houbara Bustard. At the phenotypic level, we found an increase over generations in the mean values of gamete production, body mass and courtship display rate. Using an animal model, we found that phenotypic changes reflected genetic changes as evidenced by an increase in breeding values for all traits. These changes resulted from selection acting on gamete production and to a lesser extent on courtship display. Selection decreased over years for female gametes, emphasizing the effort of managers to increase the contribution of poor breeders to offspring recruited in the captive breeding. Our results shed light on very fast genetic changes in an exemplary captive programme that follows worldwide used recommendations and emphasizes the need of more empirical evidence of the effects of genetic guidelines on the prevention of genetic changes in supportive breeding.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Kärt; Hytönen, Marjo K; Orro, Toomas; Lohi, Hannes; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82%) and the Persian had the highest (60.00%). According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.

  4. Breeding bird density does not drive vocal individuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. BLUMSTEIN, Douglas R. MCCLAIN, Carrie DE JESUS, Gustavo ALARCÓN-NIETO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many species produce individually specific vocalizations and sociality is a hypothesized driver of such individuality. Previous studies of how social variation influenced individuality focused on colonial or non-colonial avian species, and how social group size influenced individuality in sciurid rodents. Since sociality is an important driver of individuality, we expected that bird species that defend nesting territories in higher density neighborhoods should have more individually-distinctive calls than those that defend nesting territories in lower-density neighborhoods. We used Beecher’s information statistic to quantify individuality, and we examined the relationship between bird density (calculated with point-counts and vocal individuality on seven species of passerines. We found non-significant relationships between breeding bird density and vocal individuality whether regressions were fitted on species values, or on phylogenetically-independent contrast values. From these results, we infer that while individuality may be explained by social factors, breeding bird density is unlikely to be generally important in driving the evolution of individually-specific vocalizations [Current Zoology 58 (5: 765–772, 2012].

  5. CALVING ANALYSIS IN COWS OF CHAROLAIS BREED AT SELECTED FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLÁRA VAVRIŠÍNOVÁ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available At our work we have analysed the organisation of calving in Charolais breed during the years from 1998 to 2001 at selected farm. Our monitoring of calving during winter season (from January to February shows the percentage of calving was in particular years ranged from 43.2 to 71.1. The most calves were born in February. We found out (total all years diffi cult calving (value 3 in 2 cases in April (1998 and 1999 and 1 case in February (1998 and 1 in March (1999. Calving marked with value 2 (total of all years we found out in January (2 cases, February (3 cases, March (4 cases and from September to December past one case. From 18 cases of diffi cult calving what we found out, 11 calves (61.11 % come from CHV 529 bull. In calves born by normal calving was found out average weight 34.75 kg, in ones born by calving with level 2 of diffi culty 36.36 kg, and in calves born by calving with diffi culty 3 was recorded average weight 41.5 kg. Recorded weight at 210 days of age in mostly cases was similar like in published breed standard.

  6. Genomics and the intrinsic value of plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gremmen, Bart

    2005-01-01

    In discussions on genetic engineering and plant breeding, the intrinsic value of plants and crops is used as an argument against this technology. This paper focuses on the new field of plant genomics, which, according to some, is almost the same as genetic engineering. This raises the question whether the intrinsic value of plants could also be used as an argument against plant genomics. We will discuss three reasons why plant genomics could violate the intrinsic value of plants: 1. genomics ...

  7. Length of gestation periods of horses and ponies belonging to different breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.; Mey, G.J.W. van der

    The mean gestation periods of mares belonging to different horse and pony breeds common in The Netherlands have been calculated using data from the birth registers of five stud-book societies. The following mean values have been determined: Fjord pony: 342.2; Haflinger pony: 341.3; Draught horse:

  8. Brent goose colonies near snowy owls: Internest distances in relation to breeding arctic fox densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kharitonov, S.P.; Ebbinge, B.S.; De Fouw, J.

    2013-01-01

    It was shown that in the years when the numbers of the Arctic foxes are high, even though the lemming numbers are high as well, Brent geese nest considerably closer to owls' nests than in the years with low Arctic fox numbers. At values of the Arctic fox densities greater than one breeding pair per

  9. Defining desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding objective using analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sae-Lim, P.; Komen, J.; Kause, A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Barfoot, A.J.; Martin, K.E.; Parsons, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Distributing animals from a single breeding program to a global market may not satisfy all producers, as they may differ in market objectives and farming environments. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to estimate preferences, which can be aggregated to consensus preference values using

  10. Breeding Ruminants that Emit Less Methane – The Role of International Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddy, V H; de Haas, Y; Basarab, J

    production of 40-45%. If a methane-related trait were to be implemented by a livestock industry it will most likely be via genomic breeding values, which demand large numbers of measured animals in the reference population. Given the size of the reference population required for methane traits...

  11. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  12. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  13. Breeding soundness evaluation and reproductive management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assisted reproductive techniques such as artificial insemination (AI) have been used to improve genetic diversity and performance in equines. Employment of breeding soundness evaluation is critical in the selection of the best animal. Semen evaluation in equine includes gross evaluation of raw semen for color.

  14. Charge breeding of intense radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kester, O

    2001-01-01

    The efficient transformation of radioactive beams by charge breeding devices will critically influence the lay-out of the post accelerator of presently built first generation radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities as well as new second generation facilities. The size of the post-accelerator needed to bring the unstable nuclei to the energies required to study nuclear reactions depends on the charge state of the radioactive ions. The capability to raise that charge state from 1+ to n+, where n may correspond to a charge-to- mass ratio of 0.15 or higher, will therefore produce an enormous reduction in cost as well as the possibility to accelerate heavier masses. Thus the efficiency of the charge breeding scheme in comparison to the stripping scheme will be explored in the frame of the EU-network charge breeding. The two possible charge breeding schemes using either an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) or an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS), the demands to the sources and the present status of existi...

  15. Territoriality and breeding success in Gurney's sugarbird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 25 %of pairs laid eggs, and mating appears to have been constrained by low nectar and arthropod energy availability, and the costs associated with the defence of large territories. Reproductive success was directly related to arthropod availability on territories, with pairs not even appearing to attempt breeding if this is ...

  16. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eissen, J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows,

  17. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  18. Evaluation of charge breeding options for EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, P; Lamy, T; Marie-Jeanne, M; Kester, O; Wenander, F

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive study of charge breeding techniques for the most ambitious ISOL-facility project, EURISOL, is presented here. It is based on results obtained during the past years at CERN-ISOLDE and LPSC Grenoble with charge breeders of both ECR and EBIS types.

  19. Rapid cyling plant breeding in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...

  20. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.

    2011-01-01

      The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male reproduction. The study was performed using existing databases

  1. Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngeno, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the development of an

  2. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  3. New Brahman breed improvement program at STARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the USDA, ARS, Subtropical Agricultural Research Station (STARS) in Brooksville, Florida we have initiated a new ambitious research project that many believe will have a positive influence on the Brahman breed. This research was developed from a meeting held at STARS that included past and prese...

  4. Prospects for genomic selection in cassava breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated staple food crop in the tropics. Genomic selection (GS) has been implemented at three breeding institutions in Africa in order to reduce cycle times. Initial studies provided promising estimates of predictive abilities. Here, we expand on p...

  5. Marketing potential of advanced breeding clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  6. Breeding replacement gilts for organic pig herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.I.; Napel, ten J.; Hanenberg, E.H.A.T.; Merks, J.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, breeding structures and commercial sow lines were evaluated by economic and genetic simulation studies for their suitability to provide the Dutch organic pig sector with replacement gilts. Sow and litter performance from over 2000 crossbred sows from 2006 to 2007 were collected on 11

  7. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.; Goldringer, I.; Hoad, S.; Kovacs, G.M.; Loschenberger, F.; Miedaner, T.; Ostergard, H.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local, in

  8. ASPECTS OF THE BREEDING BIOLOGY OF BLUE»

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990) and it gradually decreases with feather development and may cease altogether during the late stages nest life. In this study active nests were visited daily to ..... 523-526. Cody, M.L. (1966). A general theory of clutch size. Evolution 20: 174-184. Din, N.A (1986). Breeding biology of some weaver birds in lle- lfe, Nigeria.

  9. Inbreeding of the Bonsmara cattle breed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    ... the percentage of animals being inbred increased drastically since 1984. Breeders should take note of this and sensibly mate the animals to keep the rate of inbreeding below 1.5% per generation. By doing this, the regression in performance of the breed can be counteracted by natural and artificial selection. References.

  10. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burocziova, M; Riha, J

    2009-01-01

    Genetic relationships and population structure of 8 horse breeds in the Czech and Slovak Republics were investigated using classification methods for breed discrimination. To demonstrate genetic differences among these breeds, we used genetic information - genotype data of microsatellite markers and classification algorithms - to perform a probabilistic prediction of an individual's breed. In total, 932 unrelated animals were genotyped for 17 microsatellite markers recommended by the ISAG for parentage testing (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG10, VHL20, HTG6, HMS2, HTG7, ASB17, ASB23, CA425, HMS1, LEX3). Algorithms of classification methods - J48 (decision trees); Naive Bayes, Bayes Net (probability predictors); IB1, IB5 (instance-based machine learning methods); and JRip (decision rules) - were used for analysis of their classification performance and of results of classification on this genotype dataset. Selected classification methods (Naive Bayes, Bayes Net, IB1), based on machine learning and principles of artificial intelligence, appear usable for these tasks.

  11. Plant Breeding by Using Radiation Mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Geung Joo (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomic researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasm, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomic and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits.

  12. (Bunaji) breeds of cattle following artificial insemination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the fertility rate of white Fulani (Bunaji) and Friesian breeds of cattle following artificial insemination (A. I). Artificial insemination was performed following Oestrus synchronization using prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) in 368 white Fulani and 230 Friesian cows at West Africa Milk Company ...

  13. Seeds that give: Participatory plant breeding

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    One method the researchers used to introduce farmers to new or unknown varieties or lines was the seed fair. Fairs are organized by plant breeders and take place at the .... unique philosophy of plant breeding. “For me, when I think about varieties, they are like people. We are not all the same: some of us like to work hard, ...

  14. Optimization of breeding methods when introducing multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stripe rust is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars with resistance genes is the most effective method to control this disease. QuLine is a computer tool capable of defining genetic models, breeding strategies and predicting parental selection using known gene information.

  15. Breeding and Cytogenetics in the Genus Tulipa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasek Ciolakowska, A.R.; Ramanna, M.S.; Arens, P.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Tulip (Tulipa) is one of the most important ornamental bulbous plants, which has been cultivated for cut flower, potted plant, garden plant and for landscaping. Species from the different sections display complementary agronomic characteristics and breeding techniques are used to combine desired

  16. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Nam Seong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP, crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire♀×Duroc♂ (LYD, Berkshire (Ber, and Duroc (Du pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05. It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05. Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05. Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (p<0.05. Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05. The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams.

  17. Genetic analysis in the Collaborative Cross breeding population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, Vivek [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokoloff, Greta [ORNL; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl [Jackson Laboratory, The, Bar Harbor, ME; Striz, Martin [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Branstetter, Lisa R [ORNL; Beckmann, Melissa [ORNL; Spence, Jason S [ORNL; Jackson, Barbara L [ORNL; Galloway, Leslie D [ORNL; Barker, Gene [ORNL; Wymore, Ann M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hunsicker, Patricia R [ORNL; Durtschi, David W [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Shaw, Ginger S [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Shinpock, Sarah G [ORNL; Manly, Kenneth F [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Miller, Darla R [ORNL; Donahue, Kevin [University at Buffalo, NY; Culiat, Cymbeline T [ORNL; Churchill, Gary A [Jackson Laboratory, The, Bar Harbor, ME; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Palmer, Abraham [University of Chicago; O' Hara, Bruce [University of Kentucky; Voy, Brynn H [ORNL; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Genetic reference populations in model organisms are critical resources for systems genetic analysis of disease related phenotypes. The breeding history of these inbred panels may influence detectable allelic and phenotypic diversity. The existing panel of common inbred strains reflects historical selection biases, and existing recombinant inbred panels have low allelic diversity. All such populations may be subject to consequences of inbreeding depression. The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a mouse reference population with high allelic diversity that is being constructed using a randomized breeding design that systematically outcrosses eight founder strains, followed by inbreeding to obtain new recombinant inbred strains. Five of the eight founders are common laboratory strains, and three are wild-derived. Since its inception, the partially inbred CC has been characterized for physiological, morphological, and behavioral traits. The construction of this population provided a unique opportunity to observe phenotypic variation as new allelic combinations arose through intercrossing and inbreeding to create new stable genetic combinations. Processes including inbreeding depression and its impact on allelic and phenotypic diversity were assessed. Phenotypic variation in the CC breeding population exceeds that of existing mouse genetic reference populations due to both high founder genetic diversity and novel epistatic combinations. However, some focal evidence of allele purging was detected including a suggestive QTL for litter size in a location of changing allele frequency. Despite these inescapable pressures, high diversity and precision for genetic mapping remain. These results demonstrate the potential of the CC population once completed and highlight implications for development of related populations. Supplementary material consists of Supplementary Table 1 Phenotypic means, variances, ranges and heritabilities for all traits and generations, Supplementary Table

  18. Genetic variability in French dog breeds assessed by pedigree data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, G; Rognon, X; Varlet, A; Joffrin, C; Verrier, E

    2006-02-01

    Pedigree data of nine French dog breeds, namely Barbet (BAR), Basset fauve de Bretagne (BAF), Beauceron (BEN), Berger des Pyrénées (BRP), Bouledogue Français (BUF), Braque Saint-Germain (BQG), Dogue de Bordeaux (DOB), Epagneul Breton (EPB) and Montagne des Pyrénées (MOP), were analysed. The effective numbers of ancestors of dogs born from 1997 to 2001 were equal to 6.7 (BAR), 40.2 (BAF), 36.5 (BEN), 16.0 (BRP), 37.0 (BUF), 13.1 (BQG), 28.9 (DOB), 33.3 (EPB) and 34.0 (MOP). The expected contributions of the major ancestors were found to be highly unbalanced in the EPB and BRP. The average coefficient of inbreeding of dogs born from 1997 to 2001 with both parents known was equal to 12.4% (BAR), 3.9% (BAF), 5.4% (BEN), 7.2% (BRP), 3.3% (BUF), 6.0% (BQG), 4.1% (DOB), 4.5% (EPB) and 4.0% (MOP). These values were found to be significantly higher than the average coefficient of kinship between the male and the female parents of these animals, except in the BAR and BQG, revealing an usual practice of mating between related animals. The results are discussed in relation with the demographic situation and the use of each breed. The method used to class an endangered breed and the ways to preserve the genetic variability, when necessary, are evoked.

  19. Potential impacts of climatic change on European breeding birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Brian; Collingham, Yvonne C; Willis, Stephen G; Green, Rhys E

    2008-01-16

    Climatic change is expected to lead to changes in species' geographical ranges. Adaptation strategies for biodiversity conservation require quantitative estimates of the magnitude, direction and rates of these potential changes. Such estimates are of greatest value when they are made for large ensembles of species and for extensive (sub-continental or continental) regions. For six climate scenarios for 2070-99 changes have been estimated for 431 European breeding bird species using models relating species' distributions in Europe to climate. Mean range centroid potentially shifted 258-882 km in a direction between 341 degrees (NNW) and 45 degrees (NE), depending upon the climate scenario considered. Potential future range extent averaged 72-89% of the present range, and overlapped the present range by an average of 31-53% of the extent of the present range. Even if potential range changes were realised, the average number of species breeding per 50x50 km grid square would decrease by 6.8-23.2%. Many species endemic or near-endemic to Europe have little or no overlap between their present and potential future ranges; such species face an enhanced extinction risk as a consequence of climatic change. Although many human activities exert pressures upon wildlife, the magnitude of the potential impacts estimated for European breeding birds emphasises the importance of climatic change. The development of adaptation strategies for biodiversity conservation in the face of climatic change is an urgent need; such strategies must take into account quantitative evidence of potential climatic change impacts such as is presented here.

  20. Microsatellite analysis to estimate genetic relationships among five bulgarian sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Kusza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, genetic relationships among five breeds of Bulgarian sheep were estimated using microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles identified was 226 at the 16 loci examined. D A distance values were used for phylogenetic tree construction with the UPGMA algorithm. The two Tsigai and two Maritza populations were found to be geneticallvery closely related to each other y (0.198, and 0.258 respectively. The Pleven Black Head population was distinct from the other four. These results could be useful for preserving genes in these breeds, thereby ensuring their preservation in Bulgaria.

  1. Application of genomic tools in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Castro, A M; Vilanova, S; Cañizares, J; Pascual, L; Blanca, J M; Díez, M J; Prohens, J; Picó, B

    2012-05-01

    Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic information. The analysis of NGS data by means of bioinformatics developments allows discovering new genes and regulatory sequences and their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Genomic approaches include TILLING and EcoTILLING, which make possible to screen mutant and germplasm collections for allelic variants in target genes. Re-sequencing of genomes is very useful for the genome-wide discovery of markers amenable for high-throughput genotyping platforms, like SSRs and SNPs, or the construction of high density genetic maps. All these tools and resources facilitate studying the genetic diversity, which is important for germplasm management, enhancement and use. Also, they allow the identification of markers linked to genes and QTLs, using a diversity of techniques like bulked segregant analysis (BSA), fine genetic mapping, or association mapping. These new markers are used for marker assisted selection, including marker assisted backcross selection, 'breeding by design', or new strategies, like genomic selection. In conclusion, advances in genomics are providing breeders with new tools and methodologies that allow a great leap forward in plant breeding, including the 'superdomestication' of crops and the genetic dissection and breeding for complex traits.

  2. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Howard

    Full Text Available Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169 spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15 of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control, flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value <0.007 basal transcript differences were found across breeds for SULT1A1, CYP3A29 and CYP3A22. Across drugs, significant (P-value <0.0038 transcript differences existed between animals given a drug and controls across breeds and sex for ABCB1, PS and CYP1A2. Significant (P <0.0038 transcript differences across breeds were found for CYP2E1 and SULT1A1 for flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin

  3. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    relationships at causative mutations. Prediction of genomic relationships at causative mutations was most accurate when predicted by a selective number of markers within 1 Kb of the causative mutations. Whole-genome sequence data can help to get closer to the causative mutations and therefore improve genomic......Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed...... was shared across breed. Second, sequence data was used to quantify the loss in prediction reliabilities that results from using genomic markers rather than the causal variants. 50, 100 or 250 causative mutations were simulated and different sets of prediction markers were used to predict genomic...

  4. Breeding objectives for sheep should be customised depending on variation in pasture growth across years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, G; Mulder, H A; Thompson, A N; van der Werf, J H J; van Arendonk, J A M

    2015-08-01

    Breeding programmes for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system, which affect the response in each trait after selection. The profitability of sheep production systems is affected by changes in pasture growth as well as grain, meat and wool prices between seasons and across years. Annual pasture growth varies between regions within Australia's Mediterranean climate zone from low growth with long periods of drought to high growth with shorter periods of drought. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess whether breeding objectives need to be adapted for regions, depending on how reliable the pasture growth is across years. We modelled farms with Merino sheep bred for wool and meat in 10 regions in Western Australia. Across these 10 regions, mean annual pasture growth decreased, and the CV of annual pasture growth increased as pasture growth for regions became less reliable. We calculated economic values for nine traits, optimising management across 11 years, including variation for pasture growth and wool, meat and grain prices between and within years from 2002 to 2012. These economic values were used to calculate responses to selection for each trait for the 10 regions. We identified two potential breeding objectives, one for regions with low or high reliability and the other for regions with medium reliability of pasture growth. Breeding objectives for high or low pasture growth reliability had more emphasis on live weight traits and number of lambs weaned. Breeding objectives for medium reliability of pasture growth had more emphasis on decreasing fibre diameter. Relative economic weights for fleece weight did not change across the regions. Regions with low or high pasture reliability had similar breeding objectives and response to selection, because the relationship between the economic values and CV of pasture growth were not linear for live weight traits and the number of

  5. Reconstruction of paternal genotypes over multiple breeding seasons reveals male green turtles do not breed annually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lucy I; Fuller, Wayne J; Godley, Brendan J; McGowan, Andrew; Tregenza, Tom; Broderick, Annette C

    2012-07-01

    For species of conservation concern, knowledge of key life-history and demographic components, such as the number and sex ratio of breeding adults, is essential for accurate assessments of population viability. Species with temperature-dependent sex determination can produce heavily biased primary sex ratios, and there is concern that adult sex ratios may be similarly skewed or will become so as a result of climate warming. Prediction and mitigation of such impacts are difficult when life-history information is lacking. In marine turtles, owing to the difficultly in observing males at sea, the breeding interval of males is unknown. It has been suggested that male breeding periodicity may be shorter than that of females, which could help to compensate for generally female-biased sex ratios. Here we outline how the use of molecular-based paternity analysis has allowed us, for the first time, to assess the breeding interval of male marine turtles across multiple breeding seasons. In our study rookery of green turtles (Chelonia mydas), 97% of males were assigned offspring in only one breeding season within the 3-year study period, strongly suggesting that male breeding intervals are frequently longer than 1year at this site. Our results also reveal a sex ratio of breeding adults of at least 1.3 males to each female. This study illustrates the utility of molecular-based parentage inference using reconstruction of parental genotypes as a method for monitoring the number and sex ratio of breeders in species where direct observations or capture are difficult. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Y-STR INRA189 polymorphisms in Chinese yak breeds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Z J; Chen, S M; Sun, Y G; Xi, Y L; Li, R Z; Xu, J T; Lei, C Z

    2015-01-01

    To further explore Y-STR INRA189 polymorphisms in the yak, and to determine the genetic differences among yak breeds, genotyping analysis of INRA189 in 102 male yak individuals from three yak breeds...

  7. Experimentally induced helper dispersal in colonially breeding cooperative cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, D.; Heg-Bachar, Z.; Brouwer, L.; Taborsky, M.

    2008-01-01

    The 'benefits of philopatry' hypothesis states that helpers in cooperatively breeding species derive higher benefits from remaining home, instead of dispersing and attempting to breed independently. We tested experimentally whether dispersal options influence dispersal propensity in the

  8. BREED PREFERENCES AND EFFECTIVENESS OF BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH URAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mashenkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of beekeeping is defined by breed of bees and melliferous herbs. In the conditions of sharply continental climate of South Ural, duration of success of beekeeping is provided with breed of bees.

  9. Characterization of the genetic profile of five Danish dog breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Loeschcke, Volker

    2013-01-01

    This investigation presents results from a genetic characterization of 5 Danish dog breeds genotyped on the CanineHD BeadChip microarray with 170,000 SNP. The breeds investigated were 1) Danish Spitz (DS; n = 8), 2) Danish-Swedish Farm Dog (DSF; n = 18), 3) Broholmer (BR; n = 22), 4) Old Danish...... Pointing Dog (ODP; n = 24), and 5) Greenland Dog (GD; n = 23). The aims of the investigation were to characterize the genetic profile of the abovementioned dog breeds by quantifying the genetic differentiation among them and the degree of genetic homogeneity within breeds. The genetic profile...... as the degree of polymorphism (P%) ranked the dog breeds in the order DS > DSF > BR > ODP > GD. Interestingly, the breed with a tenfold higher census population size compared to the other breeds, the Greenland Dog, had the lowest within-breed genetic variation, emphasizing that census size is a poor predictor...

  10. Genetic variation in the population of three Polish cattle breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variation in the population of three Polish cattle breeds included into the programme of genetic resources protection and Holstein-Friesian breed, estimation on the basis of polymorphism of 24 microsatellite DNA sequences.

  11. New trends in plant breeding - example of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Jegor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean breeding and selection is a continual process designed to increase yield levels and improve resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Soybean breeders have been successful in producing a large number of varieties using conventional breeding methods, the Single Seed Descent method in particular. In recent decades, with the increased use of genetic transformations, backcrossing is more frequent though the only trait that has been commercialized is glyphosate tolerance. Physiological breeding poses a particular challenge, as well as phenotyping and development of useful criteria and techniques suitable for plant breeding. Using modern remote sensing techniques provides great opportunity for collecting a large amount of physiological data in real environment, which is necessary for physiological breeding. Molecular based plant breeding methods and techniques are a conceptual part of any serious breeding program. Among those methods, the most extensively used is marker-assisted selection, as a supplement to conventional breeding methods. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31022

  12. Breeding ground survey, Alaska, May 18 to June 11, 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a breeding ground survey in Alaska during the 1965 breeding season. This year 206 of the 214, 16 mile transects laid out for...

  13. Genomics and the Instrinsic Value of Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, H.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    In discussions on genetic engineering and plant breeding, the intrinsic value of plants and crops is used as an argument against this technology. This paper focuses on the new field of plant genomics, which, according to some, is almost the same as genetic engineering. This raises the question

  14. Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-16

    Over the past 30years there has been a growing interest to unravel the dynamic framework of the milk proteome, and now that available technology is mature enough to enable techniques of protein fractionation and identification, this process is on-going. Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek animals is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. In the present study we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, in depth, the proteome of whey from all pure-breed Greek sheep and goats. A mean of >500 protein groups were identified in whey from each breed of each animal species, reporting for the first time the proteome dataset of this precious biological material. Given its high nutritional value, the protein properties exposed herein will govern future steps in optimizing characteristics and features of sheep and goat milk products. In the present study we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, in depth, the proteome of milk from all pure-breed Greek sheep and goats. A mean of >500 protein groups were identified in milk whey from each breed of each animal species, reporting for the first time the proteome dataset of this precious biological material. Given its high nutritional value, the protein properties exposed herein will govern future steps in optimizing characteristics and features of sheep and goat milk products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Floral Biology, Breeding System and Pollination Efficiency of Schima superba Gardn. et Champ. (Theaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Hanbo Yang; Rui Zhang; Ping Song; Zhichun Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Schima superba Gardn. et Champ. is a perennial, evergreen tree valued for its eco-protection and commercial values in China. In this study, we investigate the breeding system, reproductive ecology and pollination biology of S. superba in a seed orchard. The flowers are hermaphrodite and protogynous. The viability of the pollen is inactivated rapidly, and the stigma maintains a high receptivity within the flower lifespan. Flowers typically offer pollen and nectar to visitors. The flowers posse...

  16. Breeding objectives, selection criteria and breeding system of indigenous goat types in bale zone, oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belete Asefa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken in bale zone to assess farmer’s selective breeding objectives, trait preferences, selection criteria and breeding system October 2012 to November 2013. A purposive and multistage sampling technique was applied for selection of 3 district and 9 kebeles. Then 360 households were selected by using simple random sampling techniques after the list of pastoralist having goats was identified. Statistical analysis system version 9.1 was used for analysis of data. Indices, effective population size and rate of inbreeding were calculated on average each respondent holds about 14 goats. Milk production is the main reason of goat keeping in the study area. Appearance is the first rank as selection criteria for male and female in all studies area. About 47.8% of the respondents have their own buck. The main use of breeding buck in the study area was for mating purpose (76.2%. Mean estimate of effective population size and mean rate of inbreeding was 2.43 and 0.21, respectively when a household flock is herded alone and under random mating. Therefore, any breed improvement strategies that are intended to be implemented in the study area and else- where should consider the traditional breeding practices and breeding objectives of the community.

  17. Genomic Prediction of Seed Quality Traits Using Advanced Barley Breeding Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna Hellum Nielsen

    Full Text Available Genomic selection was recently introduced in plant breeding. The objective of this study was to develop genomic prediction for important seed quality parameters in spring barley. The aim was to predict breeding values without expensive phenotyping of large sets of lines. A total number of 309 advanced spring barley lines tested at two locations each with three replicates were phenotyped and each line was genotyped by Illumina iSelect 9Kbarley chip. The population originated from two different breeding sets, which were phenotyped in two different years. Phenotypic measurements considered were: seed size, protein content, protein yield, test weight and ergosterol content. A leave-one-out cross-validation strategy revealed high prediction accuracies ranging between 0.40 and 0.83. Prediction across breeding sets resulted in reduced accuracies compared to the leave-one-out strategy. Furthermore, predicting across full and half-sib-families resulted in reduced prediction accuracies. Additionally, predictions were performed using reduced marker sets and reduced training population sets. In conclusion, using less than 200 lines in the training set can result in low prediction accuracy, and the accuracy will then be highly dependent on the family structure of the selected training set. However, the results also indicate that relatively small training sets (200 lines are sufficient for genomic prediction in commercial barley breeding. In addition, our results indicate a minimum marker set of 1,000 to decrease the risk of low prediction accuracy for some traits or some families.

  18. Mitigation of inbreeding while preserving genetic gain in genomic breeding programs for outbred plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zibei; Shi, Fan; Hayes, Ben J; Daetwyler, Hans D

    2017-05-01

    Heuristic genomic inbreeding controls reduce inbreeding in genomic breeding schemes without reducing genetic gain. Genomic selection is increasingly being implemented in plant breeding programs to accelerate genetic gain of economically important traits. However, it may cause significant loss of genetic diversity when compared with traditional schemes using phenotypic selection. We propose heuristic strategies to control the rate of inbreeding in outbred plants, which can be categorised into three types: controls during mate allocation, during selection, and simultaneous selection and mate allocation. The proposed mate allocation measure GminF allocates two or more parents for mating in mating groups that minimise coancestry using a genomic relationship matrix. Two types of relationship-adjusted genomic breeding values for parent selection candidates ([Formula: see text]) and potential offspring ([Formula: see text]) are devised to control inbreeding during selection and even enabling simultaneous selection and mate allocation. These strategies were tested in a case study using a simulated perennial ryegrass breeding scheme. As compared to the genomic selection scheme without controls, all proposed strategies could significantly decrease inbreeding while achieving comparable genetic gain. In particular, the scenario using [Formula: see text] in simultaneous selection and mate allocation reduced inbreeding to one-third of the original genomic selection scheme. The proposed strategies are readily applicable in any outbred plant breeding program.

  19. Quality of meat and meat products produced from southern European pig breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Carolina; Sirtori, Francesco

    2012-03-01

    Genetic and environmental effects on the quality of meat from southern European pig breeds are discussed. In the literature, it is evident that the breeds native to southern Europe have an interesting quality of products with respect to improved pigs. The free-range system increases the value of animal products due to the influence of outdoor rearing on the chemical, physical and organoleptic characteristics of the product. Traditional food products of high quality, such as those obtained from animals reared outdoor, are in high demand. The studies carried out on native pig breeds in southern Europe have focused on various aspects, ranging from studies of population genetics aimed at averting the danger of extinction and reducing inbreeding to studies of the factors affecting the quality of products. The purpose of this review is to analyse the literature on pig breeds native to southern Europe, with particular reference to the effects of genetics and breeding systems on the quality of products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic variability of Appaloosa horses: a study of a closed breeding population from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Malena CORBI-BOTTO,Sebastian Andres SADABA,Elina Ines FRANCISCO,Paula Belen KALEMKERIAN,Juan Pedro LIRON,Egle Etel VILLEGAS-CASTAGNASSO,Guillermo GIOVAMBATTISTA,Pilar PERAL-GARCIA,Silvina DIAZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity and structure of 72 Appaloosa horses belonging to a closed breeding population from an ecological reserve in Buenos Aires, Argentina, was investigated using eight microsatellite markers from the International Society for Animal Genetics panel. Our data showed that this Appaloosa horse population had an elevated degree of genetic diversity (He= 0.746 and did not present a significant increase of homozygous individuals (FIS~0. However, the short tandem repeats, AHT5, ASB2, HTG10 and VHL20, were not in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P-value<0.05. Genetic relationships between this population and other well known horse breeds showed that Appaloosa horses from Argentina could have had their origin in the horses of the Nez Perce's people in Idaho while other Appaloosa horses may have had influences from Andalusian and Lusitano breeds. This closed breeding population conserves an important degree of Appaloosa genetic diversity and notwithstanding its particular breeding characteristics, represents a valuable genetic resource for conservation.

  1. Amino acid composition of lamb meat from the North East Bulgarian fine fleece breed and its crossbreds with Australian merino and Ile de France from internal breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Slavov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A comparative analysis of amino acid composition of lamb meat from the North East Bulgarian fine fleece breed (I gr. and its crossbreds from internal breeding with 25% heredity from the Australian merino (II gr. and Ile de France (III gr. breeds was conducted. Upon starting the experiment lambs were equal and during the experiment they were placed under similar conditions of feeding and rearing. To establish the amino acid composition of meat slaughter analyses were performed at 100 and 130 days of age. From the carcass of each slaughtered animal individual mean samples were taken. Studies were carried out in the Research Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture at Trakia University. As a result of the studies the following conclusions were made: ¼ Ile de France crossbreds in a sophisticated crossing have the highest total amino acid content, including essential amino acids in the meat of 100- and 130-day-old lambs, 6.87% and 7.36%, respectively. The lysine/arginine ratio, relating to protein atherogenicity, varies within narrow ranges among groups and marks slight increase with age – from 1.31-1.37 at 100 days to 1.41-1.46 at 130 days. With the increase of age in crossbreds from internal breeding total protein amino acid content grows, that being most prominent in lambs from the III group – from 41.92 to 43.49%. The values of total protein indices increase compared to the reference protein (from 117.97% to 118.22% for II group and from 116.44% to 120.80% for III group and the whole egg protein (from 89.39% to 91.92% for II group and from 90.53% to 93.93 for III group. It has been found that internal breeding of crossbreds with 25% heredity from the Ile de France breed has positive effect concerning the total amino acid content of lamb meat at 100 and 130 days of age, essential amino acid content in it and the levels of total amino acid indices. Internal breeding of crossbreds with 25% heredity from the Australian merino breed

  2. Conservation genetics of an endangered Catalonian cattle breed ("Alberes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jordana

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We biochemically analyzed and characterized the genetic structure of a population in danger of extinction ,"Alberes", a local cattle breed of the Catalonian Pyrenees (Spain and France. Ninety-two individuals were analyzed for five polymorphic genetic loci (Hb, Alb, Tf, Gc and Ptf2. The animals were grouped according to coat color: Fagina Alberes variety (N = 39 and Black Alberes variety (N = 53. The genetic structures and relationships between these subpopulations and one "outgroup" breed ("Bruna dels Pirineus" were analyzed and compared by using F-statistics. We determined that inbreeding in the Alberes breed is not significant, since negative and nonsignificant FIT and FIS values were obtained. The average genetic differentiation between subpopulations within the Alberes breed was 1.5% (FST = 0.015; P A estrutura génetica de uma população de Alberes, uma raça de gado dos Pirineus catalônicos (Espanha e França em risco de extinção, foi analisada e caracterizada bioquimicamente. Noventa e dois indivíduos foram analisados para 5 loci genéticos polimórficos (Hb, Alb, Tf, Gc e Ptf2. Os animais foram agrupados de acordo com a cor do pêlo: variedade Fagina Alberes (N = 39 e Black Alberes (N = 53. As estruturas genéticas e as relações entre estas subpopulações e uma raça extra ("Bruna dels Pirineus" foram analisadas e comparadas pela estatística F. A endogamia na raça Alberes não foi significante, pois foram obtidos valores FIT e FIS negativos e não significantes. A diferenciação genética média entre as subpopulações dentro da raça Alberes foi 1,5% (FST = 0,015; P < 0,05, com um número efetivo de 4,1 indivíduos trocados entre as subpopulações por geração (fluxo de gene. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo confirmaram o perigo potencial de extinção da raça. A variedade Black Alberes é sugerida como o principal núcleo de conservação genética para esta raça, pois parece mostrar maior grau de isolamento gen

  3. Investment, regulation, and uncertainty: managing new plant breeding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; McDonald, Jillian; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2014-01-01

    As with any technological innovation, time refines the technology, improving upon the original version of the innovative product. The initial GM crops had single traits for either herbicide tolerance or insect resistance. Current varieties have both of these traits stacked together and in many cases other abiotic and biotic traits have also been stacked. This innovation requires investment. While this is relatively straight forward, certain conditions need to exist such that investments can be facilitated. The principle requirement for investment is that regulatory frameworks render consistent and timely decisions. If the certainty of regulatory outcomes weakens, the potential for changes in investment patterns increases.   This article provides a summary background to the leading plant breeding technologies that are either currently being used to develop new crop varieties or are in the pipeline to be applied to plant breeding within the next few years. Challenges for existing regulatory systems are highlighted. Utilizing an option value approach from investment literature, an assessment of uncertainty regarding the regulatory approval for these varying techniques is undertaken. This research highlights which technology development options have the greatest degree of uncertainty and hence, which ones might be expected to see an investment decline.

  4. Genetic Diversity of Bali Cattle Based on Microsatellite Marker in Indonesian Breeding Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Septian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetics characterization in livestock based on microsatellite has been widely implemented including for Bali cattle in three different breeding centres in Indonesia. This study aimed to determine diversity of Bali cattle microsatellites in three breeding centers namely BPTU Bali cattle in Bali, BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa in West Nusa Tenggara, and Village Breeding Center in South Sulawesi. The number of animals used in this study was 95 head of cattle consisted of 32 heads from BPTU Bali Province, 32 heads from BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa, and 31 heads from Village Barru Breeding Center Barru distric. Microsatellite loci used to determine the diversity was the locus SPS115, INRA037, MM12, and ETH185 based on flourescently labeled fragment method. Data analysis of microsatellite in Bali cattle at three different locations was performed by using POPGEN 1.2, Cervus, and POPTREE2 programs. The results showed that microsatellite diversity in Bali cattle detected 32 alleles from three different locations, and there were specific alleles at each location. Average values of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He were 0.418 and 0.604 respectively, while the average value of polymorphism informative content (PIC was 0.579. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in general suggested that the loci used in the Bali cattle in three populations were in equilibrium, except INRA037 and ETH185. The genetic diversity between populations of Bali cattle was 0.033 (3%, while the inbreeding coefficient index in all populations was 0.296 (29.6 %. Bali cattle phylogeny tree with three populations showed that the populations of Bali cattle in BPTU Bali and VBC Barru had close genetic distance compared to the population of Bali cattle in BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa. The results of this study provide information that the characteristics of Bali cattle breeding centers in three locations are different, so we need a directed breeding program in each population.

  5. Electrocardiogram pattern of some exotic breeds of trained dogs: A variation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydip Mukherjee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study has been conducted to evaluate the variation in electrocardiogram (ECG parameters among different trained breeds of dogs (viz. Labrador, German Shepherd, and Golden Retriever used for security reasons. Materials and Methods: The ECG was recorded by single channel ECG at a paper speed of 25 mm/s and calibration of 10 mm=1 mV. The recordings were taken from all the standard bipolar limb leads (Lead-I, II, and III and unipolar augmented limb leads (Lead-aVR, aVL, and aVF. Results: Heart rate was found to be highest in Labrador and lowest in German Shepherd. P-wave duration was maximum in Golden Retriever breed and lowest in Labrador. Maximum amplitude of P-wave was found in Labrador followed by German Shepherd and Golden Retriever. There was significantly (p<0.05 higher values of PR interval in German Shepherd compared to other breeds. The variation in QRS duration, ST segment duration, T-wave duration, and T-wave amplitude was found to be non-significant among breeds. Inverted T-waves were most common in Golden Retriever and German Shepherd, whereas positive T-waves were found in Labrador. There was significant (p<0.05 variation in mean electrical axis of QRS complex among different breeds and it ranges from +60° to +80°. Conclusion: The present study provides the reference values for different ECG parameters to monitor the cardiac health status among Labrador, German Shepherd, and Golden Retriever breeds.

  6. Differential migration and the link between winter latitude, timing of migration, and breeding in a songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Bradley K; Newman, Amy E M; Turbek, Sheela P; Dossman, Bryant C; Hobson, Keith A; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Mitchell, Greg W; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T; Norris, D Ryan

    2016-06-01

    Patterns of connectivity between breeding and wintering grounds can have important implications for individual fitness and population dynamics. Using light-level geolocators and stable hydrogen isotopes (δ(2)H) in feathers, we evaluated differential migration of Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) breeding on Kent Island in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada in relation to sex, age, and body size. Based on geolocators recovered from 38 individuals between 2012 and 2014, the winter distribution was centered in North Carolina (median latitude 34°, range 26°-41°), with males overwintering, on average, approximately 275 km further north than females. Based on analyses of tail feather samples collected from 106 individuals from the same population between 2008 and 2012, males and adults had more negative δ(2)H values than females and juveniles, respectively, providing additional evidence that males wintered north of females and that adults wintered north of juveniles. Winter latitude and δ(2)H values within each sex were not found to be related to body size. From geolocator data, males returned to the breeding grounds, on average, 14 days earlier than females. For males, there was some evidence that arrival date on the breeding grounds was negatively correlated with winter latitude and that individuals which arrived earlier tended to breed earlier. Thus, benefits for males of early arrival on the breeding grounds may have contributed to their wintering farther north than females. Social dominance may also have contributed to age and sex differences in winter latitude, whereby dominant males and adults forced subordinate females and juveniles further south.

  7. Reproductive performance of different breeds of broiler rabbits under sub-temperate climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the effect of breed, season, age and weight of doe at mating on reproductive performance of 4 broiler rabbit breeds, Grey Giant, White Giant, Soviet Chinchilla, and New Zealand White, reared under standard management practices in sub-temperate climatic conditions of India. They were first mated at 6 to 7 mo of age, whereupon an extensive breeding system (re-mating after weaning was followed. Weaning was done 42 d after kindling. The data from the records on reproduction consisting of 503 matings and 377 kindlings were analysed. The parameters considered were fertility rate, litter size at birth (LSB, litter weight at birth (LWB, litter size at weaning (LSW, litter weight at weaning (LWW, doe weight at mating (DWM, gestation length and sex ratio. Among 4 breeds, the LSB, LWB and LSW were higher in Grey Giant followed by White Giant, Soviet Chinchilla and New Zealand White. The LSB and LSW in Grey Giant breed differed significantly (P<0.05 from Soviet Chinchilla and New Zealand White. Season had significant (P<0.05 effect on LSW with higher values during spring (5.68±0.24, followed by summer (5.29±0.30, winter (5.13±0.25 and autumn (4.17±0.49. The body weight of doe at service significantly influenced fertility. The fertility increased as body weight increased. The age of the doe at mating had a significant effect on LSW, with higher values for does more than 2 yr and less than 1 yr old compared to 1- to 2-yr old does. The parity did not affect any of the parameters studied. It is concluded that the factors studied affect the reproductive performance of rabbit does. Grey Giant breed showed the highest litter size at birth and weaning, and the highest litter size and weight at weaning was in spring.

  8. Achievements in NS rapeseed hybrids breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is evident on a global scale, but also in Serbia in the last decade. Rapeseed is used primarily for vegetable oil and processing industry, but also as a source of protein for animal feed and green manure. Following the cultivation of varieties, breeding and cultivation of hybrid rapeseed started in the 1990's, to take advantage of heterosis in F1 generation, while protecting the breeder's rights during seed commercialization. The breeding of hybrid oilseed rape requires high quality starting material (lines with good combining abilities for introduction of male sterility. Ogura sterility system is primarily used at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. To use this system, separate lines are modified with genes for cytoplasmic male sterility (cms female line - mother line and restoration of fertility (Rf male lines - father line. In order to maintain the sterility of the mother line it is necessary to produce a maintainer line of cytoplasmic male sterility. Creation of these lines and hybrids at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops was successfully monitored with intense use of cytogenetic laboratory methods. The structure and vitality of pollen, including different phases during meiosis were checked so that cms stability was confirmed during the introduction of these genes into different lines. Rapeseed breeding program in Serbia resulted in numerous varieties through collaboration of researchers engaged in breeding and genetics of this plant species. So far, in addition to 12 varieties of winter rapeseed and two varieties of spring rapeseed, a new hybrid of winter rapeseed NS Ras was registered in Serbia. NS Ras is an early-maturing hybrid characterized by high seed yield and oil content. Average yield of NS Ras for two seasons and three sites was 4256 kg ha-1 of seed and 1704 kg ha-1 of oil. Three promising winter rapeseed hybrids are in the process of

  9. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: II. Process efficiency in event pyramiding and trait fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ting; Sun, Xiaochun; Mumm, Rita H

    2014-01-01

    Multiple trait integration (MTI) is a multi-step process of converting an elite variety/hybrid for value-added traits (e.g. transgenic events) through backcross breeding. From a breeding standpoint, MTI involves four steps: single event introgression, event pyramiding, trait fixation, and version testing. This study explores the feasibility of marker-aided backcross conversion of a target maize hybrid for 15 transgenic events in the light of the overall goal of MTI of recovering equivalent performance in the finished hybrid conversion along with reliable expression of the value-added traits. Using the results to optimize single event introgression (Peng et al. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: I. Minimizing linkage drag in single event introgression. Mol Breed, 2013) which produced single event conversions of recurrent parents (RPs) with ≤8 cM of residual non-recurrent parent (NRP) germplasm with ~1 cM of NRP germplasm in the 20 cM regions flanking the event, this study focused on optimizing process efficiency in the second and third steps in MTI: event pyramiding and trait fixation. Using computer simulation and probability theory, we aimed to (1) fit an optimal breeding strategy for pyramiding of eight events into the female RP and seven in the male RP, and (2) identify optimal breeding strategies for trait fixation to create a 'finished' conversion of each RP homozygous for all events. In addition, next-generation seed needs were taken into account for a practical approach to process efficiency. Building on work by Ishii and Yonezawa (Optimization of the marker-based procedures for pyramiding genes from multiple donor lines: I. Schedule of crossing between the donor lines. Crop Sci 47:537-546, 2007a), a symmetric crossing schedule for event pyramiding was devised for stacking eight (seven) events in a given RP. Options for trait fixation breeding strategies considered selfing and doubled haploid approaches to achieve homozygosity

  10. 78 FR 45494 - Plant Breeding Listening Session meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Plant Breeding Listening Session meeting ACTION: Notice of a Plant Breeding Listening Session Meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of the Chief Scientist of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) announces a Plant Breeding Listening Session stakeholder meeting for all interested plant...

  11. THE BREEDING CYCLE OF MALE LIZA DUMERILI (TELEOSTEI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breeding cycle of male Liza dumerili was studied in the Swartkops Estuary using a visual index, a gonosomatic index and a histological index. Histological studies were superior to any other means of establishing the breeding cycle in detail. Male fISh were in the inactive or non-breeding state during the winter months.

  12. Nesting success and within-season breeding dispersal in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here we report breeding data from a population of Orange-breasted Sunbirds Anthobaphes violacea (L.), for a single breeding season in the Jonkershoek Nature Reserve, South Africa. Neither shrub type nor nest height was found to affect the outcome of a nest. For subsequent breeding attempts, birds were not more likely ...

  13. Comparison of Vietnamese and European pig breeds using microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, N T D; Melchinger-Wild, E; Kuss, A W; Cuong, N V; Bartenschlager, H; Geldermann, H

    2006-10-01

    This study characterized autochthonous pig breeds of Vietnam and compared them with breeds from other regions. A total of 343 animals were considered from 5 indigenous pig breeds of Vietnam (Muong Khuong, Co, Meo, Tap Na, and Mong Cai), 2 exotic breeds kept in Vietnam (Landrace and Yorkshire), 3 European commercial breeds (German Land-race, Piétrain, and Large White), the Chinese breed Meishan, and the European Wild Boar. Each individual was genotyped for 20 selected polymorphic microsatellite loci. The Vietnamese autochthonous breeds showed higher degrees of polymorphism, allelic diversity, and heterozygosity than the other pig breeds. Also, large genetic diversity was observed across the area of distribution, with village-specific subpopulations, which led to significant inbreeding coefficients. As expected, genetic distances showed large differences among European-based, Chinese, and Vietnamese indigenous breeds and reflected the geographical distribution of breeds. In comparison with the European breeds, the Vietnamese indigenous pig breeds harbored a considerable amount of genetic diversity and, therefore, will be of significance for livestock bioconservation.

  14. Short Note Breeding phenology and moult of the endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breeding phenology and moult cycle of the vulnerable and range-restricted Bannerman's Weaver Ploceus bannermani was studied on the Obudu Plateau in the eastern region of Nigeria. The peak breeding season was between August and October; a major cause of breeding failure was egg predation by children.

  15. Genetics similarity among four breeds of goat in Saudi Arabia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... share about 73.5% genetic similarity, while Habsi and Masri goat breeds were closer to each other more than the previous two breeds, where they share about 82.5% of genetic similarity. Key words: Goats, breeds, RAPD, genetic similarity. INTRODUCTION. Goats were among the first farm animals to be.

  16. The Pedigree Dog Breeding Debate in Ethics and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenkerk, Bernice; Nijland, Hanneke J.

    2017-01-01

    Pedigree dog breeding has been the subject of public debate due to health problems caused by breeding for extreme looks and the narrow genepool of many breeds. Our research aims to provide insights in order to further the animal-ethical, political and society-wide discussion regarding the future of

  17. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Altarriba, Juan; Díaz, Clara; Quintanilla, Raquel; Cañón, Javier; Piedrafita, Jesús

    2003-01-01

    The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds) of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds), Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination), and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127), especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163). PMID:12605850

  18. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañón Javier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds, Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination, and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127, especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163.

  19. The use of clones and dairy cattle breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to determine a breeding scheme that optimally uses large scale production of genetically identical individuals (clones) in dairy cattle. Such a breeding scheme should optimize the continuous genetic improvement of the breeding population (genetic response), and

  20. Leukocyte profile of different breeds of the Nigerian cattle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An examination of the leukocyte profile of different breeds of cattle was carried out to determine the effects of haemoparasites, sex aand breed on the leukoctes. The effects of haemoparasite, sex and breed on the leukocytes were determined using parasitological methods. A total of 452 cattle comprising of 174 cows and ...

  1. Observations on the breeding biology of the Seychelles Fody on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observations on the breeding biology of the Seychelles Fody on Cousine Island. ... Breeding pairs form small, probably temporary, territories that are defended by both partners against other fodies, including the introduced Madagascar Fody, Foudia madagascariensis. The Seychelles Fody often breeds semi-colonially and ...

  2. Inbreeding in the Danish populations of five Nordic sheep breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark there are small populations of five Nordic sheep breeds, two of which are Danish in origin. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in inbreeding for these breeds. All five breeds have been recording pedigrees for decades, so pedigree completeness is adequate. The rate...

  3. Breeding objectives for Angus and Charolais specialized sire lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding indigenous cows to terminal sires may facilitate production of calves in the emerging sector that better meet commercial feedlot requirements. Thus, the objective of this research was to develop breeding objectives for Angus and Charolais terminal sires to be used in breeding Afrikaner, Bonsmara, and Nguni cows.

  4. Value Investing

    OpenAIRE

    Kubínyi, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis deals with value investing in the form defined by Benjamin Graham. In clarifying the theoretical aspects, particular attention is given to an intrinsic value of stocks and to its calculation methods. A way to overcome the deficiencies in the two most widely used models of calculation is introduced. It is value screening, which by defining of certain criteria makes an assumption of undervalued stocks. Then the investment approach of the most successful investor, Warren B...

  5. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.

    2008-01-01

    The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local...... and use and weed competition. These and other characters need to be considered in relation to the OA cropping system over the whole rotation. Positive interactions are needed, such as early crop vigour for nutrient uptake, weed competition and disease resistance. Incorporation of all characteristics...... into the crop can be helped by diversification within the crop, allowing complementation and compensation among plants. Although the problems of breeding cereals for organic farming systems are large, there is encouraging progress. This lies in applications of ecology to organic crop production, innovations...

  6. Studies on mutant breeding of Hibiscus syriacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Kim, Young Taik

    1997-01-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has such a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plant exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Many domestic 91 varieties of Hibiscus syriacus were collected. Radiosensitivity of H. Syriacus irradiated with {gamma}-ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45% in 5KR irradiated group, compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5KR could be recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Radiosensitivity of {gamma}-ray irradiated Hibiscus seed were investigated. The germination rate, survival rate and plant height was better in the 4KR irradiation plot than control. The radiation dose of 10{approx}12KR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang, Wolsan no. 176, Ilpyondansim, Emille, Hanol, Yongkwang, Saeyongkwang, Chungmu, Imjinhong, Arang, Hungdansim-1 and Hongdansim-2. (author). 66 refs., 16 tabs., 13 figs.

  7. GENETIC VARIATION IN THREE BREEDS OF INDONESIAN LOCAL DUCKS BASED ON BLOOD AND EGG WHITE PROTEIN POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Johari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation of four blood protein loci and three egg white loci in three breeds of Indonesian local ducks (Magelang duck = MAD, Tegal duck = TED and Mojosari duck= MOD was investigated by using polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The result showed that four blood protein loci (Pre-albumin, Albumin, Transferrin and Post-transferrin and three egg white loci (Ovalbumin, Ovoglobulin and Conalbumin were found to be polymorphic in three breeds of local ducks. There was no difference on blood and egg white protein polyimorphism. The average value of heterozygosity on three breeds of local ducks had a genetic potential to determine the controlled mating system and selection to obtain pure line. The closest phylogenetic relationship among the three breeds of local ducks occurred between MAD and TED.

  8. GENETIC VARIATION IN THREE BREEDS OF INDONESIAN LOCAL DUCKS BASED ON BLOOD AND EGG WHITE PROTEIN POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Johari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation of four blood protein loci and three egg white loci in three breeds ofIndonesian local ducks (Magelang duck = MAD, Tegal duck = TED and Mojosari duck= MOD wasinvestigated by using polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The result showed that four bloodprotein loci (Pre-albumin, Albumin, Transferrin and Post-transferrin and three egg white loci(Ovalbumin, Ovoglobulin and Conalbumin were found to be polymorphic in three breeds of localducks. There was no difference on blood and egg white protein polyimorphism. The average value ofheterozygosity on three breeds of local ducks had a genetic potential to determine the controlled matingsystem and selection to obtain pure line. The closest phylogenetic relationship among the three breeds oflocal ducks occurred between MAD and TED.

  9. Genetic rescue of an endangered domestic animal through outcrossing with closely related breeds: A case study of the Norwegian Lundehund.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid V Stronen

    Full Text Available Genetic rescue, outcrossing with individuals from a related population, is used to augment genetic diversity in populations threatened by severe inbreeding and extinction. The endangered Norwegian Lundehund dog underwent at least two severe bottlenecks in the 1940s and 1960s that each left only five inbred dogs, and the approximately 1500 dogs remaining world-wide today appear to descend from only two individuals. The Lundehund has a high prevalence of a gastrointestinal disease, to which all remaining dogs may be predisposed. Outcrossing is currently performed with three Nordic Spitz breeds: Norwegian Buhund, Icelandic Sheepdog, and Norrbottenspets. Examination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotypes based on 165K loci in 48 dogs from the four breeds revealed substantially lower genetic diversity for the Lundehund (HE 0.035 than for other breeds (HE 0.209-0.284. Analyses of genetic structure with > 15K linkage disequilibrium-pruned SNPs showed four distinct genetic clusters. Pairwise FST values between Lundehund and the candidate breeds were highest for Icelandic Sheepdog, followed by Buhund and Norrbottenspets. We assessed the presence of outlier loci among candidate breeds and examined flanking genome regions (1 megabase for genes under possible selection to identify potential adaptive differences among breeds; outliers were observed in flanking regions of genes associated with key functions including the immune system, metabolism, cognition and physical development. We suggest crossbreeding with multiple breeds as the best strategy to increase genetic diversity for the Lundehund and to reduce the incidence of health problems. For this project, the three candidate breeds were first selected based on phenotypes and then subjected to genetic investigation. Because phenotypes are often paramount for domestic breed owners, such a strategy could provide a helpful approach for genetic rescue and restoration of other domestic populations at

  10. Genetic rescue of an endangered domestic animal through outcrossing with closely related breeds: A case study of the Norwegian Lundehund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid V; Salmela, Elina; Baldursdóttir, Birna K; Berg, Peer; Espelien, Ingvild S; Järvi, Kirsi; Jensen, Henrik; Kristensen, Torsten N; Melis, Claudia; Manenti, Tommaso; Lohi, Hannes; Pertoldi, Cino

    2017-01-01

    Genetic rescue, outcrossing with individuals from a related population, is used to augment genetic diversity in populations threatened by severe inbreeding and extinction. The endangered Norwegian Lundehund dog underwent at least two severe bottlenecks in the 1940s and 1960s that each left only five inbred dogs, and the approximately 1500 dogs remaining world-wide today appear to descend from only two individuals. The Lundehund has a high prevalence of a gastrointestinal disease, to which all remaining dogs may be predisposed. Outcrossing is currently performed with three Nordic Spitz breeds: Norwegian Buhund, Icelandic Sheepdog, and Norrbottenspets. Examination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes based on 165K loci in 48 dogs from the four breeds revealed substantially lower genetic diversity for the Lundehund (HE 0.035) than for other breeds (HE 0.209-0.284). Analyses of genetic structure with > 15K linkage disequilibrium-pruned SNPs showed four distinct genetic clusters. Pairwise FST values between Lundehund and the candidate breeds were highest for Icelandic Sheepdog, followed by Buhund and Norrbottenspets. We assessed the presence of outlier loci among candidate breeds and examined flanking genome regions (1 megabase) for genes under possible selection to identify potential adaptive differences among breeds; outliers were observed in flanking regions of genes associated with key functions including the immune system, metabolism, cognition and physical development. We suggest crossbreeding with multiple breeds as the best strategy to increase genetic diversity for the Lundehund and to reduce the incidence of health problems. For this project, the three candidate breeds were first selected based on phenotypes and then subjected to genetic investigation. Because phenotypes are often paramount for domestic breed owners, such a strategy could provide a helpful approach for genetic rescue and restoration of other domestic populations at risk, by

  11. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2008 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 16 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects of weaning weight and among 8 of the 16 breeds for carcass marbling, ribeye area, and f...

  12. Genetic comparison of breeding schemes based on semen importation and local breeding schemes: Framework and application to Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Local breeding schemes for Holstein cattle of Costa Rica were compared with the current practice based on continuous semen importation (SI) by deterministic simulation. Comparison was made on the basis of genetic response and correlation between breeding goals. A local breeding goal was defined on

  13. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Eissen, J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows, respectively. The aim of this thesis is to study the actual feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows in relation to their potential for production and reproduction in order to get a bet...

  14. STOCK BREEDING IN TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Knežević

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Stock Breeding in Tropical and Subtropical Conditions contains the following chapters: General part, Cattle and camels, Sheep and goats, Horses, donkeys, mules and hinnies, Index and Appendix with photographs of domestic animals in tropical and subtropical area. The textbook is written for students of the Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek and serves as a reading recommended within the module of the same title. Since 1997, when this module was introduced to curriculum as an elective course, students have showed great interest for gaining knowledge on cattle breeding in specific tropical and subtropical conditions. They prepared numerous seminary papers and final theses on the mentioned topic. Gaining of such knowledge contributes to openness and mobility of students to other European universities, which further promotes Bologna Process principles. The textbook covers all topics that are planned to be elaborated within the module. The handbook content is divided into two parts. The first part overviews numerous problems that producers of cattle in tropical and subtropical conditions are faced with. Some of those problems are also present in Croatia, especially in the warmer part of a year, becoming more obvious because of global climatic changes. Some breeds of cattle typical for tropical and subtropical areas are presented in the second part of the textbook within three chapters (Cattle and camels, Sheep and goats, Horses, donkeys, mules and hinnies. According to historical records, some of these animals, such as buffalos lived in our areas, particularly in Slavonia, while some other breeds live today across Europe and are treated as exotic animals.

  15. Growth- and breed-related changes of muscle fiber characteristics in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, J; Albrecht, E; Fiedler, I; Teuscher, F; Papstein, H J; Ender, K

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the growth- and breed-related changes of muscle fiber characteristics in cattle and their importance to meat quality. Four cattle breeds with different growth impetus and muscularity were reared and slaughtered under experimental conditions. German Angus as a beef type, Galloway as a hardy type, Holstein Friesian as a dairy type, and double-muscled Belgian Blue as an extreme type for muscle growth were used. Between 5 and 17 bulls of each breed were slaughtered at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo of age. Muscle fiber traits were determined and classified by computerized image analysis, and several measures of meat quality were also determined, including shear force value, meat color, and i.m. fat content. The postnatal growth of semitendinosus muscle in cattle was characterized by a nearly 10-fold increase of muscle fiber area from birth to 24 mo of age. In the first few months after birth, a transformation of type IIA fibers into IIB fibers was found, whereas type I fibers were nearly unaffected by age. The apparent total muscle fiber number of semitendinosus muscle did not increase during postnatal life. These results confirm that the fiber number is determined in embryonic development. Throughout the study, the double-muscled Belgian Blue (BBDM) bulls had almost twice the fiber number of the other breeds, emphasizing a more extensive hyperplasia of muscle fibers during embryonic development in BBDM compared with the other three breeds. The apparent number of type I fibers was, however, not affected by breed, which suggests that the additional fibers found in BBDM postnatally were type IIB and IIA fibers. We did not find significant differences in muscle fiber total number, muscle fiber type frequencies, or meat quality characteristics among breeds, with the exception of BBDM. Having pooled the four breeds, paler meat was related to a higher frequency of type IIB fibers, a lower area of type IIA and type I fiber, and a

  16. The ecology of cooperative breeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sheng-Feng; Emlen, Stephen T; Koenig, Walter D; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2017-06-01

    Ecology is a fundamental driving force for the evolutionary transition from solitary living to breeding cooperatively in groups. However, the fact that both benign and harsh, as well as stable and fluctuating, environments can favour the evolution of cooperative breeding behaviour constitutes a paradox of environmental quality and sociality. Here, we propose a new model - the dual benefits framework - for resolving this paradox. Our framework distinguishes between two categories of grouping benefits - resource defence benefits that derive from group-defended critical resources and collective action benefits that result from social cooperation among group members - and uses insider-outsider conflict theory to simultaneously consider the interests of current group members (insiders) and potential joiners (outsiders) in determining optimal group size. We argue that the different grouping benefits realised from resource defence and collective action profoundly affect insider-outsider conflict resolution, resulting in predictable differences in the per capita productivity, stable group size, kin structure and stability of the social group. We also suggest that different types of environmental variation (spatial vs. temporal) select for societies that form because of the different grouping benefits, thus helping to resolve the paradox of why cooperative breeding evolves in such different types of environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  17. The Pedigree Dog Breeding Debate in Ethics and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bovenkerk, Bernice; Nijland, Hanneke J.

    2017-01-01

    Pedigree dog breeding has been the subject of public debate due to health problems caused by breeding for extreme looks and the narrow genepool of many breeds. Our research aims to provide insights in order to further the animal-ethical, political and society-wide discussion regarding the future of pedigree dog breeding in the Netherlands. Guided by the question ‘How far are we allowed to interfere in the genetic make-up of dogs, through breeding and genetic modification?’, we carried out a m...

  18. Genetic variability of Lizard canary breed inferred from pedigree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Francesca; Ciampolini, Roberta; Giacalone, Gianluca; Paci, Gisella

    2014-09-01

    The genealogical data of 471 (whole population: WP) Lizard canaries of an Italian breeder were analyzed to evaluate the genetic variability of the breed. The reference population (RP) comprised 346 living reproductive birds. Average generation interval was 1.61 ± 0.718 for males and 1.72 ± 0.863 for females. The average value of inbreeding (F) and relatedness (AR) in the RP were 15.83% and 22.63%, while the average increase in inbreeding was estimated to be 6.71% per generation (effective population size = 7.49). The results showed the need to reduce the level of inbreeding which would result in significant loss of genetic variation and in significant inbreeding depression. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Are we ready for back-to-nature crop breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Michael G; Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Landes, Xavier; Østerberg, Jeppe Thulin; Falhof, Janus; Olsen, Lene Irene; Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian; Kappel, Klemens; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Pagh, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Sustainable agriculture in response to increasing demands for food depends on development of high-yielding crops with high nutritional value that require minimal intervention during growth. To date, the focus has been on changing plants by introducing genes that impart new properties, which the plants and their ancestors never possessed. By contrast, we suggest another potentially beneficial and perhaps less controversial strategy that modern plant biotechnology may adopt. This approach, which broadens earlier approaches to reverse breeding, aims to furnish crops with lost properties that their ancestors once possessed in order to tolerate adverse environmental conditions. What molecular techniques are available for implementing such rewilding? Are the strategies legally, socially, economically, and ethically feasible? These are the questions addressed in this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Deuterium-tritium fusion reactors without external tritium breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliezer, S. [Soreq Nucl. Res. Center, Yavne (Israel). Dept. of Plasma Phys.]|[Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, Madrid (Spain); Henis, Z. [Soreq Nucl. Res. Center, Yavne (Israel). Dept. of Plasma Phys.; Martinez-Val, J.M. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, Madrid (Spain); Piera, M. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, Madrid (Spain)]|[UNED, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-07-06

    An inherent property of deuterium fusion burn-up equations is presented, due to which deuterium-tritium reactions can be exploited without needing tritium breeding in external blankets. A small amount of tritium is added to the deuterium plasma in order to trigger ignition at less than 10 keV, and the same amount of tritium is found in the debris of the burnt-up plasma if the burning temperature is higher than 200 keV. Plasma parameters to exploit this property are very similar to those of inertial fusion confinement. Tritium inventory in a reactor would thus be reduced to a minimum value, because the initial composition of the fuel would be of the type DT{sub x}, with x{approx}0.02, and tritium would immediately be reprocessed to fabricate new fuel. (orig.) 13 refs.

  1. [Breeding of new Curcuma wenyujin variety "Wenyujin No. 1"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zheng-Ming; Jiang, Wu; Zheng, Fu-Bo; Wu, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    In order to breed and spread a new cultivar of Curcuma wenyujin, the C. wenyujin germplasm resources were investigated in authentic regions. Better varieties were chosen by comparing the yield, economic characters and quality differences between different cultivars. The results showed that the character of new selected cultivar was stable, the yield of zedoary, turmeric and curcuma was reached 313.7, 177.9, 91.2 kg per 667 m2, respectively, it increased 11.6%, 10.2%, 14.2% comparing with farmer varieties. The volatile oil contents in zedoary and turmeric was 4.0%, 3.0%, respectively. The target ingredients (germacrone) content was stable. It is demonstrated that the new cultivar "Wenyujin No. 1" has value for extension at authentic regions.

  2. A Pebble-Bed Breed-and-Burn Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, Ehud [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The primary objective of this project is to use three-dimensional fuel shuffling in order to reduce the minimum peak radiation damage of ~550 dpa present Breed-and-Burn (B&B) fast nuclear reactor cores designs (they feature 2-D fuel shuffling) call for to as close as possible to the presently accepted value of 200 dpa thereby enabling earlier commercialization of B&B reactors which could make substantial contribution to energy sustainability and economic stability without need for fuel recycling. Another objective is increasing the average discharge burnup for the same peak discharge burnup thereby (1) increasing the fuel utilization of 2-D shuffled B&B reactors and (2) reducing the reprocessing capacity required to support a given capacity of FRs that are to recycle fuel.

  3. Characterizing physiological status in three breeds of bulls reared under ecological and climate conditions of the Altai region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Osadchuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and climatic factors have an impact on the health, productivity and reproduction of the cattle. The goal of this work is the study of physiological status of servicing bulls reared under ecological and climate conditions of the Altai region, by defining the differences between Red-Steppe, Simmental and Black-and-White breeds in spermatogenic, hormonal, biochemical and hematological parameters. Samples of peripheral blood and ejaculates were taken from 48 grown-up servicing bulls (average age 5.6±0.3 years in autumn period. It was established that Red-Steppe bulls have higher concentrations of nonorganic phosphorus, leucocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in comparison with animals of Simmental breed, and the hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit are also higher in comparison with Black-and-White breed. It was noted that bulls of Black-and-White breed have a higher level of cortisol in comparison with the other breeds. The lowest level of serum urea and total protein and increased serum activity of creatine kinase and γ-glutamyl transferase, as well as the heaviest body weight were observed in Simmental breed bulls. The differences between breeds in a wide spectrum of physiological measures reflect not only genetically determined peculiarities of homeostatic mechanism, but also may reflect different ability to adapt to local ecological and climate conditions of the Altai region. Spermatogenic, biochemical and hematological measures in bull sires reared in the Altai region were similar to those in bulls bred in other Russian regions and some other countries. The measures reported could serve as reference values and therefore represent ‘normal’ values of physiological status for these bull sires reared in this ecological and climatic zone, but could be utilized in further studies for comprehensive monitoring of cattle breeding stock in other ecological and climatic zones of the Siberian

  4. The value of value congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey R; Cable, Daniel M

    2009-05-01

    Research on value congruence has attempted to explain why value congruence leads to positive outcomes, but few of these explanations have been tested empirically. In this article, the authors develop and test a theoretical model that integrates 4 key explanations of value congruence effects, which are framed in terms of communication, predictability, interpersonal attraction, and trust. These constructs are used to explain the process by which value congruence relates to job satisfaction, organizational identification, and intent to stay in the organization, after taking psychological need fulfillment into account. Data from a heterogeneous sample of employees from 4 organizations indicate that the relationships that link individual and organizational values to outcomes are explained primarily by the trust that employees place in the organization and its members, followed by communication, and, to a lesser extent, interpersonal attraction. Polynomial regression analyses reveal that the relationships emanating from individual and organizational values often deviated from the idealized value congruence relationship that underlies previous theory and research. The authors' results also show that individual and organizational values exhibited small but significant relationships with job satisfaction and organizational identification that bypassed the mediators in their model, indicating that additional explanations of value congruence effects should be pursued in future research. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Healthy food from organic wheat: choice of genotypes for production and breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, 40 wheat genotypes were grown in the same soil in organic farming system trials in Alnarp, Sweden. The purpose was to evaluate opportunities for production and breeding of organic wheat of high nutritious value. The results showed a large variation in content of minerals, total tocochromanols and heavy metals in the grain of 40 organically produced wheat genotypes. Principal component and cluster analysis were used as tools for selection of the most suitable genotypes for production and breeding of organic wheat of high nutritious value. No single genotype group was found particularly superior from the studied material to produce this specific type of wheat. However, certain genotypes from different groups were found with promising nutritional characters. The most promising genotypes as related to nutritionally relevant compounds were 6356 spelt, Triticum monococcum, Ölands 17 borst spelt, Lv Dal 16 brun borst and Fylgia. By choosing these genotypes for organic production and future wheat breeding, nutritionally improved organic wheat products might be developed. However, for future breeding, nutritional components such as protein, fibre, glycaemic index and B-group vitamins should also be considered. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Carcase characteristics and qualitative meat traits of three Italian local chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, E; De Marchi, M; Dalvit, C; Molette, C; Remignon, H; Cassandro, M

    2010-10-01

    1. An experiment involving 60 male chickens reared in an organic production system was carried out in order to investigate carcase characteristics and qualitative meat traits of three slow-growing Italian local breeds of chicken (Ermellinata, Padovana and Pepoi). 2. Chicks were randomly selected at hatch, raised together under the same conditions, slaughtered at 190 d of age, dissected for carcase traits, and meat (breast and thigh) stored for subsequent analysis of quality parameters. 3. Ermellinata (EA) chickens were significantly different from Padovana (PA) and Pepoi (PI) chickens for live, carcase and thigh weights. Breeds were also different for breast muscle protein content (EA > PI and PA), shear force (PA PA and EA) values. 4. The CIE system values of lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) evidenced a distinctive darker meat and lighter skin colour of PA breast meat. 5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids composition of breast meat was similar among the analysed breeds. EA had significantly higher saturated but significantly lower monounsaturated fatty acid contents than the other two breeds.

  7. Genetic diversity in some local chicken breeds using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cassandro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic relationships among Veneto native breeds of chickens were studied on the basis of microsatellites polymorphisms. A total of 100 DNA samples from 2 local chicken breeds (45 Robusta Lionata and 43 Robusta Maculata and a commercial broiler line (12 Golden Comet were analyzed using 19 microsatellite markers. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.05 and the expected heterozigosity resulted lower for the local breeds than the broiler line. The Robusta Lionata breed and the broiler line showed a significant deficit and excess of heterozygotes, respectively, deviating from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Nei’s standard genetic distances corrected for bias due to sampling of individuals (Da, based on allele frequencies, were calculated among breeds. The local breeds resulted very similar confirming the same genetic origin. The results suggested that microsatellite markers are a useful tool for studying the genetic diversity among local chicken breeds.

  8. The effects of dog breed development on genetic diversity and the relative influences of performance and conformation breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, N; Liu, H; Theilen, G; Sacks, B

    2013-06-01

    Genetic diversity was compared among eight dog breeds selected primarily for conformation (Standard Poodle, Italian Greyhound and show English Setter), conformation and performance (Brittany), predominantly performance (German Shorthaired and Wirehaired Pointers) or solely performance (field English Setter and Red Setter). Modern village dogs, which better reflect ancestral genetic diversity, were used as the standard. Four to seven maternal and one to two Y haplotypes were found per breed, with one usually dominant. Diversity of maternal haplotypes was greatest in village dogs, intermediate in performance breeds and lowest in conformation breeds. Maternal haplotype sharing occurred across all breeds, while Y haplotypes were more breed specific. Almost all paternal haplotypes were identified among village dogs, with the exception of the dominant Y haplotype in Brittanys, which has not been identified heretofore. The highest heterozygosity based on 24 autosomal microsatellites was found in village dogs and the lowest in conformation (show) breeds. Principal coordinate analysis indicated that conformation-type breeds were distinct from breeds heavily used for performance, the latter clustering more closely with village dogs. The Brittany, a well-established dual show and field breed, was also genetically intermediate between the conformation and performance breeds. The number of DLA-DRB1 alleles varied from 3 to 10 per breed with extensive sharing. SNPs across the wider DLA region were more frequently homozygous in all pure breeds than in village dogs. Compared with their village dog relatives, all modern breed dogs exhibit reduced genetic diversity. Genetic diversity was even more reduced among breeds under selection for show/conformation. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Spatial scale of local breeding habitat quality and adjustment of breeding decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doligez, Blandine; Berthouly, Anne; Doligez, Damien; Tanner, Marion; Saladin, Verena; Bonfils, Danielle; Richner, Heinz

    2008-05-01

    Experimental studies provide evidence that, in spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments, individuals track variation in breeding habitat quality to adjust breeding decisions to local conditions. However, most experiments consider environmental variation at one spatial scale only, while the ability to detect the influence of a factor depends on the scale of analysis. We show that different breeding decisions by adults are based on information about habitat quality at different spatial scales. We manipulated (increased or decreased) local breeding habitat quality through food availability and parasite prevalence at a small (territory) and a large (patch) scale simultaneously in a wild population of Great Tits (Parus major). Females laid earlier in high-quality large-scale patches, but laying date did not depend on small-scale territory quality. Conversely, offspring sex ratio was higher (i.e., biased toward males) in high-quality, small-scale territories but did not depend on large-scale patch quality. Clutch size and territory occupancy probability did not depend on our experimental manipulation of habitat quality, but territories located at the edge of patches were more likely to be occupied than central territories. These results suggest that integrating different decisions taken by breeders according to environmental variation at different spatial scales is required to understand patterns of breeding strategy adjustment.

  10. Mating structures for genomic selection breeding programs in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonesson, Anna K; Ødegård, Jørgen

    2016-06-24

    In traditional family-based aquaculture breeding, each sire is mated to two dams in order to separate the sire's genetic effect from other family effects. Factorial mating involves more mates per sire and/or dam and result in more but smaller full- and/or half-sib families. For traits measured on sibs of selection candidates, factorial mating increases intensity of selection between families when selection is on traditional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) estimated breeding values (TRAD-EBV). However, selection on genome-wide estimated breeding values (GW-EBV), uses both within- and between-family effects and the advantage of factorial mating is less obvious. Our aim was to compare by computer simulation the impact of various factorial mating strategies for truncation selection on TRAD-EBV versus GW-EBV on rates of inbreeding, accuracy of selection and genetic gain for two traits, i.e. one measured on selection candidates (CAND-TRAIT) and one on their sibs (SIB-TRAIT). Sire:dam mating ratios of 1:1, 2:2 or 10:10 were tested with 100, 200 or 1000 families produced from a constant number of parents (100 sires and 100 dams), and a mating ratio of 1:2 with 200 families produced from 100 sires and 200 dams. With GW-EBV, changing the mating ratio from 1:1 to 10:10 had a limited effect on genetic gain (less than 5 %) for both CAND-TRAIT and SIB-TRAIT, whereas with TRAD-EBV, selection intensity increased for SIB-TRAIT and genetic gain increased by 41 and 77 % for schemes with 3000 and 12,000 selection candidates, respectively. For both GW-EBV and TRAD-EBV, rates of inbreeding decreased by up to ~30 % when the mating ratio was changed from 1:1 to 10:10 for schemes with 3000 to 12,000 selection candidates. Similar results were found for alternative heritabilities of SIB-TRAIT and total number of tested sibs. Changing the sire:dam mating ratio from 1:1 to 10:10 increased genetic gain substantially with TRAD-EBV, mainly through increased selection intensity for the

  11. Effect of goat breed on the meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Snežana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of goat meat has recently become an important aspect in the marketing of goats in Serbia. The aim of this study was to compare some goat meat quality parameters of various races and to determine the differences between them. Goat breeds were Balkan goat and Serbian White goat, both female in the age of four years. Analysis of quality parameters: chemical composition (moisture, protein, total fat, ash,, pH value, fatty acids, amino acids, microelements content, tenderness, cooking loss and colour measurements were done. Statistically significant difference was found between the samples of two groups of goat meat (P <0.05 in relation to: live weight (kg, water (%, fat (%, protein (%, ash (%, among 11 of 15 tested fatty acids, amino acid leucin, sensory examination of fresh meat for the palpatory evaluated firmness and in the content of copper and zinc. Statistically significant differences between the groups did not existed regarding the pH value, fatty acids eicosenoic, cis-heptadecenoic, t-elaidic, t-linolelaidic and amino acids alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine. Also there was no statistically significant difference in instrumental testing of the meat color, sensory evaluation of surface color, visual evaluated structure, olfactory evaluated odor and iron and manganese. These results suggest that the race of animal has an impact on meat quality. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31053: Implementation of new biotechnological solutions in breeding of cattle, sheep and goats for the purpose of obtaining biologically valuable and safe food

  12. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  13. Characterization of the genetic profile of five Danish dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertoldi, C; Kristensen, T N; Loeschcke, V; Berg, P; Praebel, A; Stronen, A V; Proschowsky, H F; Fredholm, M

    2013-11-01

    This investigation presents results from a genetic characterization of 5 Danish dog breeds genotyped on the CanineHD BeadChip microarray with 170,000 SNP. The breeds investigated were 1) Danish Spitz (DS; n=8), 2) Danish-Swedish Farm Dog (DSF; n=18), 3) Broholmer (BR; n=22), 4) Old Danish Pointing Dog (ODP; n=24), and 5) Greenland Dog (GD; n=23). The aims of the investigation were to characterize the genetic profile of the abovementioned dog breeds by quantifying the genetic differentiation among them and the degree of genetic homogeneity within breeds. The genetic profile was determined by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and through a Bayesian clustering method. Both the PCA and the Bayesian clustering method revealed a clear genetic separation of the 5 breeds. The level of genetic variation within the breeds varied. The expected heterozygosity (HE) as well as the degree of polymorphism (P%) ranked the dog breeds in the order DS>DSF>BR>ODP>GD. Interestingly, the breed with a tenfold higher census population size compared to the other breeds, the Greenland Dog, had the lowest within-breed genetic variation, emphasizing that census size is a poor predictor of genetic variation. The observed differences in variation among and within dog breeds may be related to factors such as genetic drift, founder effects, genetic admixture, and population bottlenecks. We further examined whether the observed genetic patterns in the 5 dog breeds can be used to design breeding strategies for the preservation of the genetic pool of these dog breeds.

  14. Impact of including growth, carcass and feed efficiency traits in the breeding goal for combined milk and beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, P; Juga, J

    2017-04-01

    Improving feed efficiency in dairy cattle could result in more profitable and environmentally sustainable dairy production through lowering feed costs and emissions from dairy farming. In addition, beef production based on dairy herds generates fewer greenhouse gas emissions per unit of meat output than beef production from suckler cow systems. Different scenarios were used to assess the profitability of adding traits, excluded from the current selection index for Finnish Ayrshire, to the breeding goal for combined dairy and beef production systems. The additional breeding goal traits were growth traits (average daily gain of animals in the fattening and rearing periods), carcass traits (fat covering, fleshiness and dressing percentage), mature live weight (LW) of cows and residual feed intake (RFI) traits. A breeding scheme was modeled for Finnish Ayrshire under the current market situation in Finland using the deterministic simulation software ZPLAN+. With the economic values derived for the current production system, the inclusion of growth and carcass traits, while preventing LW increase generated the highest improvement in the discounted profit of the breeding program (3.7%), followed by the scenario where all additional traits were included simultaneously (5.1%). The use of a selection index that included growth and carcass traits excluding LW, increased the profit (0.8%), but reduced the benefits resulted from breeding for beef traits together with LW. A moderate decrease in the profit of the breeding program was obtained when adding only LW to the breeding goal (-3.1%), whereas, adding only RFI traits to the breeding goal resulted in a minor increase in the profit (1.4%). Including beef traits with LW in the breeding goal showed to be the most potential option to improve the profitability of the combined dairy and beef production systems and would also enable a higher rate of self-sufficiency in beef. When considering feed efficiency related traits, the

  15. Genetic Gain and Inbreeding from Genomic Selection in a Simulated Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zibei Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS provides an attractive option for accelerating genetic gain in perennial ryegrass ( improvement given the long cycle times of most current breeding programs. The present study used simulation to investigate the level of genetic gain and inbreeding obtained from GS breeding strategies compared with traditional breeding strategies for key traits (persistency, yield, and flowering time. Base population genomes were simulated through random mating for 60,000 generations at an effective population size of 10,000. The degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD in the resulting population was compared with that obtained from empirical studies. Initial parental varieties were simulated to match diversity of current commercial cultivars. Genomic selection was designed to fit into a company breeding program at two selection points in the breeding cycle (spaced plants and miniplot. Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs for productivity traits were trained with phenotypes and genotypes from plots. Accuracy of GEBVs was 0.24 for persistency and 0.36 for yield for single plants, while for plots it was lower (0.17 and 0.19, respectively. Higher accuracy of GEBVs was obtained for flowering time (up to 0.7, partially as a result of the larger reference population size that was available from the clonal row stage. The availability of GEBVs permit a 4-yr reduction in cycle time, which led to at least a doubling and trebling genetic gain for persistency and yield, respectively, than the traditional program. However, a higher rate of inbreeding per cycle among varieties was also observed for the GS strategy.

  16. Large forest patches promote breeding success of a terrestrial mammal in urban landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Soga

    Full Text Available Despite a marked increase in the focus toward biodiversity conservation in fragmented landscapes, studies that confirm species breeding success are scarce and limited. In this paper, we asked whether local (area of forest patches and landscape (amount of suitable habitat surrounding of focal patches factors affect the breeding success of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides in Tokyo, Central Japan. The breeding success of raccoon dogs is easy to judge as adults travel with pups during the breeding season. We selected 21 forest patches (3.3-797.8 ha as study sites. In each forest patch, we used infra-red-triggered cameras for a total of 60 camera days per site. We inspected each photo to determine whether it was of an adult or a pup. Although we found adult raccoon dogs in all 21 forest patches, pups were found only in 13 patches. To estimate probability of occurrence and detection for raccoon in 21 forest fragments, we used single season site occupancy models in PRESENCE program. Model selection based on AIC and model averaging showed that the occupancy probability of pups was positively affected by patch area. This result suggests that large forests improve breeding success of raccoon dogs. A major reason for the low habitat value of small, isolated patches may be the low availability of food sources and the high risk of being killed on the roads in such areas. Understanding the effects of local and landscape parameters on species breeding success may help us to devise and implement effective long-term conservation and management plans.

  17. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeremy T; O'Nan, Audrey T; Maltecca, Christian; Baynes, Ronald E; Ashwell, Melissa S

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169) spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15) of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control), flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole and known drug metabolizing genes.

  18. Molecular Genetics of Sex Identification, Breed Ancestry and Polydactyly in the Norwegian Lundehund Breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropatsch, Regina; Melis, Claudia; Stronen, Astrid V; Jensen, Henrik; Epplen, Joerg T

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian Lundehund breed of dog has undergone a severe loss of genetic diversity as a result of inbreeding and epizootics of canine distemper. As a consequence, the breed is extremely homogeneous and accurate sex identification is not always possible by standard screening of X-chromosomal loci. To improve our genetic understanding of the breed we genotyped 17 individuals using a genome-wide array of 170 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Standard analyses based on expected homozygosity of X-chromosomal loci failed in assigning individuals to the correct sex, as determined initially by physical examination and confirmed with the Y-chromosomal marker, amelogenin. This demonstrates that identification of sex using standard SNP assays can be erroneous in highly inbred individuals. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Dairy Cattle Breeding Simulation Program: a simulation program to teach animal breeding principles and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, J F; Ahmadi, A; Casellas, J

    2010-06-01

    A dairy cattle breeding simulation program (DCBSP v.4.9) has been developed to teach undergraduate and graduate students animal breeding principles associated with selection for multiple traits in dairy cattle. The current version of the program was written in FORTRAN 90, and a web-based interface was developed for the students to interact with the program in the teaching environment. This software simulates a population of dairy cattle herds and artificial insemination bulls through several generations by integrating students' decisions about mating, culling, and selection of new heifers and bulls based on a multivariate animal mixed model evaluation and marker-assisted selection. All simulation parameters (e.g., number of herds and cows per herd, variance components, effect of genetic markers) can be defined by the administrator of the program in relation to the animal breeding course. During each running period, the program simulates the composition of each herd during a virtual year, generating new calves and new productive records and performing a genetic evaluation for all productive traits. A herd-specific productive summary of all demographic, productive, and genetic data is provided to the students at the end of each simulation period. After several running periods, the genetic trend can be evaluated, providing a realistic experience for the development of animal breeding skills that will be relevant to students with a basic knowledge of animal breeding. Earlier versions of this program have been used at several universities where it has proven to be a very useful teaching tool to illustrate the theoretical basis of animal breeding in livestock. 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological parameters used in setting captive-breeding quotas for Indonesia's breeding facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Jordi; Chng, Serene C L

    2017-07-03

    The commercial captive breeding of wildlife is often seen as a potential conservation tool to relieve pressure on wild populations, but laundering of wild-sourced specimens as captive bred can seriously undermine conservation efforts and provide a false sense of sustainability. Indonesia is at the center of such controversy; therefore, we examined Indonesia's captive-breeding production plan (CBPP) for 2016. We compared the biological parameters used in the CBPP with parameters in the literature and with parameters suggested by experts on each species and identified shortcomings of the CBPP. Production quotas for 99 out of 129 species were based on inaccurate or unrealistic biological parameters and production quotas deviated more than 10% from what parameters in the literature allow for. For 38 species, the quota exceeded the number of animals that can be bred based on the biological parameters (range 100-540%) calculated with equations in the CBPP. We calculated a lower reproductive output for 88 species based on published biological parameters compared with the parameters used in the CBPP. The equations used in the production plan did not appear to account for other factors (e.g., different survival rate for juveniles compared to adult animals) involved in breeding the proposed large numbers of specimens. We recommend the CBPP be adjusted so that realistic published biological parameters are applied and captive-breeding quotas are not allocated to species if their captive breeding is unlikely to be successful or no breeding stock is available. The shortcomings in the current CBPP create loopholes that mean mammals, reptiles, and amphibians from Indonesia declared captive bred may have been sourced from the wild. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.