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Sample records for breeding program transfer

  1. Cytogenetics and immature embryo culture at Embrapa Trigo breeding program: transfer of disease resistance from related species by artificial resynthesis of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell

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    Maria Irene Baggio de Moraes Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell, 2n = 6X = 42, AABBDD breeding programs aim to reorganize genotypes to achieve better yields, environmental adaptation and food quality. The necessary interdisciplinarity for breeding purposes requires an accurate choice of the most appropriate cellular and/or molecular strategies available to be integrated with agronomic approaches in order to overcome the genetic limitation of each cultivated species, at each agroecosystem. Cytogenetics has given a great contribution to wheat genetic studies and breeding, due to viability of chromosomal variants because of homoeology among genomes in this allohexaploid species and the genus Triticum. The level of development of cytogenetic techniques achieved over the last 60 years has set wheat apart from other cereal crops in terms of possibilities to introduce genetic material from other species. Cytogenetic approaches have been extensively used in chromosomal mapping and/or resistance gene transference from tribe Triticeae-related species. Monosomic analysis, entire chromosomes engineered through single additions and/or substitutions, reciprocal translocation through radiation or manipulation of homoeologous pairing, as well as synthesis of new amphiploids to allow homologous recombination by chiasmata evolved considerably since the past decades. The association of tissue culture and molecular biology techniques provides bread wheat breeding programs with a powerful set of biotechnological tools. However, knowledge on genetic system components, cytotaxonomical relationships, cytogenetic structure and evolutionary history of wheat species cannot be neglected. This information indicates the appropriate strategy to avoid isolation mechanisms in interspecific or intergeneric crosses, according to the genome constitution of the species the desired gene is to be transferred from. The development of amphiploids as "bridge" species is one of the available procedures

  2. Captive breeding programs based on family groups in polyploid sturgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids ("BreedingSturgeons"). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction.

  3. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  4. Genetic Diversity of Some Tomato Cultivars and Breeding Lines Commonly Used in Pakistani Breeding Program

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    Muhammad Azhar Shah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity present in gene pool is an important determination for breeding programs, and characterization is useful of building crop plant collections primarily based on the knowledge of the presence of valuable genes and traits. Developing successful varieties for increasing the future yield and quality of tomato depend mainly on the genetic diversity of parents used in the breeding program. Molecular characterization of 21 tomato genotypes used in in Pakistani breeding program was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. Total 102 bands were amplified among 21 genotypes using 20 RAPD primers. Overall 73.5% polymorphism was shown as 75 out of 102 loci were polymorphic. High degree of divergence between varieties was indicated by low level of monomorphic bands. The number of PCR products per primer varied from 2-8 with an average of 5.1 bands per primer. Primer GL J-20 and GL C-09 produced maximum number of bands whereas the primers GL A-09 produced the lowest. The polymorphism per RAPD primer ranged from 50% to 100% with an average of 73.5%. The accumulative analysis of amplified products generated by RAPD’s was enough to assess the genetic diversity among the genotypes. The information would be helpful for formulating future breeding and genome mapping programs. This study will also work as an indicator for tomato breeders to evolve varieties with genetic diverse back ground to achieve sustainability in tomato production in the country.

  5. Usefulness of portable near infrared spectroscopy in olive breeding programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Moreno, L.

    2012-11-01

    The usefulness of portable near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a simple and efficient method to determine some of the main selection traits in olive breeding is evaluated in this work. Calibration models were developed and evaluated using partial least squares (PLS) regression from samples collected in different selection steps of the breeding work and under different experimental conditions. The results showed that accurate enough models (values of correlation between actual and predicted constituent higher than 0.9) were obtained for oil and moisture content in both cross validation and prediction results. Portable NIR spectroscopy could be used for selection of genotypes on the basis of these characters, providing similar ranking of genotypes than reference methods both in different selection steps of the breeding process (progenies and selection plots) and different experimental conditions (on-tree or under laboratory conditions). The advantages of this technique to improve the efficiency of the evaluation process in olive breeding programs are discussed. (Author) 21 refs.

  6. Genomic prediction in a breeding program of perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Ashraf, Bilal; Greve-Pedersen, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    We present a genomic selection study performed on 1918 rye grass families (Lolium perenne L.), which were derived from a commercial breeding program at DLF-Trifolium, Denmark. Phenotypes were recorded on standard plots, across 13 years and in 6 different countries. Variants were identified...... in utilizing genomic selection in rye grass....

  7. Genomic tools in cowpea breeding programs: status and perspectives

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    Ousmane eBoukar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS, promises an increase in the number of

  8. Genomic Tools in Cowpea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukar, Ousmane; Fatokun, Christian A; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds, and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids, and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS)-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS), promises an increase in the number of improved

  9. Breeding programs for smallholder sheep farming systems: I. Evaluation of alternative designs of breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; Rischkowsky, B; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Mwai, A O; Dessie, T

    2014-10-01

    Village- and central nucleus-based schemes were simulated and evaluated for their relative bio-economic efficiencies, using Ethiopia's Menz sheep as example. The schemes were: village-based 2-tier (Scheme-1) and 1-tier (Scheme-2) cooperative village breeding schemes, dispersed village-based nuclei scheme (Scheme-3), conventional 2-tier central nucleus-based scheme (Scheme-4), and schemes linking a central nucleus and village multiplier nuclei with selection in central nucleus (Scheme-5) or in both central and village nuclei (Scheme-6). Among village-based schemes, Scheme-1 gave the highest genetic progress, while Scheme-2 was economically the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 5.6 and a profit of Birr 37.2/ewe/year. The central nucleus schemes were more efficient than the village schemes. Scheme-4 was the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 13.5 and a profit of Birr 71.2, but is operationally more difficult as it requires a very large central nucleus. The choice between village and central nucleus-based schemes would depend on local conditions (availability of infrastructure, logistics and technical knowhow and support). Linking central nucleus with village-based nuclei (Scheme-6) would be a feasible option to overcome the operational difficulties of the conventional central nucleus scheme. If a village-based breeding program is envisaged as should be the 1st step in most low-input systems, then Scheme-2 is the most efficient. To scale out to an entire Menz breed level, Scheme-3 would be recommended.

  10. Developments in amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Gemma; Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2016-04-01

    Captive breeding and reintroduction remain high profile but controversial conservation interventions. It is important to understand how such programs develop and respond to strategic conservation initiatives. We analyzed the contribution to conservation made by amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction since the launch of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP) in 2007. We assembled data on amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction from a variety of sources including the Amphibian Ark database and the IUCN Red List. We also carried out systematic searches of Web of Science, JSTOR, and Google Scholar for relevant literature. Relative to data collected from 1966 to 2006, the number of species involved in captive breeding and reintroduction projects increased by 57% in the 7 years since release of the ACAP. However, there have been relatively few new reintroductions over this period; most programs have focused on securing captive-assurance populations (i.e., species taken into captivity as a precaution against extinctions in the wild) and conservation-related research. There has been a shift to a broader representation of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians within programs and an increasing emphasis on threatened species. There has been a relative increase of species in programs from Central and South America and the Caribbean, where amphibian biodiversity is high. About half of the programs involve zoos and aquaria with a similar proportion represented in specialist facilities run by governmental or nongovernmental agencies. Despite successful reintroduction often being regarded as the ultimate milestone for such programs, the irreversibility of many current threats to amphibians may make this an impractical goal. Instead, research on captive assurance populations may be needed to develop imaginative solutions to enable amphibians to survive alongside current, emerging, and future threats.

  11. Molecular classification of Maize cytoplasms in a breeding program

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    Colombo. N * , Presello, D.A. , Kandus M. , G.E. Eyherabide and J.C. Salerno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is maternally inherited in most of higher plants species. Together with nuclear restorer genes (Rf, CMS cytoplasms contribute significantly to the efficient production of hybrid seed. Three main types of male sterile cytoplasms are known in maize: T, S and C, which can be distinguished by crossing with specific restorer lines. Recently, PCR markers have been developed allowing the identification of different cytoplasms quickly and accurately. Our objective was to classify the cytoplasm type of maize inbred lines used in our breeding program and F1s obtained from crosses between CMS lines and elite maize lines using PCR multiplex. A multiplex PCR protocol was optimized for our conditions. We obtained the molecular classification of the analyzed cytoplasms. The optimized protocol is a valuable tool to trace male sterile cytoplasms and determine hybrid seed purity in our maize breeding program.

  12. SHARED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN, JOHN M. HAUT, RICHARD C.

    2008-03-07

    The program established a collaborative process with domestic industries for the purpose of sharing Navy-developed technology. Private sector businesses were educated so as to increase their awareness of the vast amount of technologies that are available, with an initial focus on technology applications that are related to the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (Hydrogen) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the project worked to increase industry awareness of the vast technology resources available to them that have been developed with taxpayer funding. NAVSEA-Carderock and the Houston Advanced Research Center teamed with Nicholls State University to catalog NAVSEA-Carderock unclassified technologies, rated the level of readiness of the technologies and established a web based catalog of the technologies. In particular, the catalog contains technology descriptions, including testing summaries and overviews of related presentations.

  13. 50 CFR 15.23 - Permits for zoological breeding or display programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for zoological breeding or display... OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.23 Permits for zoological breeding or display programs. (a) Application requirements...

  14. ADAM: A computer program to simulate selective-breeding schemes for animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L D; Sørensen, A C; Henryon, M

    2009-01-01

    ADAM is a computer program that models selective breeding schemes for animals using stochastic simulation. The program simulates a population of animals and traces the genetic changes in the population under different selective breeding scenarios. It caters to different population structures......, genetic models, selection strategies, and mating designs. ADAM can be used to evaluate breeding schemes and generate genetic data to test statistical tools...

  15. What can be Learned from Silage Breeding Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Aaron J.; Coors, James G.

    Improving the quality of cellulosic ethanol feedstocks through breeding and genetic manipulation could significantly impact the economics of this industry. Attaining this will require comprehensive and rapid characterization of large numbers of samples. There are many similarities between improving corn silage quality for dairy production and improving feedstock quality for cellulosic ethanol. It was our objective to provide insight into what is needed for genetic improvement of cellulosic feedstocks by reviewing the development and operation of a corn silage breeding program. We discuss the evolving definition of silage quality and relate what we have learned about silage quality to what is needed for measuring and improving feedstock quality. In addition, repeatability estimates of corn stover traits are reported for a set of hybrids. Repeatability of theoretical ethanol potential measured by near-infrared spectroscopy is high, suggesting that this trait may be easily improved through breeding. Just as cell wall digestibility has been factored into the latest measurements of silage quality, conversion efficiency should be standardized and included in indices of feedstock quality to maximize overall, economical energy availability.

  16. ALTERNATIVES TO IMPROVE HYBRIDIZATION EFFICIENCY IN Eucalyptus BREEDING PROGRAMS

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    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and quick hybridization procedures and ways to keep pollen grains viable for long periods are sought in plant breeding programs to provide greater work flexibility. The presentstudy was carried out to assess the efficiency of pollinations made shortly after flower emasculationand the viability of stored pollen from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla clones cultivated in Northwestern Minas Gerais State. Controlled pollinations were carried out at zero, one,three, five and seven days after emasculation. Hybridization efficiency was assessed by thepercentage of viable fruits, number of seeds produced per fruit, percentage of viable seeds and also bycytological observation of the pollen development along the style. Flower buds from clones of the twospecies were collected close to anthesis to assess the viability of pollen grain storage. Pollen was thencollected and stored in a freezer (-18oC for 1, 2 and 3 months. Pollen assessed was carried out by invitro and in vivo germination tests. The efficiency of the pollinations varied with their delay and alsobetween species. The greatest pollination efficiency was obtained when they were carried out on thethird and fifth day after emasculation, but those performed simultaneously with emasculationproduced enough seeds to allow this practice in breeding programs. The decrease in pollen viabilitywith storage was not sufficiently significant to preclude the use of this procedure in artificialhybridization.

  17. Present and perspectives in Romanian triticale breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittu, Gheorghe; Saulescu, Nicolae; Ittu, Mariana; Mustatea, Pompiliu

    2014-01-01

    Triticale is grown in Romania, mainly, in the hilly regions on the acid poor fertile soils and covers, yearly, around 100-130 thousands ha or 1.5% from the arable land. Since 1971, when the breeding program has been started, up to present, it has been developed an adapted triticale germplasm for the Romanian environmental conditions and 12 new varieties have been registered. Genetic progress for yield, estimated over a 27 years, is by 46 kg ha(1) year(1) or 0.80% year(1), similarly with those realized in the most dynamic triticale breeding programs of the world. The improving of yields has been achieved by an increased number of kernels per spikes, plumpness of kernels, test weight and reduction of the plant height by introduction in the Romanian triticale germplasm of RhtB1b (Rht1) and Ddw1 (Hl) genes. The genetic gain for reduction of plant height, in this period, was estimated at 1.16 cm yr(1). Further progress regarding yield stability under conditions of global climatic changes, a broader genetic diversity for preharvest sprouting (PHS), drought tolerance, earliness, high canopy albedo, diseases resistance, especially for fusarium head blight (low DON content in kernels), leaf rust and BYDV, is required.

  18. Considering genetic characteristics in German Holstein breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelke, D; Täubert, H; Reinhardt, F; Thaller, G

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several research groups have demonstrated that several haplotypes may cause embryonic loss in the homozygous state. Up to now, carriers of genetic disorders were often excluded from mating, resulting in a decrease of genetic gain and a reduced number of sires available for the breeding program. Ongoing research is very likely to identify additional genetic defects causing embryonic loss and calf mortality by genotyping a large proportion of the female cattle population and sequencing key ancestors. Hence, a clear demand is present to develop a method combining selection against recessive defects (e.g., Holstein haplotypes HH1-HH5) with selection for economically beneficial traits (e.g., polled) for mating decisions. Our proposed method is a genetic index that accounts for the allele frequencies in the population and the economic value of the genetic characteristic without excluding carriers from breeding schemes. Fertility phenotypes from routine genetic evaluations were used to determine the economic value per embryo lost. Previous research has shown that embryo loss caused by HH1 and HH2 occurs later than the loss for HH3, HH4, and HH5. Therefore, an economic value of € 97 was used against HH1 and HH2 and € 70 against HH3, HH4, and HH5. For polled, € 7 per polled calf was considered. Minor allele frequencies of the defects ranged between 0.8 and 3.3%. The polled allele has a frequency of 4.1% in the German Holstein population. A genomic breeding program was simulated to study the effect of changing the selection criteria from assortative mating based on breeding values to selecting the females using the genetic index. Selection for a genetic index on the female path is a useful method to control the allele frequencies by reducing undesirable alleles and simultaneously increasing economical beneficial characteristics maintaining most of the genetic gain in production and functional traits. Additionally, we applied the genetic index to real data and

  19. Benefits of cooperation between breeding programs in the presence of genotype by environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, H A; Bijma, P

    2006-05-01

    Dairy cattle breeding programs and dairy farmers are selecting sires and dams across environments. Genotype x environment interaction (G x E) limits the possibilities for cooperation between breeding programs operating in different environments. The objectives of this study were 2-fold: 1) to investigate the effects of heritability, selection intensity, number of progeny per bull, and size of breeding programs on possibilities for cooperation between dairy cattle breeding programs in the short and long term in the presence of G x E, and 2) to quantify the effect of such cooperation on genetic gain. A dairy cattle situation with 2 breeding programs operating in 2 environments was simulated using a deterministic pseudo-BLUP selection index model. Long-term cooperation between the 2 breeding programs was possible in the presence of G x E, when the genetic correlation was higher than 0.80 to 0.90, resulting in up to 15% extra genetic gain. In addition, in the initial generations of selection, the breeding programs could benefit from mutually selecting sires and dams from each other when the genetic correlation was as low as 0.40 to 0.60. With more intense selection, breeding programs were less likely to benefit from cooperation with breeding programs in other environments. Heritability and number of progeny per bull had little effect on possibilities for cooperation, unless the heritabilities and the number of progeny per bull were extremely different in the 2 environments. Small breeding programs benefited more from cooperation than did large breeding programs, and benefits were possible even at lower values (i.e., cooperation across environments would affect the optimal design of dairy cattle breeding programs considering genetic gain, inbreeding, and costs.

  20. Effects of Transfer from Breeding to Research Facility on the Welfare of Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.W.M.; Oosterhuis, N.R.; Kramer, K.; Ohl, F.

    2014-01-01

    Transfer from the breeding facility to a research facility is a stressful event for laboratory animals. Heat stress has been reported to constitute one of the major concerns during transport of animals. This study measured ambient and body temperature, corticosterone and glucose levels, body weight,

  1. Genomic resources in mungbean for future breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue K Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the legume family, mungbean (Vigna radiata has become one of the important crops in Asia, showing a steady increase in global production. It provides a good source of protein and contains most notably folate and iron. Beyond the nutritional value of mungbean, certain features make it a well-suited model organism among legume plants because of its small genome size, short life-cycle, self-pollinating, and close genetic relationship to other legumes. In the past, there have been several efforts to develop molecular markers and linkage maps associated with agronomic traits for the genetic improvement of mungbean and, ultimately, breeding for cultivar development to increase the average yields of mungbean. The recent release of a reference genome of the cultivated mungbean (V. radiata var. radiata VC1973A and an additional de novo sequencing of a wild relative mungbean (V. radiata var. sublobata has provided a framework for mungbean genetic and genome research, that can further be used for genome-wide association and functional studies to identify genes related to specific agronomic traits. Moreover, the diverse gene pool of wild mungbean comprises valuable genetic resources of beneficial genes that may be helpful in widening the genetic diversity of cultivated mungbean. This review paper covers the research progress on molecular and genomics approaches and the current status of breeding programs that have developed to move toward the ultimate goal of mungbean improvement.

  2. Benefits of cooperation between breeding programs in the presence of genotype by environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.A.; Bijma, P.

    2006-01-01

    Dairy cattle breeding programs and dairy farmers are selecting sires and dams across environments. Genotype × environment interaction (G × E) limits the possibilities for cooperation between breeding programs operating in different environments. The objectives of this study were 2-fold: 1) to invest

  3. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, M; Phocas, F; Gourdine, J-L; Bijma, P; Mandonnet, N

    2013-02-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasite resistance and resilience traits. The overall breeding goal included traits for production, reproduction, and parasite resilience and resistance to ensure a balanced selection outcome. The production traits were BW and dressing percentage (DP). The reproduction trait was fertility (FER), which was the number of doe kiddings per mating. The resistance trait was worm fecal egg count (FEC), which is a measurement of the number of gastro-intestinal parasite eggs found in the feces. The resilience trait was the packed cell volume (PCV), which is a measurement of the volume of red blood cells in the blood. Dressing percentage, BW, and FEC were measured at 11 mo of age, which is the mating or selling age. Fertility and PCV were measured on females at each kidding period. The breeding program accounting for the overall breeding goal and a selection index including all traits gave annual selection responses of 800 g for BW, 3.75% for FER, 0.08% for DP, -0.005 ln(eggs/g) for FEC, and 0.28% for PCV. The expected selection responses for BW and DP in this breeding program were reduced by 2% and 6%, respectively, compared with a breeding program not accounting for FEC and PCV. The overall breeding program, proposed for the Creole breed, offers the best breeding strategy in terms of expected selection responses, making it possible to improve all traits together. It offers a good balance between production and adaptation traits and may present some interest for the selection of other goat breeds in the tropics.

  4. 77 FR 25192 - Wild Bird Conservation Act; Receipt of Application for Approval of a Cooperative Breeding Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Cooperative Breeding Program AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of... listed birds for scientific research, zoological breeding or display programs, or personal pet purposes, when the applicant meets certain criteria. We also may approve cooperative breeding programs of...

  5. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunia, M.; Phocas, F.; Gourdine, J.L.; Bijma, P.; Mandonnet, N.

    2013-01-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasites resistance

  6. Strategies for use of reproductive technologies in genomic dairy cattle breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    A simulation study was performed for testing the effect of using reproductive technologies in a genomic dairy cattle young bull breeding scheme. The breeding scheme parameters: 1) number of donors, 2) number of progeny per donor, 3) age of the donor, 4) number of sires, and 5) reliability...... of genomic breeding values. The breeding schemes were evaluated according to genetic gain and rate of inbreeding. The relative gain by use of reproductive technologies is 11 to 84 percent points depending on the choice of other breeding scheme parameters. A large donor program with high selection intensity...... of sires provides the highest genetic gain. A relatively higher genetic gain is obtained for higher reliability of GEBV. Extending the donor program and number of selected bulls has a major effect of reducing the rate of inbreeding without compromising genetic gain....

  7. TASQC Quantum Key Transfer Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-04

    Securely transferring timing information in the electrical grid is a critical component of securing the nation's infrastructure from cyber attacks. One solution to this problem is to use quantum information to securely transfer the timing information across sites. This software provides such an infrastructure using a standard Java webserver that pulls the quantum information from associated hardware.

  8. Potential benefits of genomic selection on genetic gain of small ruminant breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumbusho, F; Raoul, J; Astruc, J M; Palhiere, I; Elsen, J M

    2013-08-01

    In conventional small ruminant breeding programs, only pedigree and phenotype records are used to make selection decisions but prospects of including genomic information are now under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the potential benefits of genomic selection on the genetic gain in French sheep and goat breeding designs of today. Traditional and genomic scenarios were modeled with deterministic methods for 3 breeding programs. The models included decisional variables related to male selection candidates, progeny testing capacity, and economic weights that were optimized to maximize annual genetic gain (AGG) of i) a meat sheep breeding program that improved a meat trait of heritability (h(2)) = 0.30 and a maternal trait of h(2) = 0.09 and ii) dairy sheep and goat breeding programs that improved a milk trait of h(2) = 0.30. Values of ±0.20 of genetic correlation between meat and maternal traits were considered to study their effects on AGG. The Bulmer effect was accounted for and the results presented here are the averages of AGG after 10 generations of selection. Results showed that current traditional breeding programs provide an AGG of 0.095 genetic standard deviation (σa) for meat and 0.061 σa for maternal trait in meat breed and 0.147 σa and 0.120 σa in sheep and goat dairy breeds, respectively. By optimizing decisional variables, the AGG with traditional selection methods increased to 0.139 σa for meat and 0.096 σa for maternal traits in meat breeding programs and to 0.174 σa and 0.183 σa in dairy sheep and goat breeding programs, respectively. With a medium-sized reference population (nref) of 2,000 individuals, the best genomic scenarios gave an AGG that was 17.9% greater than with traditional selection methods with optimized values of decisional variables for combined meat and maternal traits in meat sheep, 51.7% in dairy sheep, and 26.2% in dairy goats. The superiority of genomic schemes increased with the size of the

  9. Genomic tools in pea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim eTAYEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22-25 percent protein, complex starch and fibre constituents and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tonnes produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel’s experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress towards deciphering the pea genome.

  10. Schemes for Oestrus Synchronization Protocols and Controlled Breeding Programs in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Y. G.; Sandabe, U. K.; Maina, V. A.; Balla, H. G.

    Today prostaglandin and progesterone has been found widely used in several schemes of oestrus synchronization and controlled breeding program. Several controlled breeding program, have been developed for synchronizing groups of all open or lactating cows within a breeding group with or without ovarian palpation. Such programs are reviewed in this article which involves extending the luteal phase by treatment with exogenous progesterone such as: progesterone treatment regimes using syncro-mate-B, progesterone releasing intravaginal device, melengesterol acetate-select and melegestrol acetate plus prostaglandin. Also reviewed in the program is the termination of the luteal phase by treatment with prostaglandin or its analogues. These includes, controlled breeding without ovarian palpation such as, the 7-days program; 11-days program, target breeding, ovsynch program, Heat synch, Cosynch and pre synch-ovsynch program. In our opinion full potential of progesterone and prostaglandin for the detection of oestrus and timed artificial insemination should be utilized. This reduces the much labour input employed in previous years. The practitioner of the livestock herd health must-develop strategies for the delivery of this technology to livestock farmers, its use and limitations.

  11. Implementation of molecular marker technologies in the apple rootstock breeding program in Geneva - challenges and successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geneva® Apple Rootstock Breeding program was initiated in the early 1970’s with the overarching goal of developing disease resistant, productive and precocious apple rootstocks. Near the turn of the century the program was joined with USDA ARS resources and in addition to focusing on releasing ...

  12. A pre-breeding screening program for transgenic boars based on fluorescence in situ hybridization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Gerelchimeg; Sun, Mingju; Lv, Ming; Zhu, Jiang; Li, Hui; Wang, Juan; Li, Lu; Liu, Zhongfeng; Zheng, Zhong; He, Wenteng; Kong, Qingran; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    For efficient transgenic herd expansion, only the transgenic animals that possess the ability to transmit transgene into next generation are considered for breeding. However, for transgenic pig, practically lacking a pre-breeding screening program, time, labor and money is always wasted to maintain non-transgenic pigs, low or null transgenic transmission pigs and the related fruitless gestations. Developing a pre-breeding screening program would make the transgenic herd expansion more economical and efficient. In this technical report, we proposed a three-step pre-breeding screening program for transgenic boars simply through combining the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay with the common pre-breeding screening workflow. In the first step of screening, combined with general transgenic phenotype analysis, FISH is used to identify transgenic boars. In the second step of screening, combined with conventional semen test, FISH is used to detect transgenic sperm, thus to identify the individuals producing high quality semen and transgenic sperm. In the third step of screening, FISH is used to assess the in vitro fertilization embryos, thus finally to identify the individuals with the ability to produce transgenic embryos. By this three-step screening, the non-transgenic boars and boars with no ability to produce transgenic sperm or transgenic embryos would be eliminated; therefore only those boars could produce transgenic offspring are maintained and used for breeding and herd expansion. It is the first time a systematic pre-breeding screening program is proposed for transgenic pigs. This program might also be applied in other transgenic large animals, and provide an economical and efficient strategy for herd expansion.

  13. A comprehensive survey on selective breeding programs and seed market in the European aquaculture fish industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, Kasper; Hofherr, Johann;

    2016-01-01

    reared fish species were targeted. A total of 31 respondents contributed to the survey, representing 75 % of European breeding organizations. Family-based breeding schemes were predominant, but individual selection was more frequently applied in marine species. Artificial fertilization is the preferred...... of molecular tools is now common in all programs, mainly for pedigree traceability. An increasing number of programs use either genomic or marker-assisted selection. Results related to the seed production market confirmed that for Atlantic salmon there are a few dominant players at the European level, with 30......–50 % market share. Only part of the European fish aquaculture industry today fully exploits selective breeding to the best advantage. A larger impact assessment still needs to be made by the remainder, particularly on the market share of fish seed (eggs, larvae or juveniles) and its consequences for hatchery...

  14. Application of myostatin in sheep breeding programs: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Miar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin or growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8, has been known as the factor causing double muscling phenotypes in which a series of mutations make the myostatin protein inactive, hence disabling it to regulate the deposition of muscle fibre. This phenotype happens with high frequency in a breed of sheep known as the Texel. Quantitative trait loci (QTL studies show that a portion of the OAR2 that encompasses GDF8 has a major effect on muscular growth of Belgian Texel, on the muscling and fat depth in New Zealand Texel sires, and UK Texel and Charollais sheep. The functional polymorphism resides inside the GDF8 non-coding region. To date, there have been studies showing biallelic SNPs with significantly different allelic frequencies between hyper-muscled Texel and control animals including one in the 3'UTR (g.+6223G>A and one in 2.5 kb upstream from the GDF8 transcription start site (g.-2449G>C. The GDF8 allele of the Texel sheep is characterized by one G to A transition in the 3'UTR, creating a target site for mir1 and mir206 which are highly expressed in skeletal muscles. This prevents myostatin gene translation, thus contributing to the double muscling of Texel sheep. Therefore, the GDF8 g. +6223A allele seems to be a causative variable increasing muscularity in the Texel rams and could be identified as a quantitative trait nucleotide.

  15. Genetic evaluation of the captive breeding program of the Persian wild ass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.K.; Pertoldi, C.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    in captive onagers as a consequence of some degree of purging. Consequently, the risk of inbreeding depression should currently be minimal in the captive breeding program. Therefore, it is recommended to increase the connectivity between the four subgroups of onagers in order to reduce the risk...

  16. Initial experiences utilizing exotic landrace germplasm in an upland cotton breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical objective of plant breeding programs is accessing new sources of genetic variation. In upland cotton, one of the relatively untapped sources of genetic variation is maintained in the USDA-ARS cotton germplasm collection and is the exotic landrace collection. Photoperiod sensitivity is a m...

  17. Genetic and environmental variation in a commercial breeding program of perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Pedersen, Morten Greve; Jensen, Christian S;

    2015-01-01

    for future GSbased breeding programs. Forage yield showed family heritabilities of up to 0.30 across locations and up to 0.60 within a location. Similar or moderately lower values were found for the other traits. In particular, the heritabilities of rust resistance and aftermath heading were very promising...

  18. Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding program at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...

  19. The genetic diversity of triticale genotypes involved in Polish breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, Agnieszka; Orłowska, Renata; Machczyńska, Joanna; Bednarek, Piotr T

    2016-01-01

    Genetic diversity analysis of triticale populations is useful for breeding programs, as it helps to select appropriate genetic material for classifying the parental lines, heterotic groups and predicting hybrid performance. In our study 232 breeding forms were analyzed using diversity arrays technology markers. Principal coordinate analysis followed by model-based Bayesian analysis of population structure revealed the presence of weak data structuring with three groups of data. In the first group, 17 spring and 17 winter forms were clustered. The second and the third groups were represented by 101 and 26 winter forms, respectively. Polymorphic information content values, as well as Shannon's Information Index, were higher for the first (0.319) and second (0.309) than for third (0.234) group. AMOVA analysis demonstrated a higher level of within variation (86 %) than among populations (14 %). This study provides the basic information on the presence of structure within a genetic pool of triticale breeding forms.

  20. SNPs genotyping technologies and their applications in farm animals breeding programs: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Kharrati Koopaee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are DNA sequence variations that occur when a single nucleotide: adenine (A, thymine (T, cytosine (C or guanine (G in the genome sequence is altered. Traditional and high throughput methods are two main strategies for SNPs genotyping. The SNPs genotyping technologies provide powerful resources for animal breeding programs.Genomic selection using SNPs is a new tool for choosing the best breeding animals. In addition, the high density maps using SNPs can provide useful genetic tools to study quantitative traits genetic variations. There are many sources of SNPs and exhaustive numbers of methods of SNP detection to be considered. For many traits in farm animals, the rate of genetic improvement can be nearly doubled when SNPs information is used compared to the current methods of genetic evaluation. The goal of this review is to characterize the SNPs genotyping methods and their applications in farm animals breeding.

  1. One size fits all? : optimization of rainbow trout breeding program under diverse preferences and genotype-by-environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sae-Lim, P.

    2013-01-01

    Global fish breeders distribute improved animal material to several continents to be farmed under diverse environments, and for very different market conditions. When establishing a global breeding program, there is a need to assess whether or not a single breeding objective satisfies the markets ac

  2. Kinship-based management strategies for captive breeding programs when pedigrees are unknown or uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Andrea S; Ivy, Jamie A

    2014-01-01

    Zoo-based captive breeding programs typically rely on accurate pedigrees to maintain long-term population genetic diversity and prevent close inbreeding. For many mixed-sex captive populations, it is difficult to assign parentage of offspring with certainty without conducting DNA-based parentage analyses. Using the demographic parameters of a North American captive population of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), 2 kinship-based breeding-pair selection strategies were modeled for their performance in handling pedigrees with varying degrees of parentage uncertainty. We also compared these strategies with 2 nonkinship-based methods. Pedigrees simulated under different management strategies were compared for their long-term ability to maintain gene diversity (GD) and avoid inbreeding. For the Arabian oryx, results indicate that recording multiple possible parents instead of removing the unknown genomic portion of the pedigree can more efficiently utilize all animals available for breeding without compromising GD and inbreeding avoidance. Both kinship-based breeding-pair selection strategies significantly outperformed the nonkinship-based strategies.

  3. Oestrous synchronization, ovarian superovulation and intraspecific transfers from a closed breeding colony of inbred SLA miniature pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlaud, J J; Baker, L; Williams, R L; French, A J

    2010-12-01

    The inbred SLA miniature pig is a unique animal model developed for organ transplantation studies and pre-clinical experimental purposes. Reported oestrous synchronization and superovulation treatments were examined in two SLA haplotypes (AA and DD) to allow collection of embryos for both practical embryo transfer and experimental technologies from a closed breeding colony. Pre-puberal miniature pigs were poor responders to oestrous synchronization treatments, while post-puberal sows were equivalent to commercial sows. Following superovulation, the ovulation number (corpora .hemorrhagica) was higher (p  0.05). No difference in ovulation number between haplotypes was observed, which differs from the previous report (DD>AA). Collection of zygotes for pronuclear injection was the highest in the non-cycling post-puberal miniature pig group (p SLA haplotypes and transfer of DD embryos to commercial pigs resulted in live births at a higher efficiency than previously reported. This study demonstrates the feasibility of undertaking assisted reproductive technologies in a closed breeding colony of inbred SLA miniature pigs without compromise to the breeding programmes.

  4. Optimum allocation of conservation funds and choice of conservation programs for a set of African cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulai Awudu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although funds for livestock conservation are limited there is little known about the optimal allocation of conservation funds. A new algorithm was used to allocate Mio US$ 1, 2, 3, 5 or unlimited funds, discounted over 50 years, on 23 African cattle breeds conserved with four different possible conservation programs. Additionally, Mio US$ 1 was preferably allocated to breeds with special traits. The conceptional in situ conservation programs strongly involve breeders and give them part of the responsibility for the conservation of the breed. Therefore, the pure in situ conservation was more efficient than cryoconservation or combined in situ and cryoconservation. The average annual discounted conservation cost for a breed can be as low as US$ 1000 to US$ 4400 depending on the design of the conservation program and the economic situation of the country of conservation. The choice of the breeds and the optimal conservation program and the amount of money allocated to each breed depend on many factors such as the amount of funds available, the conservation potential of each breed, the effects of the conservation program as well as its cost. With Mio US$ 1, 64% of the present diversity could be maintained over 50 years, which is 13% more than would be maintained if no conservation measures were implemented. Special traits could be conserved with a rather small amount of the total funds. Diversity can not be conserved completely, not even with unlimited funds. A maximum of 92% of the present diversity could be conserved with Mio US$ 10, leaving 8% of the diversity to unpredictable happenings. The suggested algorithm proved to be useful for optimal allocation of conservation funds. It allocated the funds optimally among breeds by identifying the most suited conservation program for each breed, also accounting for differences in currency exchange rates between the different countries.

  5. The European Breeding Program (EEP for Lutra lutra: its chances and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vogt

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to different reasons (bad condition of collected wild animals, poor food and housing conditions etc. the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra has been among the most difficult species to kept and bred successfully under captive conditions. Only in the seventies of this century regular captive breeding of this species has been achieved in very few European Zoos and Private Centres. Based on the experiences of the last decades, "husbandry guidelines" have been developed within the "European Breeding Program" (EEP for this species, giving recommendations for enclosures, breeding, feeding, veterinary care etc. Now in the early nineties the number of institutions breeding otters regularly grew to more than twenty. In 1992, 43 viable births have occurred. The problem of small number of founders (many potential founders are not in a situation to breed due to the absence of suitable facilities and the question of subspecies in captive otter population are discussed. Riassunto Programma europeo per la riproduzione della lontra: problemi e chances - A causa di differenti ragioni (precarie condizioni sanitarie degli animali reperiti in natura, alimentazione non adatta, condizioni inidonee di allevamento ecc., la lontra (Lutra lutra è stata una delle specie più difficili da allevare e riprodurre in cattività. Solo negli anni '70 regolari riproduzioni sono state ottenute in pochi Zoo europei e centri privati. Sulla base delle esperienze maturate negli ultimi vent'anni, sono state definite, nell'ambito del "European Breeding Program" (EEP, le modalità di allevamento della specie, fornendo raccomandazioni per la costruzione dei recinti di contenimento degli animali, per la riproduzione, l'alimentazione, le cure veterinarie ecc. Nei primi anni del 1990, i Centri che riproducono regolarmente la lontra sono più di 20 e nel 1992 sono nati 50 cuccioli, di cui 43 sono sopravvissuti. Nel

  6. Chromosome Number Manipulation as Part of Potato Pre-breeding Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kear Philip J; Lu Wenhe

    2008-01-01

    The cultivated potato (Solarium tuberosum L.) is a tetraploid(2n = 4x = 48) and can be improved with the incorporation of desirable traits from other Solanum species. Often the transfer of these traits is hindered by complex genet-ics and breeding barriers within potato. Parthenogenesis and microsporogenesis are used in chromosome number manipula-tion allowing breeders to reduce the potato's chromosome number to dihaploid(2n = 2x = 24) [diploid] or monohaploid (2n = x = 12) from which a predictable transfer of traits can be made, in accordance with the endosperm balance number theory (EBN). Furthermore, the reproductive processes of first division restitution (FDR) and second division restitution (SDR) are utilized in order to increase the chromosome number for incorporation into the cultivated potato.

  7. Comparative analysis of traditional and modern apricot breeding programs: A case of study with Spanish and Tunisian apricot breeding germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batnini, M.A.; Krichen, L.; Bourguiba, H.; Trifi-Farah, N.; Ruiz, D.; Martínez-Gómez, P.; Rubio, M.

    2016-11-01

    Traditional plant breeding is based on the observation of variation and the selection of the best phenotypes, whereas modern breeding is characterised by the use of controlled mating and the selection of descendants using molecular markers. In this work, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity in a traditional (Tunisian) and a modern (Spanish) apricot breeding programme was performed at the phenotypic and molecular level using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Seven phenotypic traits were evaluated in 42 Tunisian apricot accessions and 30 genotypes from the Spanish apricot programme. In addition, 20 SSR markers previously described as linked to specific phenotypic traits were assayed. Results showed that modern breeding using controlled crosses increases the size of the fruit. The fruit weight average observed in the Tunisian cultivars was of 20.15 g. In the case of traditional Spanish cultivars the average weight was 47.12 g, whereas the average weight of the other progenitors from France, USA and South Africa was 72.85 g. Finally, in the new releases from the CEBAS-CSIC breeding programme, the average weight was 72.82 g. In addition, modern bred cultivars incorporate desirable traits such as self-compatibility and firmness. Cluster and structural analysis based on SSR data clearly differentiates the genotypes according to their geographic origin and pedigree. Finally, results showed an association between some alleles of PaCITA7 and UDP96003 SSR markers with apricot fruit weight, one allele of UDAp407 marker with fruit firmness and one allele of UDP98406 marker with fruit ripening. (Author)

  8. Efficiency of selection for body weight in a cooperative village breeding program of Menz sheep under smallholder farming system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; Getachew, T; Goshme, S; Valle-Zárate, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Kemp, S; Mwai, A O; Dessie, T

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the efficiency of selection for body weight in a cooperative village breeding program for Menz sheep of Ethiopia under smallholder farming system. The design of the program involved organizing villagers in a cooperative breeding group to implement selective breeding of their sheep. The program was jump-started through a one-time provision of elite rams from a central nucleus flock, but subsequent replacement rams were selected from within the village flocks. We also evaluated body weight trends in a village where cooperative breeding was not implemented and individual farmers managed their flocks under traditional breeding practices. Under traditional breeding practices, genetic progress over 8 years either stagnated or declined in all the weights recorded. In the cooperative villages, selection differentials of 2.44 and 2.45 kg were achieved in 2010 and 2011 selection seasons, respectively. Birth weight, 3-month weight and 6-month weight increased, respectively, by 0.49, 2.29 and 2.46 kg in the third-generation lambs over the base generation. Improved rams supplied from the central nucleus flock gave an initial genetic lift of 14.4% in the 6-month weight. This was higher than the gain achieved from selection in the village flocks, which was 5.2%. Our results showed that village-based genetic improvement in body weights under smallholder conditions could be feasible if appropriate designs are adopted and that commencing with elite central nucleus rams help jump-start village-based programs.

  9. Knowledge transfer in pair programming: An in-depth analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plonka, Laura; Sharp, Helen; van der Linden, Janet;

    2015-01-01

    Whilst knowledge transfer is one of the most widely-claimed benefits of pair programming, little is known about how knowledge transfer is achieved in this setting. This is particularly pertinent for novice−expert constellations, but knowledge transfer takes place to some degree in all constellati...

  10. EFEK DISINSENTIF PROGRAM RASKIN DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP TRANSFER PANGAN ANTARGENERASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtar Rasyid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate disincentive and crowding-out effect food aid program (public transfer in household level. Beside the humanitarian roles, there are widespread sceptisms of food assistance regarding its possible influence on disincentive to work and on crowding out of private transfer (inter-household or intergeneration transfer. Based on Indonesia Family Life Survey data and using instrumental variables approach, this paper estimates disincentive effect and crowding out effect “Rice Program for Poor Families” (Raskin on intergenerational food transfer (child to parents transfer. This research observe significant negative impact on total household income. The decline in income mostly happened through a reduction in head household worker. The paper also find indication of crowding out relation between private and public transfers. It suggests that the Indonesian government should have designed its public transfer scheme carefully in order to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its social safety net programs.

  11. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jugulam

    Full Text Available Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18 and B. napus (2n = 38 were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH. This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds.

  12. Economic evaluation of genomic selection in small ruminants: a sheep meat breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumbusho, F; Raoul, J; Astruc, J M; Palhiere, I; Lemarié, S; Fugeray-Scarbel, A; Elsen, J M

    2016-06-01

    Recent genomic evaluation studies using real data and predicting genetic gain by modeling breeding programs have reported moderate expected benefits from the replacement of classic selection schemes by genomic selection (GS) in small ruminants. The objectives of this study were to compare the cost, monetary genetic gain and economic efficiency of classic selection and GS schemes in the meat sheep industry. Deterministic methods were used to model selection based on multi-trait indices from a sheep meat breeding program. Decisional variables related to male selection candidates and progeny testing were optimized to maximize the annual monetary genetic gain (AMGG), that is, a weighted sum of meat and maternal traits annual genetic gains. For GS, a reference population of 2000 individuals was assumed and genomic information was available for evaluation of male candidates only. In the classic selection scheme, males breeding values were estimated from own and offspring phenotypes. In GS, different scenarios were considered, differing by the information used to select males (genomic only, genomic+own performance, genomic+offspring phenotypes). The results showed that all GS scenarios were associated with higher total variable costs than classic selection (if the cost of genotyping was 123 euros/animal). In terms of AMGG and economic returns, GS scenarios were found to be superior to classic selection only if genomic information was combined with their own meat phenotypes (GS-Pheno) or with their progeny test information. The predicted economic efficiency, defined as returns (proportional to number of expressions of AMGG in the nucleus and commercial flocks) minus total variable costs, showed that the best GS scenario (GS-Pheno) was up to 15% more efficient than classic selection. For all selection scenarios, optimization increased the overall AMGG, returns and economic efficiency. As a conclusion, our study shows that some forms of GS strategies are more advantageous

  13. A framework for evaluation of technology transfer programs. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this volume is to describe a framework with which DOE can develop a program specific methodology to evaluate it`s technology transfer efforts. This approach could also be applied to an integrated private sector technology transfer organization. Several benefits will be realized from the application of this work. While the immediate effect will be to assist program managers in evaluating and improving program performance, the ultimate benefits will accrue to the producing industry, the states, and the nation in the form of sustained or increased domestic oil production. This benefit depends also, of course, on the effectiveness of the technology being transferred. The managers of the Technology Transfer program, and the larger federal oil and gas R&D programs, will be provided with a means to design and assess the effectiveness of program efforts as they are developed, tested and performed. The framework allows deficiencies in critical aspects of the program to be quickly identified, allowing for timely corrections and improvements. The actual process of developing the evaluation also gives the staff of the Oil R&D Program or Technology Transfer subprogram the opportunity to become oriented to the overall program goals. The structure and focus imposed by the evaluation paradigm will guide program staff in selecting activities which are consistent with achieving the goals of the overall R&D program.

  14. Conditional Cash Transfer against Child Labor: Indonesia Program Keluarga Harapan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kye Woo; Hwang, Miae

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze whether subsidies provided by the Indonesian conditional cash transfer against child labor program (Program Keluarga Harapan: PKH) were sufficient for children to stop working and go back to schooling. Ex-post evaluations of the program found that it did not improve children's enrollment rate and reduce child labor…

  15. Methods to optimize livestock breeding programs with genotype by environment interaction and genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Genotype by environment interaction (G × E) and genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance are both related to genetic variation in environmental sensitivity. Both phenomena can have consequences for livestock breeding programs. This thesis focuses on developing methods to optimize livestock br

  16. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Colchero, Fernando; Pearce-Kelly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red Lis...

  17. Breeding and Identification of Insect-Resistant Rice by Transferring Two Insecticidal Genes, sbk and sck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi-jun; LI Cong; LIU Shao-kui; LAI Dong; QI Qing-ming; LU Chuan-gen

    2013-01-01

    The plasmid of pCDMARUBA-Hyg,which contained two insect-resistance genes,sbk (modified from Cry1A(c)) and sck (modified from CpTI),was transformed into an Agrobacterium EHA105 for infection of the calli of a super japonica rice Nanjing 45.Primarily,using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection with the primers of sbk and sck genes,42 positive transgenic plants that were marker-free and contained the two target genes were selected from 97 regenerated plants.Results of southern-blotting indicated that 23,11,5,2 and 1 plants had one,two,three,four and five copies of the transformed genes,respectively.Analysis of reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Bt gene testing paper showed that 28 T3 generation plants derived from four transgenic plants having a single copy were insect-resistant.Feeding experiment with rice stem borer revealed that the insect resistance was greatly increased with the larva mortality ranging from 94% to 100%.In addition,among the transgenic plants,three T3 transgenic plants possessed some desirable characteristics for breeding and production,such as plant height,seed-setting rate,1000-grain weight and larva mortality.The mechanism of insect resistance of Bt gene and its application in rice transgenic research were also briefly discussed.

  18. Predicting cotton yield of small field plots in a cotton breeding program using UAV imagery data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maja, Joe Mari J.; Campbell, Todd; Camargo Neto, Joao; Astillo, Philip

    2016-05-01

    One of the major criteria used for advancing experimental lines in a breeding program is yield performance. Obtaining yield performance data requires machine picking each plot with a cotton picker, modified to weigh individual plots. Harvesting thousands of small field plots requires a great deal of time and resources. The efficiency of cotton breeding could be increased significantly while the cost could be decreased with the availability of accurate methods to predict yield performance. This work is investigating the feasibility of using an image processing technique using a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) camera mounted on a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (sUAV) to collect normal RGB images in predicting cotton yield on small plot. An orthonormal image was generated from multiple images and used to process multiple, segmented plots. A Gaussian blur was used to eliminate the high frequency component of the images, which corresponds to the cotton pixels, and used image subtraction technique to generate high frequency pixel images. The cotton pixels were then separated using k-means cluster with 5 classes. Based on the current work, the calculated percentage cotton area was computed using the generated high frequency image (cotton pixels) divided by the total area of the plot. Preliminary results showed (five flights, 3 altitudes) that cotton cover on multiple pre-selected 227 sq. m. plots produce an average of 8% which translate to approximately 22.3 kgs. of cotton. The yield prediction equation generated from the test site was then use on a separate validation site and produced a prediction error of less than 10%. In summary, the results indicate that a COTS camera with an appropriate image processing technique can produce results that are comparable to expensive sensors.

  19. Mixed model approaches for the identification of QTLs within a maize hybrid breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeuwijk, Fred A; Boer, Martin; Totir, L Radu; Bink, Marco; Wright, Deanne; Winkler, Christopher R; Podlich, Dean; Boldman, Keith; Baumgarten, Andy; Smalley, Matt; Arbelbide, Martin; ter Braak, Cajo J F; Cooper, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Two outlines for mixed model based approaches to quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in existing maize hybrid selection programs are presented: a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The methods use the in-silico-mapping procedure developed by Parisseaux and Bernardo (2004) as a starting point. The original single-point approach is extended to a multi-point approach that facilitates interval mapping procedures. For computational and conceptual reasons, we partition the full set of relationships from founders to parents of hybrids into two types of relations by defining so-called intermediate founders. QTL effects are defined in terms of those intermediate founders. Marker based identity by descent relationships between intermediate founders define structuring matrices for the QTL effects that change along the genome. The dimension of the vector of QTL effects is reduced by the fact that there are fewer intermediate founders than parents. Furthermore, additional reduction in the number of QTL effects follows from the identification of founder groups by various algorithms. As a result, we obtain a powerful mixed model based statistical framework to identify QTLs in genetic backgrounds relevant to the elite germplasm of a commercial breeding program. The identification of such QTLs will provide the foundation for effective marker assisted and genome wide selection strategies. Analyses of an example data set show that QTLs are primarily identified in different heterotic groups and point to complementation of additive QTL effects as an important factor in hybrid performance.

  20. QTL mapping of soybean oil content for marker-assisted selection in plant breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, D C; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Di Mauro, A O; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2016-03-18

    The present study was undertaken to detect and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to soybean oil content. We used 244 progenies derived from a bi-parental cross of the Lineage 69 (from Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"/Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Breeding Program) and Tucunaré cultivar. A total of 358 simple sequence repeat (SSR; microsatellite) markers were used to investigate the polymorphism between the parental lines, and for the polymorphic lines all the F2 individuals were tested. Evaluation of the oil content and phenotype was performed with the aid of a Tango equipment by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy, using single F2 seeds and F2:3 progenies, in triplicate. The data were analyzed by QTL Cartographer program for 56 SSR polymorphic markers. Two oil-content related QTLs were detected on K and H linkage groups. The total phenotypic variation explained by QTLs ranged from 7.8 to 46.75% for oil content. New QTLs were identified for the oil content in addition to those previously identified in other studies. The results reported in this study show that regions different from those already known could be involved in the genetic control of soybean oil content.

  1. EFEK DISINSENTIF PROGRAM RASKIN DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP TRANSFER PANGAN ANTARGENERASI

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtar Rasyid

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate disincentive and crowding-out effect food aid program (public transfer) in household level. Beside the humanitarian roles, there are widespread sceptisms of food assistance regarding its possible influence on disincentive to work and on crowding out of private transfer (inter-household or intergeneration transfer). Based on Indonesia Family Life Survey data and using instrumental variables approach, this paper estimates disincentive effect and...

  2. 77 FR 46855 - Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Chapter I RIN 3245-AF45 Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive AGENCY....S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is amending its Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR... Technology, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 Third Street SW., Washington, DC 20416. SBA will post...

  3. Transferring Lens Prescriptions Between Lens-Design Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, John E.; Wooley, Laura; Carlin, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Optical Lens Prescription Data Formatter computer program enables user to transfer complicated lens prescriptions quickly and easily from one major optical-design program to another and back again. One can take advantage of inherent strength of either program. Programs are ACCOS V from Scientific Calculations, Inc., of Fishers, NY, and CODE V from Optical Research Associates of Pasadena, CA. VAX version written in FORTRAN.

  4. Can transfer programs be made more nutrition sensitive?:

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition can best be addressed by a combination of nutrition specific interventions and nutrition sensitive programs, including social protection. This study reviews mechanisms of transfer program in order to better design nutrition sensitive social protection. Social protection programs typically increase income as well as influence the timing and, to a degree, control of this income. Additionally, social protection programs may achieve further impact on nutrition by fostering linkages w...

  5. Production objectives and breeding practices of urban goat and sheep keepers in West Africa: regional analysis and implications for the development of supportive breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Sangaré, Mamadou; Buerkert, Andreas; Schlecht, Eva

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the relative importance of the multi-purpose functions of small ruminants for their urban owners and related breeding practices including selection criteria, we undertook a comparative analysis across the West African cities of Kano (Nigeria), Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) and Sikasso (Mali). Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect the required information from 301 sheep farmers (100, 102 and 99 in Kano, Bobo Dioulasso and Sikasso) and 306 goat farmers (100, 99 and 107 in Kano, Bobo Dioulasso and Sikasso). Sheep and goats were kept for a variety of reasons including income generation, insurance (sale for cash to meet unexpected expenditures) and economic security (sale for cash to support foreseeable expenses), social/religious functions and prestige in ownership. The relative importance given by respondents to the different functions varied significantly (p record keeping and selection criteria), the emphasis put on each selection criteria varied across cities and between species. Irrespective of city, most of the goats were of the indigenous type while keeping crossbred animals and/or maintaining more than one genotype in the same flock was more commonly practiced by sheep keepers. This points to a higher motivation for strategic breeding among sheep than goat keepers and indicates that the former might be interested in joining carefully designed participatory flock improvement programs.

  6. Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER, K.D.

    2000-07-12

    The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. The primary goal of the program is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations. The process described involves characterizing waste, comparing characteristics with criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities and documenting the process.

  7. Mini core germplasm collections for infusing genetic diversity in plant breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari D Upadhyaya*, Devvart Yadav, Naresh Dronavalli, CLL Gowda, and Sube Singh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources are essential components to meet future food security needs of world. Crop germplasm diversitycontributes to developing improved crop cultivars aimed at increasing crop productivity. The large size of germplasmcollections, coupled with unavailability of detailed data and information, has resulted in low use (<1% of germplasmleading to a narrow genetic base in many crops. The miniaturization of crop collections with almost full representation ofgenetic diversity in the form of mini core (~1% of the entire collection approach is an effective methodology to enrichand enhance crop improvement programs. The concept and process of developing mini core at The International CropsResearch Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT has been recognized worldwide as an “International PublicGood” (IPG. The mini core provides a means for accessing the larger collections for further exploration and also helps inproper assessment of genetic diversity and population structure and for association mapping and targeted gene mining.Use of mini core approach will lead to greater utilization of diverse germplasm for developing broad-based cultivars,especially in the context of climate change. Many national programs have shown immense interest in evaluating minicore as reflected by the supply of 114 sets of mini core of chickpea, groundnut, pigeonpea, sorghum, pearl millet, foxtailmillet and finger millet to researchers in 14 countries. Scientists have been able to identify new and diverse sources ofvariation for morpho-agronomic, quality, biotic, and abiotic stress resistance traits in various crops. The molecularcharacterization of the mini core will further enhance its use in plant breeding programs.

  8. A comprehensive survey on selective breeding programs and seed market in the European aquaculture fish industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, K.P.E.; Hofherr, Johann; Contini, Franca; Haffray, P.; Komen, J.; Nielsen, E.E.; Bargelloni, L.

    2016-01-01

    The use of selective breeding is still relatively limited in aquaculture species. Information on such activities is sparse, hindering an overall evaluation of their success. Here, we report on the results of an online survey of the major aqua-culture breeding companies operating in Europe. Six main

  9. A Program Office Guide to Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    maintenance is emphasized, interchan- tions. Second source component verification geability requirements are pushed lower to the activities often are...technology tiansfer risk, the program office considers the following: 10.7 THE TECNOLOGY TRANSFERPLAN * Schedule intensity and concurrency The

  10. A model technology transfer program for independent operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1996-08-01

    In August 1992, the Energy Research Center (ERC) at the University of Kansas was awarded a contract by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a technology transfer regional model. This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program.

  11. Genetic variability and population structure of Salvia lachnostachys: implications for breeding and conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbano, Marianna; Schühli, Guilherme Schnell E; Santos, Élide Pereira Dos

    2015-04-08

    The genetic diversity and population structure of Salvia lachnostachys Benth were assessed. Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) molecular markers were used to investigate the restricted distribution of S. lachnostachys in Parana State, Brazil. Leaves of 73 individuals representing three populations were collected. DNA was extracted and submitted to PCR-ISSR amplification with nine tested primers. Genetic diversity parameters were evaluated. Our analysis indicated 95.6% polymorphic loci (stress value 0.02) with a 0.79 average Simpson's index. The Nei-Li distance dendrogram and principal component analysis largely recovered the geographical origin of each sample. Four major clusters were recognized representing each collected population. Nei's gene diversity and Shannon's information index were 0.25 and 0.40 respectively. As is typical for outcrossing herbs, the majority of genetic variation occurred at the population level (81.76%). A high gene flow (Nm = 2.48) was observed with a correspondingly low fixation index. These values were generally similar to previous studies on congeneric species. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCA) and of arithmetic average (UPGMA) were consistent and all three populations appear distinct as in STRUCTURE analysis. In addition, this analysis indicated a majority intrapopulation genetic variation. Despite the human pressure on natural populations our study found high levels of genetic diversity for S. lachnostachys. This was the first molecular assessment for this endemic species with medicinal proprieties and the results can guide for subsequent bioprospection, breeding programs or conservation actions.

  12. RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN A MAIZE BREEDING PROGRAM FOR NATIVE RESISTANCE TO WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Brkić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimum allocation of the number of plants sampled per plot and number of locations and years required for screening maize genotypes for reduced root damage caused by western corn rootworm (WCR larvae, major pest of maize in Croatia, Europe and in the USA. Field trials were conducted on two locations Eastern Croatia, a major maize production area with natural WCR occurrence under continuous maize growing conditions. The trials were set as an incomplete lattice block design in two replications in 2007, 2008 and 2009 including 128 genotypes from various maize gene-pools. Our results suggest that the effect of year and respective interactions including year were the most important factors in maize breeding programs for native resistance to WCR. Thus, screening germplasm for WCR resistance should be made in a multi-year experiment, but not necessarily as a multi-location experiment. Resource optimization should be done by reducing number of roots per plot to minimum 4 sampled plants due to small within-plot environmental variance.

  13. The Standardization of the Honeybee Colonies Evaluation Methodology, with Application in Honeybee Breeding Programs, in Romanian Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Cauia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that breeding is based on phenotypic and behavioural performance assessed at the level of each honeybee colony. By selection, the genes responsible for the desired characters have to be favoured, by evaluation and classification of all colonies involved in a breeding program. Generally, in the beekeeping practice, the most applied method of selection is the mass selection regarding the main objective- honey production. Some more elaborated programs use selection simultaneous selection on several characters. Until now, a standard method for honey bees evaluation and selection on several characters could not be generalized, every breeder establishing the selection method depending on proposed goals which could be different especially when we speak about different races and environmental conditions. Taking into account the selection objectives in Romania it was conceived a standardized methodology for the selection on several characters in Romanian condition.

  14. Vertical transmission of honey bee viruses in a Belgian queen breeding program

    OpenAIRE

    Ravoet, Jorgen; De Smet, Lina; Wenseleers, Tom; de Graaf, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Background The Member States of European Union are encouraged to improve the general conditions for the production and marketing of apicultural products. In Belgium, programmes on the restocking of honey bee hives have run for many years. Overall, the success ratio of this queen breeding programme has been only around 50%. To tackle this low efficacy, we organized sanitary controls of the breeding queens in 2012 and 2014. Results We found a high quantity of viruses, with more than 75% of the ...

  15. Genetic shift in local rice populations during rice breeding programs in the northern limit of rice cultivation in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Kenji; Obara, Mari; Ikegaya, Tomohito; Tamura, Kenichi

    2015-09-01

    The rapid accumulation of pre-existing mutations may play major roles in the establishment and shaping of adaptability for local regions in current rice breeding programs. The cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., which originated from tropical regions, is now grown worldwide due to the concerted efforts of breeding programs. However, the process of establishing local populations and their origins remain unclear. In the present study, we characterized DNA polymorphisms in the rice variety KITAAKE from Hokkaido, one of the northern limits of rice cultivation in the world. Indel polymorphisms were attributed to transposable element-like insertions, tandem duplications, and non-TE deletions as the original mutation events in the NIPPONBARE and KITAAKE genomes. The allele frequencies of the KITAAKE alleles markedly shifted to the current variety types among the local population from Hokkaido in the last two decades. The KITAAKE alleles widely distributed throughout wild rice and cultivated rice over the world. These have accumulated in the local population from Hokkaido via Japanese landraces as the ancestral population of Hokkaido. These results strongly suggested that combinations of pre-existing mutations played a role in the establishment of adaptability. This approach using the re-sequencing of local varieties in unique environmental conditions will be useful as a genetic resource in plant breeding programs in local regions.

  16. Genetic Variability and Population Structure of Salvia lachnostachys: Implications for Breeding and Conservation Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Erbano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity and population structure of Salvia lachnostachys Benth were assessed. Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR molecular markers were used to investigate the restricted distribution of S. lachnostachys in Parana State, Brazil. Leaves of 73 individuals representing three populations were collected. DNA was extracted and submitted to PCR-ISSR amplification with nine tested primers. Genetic diversity parameters were evaluated. Our analysis indicated 95.6% polymorphic loci (stress value 0.02 with a 0.79 average Simpson’s index. The Nei-Li distance dendrogram and principal component analysis largely recovered the geographical origin of each sample. Four major clusters were recognized representing each collected population. Nei’s gene diversity and Shannon’s information index were 0.25 and 0.40 respectively. As is typical for outcrossing herbs, the majority of genetic variation occurred at the population level (81.76%. A high gene flow (Nm = 2.48 was observed with a correspondingly low fixation index. These values were generally similar to previous studies on congeneric species. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCA and of arithmetic average (UPGMA were consistent and all three populations appear distinct as in STRUCTURE analysis. In addition, this analysis indicated a majority intrapopulation genetic variation. Despite the human pressure on natural populations our study found high levels of genetic diversity for S. lachnostachys. This was the first molecular assessment for this endemic species with medicinal proprieties and the results can guide for subsequent bioprospection, breeding programs or conservation actions.

  17. Performance of Lotus corniculatus L. genotypes submitted to cutting interval: subsidies to a breeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of five birdsfoot trefoil populations (Lotus corniculatus L., selected under severe and intense grazing (P38, P37, P9 and P3 or cutting (population Corte, one rhizomatous population from Morocco and two cultivars, São Gabriel (Brazil and ARS 2620 (USA, to different cutting intervals (20 and 40 days. The trial was carried out in a greenhouse for 224 days. The plants were submitted to the treatments during four months, when it was made four and two cuttings for the 20 and 40 day intervals, respectively. In the following months, aerial part of the plants was totally removed and after 70 days of regrowth, evaluation of roots and aerial section were performed. Analysis of variance and multivariate analysis was performed, obtaining the Mahalanobis distance (Md, dendogram by UPGMA method and the relative contribution of the characters for genetic divergence. There was no genotype × cutting interval interaction and the genotypes presented a reduction on dry matter yield of roots, crown and aerial sections, number of stems and plant height when submitted to frequent cuttings. The most divergent genotypes were Marrocos and P9 (Md = 108.7 and the most similar ones were São Gabriel and P37 (Md = 7.8. The results suggest exclusion of the population P9 because of its weak performance and the utilization of the populations Corte and P37 as progenitors in the birdsfoot trefoil breeding program. Root dry matter accumulation and plant height were the characters that contributed most to genetic divergence and they can be used for selection works.

  18. ADMINISTRATORS’ ROLES IN TRAINING PROGRAMS AND TRAINING TRANSFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An administrator plays a vital role in the growth and development of his/her subordinates. Despite this notion, the role of an administrator in the context of training programs and transfer of training is not well studied. Therefore, this study is set to examine the relationship between administrator’s role in training programs and training transfer. A survey method was utilized to gather 706 survey questionnaires from employees of local authorities of three cities in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia. The results of SmartPLS path model analysis confirmed that the ability of administrators to properly implement support, communication and assignment in planning and implementing training programs has been an important predictor of training transfer in the studied organization. Further, this study provides discussion, implications and conclusion.

  19. A review of microsatellite markers and their applications in rice breeding programs to improve blast disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Islam, Kh Nurul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2013-11-14

    Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the large amount of allelic variation at each locus. Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR), and they are typically composed of 1-6 nucleotide repeats. These markers are abundant, distributed throughout the genome and are highly polymorphic compared with other genetic markers, as well as being species-specific and co-dominant. For these reasons, they have become increasingly important genetic markers in rice breeding programs. The evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases as well as the pressures of climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders, who would like to increase rice production by introducing resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances in rice genomics have now made it possible to identify and map a number of genes through linkage to existing DNA markers. Among the more noteworthy examples of genes that have been tightly linked to molecular markers in rice are those that confer resistance or tolerance to blast. Therefore, in combination with conventional breeding approaches, marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to monitor the presence or lack of these genes in breeding populations. For example, marker-assisted backcross breeding has been used to integrate important genes with significant biological effects into a number of commonly grown rice varieties. The use of cost-effective, finely mapped microsatellite markers and MAS strategies should provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yield, blast resistance rice cultivars. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the linkage of microsatellite markers to rice blast resistance genes, as well as to explore the use of MAS in rice breeding

  20. A Review of Microsatellite Markers and Their Applications in Rice Breeding Programs to Improve Blast Disease Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdul Latif

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the large amount of allelic variation at each locus. Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR, and they are typically composed of 1–6 nucleotide repeats. These markers are abundant, distributed throughout the genome and are highly polymorphic compared with other genetic markers, as well as being species-specific and co-dominant. For these reasons, they have become increasingly important genetic markers in rice breeding programs. The evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases as well as the pressures of climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders, who would like to increase rice production by introducing resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances in rice genomics have now made it possible to identify and map a number of genes through linkage to existing DNA markers. Among the more noteworthy examples of genes that have been tightly linked to molecular markers in rice are those that confer resistance or tolerance to blast. Therefore, in combination with conventional breeding approaches, marker-assisted selection (MAS can be used to monitor the presence or lack of these genes in breeding populations. For example, marker-assisted backcross breeding has been used to integrate important genes with significant biological effects into a number of commonly grown rice varieties. The use of cost-effective, finely mapped microsatellite markers and MAS strategies should provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yield, blast resistance rice cultivars. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the linkage of microsatellite markers to rice blast resistance genes, as well as to explore the use of MAS

  1. Venture Creation Programs: Bridging Entrepreneurship Education and Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackéus, Martin; Williams Middleton, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how university-based entrepreneurship programs, incorporating real-life venture creation into educational design and delivery, can bridge the gap between entrepreneurship education and technology transfer within the university environment. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review…

  2. Social Service Worker Programs Transfer Guide Matrix and Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Phyllis

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identity the transferability of Social Service Worker (SSW) certificate and diploma level courses/programs among British Columbia (BC) post- secondary institutions. Although it continues to be necessary for receiving institutions to review courses a student completed at the sending institution, a matrix has been…

  3. 77 FR 46909 - Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program Policy Directives... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer Program (STTR) Policy... Webinars will be conducted by SBA's Office of Investment and Innovation. For additional information,...

  4. Income Transfers and Maternal Health: Evidence from a National Randomized Social Cash Transfer Program in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Peterman, Amber; Seidenfeld, David; Tembo, Gelson

    2016-02-01

    There is promising recent evidence that poverty-targeted social cash transfers have potential to improve maternal health outcomes; however, questions remain surrounding design features responsible for impacts. In addition, virtually no evidence exists from the African region. This study explores the impact of Zambia's Child Grant Program on a range of maternal health utilization outcomes using a randomized design and difference-in-differences multivariate regression from data collected over 24 months from 2010 to 2012. Results indicate that while there are no measurable program impacts among the main sample, there are heterogeneous impacts on skilled attendance at birth among a sample of women residing in households having better access to maternal health services. The latter result is particularly interesting because of the overall low level of health care availability in program areas suggesting that dedicated program design or matching supply-side interventions may be necessary to leverage unconditional cash transfers in similar settings to impact maternal health.

  5. Blood metabolites and hormone-based programmed breeding treatments in anovular lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zarkouny, S Z; Shaaban, M M; Stevenson, J S

    2011-12-01

    The objectives were to (1) compare blood metabolites and reproductive outcomes in lactating dairy cows not inseminated before (early) and after (late) 100 d in milk (DIM) because of prolonged anovulation or anestrus; and (2) evaluate reproductive responses of cows ≤100 DIM to GnRH+PGF(2α) treatments after a fixed-time artificial insemination (AI; Ovsynch) or after induced estrus (Select Synch). In blood samples collected before initiating hormone-based breeding programs, anovular cows ≤ 100 DIM had the greatest serum total protein and globulin concentrations and the lowest tri-iodothyronine concentrations. Anovular and ovular cows >100 DIM had the greatest serum urea concentrations. Ovaries in cows (n=40) >100 DIM were examined by transrectal ultrasonography, and those without a detectable corpus luteum (CL; anovular) were given GnRH and then PGF(2α) 7 d later (Select Synch), whereas cows with a CL (ovular) were given 2 PGF(2α) injections 12 d apart. Cows were inseminated at observed estrus after the second or only PGF(2α) injection. More ovular (79%; 15/19) than anovular cows (24%; 5/21) were detected in estrus. No differences were detected between ovular and anovular cows in DIM at first AI, conception rate to first AI, cumulative pregnancy rates, number of services per conception, or days open. Cows (n=93) ≤100 DIM were assigned randomly to 3 treatments: (1) control (n=20) AI at estrus; (2) GnRH and then PGF(2α) on 7d (Select Synch; n=42) and monitored for signs of estrus for 5d and AI accordingly; or (3) 2 GnRH injections 9 d apart with PGF(2α) given 48 h before second GnRH injection and AI at 16h after the second GnRH injection (Ovsynch; n=31). Among cows ≤100 DIM, controls had more days to first service (149±16 d) than Select Synch cows (117±7 d). Ovsynch cows had the fewest days to first service (84±10 d) compared with control (149±16 d) and Select Synch (117±7 d) cows. Conception rates in control (25%) and Select Synch (26.2%) cows did

  6. Strongylids in domestic horses: Influence of horse age, breed and deworming programs on the strongyle parasite community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Dzeverin, Igor; Kharchenko, Vitaliy A

    2016-08-30

    An extensive analysis of the relationships between strongylid egg shedding in domestic horses and the strongylid community structure in regard to the age of the horses, their breeds and different strategies of horse management, particularly with anthelmintic treatment programs was performed. Domestic horses (n=197) of different ages (5 months to 22 years) and of various breeds from 15 farms with different types of deworming programs were included in this study. Strongylids (totally, 82,767 specimens) were collected in vivo after deworming of the horses with the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic ("Univerm", 0.2% aversectin C), and identified to the species level. Models of multiple regressions with dummy variables were used to estimate the effects of age, breed, type of farm and deworming programs on number of eggs shed per gram of feces (EPG value) and the strongylid community. Totally, 33 strongylid species were collected (8 species of Strongylinae and 25 - of Cyathostominae); a significant correlation (r=0.67; phorses (1.5-4 years old); the lowest (17) - in old horses (>16years). Foals (horses. The linear regression models of the strongyle egg counts (EPG) with three predictors: horse age (AGE), number of strongylids (SN), and type of farm (FARM) revealed significant effects of SN and FARM, but an effect of AGE was near the limit of significance. Horses from farms with rare or no anthelmintic treatments (type A) shed significantly more strongyle eggs than horses from farms with regular treatments; frequency of dewormings - 1-2 (type B) or 3-4 and more times per year (type C) did not have a significant impact on the EPG value. Thoroughbreds, Ukrainian Saddlers and Russian Racers had much higher EPG values comparing to non-breed horses. Analysis of the relation of age of the horses and structure of the strongylid communities revealed that foals (horses (>16years old) were significantly less infected by large strongyles as compared to other horses. Species from the

  7. Development and integration of an SSR-based molecular identity database into sugarcane breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane breeding is very difficult and it takes 12 to 14 years to develop a new cultivar for commercial production. This is because sugarcane varieties are highly polyploid, inter-specific hybrids with 100 to 130 chromosomes that may vary across geographical areas. Other obstacles/constraints incl...

  8. Prospect of the QTL-qSB-9Tq utilized in molecular breeding program of japonica rice against sheath blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The major QTL-qSB-9Tq conferring partial resistance to rice (Oryza sativa L.) sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) has been verified on chromosome 9 of the indica rice cultivar, Teqing. In this study, the prospect of this QTL utilized in molecular breeding program of japonica rice for sheath blight resistance was investigated. Most of the japonica rice cultivars showed lower level of sheath blight resistance than the indica rice cultivars. At the corresponding site of qSB-9Tq, nine typical japonica rice culfivars from different ecological regions or countries proved to possess the susceptible allele(s). Introgression of qSB-9Tq into these cultivars enhanced their resistance level by decreasing sheath blight score of 1.0 (0.5-1.3), which indicated that qSB-9Tq had a large potential in strengthening the resistance of japonica rice to sheath blight. The use of the three molecular markers, which were polymorphic between Teqing and many japonica rice cultivars, promotes the application of qSB-9Tq in a concrete molecular breeding program.

  9. Evaluation of maize inbred lines currently used in Chinese breeding programs for resistance to six foliar diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming; Wang; Yunhua; Zhang; Xiude; Xu; Hongjie; Li; Xiaofei; Wu; Shihuang; Zhang; Xinhai; Li

    2014-01-01

    Foliar diseases are common in most maize-producing regions and have caused serious yield reduction in China. To evaluate genetic resistance of parental lines actively used in maize breeding programs to major foliar diseases, 152 maize inbred lines were tested against northern corn leaf blight(NCLB), southern corn leaf blight(SCLB), Curvularia leaf spot(CLS),gray leaf spot(GLS), common rust, and southern rust from 2003 to 2005. A small number of lines exhibited highly resistant reactions to common rust and southern rust, but none were highly resistant to NCLB, SCLB, CLS, and GLS. Although 53.3%, 40.8%, and 80.7% of lines were resistant to NCLB, SCLB, and common rust, the resistance in most lines was moderate.Resistance to CLS, GLS, and southern rust was rare in this collection of maize lines. Five lines,313, Chang 7-2, Qi 319, Qi 318, and Shen 137, were resistant to five diseases tested. Lines belonging to heterotic subgroup PB exhibited better resistance to the foliar diseases than lines from other heterotic subgroups, such as BSSS, PA, Lancaster, LRC, and PA. The results will be of benefit to breeders for selecting lines in disease resistance breeding programs.

  10. Use of physical/chemical mutagens in plant breeding program in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Huu Dong; Bui Huy Thuy; Le Van Nha; Nguyen Van Bich [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Among more than 1870 new plant varieties formed by mutation breeding in the world, 44 varieties of different plants were formed by Vietnamese scientists. Research on induced mutation in Vietnam started in 1966, was promoted in Agricultural Institute, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Institute of Food Crop Research, and Agriculture Universities, and has produced varieties of rice, maize, soybean, peanut, tomato, jujuba, green bean etc using physical and chemical mutagens: Irradiation with gamma rays or neutrons, and use of such chemicals as dimethylsulfate (DMS), diethylsulfate (DES), ethyleneimine (EI), N-nitrosomethylurea (NUM), N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), and sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}). In the present report, the results of cytological and genetic effects in M1 plants, the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutants, the mutants obtained and the genetic nature of the next generation are described, particularly for the case of rice. Radiation dose and dose rate used as mutagens are also reported. (S. Ohno)

  11. Evidence of eligibility manipulation for conditional cash transfer programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Firpo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses whether eligibility for conditional cash transfer programs has been manipulated, as well as the impact of this phenomenon on time allocation within households. To perform this analysis, we use data from the 2006 PNAD (Brazilian national household survey and investigate the eligibility manipulation for the Bolsa Família (Family Stipend program during this time period. The program assists families with a monthly per capita income of around R$120.00 (US$60.00. By applying the tests developed by McCrary (2008, we find suggestive evidence that individuals manipulate their income by voluntarily reducing their labor supply in order to become eligible to the program. Moreover, the reduction in labor supply is greater among women, especially single or divorced mothers. This evidence raises some concern about the unintended consequences related to the eligibility criteria utilized by Bolsa Família, as well as the program's impact on individuals living in extreme poverty.

  12. Assessing the impact of natural service bulls and genotype by environment interactions on genetic gain and inbreeding in organic dairy cattle genomic breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T; Wensch-Dorendorf, M; Simianer, H; Swalve, H H; König, S

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare genetic gain and inbreeding coefficients of dairy cattle in organic breeding program designs by applying stochastic simulations. Evaluated breeding strategies were: (i) selecting bulls from conventional breeding programs, and taking into account genotype by environment (G×E) interactions, (ii) selecting genotyped bulls within the organic environment for artificial insemination (AI) programs and (iii) selecting genotyped natural service bulls within organic herds. The simulated conventional population comprised 148 800 cows from 2976 herds with an average herd size of 50 cows per herd, and 1200 cows were assigned to 60 organic herds. In a young bull program, selection criteria of young bulls in both production systems (conventional and organic) were either 'conventional' estimated breeding values (EBV) or genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) for two traits with low (h 2=0.05) and moderate heritability (h 2=0.30). GEBV were calculated for different accuracies (r mg), and G×E interactions were considered by modifying originally simulated true breeding values in the range from r g=0.5 to 1.0. For both traits (h 2=0.05 and 0.30) and r mg⩾0.8, genomic selection of bulls directly in the organic population and using selected bulls via AI revealed higher genetic gain than selecting young bulls in the larger conventional population based on EBV; also without the existence of G×E interactions. Only for pronounced G×E interactions (r g=0.5), and for highly accurate GEBV for natural service bulls (r mg>0.9), results suggests the use of genotyped organic natural service bulls instead of implementing an AI program. Inbreeding coefficients of selected bulls and their offspring were generally lower when basing selection decisions for young bulls on GEBV compared with selection strategies based on pedigree indices.

  13. A model technology transfer program for independent operators: Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program. The original Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) activities, upon which the KTTM is based, were developed and tested for Kansas and have proved to be effective in assisting independent operators in utilizing technology. Through joint activities of TORP and the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), the KTTM was developed and documented for application in other oil-producing regions. During the course of developing this model, twelve documents describing the implementation of the KTTM were developed as deliverables to DOE. These include: (1) a problem identification (PI) manual describing the format and results of six PI workshops conducted in different areas of Kansas, (2) three technology workshop participant manuals on advanced waterflooding, reservoir description, and personal computer applications, (3) three technology workshop instructor manuals which provides instructor material for all three workshops, (4) three technologies were documented as demonstration projects which included reservoir management, permeability modification, and utilization of a liquid-level acoustic measuring device, (5) a bibliography of all literature utilized in the documents, and (6) a document which describes the KTTM.

  14. Use of animals with partially known ancestries in scientifically managed breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Kevin; Lacy, Robert C

    2016-07-01

    Animals with only partially known ancestry present a problem for population managers because it can be difficult to determine their relative genetic value to the population. So long as their ancestry is not completely unknown, population management software such as PMx can calculate a mean kinship for these animals, but that mean kinship is calculated such that there is no decrease in relative genetic value or "penalty" for only partially known ancestry. However, there is a longer-term genetic cost to having animals with only partially known ancestry in the population, and thus it is appropriate to "penalize" animals with partially known ancestry to some extent. The challenge is determining the correct "penalty" which will serve to decrease the percent unknown ancestry in subsequent generations while not causing excessive selection against the known ancestry of the animal. A new parameter of relative genetic value is developed which takes into account both an animal's mean kinship as well as its percent known ancestry. The method used in PMx to calculate the mean kinships also in general overestimates the inbreeding coefficients of offspring of animals with partially known ancestry when the known parents share a common ancestor, but can underestimate inbreeding if common ancestors exist within the unknown portion of the pedigree. This may result in population managers selecting less suitable pairs for breeding in an attempt to avoid an apparent higher level of inbreeding. A parameter is developed that adjusts the inbreeding coefficient to more accurately reflect the likely inbreeding coefficient of potential offspring. Zoo Biol. 35:319-325, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. MILK PRODUCTION GENETIC IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM OF THE TRANSYLVANIAN PINZGAU BREED IN THE BIHOR, HUNEDOARA AND SUCEAVA COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PAVEL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the average values of productive performances gained by the activecows in the Bihor, Hunedoara and Suceava counties, there has been established agenetic improvement program for the milk production of Transylvanian Pinzgaubreed in the three counties. The morpho-productive parameters followed in themaking of the projected type of Transylvanian Pinzgau breed were: body weight 600kg, height at withers 135 cm, milk production 4500 kg, 3.9% fat, fat yield 175.5 kg,3.5% protein, protein yield 157.5 kg, average daily gain 1000 g, live weight at 500days of age 500 kg, killing out percentage 58%. To realize a production of 4500 kgof milk, starting from the active actual production, in the Bihor County will berequired 3.42 generations, in the Hunedoara County 1.4 generations and in Suceava1.56 generations. For realizing the selection objective of 175.5 kg fat from milk, inBihor County will be required 2.03 generations, in Hunedoara 0.95 generations andin Suceava 0.89 generations. The projected type of Transylvanian Pinzgau breeddoesn’t have to impair the rustic element, the resistance, the longevity and the abilityof movement through which this breed gained a specific exploitation habitat in anarea in which it is irreplaceable. The projected type of Transylvanian Pinzgau breedcan adapt to the mountain habitat and can represent one of the essential factors forthe long term development of mountain agriculture and agro-tourism, in thecondition that it will be sustained financially, imperative for the whole Romanianmountain area.

  16. A FORTRAN program for analysis of genotypic frequencies and description of the breeding structure of populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, W C; Krafsur, E S

    1985-08-01

    A FORTRAN program, "Genestats" was designed to analyse genotypic and allelic frequencies in subpopulations. The genotypes of individuals gathered from electrophoretic analysis at one or more loci are submitted. The program subsequently calculates allele frequencies, determines if significant heterogeneity exists among subpopulations, tests for departures from random mating in subpopulations and calculates F-statistics. A description of the statistical methods is provided. Printout from analysis of allozyme data collected from field subpopulations of the house fly (Musca domestica L.) is provided to illustrate and evaluate the computational methods.

  17. Mixed model approaches for the identification of QTLs within a maize hybrid breeding program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Boer, M.; Totir, L.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Wright, D.; Winkler, C.; Podlich, D.; Boldman, K.; Baumgarten, R.; Smalley, M.; Arbelbide, M.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Cooper, M.

    2010-01-01

    Two outlines for mixed model based approaches to quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in existing maize hybrid selection programs are presented: a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The methods use the in-silico-mapping procedure developed

  18. Cast Metals Coalition Technology Transfer and Program Management Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwyn, Mike

    2009-03-31

    The Cast Metals Coalition (CMC) partnership program was funded to ensure that the results of the Department of Energy's (DOE) metalcasting research and development (R&D) projects are successfully deployed into industry. Specifically, the CMC program coordinated the transfer and deployment of energy saving technologies and process improvements developed under separately funded DOE programs and projects into industry. The transition of these technologies and process improvements is a critical step in the path to realizing actual energy savings. At full deployment, DOE funded metalcasting R&D results are projected to save 55% of the energy used by the industry in 1998. This closely aligns with DOE's current goal of driving a 25% reduction in industrial energy intensity by 2017. In addition to benefiting DOE, these energy savings provide metalcasters with a significant economic advantage. Deployment of already completed R&D project results and those still underway is estimated to return over 500% of the original DOE and industry investment. Energy savings estimates through December 2008 from the Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) portfolio of projects alone are 12 x 1012 BTUs, with a projection of over 50 x 1012 BTUs ten years after program completion. These energy savings and process improvements have been made possible through the unique collaborative structure of the CMC partnership. The CMC team consists of DOE's Office of Industrial Technology, the three leading metalcasting technical societies in the U.S: the American Foundry Society; the North American Die Casting Association; and the Steel Founders Society of America; and the Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), a recognized leader in distributed technology management. CMC provides collaborative leadership to a complex industry composed of approximately 2,100 companies, 80% of which employ less than 100 people, and only 4% of which employ more than 250 people

  19. 78 FR 59410 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs... period for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer...

  20. Optimizing the creation of base populations for aquaculture breeding programs using phenotypic and genomic data and its consequences on genetic progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús eFernández

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The success of an aquaculture breeding program critically depends on the way in which the base population of breeders is constructed since all the genetic variability for the traits included originally in the breeding goal as well as those to be included in the future is contained in those initial founders. Traditionally base populations were created from a number of wild strains by sampling equal numbers from each strain. However, for some aquaculture species improved strains are already available and therefore, mean phenotypic values for economically important traits can be used as a criterion to optimize the sampling when creating base populations. Also, the increasing availability of genome-wide genotype information in aquaculture species could help to refine the estimation of relationships within and between candidate strains and, thus, to optimize the percentage of individuals to be sampled from each strain. This study explores the advantages of using phenotypic and genome-wide information when constructing base populations for aquaculture breeding programs in terms of initial and subsequent trait performance and genetic diversity level. Results show that a compromise solution between diversity and performance can be found when creating base populations. Up to 6% higher levels of phenotypic performance can be achieved at the same level of global diversity in the base population by optimizing the selection of breeders instead of sampling equal numbers from each strain. The higher performance observed in the base population persisted during ten generations of phenotypic selection applied in the subsequent breeding program.

  1. Optimizing the creation of base populations for aquaculture breeding programs using phenotypic and genomic data and its consequences on genetic progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Á; Sonesson, Anna K; Villanueva, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The success of an aquaculture breeding program critically depends on the way in which the base population of breeders is constructed since all the genetic variability for the traits included originally in the breeding goal as well as those to be included in the future is contained in the initial founders. Traditionally, base populations were created from a number of wild strains by sampling equal numbers from each strain. However, for some aquaculture species improved strains are already available and, therefore, mean phenotypic values for economically important traits can be used as a criterion to optimize the sampling when creating base populations. Also, the increasing availability of genome-wide genotype information in aquaculture species could help to refine the estimation of relationships within and between candidate strains and, thus, to optimize the percentage of individuals to be sampled from each strain. This study explores the advantages of using phenotypic and genome-wide information when constructing base populations for aquaculture breeding programs in terms of initial and subsequent trait performance and genetic diversity level. Results show that a compromise solution between diversity and performance can be found when creating base populations. Up to 6% higher levels of phenotypic performance can be achieved at the same level of global diversity in the base population by optimizing the selection of breeders instead of sampling equal numbers from each strain. The higher performance observed in the base population persisted during 10 generations of phenotypic selection applied in the subsequent breeding program.

  2. Improving Charging-Breeding Simulations with Space-Charge Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Ryan; Kwiatkowski, Ania; Steinbrügge, René

    2016-09-01

    Rare-isotope-beam facilities use Highly Charged Ions (HCI) for accelerators accelerating heavy ions and to improve measurement precision and resolving power of certain experiments. An Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is able to create HCI through successive electron impact, charge breeding trapped ions into higher charge states. CBSIM was created to calculate successive charge breeding with an EBIT. It was augmented by transferring it into an object-oriented programming language, including additional elements, improving ion-ion collision factors, and exploring the overlap of the electron beam with the ions. The calculation is enhanced with the effects of residual background gas by computing the space charge due to charge breeding. The program assimilates background species, ionizes and charge breeds them alongside the element being studied, and allows them to interact with the desired species through charge exchange, giving fairer overview of realistic charge breeding. Calculations of charge breeding will be shown for realistic experimental conditions. We reexamined the implementation of ionization energies, cross sections, and ion-ion interactions when charge breeding.

  3. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K; Jones, Owen R

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  4. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia A Conde

    Full Text Available Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23% terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  5. 77 FR 10373 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Electronics Manufacturing: Revisions to Heat Transfer Fluid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AR09 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Electronics Manufacturing... category of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule related to fluorinated heat transfer fluids. More... INFORMATION CONTACT: Carole Cook, Climate Change Division, Office of Atmospheric Programs...

  6. The Impact of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs on Human Capital Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, James David Michael

    2013-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs are increasingly being used through the developing world to reduce inequality, break the intergenerational poverty cycle, and build human capital. These programs vary by country but typically make cash transfers conditional upon children meeting certain healthcare and educational standards. While previous…

  7. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104...

  8. 5 CFR 630.1103 - Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1103 Section 630.1103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1103 Establishment of...

  9. Knowledge Transfer through a Transnational Program Partnership between Indonesian and Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Agustian; Pillay, Hitendra

    2015-01-01

    As transnational programs are often advocated as a knowledge transfer opportunity between the partner universities, this case study investigated the knowledge transfer (KT) processes between Indonesian and Australian universities through an undergraduate transnational program partnership (TPP). An inter-organisational KT theoretical framework from…

  10. swinger: a user-friendly computer program to establish captive breeding groups that minimize relatedness without pedigree information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Attard, Catherine R M; Marri, Shashikanth; Brauer, Chris J; Möller, Luciana M; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2017-03-01

    Captive breeding programmes are often a necessity for the continued persistence of a population or species. They typically have the goal of maintaining genetic diversity and minimizing inbreeding. However, most captive breeding programmes have been based on the assumption that the founding breeders are unrelated and outbred, even though in situ anthropogenic impacts often mean these founders may have high relatedness and substantial inbreeding. In addition, polygamous group-breeding species in captivity often have uncertain pedigrees, making it difficult to select the group composition for subsequent breeding. Molecular-based estimates of relatedness and inbreeding may instead be used to select breeding groups (≥two individuals) that minimize relatedness and filter out inbred individuals. swinger constructs breeding groups based on molecular estimates of relatedness and inbreeding. The number of possible combinations of breeding groups quickly becomes intractable by hand. swinger was designed to overcome this major issue in ex situ conservation biology. The user can specify parameters within swinger to reach breeding solutions that suit the mating system of the target species and available resources. We provide evidence of the efficiency of the software with an empirical example and using simulations. The only data required are a typical molecular marker data set, such as a microsatellite or SNP data set, from which estimates of inbreeding and pairwise relatedness may be obtained. Such molecular data sets are becoming easier to gather from non-model organisms with next-generation sequencing technology. swinger is an open-source software with a user-friendly interface and is available at http://www.molecularecology.flinders.edu.au/molecular-ecology-lab/software/swinger/swinger/ and https://github.com/Yuma248/Swinger.

  11. US Global Change Research Program Distributed Cost Budget Interagency Funds Transfer from DOE to NSF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhle, Maria [National Science Foundation (NSF), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-22

    These funds were transferred from DOE to NSF as DOE's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program in support of 4 internationalnactivities/programs as approved by the U.S. Global Change Research Program on 14 March 2014. The programs are the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, the DIVERSITAS programme, and the World Climate Research Program. All program awards ended as of 09-23-2015.

  12. 23 CFR 420.207 - What are the requirements for research, development, and technology transfer work programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... technology transfer work programs? 420.207 Section 420.207 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION..., Development and Technology Transfer Program Management § 420.207 What are the requirements for research, development, and technology transfer work programs? (a) The State DOT's RD&T work program must, as a...

  13. Cryopreservation of Equine Embryos and First Report of a Native Colombian Breed Born by Transfer of an Equine Vitrified Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Nathalie Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report on the success of a cryopreservation procedure of equine embryos to achieve a viable pregnancy. Equine embryos were collected on day 6-6.5 (<300 μm, n = 24 and subjected to two cryopreservation techniques: group 1 (n = 12, vitrified, exposing them to a VS1 (Gli [1.4 M] 5 min, VS2 (Gli [1.4 M] + EG [3.6 M] and VS3 (Gli [3.4M] + EG [4.6 M] 1 min solution. They were packed in 0.25 ml straws and immersed in liquid nitrogen; group 2 (n = 12, slow freezing: exposed to a freezing solution (1.8 M EG + 0.1 M sucrose for 10 minutes, packed into 0.25 ml straws, brought to the embryos freezer, exposed to a freezing curve and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Following defrosting, cryoprotectants were removed from the 24 embryos in one step; they were submerged in culture medium DMEM/F12 + 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS and incubated under controlled atmosphere (5% CO2, 5% N2, 90% O2 for 48 h. Embryonic development was evaluated in 75% of the vitrified embryos (n = 4; 20% of the embryos were subjected to slow freezing (n = 1. No significant difference was observed in the groups regarding embryonic development, but a greater survival tendency on the vitrified embryos was noted. Also, one of these vitrified embryos was transferred to a receiver, achieving a viable pregnancy and the birth of a living foal.

  14. Transfer method among water content detection models for different breeds of pork by hyperspectral imaging technique%不同品种间的猪肉含水率高光谱模型传递方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娇; 李小昱; 郭小许; 金瑞; 徐森淼; 库静

    2014-01-01

    At present, most studies on model transfer were based on different spectrometers, and models were established using the near infrared spectroscopy. In this study, a hyperspectral detection model of water content of fresh pork was established by partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. In order to enhance model prediction applicability to different breeds of pork samples, a new model transfer method, piecewise direct standardization combined with linear interpolation (PDS-LI) was processed. In this method, the spectra of slave breed were corrected according to the spectra difference between master breed and slave breed, and then the corrected spectra of slave breed were predicted by master model. A function based on the prediction and reference values of slave breed samples was established. This function would be used to correct the prediction values of unknown test samples of slave breed. The specific steps were as followed: 1) Samples of master breed were divided into the calibration set and the test set, and the master model was built based on the calibration set by PLSR method. 2) Samples of slave breed were partitioned into standard sample selection set C2, standard sample set C2std and unknown test set T2un, and C2 was used for the selection of C2std and T2un was used to verify the transferred model. 3) Transfer matrix F was calculated by PDS algorithm according to the spectra difference between calibration set in master breed and C2std in slave breed, and then C2std and T2un were respectively corrected by transfer matrix F. 4) In order to improve the prediction accuracy of master model to the corrected spectrum of slave breed, the prediction value of T2un need to be corrected. For sample i in unknown test set T2un, symbiosis distance D(i) between sample i and every sample else in standard sample set C2std was calculated successively. D(i) was the sum of Euclidean distances between converted spectrum and absolute deviation of the prediction values. Two

  15. First field results on the use of stallion sex-sorted semen in a large-scale embryo transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panarace, M; Pellegrini, R O; Basualdo, M O; Belé, M; Ursino, D A; Cisterna, R; Desimone, G; Rodríguez, E; Medina, M J

    2014-03-01

    Flow cytometry sex-sorting technology was developed in 1989. However, it is only the bovine species in which offspring of the desired sex are obtained at a commercial level. The aim of the present work was to evaluate efficiency parameters when using fresh sexed semen in a large-scale equine commercial embryo transfer program. During the 2009, 2010 and 2011 breeding seasons, 938 synchronized cycles were artificially inseminated. One hundred (10.6%) mares failed to ovulate, and for the remaining 838 useable cycles, 887 doses of sexed semen were used, representing 1.06 doses per cycle. In general, 435 (51.9%) out of 838 flushing performed resulted in the recovery of at least one embryo and 496 (59.1%) embryos were recovered, including twins and triplets. Pregnancy rate at 25 days achieved 81.5% (one embryo transferred per recipient). Embryo recovery rate was not statistically different either between preovulatory and postovulatory artificially inseminated mares or when increased quantities of sexed sperm per dose were used (15-45 million) (P > 0.05). A broad variation in embryo recovery rate was observed between the different stallions used in this study. Sex accuracy of the sex sorting assessed by ultrasound fetal sex determination was 90.3%. Finally, overall efficiency (female embryo pregnancies per useable cycles) was 39% (325/838), meaning that to obtain a female pregnancy of at least 75 days it was necessary to perform 2.5 flushing.

  16. 78 FR 48537 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs... Administration (SBA) is publishing the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology... Business Administration, 409 Third Street SW., Washington, DC 20416; or send an email to...

  17. Variance estimation between different body measurements at the females population from Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog breed, to develop a genetic improvement program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Dronca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog, was selected from a natural population breed in Carpathian Mountains. The aim of this paper was to estimate variance at 12 body measurements using 23 females from Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog breed. The animals were registered with the Romanian Mioritic Association Club from Romania. In order to develop a genetic improvement program at this effective of 23 females from Romanian Sheperd Dog breed, found in evidence of Romanian Mioritic Association Club from Romania, should be considered the following conclusions on variance those 12 characters studied in this paper, respectively, there is a large variance for the height at the middle back, the height at the croup, the height at the base of the tail, the width of the croup, the length of the tail, the depth of the thorax, the thorax perimeter, the height of the elbow and  for the height at the withers, the body length and the height at the hocks, the variance is middle.

  18. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition.

  19. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding program

  20. Laney College Transfer Opportunities Program, Sponsored by the Ford Foundation. A Narrative Report, 1983-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Milton

    Activities and outcomes of a Transfer Opportunities Program developed at Laney College, with a grant from the Ford Foundation, are presented in this report. Introductory material outlines the purpose of the program (i.e., to establish an intervention strategy to improve student academic performance and persistence; increase the number of students…

  1. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs. 630.1015 Section 630.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015...

  2. 5 CFR 630.1013 - Participation in voluntary leave transfer and leave bank programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation in voluntary leave transfer and leave bank programs. 630.1013 Section 630.1013 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1013...

  3. New York City's First Conditional Cash Transfer Program: What Worked, What Didn't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, James; Miller, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a long-term evaluation of Opportunity NYC--Family Rewards, an experimental, privately funded, conditional cash transfer (CCT) program to help families break the cycle of poverty. Family Rewards was the first comprehensive CCT program in a developed country. Launched in 2007 by New York City's Center for…

  4. Knowledge transfer in pair programming: An in-depth analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plonka, Laura; Sharp, Helen; van der Linden, Janet;

    2015-01-01

    constellations. We ask “what does it take to be a good “expert” and how can a “novice” best learn from a more experienced developer?”. An in-depth investigation of video and audio excerpts of professional pair programming sessions using Interaction Analysis reveals: six teaching strategies, ranging from “giving...... direct instructions” to “subtle hints”; and challenges and benefits for both partners. These strategies are instantiations of some but not all teaching methods promoted in cognitive apprenticeship; novice articulation, reflection and exploration are not seen in the data. The context of pair programming...

  5. HPCC technology awareness program: Improved economic competitiveness through technology awareness, transfer and application. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    A need has been defined by Congress for the DOE National Laboratories to participate in various dual use and technology transfer programs. This requirement has spawned several technology transfer approaches at the DOE laboratories. These programs are designed to encourage large and small business to bring their problems and needs forward, and to allow the labs to transfer effective high performance computing technology to the commercial marketplace. This IG Technologies grant from the DOE was undertaken to address the issues and problems associated with technology transfer between the DOE National Laboratories and commercial industry. The key focus is to gain an understanding of how DOE and industry independently and collectively view the requirements and the missing elements that could allow DOE to facilitate HPCC technology transfer. At issue is HPCC Technology Transfer for the High Performance Computing industry and its relationship to the DOE National Laboratories. Several observations on this are addressed. The issue of a ``Technology Utilization Gap`` between the National Laboratories and Independent Software Vendors is discussed. This study addressed the HPCC Technology Transfer plans of all six DOE National Labs. Study team members briefed numerous industrial users of HPCC technology as to the feasibility of technology transfer for various applications. Significant findings of the effort are that the resistance to technology transfer is much higher than anticipated for both the National Labs and industry. Also, HPCC Technology Transfer is observed to be a large company`s dominion. Small businesses have a difficult time in addressing the requirements of technology transfer using Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA`s). Large businesses and the DOE National Labs however, often have requirements and objectives which are at cross purposes, making effective technology transfer difficult.

  6. The CAV program for numerical evaluation of laminar natural convection heat transfer in vertical rectangular cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Milos H.; Nowak, Edwin S.

    1993-12-01

    To analyze the laminar natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow distribution in vertical rectangular cavities with or without inner partitions, the personal computer finite difference program entitled CAV is used. The CAV program was tested successfully for slender cavities with aspect ratios as high as R = H/ L = 90 and for the Grashof numbers, based on the cavity height, up to GrH = 3 x10 9. To make the CAV program useful for a number of applications, various types of boundary conditions can also be imposed on the program calculations. Presented are program applications dealing with the 2-D numerical analysis of natural convection heat transfer in very slender window cavities with and without small inner partitions and recommendations are made for window design.

  7. Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Antunez, E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to remain competitive, it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them, is also given.

  8. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  9. Solutions manual and computer programs for physical and computational aspects of convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Cebeci, Tuncer

    1989-01-01

    This book is designed to accompany Physical and Computational Aspects of Convective Heat Transfer by T Cebeci and P Bradshaw and contains solutions to the exercises and computer programs for the numerical methods contained in that book Physical and Computational Aspects of Convective Heat Transfer begins with a thorough discussion of the physical aspects of convective heat transfer and presents in some detail the partial differential equations governing the transport of thermal energy in various types of flows The book is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students of aeronautical, chemical, civil and mechanical engineering It can also serve as a reference for the practitioner

  10. Comparison of single cell culture derived Solanum tuberosum L. plants and a model for their application in breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, G; Schieder, O; Przewozny, T; Sopory, S K; Melchers, G

    1979-03-01

    The techniques of microspore and protoplast regeneration starting from dihaploid Solanum tuberosum plants has been improved to such an extent that the production of more than 2000 microspore derived A1 plant lines and of several hundred protoplast derived plantlets has become possible. Further, from the dihaploid Solanum species S. phureja the regeneration of microspores to plants, and from the species S. infundibuliforme, S. sparsipilum and S. tarijense the regeneration of protoplasts to calluses, has been achieved. The plants descending from the two single cell culture systems are compared with reference to phenotypic markers and economic qualities. Some principles characteristic for either microspore or protoplast derived plants are examined and their significance is discussed. The results are compiled into an extended analytical synthetic breeding scheme based on a stepwise reduction of the autotetraploid to the monohaploid level and a subsequent controlled combination to a new synthetic completely heterozygous tetraploid potato.

  11. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  12. Conditional Cash Transfer Programs from a Gender Perspective: A Comparative Evaluation for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursel Aydiner Avsar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the conditional cash transfer (CCT program in Turkey from a comparative gender perspective. The paper first presents a detailed review of the gender impact of CCT programs in developing countries to assess the success of these programs in fostering gender equality. The paper then evaluates the CCT program in Turkey in comparison to the cases of Brazil and Mexico, using the most up-to-date data on each program, along a number of dimensions including targeting method, benefit structure, conditions, and program administration. The main objective of the paper is to put the Turkish CCT program in a comparative perspective with the two well-known and successful CCT programs in the developing world in terms of program design and reach. This way, the paper aims to shed light to how successful the Turkish CCT program has been in implementing the so-called model CCT programs in these two countries. It is seen that the Turkish CCT program falls behind the programs in Brazil and Mexico in terms of coverage and amount of GDP allocated. The benefits show a more detailed structure than Brazil but are less developed and generous than the one in Mexico. Although the CCT program in Turkey had a positive impact on school enrollment, particularly for girls, and women's empowerment, it hasn't been influential in reducing poverty.

  13. Conditional Cash Transfer Programs from a Gender Perspective: A Comparative Evaluation for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursel AYDINER AVŞAR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the conditional cash transfer (CCT program in Turkey from a comparative gender perspective. The paper first presents a detailed review of the gender impact of CCT programs in developing countries to assess the success of these programs in fostering gender equality. The paper then evaluates the CCT program in Turkey in comparison to the cases of Brazil and Mexico, using the most up-to-date data on each program, along a number of dimensions including targeting method, benefit structure, conditions, and program administration. The main objective of the paper is to put the Turkish CCT program in a comparative perspective with the two well-known and successful CCT programs in the developing world in terms of program design and reach. This way, the paper aims to shed light to how successful the Turkish CCT program has been in implementing the so-called model CCT programs in these two countries. It is seen that the Turkish CCT program falls behind the programs in Brazil and Mexico in terms of coverage and amount of GDP allocated. The benefits show a more detailed structure than Brazil but are less developed and generous than the one in Mexico. Although the CCT program in Turkey had a positive impact on school enrollment, particularly for girls, and women’s empowerment, it hasn’t been influential in reducing poverty.

  14. Frequency domain transfer function identification using the computer program SYSFIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    Because the primary application of SYSFIT for BPA involves studying power system dynamics, this investigation was geared toward simulating the effects that might be encountered in studying electromechanical oscillations in power systems. Although the intended focus of this work is power system oscillations, the studies are sufficiently genetic that the results can be applied to many types of oscillatory systems with closely-spaced modes. In general, there are two possible ways of solving the optimization problem. One is to use a least-squares optimization function and to write the system in such a form that the problem becomes one of linear least-squares. The solution can then be obtained using a standard least-squares technique. The other method involves using a search method to obtain the optimal model. This method allows considerably more freedom in forming the optimization function and model, but it requires an initial guess of the system parameters. SYSFIT employs this second approach. Detailed investigations were conducted into three main areas: (1) fitting to exact frequency response data of a linear system; (2) fitting to the discrete Fourier transformation of noisy data; and (3) fitting to multi-path systems. The first area consisted of investigating the effects of alternative optimization cost function options; using different optimization search methods; incorrect model order, missing response data; closely-spaced poles; and closely-spaced pole-zero pairs. Within the second area, different noise colorations and levels were studied. In the third area, methods were investigated for improving fitting results by incorporating more than one system path. The following is a list of guidelines and properties developed from the study for fitting a transfer function to the frequency response of a system using optimization search methods.

  15. The impact on consumption of more cash in conditional cash transfer programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Oliveira Ferreira Loureiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impact of an increase in the value of the cash transfer paid to families by the Brazilian Bolsa Família program. The existence of a similar program in the state of Ceará, Bolsa Cidadão, that increases the value received by a sub-group of families, provides a unique dataset, enabling us to evaluate the effect of a higher value of transfer on the spending of comparable households. There is a significant increase in consumption, but it is smaller than the increment in the income, suggesting that the consumption of the households is not properly declared.

  16. Plant Breeding: Surprisingly, Less Sex Is Better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Peter J; Rigola, Diana; Schauer, Stephen E

    2016-02-01

    Introduction of apomixis, asexual reproduction through seeds, into crop species has the potential to dramatically transform plant breeding. A new study demonstrates that traits can be stably transferred between generations in newly produced apomictic lines, and heralds a breeding revolution needed to increase food production for the growing planet.

  17. KNET - DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING AND/OR DATA TRANSFER PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, J.

    1994-01-01

    KNET facilitates distributed computing between a UNIX compatible local host and a remote host which may or may not be UNIX compatible. It is capable of automatic remote login. That is, it performs on the user's behalf the chore of handling host selection, user name, and password to the designated host. Once the login has been successfully completed, the user may interactively communicate with the remote host. Data output from the remote host may be directed to the local screen, to a local file, and/or to a local process. Conversely, data input from the keyboard, a local file, or a local process may be directed to the remote host. KNET takes advantage of the multitasking and terminal mode control features of the UNIX operating system. A parent process is used as the upper layer for interfacing with the local user. A child process is used for a lower layer for interfacing with the remote host computer, and optionally one or more child processes can be used for the remote data output. Output may be directed to the screen and/or to the local processes under the control of a data pipe switch. In order for KNET to operate, the local and remote hosts must observe a common communications protocol. KNET is written in ANSI standard C-language for computers running UNIX. It has been successfully implemented on several Sun series computers and a DECstation 3100 and used to run programs remotely on VAX VMS and UNIX based computers. It requires 100K of RAM under SunOS and 120K of RAM under DEC RISC ULTRIX. An electronic copy of the documentation is provided on the distribution medium. The standard distribution medium for KNET is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. It is also available on a 3.5 inch diskette in UNIX tar format. KNET was developed in 1991 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories. Sun and SunOS are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. DECstation, VAX, VMS, and

  18. An Evaluation of Knowledge Transfer from Microworld Programming to Conventional Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinogalos, Stelios

    2012-01-01

    Programming microworlds are being used for introducing students to programming for many years. Although many professors and school teachers report positive results from using programming microwords, these results are usually based on anecdotal evidence rather than rigorous empirical evaluation. A question that has not been answered yet with…

  19. The Impact of an Unconditional Cash Transfer on Early Child Development: The Zambia Child Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenfeld, David; Prencipe, Leah; Handa, Sudhanshu; Hawkinson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) despite their growing prevalence in Africa, including South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Malawi, Lesotho, and Uganda. In this study, researchers implemented a randomized control trial with over 2,500 households to investigate the impact of Africa's child grant program on…

  20. Technical support to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the boiling water reactor blowdown heat transfer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, R.E.

    1976-09-01

    Results are presented of studies conducted by Aerojet Nuclear Company (ANC) in FY 1975 to support the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the boiling water reactor blowdown heat transfer (BWR-BDHT) program. The support provided by ANC is that of an independent assessor of the program to ensure that the data obtained are adequate for verification of analytical models used for predicting reactor response to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The support included reviews of program plans, objectives, measurements, and actual data. Additional activity included analysis of experimental system performance and evaluation of the RELAP4 computer code as applied to the experiments.

  1. Moving empirically supported practices to addiction treatment programs: recruiting supervisors to help in technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Maryann; Storti, Susan A; Larson, Mary Jo

    2010-05-01

    Federal and state funding agencies are encouraging or mandating the use of empirically supported treatments in addiction programs, yet many programs have not moved in this direction (Forman, Bovasso, and Woody, 2001 ; Roman and Johnson, 2002 ; Willenbring et al., 2004 ). To improve the skills of counselors in community addiction programs, the authors developed an innovative Web-based course on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), a widely accepted empirically-supported practice (ESP) for addiction. Federal funding supports this Web course and a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness. Since supervisors often play a pivotal role in helping clinicians transfer learned skills from training courses to the workplace, the authors recruited supervisor-counselor teams, engaging 54 supervisors and 120 counselors. Lessons learned focus on supervisor recruitment and involvement, supervisors' perceptions of CBT, their own CBT skills and their roles in the study, and implications for technology transfer for the addiction field as a whole. Recruiting supervisors proved difficult because programs lacked clinical supervisors. Recruiting counselors was also difficult because programs were concerned about loss of third-party reimbursement. Across the addiction field, technology transfer will be severely hampered unless such infrastructure problems can be solved. Areas for further investigation are identified.

  2. Pregnancies and piglets from large white sow recipients after two transfer methods  of cloned  and trangenic embryos of different pig breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Kragh, Peter Michael; Li, Juan;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report from a larger study with pregnancy and delivery results after transfer of cloned transgenic/non-transgenic Large White or minipig embryos to Large White sow recipients. The effect of both total numbers of transferred embryos as well as site of their deposition...... (uni- vs. bi-lateral) was studied. Four to five days after natural heat, 85 Large White (LW) sows received Day 5 or 6 handmade cloned embryos. Large White embryos were non-transgenic and were transferred to 36 recipients, while 49 recipients each received Minipig embryos, either non......-transgenic or with 1 of 4 types of transgenes. Furthermore, the number of embryos transferred was in two categories, as 46 recipients received 40-60 embryos while 39 received 60-120 embryos. Finally, in 59 of the recipients embryos were transferred to one of the uterine horns (unicornual) while 26 other recipients had...

  3. Genomic selection strategies in dairy cattle breeding programmes: Sexed semen cannot replace multiple ovulation and embryo transfer as superior reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Kargo, Morten; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    of using sexed semen on the genetic gain was very small compared with the effect of MOET and highly dependent on whether cow dams or bull dams were inseminated with sexed semen and on what type of semen that was used for the bull dams. The rate of inbreeding was seldom affected by the use of sexed semen....... However, when all young bull candidates were born following MOET, the results showed that the use of Y-semen in the breeding nucleus tended to decrease the rate of inbreeding as it enabled GS to increase within-family selection. This implies that the benefit from using sexed semen in a modern dairy cattle...

  4. NASA Langley Research and Technology-Transfer Program in Formal Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Caldwell, James L.; Carreno, Victor A.; Holloway, C. Michael; Miner, Paul S.; DiVito, Ben L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of NASA Langley research program in formal methods. The major goals of this work are to make formal methods practical for use on life critical systems, and to orchestrate the transfer of this technology to U.S. industry through use of carefully designed demonstration projects. Several direct technology transfer efforts have been initiated that apply formal methods to critical subsystems of real aerospace computer systems. The research team consists of five NASA civil servants and contractors from Odyssey Research Associates, SRI International, and VIGYAN Inc.

  5. Rural income transfer programs and rural household food security in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraguchi, Zenebe B

    2012-01-01

    Based on household food security surveys conducted in Ethiopia, this study seeks to understand the roles and limitations of income transfer projects as determinants of households’ food security. By covering the Food-For-Work Programs (FFWPs) and the Productive Safety Net Programs (PSNPs), the study shows that these programs served as temporary safety nets for food availability, but they were limited in boosting the dietary diversity of households and their coping strategies. Households which participated in the programs increased their supply of food as a temporary buffer to seasonal asset depletion. However, participation in the programs was marred by inclusion error (food-secure households were included) and exclusion error (food-insecure households were excluded). Income transfer projects alone were not robust determinants of household food security. Rather, socio-demographic variables of education and family size as well as agricultural input of land size were found to be significant in accounting for changes in households’ food security. The programs in the research sites were funded through foreign aid, and the findings of the study imply the need to reexamine the approaches adopted by bilateral donors in allocating aid to Ethiopia. At the same time the study underscores the need to improve domestic policy framework in terms of engendering rural local institutional participation in project management.

  6. Importance of Program Development Competencies for Agricultural Extension Agents' Performance in Process of Technology Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Tiraieyari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The movement of technology from lab to the field has been a challenge for agricultural extension agents. In this study researchers focused on program development competencies for agricultural extension agents in process of technology transfer and discuss the importance of these competencies by determining the relationship between these competencies and performance of extension agents. Approach: The study employed stratified random sampling technique. The sample consisted of 210 extension agents in four states of Malaysia. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis. Results: Extension agents perceived themselves competent in developing program planning, program implementation and program evaluation. The findings supported the positive relationship between competencies and extension agents’ performance. Therefore hypothesis of the study was supported. The results of multiple regressions showed program development competencies explained 0.448 of variance of extension agents’ performance. Conclusion/Recommendations: It can be concluded that performance of extension agents is expected to increase if they have program development competencies. Results supported the importance of these competencies for performance of extension agents in process of technology transfer. Hence to keep extension agents competent and to further improve their performance, these competencies must be considered and upgraded. Continuous assessment of extension agents’ competencies and performance is recommended.

  7. Utilizing Symbolic Programming in Analog Circuit Synthesis of Arbitrary Rational Transfer Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Fuad Hajjar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The employment of symbolic programming in analog circuit design for system interfaces is proposed. Given a rational transfer function with a set of specifications and constraints, one may autonomously synthesize it into an analog circuit. First, a classification of the target transfer function polynomials into 14 classes is performed. The classes include both stable and unstable functions as required. A symbolic exhaustive search algorithm based on a circuit configuration under investigation is then conducted where a polynomial in hand is to be identified. For illustration purposes, a set of complete design equations for the primary rational transfer functions is obtained targeting all classes of second order polynomials based on a proposed general circuit configuration. The design consists of a single active element and four different circuit structures. Finally, an illustrative example with full analysis and simulation is presented.

  8. Technology transfer for the US Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, C.L.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1988-10-01

    This document contains the appendices to Technology Transfer Recommendations for the US Department of Energy's Storage Program (PNL-6484, Vol. 1). These appendices are a list of projects, publications, and presentations connected with the Energy Storage (STOR) program. In Volume 1, the technology transfer activities of the STOR program are examined and mechanisms for increasing the effectiveness of those activities are recommended.

  9. The hidden face of income transfer programs for young people in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Pontes Sposito

    Full Text Available Based on a broader analysis of the nature of recent public policies directed at youths in Brazil and on the conflicting orientations inherent in this field, this paper discusses the presuppositions contained in three public programs currently being implemented in the country: the Young Agent Project, the Voluntary Civil Service Program and the Work-Income Allowance Program. After an overview of each of these programs, including various aspects where they diverge, the analysis focuses on the paradoxes and ambiguities underlining their common format: the transfer of income linked to some kind of return commitment by the youngsters, usually a return to or continuation of schooling and the realization of socioeducational or community-type activities. While acknowledging the beneficial side of access to income, the paper warns of the possibility of disseminating new forms of domination based on the adoption of this model in public policies directed at youngsters.

  10. Impact of selective breeding on European aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.; Chavanne, H.; Berentsen, P.; Komen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the combined market share of breeding companies in aquaculture production in Europe, to describe the main characteristics of breeding companies and their programs, and to provide per species estimates on cumulative genetic gain in growth performance. Sur

  11. Optimal aeroassisted orbital transfer with plane change using collocation and nonlinear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun. Y.; Nelson, R. L.; Young, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    The fuel optimal control problem arising in the non-planar orbital transfer employing aeroassisted technology is addressed. The mission involves the transfer from high energy orbit (HEO) to low energy orbit (LEO) with orbital plane change. The basic strategy here is to employ a combination of propulsive maneuvers in space and aerodynamic maneuvers in the atmosphere. The basic sequence of events for the aeroassisted HEO to LEO transfer consists of three phases. In the first phase, the orbital transfer begins with a deorbit impulse at HEO which injects the vehicle into an elliptic transfer orbit with perigee inside the atmosphere. In the second phase, the vehicle is optimally controlled by lift and bank angle modulations to perform the desired orbital plane change and to satisfy heating constraints. Because of the energy loss during the turn, an impulse is required to initiate the third phase to boost the vehicle back to the desired LEO orbital altitude. The third impulse is then used to circularize the orbit at LEO. The problem is solved by a direct optimization technique which uses piecewise polynomial representation for the state and control variables and collocation to satisfy the differential equations. This technique converts the optimal control problem into a nonlinear programming problem which is solved numerically. Solutions were obtained for cases with and without heat constraints and for cases of different orbital inclination changes. The method appears to be more powerful and robust than other optimization methods. In addition, the method can handle complex dynamical constraints.

  12. NASA's CSTI Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Program - On-target technology transfer to advanced space flight programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, William J. D.; Herr, Paul N.; Stephenson, Frank W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative encompasses among its major elements the Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Program (ETOPP) for future launch vehicles, which is budgeted to the extent of $20-30 million/year for the development of essential technologies. ETOPP technologies include, in addition to advanced materials and processes and design/analysis computational tools, the advanced systems-synthesis technologies required for definition of highly reliable LH2 and hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines to be operated at significantly reduced levels of risk and cost relative to the SSME. Attention is given to the technology-transfer services of ETOPP.

  13. Heterozygosities and genetic relationship of tea cultivars revealed by simple sequence repeat markers and implications for breeding and genetic mapping programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L Q; Zhang, C C; Qi, G N; Wang, L Y; Wei, K; Chen, S X; Zou, Y; Wu, L Y; Cheng, H

    2015-03-06

    Genetic maps are essential tools for quantitative trait locus analysis and marker-assisted selection breeding. In order to select parents that are highly heterozygous for genetic mapping, the heterozygosity (HS) of 24 tea cultivars (Camellia sinensis) was analyzed with 72 simple sequence repeat markers. In total, 359 alleles were obtained with an average of 4.99 per marker. The HS varied greatly from 37.5 to 71.0% with an average of 51.3%. On average, tea cultivars from Fujian Province showed a higher level of heterozygosity (59.8%) than those from Zhejiang (48.5%) and Yunnan (44.5%), and the 12 national tea cultivars were generally more heterozygous than the 12 provincial cultivars. Unweighted pair-group analysis using the arithmetic average grouping divided the 24 cultivars into 2 groups that are consistent with the morphological classification. All dual combinations of the 24 cultivars were studied to calculate the percentage of mappable markers when using pseudo-testcross mapping strategy, and results showed that this value also varied greatly from 51.4 to 90.3%. The genetic relationships and HS differences among different cultivars were discussed, and tea cultivars with high HS were recommended as cross parents for genetic mapping programs.

  14. The Impact of a Cash Transfer Program on Cognitive Achievement: The "Bono de Desarrollo Humano" of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Juan; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout Latin America, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs play an important role in social policy. These programs aim to influence the accumulation of human capital, as well as reduce poverty. In terms of educational outcomes, a number of impact evaluation studies have shown that such programs have led to an increase in school enrollment,…

  15. The Breeding Bird Survey, 1967 and 1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Van Velzen, W.T.

    1969-01-01

    In the Breeding Bird Survey of North America, cooperators ran 982 survey routes in 1967 and 1,174 in 1968. All States except Hawaii and all Canadian Provinces except Newfoundland were included. Roadside routes are selected at random within 1-degree blocks of latitude and longitude. Each 24 1/2-mile route, with 3-minute stops spaced half a mile apart, is driven by automobile. All birds heard or seen at the stops are recorded on special forms, and the data are transferred to magnetic tape for analysis. The average number of birds of each species per route is tabulated by State and Province, presenting for the first time a record of the comparative abundance of each species across the continent. The sample size is given for each species recorded. A sophisticated analysis program, here employed for the first time, is used to compute weighted mean values of the survey results for selected species at the State, stratum, regional, and continental level. The statistical significance of year-to-year changes at the 80, 90, 95, and 99 percent levels of probability are part of the computer output. An index for comparing populations of each species from year to year is established, with 1968 as the base year. Maps show the breeding range and comparative abundance of selected species.

  16. Transfer of communication skills to the workplace during clinical rounds: impact of a program for residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Liénard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Communication with patients is a core clinical skill in medicine that can be acquired through communication skills training. Meanwhile, the importance of transfer of communication skills to the workplace has not been sufficiently studied. This study aims to assess the efficacy of a 40-hour training program designed to improve patients' satisfaction and residents' communication skills during their daily clinical rounds. METHODS: Residents were randomly assigned to the training program or to a waiting list. Patients' satisfaction was assessed with a visual analog scale after each visit. Transfer of residents' communication skills was assessed in audiotaped actual inpatient visits during a half-day clinical round. Transcripted audiotapes were analyzed using content analysis software (LaComm. Training effects were tested with Mann-Whitney tests and generalized linear Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Eighty-eight residents were included. First, patients interacting with trained residents reported a higher satisfaction with residents' communication (Median=92 compared to patients interacting with untrained residents (Median=88 (p=.046. Second, trained residents used more assessment utterances (Relative Risk (RR=1.17; 95% Confidence intervals (95%CI=1.02-1.34; p=.023. Third, transfer was also observed when residents' training attendance was considered: residents' use of assessment utterances (RR=1.01; 95%CI=1.01-1.02; p=.018 and supportive utterances (RR=0.99; 95%CI=0.98-1.00; p=.042 (respectively 1.15 (RR, 1.08-1.23 (95%CI, p<.001 for empathy and 0.95 (RR, 0.92-0.99 (95%CI, p=.012 for reassurance was proportional to the number of hours of training attendance. CONCLUSION: The training program improved patients' satisfaction and allowed the transfer of residents' communication skills learning to the workplace. Transfer was directly related to training attendance but remained limited. Future studies should therefore focus on

  17. Factors that affect the reproductive efficiency of the recipient within a bovine embryo transfer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Duica A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The embryo transfer is a biotechnological technique that allows increasing the descendant of animals with high genetic value. The positive results, represented in pregnancy after the application of this technique, are affected by some factors that are inherent to the donor, the embryo, the technique, and the recipients which receive a strange embryo in the uterus allowing pregnancy. This review describes some factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of the recipients of bovine embryos within a program of embryo transfer. Its important to evaluate the parameters in this kind of recipients, as race, age, physiological status, health status, weight, reproductive tract integrity and management, and also too monitoring the ovarian structures while the estrus synchronization, and within previous and posterior stages in embryo transfer procedure. Therefore an optimum follicular development will be determinant to corpus luteum formation which generates enough serum progesterone concentrations to offer a right uterine environment allowing the optimum embryo development. Controlling the factors that affect the efficiency of the embryo transfer, it will obtain an increasing of positive results represented in pregnancies and births of individuals come from animals with high genetic value.

  18. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  19. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...... and MS for the two bioenergy grass species, and discuss how molecular tools and synteny can be used to transfer relevant information for genes controlling these biological mechanisms across grass species...

  20. Effects of Work Environment on Transfer of Training: Empirical Evidence from Master of Business Administration Programs in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Nga T. P.; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2013-01-01

    Practical application of newly gained knowledge and skills, also referred to as transfer of training, is an issue of great concern in training issues generally and in Master of Business Administration (MBA) programs particularly. This empirical study examined the influence of the trainees' work environment on their transfer of training, taking…

  1. Cash transfer program and education investment: A model for social evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimit, P. H. T.; Monteiro, L. H. A.; Omar, N.

    2014-03-01

    Assume that the households of a country are socially classified according to the monthly total income, and that they can be part of a lower, a middle or an upper class. By using multi-agent systems, here we model and simulate the economic evolution of households which earn a wage, pay taxes and invest in education. The return of the education investment is monthly added to the salary of the family, and it is function of the corresponding grand total put in education along the time. When a family is unemployed, we consider that it receives cash due to a social program made by the government. The time evolution of the percentages of households belonging to each class is investigated by varying the government investment in such a program of cash transfer and the proportion of employed households in the population. We show that the government should invest in the unemployed lower class if it intends a growth of the middle class. We also propose and analyze a mean-field approximation written in terms of ordinary differential equations. In addition, we verify that our model fits real data from Brazil, in the period between 2003 (when the cash transfer program Bolsa Família was launched) and 2011.

  2. The War Against Generational Poverty: A Comparative Study of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs in Brazil, Chile, and Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    GENERATIONAL POVERTY : A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CONDITIONAL CASH TRANSFER PROGRAMS IN BRAZIL, CHILE, AND JAMAICA by Renaldo R. Rodgers December... POVERTY : A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CONDITIONAL CASH TRANSFER PROGRAMS IN BRAZIL, CHILE, AND JAMAICA 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Renaldo R...each adopted, to a greater or lesser extent, the same social welfare policies to combat poverty and income inequality and to enhance human capital. By

  3. Recovery of citrus triploid hybrids by embryo rescue and flow cytometry from 2x x 2x sexual hybridisation and its application to extensive breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleza, P; Juárez, J; Cuenca, J; Ollitrault, P; Navarro, Luis

    2010-09-01

    Seedlessness is one of the most important characteristics for mandarins for the fresh-fruit market and mandarin triploid hybrids have this trait. Citrus triploid plants can be recovered by 2x x 2x sexual hybridisations as a consequence of the formation of unreduced gametes at low frequency. Triploid embryos are found in small seeds that do not germinate under greenhouse conditions. Extensive breeding programs based on this type of hybridisation require very effective methodologies for embryo rescue and ploidy evaluation. In this work, we describe an effective methodology to recover triploid hybrids from 2x x 2x hybridisations based on in vitro embryo rescue and ploidy level determination by means of flow cytometry. The influence of parents and environmental conditions on obtaining triploid hybrids has been analysed. The strongest effect was associated with the genotype of the female parent while a strong interaction was found between the male parent genotype and environmental conditions. The effect of the female parent genotype on the length of the juvenile phase was also demonstrated by observing a large number of progenies over the last 10 years. The methodology described here has enabled us to obtain over 4,000 triploid hybrids so far, of which 13 have been protected in the European Union and two are being extensively planted by citrus growers to establish new commercial plots. These triploid hybrids have been analysed with simple sequence repeats markers to differentiate all the new triploid varieties and their parents, and thus molecular identification will help defend plant breeders' rights.

  4. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano P. Marelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  5. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  6. Implementing a Conditional Cash Transfer Program in Two American Cities: Early Lessons from Family Rewards 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechausay, Nadine; Miller, Cynthia; Quiroz-Becerra, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, New York City launched the first test of a conditional cash transfer program in the United States. Called Family Rewards, the program sought to break the intergenerational cycle of poverty by offering cash assistance to poor families to reduce immediate hardship, but conditioned this assistance on families' efforts to improve their…

  7. Promoting Child Development through Group-Based Parent Support within a Cash Transfer Program: Experimental Effects on Children's Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C. H.; Kagawa, Rose M. C.; Knauer, Heather A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Guerra, Armando Garcia; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2017-01-01

    We examined effects on child development of a group-based parenting support program ("Educación Inicial" - EI) when combined with Mexico's conditional cash transfer (CCT) program ("Prospera," originally 'Oportunidades" and "Progresa"). This cluster-randomized trial included 204 communities (n = 1,113 children in…

  8. Testes de capacidade de expansão em programas de melhoramento de milho pipoca Popping expansion tests in popcorn breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico de Pina Matta

    2001-12-01

    systems for popping expansion determination in breeding programs. The first was a hot air popcorn pumper and the second was a microwave oven. For the first one an experiment was installed in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and nine levels of kernel weight, and five replications. For the second one, aiming to define an alternative packaging, an experiment was installed also in a completely randomized design, following a factorial scheme, with three replications, involving two times and five packagings. Another experiment was achieved to verify the microwave oven quality for volume expansion determination with a little kernel quantity and the best time to be used. The hot air popcorn pumper is an efficient system, in which 10 g of kernel can be used to evaluate plants and up to 90 g of kernel can be used to evaluate families in the experiments. The microwave oven is equivalent to the hot air popcorn pumper. Kraft paper bags can be used in the microwave oven. For plant evaluation 10 g of kernel with 140 seconds are recommended. To evaluate progenies 30 g to 90 g of kernel with 220 seconds can be used.

  9. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  10. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) originated in the Andean region of South America; this species is associated with exceptional grain nutritional quality and is highly valued for its ability to tolerate abiotic stresses. However, its introduction outside the Andes has yet to take off on a large...... scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  11. Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding and breeds

    OpenAIRE

    I. Kohler-Rollefson

    2004-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding (IK-AB) includes concepts and practices used to influence the genetic composition of herds. Indigenous selection is often based on preferences based on physical characteristics, vigor, social and economic insurance. This issue paper summarizes the value of indigenous knowledge and local breeds to achieve agricultural sustainability. Links to IK-AB information are also provided. Available in SANREM office, ES

  12. Glass Furnace Model (GFM) development and technology transfer program final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottes, S. A.; Petrick, M.; Energy Systems

    2007-12-04

    indices into the simulation to facilitate optimization studies with regard to productivity, energy use and emissions. Midway through the Part II program, however, at the urging of the industrial consortium members, the decision was made to refocus limited resources on transfer of the existing GFM 2.0 software to the industry to speed up commercialization of the technology. This decision, in turn, necessitated a de-emphasis of the development of the planned final version of the GFM software that had full multiphase capability, GFM 3.0. As a result, version 3.0 was not completed; considerable progress, however, was made before the effort was terminated. The objectives of the Technology Transfer program were to transfer the Glass Furnace Model (GFM) to the glass industry and to promote its widespread use by providing the requisite technical support to allow effective use of the software. GFM Version 2.0 was offered at no cost on a trial, six-month basis to expedite its introduction to and use by the industry. The trial licenses were issued to generate a much more thorough user beta test of the software than the relatively small amount completed by the consortium members prior to the release of version 2.0.

  13. Aplicação da ultrassonografia colorida doppler em programas de transferência de embriões equinos Potential use of doppler ultrasound in equine embryo transfer programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Camargo Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    distúrbios de fluxo sanguíneo de trato reprodutivo ainda se fazem necessários.Embryo transfer in mares has been commercially used for more than three decades and it is one of most frequently applied biotechnologies on equine reproduction. Ultrasonic doppler exam of donors during the pre and post-breeding and recipients evaluation at the embryo transfer moment is essential for embryo transfer program success. Doppler ultrasonography is a non-invasive technic that allows real-time evaluation of the reproductive system hemodynamics in large animal. For providing anatomical details and blood-flow physiologic information of vessels and tissues, doppler exam can be used for ovulation prognostication, and to evaluate uterine and luteal functional status. Additionally, it can serve as a diagnostic aid of hemodynamic disturbance in reproductive system. Vascularity changes of future ovulatory follicles precede the diameter deviation. Based on this, it is possible to estimate the beginning of the breeding season and the best moment to initiate superovulatory treatments. Moreover, follicular blood flow can be used to decide the most appropriated moment for ovulation induction and breeding of donors mares. Uterine and luteal evaluation using Doppler-mode in mares can be useful to select embryo recipients with satisfactory progesterone production and adequate uterine vascularity for embryo development and maintenance of pregnancy. The maternal recognition of pregnancy also can be evaluated. Although the applicability of the Doppler technology in embryo transfer programs, additional studies are necessary to determine the standards of normality and to characterize different blood-flow disturbances of the reproductive system.

  14. Supervisor’s Role as an Antecedent of Training Transfer and Motivation to Learn in Training Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Suriawati Sabhi; Ahmad Zaidi Sulaiman; Hasan Al Banna Mohamed; Azman Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Training and development program literature highlights two major characteristics of supervisor’s role: support and communication. The ability of supervisors to provide adequate support and practice good communication style in relation to training programs may lead to increased training transfer and motivation to learn. Though the nature of this relationship is significant, little is known about the predictive properties of supervisor’s roles in training program literatures. Therefore, this st...

  15. The impact of the organizational transfer climate on the use of teacher leadership competences developed in a post-initial Master's program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, M.; Volman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The transfer of learning outcomes of Master's programs for teachers is not self-evident. In this study, 18 teachers who recently graduated and their supervisors were interviewed on the transfer of leadership competences developed during their Master's program and on how the organizational transfer c

  16. New trends in plant breeding - example of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Jegor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean breeding and selection is a continual process designed to increase yield levels and improve resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Soybean breeders have been successful in producing a large number of varieties using conventional breeding methods, the Single Seed Descent method in particular. In recent decades, with the increased use of genetic transformations, backcrossing is more frequent though the only trait that has been commercialized is glyphosate tolerance. Physiological breeding poses a particular challenge, as well as phenotyping and development of useful criteria and techniques suitable for plant breeding. Using modern remote sensing techniques provides great opportunity for collecting a large amount of physiological data in real environment, which is necessary for physiological breeding. Molecular based plant breeding methods and techniques are a conceptual part of any serious breeding program. Among those methods, the most extensively used is marker-assisted selection, as a supplement to conventional breeding methods. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31022

  17. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress.

  18. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  19. Gasto social no Brasil: programas de transferência de renda versus investimento social Social spending in Brazil: income transfer programs versus social investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Lavinas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo contrapõe a evolução recente do gasto no Brasil: redução do gasto com infra-estrutura social e aumento das transferências monetárias sujeitas à comprovação de renda. Evidencia-se que o modelo de combate à pobreza vigente no Brasil concentrado em programas focalizados de transferência de renda sem promover em simultâneo o aumento do gasto per capita em educação, saneamento básico, habitação não equaciona a questão da desigualdade. Neste artigo, trabalhamos com dados secundários da PNAD e do orçamento da União, estados e municípios.This paper compares the dynamics of social spending in Brazil, with lower outlays on basic services and more direct monetary transfers through means-test programs, highlighting the fact that as Brazil's social safety net concentrates on cash transfer programs without simultaneously increasing per capita outlays on education, basic sanitation and housing, it is not resolving the issue of inequality. This paper works with secondary data from the National Household Sampling Survey, together with Federal, State and Municipal budgets.

  20. Cash component of conditional cash transfer program is associated with higher body mass index and blood pressure in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C H; Gertler, Paul J; Hou, Xiaohui

    2008-11-01

    The cash component of Oportunidades, a large conditional cash transfer (CCT) program in Mexico, has previously been shown to be associated with better outcomes for child growth and development. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether the cash transfers were also associated with positive outcomes for adult health. Oportunidades was originally randomized across 506 rural (cash transfers because they were living in communities randomized to begin receiving transfers earlier and/or they accumulated cash at a faster rate because they had more school-aged children at baseline. Our primary findings were that a doubling of cumulative cash transfers to the household was associated with higher BMI (beta = +0.83, 95% CI 0.46, 1.20; P cash component of Oportunidades may be negatively associated with some adult health outcomes.

  1. Applying what works: a systematic search of the transfer and implementation of promising Indigenous Australian health services and programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCalman Janya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transfer and implementation of acceptable and effective health services, programs and innovations across settings provides an important and potentially cost-effective strategy for reducing Indigenous Australians' high burden of disease. This study reports a systematic review of Indigenous health services, programs and innovations to examine the extent to which studies considered processes of transfer and implementation within and across Indigenous communities and healthcare settings. Methods Medline, Informit, Infotrac, Blackwells Publishing, Proquest, Taylor and Francis, JStor, and the Indigenous HealthInfoNet were searched using terms: Aborigin* OR Indigen* OR Torres AND health AND service OR program* OR intervention AND Australia to locate publications from 1992–2011. The reference lists of 19 reviews were also checked. Data from peer reviewed journals, reports, and websites were included. The 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for proportions that referred to and focussed on transfer were calculated as exact binomial confidence intervals. Test comparisons between proportions were calculated using Fisher's exact test with an alpha level of 5%. Results Of 1311 publications identified, 119 (9.1%; 95% CI: 7.6% - 10.8% referred to the transfer and implementation of Indigenous Australian health services or programs, but only 21 studies (1.6%; 95% CI: 1.0% - 2.4% actually focused on transfer and implementation. Of the 119 transfer studies, 37 (31.1%; 95% CI: 22.9 - 40.2% evaluated the impact of a service or program, 28 (23.5%; 95% CI: 16.2% - 32.2% reported only process measures and 54 were descriptive. Of the 37 impact evaluation studies, 28 (75.7%; 95% CI: 58.8% - 88.2% appeared in peer reviewed journals but none included experimental designs. Conclusion While services and programs are being transferred and implemented, few studies focus on the process by which this occurred or the effectiveness of the service or program

  2. Free Molecular Heat Transfer Programs for Setup and Dynamic Updating the Conductors in Thermal Desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malroy, Eric T.

    2007-01-01

    The programs, arrays and logic structure were developed to enable the dynamic update of conductors in thermal desktop. The MatLab program FMHTPRE.m processes the Thermal Desktop conductors and sets up the arrays. The user needs to manually copy portions of the output to different input regions in Thermal Desktop. Also, Fortran subroutines are provided that perform the actual updates to the conductors. The subroutines are setup for helium gas, but the equations can be modified for other gases. The maximum number of free molecular conductors allowed is 10,000 for a given radiation task. Additional radiation tasks for FMHT can be generated to account for more conductors. Modifications to the Fortran subroutines may be warranted, when the mode of heat transfer is in the mixed or continuum mode. The FMHT Thermal Desktop model should be activated by using the "Case Set Manager" once the model is setup. Careful setup of the model is needed to avoid excessive solve times.

  3. Emotional aspects and support in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, V J; Hennessey, J F

    1988-10-01

    Little is known about the emotional demands upon women of the step-by-step procedures characteristic of involvement in an in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program. In this study, 77 women provided their perceptions of the emotional demands of IVF-ET and explanations for failed attempts, as well as describing their coping strategies and sources of emotional support. Nominated as the two most difficult stages of IVF were the wait for a possible pregnancy after the procedure and the blood tests and injections prior to hospitalization. Women were overly optimistic with a first attempt, with 70% being moderately to highly optimistic about success. Levels of optimism, however, generally declined across attempts. About half of the women intended to stop after four attempts, and almost all would stop after six treatment cycles. Women attributed their lack of success to a wide range of factors, including the low success rate, being anxious or stressed, bad luck, or problems associated with their condition and the procedure. Asked how they coped with the program, the women reported that the major strategy was to adopt the attitude that they might be successful in the long term. Other coping strategies involved keeping busy, staying calm, and seeking the support of other IVF women and husbands. Husbands were listed as the major source of emotional support, followed by other infertile women and nurses, counselors, and doctors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Taiwan industrial cooperation program technology transfer for low-level radioactive waste final disposal - phase I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Cochran, John Russell; Arnold, Bill Walter; Jow, Hong-Nian; Mattie, Patrick D.; Schelling, Frank Joseph Jr. (; .)

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan have collaborated in a technology transfer program related to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Phase I of this program included regulatory analysis of LLW final disposal, development of LLW disposal performance assessment capabilities, and preliminary performance assessments of two potential disposal sites. Performance objectives were based on regulations in Taiwan and comparisons to those in the United States. Probabilistic performance assessment models were constructed based on limited site data using software including GoldSim, BLT-MS, FEHM, and HELP. These software codes provided the probabilistic framework, container degradation, waste-form leaching, groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and cover infiltration simulation capabilities in the performance assessment. Preliminary performance assessment analyses were conducted for a near-surface disposal system and a mined cavern disposal system at two representative sites in Taiwan. Results of example calculations indicate peak simulated concentrations to a receptor within a few hundred years of LLW disposal, primarily from highly soluble, non-sorbing radionuclides.

  5. A study of student perceptions of learning transfer from a human anatomy and physiology course in an allied health program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Leigh S.

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First the study was designed to determine student perceptions regarding the perceived degree of original learning from a human anatomy and physiology course, and the student perception of the use of the knowledge in an allied health program. Second, the intention of the study was to establish student beliefs on the characteristics of the transfer of learning including those factors which enhance learning transfer and those that serve as barriers to learning transfer. The study participants were those students enrolled in any allied health program at a community college in a Midwest state, including: nursing, radiology, surgical technology, health information technology, and paramedic. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed from the responses to the survey. A sub-group of participants were chosen to participate in semi-structured formal interviews. From the interviews, additional qualitative data were gathered. The data collected through the study demonstrated student perception of successful transfer experiences. The students in the study were able to provide specific examples of learning transfer experienced from the human anatomy and physiology course in their allied health program. Findings also suggested students who earned higher grades in the human anatomy and physiology course perceived greater understanding and greater use of the course's learning objectives in their allied health program. The study found the students believed the following learning activities enhances the transfer of learning: (1) Providing application of the information or skills being learned during the instruction of the course content enhances the transfer of learning. (2) Providing resource materials and activities which allow the students to practice the content being taught facilitates the transfer of learning. The students made the following recommendations to remove barriers to the transfer of learning: (1

  6. Gibberella stalk rot (Fusarium graminearum) resistance of maize inbreds and their F1 hybrids and their potential for use in resistance breeding programs

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Carabelos, Rogelio; Reid, Lana M.; Zhu, X.(Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China); Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum Schwabe is one of the predominant fungal species responsible for stalk rot of maize in Canada and many other countries. Adapted sources of resistance to this disease are scarce but recently a few have been identified. To evaluate the usefulness of these sources in a breeding programme to improve stalk rot resistance, a complete diallel cross of five inbreds of varying susceptibility to stalk rot was conducted. Artificial inoculations of stalks were accomplished by injecti...

  7. STS dataset of major parents in current breeding programs of rice (O.sativa L. subsp.in dica )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGKanle; ZHUANGJieyu; LuJun; ZHUXudong; KEWei; ZHAOShegen

    1997-01-01

    Many major genes of agricultural importance and quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling yield components in rice have been mapped with molecular markers. The genetic distances between some of the genes and the markers are less than 5cM and the markers are on both flanks of some of the genes, which have laid down the foundation for marker-asslsted selection (MAS) in rice breeding.

  8. Effect of short- and long-term heat stress on the conception risk of dairy cows under natural service and artificial insemination breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, L-K; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this retrospective study were to examine the effect of heat stress on natural service and artificial insemination (AI) breeding methods. We investigated the influence of short- and long-term heat stress on the conception risk (CR) of dairy cows bred by natural service or by AI with frozen-thawed or fresh semen. In addition, the relationship between breeding method and parity was determined. Cows bred by AI with frozen-thawed semen exposed to long-term heat stress (mean temperature-humidity index ≥73 in the period 21d before breeding) were 63% less likely to get pregnant compared with cows not exposed to heat stress. Cows bred by AI with fresh semen were 80% less likely to get pregnant during periods of short-term heat stress than during periods without heat stress. Furthermore, multiparous cows bred by AI with frozen-thawed or fresh semen were 22 and 67% less likely to get pregnant, respectively, than primiparous cows. No influence of heat stress or parity was noted on the CR of cows bred by natural service. The present study indicates that the likelihood of dairy cows becoming pregnant is reduced by short- and long-term heat stress depending on the type of semen employed. In particular, CR of cows inseminated with fresh semen is negatively affected by short-term heat stress and CR of cows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen is negatively affected by long-term heat stress.

  9. Analysis of matters associated with the transferring of object-oriented applications to platform .Net using C# programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsimbayeva, S. M.; Kospanova, K. K.

    2015-11-01

    The article provides the discussion of matters associated with the problems of transferring of object-oriented Windows applications from C++ programming language to .Net platform using C# programming language. C++ has always been considered to be the best language for the software development, but the implicit mistakes that come along with the tool may lead to infinite memory leaks and other errors. The platform .Net and the C#, made by Microsoft, are the solutions to the issues mentioned above. The world economy and production are highly demanding applications developed by C++, but the new language with its stability and transferability to .Net will bring many advantages. An example can be presented using the applications that imitate the work of queuing systems. Authors solved the problem of transferring of an application, imitating seaport works, from C++ to the platform .Net using C# in the scope of Visual Studio.

  10. India's JSY cash transfer program for maternal health: Who participates and who doesn't - a report from Ujjain district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Kristi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India launched a national conditional cash transfer program, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY, aimed at reducing maternal mortality by promoting institutional delivery in 2005. It provides a cash incentive to women who give birth in public health facilities. This paper studies the extent of program uptake, reasons for participation/non participation, factors associated with non uptake of the program, and the role played by a program volunteer, accredited social health activist (ASHA, among mothers in Ujjain district in Madhya Pradesh, India. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to May 2011 among women giving birth in 30 villages in Ujjain district. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 418 women who delivered in 2009. Socio-demographic and pregnancy related characteristics, role of the ASHA during delivery, receipt of the incentive, and reasons for place of delivery were collected. Multinomial regression analysis was used to identify predictors for the outcome variables; program delivery, private facility delivery, or a home delivery. Results The majority of deliveries (318/418; 76% took place within the JSY program; 81% of all mothers below poverty line delivered in the program. Ninety percent of the women had prior knowledge of the program. Most program mothers reported receiving the cash incentive within two weeks of delivery. The ASHA's influence on the mother's decision on where to deliver appeared limited. Women who were uneducated, multiparious or lacked prior knowledge of the JSY program were significantly more likely to deliver at home. Conclusion In this study, a large proportion of women delivered under the program. Most mothers reporting timely receipt of the cash transfer. Nevertheless, there is still a subset of mothers delivering at home, who do not or cannot access emergency obstetric care under the program and remain at risk of maternal death.

  11. Characteristics important for organic breeding of vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable development and application of new genetic The Institute for Vegetable Crops possesses a rich germplasm collection of vegetables, utilized as gene resource for breeding specific traits. Onion and garlic breeding programs are based on chemical composition improvement. There are programs for identification and use of genotypes characterized by high tolerance to economically important diseases. Special attention is paid to breeding cucumber and tomato lines tolerant to late blight. As a result, late blight tolerant pickling cucumber line, as well as late blight tolerant tomato lines and hybrids are realized. Research on bean drought stress tolerance is initiated. Lettuce breeding program including research on spontaneous flora is started and interspecies hybrids were observed as possible genetic variability source. It is important to have access to a broad range of vegetable genotypes in order to meet the needs of organic agriculture production. Appreciating the concept of sustainable agriculture, it is important to introduce organic agriculture programs in breeding institutions.

  12. Technology Transfer: A Case Study of Programs and Practices at NASA, DOD, DOC, and Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology transfer is vital to humanity. It spurs innovation, promotes commerce, and provides technology-based goods and services. Technology transfer is also highly complex and interdependent in nature. This interdependence is exemplified principally by the various technology transfer interactions between government, industry, and academia. …

  13. Binucleation to breed new plant species adaptable to their environments

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Classical plant breeding approaches may fall short to breed new plant species of high environmental and ecological interests. Biotechnological and genetic manipulations, on the other hand, may hold more effective capabilities to circumvent the limitations of sexual incompatibility and conventional breeding programs. Given that plant cells encompass multiple copies of organellar genomes (mitochondrial and plastidial genomes), an important question could be raised about whether an artificial at...

  14. Income transfer policies and the impacts on the immunization of children: the Bolsa Família Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Mônica Viegas; Chein, Flávia; Souza, Laetícia Rodrigues de; Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on the immunization of children from 0 to 6 years of age in Brazil and its regions. The Bolsa Família program is a conditional cash transfer program. One of its conditionalities is the compliance of children with the immunization schedule ordered by the Ministry of Health. The evaluation was performed using the Propensity Score Matching technique. We used data from a survey conducted in 2005 evaluating the program - Pesquisa de Avaliação de Impacto do Programa Bolsa Família. The main findings suggest that the Bolsa Família Program does not affect the immunization status of children.

  15. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  16. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  17. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual ste

  18. In what ways do the experiences of students in PhD programs in the molecular biosciences foster knowledge transfer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Amy C.

    Doctoral training in the molecular biosciences often fails to prepare students for academic and alternate careers. Several studies of doctoral training have reported a need to improve doctoral education; outlining specific criticisms related to the need to broaden the scope of the doctoral degree in order to prepare students for careers. The development of doctoral students' knowledge transfer skills is the key to making this transition. The theory advanced in this study extends the literature on doctoral education related to student experiences that foster the development of knowledge transfer skills. These insights will be a resource for academic leaders as they develop new programs and the re-develop existing ones; to students and graduates as they become leaders in their field; and to mentors, who have a large role in the development of doctoral students. Research conducted for this dissertation led to the development of theory about elements of the doctoral experience that foster the development of knowledge transfer skills in the molecular biosciences. In exploring ways the experiences of students in PhD programs in the molecular biosciences foster knowledge transfer, I was able to develop a framework for understanding these experiences in the context of doctoral programs. Students' experiences are affected by different elements of doctoral education. As they develop identities as researchers and scientists, and transition from novices to experts, students' experiences are shaped by their mentors, peers, programs and departments. Subjects spoke about their experiences in interviews. This study exposed a need to balance support and challenge for doctoral students to allow them to develop the capacity to perform scientific research and act as leaders. The development of knowledge transfer skills within this context is important preparation for students in the molecular biosciences. Doctoral students in this area need to apply their expertise in increasingly

  19. Can cash transfers improve determinants of maternal mortality? Evidence from the household and community programs in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Dian; Cohen, Jessica; McConnell, Margaret; Berman, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Despite global efforts in maternal health, 303,000 maternal deaths still occurred globally in 2015. One explanation is a considerable inequality in maternal mortality and the sources such as nutritional status and health utilization. One strategy to fight health inequality due to poverty is conditional cash transfer (CCT). Taking advantage of two large clustered-randomized trials in Indonesia from 2007 to 2009, this paper provides evidence on the effects of household cash transfers (PKH) and community cash transfers (Generasi) on determinants of maternal mortality. The sample sizes are 14,000 households for PKH and 12,000 households for Generasi. After two years of implementation, difference-in-differences (DID) analyses show that the two programs can improve determinants of maternal mortality with Generasi provides positive impact in some aspects of determinants, but PKH does not. Generasi improves maternal health knowledge, reduces financial barriers to accessing health services and improves utilization of health services, increases utilization among higher-risk women, improves posyandu equipment, and increases nutritional intake. As for PKH, evidence shows its strongest effects only on utilization of health services. Both programs, however, are unlikely to have a large effect on maternal mortality due to design and implementation issues that might significantly reduce program effectiveness. While the programs improved utilization, they did so at community-based facilities not equipped with emergency obstetric care. In the midst of popularity of household cash transfer, our results show that community cash transfer offers a viable policy alternative to improve the determinants of maternal mortality by allowing more flexibility in activities and at lower cost by monitoring at community level.

  20. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  1. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  2. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering.

  3. Addition of a breeding database in the Genome Database for Rosaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Kate; Jung, Sook; Lee, Taein; Brutcher, Lisa; Cho, Ilhyung; Peace, Cameron; Main, Dorrie

    2013-01-01

    Breeding programs produce large datasets that require efficient management systems to keep track of performance, pedigree, geographical and image-based data. With the development of DNA-based screening technologies, more breeding programs perform genotyping in addition to phenotyping for performance evaluation. The integration of breeding data with other genomic and genetic data is instrumental for the refinement of marker-assisted breeding tools, enhances genetic understanding of important c...

  4. The government of Kenya's cash transfer program reduces the risk of sexual debut among young people age 15-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Pettifor, Audrey; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess whether the Government of Kenya's Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (Kenya CT-OVC) can reduce the risk of HIV among young people by postponing sexual debut. The program provides an unconditional transfer of US$20 per month directly to the main caregiver in the household. An evaluation of the program was implemented in 2007-2009 in seven districts. Fourteen Locations were randomly assigned to receive the program and fourteen were assigned to a control arm. A sample of households was enrolled in the evaluation in 2007. We revisited these households in 2011 and collected information on sexual activity among individuals between 15-25 years of age. We used logistic regression, adjusted for the respondent's age, sex and relationship to caregiver, the age, sex and schooling of the caregiver and whether or not the household lived in Nairobi at baseline, to compare rates of sexual debut among young people living in program households with those living in control households who had not yet entered the program. Our results, adjusted for these covariates, show that the program reduced the odds of sexual debut by 31 percent. There were no statistically significant effects on secondary outcomes of behavioral risk such as condom use, number of partners and transactional sex. Since the CT-OVC provides cash to the caregiver and not to the child, and there are no explicit conditions associated with receipt, these impacts are indirect, and may have been achieved by keeping young people in school. Our results suggest that large-scale national social cash transfer programs with poverty alleviation objectives may have potential positive spillover benefits in terms of reducing HIV risk among young people in Eastern and Southern Africa.

  5. The government of Kenya's cash transfer program reduces the risk of sexual debut among young people age 15-25.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Handa

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess whether the Government of Kenya's Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (Kenya CT-OVC can reduce the risk of HIV among young people by postponing sexual debut. The program provides an unconditional transfer of US$20 per month directly to the main caregiver in the household. An evaluation of the program was implemented in 2007-2009 in seven districts. Fourteen Locations were randomly assigned to receive the program and fourteen were assigned to a control arm. A sample of households was enrolled in the evaluation in 2007. We revisited these households in 2011 and collected information on sexual activity among individuals between 15-25 years of age. We used logistic regression, adjusted for the respondent's age, sex and relationship to caregiver, the age, sex and schooling of the caregiver and whether or not the household lived in Nairobi at baseline, to compare rates of sexual debut among young people living in program households with those living in control households who had not yet entered the program. Our results, adjusted for these covariates, show that the program reduced the odds of sexual debut by 31 percent. There were no statistically significant effects on secondary outcomes of behavioral risk such as condom use, number of partners and transactional sex. Since the CT-OVC provides cash to the caregiver and not to the child, and there are no explicit conditions associated with receipt, these impacts are indirect, and may have been achieved by keeping young people in school. Our results suggest that large-scale national social cash transfer programs with poverty alleviation objectives may have potential positive spillover benefits in terms of reducing HIV risk among young people in Eastern and Southern Africa.

  6. Security Transition Program Office (STPO), technology transfer of the STPO process, tools, and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, J.T.; Forslund, C.R.J.; Underwood, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    In 1990, with the transition from a defense mission to environmental restoration, the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site began a significant effort to diagnose, redesign, and implement new safeguards and security (SAS) processes. In 1992 the Security Transition Program Office (STPO) was formed to address the sweeping changes that were being identified. Comprised of SAS and other contractor staff with extensive experience and supported by staff experienced in organizational analysis and work process redesign, STPO undertook a series of tasks designed to make fundamental changes to SAS processes throughout the Hanford Site. The goal of STPO is to align the SAS work and organization with the new Site mission. This report describes the key strategy, tools, methods, and techniques used by STPO to change SAS processes at Hanford. A particular focus of this review is transferring STPO`s experience to other DOE sites and federal agency efforts: that is, to extract, analyze, and provide a critical review of the approach, tools, and techniques used by STPO that will be useful to other DOE sites and national laboratories in transitioning from a defense production mode to environmental restoration and other missions. In particular, what lessons does STPO provide as a pilot study or model for implementing change in other transition activities throughout the DOE complex? More broadly, what theoretical and practical contributions do DOE transition efforts, such as STPO, provide to federal agency streamlining efforts and attempts to {open_quotes}reinvent{close_quotes} government enterprises in the public sector? The approach used by STPO should provide valuable information to those examining their own processes in light of new mission requirements.

  7. Creating new middle breeding materials by utilizing new techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ A new breeding program" Creating new middle breeding materials by utilizing new techniques", cooperated by China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI) and Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science (JIRCAS)", started in Hangzhou, China in 1999.The study led by Dr Kunihiro Y. (Japan) and Dr QIAN Qian (China) now advances smoothly.

  8. The Breeding Bird Survey, 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Van Velzen, W.T.

    1967-01-01

    A Breeding Bird Survey of a large section on North America was conducted during June 1966. Cooperators ran a total of 585 Survey routes in 26 eastern States and 4 Canadian Provinces. Future coverage of established routes will enable changes in the abundance of North American breeding birds to be measured. Routes are selected at random on the basis of one-degree blocks of latitude and longitude. Each 241/2-mile route, with 3-minute stops spaced one-half mile apart, is driven by automobile. All birds heard or seen at the stops are recorded on special forms and the data are then transferred to machine punch cards. The average number of birds per route is tabulated by State, along with the total number of each species and the percent of routes and stops upon which they were recorded. Maps are presented showing the range and abundance of selected species. Also, a year-to-year comparison is made of populations of selected species on Maryland routes in 1965 and 1966.

  9. A technology transfer plan for the US Department of Energy's Electric Energy Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Hurwitch, J.W.; Davis, L.J.

    1986-11-01

    The major objective of this study was to develop a technology transfer plan that would be both practical and effective in promoting the transfer of the products of DOE/EES research to appropriate target audiences. The study drew upon several major components of the marketing process in developing this plan: definition/charcterization of the products being produced by the DOE/EES program, identification/characterization of possible users of the products being produced by the program, and documentation/analysis of the methods currently being used to promote the adoption of DOE/EES products. Fields covered include HVDC, new materials, superconductors, electric field effects, EMP impacts, battery storage/load leveling, automation/processing concepts, normal/emergency operating concepts, Hawaii deep water cable, and failure mechanisms.

  10. Supporting the Transference of Knowledge about Language within Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Lisl; Endicott, Michele; Quinn, Marie; Humphrey, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Teacher education is effective when pre-service teachers are able to transfer knowledge from content areas to practice. This study investigates the extent to which curriculum and assessment designs, along with teaching practices, supported pre-service teachers to transfer knowledge gained about language from a first-year course into a second-year…

  11. Broiler breeding : breeding goals, selection schemes and the usefulness of local breeds for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation considers three aspects of broiler breeding: definition of breeding goals, selection schemes for specialized lines, and the usefulness of local breeds for China. Economic values in broiler breeding were derived based on a deterministic model. A systematic design for the application

  12. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2008-08-01

    The global amphibian crisis has resulted in renewed interest in captive breeding as a conservation tool for amphibians. Although captive breeding and reintroduction are controversial management actions, amphibians possess a number of attributes that make them potentially good models for such programs. We reviewed the extent and effectiveness of captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians through an analysis of data from the Global Amphibian Assessment and other sources. Most captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians have focused on threatened species from industrialized countries with relatively low amphibian diversity. Out of 110 species in such programs, 52 were in programs with no plans for reintroduction that had conservation research or conservation education as their main purpose. A further 39 species were in programs that entailed captive breeding and reintroduction or combined captive breeding with relocations of wild animals. Nineteen species were in programs with relocations of wild animals only. Eighteen out of 58 reintroduced species have subsequently bred successfully in the wild, and 13 of these species have established self-sustaining populations. As with threatened amphibians generally, amphibians in captive breeding or reintroduction programs face multiple threats, with habitat loss being the most important. Nevertheless, only 18 out of 58 reintroduced species faced threats that are all potentially reversible. When selecting species for captive programs, dilemmas may emerge between choosing species that have a good chance of surviving after reintroduction because their threats are reversible and those that are doomed to extinction in the wild as a result of irreversible threats. Captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians require long-term commitments to ensure success, and different management strategies may be needed for species earmarked for reintroduction and species used for conservation

  13. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  14. Analysis on The Roles of Stakeholders in The Management of Integrated Breeding Beef Cattle Farm Program at PT KPC East Kutai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ariansyah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the roles of stakeholders was conducted as a continuity program of Peternakan Sapi Terpadu (PESAT; integrated beef cattle farm following the coal mining deactivation by PT Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC of East Kutai, East Kalimantan. The purpose of this study was to formulate stakeholders relation in the future program. The stakeholders involved in this program were PT KPC, local breeders, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Pertanian (STIPER; Agriculture Academy of East Kutai, and the local government of East Kutai. The stakeholders analysis was based on the variables of the importance and influence from every analyzed stakeholder. The analysis model used here was the model introduced by Reed et al. (2009. According to the result of the stakeholders analysis, PT KPC was in the key-player quadrant, which score is 25 in both of the interest and the influencial level, while the three others, such as, local breeders, STIPER of East Kutai, and the East Kutai Government were in the subject quadrant. Their score were 24 and 7 for Local breeders, 21 and 9 for STIPER of East Kutai, and 16 and 13 for The East Kutai Government. It means, they had high interest but low influence to the program. The conclusion of this analysis shows that PT KPC is still dominating in the PESAT program management, whereas the three other stakeholders are acting merely as program users that have low involvement in the program management.

  15. Transferência condicionada de renda e segurança alimentar e nutricional Conditional cash transfer programs and food and nutrition security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Burlandy

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as interações entre programas de transferência condicionada de renda (TCR e a segurança alimentar e nutricional (SAN, a partir de uma revisão da literatura. Considera que a TCR impacta os gastos com alimentação, especialmente quando há dinamismo de mercado e os investimentos com outros bens que afetam o bem- estar nutricional das famílias, incluindo a demanda por educação e cuidados com a saúde. No entanto, o impacto no estado nutricional, especialmente no crescimento infantil, não é inequívoco, pois depende de outras ações que afetam este processo, tais como a disponibilidade de serviços de saúde; educação; saneamento; os custos das famílias para acessá-los; o tempo de implementação dos programas; o valor transferido; o tamanho das famílias, além das regras intrafamiliares de alocação de recursos. De igual modo, cabe analisar o processo de implementação dos programas uma vez que podem afetar (positiva ou negativamente os valores, relações e práticas sociais que contribuem para a conformação da pobreza e da SAN. A integração da TCR com outros programas é essencial para garantir seu impacto na SAN e o atual Conselho Nacional de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional constitui espaço estratégico para o planejamento integrado de políticas neste campo.This paper analyses the relationship between Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT programs and Food and Nutrition Security (FNS, based on a review of the literature. CCT programs spur outlays on food, particularly in dynamic markets, as well as investments in other goods affecting the nutritional wellbeing of families, including demands for healthcare and education. However, the impact on children's nutritional status and early childhood growth is not clear, as other factors also affect this process, such as: the availability of public services (healthcare; education; sanitation and the costs of accessing them; duration of the programs; transfer

  16. Extending RosBREED in the Pacific Northwest for strawberry processing traits: year 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to implement marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae, many traits need to be characterized in diverse germplasm. The USDA-NIFA Specialty Crop Research Initiative-funded RosBREED project includes breeding programs of four Rosaceae crops (apple, peach, cherry, and strawberry). Phenotyping ea...

  17. MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN DISEASE RESISTANCE BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimhulu Ragimekula

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feeding ever-increasing population is the main challenge faced by the agricultural scientists and to meet this plant breeders have to put continuous efforts to develop new crop varieties on fast track basis. DNA based polymorphism, commonly known as DNA markers can be used for genetic improvement through selection for favourable traits such as disease resistance. Molecular markers are becoming an essential component in backcross breeding programs for tracking the resistance genes in gene pyramiding. Marker assisted selection (MAS, is expected to increase genetic response by affecting efficiency and accuracy of selection. Even though marker-assisted selection now plays a prominent role in the field of plant breeding, examples of successful, practical outcomes are rare. MAS, with few exceptions, has not yet delivered its expected benefits in commercial breeding. It is clear that DNA markers hold great promise, but realizing that promise remains elusive. The economic and biological constraints such as a low return of investment in small-grain cereal breeding, lack of diagnostic markers, and the prevalence of QTL-background effects hinder the broad implementation of MAS. Until complex traits can be fully dissected, the application of MAS will be limited to genes of moderate-to-large effect and to applications that do not endanger the response to conventional selection. Till then, observable phenotype will remain an important component of genetic improvement programmes, because it takes in to account the collective effect of all genes. In future, chip-based, high-throughput genotyping platforms and the introduction of genomic selection will reduce the current problems of integrating MAS in practical breeding programs and open new avenues for a molecular-based resistance breeding.

  18. Travelling to breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, RJ; Fox, AD; Stahl, J

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, investigation of the dynamics of avian migration has been heavily biased towards the autumn return trip to the wintering quarters. Since the migratory prelude to breeding has direct fitness consequences, the European Science Foundation recently redressed the balance and sponsored a wo

  19. Breeding kennel management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, S

    1992-09-01

    Veterinarians and dog breeders should work together to establish protocols for health care and breeding management that are based on sound scientific principles as well as practical systems. These protocols should involve bitches, stud dogs, and puppies. Tantamount importance must be placed on record keeping so that problems may be identified and solved before they are irreversible.

  20. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great numb

  1. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, R.; Dun, van K.P.M.; Snoo, de B.; Berg, van den M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, de J.P.C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Wijnker, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on re

  2. Contributions of the Department of Defense Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs to Training and Education: FY1999-FY2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    allows visual tracking, free-floating Magnetic Levitation ( Maglev ) haptic feedback with real surgical tools and sce- nario-based training that can be...Defense Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs to Training and Education: FY1999–FY2004 J.D...Department of Defense Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs to Training and Education: FY1999

  3. MODELING REGIONAL SYSTEMS OF BREEDING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svinarev I. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the experience of the development of the methodology and the computer program for calculation of regional and local systems of pigs hybridization at the example of the Rostov region (Russia. Crossing the GP lines for F1 should be organized in multiplier farm, which may be separate farms and to be part of large commercial farms. For the production of F1 in a multiplier farm, we must breed a purebred specialized paternal and a maternal line, selected on the effect of combining ability. For the successful functioning of the system of hybridization, it is necessary to build a genetic pyramid, including breeding and genetic centers (nucleus farm, multiplier farm, reproducing the baseline. The article gives a detailed calculation of sow population of levels of P, GP, GGP for maternal and paternal breeds of pigs. The program uses user-defined parameters of pigs productivity, of the simulated population, and the parameters characterizing the intensity of selection of young animals. To ensure annual production of 1,822 million pigs in the Rostov region it is necessary to provide the availability of brood stock in the amount of 89 thousand heads, 6 800 heads in the structure of grandparent flocks (GP, 730 heads in the structure of the Grand-Grand-parent stock (GGP, excluding sows second maternal and paternal breeds

  4. Engineering Task Plan for Hose In Hose Transfer Lines for the Interim Stabilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-16

    The document is the Engineering Task Plan for the engineering, design services, planning, project integration and management support for the design, modification, installation and testing of an over ground transfer (OGT) system to support the interim stabilization of S/SX and U Tank Farms.

  5. Engineering Task Plan for Hose In Hose Transfer Lines for the Interim Stabilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUNG, M.P.

    2000-06-20

    This document is the Engineering Task Plan for the engineering, design services, planning, project integration and management support for the design, modification, installation and testing of an over ground transfer (OGT) system to support the interim stabilization of nine tanks in the 241-S/SX Tank Farms.

  6. Language Interference and Language Learning Techniques Transfer in L2 and L3 Immersion Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronin, Larissa; Toubkin, Lynne

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships between the first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) language in immersion programs for Russian-speaking students in Israel. Two parallel and similar immersion programs, which were carried out for the same population, but with different target languages (L2 Hebrew and L3 English), are described. Presents tentative…

  7. Computer program to calculate three-dimensional boundary layer flows over wings with wall mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclean, J. D.; Randall, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A system of computer programs for calculating three dimensional transonic flow over wings, including details of the three dimensional viscous boundary layer flow, was developed. The flow is calculated in two overlapping regions: an outer potential flow region, and a boundary layer region in which the first order, three dimensional boundary layer equations are numerically solved. A consistent matching of the two solutions is achieved iteratively, thus taking into account viscous-inviscid interaction. For the inviscid outer flow calculations, the Jameson-Caughey transonic wing program FLO 27 is used, and the boundary layer calculations are performed by a finite difference boundary layer prediction program. Interface programs provide communication between the two basic flow analysis programs. Computed results are presented for the NASA F8 research wing, both with and without distributed surface suction.

  8. Elephant reproduction: improvement of breeding efficiency and development of a breeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thitaram, C.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of reproduction of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) has become of major concern. Captive breeding programs worldwide have met with limited success and few ex situ elephant populations are self-sustaining. The low birth rate and high mortality cause the captive population to declin

  9. Paternity Testing, a Poor Man’s Marker Assisted Breeding Strategy to Increase Selection Gains in Outbred Forage Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many methods to incorporate molecular markers into breeding programs have been proposed. Most existing marker assisted selection strategies use selection based on molecular marker linkage to achieve selection gains. Such strategies are often prohibitively expensive in forage breeding (Riday, 2007)...

  10. Modelling of heat and moisture transfer in buildings - I. Model program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X. [Laboratory of Structural Engineering and Building Physics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Hut (Finland)

    2002-07-01

    The overall objective of this work is to develop an accurate model for predicting heat and moisture transfer in buildings including building envelopes and indoor air. The model is based on the fundamental thermodynamic relations. Darcy's law, Fick's law and Fourier's law are used in describing the transfer equations. The resultant nonlinear system of partial differential equations is discretized in space by the finite element method. The time marching scheme, Crank-Nicolson scheme, is used to advance the solution in time. The final numerical solution provides transient temperature and moisture distributions in building envelopes as well as temperature and moisture content for building's indoor air subject to outdoor weather conditions described as temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and wind speed. A series measurements were conducted in order to investigate the model performance. The simulated values were compared against the actual measured values. A good agreement was obtained. (author)

  11. Genetics and breeding of brewers yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson-Tillgren, T.; Gjermansen, C.; Petersen, J.G.L.; Holmberg, S.; Kielland-Brandt, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Yeasts, used for beer production, can be divided into two groups, top fermenters and bottom fermenters and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis has been chosen as the name for the bottom fermenting yeasts which are used in lager beer production. The key for the analysis of the chromosomes of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis was provided by the discovery that single chromosomes of meiotic segregants of these strains can be transferred to genetically marked Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and subsequently analyzed by tetrad analysis and molecular hybridization. It is proposed that Saccharomyces carlsbergensis is composed of two rather divergent genotypes. Breeding can be accomplished by cross breeding and mutagenesis and possibly by introducing in vitro modified cloned genes into meiotic segregants of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis.

  12. The effect of mare's age on multiple ovulation rate, embryo recovery, post-transfer pregnancy rate, and interovulatory interval in a commercial embryo transfer program in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinone, A I; Losinno, L; Fumuso, E; Rodríguez, E M; Redolatti, C; Cantatore, S; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2015-07-01

    Advanced maternal age is an important predisposing factor on the reduction of reproductive efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of donor's age on several reproductive parameters in a commercial equine embryo transfer program. Donors were classified into 3 age groups: Group 1=fillies (3 and 4 years old), Group 2=middle age mares (aged 5-10) and Group 3=old mares (aged 13-25). Embryo recovery, multiple ovulation and pregnancy rates and interovulatory intervals were compared amongst age groups. Group 1 (171/244, 70.1%) and Group 2 (774/1081, 71.6%) had a higher (Precovery rate than Group 3 (385/701, 54.9%). Groups 2 and 3 were 2.5 and 3.4 times more likely to have multiple ovulations than Group 1 (Prate was not significant (P>0.05). The interovulatory intervals length was influenced by individual mare (P0.05), but was shorter than the one of Group 3 (17.4±0.15 days; Precovery rate of flushings from Groups 1 and 2 was influenced by the length of the previous interovulatory interval (P=0.03).

  13. An Evaluation Study of an Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) Program in an Urban City: Examining the Transfer of Knowledge and Leadership Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Lim

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) degree program in terms of transfer of knowledge and leadership practices. Based on a review of literature related to adult learning theories, EMBA programs, the importance of evaluation practices, and leadership practices, this study was designed to…

  14. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    stallions standing at stud. Artificial insemination was offered by 48% of the breeders. Of those that offered artificial insemination, only 2 farms provided frozen semen. Also of interest, 2 farms offered embryo transfer services. Farms spent approximately 13,536/year on advertising and 7,864/year on health care management of the stallions. The majority of farms that bred outside mares (13 of 25) bred fewer than 50 mares per year (n = 10). Outside mares were considered to be those that were transported to the farm for breeding. Some of those remained on the farm for mare care while others returned home after confirmed with foal. Approximately 70% of the farms gave discounts to individuals who bred multiple mares to the same stallion or farm. Over 85% of the farms surveyed provided mare care including breeding and foaling, though the number of days mares received care varied significantly. The average cost for mare care was 18.29 per day. All but one respondent provided a live foal guarantee. Breeding horses in Kentucky has been very important facet of the equine industry. However, many people who consider breeding a horse have little understanding of the costs associated with the process. The data provided by this study will be used to create a spreadsheet to assist people interested in breeding to better understand the financial considerations of this type of enterprise.

  15. Litter size variation in Polish selected small dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Goleman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In breeders’ general opinion small breed females produce less numerous litters. The aim of the study was to analyse the litter size and the frequency of the gender ratio in selected small dog breeds in view of their popularity in Poland. The data set comprised information on 639 litters (in total 2578 puppies of eight breeds, which were born between January 2003 and end December 2014. The results were statistically analysed using statistical program SPSS 20.0. Medium-size litters were observed in the analysed small dog breeds (4.034±0.1. Comparison of the selected breeds of the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI Groups showed that the mean litter size in Group IX was higher (4.36±0.08 than that in Group III (3.87±0.14 and the differences were statistically significant. The study has confirmed the hypothesis that larger females produce more numerous litters, but there are large intra-individual variations in the number of pups born in individual breeds. Additionally, the gender ratio in the puppies born in the analysed breeds was equal, despite the fluctuations in the individual breeds.

  16. The Current Status, Problems, and Prospects of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Breeding in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangli Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current status, methodology, achievements, and prospects of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. breeding in China. There are 77 cultivars that have been registered in the country, these include 36 cultivars bred through breeding programs, 17 introduced from overseas, 5 domesticated from wild ecotypes, and 19 through regional collection/breeding programs. Cultivars have been selected for cold resistance, disease resistance, salt tolerance, grazing tolerance, high yield, and early maturity. Most of these cultivars have been developed through conventional breeding techniques, such as selective and cross breeding, and some are now being evaluated that have been developed through the application of transgenic technology. The major problems for alfalfa breeding in China include low success rate, slow progress to breed resistant varieties, lack of breeding materials and their systematic collection, storage and evaluation, lack of advanced breeding techniques, and low adoption rate of new cultivars. There are gaps in alfalfa breeding between China and the developed world. Improvement of alfalfa breeding techniques, development of cultivars with adaptations to different regions within China, and the protection and utilization of alfalfa germplasm resources have been identified as major strategies to improve the efficiency of alfalfa breeding in China.

  17. Results of a psychosomatic training program in China, Vietnam and Laos: successful cross-cultural transfer of a postgraduate training program for medical doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzsche Kurt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the “ASIA-LINK” program, the European Community has supported the development and implementation of a curriculum of postgraduate psychosomatic training for medical doctors in China, Vietnam and Laos. Currently, these three countries are undergoing great social, economic and cultural changes. The associated psychosocial stress has led to increases in psychological and psychosomatic problems, as well as disorders for which no adequate medical or psychological care is available, even in cities. Health care in these three countries is characterized by the coexistence of Western medicine and traditional medicine. Psychological and psychosomatic disorders and problems are insufficiently recognized and treated, and there is a need for biopsychosocially orientated medical care. Little is known about the transferability of Western-oriented psychosomatic training programs in the Southeast Asian cultural context. Methods The curriculum was developed and implemented in three steps: 1 an experimental phase to build a future teacher group; 2 a joint training program for future teachers and German teachers; and 3 training by Asian trainers that was supervised by German teachers. The didactic elements included live patient interviews, lectures, communication skills training and Balint groups. The training was evaluated using questionnaires for the participants and interviews of the German teachers and the future teachers. Results Regional training centers were formed in China (Shanghai, Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City and Hue and Laos (Vientiane. A total of 200 physicians completed the training, and 30 physicians acquired the status of future teacher. The acceptance of the training was high, and feelings of competence increased during the courses. The interactive training methods were greatly appreciated, with the skills training and self-experience ranked as the most important topics. Adaptations to the cultural background of the

  18. Public transfers and living alone among the elderly: A case study of Korea's new income support program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Hye-Won Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the significant implications of older adults' living arrangements for their well-being, it is not clear whether public transfers for the elderly will increase or decrease their independent living. A few natural experiments in the U.S. show that such support increases elders' living alone owing to their preferences for privacy. There has been little quasi-experimental evidence in Asia, where multigenerational coresidence is prevalent and norms and preferences for that form of living arrangement remain strong. Objective: In 2008 the Korean government introduced the Basic Old-Age Pension (BOAP, a means-tested income support program for elders. This article examines how the program affects unmarried Korean elders' likelihood of living alone. Methods: I analyze the 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011 waves of the Korean Retirement and Income Study, a longitudinal survey of nationally representative Koreans. The analysis takes a difference-in-difference approach, which compares changes in the living arrangements of two elderly groups, one that received BOAP benefits and the other that did not. Results: Overall, the program has a negative, not positive, impact on elders' living alone. A closer look reveals that the transfers helped non-coresident elders to continue living alone and prevented coresident elders from forming one-person households. Conclusions: Ambivalent attitudes towards living alone in the transitional Korean society, together with the modest amount of BOAP benefits, appear to explain the mixed results. These findings are particularly relevant to other rapidly changing societies where public elder-support systems are expanding and norms of familial elder support are weakening.

  19. Breeding and Selection of New Switchgrass Varieties for Increased Biomass Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taliaferro, C.M.

    2003-05-27

    Switchgrass breeding and genetics research was conducted from 1992-2002 at the Oklahoma State University as part of the national DOE-Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) effort to develop the species as a bioenergy feedstock crop. The fundamental objective of the program was to implement and conduct a breeding program to increase biomass yield capability in switchgrass and develop cultivars for the central and southern United States. Supporting research objectives included: (1) switchgrass germplasm collection, characterization, and enhancement; (2) elucidation of cytogenetic and breeding behavior; and (3) identification of best breeding procedures.

  20. Guide to Sources: Colleges & Universities, Graduate Programs, Transfer Information, Financial Aid. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Bryan

    This library guide lists some of the more useful sources of information about colleges and universities that are available in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. The 99 items cited are listed in four categories: (1) colleges and universities, including general, graduate, and foreign programs; (2) preparation for admission exams; (3)…

  1. Reverse Transfer: Experiences of International Chinese Students in Intensive English Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of international Chinese undergraduate students enrolled in United States.colleges and universities in the past few years. Many began their journey in an intensive English program of a four-year university due to lack of English proficiency. Instead of continuing their study at the same institution, a considerable number of…

  2. Cross-Language Transfer in English Immersion Programs in Germany: Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Sandra Kristina; Zaunbauer, Anna C. M.; Moller, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language effects on reading skills are of particular interest in the context of foreign language immersion programs. Although there is an extensive literature on cross-language effects on reading in general, research focusing on immersion students and including different dimensions of reading acquisition such as reading fluency and reading…

  3. Analysis of Time-Dependent Tritium Breeding Capability of Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaokang; Pu, Yong; Zhu, Qingjun; Liu, Songlin

    2016-08-01

    Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is an important mission for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) operating on a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel cycle. It is necessary to study the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and breeding tritium inventory variation with operation time so as to provide an accurate data for dynamic modeling and analysis of the tritium fuel cycle. A water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket is one candidate of blanket concepts for the CFETR. Based on the detailed 3D neutronics model of CFETR with the WCCB blanket, the time-dependent TBR and tritium surplus were evaluated by a coupling calculation of the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the fusion activation code FISPACT-2007. The results indicated that the TBR and tritium surplus of the WCCB blanket were a function of operation time and fusion power due to the Li consumption in breeder and material activation. In addition, by comparison with the results calculated by using the 3D neutronics model and employing the transfer factor constant from 1D to 3D, it is noted that 1D analysis leads to an over-estimation for the time-dependent tritium breeding capability when fusion power is larger than 1000 MW. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2015GB108002, and 2014GB119000), and by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  4. Defining desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding objective using analytic hierarchy process

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Distributing animals from a single breeding program to a global market may not satisfy all producers, as they may differ in market objectives and farming environments. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to estimate preferences, which can be aggregated to consensus preference values using weighted goal programming (WGP). The aim of this study was to use an AHP-WGP based approach to derive desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding, and to study whether breeding trait preferences va...

  5. Effect of the Brazilian conditional cash transfer and primary health care programs on the new case detection rate of leprosy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilda Silva Nery

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social determinants can affect the transmission of leprosy and its progression to disease. Not much is known about the effectiveness of welfare and primary health care policies on the reduction of leprosy occurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Brazilian cash transfer (Bolsa Família Program-BFP and primary health care (Family Health Program-FHP programs on new case detection rate of leprosy.We conducted the study with a mixed ecological design, a combination of an ecological multiple-group and time-trend design in the period 2004-2011 with the Brazilian municipalities as unit of analysis. The main independent variables were the BFP and FHP coverage at the municipal level and the outcome was new case detection rate of leprosy. Leprosy new cases, BFP and FHP coverage, population and other relevant socio-demographic covariates were obtained from national databases. We used fixed-effects negative binomial models for panel data adjusted for relevant socio-demographic covariates. A total of 1,358 municipalities were included in the analysis. In the studied period, while the municipal coverage of BFP and FHP increased, the new case detection rate of leprosy decreased. Leprosy new case detection rate was significantly reduced in municipalities with consolidated BFP coverage (Risk Ratio 0.79; 95% CI  =0.74-0.83 and significantly increased in municipalities with FHP coverage in the medium (72-95% (Risk Ratio 1.05; 95% CI  =1.02-1.09 and higher coverage tertiles (>95% (Risk Ratio 1.12; 95% CI  =1.08-1.17.At the same time the Family Health Program had been effective in increasing the new case detection rate of leprosy in Brazil, the Bolsa Família Program was associated with a reduction of the new case detection rate of leprosy that we propose reflects a reduction in leprosy incidence.

  6. Research program: The investigation of heat transfer and fluid flow at low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, M. S.; Philbin, J. S.; Foushee, F. C.

    1986-04-01

    This paper gives an overview of a multiyear joint research program being conducted at the University of New Mexico (UNM) with support from Sandia National Laboratories and GA Technologies. This research focuses on heat removal and fluid dynamics in flow regimes characterized by low pressure and low Reynolds number. The program was motivated by a desire to characterize and analyze cooling in a broad class of TRIGA-type reactors under: (1) typical operating conditions, (2) anticipated, new operating regimes, and (3) postulated accident conditions. It has also provided experimental verification of analytical tools used in design analysis. The paper includes descriptions of the UNM thermal-hydraulics test facility and the experimental test sections. During the first two years experiments were conducted using single, electrically heated rod in water and air annuli. This configuration provides an observable and serviceable simulation of a fuel rod and its coolant channel.

  7. Summary of the transfer of optical processing to systems: optical pattern recognition program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Scott D.

    1995-06-01

    Martin Marietta has successfully completed a TOPS optical pattern recognition program. The program culminated in August 1994 with an automatic target recognition flight demonstration inwhich an M60A2 tank was acquired, identified, and tracked with a visible seeker from a UH-1 helicopter flying a fiber optic guided missile (FOG-M) mission profile. The flight demonstration was conducted by the US Army Missile Command (MICOM) and supported by Martin Marietta. The pattern recognition system performance for acquiring and identifying the M60A2 tank, which was positioned among an array with five other vehicle types, was 90% probability of correct identification and a 4% false identification for over 40,000 frames of imagery processed. Imagery was processed at a 15 Hz input rate with a 1 ft3, 76 W, 4 GFLOP processor performing up to 800 correlations per second.

  8. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  9. Optimization of dairy cattle breeding plans with increased female reproductive rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, T.H.E.

    1990-01-01

    IntroductionNicholas and Smith (1983) proposed Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET) nucleus breeding schemes to increase reponse rates in dairy cattle breeding. Predicted genetic gains were up to twice as high as those of conventional progeny testing schemes. In the MOET nucleus bree

  10. Selection for scrapie resistance decreased inbreeding rates in two rare sheep breeds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    An attempt to balance selection intensity and conservation of genetic diversity was made in the national program for breeding for scrapie resistance in the Netherlands. The ARR allele is associated with resistance to scrapie. In the Netherlands a breeding program was started on a voluntary basis in

  11. Building Transferable Knowledge and Skills through an Interdisciplinary Polar Science Graduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, L. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Albert, M. R.; Ayres, M.

    2015-12-01

    Modern graduate education must extend beyond disciplinary content to prepare students for diverse careers in science. At Dartmouth, a graduate program in Polar Environmental Change uses interdisciplinary study of the polar regions as a core from which students develop skills and knowledge for tackling complex environmental issues that require cooperation across scientific disciplines and with educators, policy makers, and stakeholders. Two major NSF-funded initiatives have supported professional development for graduate students in this program, including an IGERT (Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship) and leadership of JSEP's (Joint Science Education Project) Arctic Science Education Week in Greenland. We teach courses that emphasize the links between science and the human dimensions of environmental change; host training sessions in science communication; invite guest speakers who work in policy, academia, journalism, government research, etc.; lead an international field-based training that includes policy-focused meetings and a large outreach component; provide multiple opportunities for outreach and collaboration with local schools; and build outreach and education into graduate research programs where students instruct and mentor high school students. Students from diverse scientific disciplines (Ecology, Earth Science, and Engineering) participate in all of the above, which significantly strengthens their interdisciplinary view of polar science and ability to communicate across disciplines. In addition, graduate students have developed awareness, confidence, and the skills to pursue and obtain diverse careers. This is reflected in the fact that recent graduates have acquired permanent and post-doctoral positions in academic and government research, full-time teaching, and also in post-docs focused on outreach and science policy. Dartmouth's interdisciplinary approach to graduate education is producing tomorrow's leaders in science.

  12. A Study of the F-4 Program Management Responsibility Transfer (PMRT) from the Air Force Systems Command to the Logistics Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    accomplish an early shift of responsibility to AFLC for systems/equipments which are ready ti transfer. The F-16 transfer agreement is now in the proceso ...process and FMT. 112 14 Previous chapters -resent detailed discussions of problem * areas associated with the transition and the IRT procesoes . This...all equally essential for effective program management. Consideration of and judIcious application of all the management functions is required to

  13. Breeding of a Tomato Genotype Readily Accessible to Genetic Manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, Maarten; Hanhart, Corrie; Jongsma, Maarten; Toma, Ingrid; Weide, Rob; Zabel, Pim; Hille, Jacques

    1986-01-01

    A tomato genotype, superior in regenerating plants from cell cultures, was obtained by transferring regeneration capacity from Lycopersicon peruvianum into L. esculentum by classical breeding. This genotype, MsK93, greatly facilitates genetic manipulation of tomato, as was demonstrated by successful

  14. The development of beef breeding bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelken, T J

    2008-08-01

    Management of the bull battery will have a dramatic impact on profitability of the cow/calf enterprise. It is critical that young bulls be selected and developed to maximize longevity and productivity for the eventual buyer. Bulls must be structurally sound, healthy, and have adequate libido in order to service the required number of females. Once bulls complete their first breeding season, special care must be taken in order to ensure that they recover and regain needed body condition and pass a bull breeding soundness examination (BBSE). Mature bulls that have reached their genetic potential for growth require less intensive management, but the health program and annual BBSE cannot be overlooked. Mature bulls are also more likely to carry venereal disease and should be screened according to local disease incidence and state regulations. All bulls, regardless of age, should be observed early during the breeding season to ensure that they are physically capable of mounting and servicing females. The establishment of a complete management program, especially for young bulls, is essential to ensure that ranch resources are used efficiently, including maintenance of a high level of reproductive performance of the cow herd.

  15. Integrated control and health management. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Wilfried A.; Hayden, Warren R.

    1988-01-01

    To insure controllability of the baseline design for a 7500 pound thrust, 10:1 throttleable, dual expanded cycle, Hydrogen-Oxygen, orbit transfer rocket engine, an Integrated Controls and Health Monitoring concept was developed. This included: (1) Dynamic engine simulations using a TUTSIM derived computer code; (2) analysis of various control methods; (3) Failure Modes Analysis to identify critical sensors; (4) Survey of applicable sensors technology; and, (5) Study of Health Monitoring philosophies. The engine design was found to be controllable over the full throttling range by using 13 valves, including an oxygen turbine bypass valve to control mixture ratio, and a hydrogen turbine bypass valve, used in conjunction with the oxygen bypass to control thrust. Classic feedback control methods are proposed along with specific requirements for valves, sensors, and the controller. Expanding on the control system, a Health Monitoring system is proposed including suggested computing methods and the following recommended sensors: (1) Fiber optic and silicon bearing deflectometers; (2) Capacitive shaft displacement sensors; and (3) Hot spot thermocouple arrays. Further work is needed to refine and verify the dynamic simulations and control algorithms, to advance sensor capabilities, and to develop the Health Monitoring computational methods.

  16. Contributions of the ARM Program to Radiative Transfer Modeling for Climate and Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlawer, Eli J.; Iacono, Michael J.; Pincus, Robert; Barker, Howard W.; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Mitchell, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate climate and weather simulations must account for all relevant physical processes and their complex interactions. Each of these atmospheric, ocean, and land processes must be considered on an appropriate spatial and temporal scale, which leads these simulations to require a substantial computational burden. One especially critical physical process is the flow of solar and thermal radiant energy through the atmosphere, which controls planetary heating and cooling and drives the large-scale dynamics that moves energy from the tropics toward the poles. Radiation calculations are therefore essential for climate and weather simulations, but are themselves quite complex even without considering the effects of variable and inhomogeneous clouds. Clear-sky radiative transfer calculations have to account for thousands of absorption lines due to water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases, which are irregularly distributed across the spectrum and have shapes dependent on pressure and temperature. The line-by-line (LBL) codes that treat these details have a far greater computational cost than can be afforded by global models. Therefore, the crucial requirement for accurate radiation calculations in climate and weather prediction models must be satisfied by fast solar and thermal radiation parameterizations with a high level of accuracy that has been demonstrated through extensive comparisons with LBL codes. See attachment for continuation.

  17. A Morphometric Survey among Three Iranian Horse Breeds with Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosseini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three Iranian horse breeds, Turkoman, Caspian, and Kurdish, are the most important Iranian horse breeds which are well known in all around of the world because of their beauty, versatility, great stamina, and  intelligence. Phenotypic characterization was used to identify and document the diversity within and between distinct breeds, based on their observable attributes. Phenotypic characterization and body biometric in 23 traits were measured in 191 purebred horses belonging to three breeds, i.e. Turkoman (70 horses, Kurdish (77 horses, and Caspian (44 horses.  Caspian breed was  sampled from the Provinces of Alborz and Gilan. Kurdish breed was sampled from the Provinces of Kurdistan, Kermanshah, and Hamadan. Turkoman breed was sampled from the Provinces of Golestan, Markazi, and Isfahan. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was implemented. In addition, Canonical Discriminate Analysis (CDA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and Custer analysis were executed for assessing the relationship among the breeds. All statistical analysis was executed by SAS statistical program. The results of our investigation represented the breeds classification into 3 different classes (Caspian, Turkoman, and Kurdish based on different morphometrical traits. Caspian breed with smaller size in most variables was detached clearly from the others with more distance than Kurdish and Turkoman breeds. The result showed that the most variably trait for classification was Hind Hoof Length. Adaptation with different environments causes difference in morphology and difference among breeds. We can identify and classify domestic population using PCA, CDA, and cluster analysis.

  18. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  19. Transfer Entails Communication: The Public Understanding of (Social) Science as a Stage and a Play for Implementing Evidence-Based Prevention Knowledge and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromme, Rainer; Beelmann, Andreas

    2016-07-30

    Many social science-based interventions entail the transfer of evidence-based knowledge to the "target population," because the acquisition and the acceptance of that knowledge are necessary for the intended improvement of behavior or development. Furthermore, the application of a certain prevention program is often legitimated by a reference to science-based reasons such as an evaluation according to scientific standards. Hence, any implementation of evidence-based knowledge and programs is embedded in the public understanding of (social) science. Based on recent research on such public understanding of science, we shall discuss transfer as a process of science communication.

  20. Potato breeding in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de H.

    1953-01-01

    A remarkable feature of potato breeding in the Netherlands is the great number of private breeders who have concentrated their efforts on the improvement of the potato. The author calls attention to some circumstances and measures that have made potato breeding attractive in the Netherlands

  1. Status of biotechnology with emphasis on molecular techniques for mutation breeding in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapade, A.G.; Nazarea, T.Y.; Veluz, A.M.S.; Marbella, L.J.; Nato, A.Q.; Coloma, C.B. Jr.; Asencion, A.B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Quezon (Philippines)

    2002-02-01

    This paper summarizes the status of biotechnology with emphasis on molecular techniques for plant breeding in the Philippines. Several molecular and in-vitro culture techniques are integrated in plant breeding for crop improvement at PNRI, UPLB, IRRI and PhilRice. At IRRI, PCR techniques, RFLP and RAPD, PCR techniques, RFLP and RAPD were developed to establish high density molecular maps, determine breadth and diversity of germplasm and characterize alien introgression. The molecular maps have identified DNA sequence of resistance genes of HYVs and NPTs to abiotic and biotic stresses, the major achievement is the development of high density molecular maps in rice with at least 2000 markers. The biotechnology program at PhilRice for varietal improvement includes: (1) utilization of molecular marker technology such gene mapping of desired traits in rice, analysis of genetic relationships of germplasm materials and breeding lines through DNA fingerprinting and genetic diversity studies and development and application of marker aided selection for disease resistance (RTD and BLB); (2) application of in-vitro techniques in the development of lines with tolerance to adverse conditions; (3) molecular cloning of important genes for RTD resistance; (4) genetic transformation for male sterility and resistance to sheath blight and stem borers; and (5) transfer of disease resistance from wild species to cultivated varieties. In IPB, molecular markers:microsatellites or SSR, AFLP and RGA are being used for mapping and diversity studies in coconut, mango, banana, mungbean, corn and tomato. Mutation breeding at PNRI using gamma radiation has resulted in the development of crop varieties with desirable traits. The use of AFLP coupled to PCR is being used to study polymorphism in plant variants of radiation-induced mutants of rice, pineapple and ornamentals. (author)

  2. Experimental alternatives for evaluation of progenies and clones in eucalyptus breeding programs Alternativas experimentais na avaliação de progênies e clones em programas de melhoramento de eucalipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Aparecida de Souza

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using augmented block designs and spatial analysis methods for early stage selection in eucalyptus breeding programs was tested. A total of 113 half-sib progenies of Eucalyptus urophylla and eight clones were evaluated in an 11 x 11 triple lattice experiment at two locations: Posto da Mata (Bahia, Brazil and São Mateus (Minas Gerais, Brazil. Four checks were randomly allocated within each block. Plots consisted of 15 m long rows containing 6 plants spaced 3 m apart. The girth at breast height (cm/plant was evaluated at 19 and 26 months of age. Variance analyses were performed according to the following methods: lattice design, randomized complete block design, augmented block design, Papadakis method, moving means method, and check plots. Comparisons among different methods were based on the magnitude of experimental errors and precision of the estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters. General results indicated that augmented block design is useful to evaluate progenies and clones in early selection in eucalyptus breeding programs using moderate and low selection intensities. However, this design is not suitable for estimating genetic and phenotypic parameters due to its low precision. Check plots, nearest neighbour, Papadakis (1937, and moving means methods were efficient in removing the heterogeneity within blocks. These efficiencies were compared to that in lattice analysis for estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters.Visando estudar a viabilidade do emprego do delineamento em blocos aumentados e de métodos de análise espacial nas etapas iniciais dos programas de melhoramento de eucalipto, foram avaliados 121 tratamentos, sendo 113 progênies de meios-irmãos de Eucalyptus urophylla e oito clones, em dois locais: São Mateus, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, e Posto da Mata, Estado da Bahia, Brasil. O delineamento utilizado foi um látice 11 x 11, com três repetições por local. Em cada bloco foram

  3. The lifetime production of Bovec and Improved Bovec sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Gorjanc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Production data of Bovec and Improved (with East-Friesian Bovec sheep born between years 1989 and 2006 were used for the analysis of culling dynamics and lifetime production. Lifetime production was calculated as the sum of production at each lambing (number of born and liveborn lambs and litter birth weight, weaning (number of weaned lambs and litter weaning weight or during each lactation (milk yield, fat (6.5 % and protein (5.8 % corrected milk yield (FPC; Pulina et al., 2005., and fat and protein yield for culled sheep. Animals with any missing records from the first till the last lambing, weaning or lactation were removed from the analysis. Animals that left the system of animal recording alive, due to selling or the cancellation of recording by a breeder were also excluded. Dataset included records for 2254 sheep: 1734 of Bovec and 520 of Improved Bovec breed. Data preparation and statistical analysis were performed with the use of a statistical program R (R Development Core Team, 2007. and additional packages Zelig (Imai et al., 2007; Bailey and Alimadhi, 2007; Imai et al., 2008 and lme4 (Bates and DebRoy, 2004; Bates, 2007. Results have shown that in the period ≤1996 Bovec breed had on average 4.4 lactations in their lifetime, which was almost one lactation more than in Improved Bovec breed. In the period after the year 1996 the highest proportion of animals were culled in the first lactation (as expected due to culling dynamics, with slightly higher proportion in Improved Bovec breed than in Bovec breed. Lifetime number of born, liveborn and weaned lambs was higher for about one lamb in Improved Bovec breed. Lifetime lamb weight gain did not differ between breeds, due to the high frequency of early weaning in Improved Bovec breed. During lifetime, Improved Bovec sheep produced around 200 kg (~34 % more milk, around 190 kg (~32 % more FPC milk, around 12 kg (~32 % more milk fat, and around 10 kg (~34 % more milk protein than Bovec

  4. Behaviour characteristics estimation tool of genetic distance between sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Handiwirawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on the estimation of genetic distances and differentiation among sheep breeds are needed in crossing and conservation programs. This research aims to study of utilizing behaviour characteristic variables to differentiate and estimate genetic distance between the sheep breeds. The study was conducted at Cilebut and Bogor Animal House of Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production. Five sheep breeds used were Barbados Black Belly Cross (BC, Garut Composite (KG, Garut Local (LG, Sumatera Composite (KS and St. Croix Cross (SC, with total sample of 50 heads. A total of 10 variables of behavior traits were observed in this study. Analysis of variances and significance tests were applied to compare between sheep breeds and performed for all of behavior traits using PROC GLM of SAS Program ver. 9.0. PROC CANDISC was used for canonical discriminant analyses, the hierarchical clustering was performed using the PROC CLUSTER by Average Linkage method (Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using Arithmetic Averages, UPGMA, and the dendogram for the five sheep breeds was described using PROC TREE. The differentiator variables for the behavior traits were standing and feeding duration. The canonical plotting based on behavioral characteristics could differentiate BC, KS and LG (with KG and SC sheeps. Estimation of genetic distance based on the behavior traits is less accurate for grouping of sheep breeds.

  5. Reproductive efficiency of asymptomatic Theileria equi carriers mares submitted to an embryo transfer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana L. Bezerra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess and evaluate the effects of Theileria equi infection on embryonic recovery, gestation and early embryonic loss. Thirteen Mangalarga Marchador Theileria equi positive donors (diagnosed through nested-PCR and 40 embryos receptors were used. Donors were submitted to two embryo collections in two consecutive estrous cycles (GId; after, the same mares were treated with imidocarb dipropionate (1.2mg/kg IM. in order to collect more embryos in two more estrous cycles (GIId. Receptors were divided into two groups (control and with treated with 20 animals each, where one group was the control (GIr and the other one (GIIr treated with 1.2mg/kg IM of imidocarb dipropionate assessing the gestation rate at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. After 52 embryo collections, the embryonic recovery rates were 53.84% (14/26 and 65.38% (17/26 (p> 0.05 for GId and GIId, respectively. The gestation rate was 70% (14/20 (p>0.05 at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days in group GIr and for GIIr was 85% (17/20 (p>0.05 at 15 days, 80% (16/20 (p>0.05 at 30, 45 and 60 days. The treatment with imidocarb dipropionate did not cause significant improvement in the reproductive efficiency at an ET program.

  6. Plant breeding with marker-assisted selection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Sussumu Sakiyama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, molecular marker studies reached extraordinary advances, especially for sequencing and bioinformatics techniques. Marker-assisted selection became part of the breeding program routines of important seed companies, in order to accelerate and optimize the cultivar developing processes. Private seed companies increasingly use marker-assisted selection, especially for the species of great importance to the seed market, e.g. corn, soybean, cotton, and sunflower. In the Brazilian public institutions few breeding programs use it efficiently. The possible reasons are: lack of know-how, lack of appropriate laboratories, few validated markers, high cost, and lack of urgency in obtaining cultivars. In this article we analyze the use and the constraints of marker-assisted selection in plant breeding programs of Brazilian public institutes

  7. Hybrid recreation by reverse breeding in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnker, Erik; Deurhof, Laurens; van de Belt, Jose; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; Blankestijn, Hetty; Becker, Frank; Ravi, Maruthachalam; Chan, Simon W L; van Dun, Kees; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; de Jong, Hans; Dirks, Rob; Keurentjes, Joost J B

    2014-04-01

    Hybrid crop varieties are traditionally produced by selecting and crossing parental lines to evaluate hybrid performance. Reverse breeding allows doing the opposite: selecting uncharacterized heterozygotes and generating parental lines from them. With these, the selected heterozygotes can be recreated as F1 hybrids, greatly increasing the number of hybrids that can be screened in breeding programs. Key to reverse breeding is the suppression of meiotic crossovers in a hybrid plant to ensure the transmission of nonrecombinant chromosomes to haploid gametes. These gametes are subsequently regenerated as doubled-haploid (DH) offspring. Each DH carries combinations of its parental chromosomes, and complementing pairs can be crossed to reconstitute the initial hybrid. Achiasmatic meiosis and haploid generation result in uncommon phenotypes among offspring owing to chromosome number variation. We describe how these features can be dealt with during a reverse-breeding experiment, which can be completed in six generations (∼1 year).

  8. Turkey BILSAT-1: a Case Study for the Surrey Know-How Transfer and Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Nadeem; Murat Leloglu, Ugur; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    Surrey has established itself over the past 18 years as a world leader in providing hands-on spacecraft engineering training through its Small Satellite Engineering Know-How Transfer and Training (`KHTT') programme. This 18- month course runs alongside the construction of a microsatellite executed through SSTL, and strikes a balance between classroom-based teaching and total immersion within professional engineering teams. Hands-on training is provided covering the entire satellite engineering process, from mission and subsystem design, through module manufacture, assembly and integration, to qualification and flight model environmental tests, launch and commissioning. SSTL's experience in providing the KHTT programme has resulted in a well-defined course structure that yet retains the ability to accommodate individual customer requirements. The programme also takes full advantage of SSTL's intrinsic link with the Surrey Space Centre (`SSC') at the University of Surrey, offering a range of MSc and PhD research programmes pursuing common research interests of both SSTL and the customer, and in many cases complementing the development of either the customer's satellite or their future plans for an evolved space capability. Throughout 2002, three KHTT programmes have run in parallel at SSTL. A team of 11 engineers from the Centre Nationale des Techniques Spatiales in Algeria have now reached completion of their programme with Alsat-1, the first enhanced microsatellite of the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (`DMC'). In December 2001, 15 engineers from the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology in Nigeria arrived at SSTL and are now midway through their programme with Nigeriasat-1, the second enhanced microsatellite of the DMC. Thirdly, arriving slightly earlier in August 2001, a team from Tubitak-Bilten in Turkey commenced their KHTT programme with BILSAT-1, a high-capability enhanced microsatellite also contributing to the DMC, and are due to continue through

  9. The Geneva apple rootstock breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ancient practice of clonal propagation of perennial fruit crops by means of grafting was transformed when humans realized that certain properties of selected root systems could be beneficial for increasing productivity of that fruit crop. Certain clonal apple rootstocks were recognized for their...

  10. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  11. “小狮头”大白菜细胞核不育系转育初探%Transferring Breeding of Cell Nucleic Sterile Line in "Xiaoshitou" Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建锋; 秦进华; 孙玉东; 罗德旭; 张朝阳

    2011-01-01

    Genetic male sterile gene is transferred from French 45 hot-resistance(a source of male sterility) Chinese cabbage to "Xiaoshitou" Chinese cabbage through conventional hybrid.At the same time,new AB lines Type I,temporary maintainers and male sterile lines are obtained on the transferred progenies derived from "Xiaoshitou" Chinese cabbage.%以法45抗热大白菜核不育系为不育源,通过常规杂交的方法,向"小狮头"大白菜转育核不育基因,初步转育成"小狮头"大白菜细胞核不育系、甲型两用系和临时保持系。

  12. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  13. Selection and breeding of robust rootstocks as a tool to improve nutrient-use efficiency and abiotic stress tolerance in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, J. H.; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Bouwmeester, H. J.; Dorais, M; Bishop, SD

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, the research program 'Green Breeding' started in the Netherlands, which is subsidized by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (LNV) and several private breeding companies. With this program, the Dutch government stimulates breeding research, which contributes to

  14. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  15. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including ES...

  16. Combining Breeding Bird Survey and distance sampling to estimate density of migrant and breeding birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somershoe, S.G.; Twedt, D.J.; Reid, B.

    2006-01-01

    We combined Breeding Bird Survey point count protocol and distance sampling to survey spring migrant and breeding birds in Vicksburg National Military Park on 33 days between March and June of 2003 and 2004. For 26 of 106 detected species, we used program DISTANCE to estimate detection probabilities and densities from 660 3-min point counts in which detections were recorded within four distance annuli. For most species, estimates of detection probability, and thereby density estimates, were improved through incorporation of the proportion of forest cover at point count locations as a covariate. Our results suggest Breeding Bird Surveys would benefit from the use of distance sampling and a quantitative characterization of habitat at point count locations. During spring migration, we estimated that the most common migrant species accounted for a population of 5000-9000 birds in Vicksburg National Military Park (636 ha). Species with average populations of 300 individuals during migration were: Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum), White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula). Of 56 species that bred in Vicksburg National Military Park, we estimated that the most common 18 species accounted for 8150 individuals. The six most abundant breeding species, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, White-eyed Vireo, Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), accounted for 5800 individuals.

  17. Predicting High or Low Transfer Efficiency of Photovoltaic Systems Using a Novel Hybrid Methodology Combining Rough Set Theory, Data Envelopment Analysis and Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Ing Tong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become an important energy source in recent years as it generates less pollution than other energies. A photovoltaic (PV system, which typically has many components, converts solar energy into electrical energy. With the development of advanced engineering technologies, the transfer efficiency of a PV system has been increased from low to high. The combination of components in a PV system influences its transfer efficiency. Therefore, when predicting the transfer efficiency of a PV system, one must consider the relationship among system components. This work accurately predicts whether transfer efficiency of a PV system is high or low using a novel hybrid model that combines rough set theory (RST, data envelopment analysis (DEA, and genetic programming (GP. Finally, real data-set are utilized to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  18. Integrating genomic selection into dairy cattle breeding programmes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, A; Juga, J

    2013-05-01

    Extensive genetic progress has been achieved in dairy cattle populations on many traits of economic importance because of efficient breeding programmes. Success of these programmes has relied on progeny testing of the best young males to accurately assess their genetic merit and hence their potential for breeding. Over the last few years, the integration of dense genomic information into statistical tools used to make selection decisions, commonly referred to as genomic selection, has enabled gains in predicting accuracy of breeding values for young animals without own performance. The possibility to select animals at an early stage allows defining new breeding strategies aimed at boosting genetic progress while reducing costs. The first objective of this article was to review methods used to model and optimize breeding schemes integrating genomic selection and to discuss their relative advantages and limitations. The second objective was to summarize the main results and perspectives on the use of genomic selection in practical breeding schemes, on the basis of the example of dairy cattle populations. Two main designs of breeding programmes integrating genomic selection were studied in dairy cattle. Genomic selection can be used either for pre-selecting males to be progeny tested or for selecting males to be used as active sires in the population. The first option produces moderate genetic gains without changing the structure of breeding programmes. The second option leads to large genetic gains, up to double those of conventional schemes because of a major reduction in the mean generation interval, but it requires greater changes in breeding programme structure. The literature suggests that genomic selection becomes more attractive when it is coupled with embryo transfer technologies to further increase selection intensity on the dam-to-sire pathway. The use of genomic information also offers new opportunities to improve preservation of genetic variation. However

  19. Impact of Molecular Technologies on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Breeding Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is a major food and feed legume because of the high nutritional value of its seeds. The main objectives of faba bean breeding are to improve yield, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, seed quality and other agronomic traits. The partial cross-pollinated nature of faba bean introduces both challenges and opportunities for population development and breeding. Breeding methods that are applicable to self-pollinated crops or open-pollinated crops are not highly suitable for faba bean. However, traditional breeding methods such as recurrent mass selection have been established in faba bean and used successfully in breeding for resistance to diseases. Molecular breeding strategies that integrate the latest innovations in genetics and genomics with traditional breeding strategies have many potential applications for future faba bean cultivar development. Hence, considerable efforts have been undertaken in identifying molecular markers, enriching genetic and genomic resources using high-throughput sequencing technologies and improving genetic transformation techniques in faba bean. However, the impact of research on practical faba bean breeding and cultivar release to farmers has been limited due to disconnects between research and breeding objectives and the high costs of research and implementation. The situation with faba bean is similar to other small crops and highlights the need for coordinated, collaborative research programs that interact closely with commercially focused breeding programs to ensure that technologies are implemented effectively.

  20. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T. [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1995-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  1. Illinois’ 2000 breeding season report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the 2000 breeding season for grassland birds in Illinois. The report begins by summarizing weather conditions throughout the season and...

  2. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  3. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  4. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  5. Space Transfer Vehicle Concepts and Requirements Study. Volume 2, Book 2: System and Program Requirements Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gary A.; Richards, Bill; Paddock, Greg; Maricich, Peter; Bouton, Bruce; Hagen, Jim; Kolesar, Richard; Hosking, Craig; Dishman, George; Furlong, Mike

    1991-01-01

    During the 90-day study, support was provided to NASA in defining a point-of-departure space transfer vehicle (STV). The resulting STV concept was performance optimized with a two-stage LTV/LEV configuration. Appendix A reports on the effort during this period of the study. From the end of the 90-day study until the March Interim Review, effort was placed on optimizing the two-stage vehicle approach identified in the 90-day effort. After the March Interim Review, the effort was expanded to perform a full architectural trade study with the intent of developing a decision database to support STV system decisions in response to changing SEI infrastructure concepts. Several of the architecture trade studies were combined in a System Architecture Trade Study. In addition to this trade, system optimization/definition trades and analyses were completed and some special topics were addressed. Program- and system-level trade study and analyses methodologies and results are presented in this section. Trades and analyses covered in this section are: (1) a system architecture trade study; (2) evolution; (3) safety and abort considerations; (4) STV as a launch vehicle upper stage; and (5) optimum crew and cargo split.

  6. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 2, book 2: System and program requirements trade studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gary A.; Richards, Bill; Paddock, Greg; Maricich, Peter; Bouton, Bruce; Hagen, Jim; Kolesar, Richard; Hosking, Craig; Dishman, George; Furlong, Mike

    1991-04-01

    During the 90-day study, support was provided to NASA in defining a point-of-departure space transfer vehicle (STV). The resulting STV concept was performance optimized with a two-stage LTV/LEV configuration. Appendix A reports on the effort during this period of the study. From the end of the 90-day study until the March Interim Review, effort was placed on optimizing the two-stage vehicle approach identified in the 90-day effort. After the March Interim Review, the effort was expanded to perform a full architectural trade study with the intent of developing a decision database to support STV system decisions in response to changing SEI infrastructure concepts. Several of the architecture trade studies were combined in a System Architecture Trade Study. In addition to this trade, system optimization/definition trades and analyses were completed and some special topics were addressed. Program- and system-level trade study and analyses methodologies and results are presented in this section. Trades and analyses covered in this section are: (1) a system architecture trade study; (2) evolution; (3) safety and abort considerations; (4) STV as a launch vehicle upper stage; and (5) optimum crew and cargo split.

  7. Sexual Behavior Among Young Carers in the Context of a Kenyan Empowerment Program Combining Cash-Transfer, Psychosocial Support, and Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L; Selwyn, Beatrice J; Morgan, Robert O; Lloyd, Linda E; Mwongera, Moses; Gitari, Stanley; Keiser, Philip H

    2016-01-01

    This study examined associations between sexual initiation, unprotected sex, and having multiple sex partners in the past year with participation in a three-year empowerment program targeting orphan and vulnerable children (OVC). The Kenya-based program combines community-conditioned cash transfer, psychosocial empowerment, health education, and microenterprise development. Program participants (n = 1,060) were interviewed in a cross-sectional design. Analyses used gender-stratified hierarchical logit models to assess program participation and other potential predictors. Significant predictors of increased female sexual activity included less program exposure, higher age, younger age at most recent parental death, fewer years of schooling, higher food consumption, higher psychological resilience, and lower general self-efficacy. Significant predictors of increased male sexual activity included more program exposure, higher age, better food consumption, not having a living father, and literacy. Findings support a nuanced view of current cash transfer programs, where female sexual activity may be reduced through improved financial status but male sexual activity may increase. Targeting of OVC sexual risk behaviors would likely benefit from being tailored according to associations found in this study. Data suggest involving fathers in sexual education, targeting women who lost a parent at a younger age, and providing social support for female OVC may decrease risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission.

  8. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  9. Breed susceptibility for developmental orthopedic diseases in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFond, Elizabeth; Breur, Gert J; Austin, Connie C

    2002-01-01

    A large-scale epidemiological study was conducted to determine breeds at risk for 12 developmental orthopedic diseases (DODs). Developmental orthopedic diseases investigated included canine hip dysplasia (CHD); craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO); fragmented coronoid process; hypertrophic osteodystrophy; Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease; osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle, caudal humeral head, femoral condyles, and talar trochlear ridges; panosteitis; patella luxation; and ununited anconeal process. Dogs that were diagnosed with any one of the diseases of interest at any of 10 veterinary teaching hospitals participating in the Veterinary Medical Database from 1986 to 1995 were included as cases. Odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine risk. Frequency of diagnosis during the 10-year period ranged from 35 cases (CMO) to 10,637 cases (CHD). The number of breeds at increased risk for a disease ranged from one (CMO) to 35 (CHD). Breed susceptibility for a DOD may suggest a genetic component in the disease etiology. The results of this study serve to increase veterinarians' awareness of breeds susceptible to DODs and may facilitate the control of such diseases by identifying breeds that might benefit from breeding programs or environmental intervention such as dietary modification.

  10. Prunus transcription factors: Breeding perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor João Bianchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs. In peach, 1,533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome.

  11. Breeding for improved potato nutrition: High amylose starch potatoes show promise as fiber source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato starch is composed of approximately 75% amylopectin and 25% amylose. We are interested in breeding for higher amylose content, which would increase the fiber content of potato and decrease glycemic index. In order to make progress in a breeding program, we have developed a high throughput ass...

  12. Eradication of scrapie with selective breeding: are we nearly there?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidse Aart

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following EU decision 2003/100/EC Member States have recently implemented sheep breeding programmes to reduce the prevalence of sheep with TSE susceptible prion genotypes. The present paper investigates the progress of the breeding programme in the Netherlands. The PrP genotype frequencies were monitored through time using two sets of random samples: one set covers the years 2005 to 2008 and is taken from national surveillance programme; the other is taken from 168 random sheep farms in 2007. The data reveal that although the level of compliance to the breeding programme has been high, the frequency of susceptible genotypes varies substantially between farms. The 168 sheep farms are a subset of 689 farms participating in a postal survey inquiring about management and breeding strategies. This survey aimed to identify how much these strategies varied between farms, in order to inform assessment of the expected future progress towards eradication of classical scrapie. Results On the one hand, we found that compliance to the national breeding program has been high, and the frequency of resistant genotypes is expected to increase further in the next few years. On the other hand, we observed a large variation in prevalence of the scrapie resistant PrP genotype ARR between farms, implicating a large variation of genetic resistance between farms. Substantial between-flock differences in management and breeding strategies were found in the postal survey, suggesting considerable variation in risk of scrapie transmission between farms. Conclusions Our results show that although there has been a good progress in the breeding for scrapie resistance and the average farm-level scrapie susceptibility in the Netherlands has been significantly reduced, still a considerable proportion of farms contain high frequencies of susceptible genotypes in their sheep population. Since 2007 the breeding for genetic resistance is voluntarily again, and

  13. Genetic parameters and factors influencing survival to 24 hrs after birth in Danish meat sheep breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxa, J; Sharifi, A R; Pedersen, J;

    2009-01-01

    negative, which will make breeding for this trait more difficult. However, on the basis of estimated genetic parameters, it can be concluded that it is possible to improve survival to 24 h after birth in meat sheep breeds by accounting for both direct and maternal genetic effects in breeding programs......In this study, influential factors and (co)variance components for survival to 24 h after birth were determined and estimated for Texel, Shropshire, and Oxford Down, the most common sheep breeds in Denmark. Data from 1992 to 2006 containing 138,813 survival records were extracted from the sheep...

  14. Breeding for improved production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to generate knowledge that supports the design of breeding programs for Nile tilapia targeting genetic improvement of body weight and fillet yield to serve the European market. To this end, both the genetic variation and the performance levels of different strains of tilap

  15. The legend of the Canadian horse: genetic diversity and breed origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanshour, Anas; Juras, Rytis; Blackburn, Rick; Cothran, E Gus

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian breed of horse invokes a fascinating chapter of North American history and as such it is now a heritage breed and the national horse of Canada. The aims of this study were to determine the level of genetic diversity in the Canadian, investigate the possible foundation breeds and the role it had in the development of the US horse breeds, such as Morgan Horse. We tested a total of 981 horses by using 15 microsatellite markers. We found that Canadian horses have high values of genetic diversity indices and show no evidence of a serious loss of genetic diversity and the inbreeding coefficient was not significantly different from zero. Belgian, Percheron, Breton and Dales Pony, unlike the light French horses, may have common ancestries with the Canadian and could be important founders. However, the Shire and Clydesdale influenced the Canadian to a lesser extent than French and Belgian draft breeds. Furthermore, our finding indicated that there was no evidence of a clear relationship between Canadian and Oriental or Iberian breeds. Also, the Canadian likely contributed to the early development of the Morgan. Finally, these findings support the ancient legends of the Canadian Horse as North America’s first equine breed and the foundation bloodstock to many American breeds and may help in the management and breeding program of this outstanding breed in North America.

  16. Effectors as tools in disease resistance breeding against biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A; Oliver, Richard P

    2014-03-01

    One of most important challenges in plant breeding is improving resistance to the plethora of pathogens that threaten our crops. The ever-growing world population, changing pathogen populations, and fungicide resistance issues have increased the urgency of this task. In addition to a vital inflow of novel resistance sources into breeding programs, the functional characterization and deployment of resistance also needs improvement. Therefore, plant breeders need to adopt new strategies and techniques. In modern resistance breeding, effectors are emerging as tools to accelerate and improve the identification, functional characterization, and deployment of resistance genes. Since genome-wide catalogues of effectors have become available for various pathogens, including biotrophs as well as necrotrophs, effector-assisted breeding has been shown to be successful for various crops. "Effectoromics" has contributed to classical resistance breeding as well as for genetically modified approaches. Here, we present an overview of how effector-assisted breeding and deployment is being exploited for various pathosystems.

  17. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  18. Cacao breeding in Bahia, Brazil - strategies and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uilson Vanderlei Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cacao was introduced in Bahia in 1756, becoming later the largest producer state in the country. In order to supportthe planting of cacao in the region, a breeding program was established by CEPEC at the beginning of the 1970s. For a long time,the program consisted in testing new hybrids (full-sibs and releasing a mixture of the best ones to farmers. Lately, particularly afterthe witches´ broom arrival in the region, in 1989, recurrent breeding strategies were implemented, aiming mainly the developmentof clones. From 1993 to 2010, more than 500 progenies, accumulating 30 thousand trees, were developed by crossing many parentswith resistance to witches´ broom, high yield and other traits. In this period, more than 500 clones were put in trials and 39 clonesand 3 hybrids were released to farmers. In this paper the strategies and results achieved by the program are reviewed. Overall theprogram has good interface with pathology and genomic programs.

  19. 传输指令和比较指令在编程中的应用%Applications of Transfer Instruction and Contact Compare Instruction to Computer Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics and usages of S7-200 PLC transfer instruction and contact compare instruction are introduced. Taking traffic lights as an example, the methods of traffic lights control programming based on compare instruction and transfer instruction are presented to make PLC program structure more compact and concise to fulfill the control command more conveniently.%本文主要介绍了S7-200型PLC传输指令和触点比较指令的特点和使用方法,并以交通信号灯为例,给出了应用比较指令和传输指令进行红绿灯控制编程的方法,使PLC程序结构更加紧凑、语句更简洁,可以方便快捷的完成控制要求。

  20. Interspecific hybrids between Paspalum plicatulum and P. oteroi: a key tool for forage breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Elda Novo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grama-tio-pedro (Paspalum oteroi Swallen is a rare stoloniferous grass of the Plicatula group of Paspalum, well adapted to continuous grazing in areas subject to seasonal flooding in the Pantanal region, in central western Brazil. The species is a facultative apomictic (asexual reproduction by seed tetraploid, sporadically cultivated on Pantanal farms, propagated either by cuttings or seed. Due to its potential for extensive cultivation and forage quality, Grama-tio-pedro appears as a candidate for genetic improvement within the Plicatula group through plant breeding. We used a colchicine-induced sexual autotetraploid genotype of P. plicatulum Michx. to obtain interspecific hybrids using the apomictic species, P. oteroi, as pollen donor. The very similar meiotic chromosome behavior observed in both parents, with main quadrivalent and bivalent associations, suggested that P. oteroi is a natural autotetraploid. The hybrids showed less irregular meiotic behavior with fewer quadrivalents and more bivalents than either parent. Fertility among interspecific hybrids varied from complete sterility in some of them to seed productions in others that were approximately twice as much as for either parent. The great variability of seed set performance may well be a drastic genetic consequence of joining two homologous chromosome sets of P. plicatulum together with two homologous sets of P. oteroi that, in turn, have some homeology between them. Most hybrids reproduce by sexual means, thus, they could be used as female parents in backcrosses and in crosses with other species of the Plicatula group for interspecific gene transferring in breeding programs.

  1. The importance of intraspecific variation in tree responses to elevated [CO2]: breeding and management of future forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    One strategy for managing forests to sustain or increase productivity under global climate change is to initiate breeding programs which maximize responses to elevated [CO2] within species. The basis for any breeding program is intraspecific variation in the traits of interest, and for forests, grow...

  2. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  3. Breeding, genetic and genomic of citrus for disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possibility of an association between biotechnological tools and classical methods of breeding. The use of molecular markers for early selection of zygotic seedlings from controlled crosses resulted in the possibility of selection of a high number of new combination and, as a consequence, the establishment of a great number of hybrids in field experiments. The faster new tools are incorporated in the program, the faster is possibility to reach new genotypes that can be tested as a new variety. Good traits should be kept or incorporate, whereas bad traits have to be excluded or minimized in the new genotype. Scion and rootstock can not be considered separately, and graft compatibility, fruit quality and productivity are essential traits to be evaluated in the last stages of the program. The mapping of QTLs has favored breeding programs of several perennial species and in citrus it was possible to map several characteristics with qualitative and quantitative inheritance. The existence of linkage maps and QTLs already mapped, the development of EST and BAC library and the sequencing of the Citrus complete genome altogether make very demanding and urgent the exploration of such data to launch a wider genetic study of citrus. The rising of information on genome of several organisms has opened new approaches looking for integration between breeding, genetic and genome. Genome assisted selection (GAS involves more than gene or complete genome sequencing and is becoming

  4. Effect of Media on Gynogenesis Induction in Leek (allium ampeloprasum L. Breeding Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KASKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leek (Allium ampeloprasum L. is one of the economically important members of the genus Allium (family:Alliaceae. It is a self-compatible, outbreeding, tetraploid (2n=4X= 32 crop species that is very difficult to improve through traditional breeding strategies. Entegration of doubled haploid (DH techniques such as gynogenesis into the leek breeding programs may speed up the variety development. In order to optimize a gynogenesis induction protocol for leek, we carried out experiments by culturing immature flower buds on various tissue culture media. Among the media tested, BDS and MS-based media with various combinations of plant growth regulators provided gynogenic embryos. Frequencies of gynogenic plantlet development were generally low and plantlets were obtained from almost all media included in the experiments. A total of 48 gynogenic plants were produced from approximately 30 thousand immature flower buds from six donor materials included in the experiments. In the DNA amount measurements performed with flow cytometry, it was found that gynogenic A. ampeloprasum plants were mostly diploid (55.56 % and the others were tetraploid (44.44 %. Diploid and tetraploid gynogenic plants were transferred to in vivo for further evaluation and grown in a greenhouse to produce selfed seed. Our studies with leek and several other Alliums indicate that gynogenesis induction frequencies are generally low due to genotypic effect. In order to obtain sufficient numbers of gynogenic lines from leek breeding populations, high numbers of immature flowers should be cultured on gynogenesis induction media. We suggest use of large size flower buds collected several days prior to anthesis while establishing gynogenesis induction cultures in leek. BDS medium that is commonly used in onion gynogenesis studies can also be used for the production of gynogenic leek lines.

  5. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  6. Sport horses : breeding specialist from a single breeding programme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection,

  7. Public perceptions of reproductive biotechnologies: the case of farm animal breeding and reproduction in France and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Arouna P

    2004-01-01

    Results of previous qualitative and quantitative stages of the research project demonstrated that, although consumers had poor knowledge about breeding and reproduction procedures, they were concerned about the impact of breeding practices on their food items. They acknowledged breeding and reproduction to be at the very core of animal-based food chain process. Since however modern breeding programmers beg so much for genetics, their practices increasingly raised consumer concerns. This paper presents results of a research addressing this issue and based on interviews of livestock breeders and specialized scientists. This research was undertaken within the frame of an EU funded project (Sustainable Farm Animal Breeding and Reproduction Project, 2000-2003). Interviews were performed according to the methodology of focus groups and results were used to prepare a discussion guide, including definitions of breeding techniques such as artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and molecular genetics. Farm animal breeding and reproduction methods raised high level of concerns in conventional terms like safety, healthiness and quality of food, factory farming and related consequences on environment, international issues, and cost. Several propositions were presented that deal with modern farm animal breeding and reproduction, EU regulation of breeding procedures, education of consumers on breeding methods, and labelling of products on breeding and reproduction grounds.

  8. Limits to captive breeding of mammals in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, John

    2015-06-01

    Captive breeding of mammals in zoos is the last hope for many of the best-known endangered species and has succeeded in saving some from certain extinction. However, the number of managed species selected is relatively small and focused on large-bodied, charismatic mammals that are not necessarily under strong threat and not always good candidates for reintroduction into the wild. Two interrelated and more fundamental questions go unanswered: have the major breeding programs succeeded at the basic level of maintaining and expanding populations, and is there room to expand them? I used published counts of births and deaths from 1970 to 2011 to quantify rates of growth of 118 captive-bred mammalian populations. These rates did not vary with body mass, contrary to strong predictions made in the ecological literature. Most of the larger managed mammalian populations expanded consistently and very few programs failed. However, growth rates have declined dramatically. The decline was predicted by changes in the ratio of the number of individuals within programs to the number of mammal populations held in major zoos. Rates decreased as the ratio of individuals in programs to populations increased. In other words, most of the programs that could exist already do exist. It therefore appears that debates over the general need for captive-breeding programs and the best selection of species are moot. Only a concerted effort could create room to manage a substantially larger number of endangered mammals.

  9. Tracing cattle breeds with principal components analysis ancestry informative SNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamey Lewis

    Full Text Available The recent release of the Bovine HapMap dataset represents the most detailed survey of bovine genetic diversity to date, providing an important resource for the design and development of livestock production. We studied this dataset, comprising more than 30,000 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs for 19 breeds (13 taurine, three zebu, and three hybrid breeds, seeking to identify small panels of genetic markers that can be used to trace the breed of unknown cattle samples. Taking advantage of the power of Principal Components Analysis and algorithms that we have recently described for the selection of Ancestry Informative Markers from genomewide datasets, we present a decision-tree which can be used to accurately infer the origin of individual cattle. In doing so, we present a thorough examination of population genetic structure in modern bovine breeds. Performing extensive cross-validation experiments, we demonstrate that 250-500 carefully selected SNPs suffice in order to achieve close to 100% prediction accuracy of individual ancestry, when this particular set of 19 breeds is considered. Our methods, coupled with the dense genotypic data that is becoming increasingly available, have the potential to become a valuable tool and have considerable impact in worldwide livestock production. They can be used to inform the design of studies of the genetic basis of economically important traits in cattle, as well as breeding programs and efforts to conserve biodiversity. Furthermore, the SNPs that we have identified can provide a reliable solution for the traceability of breed-specific branded products.

  10. Plan for Establishment of a Breeding Canada Goose Population on the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines a plan on how to implement a program for the establishment of a breeding Canada Goose population on the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. It...

  11. Cryogenic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Randall F

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  12. The evolution of potato breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cultivars in most regions of the world are tetraploid and clonally propagated. For over a century, the breeding strategy has been phenotypic recurrent selection. However, the polyploid nature of the crop prevents breeders from eliminating deleterious alleles and assembling positive alleles fo...

  13. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation availab

  14. The value of resequence data for poultry breeding: a primary layer breeder perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Janet E

    2014-02-01

    Poultry breeding companies are facing a new paradigm. Since 2004, extensive resources have been developed to increase understanding of the fundamental biology of the chicken. The chicken genome has been sequenced and revised twice, millions of novel DNA variants have been identified, and new tools have been created that allow rapid and inexpensive detection of these DNA variations. These developments have led to the establishment of molecular-based breeding programs within major poultry breeding companies that are revolutionizing the primary poultry breeding industries. Costs of sequencing continue to drop and are predicted to eventually reach the point where it is feasible to sequence the entire genome of elite birds before selection. There are multiple challenges to be resolved before this information can be fully incorporated into a breeding program. These include handling and analyzing the extremely large data sets generated, understanding which genes, variants, or both are relevant for commercial production traits, development of new bio-informatic tools, and integration of molecular information with traditional breeding programs. The novel variation identified within elite commercial lines will lead to enhancements in commercial breeding programs. Applications of this information include whole genomic selection, parentage identification, trait association studies, and quality control.

  15. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windig Jack J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. Non-genetic aspects included threats (e.g. low population size, low preferences by farmers and current merits (economic, ecological and cultural merits. Threat analysis identified eight of the 14 breeds as threatened. Analysis of current merits showed that sub-alpine and arid-lowland breeds contribute most to farmer livelihoods in comparison to other breeds. The highest contribution to the genetic diversity conserved was from the Simien breed. Simien showed high between-breed (low between-breed kinship = 0.04 as well as high within-breed diversity (low within-breed kinship = 0.09 and high HE = 0.73 and allelic richness = 6.83. We combined the results on threat status, current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity to produce a ranking of the 14 breeds for conservation purposes. Our results balance the trade-offs between conserving breeds as insurance against future uncertainties and current sustainable utilization. The ranking of breeds provides a basis for conservation strategies for Ethiopian sheep and contributes to a regional or global conservation plan.

  16. Genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin and κ-casein of cattle breeds in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Profitable milk production respects the interests of producers, processing industries, consumer requirements and welfare of animals. Development of new methods of direct gene analysis responsible for milk proteins polymorphism provide new tools to raise the profitability of milk production and dairy products through implementation of breed genetic profile in breeding program. Because of necessity to determinate genetic profiles of cattle breeds in Croatia using new analytical methods, the ratio of dominant allelic polymorphic variants of beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg and kappa-casein (κ-CN is defined. The share of beta-lactoglobulin B variant is dominant in all investigated cattle breeds (>52.9 %. Kappa- casein allelic variant A is dominant in selected cattle breeds (60.7-76.4 %, while the share of B variant is significantly more presented in autochthonous cattle breeds (48.2-84.1 %. Knowledge about genetic profile of breeds due to studied polymorphic variants of milk proteins is useful in further breeding development and economic reaffirmation of cattle breeds, especially autochthonous ones.

  17. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  18. 鱼类育种研究进展%The research process of fish genetic breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江丽华; 金媛; 毛勇

    2012-01-01

    本文概括了鱼类的选择育种、驯化及杂交育种等传统鱼类育种方法,叙述了现代生物技术在鱼类育种中的应用,主要有多倍体育种、雌、雄核发育、核移植、转基因育种、分子标记辅助育种、基因组育种;并提出了当今鱼类育种出现的问题。同时,做出了鱼类育种必将走向基因组育种之路的展望,为鱼类育种的发展提供参考。%The paper reported the outlook of fish breeding,the first part was about traditional breeding methods of selective breeding,domestication and cross-breeding,secondly,modern biotechnology in fish breeding was also described,it included polyploidy breeding,androgenesis,nuclear transfer,transgenic,molecular marker assisted breeding and genome breeding.And the challenge and tendency were posed finally.

  19. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters Final Report to the Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Timothy; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-03-10

    . In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Our study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3-part research plan involving (1) development of computer codes and techniques to estimate mass-transfer parameters from time-lapse electrical data; (2) bench-scale experiments on synthetic materials and materials from cores from the Hanford 300 Area; and (3) field demonstration experiments at the DOE’s Hanford 300 Area.

  20. Influence of somatic cell donor breed on reproductive performance and comparison of prenatal growth in cloned canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeon Woo; Kim, Joung Joo; Hossein, Mohammad Shamim; Hwang, Kyu Chan; Hwang, In-sung; Hyun, Sang Hwan; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Han, Ho Jae; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2014-06-01

    Using in vivo-flushed oocytes from a homogenous dog population and subsequent embryo transfer after nuclear transfer, we studied the effects of donor cells collected from 10 different breeds on cloning efficiency and perinatal development of resulted cloned puppies. The breeds were categorized into four groups according to their body weight: small (≤9 kg), medium (>9-20 kg), large (>20-40 kg), and ultra large (>40 kg). A total of 1611 cloned embryos were transferred into 454 surrogate bitches for production of cloned puppies. No statistically significant differences were observed for initial pregnancy rates at Day 30 of embryo transfer for the donor cells originated from different breeds. However, full-term pregnancy rates were 16.5%, 11.0%, 10.0%, and 7.1% for the donor cells originated from ultra-large breed, large, medium, and small breeds, respectively, where pregnancy rate in the ultra-large group was significantly higher compared with the small breeds (P transferred and litter size. Taken together, the efficiency of somatic cell cloning and fetal survival after embryo transfer may be affected significantly by selecting the appropriate genotype.

  1. Indigenous sheep breeds in Brazil: potential role for contributing to the sustainability of production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azambuja Ribeiro, Edson Luis; González-García, Eliel

    2016-10-01

    Brazil has vocation for food production, both vegetable and animal, with the sheep industry having an expanding activity. However, productivity rates are often bellowing the possibilities of the country. Here, the roles the native breeds may develop in this expanding activity are described. Breeds considered are the hair breeds Santa Inês, Morada Nova, Somális Brasileira, Cariri, and Rabo Largo, and the wool breeds Bergamácia Brasileira, Crioula Lanada, and Pantaneira. These breeds have arisen in environments that may be considered difficult for other (exotic) breeds, less adapted to the local conditions. The hair breeds emerged in a semi-arid environment, a hot and with low rainfall region, of the Northeast of Brazil. The Crioula Lanada is the only breed that originated in the South, in a subtropical region with cold winters. The genetic group Pantaneira had its origin in an environment with higher humidity, especially soil moisture. The Bergamácia Brasileira derived from the Italian Bergamasca breed, which was first introduced in northeastern Brazil. Animals from these breeds have been regarded as robust, with lower requirements for maintenance, resistant to worms, and easy to handle. On the other side, as they are generally smaller than the exotic breeds used for meat production, they are often considered as less productive. In this literature review, a possibility of valorizing them, both as purebred or in crossbreeding programs, especially for meat production is addressed. These breeds are part of the genetic, historical, and cultural heritage of Brazil, and if used properly, according to the different environments and production systems, they can also be very important in the development of the sheep industry.

  2. Ecohealth System Dynamic Model as a Planning Tool for the Reduction of Breeding Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respati, T.; Raksanagara, A.; Djuhaeni, H.; Sofyan, A.; Shandriasti, A.

    2017-03-01

    Dengue is still one of major health problem in Indonesia. Dengue transmission is influenced by dengue prevention and eradication program, community participation, housing environment and climate. The complexity of the disease coupled with limited resources necessitates different approach for prevention methods that include factors contribute to the transmission. One way to prevent the dengue transmission is by reducing the mosquito’s breeding sites. Four factors suspected to influence breeding sites are dengue prevention and eradication program, community participation, housing environment, and weather condition. In order to have an effective program in reducing the breeding site it is needed to have a model which can predict existence of the breeding sites while the four factors under study are controlled. The objective of this study is to develop an Ecohealth model using system dynamic as a planning tool for the reduction of breeding sites to prevent dengue transmission with regard to dengue prevention and eradication program, community participation, housing environment, and weather condition. The methodology is a mixed method study using sequential exploratory design. The study comprised of 3 stages: first a qualitative study to 14 respondents using in-depth interview and 6 respondents for focus group discussion. The results from the first stage was used to develop entomology and household survey questionnaires for second stage conducted in 2036 households across 12 sub districts in Bandung City. Ecohealth system dynamic model was developed using data from first and second stages. Analyses used are thematic analysis for qualitative data; spatial, generalized estimating equation (GEE) and structural equation modeling for quantitative data; also average mean error (AME) and average variance error (AVE) for dynamic system model validation. System dynamic model showed that the most effective approach to eliminate breeding places was by ensuring the availability

  3. Grooming relationships between breeding females and adult group members in cooperatively breeding moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löttker, Petra; Huck, Maren; Zinner, Dietmar P; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2007-10-01

    Grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior in primates that apart from hygienic and hedonistic benefits offers important social benefits for the performing individuals. This study examined grooming behavior in a cooperatively breeding primate species, characterized by single female breeding per group, polyandrous matings, dizygotic twinning, delayed offspring dispersal, and intensive helping behavior. In this system, breeding females profit from the presence of helpers but also helpers profit from staying in a group and assisting in infant care due to the accumulation of direct and indirect fitness benefits. We examined grooming relationships of breeding females with three classes of partners (breeding males, potentially breeding males, (sub)adult non-breeding offspring) during three reproductive phases (post-partum ovarian inactivity, ovarian activity, pregnancy) in two groups of wild moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax). We investigated whether grooming can be used to regulate group size by either "pay-for-help" or "pay-to-stay" mechanisms. Grooming of breeding females with breeding males and non-breeding offspring was more intense and more balanced than with potentially breeding males, and most grooming occurred during the breeding females' pregnancies. Grooming was skewed toward more investment by the breeding females with breeding males during the phases of ovarian activity, and with potentially breeding males during pregnancies. Our results suggest that grooming might be a mechanism used by female moustached tamarins to induce mate association with the breeding male, and to induce certain individuals to stay in the group and help with infant care.

  4. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  5. Opportunities for animal breeding to meet the challenges of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes A.M. van Arendonk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges for the next 50 years are to increase the productivity of major livestock species to address the food needs of the world, while at the same time minimizing the environmental impact and the loss in genetic diversity. This paper describes on a number of contributions of animal breeding to meet these challenges of the future. First it is discussed how to incorporate environmental impact in the breeding objective, i.e. the goal of an animal breeding program. Over the last two decades, breeding in poultry, pigs and dairy cattle has not only resulted in increased productivity but also in decreased emission of greenhouse gases per ton of animal product. Opportunities are discussed to further reduce the impact on the environment. Subsequent sections describe the impact of genomics, social interactions, and product quality on animal breeding programs. The final section deals with opportunities to use animal breeding in developing countries. The completion of genome sequences has generated the tools for whole-genome selection programs for a wide spectrum of traits which are now being applied in practise. Furthermore, research is increasing our understanding of the underlying biology of important traits such as animal welfare. Developments in the area of quantitative genetics and in recording of phenotypes are required to fully exploit the wealth of genomic information. For the developed world, new tools and techniques are now being implemented to increase the genetic gain from breeding programs. These techniques, however, also offer opportunities to better characterize and use indigenous breeds in developing countries. Through international collaboration in training, research and implementation, animal breeding can help in meeting the challenges for the next 50 years.

  6. Transfer and Variation in Cognitive Reading Strategies of Latino Fourth-Grade Students in a Late-Exit Bilingual Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Valentina Blonski

    2001-01-01

    A study examined how 50 bilingual fourth-graders utilized cognitive reading strategies to enhance comprehension of expository texts in Spanish and transfer strategic reading behaviors to English reading. Results indicate that strategic behaviors in the native language undergirded second-language reading behaviors and were more important in that…

  7. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  8. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  9. Development of the SIT, an Instrument to Evaluate the Transfer Effects of Adult Education Programs for Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greef, Maurice; Segers, Mien; Verte, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    To date, hardly any evidence is available on the quality of adult education programs for vulnerable adults. Evaluation instruments or models mostly focussed on regular education and less on programs of adult education aiming to enhance social inclusion. This study presents a first exploration of the construct validity of a newly developed…

  10. General parity between trio and pairwise breeding of laboratory mice in static caging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedl, Ross M; Wysocki, Lawrence J; Janssen, William J; Born, Willi K; Rosenbaum, Matthew D; Granowski, Julia; Kench, Jennifer A; Fong, Derek L; Switzer, Lisa A; Cruse, Margaret; Huang, Hua; Jakubzick, Claudia V; Kosmider, Beata; Takeda, Katsuyuki; Stranova, Thomas J; Klumm, Randal C; Delgado, Christine; Tummala, Saigiridhar; De Langhe, Stijn; Cambier, John; Haskins, Katherine; Lenz, Laurel L; Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2014-11-15

    Changes made in the 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals included new recommendations for the amount of space for breeding female mice. Adopting the new recommendations required, in essence, the elimination of trio breeding practices for all institutions. Both public opinion and published data did not readily support the new recommendations. In response, the National Jewish Health Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee established a program to directly compare the effects of breeding format on mouse pup survival and growth. Our study showed an overall parity between trio and pairwise breeding formats on the survival and growth of the litters, suggesting that the housing recommendations for breeding female mice as stated in the current Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals should be reconsidered.

  11. The role of molecular markers and marker assisted selection in breeding for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.; Backes, G.; de Vriend, H.

    2010-01-01

    Plant geneticists consider molecular marker assisted selection a useful additional tool in plant breeding programs to make selection more efficient. Standards for organic agriculture do not exclude the use of molecular markers as such, however for the organic sector the appropriateness of molecular...... markers is not self-evident and is often debated. Organic and low-input farming conditions require breeding for robust and flexible varieties, which may be hampered by too much focus on the molecular level. Pros and contras for application of molecular markers in breeding for organic agriculture...... identified, e.g. better knowledge about gene pool of breeding material, more efficient introgression of new resistance genes from wild relatives and testing pyramided genes. There were also common concerns among breeders aiming at breeding for organic and/or conventional agriculture, such as the increasing...

  12. Review department programs related to intellectual property and technology transfer to ensure department resources are leveraged to the economic benefit of the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S.W.

    1995-02-01

    Review domestic and international policy, US Intellectual Property (IP) and Technology Transfer (TT) legislation, and related Department of Energy (DOE) programs to ensure Department resources are leveraged to the benefit of the US economy. Mapping such processes should determine if/how foreign governments and/or foreign owned or controlled enterprises, specifically Japanese and to a lessor extent other Pacific Rim nations, are able to access and at times leverage US technology to their benefit. This process will also generate lessons learned that should be useful to government and industry alike in the area of TT. The review will concentrate on technology innovations developed or funded by the Department.

  13. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foulley Jean-Louis

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall FST = 0.27, and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chiu, Ing L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  15. Breeding without breeding: is a complete pedigree necessary for efficient breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry A El-Kassaby

    Full Text Available Complete pedigree information is a prerequisite for modern breeding and the ranking of parents and offspring for selection and deployment decisions. DNA fingerprinting and pedigree reconstruction can substitute for artificial matings, by allowing parentage delineation of naturally produced offspring. Here, we report on the efficacy of a breeding concept called "Breeding without Breeding" (BwB that circumvents artificial matings, focusing instead on a subset of randomly sampled, maternally known but paternally unknown offspring to delineate their paternal parentage. We then generate the information needed to rank those offspring and their paternal parents, using a combination of complete (full-sib: FS and incomplete (half-sib: HS analyses of the constructed pedigrees. Using a random sample of wind-pollinated offspring from 15 females (seed donors, growing in a 41-parent western larch population, BwB is evaluated and compared to two commonly used testing methods that rely on either incomplete (maternal half-sib, open-pollinated: OP or complete (FS pedigree designs. BwB produced results superior to those from the incomplete design and virtually identical to those from the complete pedigree methods. The combined use of complete and incomplete pedigree information permitted evaluating all parents, both maternal and paternal, as well as all offspring, a result that could not have been accomplished with either the OP or FS methods alone. We also discuss the optimum experimental setting, in terms of the proportion of fingerprinted offspring, the size of the assembled maternal and paternal half-sib families, the role of external gene flow, and selfing, as well as the number of parents that could be realistically tested with BwB.

  16. Analytical and Decision Support Tools for Genomics-Assisted Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Varshney, Rajeev K.; Singh, Vikas K; Hickey, John M.; Xun, Xu; Marshall, David F; Wang, Jun; Edwards, David; Ribaut, Jean-Marcel

    2016-01-01

    To successfully implement genomics-assisted breeding (GAB) in crop improvement programs, efficient and effective analytical and decision support tools (ADSTs) are 'must haves' to evaluate and select plants for developing next-generation crops. Here we review the applications and deployment of appropriate ADSTs for GAB, in the context of next-generation sequencing (NGS), an emerging source of massive genomic information. We discuss suitable software tools and pipelines for marker-based approac...

  17. Optimizing breeding decisions for Finnish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala-Schultz, P J; Gröhn, Y T; Allore, H G

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of reproductive performance on profitability and optimal breeding decisions for Finnish dairy herds. We used a dynamic programming model to optimize dairy cow insemination and replacement decisions. This optimization model maximizes the expected net revenues from a given cow and her replacements over a decision horizon. Input values and prices reflecting the situation in 1998 in Finland were used in the study. Reproductive performance was reflected in the model by overall pregnancy rate, which was a function of heat detection and conception rate. Seasonality was included in conception rate. The base run had a pregnancy rate of 0.49 (both heat detection and conception rate of 0.7). Different scenarios were modeled by changing levels of conception rate, heat detection, and seasonality in fertility. Reproductive performance had a considerable impact on profitability of a herd; good heat detection and conception rates provided an opportunity for management control. When heat detection rate decreased from 0.7 to 0.5, and everything else was held constant, net revenues decreased approximately 2.6%. If the conception rate also decreased to 0.5 (resulting in a pregnancy rate of 0.25), net revenues were approximately 5% lower than with a pregnancy rate of 0.49. With lower fertility, replacement percentage was higher and the financial losses were mainly from higher replacement costs. Under Finnish conditions, it is not optimal to start breeding cows calving in spring and early summer immediately after the voluntary waiting period. Instead, it is preferable to allow the calving interval to lengthen for these cows so that their next calving is in the fall. However, cows calving in the fall should be bred immediately after the voluntary waiting period. Across all scenarios, optimal solutions predicted most calvings should occur in fall and the most profitable time to bring a replacement heifer into a herd was in the fall. It

  18. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, C A; Clarke, J M; Duguid, S; Chaney, R L

    2008-02-15

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet.

  19. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, C.A. [AAFC Brandon Research Centre, Box 1000A, R.R. 3, Brandon, MB, R7A 5Y3 (Canada)], E-mail: cgrant@agr.gc.ca; Clarke, J.M. [AAFC Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Swift Current, SK, S9H 3X2 (Canada); Duguid, S. [AAFC Morden Research Station, Morden, MB, R6M 1Y5 (Canada); Chaney, R.L. [USDA, ARS, Animal Manure and Byproducts Laboratory, Room 013, Building 007, BARC-West, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet.

  20. On-line charge breeding using ECRIS and EBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The efficient and rapid production of a high-quality, pure beam of highly charged ions is at the heart of any radioactive ion beam facility. Whether an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source or an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is used to produce these highly charged ions, their operating characteristics will set the boundaries on the range of experiments which can be performed. In addition, time structure and duty cycle have to be considered when defining the operating parameters of the accelerator system as a whole. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), an ECR charge breeder was developed as part of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) program. The charge breeding efficiency and high charge state production of the source is at the forefront of ECR charge breeders, but its overall performance as part of the accelerator system is limited by pervasive background and relatively long breeding times. As such, an EBIS charge breeder has been developed and is running in an off-line configuration. It has already demonstrated good breeding efficiencies, shorter residence times, and reduced background and is scheduled to replace the ECR charge breeder in late 2015. The resultant change in duty cycle and time structure necessitates changes to the overall operation of the facility. The experiences with these breeders, as well as from several other facilities which already utilize an ECR or EBIS for charge breeding, help to define the operational characteristics of each technology - their strengths, their weaknesses, and the possible paths to improvement.

  1. Binucleation to breed new plant species adaptable to their environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Classical plant breeding approaches may fall short to breed new plant species of high environmental and ecological interests. Biotechnological and genetic manipulations, on the other hand, may hold more effective capabilities to circumvent the limitations of sexual incompatibility and conventional breeding programs. Given that plant cells encompass multiple copies of organellar genomes (mitochondrial and plastidial genomes), an important question could be raised about whether an artificial attempt to duplicate the nuclear genome might also be conceivable through a binucleation approach (generating plant cells with 2 nuclei from 2 different plant species) for potential production of new polyploidies that would characterize new plant species. Since the complexities of plant genomes are the result of multiple genome duplications, an artificial binucleation approach would thus be of some interest to eventually varying plant genomes and producing new polyploidy from related or distal plant species. Here, I discuss the potentiality of such an approach to engineer binucleated plant cells as a germ of new plant species to fulfill some environmental applications such as increasing the biodiversity and breeding new species adaptable to harsh environmental stresses and increasing green surfaces to reduce atmospheric pollutions in arid lands with poor vegetation.

  2. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  3. Development of husbandry practices for the captive breeding of Key Largo woodrats (Neotoma floridana smalli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligood, Christina A; Daneault, Andre J; Carlson, Robert C; Dillenbeck, Thomas; Wheaton, Catharine J; Savage, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Key Largo woodrat is an endangered rodent endemic to the island of Key Largo in the Florida Keys. After several reports documented a steep decline in the population, the US Fish and Wildlife Service developed a recovery plan, including captive breeding and reintroduction. Captive breeding efforts were to be focused on providing animals for future reintroduction to protected areas on Key Largo. However, little was known about the husbandry needs or reproductive behavior of this elusive nocturnal species. In 2005, Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) received 11 animals and began to systematically investigate methods of breeding Key Largo woodrats. Since the program's inception, 30 pups have been born and successfully parent reared. In this report, we describe some of the husbandry techniques that have contributed to the success of the Key Largo woodrat captive breeding program at Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) . The results obtained may be of use to other facilities maintaining woodrats and other rodent species.

  4. There is room for selection in a small local pig breed when using optimum contribution selction: A simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gourdine, Jean-Luc; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Rydhmer, Lotta

    2012-01-01

    of genetic diversity. However, in local breeds, optimum contribution selection can be applied to control the rate of inbreeding and to avoid reduced performance in traits with high market value. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which a breeding program aiming for improved product quality...... on BLUP breeding values), and heritability of the selection trait. It was assumed that the local breed is used in an extensive system for a high-meat-quality market. The simulations showed that in the smallest population (300 female reproducers), inbreeding increased by 0.8% when selection was performed...

  5. An Analysis of Poverty Reduction Program Based on the Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT (A Case of the Family Hope Program Implementation in Pandak Bantul District 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hanif

    2016-05-01

    The research results also showed five dominant factors toward the performance of the program, namely: 1 the lack of communication with the local village government; 2 the lack of data transparency of the PKH receiver targets; 3 the limitation of the available sources; and 4 the absence of mechanisms and rules controlling the fund spent by RTSM; and 5 the decreased compliance of RTSM in fulfilling the obligations under the rules of the program. According to these factors, there were some recommendations to increase the policy / program to be better, those are: (1 Improving the communication and involving the local village government, (2 Increasing the data transparency of the PKH receiver targets; (3 there should be an audit of the available sources; (4 Social Ministry should issue a new rule and control it to the spending of PKH financial aid by RTSM, and (5 optimizing the functions and the coordination between the supervisors and the local village government to increase the awareness of the poor society in fulfilling the specified obligations in the program.

  6. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    examples, such as breeding for good maternal behaviour, could enhance welfare, production and naturalness, although dilemmas emerge where improved welfare could result from breeding away from natural behaviour. Selection against certain behaviours may carry a risk of creating animals which are generally......In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits......, and opportunities exist to increase the inclusion of behaviour in breeding indices. On a technical level, breeding for behaviour presents a number of particular challenges compared to physical traits. It is much more difficult and time-consuming to directly measure behaviour in a consistent and reliable manner...

  7. Addition of a breeding database in the Genome Database for Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kate; Jung, Sook; Lee, Taein; Brutcher, Lisa; Cho, Ilhyung; Peace, Cameron; Main, Dorrie

    2013-01-01

    Breeding programs produce large datasets that require efficient management systems to keep track of performance, pedigree, geographical and image-based data. With the development of DNA-based screening technologies, more breeding programs perform genotyping in addition to phenotyping for performance evaluation. The integration of breeding data with other genomic and genetic data is instrumental for the refinement of marker-assisted breeding tools, enhances genetic understanding of important crop traits and maximizes access and utility by crop breeders and allied scientists. Development of new infrastructure in the Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR) was designed and implemented to enable secure and efficient storage, management and analysis of large datasets from the Washington State University apple breeding program and subsequently expanded to fit datasets from other Rosaceae breeders. The infrastructure was built using the software Chado and Drupal, making use of the Natural Diversity module to accommodate large-scale phenotypic and genotypic data. Breeders can search accessions within the GDR to identify individuals with specific trait combinations. Results from Search by Parentage lists individuals with parents in common and results from Individual Variety pages link to all data available on each chosen individual including pedigree, phenotypic and genotypic information. Genotypic data are searchable by markers and alleles; results are linked to other pages in the GDR to enable the user to access tools such as GBrowse and CMap. This breeding database provides users with the opportunity to search datasets in a fully targeted manner and retrieve and compare performance data from multiple selections, years and sites, and to output the data needed for variety release publications and patent applications. The breeding database facilitates efficient program management. Storing publicly available breeding data in a database together with genomic and genetic data will

  8. Breeding of speciality maize for industrial purposes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The breeding programme on speciality maize with specific traits was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, several decades ago. The initial material was collected, new methods applying to breeding of speciality maize, i.e. popping maize, sweet maize and white-seeded maize, were introduced. The aim was to enhance and improve variability of the initial material for breeding these three types of maize. Then, inbred lines of good combining abilities were developed and used as c...

  9. Development Of Space Breeding In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Luxiang

    2009-01-01

    @@ Space breeding provides a new technical platform for Chinese agricaltural scientists to explore the mechanism of crop mutation induced during spaceflight and breeds new varieties of crops. It is important for China to develop the space breeding industry,maintain China's lead position in this field,serve agricultural production better,promote China's sustainable and healthy agricultural development,and ensure national food safety.

  10. Are Self-Perception Measures Used in School Library Research Transferable to the Context of Public Library Summer Reading Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Marilyn P.; Small, Ruth V.; Weng, Shicheng

    2016-01-01

    Several instruments previously validated for use in school library research were tested for their appropriateness in the context of public libraries' summer reading programs for youth. The researchers were also interested in whether the connection between perceived competence in one's own information skills and perceived competence in one's own…

  11. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  12. Chemical classification of cattle. 1. Breed groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C M; Manwell, C

    1980-01-01

    From approximately 1000 papers with data on protein polymorphism in some 216 breeds of cattle, 10 polymorphic proteins were compared in means and variances of gene frequencies (arcsin p 1/2) for ten well-recognized breed groups for 196 of the breeds. The polymorphic proteins were alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, caseins (alpha s1, beta and chi), serum albumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, amylase I and carbonic anhydrase II. The breed groups were North European, Pied Lowland, European Red brachyceros, Channel Island brachyceros, Upland brachyceros, primigenius-brachyceros mixed, primigenius, Indian Zebu, African Humped (with Zebu admixture), and African Humped (Sanga). The coherence within groups and the differences between groups are often impressive. Only carbonic anhydrase II fails to differentiate at least some of the major breed groups. In some cases paradoxical distributions of rare genetic variants can be explained by a more detailed inspection of breed history. The chemical data support the morphological and geographical divisions of cattle into major breed groups. There are three distinct but related brachyceros groups; for some polymorphisms the two Channel Island breeds, the Jersey and the Guernsey, are quite divergent. Although some authorities have considered the Pied Lowland as primigenius, it is a very distinct breed group.

  13. The productivity of various pure breed and cross breed of imported pigs during lactation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamuara Aritonang

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to evaluate the productivity of pure breeds and cross breeds of imported pigs. Sixteen strains of pigs with five best sows were selected based on litter size and birth weight on the second parity. The results of the study showed that the pure breed performance was better than the cross breeds, as shown by the litter size, birth and weaned weight, less mortality, better mothering ability and better feed efficiency. Between pure breed, the Landrace and Yorkshire were better than other sows and between the cross breed, the LH and YL performed better than other crossbreeds. It is recommended that the pure breed especially Landrace and Yorkshire and LH and YL of cross breed are better than others

  14. Molecular genetic analysis of a cattle population to reconstitute the extinct Algarvia breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel-Figueiredo Teresa

    2010-06-01

    can be considered remnants of the Algarvia breed. Results of genetic diversity and conservation analyses provide objective information to establish a management program to reconstitute the Algarvia breed.

  15. Optimizing reproductive performance of herds Simmental breed of cattle imported

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATMIRA LEKA (SULAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful development of livestock farms that breed cows with high production capacities such as Simmental and Holstein breeds, an important role of manage genetic breed capacity import into future generations and management factors that constrain improvement of reproductive performance population. Importing a considerable amount of pregnant heifer Simmental and Holstein breeds from Austria, Germany , contributed positively to the addition of milk and meat production in our country. The study was conducted in Bio farm " Ramilli " – Shijak - Durres, for the periods 2008-2011. We also included about 150 cows Simmental pure - breed for dual purpose (milk – meat. Birth of a calf annually for cow provides the optimal milk production that can only be achieved with the correct programs to monitor the events of reproduction. To optimize reproductive indicators for genetic capacity utilization cow is aiming in our study. We also included three groups heifer imported from Austria, and approach them in terms of the farm. Production of milk for the first lactationconducted three groups to 4994 ± 936.4, 4123 ± 817.3, 3750 ± 560 proven statistically differences between them ( P less then 0:05. Calving interval realized 421.7 ± 73.4, 396.5 ± 42.1, 386.6 ± 43.7 days, the difference proven statistically (P less then 0:05. Conception index 2.1, 1.7, and 1.6. Improving reproductive performance in cows with higher milk production capacities, livestock farms achievedthrough unifying control period after calving.

  16. Payment Schemes in Conditional Cash Transfer Programs: The Case of 4Ps in the Davao Region, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Cecilia Catubig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates current payment schemes employed by the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps in the Philippines using six assessment criteria: transaction cost, security/risks, speed and timeliness, acceptability, resilience and flexibility. Employing data collected at the regional level, we establish four main findings: (1 all 4Ps payment conduits present trade-offs; (2 a payment approach that uses mainstream financial infrastructure is beneficial if cost, speed and simplicity of the payment system are critical; (3 competition for 4Ps contracts for Payment Service Providers (PSPs has improved the quality of payment services and minimized costs; and (4 the efficiency of the program is greatly influenced by the commitment of the PSP to deliver the cash benefits to the recipients in a timely manner rather than by maximizing conduit branches.

  17. Breeding wheat for drought tolerance:Progress and technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Learnmore Mwadzingeni; Hussein Shimelis; Ernest Dube; Mark D Laing; Toi J Tsilo

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent drought associated with climate change is among the principal constraints to global productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum (L.) andT. turgidum (L.)). Numerous efforts to mitigate drought through breeding resilient varieties are underway across the world. Progress is, however, hampered because drought tolerance is a complex trait that is controled by many genes and its ful expression is affected by the environment. Furthermore, wheat has a structuraly intricate and large genome. Consequently, breeding for drought tolerance requires the integration of various knowledge systems and methodologies from multiple disciplines in plant sciences. This review summarizes the progress made in dry land wheat improvement, advances in knowledge, complementary methodologies, and perspectives towards breeding for drought tolerance in the crop to create a coherent overview. Phenotypic, biochemical and genomics-assisted selection methodologies are discussed as leading research components used to exploit genetic variation. Advances in phenomic and genomic technologies are highlighted as options to circumvent existing bottlenecks in phenotypic and genomic selection, and gene transfer. The prospects of further integration of these technologies with other omics technologies are also provided.

  18. Payment Schemes in Conditional Cash Transfer Programs: The Case of 4Ps in the Davao Region, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Cecilia Catubig; Renato Villano; Brian Dollery

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates current payment schemes employed by the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) in the Philippines using six assessment criteria: transaction cost, security/risks, speed and timeliness, acceptability, resilience and flexibility. Employing data collected at the regional level, we establish four main findings: (1) all 4Ps payment conduits present trade-offs; (2) a payment approach that uses mainstream financial infrastructure is beneficial if cost, speed and simplicity of...

  19. Marshall Plan productivity assistance: A unique program of mass technology transfer and a precedent for the former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silberman, J.M.; Weiss, C. Jr. [Global Technology Management, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States); Dutz, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Productivity Program of the Marshall Plan made a major contribution to the increase in Western European productivity in the 1950s, well before there was significant policy liberalization, competition, or foreign investment in these countries. Prior to the program, European manufacturing and management practice was a generation behind the US, and productivity was one-third of US levels. The cost of this program over ten years was $300 million, or only 1.5% of Marshall Plan capital assistance. Its 1500 study tours brought tens of thousands of people from European and Asian countries to the United States to observe management and production. On returning home, tour members vigorously spread new ideas throughout their countries, which also received a wide variety of follow-up technical services. Europe`s leaders supported national productivity drives out of fear of communism and social unrest, not in response to competitive market forces. The drives helped firms achieve almost immediate productivity gains with little new investment. This relatively inexpensive idea could increase incomes and improve the supply and variety of consumer goods in present-day Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  1. An assessment of the impact of the JSY cash transfer program on maternal mortality reduction in Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Indian Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY program is a demand-side program in which the state pays women a cash incentive to deliver in an institution, with the aim of reducing maternal mortality. The JSY has had 54 million beneficiaries since inception 7 years ago. Although a number of studies have demonstrated the effect of JSY on coverage, few have examined the direct impact of the program on maternal mortality. Objective: To study the impact of JSY on maternal mortality in Madhya Pradesh (MP, one of India's largest provinces. Design: By synthesizing data from various sources, district-level maternal mortality ratios (MMR from 2005 to 2010 were estimated using a Bayesian spatio-temporal model. Based on these, a mixed effects multilevel regression model was applied to assess the impact of JSY. Specifically, the association between JSY intensity, as reflected by 1 proportion of JSY-supported institutional deliveries, 2 total annual JSY expenditure, and 3 MMR, was examined. Results: The proportion of all institutional deliveries increased from 23.9% in 2005 to 55.9% in 2010 province-wide. The proportion of JSY-supported institutional deliveries rose from 14% (2005 to 80% (2010. MMR declines in the districts varied from 2 to 35% over this period. Despite the marked increase in JSY-supported delivery, our multilevel models did not detect a significant association between JSY-supported delivery proportions and changes in MMR in the districts. The results from the analysis examining the association between MMR and JSY expenditure are similar. Conclusions: Our analysis was unable to detect an association between maternal mortality reduction and the JSY in MP. The high proportion of institutional delivery under the program does not seem to have converted to lower mortality outcomes. The lack of significant impact could be related to supply-side constraints. Demand-side programs like JSY will have a limited effect if the supply side is unable

  2. 78 FR 45494 - Plant Breeding Listening Session meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Plant Breeding Listening Session meeting ACTION: Notice of a Plant Breeding... Agriculture (USDA) announces a Plant Breeding Listening Session stakeholder meeting for all interested plant breeding and cultivar development stakeholders. DATES: The Plant Breeding Listening Session will be...

  3. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  4. Factors influencing breeding success, ovarian cyclicity, and cub survival in zoo-managed tigers (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Sarah P; Harris, Tara; Traylor-Holzer, Kathy; Beck, Karen Goodrowe

    2014-01-10

    Understanding factors that influence reproduction and offspring survival in zoo populations is critical for management of threatened and endangered species. Examination of long-term data (1989-2011) compiled from the Association of Zoos and Aquarium's zoo-managed tiger breeding program provides the basis for a more thorough understanding of reproduction and scientifically based decisions for effective population management in this endangered felid. Biological and management-related factors that could influence tiger breeding success and cub survival were evaluated using logistic mixed models. Breeding success improved with female age until approximately age five, then declined thereafter. Experienced female breeders had greater breeding success than inexperienced females. Litter size was most predictive of cub survival, with average-sized litters (3-4 cubs) experiencing the highest proportional survival. Management-related factors, such as whether the breeding institution had a recent tiger litter and whether both animals were already located at the same institution, also influenced breeding success and cub survival. These results highlight the importance of institutional husbandry experience and the need to retain knowledge through staff turnovers to achieve optimal reproductive success. Using fecal estrogen data, frequency of ovarian cyclicity and mean cycle length did not differ by female age or parity; thus, lack of cyclicity and/or increased cycle duration are not likely explanations for declining breeding success with age. These results provide valuable reproductive information that should improve scientific management of zoo-based tiger populations.

  5. Evaluation of sexual maturity of young bulls from different breeds selected for post-weaning weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Morato Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm traits of 243 young bulls from Caracu (n=62, Gir (n=23, Guzerá (n=59 and Nellore (n=99 breeds, with 20-25 months of age, from the Breeding Program of Estação Experimental de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho, were analyzed. On the day of breeding soundness evaluation animals were weighed, the scrotal circumference was measured and the semen was collected by electroejaculation. The sperm motility, vigor and morphology were assessed and the animals were classified according to the andrological classification by points (CAP. No difference was observed among breeds for any seminal trait evaluated, although Nelore presented lower scrotal circumference average than the other breeds. When the animals were classified by body weight, it was observed that the heavier animals presented greater scrotal circumference, better seminal characteristics and, consequently, greater percentage of these animals were considered sexually mature comparing with the other body weight groups. It was concluded that the animals selected for post-weaning and reared on pasture from the taurine adapted breed Caracu and from the zebu breeds Gir, Guzerá and Nelore have proved able to reproduction at 23.2, 23.4, 22.7 and 22.8 months, respectively, corresponding to age which reached an average weight of 452, 422, 470 and 467 kg respectively.

  6. Effect of Ecuador's cash transfer program (Bono de Desarrollo Humano) on child development in infants and toddlers: a randomized effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C H; Hidrobo, Melissa

    2011-05-01

    We examined the effects of Ecuador's Bono de Desarrollo Humano (BDH)--an unconditional cash transfer program that was rolled-out using a randomized design--on health and development outcomes in very young children. Communities that were randomly assigned to the treatment group began receiving the BDH in 2004 and those randomly assigned to the comparison group began receiving benefits two years later. Families enrolled in the BDH received a monthly cash stipend ($15USD) representing an approximate 6-10% increase in household income. Participants analyzed in this study are children aged 12-35 months from treatment (n = 797) and comparison (n = 399) communities in rural and urban Ecuador. Main outcomes measured were language skills (the Fundación MacArthur Inventorio del Desarollo de Habilidades Comunicativas-Breve), height-for-age z-score, and hemoglobin concentration. Results indicate that in rural areas, being randomized to receive the BDH in very early childhood led to significantly better performance on the number of words a child was saying, and on the probability that the child was combining two or more words. There were no significant effects on language development for children in urban areas and there were no effects on height-for-age z-score or hemoglobin concentration in rural or urban areas. A limited number of potential pathways with respect to cognitive/language stimulation, health behaviors, and parenting quality were also explored. Findings indicate that compared to children in comparison areas, rural children in treatment areas were more likely to have received vitamin A or iron supplementation and have been bought a toy in the past six months. This study provides evidence for significant benefits of an unconditional cash transfer program for language development in very young children in rural areas.

  7. Lily breeding research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.; Holsteijn, van H.M.C.

    1996-01-01

    At the Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research (CPRO-DLO) in Wageningen lily breeding research in the Netherlands is concentrated. To this end sources of germplasm (genetic material) are maintained in a lily species and cultivar collection. Research is done on long term storage of this c

  8. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits, and opportunit...

  9. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane;

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...

  10. Genetic diversity of 11 European pig breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavall, G.; Iannuccelli, N.; Legault, C.; Milan, D.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Andersson, L.; Fredholm, M.; Geldermann, H.; Foulley, J.L.; Chevalet, C.; Ollivier, L.

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosi

  11. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of geneticim

  12. Status of Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) development for the Northrop Grumman Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP) Technology Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eric

    2014-11-01

    In support of the Northrop Grumman/L-Garde Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP) development, we are developing a multi-purpose radiative transfer model (RTM) for the applications of the Venus atmosphere. For the solar array sizing, spectral solar radiance calculations are needed and a Correlated-k method of spectral integration will be used. This method is relatively fast computationally and typical error of the method is within a few percent, sufficiently accurate for solar array sizing analyses. For sensor characterization or sensor performance study, details of an absorption line, e.g. the near-IR “atmospheric window” absorption lines, must be used and an equivalent line-by-line calculation will be performed. At the completion of the model a large data base of radiance profiles of different atmospheric conditions will be created. The database can also be used to support thermal radiation analysis for other sub-systems. In this poster, we present our current state of the RTM development and model validation development. Additionally, we will present some preliminary comparison of top-of-atmosphere solar radiance with Venus Express VIRTIS measurements.

  13. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...... of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998-2009.......Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim...

  14. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties. Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest importance for veterinary service is the fact that selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are in the first place based on giving priority to healthy animals, with strong immune system, good reproductive characteristics, which can be in production system for a long period. Additional important selective criteria is specific body resistance and adaptability of autochtonous breeds to environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085

  15. Patterns of molecular genetic variation among cat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Pflueger, Solveig M; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Wade, Claire M; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variation in cat breeds was assessed utilizing a panel of short tandem repeat (STR) loci genotyped in 38 cat breeds and 284 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 24 breeds. Population structure in cat breeds generally reflects their recent ancestry and absence of strong breed barriers between some breeds. There is a wide range in the robustness of population definition, from breeds demonstrating high definition to breeds with as little as a third of their genetic variation partitioning into a single population. Utilizing the STRUCTURE algorithm, there was no clear demarcation of the number of population subdivisions; 16 breeds could not be resolved into independent populations, the consequence of outcrossing in established breeds to recently developed breeds with common ancestry. These 16 breeds were divided into 6 populations. Ninety-six percent of cats in a sample set of 1040 were correctly assigned to their classified breed or breed group/population. Average breed STR heterozygosities ranged from moderate (0.53; Havana, Korat) to high (0.85; Norwegian Forest Cat, Manx). Most of the variation in cat breeds was observed within a breed population (83.7%), versus 16.3% of the variation observed between populations. The hierarchical relationships of cat breeds is poorly defined as demonstrated by phylogenetic trees generated from both STR and SNP data, though phylogeographic grouping of breeds derived completely or in part from Southeast Asian ancestors was apparent.

  16. Genetic evaluation of the breeding population of a valuable reforestation conifer Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuqing; Ma, Yongpeng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Xian-Ge; Huang, Li-Sha; Li, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Platycladus orientalis, a widespread conifer with long lifespan and significant adaptability. It is much used in reforestation in north China and commonly planted in central Asia. With the increasing demand for plantation forest in central to north China, breeding programs are progressively established for this species. Efficient use of breeding resources requires good understanding of the genetic value of the founder breeding materials. This study investigated the distribution of genetic variation in 192 elite trees collected for the breeding program for the central range of the species. We developed first set of 27 polymorphic EST-derived SSR loci for the species from transcriptome/genome data. After examination of amplification quality, 10 loci were used to evaluate the genetic variation in the breeding population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average He = 0.348) and low population differentiation (Fst = 0.011). Extensive admixture and no significant geographic population structure characterized this set of collections. Our analyses of the diversity and population structure are important steps toward a long-term sustainable deployment of the species and provide valuable genetic information for conservation and breeding applications.

  17. Charge Breeding Techniques in an Electron Beam Ion Trap for High Precision Mass Spectrometry at TITAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, T. D.; Simon, M. C.; Bale, J. C.; Chowdhury, U.; Eibach, M.; Gallant, A. T.; Lennarz, A.; Simon, V. V.; Chaudhuri, A.; Grossheim, A.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Schultz, B. E.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    Penning trap mass spectrometry is the most accurate and precise method available for performing atomic mass measurements. TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science is currently the only facility to couple its Penning trap to a rare isotope facility and an electron beam ion trap (EBIT). The EBIT is a valuable tool for beam preparation: since the precision scales linearly with the charge state, it takes advantage of the precision gained by using highly charged ions. However, this precision gain is contingent on fast and efficient charge breeding. An optimization algorithm has been developed to identify the optimal conditions for running the EBIT. Taking only the mass number and half-life of the isotope of interest as inputs, the electron beam current density, charge breeding time, charge state, and electron beam energy are all specified to maximize this precision. An overview of the TITAN charge breeding program, and the results of charge breeding simulations will be presented.

  18. Advances in genetics and breeding in abalone:a review%鲍遗传育种研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡明夷; 柯才焕; 周时强; 王桂忠

    2004-01-01

    Abalones are important farming species with a high economic value. They have already been farmed for more than 50 years. As problems and new requirements rose continuously in culture industry of abalone, studies on genetic and breeding techniques are needed to improve characteristics and to gain new traits. This review concentrates on advances in genetics and breeding techniques in abalone. As for genetic studies, karyological analyses, allozyme, DNA markers and genetic diversity were reviewed. So far, karyological analyses in abalone have been performed in 12 species that can be divided into three groups according to the chromosome number. In some economically important species, loci of allozymes and. microsatellites have been isolated and applied to investigate the genetic structure of natural and hatchery populations and to identify the result of chromosome set manipulation, but the related reports are only a few yet. The resultsof investigation with DNA markers and allozymes showed that the genetic structure of natural populations presents two characteristics: excessive homozygosity and subdivision. Advances of various breeding techniques, including introduction, selection,hybridization, polyploidy, gynogenesis and gene manipulation, were reviewed in the other part. Although Haliotis discus discus, introduced from Japan, has become one of the most important culture species in China, the economic, social and environmental effects of introduction have been rarely studied. Selection is one of the most important and basic breeding techniques, but the studies on selection are only a few and preliminary, referring to the relations between genetic characteristics and the traits of growth and resistance, genetic diversity and heritability of quantitative traits, and the effect of selection. Interspecific hybridization was the first breeding program carded out in abalone. Experimental hybridization have been carded out for about 20 crosses. Heterosis,such as faster

  19. Defining a breeding objective for Nile tilapia that takes into account the diversity of smallholder production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omasaki, S K; van Arendonk, J A M; Kahi, A K; Komen, H

    2016-10-01

    In general, livestock and fish farming systems in developing countries tend to be highly diverse in terms of agro-ecological conditions and market orientation. There are no studies that have investigated if and how this diversity translates to varying preferences for breeding objective traits. This is particularly important for breeding programmes that are organized on a national level (e.g. government-supported nucleus breeding programmes). The aim of this study was to investigate whether Nile tilapia farmers with diverse production systems and economic constraints have different preferences for breeding objective traits. The second objective was to derive a consensus breeding goal, using weighted goal programming that could be used for a national breeding programme for Nile tilapia. A survey was conducted among 100 smallholder Nile tilapia farmers in Kenya to obtain preference values for traits of economic importance, by using multiple pairwise comparisons. Individual and group preference values were estimated using analytical hierarchy process. Low-income farmers preferred harvest weight, while medium- and high-income farmers preferred growth rate and survival. Grouping farmers according to market objective (fingerling production or fattening) showed that fingerling producers preferred growth rate and survival, while fattening farmers preferred harvest weight, height and thickness. Weighted goal programming was used to obtain consensus preference values, and these were used to derive desired gains for a breeding goal of a national breeding programme that takes into account the diversity of smallholder production systems.

  20. Extent of linkage disequilibrium and effective population size in four South African Sanga cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sithembile Olga Makina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD in livestock populations is essential to determine the minimum distance between markers required for effective coverage when conducting genome-wide association studies. This study evaluated the extent of LD, persistence of allelic phase and effective population size (Ne for four Sanga cattle breeds in South Africa including the Afrikaner (n=44, Nguni (n=54, Drakensberger (n=47 and Bonsmara breeds (n=46, using Angus (n=31 and Holstein (n=29 as reference populations. We found that moderate LD extends up to inter-marker distances of 40-60 kb in Angus (0.21 and Holstein (0.21 and up to 100 kb in Afrikaner (0.20. This suggests that genomic selection and association studies performed within these breeds using an average inter-marker r2 ≥ 0.20 would require about 30,000 -50,000 SNPs. However, r2 ≥ 0.20 extended only up to 10-20 kb in the Nguni and Drakensberger and 20-40 kb in the Bonsmara indicating that 75,000 to 150,000 SNPs would be necessary for genome-wide association studies in these breeds. Correlation between alleles at contiguous loci indicated that phase was not strongly preserved between breeds. This suggests the need for breed-specific reference populations in which a much greater density of markers should be scored to identify breed specific haplotypes which may then be imputed into multi-breed commercial populations. Analysis of effective population size based on the extent of LD, revealed Ne=95 (Nguni, Ne=87 (Drakensberger, Ne=77 (Bonsmara and Ne=41 (Afrikaner. Results of this study form the basis for implementation of genomic selection programs in the Sanga breeds of South Africa.

  1. DNA-informed breeding of rosaceous crops: promises, progress and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Cameron P

    2017-01-01

    Crops of the Rosaceae family provide valuable contributions to rural economies and human health and enjoyment. Sustained solutions to production challenges and market demands can be met with genetically improved new cultivars. Traditional rosaceous crop breeding is expensive and time-consuming and would benefit from improvements in efficiency and accuracy. Use of DNA information is becoming conventional in rosaceous crop breeding, contributing to many decisions and operations, but only after past decades of solved challenges and generation of sufficient resources. Successes in deployment of DNA-based knowledge and tools have arisen when the ‘chasm’ between genomics discoveries and practical application is bridged systematically. Key steps are establishing breeder desire for use of DNA information, adapting tools to local breeding utility, identifying efficient application schemes, accessing effective services in DNA-based diagnostics and gaining experience in integrating DNA information into breeding operations and decisions. DNA-informed germplasm characterization for revealing identity and relatedness has benefitted many programs and provides a compelling entry point to reaping benefits of genomics research. DNA-informed germplasm evaluation for predicting trait performance has enabled effective reallocation of breeding resources when applied in pioneering programs. DNA-based diagnostics is now expanding from specific loci to genome-wide considerations. Realizing the full potential of this expansion will require improved accuracy of predictions, multi-trait DNA profiling capabilities, streamlined breeding information management systems, strategies that overcome plant-based features that limit breeding progress and widespread training of current and future breeding personnel and allied scientists. PMID:28326185

  2. LINE CONSTRUCTION OF NONIUS BREED IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  3. Program biotechnology 2000. Annual report 1990. Biological process engineering, enzyme technology, cell biology, genetic research, plant-breeding, renewable raw materials. Programm Biotechnologie 2000. Jahresbericht 1990. Bioverfahrenstechnik, Enzymtechnologie, Zellbiologie, Genforschung, Pflanzenzuechtung, Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A brief summary of the results of the Federal Government's program biotechnology 2000 and the system of promoting appropriate activities is followed by a detailed survey of funded projects. The main part contains descriptions of the various projects under defined areas of promotion. The material is subdivided into indexes: project number index, syndicate project index, index with names of firms. The publication closes with an organizational chart of the PT BEO (project-administering organization biology, energy, ecology). (UA).

  4. Parentage testing and effect of misidentification on the estimation of breeding value in Gir cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E. Baron

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A correct relationship among sires is essential for an efficient breeding program. Microsatellite markers were used in progeny tests, to assess the paternity of seventy-four probable offspring of nine Gir dairy sires. A 36% misidentification rate was observed; however, these errors had minimal effects on the ranking of the nine bulls with regard to their genetic values. The results suggest that paternity tests should be performed in breeding programs, in order to prevent inappropriate paternities from influencing the genetic value of bulls in the future.

  5. Super Hybrid Rice Breeding in China: Achievements and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Hua Cheng; Li-Yong Cao; Jie-Yun Zhuang; Shen-Guang Chen; Xiao-Deng Zhan; Ye-Yang Fan; De-Feng Zhu; Shao-Kai Min

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid rice has contributed greatly to the self-sufficiency of food supply in China. To meet the future demand for rice production, a national program on super rice breeding was established in China in 1996. The corresponding targets, breeding strategies and most significant advances are reviewed in this paper. New plant type models have been modified to adjust to various rice growing regions. In recognition of the importance of applying parents with intermediate subspecies differentiation in increasing F1 yield, medium type parental lines were selected from populations derived from inter-subspecies crosses with the assistance of DMA markers for subspecies differentiation. Results also indicate that a substantial increase of biomass is the basis for further enhancement of the grain yield potential, and amelioration of leaf characteristics is helpful in increasing the photosynthetic rate. Thirty-four super hybrid rice varieties have been released commercially, growing in a total area of 13.5 million hm2 and producing 6.7 thousand million kg more rice in 1998-2005. Although remarkable progress has been made in super hybrid rice breeding in China, selections on the root system and integration of more biotechnological tools remain a great challenge.

  6. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  7. Management and Breeding Soundness of Mature Bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Colin W

    2016-07-01

    Mature bulls must be fed a balanced ration, vaccinated appropriately, and undergo a breeding soundness evaluation to ensure they meet what is required of a short, but intense breeding season. To be classified as a satisfactory potential breeder, minimum standards for physical soundness, scrotal circumference, sperm motility, and sperm morphology must be achieved using an accepted bull-breeding soundness evaluation format. Sperm production requires approximately 70 days. Heat and stress are the most common insults to spermatogenesis, causing an increase in morphologic abnormalities with obesity-associated scrotal fat accumulation being the most frequent cause of elevated testicular temperature in mature bulls.

  8. Do fishing education programs effectively transfer ‘catch-and-release’ best practices to youth anglers yielding measurable improvements in fish condition and survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delle Palme Caleigh A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in educating anglers on catch-and-release (C&R best practices, yet there is little information on whether angler education programs yield measurable improvements in fish condition and survival. As such, we conducted a study focused on mixed-gender youth groups (aged 8–10 and contrasted three levels of training intervention. Treatment 1 training had no mention of C&R best practices. Treatments 2 and 3 trainings involved visual aids to illustrate best practices, while Treatment 3 added a hands-on demonstration. When caught by the most highly trained participants, fish experienced the least amount of air exposure, but were handled for longer periods, as trained anglers were more careful. Higher levels of training led to a higher likelihood that anglers wet their hands and used a bucket filled with water while handling fish but all treatment groups yielded similar incidences of deep hooking and bleeding. Overall, mortality (initial and after ∼12 h was low across all treatments. Our findings suggest that a short (∼20 min fishing workshop can transfer information on C&R practices, at least in the short-term, that can lead to some improved conditions for angler-caught fish. It is unclear the extent to which this information is retained in the long-term or how different target populations or training strategies might influence knowledge transfer and adoption and thus biological outcomes. With growing interest in sharing C&R best practices with anglers, we suggest that there is need for additional research on outreach strategies to ensure that such efforts are effective and yield meaningful benefits to fish welfare and conservation.

  9. A survey of dystocia in the Boxer breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persson Gunilla

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dystocia occurs more commonly in some breeds of dogs than others. The Boxer breed is one of the highrisk breeds for whelping problems. The aim of this study was to document some reproductive parameters and the frequency of dystocia in Boxers. Methods Two questionnaires were sent to the breeders of Boxers in Sweden during 1994 to 1997. Data from 253 whelpings and 1671 pups was received, which constitutes 56.5% of all Boxer litters registered with the Swedish Kennel Club during these years. Data was analysed using Chi-square test, and Fischer's exact test. Results Dystocia occurred in 32% of the individual bitches, and in 27.7% of all the whelpings. Caesarian section was performed in 22.8% of all the whelpings and in 80.1% of the cases of dystocia. Medical treatment was tried in 20 cases but was successful only in 5 (25%. The dystocia was of maternal origin in 68.6% and of fetal origin in 28.6% of cases. The most common reasons for dystocia were primary uterine inertia (60% and malpresentation of the fetus (26%. Dystocia increased with increasing age of the bitch from four years of age. Average litter size was 6.6 (± 2.2 pups born, and 5.0 (± 2.1 pups registered. Pup mortality was 24%. Stillbirths accounted for 6.1% of the pup deaths and 1% died in the neonatal period, while 15.6% of the pups were euthanised, the majority because they had disqualifying white coat colour. Cryptorchidism was observed in 9.8% of the male pups born and in 13.4% of the male pups that were registered. Conclusion The Boxer suffers a high frequency of dystocia, mainly due to uterine inertia, but also fetal malpresentation. Breeders should be adviced to include easy whelpings in their breeding program.

  10. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  11. Economic optimization of the number of recipients in bovine embryo transfer programs Otimização econômica do número de receptoras em programas de transferência de embriões em bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Travassos Beltrame

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Purchase and maintenance of recipient females account for a large proportion of the costs and determine the number of calves that can be produced in an embryo transfer program. However, the large variability of embryo production by the donors and the need to purchase and synchronize the recipients before knowing the number of embryos collected make it difficult for the decision maker to identify the ideal number of recipient females to allocate. An ex-ante evaluation to determine the optimal number of recipient females was carried out through a sensitivity analysis for the ratio between the number of recipients and donors in a simulation model. The variability for the number of embryos collected was accounted for by applying the Monte Carlo simulation technique, assuming normal distribution and known values for mean and variance. The simulation considered monthly intervals between collections, during a 24 months program. The effect of embryo freezing on the number of pregnancies was considered by introducing a stock of frozen embryos into the mathematical model. Optimal recipient/donor ratio and the cost per pregnancy were compared for three recipient synchronization protocols (prostaglandin, progesterone - P4 and Ovsynch, based on the expected performance for synchronization, conception and transfer/treated rates for each protocol. Stochastic simulation associated with sensitivity analysis was effective in identifying the optimal donor to recipient ratio. Freezing embryos is effective to reduce the operational costs per pregnancy. The estimated optimal recipient/donor ratio was 20 for prostaglandin and 16.7 for the other protocols. The P4 protocol, although the most expensive, resulted in the lowest pregnancy cost estimation followed by prostaglandin and Ovsynch.A aquisição e manutenção de receptoras representam grande proporção dos custos e determinam o número de produtos gerados em um programa de transferência de embriões. Entretanto

  12. The ascent of cat breeds: genetic evaluations of breeds and worldwide random-bred populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Monika J; Froenicke, Lutz; Baysac, Kathleen C; Billings, Nicholas C; Leutenegger, Christian M; Levy, Alon M; Longeri, Maria; Niini, Tirri; Ozpinar, Haydar; Slater, Margaret R; Pedersen, Niels C; Lyons, Leslie A

    2008-01-01

    The diaspora of the modern cat was traced with microsatellite markers from the presumed site of domestication to distant regions of the world. Genetic data were derived from over 1100 individuals, representing 17 random-bred populations from five continents and 22 breeds. The Mediterranean was reconfirmed to be the probable site of domestication. Genetic diversity has remained broad throughout the world, with distinct genetic clustering in the Mediterranean basin, Europe/America, Asia and Africa. However, Asian cats appeared to have separated early and expanded in relative isolation. Most breeds were derived from indigenous cats of their purported regions of origin. However, the Persian and Japanese bobtail were more aligned with European/American than with Mediterranean basin or Asian clusters. Three recently derived breeds were not distinct from their parental breeds of origin. Pure breeding was associated with a loss of genetic diversity; however, this loss did not correlate with breed popularity or age.

  13. Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey was initiated experimentally in 1947 and became operational in 1955. It is conducted cooperatively by the U.S....

  14. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Manitoba: 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1983. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  15. Final Performance Report : Snowy Plover Breeding Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of breeding populations and nesting habitat of the snowy plover were conducted from January to August, 1989 along the Gulf Coast of Florida and Alabama....

  16. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  17. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1986. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  18. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1998. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  19. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Alberta: 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  20. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1995 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 37 sites along the coast of California. This 7% decrease in breeding population size from 1994 brings to an end the trend since...

  1. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1989. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  2. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  3. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  4. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1994. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  5. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1996. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  6. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1987. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  7. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1992. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  8. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  9. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1997. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  10. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1988. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  11. From phenotyping towards breeding strategies: using in vivo indicator traits and genetic markers to improve meat quality in an endangered pig breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, A D M; Yin, T; König von Borstel, U U; Rübesam, K; Kuhn, B; König, S

    2015-06-01

    In endangered and local pig breeds of small population sizes, production has to focus on alternative niche markets with an emphasis on specific product and meat quality traits to achieve economic competiveness. For designing breeding strategies on meat quality, an adequate performance testing scheme focussing on phenotyped selection candidates is required. For the endangered German pig breed 'Bunte Bentheimer' (BB), no breeding program has been designed until now, and no performance testing scheme has been implemented. For local breeds, mainly reared in small-scale production systems, a performance test based on in vivo indicator traits might be a promising alternative in order to increase genetic gain for meat quality traits. Hence, the main objective of this study was to design and evaluate breeding strategies for the improvement of meat quality within the BB breed using in vivo indicator traits and genetic markers. The in vivo indicator trait was backfat thickness measured by ultrasound (BFiv), and genetic markers were allele variants at the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) locus. In total, 1116 records of production and meat quality traits were collected, including 613 in vivo ultrasound measurements and 713 carcass and meat quality records. Additionally, 700 pigs were genotyped at the RYR1 locus. Data were used (1) to estimate genetic (co)variance components for production and meat quality traits, (2) to estimate allele substitution effects at the RYR1 locus using a selective genotyping approach and (3) to evaluate breeding strategies on meat quality by combining results from quantitative-genetic and molecular-genetic approaches. Heritability for the production trait BFiv was 0.27, and 0.48 for backfat thickness measured on carcass. Estimated heritabilities for meat quality traits ranged from 0.14 for meat brightness to 0.78 for the intramuscular fat content (IMF). Genetic correlations between BFiv and IMF were higher than estimates based on carcass backfat

  12. Registro e proteção de cultivares pelo setor público: a experiência do programa de melhoramento de Capsicum da Embrapa Hortaliças Registration and protection of cultivars in Brazil: the experience of Embrapa Vegetables' Capsicum breeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina IC de Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    important step for seed production and commercialization in Brazil. Registration assures the genetic identity and varietal quality for breeding programs. Additionally, cultivar protection guarantees royalties to private and public breeding and seed companies, which can use these resources to continue their research and development projects. This paper describes the experience in registering and protecting two new jalapeño pepper cultivars (BRS Sarakura and BRS Garça released by Embrapa Vegetables' Capsicum breeding program. Four out of 48 botanical descriptors showed high discriminatory potential to differentiate the two new cultivars: plant length and size, green color intensity in fruits before maturity, and peduncle thickness. Both jalapeño cultivars showed plant uniformity, high yield and capsaicin content, and genetic stability during two growing-cycles, as well as distinct traits when compared to other Capsicum cultivars. Lessons learned with cultivar registration and protection include the need to have prior experience in morphological characterization and practical application of botanical descriptors, the aid of an experienced botanist to identify new Capsicum species and varieties, and finally knowledge of bureaucratic procedures and requirements.

  13. [Pain caused by breeding: definition, judgment, pathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A

    1997-02-01

    Special terms of the "German Animal Protection Law (section 11b)"and the "European Agreement for Protection of Domestic Animals" particularly "torture-breeding, genetic characteristics, well-being, soundness, pains, injuries and specific use" are commented. Examples of torture-breedings are discussed: Dog (Merle-faktor, brachycephalie, atrichosis), cat (Mans-factor, W-gene, folded-ears), birds (tuffs, ear-drops, tailesness, hypertrophy of bill-warts, abnormal position of tarsal-joints, hypertrophy of imposing behavior).

  14. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the king pigeon (Columba livia breed king).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Hua; He, Wen-Xiao; Xu, Tong

    2015-06-01

    The king pigeon is a breed of pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding primarily as a utility breed. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of king pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,221 bp with the base composition of 30.14% for A, 24.05% for T, 31.82% for C, and 13.99% for G and an A-T (54.22 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of king pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  15. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  16. Neutronic Comparison of Tritium-Breeding Performance of Candidate Tritium-Breeding Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑善良; 吴宜灿

    2003-01-01

    Tritium self-sustainment, which will meet the fuel requirement of fusion reactor, isone of the key issues of fusion power development. The tritium breeding performances of varioustritium-breeding materials are compared based on a series of neutronics calculations using three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code MCNP/4C with the IAEA FENDL-2data library. The effects of the dimensions of the tritium-breeding zone and the enrichment of 6Lion Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) are analyzed. The effects of Be as a neutron multiplier on TBRare also calculated.

  17. PrP genotype frequencies and risk evaluation for scrapie in dairy sheep breeds from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martemucci, Giovanni; Iamartino, Daniela; Blasi, Michele; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella

    2015-12-01

    Concerns regarding scrapie in sheep breeding have increased in the last few decades. The present study was carried out in dairy sheep breeds from southern Italy. In order to find breeding animals resistant to scrapie, the PrP genes of 1,205 animals from entire flocks of dairy native Apulian Leccese and Altamurana breeds, and Sicilian Comisana breed, were analysed for polymorphisms at codons 136, 154, and 171 related to scrapie resistance/susceptibility. The Altamurana breed was considered as two populations (Alt-Cav and Alt-Cra-Zoe), based on presumed cross-breeding. A total of five alleles and ten different genotypes were found. The ARQ allele was predominant for all breeds followed by ARR, the most resistant allele to scrapie, which was highly prevalent in Comisana (50%) and in native Alt-Cav (42.4%). The VRQ allele, associated with the highest susceptibility to scrapie, was detected at not negligeable levels in allocthonous Comisana (3.5%), at a low frequency (0.2%) in native Leccese and Alt-Cra-Zoe, while it was absent in Alt-Cav. The frequencies of PrP genotypes with a very low susceptibility risk to scrapie (R1) was higher in Comisana and Alt-Cav. The most susceptible genotype, ARQ/VRQ, was found only in Comisana. Within the Altamurana breed, there were notable differences between Alt-Cav and Alt-Cra-Zoe sheep. The Alt-Cav was characterised by the absence of VRQ and AHQ alleles and by the higher frequency of the ARR/ARR genotype (18.7%). Breeding programs, mainly in endangered breeds such as Altamurana, should be conducted gradually, combining resistance to scrapie, maintenance of genetic variability, and production.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Black Bengal and Jamuna Pari Goat Breeds By RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI, Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification pattern in both the breeds. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA – Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 14 black bengal goat and Jamuna pari goat breeds. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer programe POPGENE (Version 1.31. Highest level of Nei's[1] gene diversity value (0.4898 was observed in BMS 1494 locus and the mean genetic diversity was obtained 0.3724 among the 14 goat breeds. The highest number of polymorphism obserbed in primer BM1818.The pair-wise genetic distance value ranged from 0.2500 to 1.000. Dendrogram based on Nei's[1] genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA indicated segregation of the 14 goat breeds. Within Jamuna pari goat genetic similarity is low as well as black Bengal goat.

  19. Advances to improve the eating and cooking qualities of rice by marker-assisted breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phing Lau, Wendy Chui; Latif, Mohammad Abdul; Y Rafii, Mohd; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Puteh, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The eating and cooking qualities of rice are heavily emphasized in breeding programs because they determine market values and they are the appealing attributes sought by consumers. Conventional breeding has developed traditional varieties with improved eating and cooking qualities. Recently, intensive genetic studies have pinpointed the genes that control eating and cooking quality traits. Advances in genetic studies have developed molecular techniques, thereby allowing marker-assisted breeding (MAB) for improved eating and cooking qualities in rice. MAB has gained the attention of rice breeders for the advantages it can offer that conventional breeding cannot. There have been successful cases of using MAB to improve the eating and cooking qualities in rice over the years. Nevertheless, MAB should be applied cautiously given the intensive effort needed for genotyping. Perspectives from conventional breeding to marker-assisted breeding will be discussed in this review for the advancement of the eating and cooking qualities of fragrance, amylose content (AC), gel consistency (GC) and gelatinization temperature (GT) in rice. These four parameters are associated with eating and cooking qualities in rice. The genetic basis of these four parameters is also included in this review. MAB is another approach to rice variety improvement and development in addition to being an alternative to genetic engineering. The MAB approach shortens the varietal development time, and is therefore able to deliver improved rice varieties to farmers within a shorter period of time.

  20. Breed effects and genetic parameter estimates for calving difficulty and birth weight in a multibreed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, C M; Kuehn, L A; Thallman, R M; Kachman, S D; Snelling, W M; Spangler, M L

    2016-05-01

    Birth weight (BWT) and calving difficulty (CD) were recorded on 4,579 first-parity females from the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). Both traits were analyzed using a bivariate animal model with direct and maternal effects. Calving difficulty was transformed from the USMARC scores to corresponding -scores from the standard normal distribution based on the incidence rate of the USMARC scores. Breed fraction covariates were included to estimate breed differences. Heritability estimates (SE) for BWT direct, CD direct, BWT maternal, and CD maternal were 0.34 (0.10), 0.29 (0.10), 0.15 (0.08), and 0.13 (0.08), respectively. Calving difficulty direct breed effects deviated from Angus ranged from -0.13 to 0.77 and maternal breed effects deviated from Angus ranged from -0.27 to 0.36. Hereford-, Angus-, Gelbvieh-, and Brangus-sired calves would be the least likely to require assistance at birth, whereas Chiangus-, Charolais-, and Limousin-sired calves would be the most likely to require assistance at birth. Maternal breed effects for CD were least for Simmental and Charolais and greatest for Red Angus and Chiangus. Results showed that the diverse biological types of cattle have different effects on both BWT and CD. Furthermore, results provide a mechanism whereby beef cattle producers can compare EBV for CD direct and maternal arising from disjoined and breed-specific genetic evaluations.

  1. Pedigree and herd characterization of a donkey breed vulnerable to extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, M; Martins, A M F; Rodrigues, J B; Colaço, J; Payan-Carreira, R

    2014-03-01

    Most donkey and local horse breeds are vulnerable to extinction as mechanization of agriculture progress throughout the world. The present study analyzed the pedigree and herd records of the donkey Asinina de Miranda breed (RAM), identifying genealogical and human factors that may affect the breed genetic diversity in the future and suggesting suitable strategies to breed preservation, early on the conservation program. The breeding rate was very low, with a ratio of foaling/live animals of 0.23 (178/760). The estimated number of founders and ancestors contributing to the reference population was 128 and 121. The number of founder herds in the reference population was 64, with an effective number of founder herds for the reference population of 7.6. The mean age of herd owners was 65.50 ± 0.884 years, with a negative association among the herd size and owner's age (P<0.001). In contrast, the size of the herd and the ownership of a male were both positively associated (P<0.001) with the herd number of in-born foals. Both the owners' age and the herd location (RAM home region v. dispersal region) were negatively associated with the foaling number (P<0.001). The main identified risk factors were: low breeding rates; low number of males and their unequal contribution to the genetic pool; unequal contribution of the herds to genetic pool; and advanced age of herd owners.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships of three Italian merino-derived sheep breeds evaluated through a complete mitogenome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovirag Lancioni

    Full Text Available In Italy, the crisis of the wool industry triggered the necessity to reconvert the two traditional Merino-derived breeds, Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana, to meat production, by creating the Merinizzata Italiana. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of these three Italian Merino-derived (IMd breeds by examining the molecular information encoded in the maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. A parallel molecular investigation was performed on the putative paternal and maternal breeds, the Merino from Spain and the Appenninica from Italy, respectively, as well as on three unrelated dairy breeds (Sarda and Comisana from Italy, and Lacaune from France. Firstly, the mtDNA control region of 291 samples was analyzed. When comparing the overall genetic distances among the eight stocks, the three IMd breeds clustered together close to the Appenninica, thus confirming its parental role. Among the 90 IMd samples, 82 different haplotypes were observed, almost all belonging to haplogroup B, and only one to A. For 23 mtDNAs, including nine IMd, the analysis was then brought to the level of entire mitogenomes. Three distinct sub-haplogroups within B were found to encompass the IMd samples, with one clade (B1a2a1 apparently restricted to those sheep. Thus, despite experiencing a drastic reduction in number (mainly due to changes in breeding practices driven by the economy, the IMd breeds still represent a reservoir of distinctive mitochondrial variants, which could potentially contribute to the development of conservation and management programs of Italian sheep breeds.

  3. Prion protein gene polymorphism and genetic risk evaluation for scrapie in all Turkish native sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meydan, H; Yüceer, B; Degirmenci, R; Özkan, M M; Yildiz, M A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the prion protein (PrP) gene polymorphism in a total of 1,110 healthy sheep from 18 Turkish native sheep breeds. There were nine alleles and 22 genotypes observed based on codons 136, 154, and 171 of the PrP gene. The ARQ allele was predominant for all breeds. The most resistant allele to scrapie, ARR, was present in all breeds. The VRQ allele, associated with the highest susceptibility to scrapie, was detected at low frequencies in İvesi (0.06), Kıvırcık (0.021), Sakız (0.010), Karayaka (0.011), Çine Çaparı (0.012), and Güneykaraman (0.017). In general, the ARQ/ARQ genotype was predominant in all breeds. The most resistant genotype to scrapie, ARR/ARR, was found with the frequency lower than 0.180. The most susceptible genotype, VRQ/VRQ, was found in only Kıvırcık. The TRR and TRH alleles and the genotypes of ARR/TRR, ARR/ARK, and ARH/TRH have been found for the first time in Turkish native sheep breeds. According to these results, all breeds belong to risk group R3 followed by R2. It is propounded that the susceptibility to scrapie increased from eastern to western part of Turkey. Our findings of Turkish native sheep breeds with PrP gene polymorphisms will assist the sheep breeding program for selection of scrapie resistance genotypes to reduce the risk of scrapie.

  4. Participatory plant breeding and organic agriculture: A synergistic model for organic variety development in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organic farmers require improved varieties that have been adapted to their unique soils, nutrient inputs, management practices, and pest pressures. One way to develop adapted varieties is to situate breeding programs in the environment of intended use, such as directly on organic farms, and in collaboration with organic farmers. This model is a form of participatory plant breeding, and was originally created in order to meet the needs of under-served, small-scale farmers in developing countries. A robust body of literature supports the quantitative genetic selection theory of participatory plant breeding, and helps to explain its increasing prevalence among organic breeding projects in the United States. The history of the organic farming movement in the United States highlights the cultural relevance of engaging organic farmers in the breeding process, complementing the biological rationale for participatory plant breeding. In addition, limited private investment in organic plant breeding encourages the involvement of plant breeders at public institutions. This paper synthesizes the biological, cultural, and economic justifications for utilizing participatory plant breeding as an appropriate methodology for organic cultivar development.

  5. Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen M.; Flagg, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    A standard and comprehensive model is needed to evaluate and compare technology transfer systems and the stakeholders within these systems. The principle systems considered include federal laboratories, U.S. universities, the rehabilitation engineering research centers (RERCs), and large small business innovation research programs. An earlier…

  6. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (MACINTOSH A/UX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  7. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (DEC VAX VMS VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  8. Rootstock breeding in Prunus species: Ongoing efforts and new challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gainza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current global agricultural challenges imply the need to generate new technologies and farming systems. In this context, rootstocks are an essential component in modern agriculture. Most currently used are those clonally propagated and there are several ongoing efforts to develop this type of plant material. Despite this tendency, lesser number of rootstock breeding programs exists in comparison to the large number of breeding programs for scion cultivars. In the case of rootstocks, traits evaluated in new selection lines are quite different: From the agronomic standpoint vigor is a key issue in order to establish high-density orchards. Other important agronomic traits include compatibility with a wide spectrum of cultivars from different species, good tolerance to root hypoxia, water use efficiency, aptitude to extract or exclude certain soil nutrients, and tolerance to soil or water salinity. Biotic stresses are also important: Resistance/tolerance to pests and diseases, such as nematodes, soil-borne fungi, crown gall, bacterial canker, and several virus, viroids, and phytoplasms. In this sense, the creation of new rootstocks at Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Fruticultura (CEAF offers an alternative to stone fruit crop, particularly in Chile, where just a few alternatives are commercially available, and there are site-specific problems. The implementation of molecular markers in order to give support to the phenotypic evaluation of plant breeding has great potential assisting the selection of new genotypes of rootstocks. Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS can shorten the time required to obtain new cultivars and can make the process more cost-effective than selection based exclusively on phenotype, but more basic research is needed to well understood the molecular and physiological mechanisms behind the studied trait.

  9. Strategy and Opportunity for The Development of Duck Breeding Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Hardy Prasetyo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of duck farming requires the availability of good quality breeding stocks commercially in order to improve productivity and efficiency . Presently, there is no commercial duck breeding farm which can produce good quality breeding stocks . This article presents information on alternatives in developing duck breeding farm, particularly for layer ducks . There are two alternative approaches in duck breeding farms : (1 Group breeding farm, which belongs to duck farmers' group, as part of a group production system, and (2 Commercial breeding farm, by an individual private company/Semi-Government Institution in a commercial scale and particularly for export market . A good breeding farm requires appropriate systems for selection and mating of the animals in order to guarantee the quality of the breeding stocks being produced . A breeding farm must be economically and technically feasible as an economic entity, so that economic analysis and marketing must be prepared seriously.

  10. Toxoplasmosis in sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recent...

  11. Improved charge breeding efficiency of light ions with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondrasek, R.; Kutsaev, Sergey [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Blvd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France)

    2012-11-15

    The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade is a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The facility utilizes a {sup 252}Cf fission source coupled with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to provide radioactive beam species for the ATLAS experimental program. The californium fission fragment distribution provides nuclei in the mid-mass range which are difficult to extract from production targets using the isotope separation on line technique and are not well populated by low-energy fission of uranium. To date the charge breeding program has focused on optimizing these mid-mass beams, achieving high charge breeding efficiencies of both gaseous and solid species including 14.7% for the radioactive species {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+}. In an effort to better understand the charge breeding mechanism, we have recently focused on the low-mass species sodium and potassium which up to present have been difficult to charge breed efficiently. Unprecedented charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for {sup 23}Na{sup 7+} and 17.9% for {sup 39}K{sup 10+} were obtained injecting stable Na{sup +} and K{sup +} beams from a surface ionization source.

  12. Carcass Composition of Turopolje Pig, the Autochthonous Croatian Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Đikić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this research was to establish carcass composition in Turopolje pig breed by analyzing the percentage of muscle (M, fat (F and bone (B tissue, percentage of these tissues in different parts of carcass (ham, loin, back, neck, belly-rib part . BRP, as well as share of the parts in carcass. Animals were divided into two groups of different age and slaughtering weight (TI 584 ± 20 days and 81,9 kg; TII 679 ± 20 days and 100,3 kg ± 4,9 kg. Purpose of this investigation was to define the standards for traits mentioned for the remainder of the population of Turopolje pig and to set the selection and production programs, as this breed has been under protection since 1993 and re-establishment since 1996 as cultural and biological heritage of Croatia and the World. In order to define Turopolje pig in production sense, we presented characteristics of the old breeds Mongolitza and Black Slavonian and some selected breeds. Pigs were fattened in the outdoor system of flood forests and marsh meadows biocenosis (Quercus robur . Deschampsietum caespitosae, according to traditional Croatian technology of low input (Ðikić et al., 2002.Slaughtering weight and weight of warm and cold carcass were measured on the slaughtering line. The halves were separately weight and dissected (tissues and parts according to Weninger et al., 1963 and by total dissection. Data were processed by statistical-mathematical procedure GSM and SAS software package (1996 and results were compared within and between the groups ( t-test.In groups TI and TII the percentages tissues in carcass were established to be as follows: M 38.2% and 40.5%, B 10.6% and 9.7%, respectively, and were significantly different ( P< 0.05, while share of F, 34.2% and 33.8% were not significantly different.Fattened pigs in group TI, in relation to TII, had lower relative share of muscle tissue in the carcass of loin, back, neck and BRP and higher share of fat tissue of neck and BRP, as well as

  13. Mapping quantitative trait loci in plant breeding populations : Use of parental haplotype sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Ritsert C.; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Beavis, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Applied breeding programs evaluate large numbers of progeny derived from multiple related crosses for a wide range of agronomic traits and for tens to hundreds of molecular markers. This study was conducted to determine how these phenotypic and genetic data could be used for routinely mapping quanti

  14. Varying pasture growth and commodity prices change the value of traits in sheep breeding objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.; Mulder, H.A.; Thompson, P.N.; Werf, van der J.H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Breeding programs for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system. Economic weights are commonly based on average conditions. In pasture based livestock production systems the cost of feed is an important profit driver, but avail

  15. Defining desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding objective using analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sae-Lim, P.; Komen, J.; Kause, A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Barfoot, A.J.; Martin, K.E.; Parsons, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Distributing animals from a single breeding program to a global market may not satisfy all producers, as they may differ in market objectives and farming environments. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to estimate preferences, which can be aggregated to consensus preference values using weigh

  16. Back-breeding the aurochs: the Heck brothers, National Socialism and imagined geographies for nonhuman Lebensraum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.; Lorimer, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter investigates the bio-geographical imaginations behind the animal 'back-breeding' programs carried out by Lutz and Heinz Heck - two influential German zoologists who ran Berlin and Munich zoos. Partly with close connections to and patronage from the National Socialist elite, the Heck bro

  17. What should students in plant breeding know about the statistical aspects of genotype × Environment interactions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeuwijk, Van Fred A.; Bustos-Korts, Daniela V.; Malosetti Zunin, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    A good statistical analysis of genotype × environment interactions (G × E) is a key requirement for progress in any breeding program. Data for G × E analyses traditionally come from multi-environment trials. In recent years, increasingly data are generated from managed stress trials, phenotyping

  18. Selection of wide compatible restorer lines and their application in hybrid rice breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEXiaoba; ZHANGShanqing; FANGHongming

    1997-01-01

    Since the middle of 1980's, wide compatibility(WC) rice lines have been screened by rice breeders in China and applied in hybrid rice breeding program. Several WC fines such as Pecos, T984, Lunhui 422, and 02428 withideal agronomic characters were identified.

  19. Meiotic behavior as a selection tool in silage corn breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, V F; Pagliarini, M S; Scapim, C A; Rodovalho, M; Faria, M V

    2010-10-19

    In breeding programs, commercial hybrids are frequently used as a source of inbred lines to obtain new hybrids. Considering that maize production is dependent on viable gametes, the selection of populations to obtain inbred lines with high meiotic stability could contribute to the formation of new silage corn hybrids adapted to specific region. We evaluated the meiotic stability of five commercial hybrids of silage corn used in southern Brazil with conventional squashing methods. All of them showed meiotic abnormalities. Some abnormalities, such as abnormal chromosome segregation and absence of cytokinesis, occurred in all the genotypes, while others, including cytomixis and abnormal spindle orientation, were found only in some genotypes. The hybrid SG6010 had the lowest mean frequency of abnormal cells (21.27%); the highest frequency was found in the hybrid P30K64 (44.43%). However, the frequency of abnormal meiotic products was much lower in most genotypes, ranging from 7.63% in the hybrid CD304 to 43.86% in Garra. Taking into account the percentage of abnormal meiotic products and, hence, meiotic stability, only the hybrids CD304, P30K64, SG6010, and P30F53 are recommended to be retained in the breeding program to obtain inbred lines to create new hybrids.

  20. Breeding programmes for smallholder sheep farming systems: II. Optimization of cooperative village breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; van Arendonk, J A M; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; Rischkowsky, B; Dessie, T; Mwai, A O

    2014-10-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as under three cooperative flock sizes, ewe to ram mating ratios and durations of ram use for breeding. Under fully controlled breeding, that is, when there is no gene flow between participating (P) and non-participating (NP) flocks, profits ranged from Birr 36.9 at 90% of participation to Birr 21.3 at 10% of participation. However, genetic progress was not affected adversely. When there was gene flow from the NP to P flocks, profits declined from Birr 28.6 to Birr -3.7 as participation declined from 90 to 10%. Under the two-way gene flow model (i.e. when P and NP flocks are herded mixed in communal grazing areas), NP flocks benefited from the genetic gain achieved in the P flocks, but the benefits declined sharply when participation declined beyond 60%. Our results indicate that a cooperative breeding group can be established with as low as 600 breeding ewes mated at a ratio of 45 ewes to one ram, and the rams being used for breeding for a period of two years. This study showed that farmer cooperation is crucial to effect genetic improvement under smallholder low-input sheep farming systems.

  1. Breeding barnacle geese in Kolokolkova Bay, Russia : number of breeding pairs, reproductive success and morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jeugd, HP; Gurtovaya, E; Eichhorn, G; Litvin, KY; Mineev, OY; van Eerden, M

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of an expedition to a barnacle-goose (Branta leucopsis) breeding area in Kolokolkova Bay, west of the lower Pechora delta in northern Russia, undertaken in July 2002. In total, 6 breeding colonies were found within the study area, harbouring 1,324 nests. Mean clutch size was 2.

  2. Motives and values in farming local cattle breeds in Europe: a survey on 15 breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandini, G.; Avon, L.; Bohte-Wilhelmus, D.I.; Bay, E.; Colinet, F.G.; Choroszy, Z.; Diaz, C.; Duclos, D.; Fernandez, J.; Gengler, N.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Kearney, F.; Lilja, T.; Mäki-Tanila, A.; Martin-Collado, D.; Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Musella, M.; Pizzi, F.; Soini, K.; Toro, M.; Turri, F.; Viinalas, H.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Within the EURECA project (Towards self-sustainable EUropean REgional CAttle breeds), we interviewed a total of 371 farmers of 15 local cattle breeds in eight European countries. Besides collecting data on farmers, land use, herd composition and economic role of cattle, we aimed at understanding far

  3. Participatory definition of breeding objectives and selection indexes for sheep breeding in traditional systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Lemma, S.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    A farmer participatory approach was used to define breeding objectives and selection indexes for short-fat-tailed sheep in sheep–barley systems and Black Head Somali sheep in pastoral systems in Ethiopia. Breeding-objective traits were identified based on producers' preferences for traits collected

  4. The sub-annual breeding cycle of a tropical seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, S James; Martin, Graham R; Dawson, Alistair; Wearn, Colin P; Hughes, B John

    2014-01-01

    Breeding periodicity allows organisms to synchronise breeding attempts with the most favourable ecological conditions under which to raise offspring. For most animal species, ecological conditions vary seasonally and usually impose an annual breeding schedule on their populations; sub-annual breeding schedules will be rare. We use a 16-year dataset of breeding attempts by a tropical seabird, the sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus), on Ascension Island to provide new insights about this classical example of a population of sub-annually breeding birds that was first documented in studies 60 years previously on the same island. We confirm that the breeding interval of this population has remained consistently sub-annual. By ringing >17,000 birds and re-capturing a large sample of them at equivalent breeding stages in subsequent seasons, we reveal for the first time that many individual birds also consistently breed sub-annually (i.e. that sub-annual breeding is an individual as well as a population breeding strategy). Ascension Island sooty terns appear to reduce their courtship phase markedly compared with conspecifics breeding elsewhere. Our results provide rare insights into the ecological and physiological drivers of breeding periodicity, indicating that reduction of the annual cycle to just two life-history stages, breeding and moult, is a viable life-history strategy and that moult may determine the minimum time between breeding attempts.

  5. Radionuclide transfer. Radionuklid Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG)

  6. EFFECT OF BREED, SEX AND SOURCE WITHIN BREED ON THE HEAMATOGICAL PARAMETERS OF THE NIGERIAN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. OKONKWO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of breed, sex and source within breed, together with their interactions on the haematological parameters of Nigerian goats were studied using 81 goats (comprising 9 males and 18 females per breed, objective being to characterize and outline the differences and similarities between the breeds in blood parameters. The goats were derived from different geo-ecological zones in the country based on the areas of preponderance of each breed. The breeds studied were: the Sahel goat (SG, Red Sokoto goat (RSG, and West African Dwarf goat (WADG and hematological values obtained per breed were: 22.52±1.48, 23.04±3.56, and 29.22±4.76 (%PCV; 7.52±0.50, 7.82±1.25 and 9.48±1.60 (g/dl Hb; 2.71±0.23, 3.09±0.64, and 4.10±0.42 (x1012/l RBC; 11.94±1.10, 11.32±2.03 and 9.23±0.63 (x109cells/l WBC, and 83.22±1.67, 76.72±2.30 and 73.34±3.40 (x106/mm3 MCV, respectively. Significant differences (P0.05 for all the breeds. The WADGs were superior to the RSGs and SGs in PCV, Hb, and RBC counts, but lower in WBC counts and MCV. The SGs were similar in most of the haematological profiles examined, irrespective of geo-ecological distance, indicating homogeneity of the breed. The sahelian goat breed also outscored other breeds in MCV, showing that the breed has greater propensity to transport oxygen and in situation occasioning oxygen starvation, the breed survives better. This explains the reason for the survival of the breed in arid and semi-arid zone. Gender has no effect on the MCV and the values of 83.22±1.67x106/mm3, 76.72±2.30x106/mm3 and 73.34±3.40x106/mm3 were observed for the SG, RSG, and WADG, respectively.

  7. NAPUS 2000 Rapeseed (Brassica napus breeding for improved human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedt Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a competition announcement of the Federal Ministry of Research and Education (BMBF a project dealing with the improvement of the nutritional value of oilseed rape (Brassica napus for food applications and human nutrition was worked out and started in autumn 1999. A number of partners (Figure 2 are carrying out a complex project reaching from the discovery, characterisation, isolation and transfer of genes of interest up to breeding of well performing varieties combined with important agronomic traits. Economic studies and processing trials as well as nutritional investigations of the new qualities are undertaken. B. napus seed quality aspects with respect to seed coat colour, oil composition, lecithin and protein fractions and antioxidants like tocopherols and resveratrol will be improved.

  8. Phloem-mobile signals affecting flowers: applications for crop breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Roisin C; Kragler, Friedrich

    2013-04-01

    Transport of endogenous macromolecules within and between tissues serves as a signaling pathway to regulate numerous aspects of plant growth. The florigenic FT gene product moves via the phloem from leaves to apical tissues and induces the flowering program in meristems. Similarly, short interfering RNA (siRNA) signals produced in source or sink tissues move cell-to-cell and long distance via the phloem to apical tissues. Recent advances in identifying these mobile signals regulating flowering or the epigenetic status of targeted tissues can be applicable to crop-breeding programs. In this review, we address the identity of florigen, the mechanism of allocation, and how virus-induced flowering and grafting of transgenes producing siRNA signals affecting meiosis can produce transgene-free progenies useful for agriculture.

  9. Conceptual and Empirical Themes regarding the Design of Technology Transfer Programs: A Review of Wood Utilization Research in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ellefson, Paul V.; Kilgore, Michael A.; Skog, Kenneth E.; Risbrudt, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Transfer of technologies produced by research is critical to innovation within all organizations. The intent of this paper is to take stock of the conceptual underpinnings of technology transfer processes as they relate to wood utilization research and to identify conditions that promote the successful transfer of research results. Conceptually, research utilization can be viewed from multiple perspectives, including the haphazard diffusion of knowledge in response to vague and imprecise dema...

  10. Geo energy research and development: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeger, R.K.

    1982-03-01

    Sandia Geo Energy Programs related to geothermal, coal, oil and gas, and synfuel resources have provided a useful mechanism for transferring laboratory technologies to private industry. Significant transfer of hardware, computer programs, diagnostics and instrumentation, advanced materials, and in situ process understanding has occurred through US/DOE supported programs in the past five years. The text briefly reviews the technology transfer procedures and summarizes 32 items that have been transferred and another 20 technologies that are now being considered for possible transfer to industry. A major factor in successful transfer has been personal interactions between Sandia engineers and the technical staff from private industry during all aspects of the technology development.

  11. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.

    2008-01-01

    The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...... into the crop can be helped by diversification within the crop, allowing complementation and compensation among plants. Although the problems of breeding cereals for organic farming systems are large, there is encouraging progress. This lies in applications of ecology to organic crop production, innovations...

  12. Under-forest Breeding Pattern and the Practice Form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zhong-ming

    2012-01-01

    Through the development in recent years, China’s under-forest breeding pattern can be divided into four kinds of practice form of under-forest breeding pattern (the pattern of breeding driven by leading enterprises; the pattern of breeding driven by intermediary economic organizations; the pattern of breeding driven by the professional wholesale market; the pattern of breeding driven by the modern animal husbandry demonstration areas), according to difference in the main body participating in signing the operation contract in breeding pattern. In the production practice of under-forest breeding pattern, the most widely used and successful pattern is the pattern of breeding driven by leading enterprises and its derivative forms.

  13. Technology transfer 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This document, Technology Transfer 94, is intended to communicate that there are many opportunities available to US industry and academic institutions to work with DOE and its laboratories and facilities in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. It has seven major sections: Introduction, Technology Transfer Activities, Access to Laboratories and Facilities, Laboratories and Facilities, DOE Office, Technologies, and an Index. Technology Transfer Activities highlights DOE`s recent developments in technology transfer and describes plans for the future. Access to Laboratories and Facilities describes the many avenues for cooperative interaction between DOE laboratories or facilities and industry, academia, and other government agencies. Laboratories and Facilities profiles the DOE laboratories and facilities involved in technology transfer and presents information on their missions, programs, expertise, facilities, and equipment, along with data on whom to contact for additional information on technology transfer. DOE Offices summarizes the major research and development programs within DOE. It also contains information on how to access DOE scientific and technical information. Technologies provides descriptions of some of the new technologies developed at DOE laboratories and facilities.

  14. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in local cattle breeds of Senegal based on autosomal microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndèye Penda Ndiaye

    2015-08-01

    productivity and adaptation relative to global changes. For the development of sustainable breeding and crossbreeding programs of Senegalese local breeds, effective management is needed towards genetic selection and transhumance to ensure their long-term survival.

  15. Estimating superpopulation size and annual probability of breeding for pond-breeding salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkead, K.E.; Otis, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    It has long been accepted that amphibians can skip breeding in any given year, and environmental conditions act as a cue for breeding. In this paper, we quantify temporary emigration or nonbreeding probability for mole and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum and A. maculatum). We estimated that 70% of mole salamanders may skip breeding during an average rainfall year and 90% may skip during a drought year. Spotted salamanders may be more likely to breed, with only 17% avoiding the breeding pond during an average rainfall year. We illustrate how superpopulations can be estimated using temporary emigration probability estimates. The superpopulation is the total number of salamanders associated with a given breeding pond. Although most salamanders stay within a certain distance of a breeding pond for the majority of their life spans, it is difficult to determine true overall population sizes for a given site if animals are only captured during a brief time frame each year with some animals unavailable for capture at any time during a given year. ?? 2007 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  16. Propriedades do pólen e do estigma de Ocimum basilicum L. (cultivar Maria Bonita para aumentar a eficiência de cruzamentos em programas de melhoramento Ocimum basilicum L. (cultivar Maria Bonita pollen and stigma properties to improve the efficiency of crossings in plant breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C Brito

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum, cv. Maria Bonita (Lamiaceae, conhecido como manjericão, é espécie que apresenta propriedades aromáticas, condimentares e medicinais, por ser rico emóleos essenciais. É muito usado nas indústrias farmacêuticas e de alimentos em geral. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as propriedades do pólen e estigma do manjericão (cultivar Maria Bonita identificando procedimentos simples que possam contribuir para programas de melhoramento. Para análise da disponibilidade, viabilidade do pólen e receptividade de estigma, botões florais foram coletados de hora em hora ao longo do dia, e lâminas eram montadas e coradas, para observação em microscópio óptico. Foi verificado que o manjericão apresenta antese diurna, assincrônica e com a maioria das flores se abrindo entre 10:00 e 11:00 horas. Quanto ao estudo do pólen foi verificado que a viabilidade manteve-se elevada ao longo do dia e a conservação por até 90 dias demonstrou bons níveis de viabilidade. O estigma apresentou receptividade desde a pré-antese até a pós-antese. Estas informações são relevantes para os melhoristas que desejam fazer seleção de genótipos ou hibridações em programas de melhoramento, contribuindo para aumentar o potencial da espécie que já se destaca como produtora de óleos essenciais.Known as basil, Ocimum basilicum cv. Maria Bonita (Lamiaceae is a species that presents aromatic, condimental and medicinal properties, since it is rich in essential oils. This species is largely used in pharmaceutical and food industries. The aim of this work was to study basil (cultivar Maria Bonita pollen and stigma properties, identifying simple procedures that can contribute to plant breeding programs. To analyze pollen availability and viability, besides stigma receptivity, flower buds were collected at every hour throughout the day, and slides were mounted, stained and observed under an optical microscope. Basil presented diurnal

  17. Genome-wide association and genomic selection in animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ben; Goddard, Mike

    2010-11-01

    Results from genome-wide association studies in livestock, and humans, has lead to the conclusion that the effect of individual quantitative trait loci (QTL) on complex traits, such as yield, are likely to be small; therefore, a large number of QTL are necessary to explain genetic variation in these traits. Given this genetic architecture, gains from marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs using only a small number of DNA markers to trace a limited number of QTL is likely to be small. This has lead to the development of alternative technology for using the available dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information, called genomic selection. Genomic selection uses a genome-wide panel of dense markers so that all QTL are likely to be in linkage disequilibrium with at least one SNP. The genomic breeding values are predicted to be the sum of the effect of these SNPs across the entire genome. In dairy cattle breeding, the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) that can be achieved and the fact that these are available early in life have lead to rapid adoption of the technology. Here, we discuss the design of experiments necessary to achieve accurate prediction of GEBV in future generations in terms of the number of markers necessary and the size of the reference population where marker effects are estimated. We also present a simple method for implementing genomic selection using a genomic relationship matrix. Future challenges discussed include using whole genome sequence data to improve the accuracy of genomic selection and management of inbreeding through genomic relationships.

  18. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered Spanish Guadarrama goat breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Magdalena; Calvo, Jorge H; Martínez, Marta; Marcos-Carcavilla, Ane; Cuevas, Javier; González, Carmen; Jurado, Juan J; de Tejada, Paloma Díez

    2009-01-01

    comprehensive management of these populations, which in combination with the actual breeding program to increase milk yield, will constitute a good strategy to preserve the breed. PMID:19785776

  19. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered Spanish Guadarrama goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurado Juan J

    2009-09-01

    facilitate the comprehensive management of these populations, which in combination with the actual breeding program to increase milk yield, will constitute a good strategy to preserve the breed.

  20. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  1. Students Involved in Animal Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Emilia Cadar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In last decade, Romanian agriculture does not follow entirely the European and programs as concerns land exploitation and animal farming (SAPARD. Restrictive development projects (POS-MEDIU, POS-DRU, POS-CCE were active only in large private farms, which represent only 10.7% of the total registered farms in Romania. Was used a questionnaire for 36 students of our faculty, which have animal farms in 7 counties in Northwest of Transylvania. The study want to put into evidence the current problems of farmers in conditions of some private farms with small and middle number of animals. As small farms, they do not obtain important productions because of financial resource absence, limited professional education and absence of association in bigger exploitation farms. In these situations, the government must react providing a legal frame for rural agricultural development, supporting and supervising these small exploitations.

  2. Breed differences in calving interval in the humid Mexican tropic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Medina, Aída Lorena; Córdova-Izquierdo, Alejandro; Soriano Robles, Ramón; Mendoza Martínez, Germán David; Castillo-Juárez, Héctor

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of breed, breed and sex of the calf, farm, calving number (CN), type of calving, and their interactions on CI using records from four different beef breeds performing in the humid tropical environment of Mexico. The influence of these factors on CN was also evaluated. CI and CN varied with farm, breed of the dam, and with breed of the dam by calf breed interaction (PAngus cows, although with an apparent unexpected negative impact on CN.

  3. Analysis of the performance test results of young pure breed boars from the Bydgoszcz breeding region in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna MICHALSKA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented paper was analysis of the performance test results of young pure breed boars coming from The Bydgoszcz Breeding Region (located in Poland in Kujawy-Pomorze Province. The research covered the results concerning 4190 young boars of following breeds: Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Hampshire, Duroc and Pietrain. Young pure breed boars were performance tested in 2009 and 2010 in The Bydgoszcz Breeding Region according to the actual methodology. Among young pure breed boars performance tested in The Bydgoszcz Breeding Region in tested years animals of Hampshire breed had the higher growth rate. The pigs of Pietrain breed had the highest meat content. Regarding to the most important parameter of performance test, i.e. selection index in analyzed years 2009 and 2010 the best results had young boars of Hampshire then Pietrain, Duroc, PLW and PL.

  4. Variance estimation between different body measurements at the males population from Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Dronca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog, was selected from a natural population breed in Carpathian Mountains. The aim of this paper was to estimate variance at 12 body measurements using 26 males from Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog breed. The animals were registered with the Romanian Mioritic Association Club from Romania. The statistical data showed that there is a large variance for body length and tail length, a middle variance for the croup width and thorax width and a small variance for height at withers, height at middle of back, height at croup, height at the base of the tail, depth of thorax, thoracic perimeter, elbow height and height of the hock. We recommend of breeders dogs from this breed to take account in genetic improvement programs, of values presented in this paper.

  5. Characterization of Doayo and Kapsiki taurine cattle breeds of Cameroon in their natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebangi, A Lot; Achukwi, M D; Messine, O; Abba, D

    2011-08-01

    Data were collected on live weight (LW), heart girth (HG), height-at-withers (HW), trunk length (TL), age, sex, and coat color of 207 taurines cattle--122 of the Doayo (Namchi) breed and 85 of the Kapsiki (Kirdi) breed. The animals, aged 1 to 20 years, were selected from 60 herds randomly selected from villages of Poli of Faro and Mokolo of Tsanga, divisions of the North and Far North Regions of Cameroon. The data were analyzed using the SAS program with a linear model, applying standard tests. Results indicated no breed effect (P > 0.05) in the growth trends of LW, HG, HW, and TL. HG and TL were highly significantly (P 0.05) significantly. The breeds attained maturity as from 4 years. In the absence of breed effect (P > 0.05), a single regression equation was established for the estimation of live weight as thus LW = -244.42 (±22.57) kg + 2.49 (±0.23) HG + 1.04 (±0.25) TL, with HG contributing up to 70% of total variation and TL, 2%. This equation could be used to develop a measuring band useful in the rural environment for commercial and clinical veterinary purposes.

  6. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.

    2005-06-29

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.

  7. Next generation sequencing and omics in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) breeding directed research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Zieliński, Konrad; Zielińska, Dorota; Pląder, Wojciech; Yagi, Kouhei; Wojcieszek, Michał; Siedlecka, Ewa; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    In the post-genomic era the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading us to novel generation methods in plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. In this study we have mainly concentrated on the Cucumis sativus and (but much less) Cucurbitaceae family several important vegetable crops. There are many reports on research conducted in Cucurbitaceae plant breeding programs on the ripening process, phloem transport, disease resistance, cold tolerance and fruit quality traits. This paper presents the role played by new omic technologies in the creation of knowledge on the mechanisms of the formation of the breeding features. The analysis of NGS (NGS-next generation sequencing) data allows the discovery of new genes and regulatory sequences, their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Firstly a high density map should be created for the reference genome, then each re-sequencing data could be mapped and new markers brought out into breeding populations. The paper also presents methods that could be used in the future for the creation of variability and genomic modification of the species in question. It has been shown also the state and usefulness in breeding the chloroplastomic and mitochondriomic study.

  8. Genetic parameters for milk production traits and breeding goals for Gir dairy cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, M A; Faro, L E; Moreira, H L; Verneque, R S; Vercesi Filho, A E; Peixoto, M G C D; Cardoso, V L

    2015-10-19

    To implement an animal breeding program, it is important to define the production circumstances of the animals of interest to determine which traits of economic interest will be selected for the breeding goal. The present study defined breeding goals and proposed selection indices for milk production and quality traits of Gir dairy cattle. First, a bioeconomic model was developed to calculate economic values. The genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated based on records from 22,468 first-lactation Gir dairy cows and their crosses for which calving occurred between 1970 and 2011. Statistical analyses were carried out for the animal model, with multitrait analyses using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Two situations were created in the present study to define the breeding goals: 1) including only milk yield in the breeding goal (HGL1) and 2) including fat and protein in addition to the milk yield (HGL2). The heritability estimates for milk, protein, and fat production were 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.26 ± 0.02, and 0.24 ± 0.02, respectively. All phenotypic and genetic correlations were highly positive. The economic values for milk, fat, and protein were US$0.18, US$0.27, and US$7.04, respectively. The expected economic responses for HGL2 and for HGL1 were US$126.30 and US$79.82, respectively. These results indicate that milk component traits should be included in a selection index to rank animals evaluated in the National Gir Dairy Breeding Program developed in Brazil.

  9. Genetic Diversity of Bali Cattle Based on Microsatellite Marker in Indonesian Breeding Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Septian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetics characterization in livestock based on microsatellite has been widely implemented including for Bali cattle in three different breeding centres in Indonesia. This study aimed to determine diversity of Bali cattle microsatellites in three breeding centers namely BPTU Bali cattle in Bali, BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa in West Nusa Tenggara, and Village Breeding Center in South Sulawesi. The number of animals used in this study was 95 head of cattle consisted of 32 heads from BPTU Bali Province, 32 heads from BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa, and 31 heads from Village Barru Breeding Center Barru distric. Microsatellite loci used to determine the diversity was the locus SPS115, INRA037, MM12, and ETH185 based on flourescently labeled fragment method. Data analysis of microsatellite in Bali cattle at three different locations was performed by using POPGEN 1.2, Cervus, and POPTREE2 programs. The results showed that microsatellite diversity in Bali cattle detected 32 alleles from three different locations, and there were specific alleles at each location. Average values of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He were 0.418 and 0.604 respectively, while the average value of polymorphism informative content (PIC was 0.579. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in general suggested that the loci used in the Bali cattle in three populations were in equilibrium, except INRA037 and ETH185. The genetic diversity between populations of Bali cattle was 0.033 (3%, while the inbreeding coefficient index in all populations was 0.296 (29.6 %. Bali cattle phylogeny tree with three populations showed that the populations of Bali cattle in BPTU Bali and VBC Barru had close genetic distance compared to the population of Bali cattle in BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa. The results of this study provide information that the characteristics of Bali cattle breeding centers in three locations are different, so we need a directed breeding program in each population.

  10. Development and application of biological technologies in fish genetic breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kang; Duan, Wei; Xiao, Jun; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun

    2015-02-01

    Fish genetic breeding is a process that remolds heritable traits to obtain neotype and improved varieties. For the purpose of genetic improvement, researchers can select for desirable genetic traits, integrate a suite of traits from different donors, or alter the innate genetic traits of a species. These improved varieties have, in many cases, facilitated the development of the aquaculture industry by lowering costs and increasing both quality and yield. In this review, we present the pertinent literatures and summarize the biological bases and application of selection breeding technologies (containing traditional selective breeding, molecular marker-assisted breeding, genome-wide selective breeding and breeding by controlling single-sex groups), integration breeding technologies (containing cross breeding, nuclear transplantation, germline stem cells and germ cells transplantation, artificial gynogenesis, artificial androgenesis and polyploid breeding) and modification breeding technologies (represented by transgenic breeding) in fish genetic breeding. Additionally, we discuss the progress our laboratory has made in the field of chromosomal ploidy breeding of fish, including distant hybridization, gynogenesis, and androgenesis. Finally, we systematically summarize the research status and known problems associated with each technology.

  11. Rapid cyling plant breeding in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...

  12. Breeding and Cytogenetics in the Genus Tulipa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasek Ciolakowska, A.R.; Ramanna, M.S.; Arens, P.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Tulip (Tulipa) is one of the most important ornamental bulbous plants, which has been cultivated for cut flower, potted plant, garden plant and for landscaping. Species from the different sections display complementary agronomic characteristics and breeding techniques are used to combine desired fea

  13. Breeding for trypanotolerance in African cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, van der E.H.

    2001-01-01

    Trypanosomosis, or sleeping sickness, is one of the most important livestock diseases in Africa. Some West African cattle breeds show a degree of resistance to a trypanosome infection: they are trypanotolerant. At the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in Nairobi, Kenya, an F2 experim

  14. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eissen, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows, respectively

  15. Breed differences in behavioural development in kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchei, P; Diverio, S; Falocci, N; Fatjó, J; Ruiz-de-la-Torre, J L; Manteca, X

    2009-03-23

    Differences in behaviour of pure breed cats have been suggested but not wholly investigated. Oriental/Siamese/Abyssinian (OSA) kittens (n=43) were weekly compared with Norwegian Forest (NFO) kittens (n=39) from the 4th to the 10th week of age in a repeated Open Field Test (OFT) paradigm. Heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (RT) before and after the test, and behavioural responses during the OFT were recorded. Behaviours registered were analysed by focal animal sampling. Significant breed differences were found; cats of the northern zones (NFO) seem to develop earlier thermoregulatory abilities. Precocious opening of eyes, higher locomotion scores and longer time spent standing, observed in OSA kittens may indicate an earlier neurological development. Inter breed differences recorded for exploration and locomotion seem to indicate coping style divergences: in the OFT challenging situation OSA kittens presented higher emotional tachycardia and performed more passively, with a faster decline in exploration and locomotion scores. NFO kittens exerted a more active behaviour as they spent more time exploring the arena and in escape attempts. Notwithstanding OSA and NFO cat selection was mainly aimed to improve divergent morphological traits, some different behavioural and physiological traits seem to have been maintained or co-selected within each breed.

  16. San Diego Zoo:Success in Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Giant pandas have become very popular in U.S.zoos. One in particular, the San Diego Zoo, has been extremely successful at making the pandas feel at home and getting them to breed. In 1999, it became home tothe first surviving panda cub born in the United States.

  17. Evaluation of charge breeding options for EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, P; Lamy, T; Marie-Jeanne, M; Kester, O; Wenander, F

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive study of charge breeding techniques for the most ambitious ISOL-facility project, EURISOL, is presented here. It is based on results obtained during the past years at CERN-ISOLDE and LPSC Grenoble with charge breeders of both ECR and EBIS types.

  18. Marketing potential of advanced breeding clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  19. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTIONThe investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm man

  20. Applied Genetics and Genomics in Alfalfa Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Charles Brummer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., a perennial and outcrossing species, is a widely planted forage legume for hay, pasture and silage throughout the world. Currently, alfalfa breeding relies on recurrent phenotypic selection, but alternatives incorporating molecular marker assisted breeding could enhance genetic gain per unit time and per unit cost, and accelerate alfalfa improvement. Many major quantitative trait loci (QTL related to agronomic traits have been identified by family-based QTL mapping, but in relatively large genomic regions. Candidate genes elucidated from model species have helped to identify some potential causal loci in alfalfa mapping and breeding population for specific traits. Recently, high throughput sequencing technologies, coupled with advanced bioinformatics tools, have been used to identify large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in alfalfa, which are being developed into markers. These markers will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative traits and genome wide association mapping of agronomic traits and further advanced breeding strategies for alfalfa, such as marker-assisted selection and genomic selection. Based on ideas from the literature, we suggest several ways to improve selection in alfalfa including (1 diversity selection and paternity testing, (2 introgression of QTL and (3 genomic selection.

  1. Plant Breeding by Using Radiation Mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Geung Joo (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomic researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasm, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomic and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits.

  2. Seabird metapopulations: searching for alternative breeding habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Snep, R.P.H.; Schotman, A.G.M.; Jochem, R.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Slim, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Today, many seabird species nest in port areas, which are also necessary for human economic activity. In this paper, we evaluate, using a metapopulation model, the possibilities for creating alternative breeding sites for the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) in the Rhine¿Meuse¿Scheldt estuary. We explor

  3. Breeding for longevity in Italian Chianina cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forabosco, F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to evaluate genetic aspects of longevity (LPL) in the Chianina beef cattle population in order to define how to include this trait in selection criteria. The Chianina breed has been raised for over twenty-two centuries inItaly

  4. Pericardial effusion in a mixed breed dog.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    A 7-year-old, spayed female mixed breed dog was evaluated for labored breathing, lethargy, and a distended abdomen. Pericardial effusion was diagnosed after radiographic and echocardiographic interpretation. Treatment consisted of thoracocentesis and a single pericardiocentesis. Follow-up examinations indicate that the dog's condition has remained stable.

  5. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.

    2011-01-01

      The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male reproduction. The study was performed using existing databases

  6. Artificial Breeding Techniques of Whitmania pigra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Nan; Xu; Ziliang

    2014-01-01

    The artificial breeding technology for juvenile of Whitmania pigra was introduced in the paper,including selection of sites and water quality,construction of spawning pool,hatching pool and escape proof facilities,key technology of leech selection,feeding,cocoon hatching,juvenile feeding and management.

  7. Estimation of linkage disequilibrium in four US pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badke Yvonne M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of marker assisted selection depends on the amount of linkage disequilibrium (LD across the genome. To implement marker assisted selection in the swine breeding industry, information about extent and degree of LD is essential. The objective of this study is to estimate LD in four US breeds of pigs (Duroc, Hampshire, Landrace, and Yorkshire and subsequently calculate persistence of phase among them using a 60 k SNP panel. In addition, we report LD when using only a fraction of the available markers, to estimate persistence of LD over distance. Results Average r2 between adjacent SNP across all chromosomes was 0.36 for Landrace, 0.39 for Yorkshire, 0.44 for Hampshire and 0.46 for Duroc. For markers 1 Mb apart, r2 ranged from 0.15 for Landrace to 0.20 for Hampshire. Reducing the marker panel to 10% of its original density, average r2 ranged between 0.20 for Landrace to 0.25 for Duroc. We also estimated persistence of phase as a measure of prediction reliability of markers in one breed by those in another and found that markers less than 10 kb apart could be predicted with a maximal accuracy of 0.92 for Landrace with Yorkshire. Conclusions Our estimates of LD, although in good agreement with previous reports, are more comprehensive and based on a larger panel of markers. Our estimates also confirmed earlier findings reporting higher LD in pigs than in American Holstein cattle, especially at increasing marker distances (> 1 Mb. High average LD (r2 > 0.4 between adjacent SNP found in this study is an important precursor for the implementation of marker assisted selection within a livestock species. Results of this study are relevant to the US purebred pig industry and critical for the design of programs of whole genome marker assisted evaluation and selection. In addition, results indicate that a more cost efficient implementation of marker assisted selection using low density panels with genotype imputation, would be

  8. The role of water in animal breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Serrantoni

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of water in animal breeding must be extended to a wider context than the animal production area, considering that 70% of the water used in the world is consumed by the whole production chain (agriculture and animal production. Therefore has a great importance the connection with other fields of the chain, as the fodder-growing and the cereal-growing, together with the evaluation and quantification of the environmental impacts. Water, that plays an essential role in the breeding, assumes different importance in relation to the animal class (birds, fish and mammals and to the animal species. Therefore are extremely different the water requirements and the water consumptions, that are moreover strongly influenced by many factors, such as the dry matter, the climatic breeding conditions, together with the individual animal features. All that represents the starting point to determine the strategies and the ways of the water giving in animal breeding, related to the technological, project and management aspects. Besides the quantitative aspects, water must be considered as food, because it is necessary to animal survival. The importance of the quality of water used in animal breeding and its nutritional role is closely related to the qualitative characteristics and to the presence of residual and polluting substances. The animal production chain, moreover, can produce environmental impacts on the aquatic ecosystems and therefore a particular attention goes to end uses of water as output of the whole animal production chain and to the quantification of the impacts, that is extremely complicate and difficult, depending on many variables. The considerations related to animal production chain assume a different value in the productive context of the management of the water resources in the third countries.

  9. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  10. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C;

    was shared across breed. Second, sequence data was used to quantify the loss in prediction reliabilities that results from using genomic markers rather than the causal variants. 50, 100 or 250 causative mutations were simulated and different sets of prediction markers were used to predict genomic...... relationships at causative mutations. Prediction of genomic relationships at causative mutations was most accurate when predicted by a selective number of markers within 1 Kb of the causative mutations. Whole-genome sequence data can help to get closer to the causative mutations and therefore improve genomic......Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed...

  11. BREED PREFERENCES AND EFFECTIVENESS OF BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH URAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mashenkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of beekeeping is defined by breed of bees and melliferous herbs. In the conditions of sharply continental climate of South Ural, duration of success of beekeeping is provided with breed of bees.

  12. Four Square Mile Survey breeding population report for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Production report of Four Square Mile Survey breeding population estimates for 13 species of ducks. Data includes summaries of breeding population estimates...

  13. H2020 EU Research & Innovation Program Boost the Transfer of Technological Breakthroughs, Enable New Solutions for Personalised Health and Impact the Industry and Healthcare Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Paul H; Lymberis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    , genes) on the spot, with short response times. For the majority of the projects, the planning for the next phase of prototype validation, through product design, supply chain setup, user targeting, clinical validation and commercial roll-out is now taking full attention. However, significant hurdles exist in the successful translation of the new technology to new products. As these technologies are new-to-the-world the resulting products carry a high risk, often necessitating the creation of new companies. Therefore the EU has developed the Horizon 2020 program as a framework for technology development and new business creation. Horizon 2020 is focusing on support for technology transfer, and on building ecosystems and value chains to ensure shorter times-to-market, thus enabling a higher impact of knowledge-based technologies. This paper will argue the necessity of developing these new class of devices, discuss its state-of-the-art, and the challenges for the implementation of Horizon 2020 and the new opportunities in intelligent miniaturized systems for pHealth.

  14. Breeding objectives, selection criteria and breeding system of indigenous goat types in bale zone, oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belete Asefa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken in bale zone to assess farmer’s selective breeding objectives, trait preferences, selection criteria and breeding system October 2012 to November 2013. A purposive and multistage sampling technique was applied for selection of 3 district and 9 kebeles. Then 360 households were selected by using simple random sampling techniques after the list of pastoralist having goats was identified. Statistical analysis system version 9.1 was used for analysis of data. Indices, effective population size and rate of inbreeding were calculated on average each respondent holds about 14 goats. Milk production is the main reason of goat keeping in the study area. Appearance is the first rank as selection criteria for male and female in all studies area. About 47.8% of the respondents have their own buck. The main use of breeding buck in the study area was for mating purpose (76.2%. Mean estimate of effective population size and mean rate of inbreeding was 2.43 and 0.21, respectively when a household flock is herded alone and under random mating. Therefore, any breed improvement strategies that are intended to be implemented in the study area and else- where should consider the traditional breeding practices and breeding objectives of the community.

  15. Breeding biology and nestling development of the Grasshopper Buzzard

    OpenAIRE

    Buij, R.; Kortekaas, K.; Folkertsma, I.; Van Der Velde, M.; Komdeur, J.; H. H. de Iongh; A. Monadjem

    2012-01-01

    Research into the effect of environmental variables on reproductive success of tropical raptors is often constrained by the lack of information on breeding biology. We provide the first detailed information of the breeding biology and nestling development of the Grasshopper Buzzard Butastur rufipennis, an Afrotropical migratory raptor threatened by extensive land transformation in its breeding range. Breeding coincided with the transition from the dry to the wet season. The mean incubation pe...

  16. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe.

  17. Genomic prediction across dairy cattle populations and breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lei

    Genomic prediction is successful in single breed genetic evaluation. However, there is no achievement in acoress breed prediction until now. This thesis investigated genomic prediction across populations and breeds using Chinese Holsterin, Nordic Holstein, Norwgian Red, and Nordic Red. Nordic Red...

  18. The Evolution and Ecology of Cooperative Breeding in Vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Eikenaar, Cas; Brouwer, Lyanne; Richardson, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative breeding – in which some adults forgo independent breeding and remain as subordinates within a group helping to raise the offspring of others – occurs in between 3% and 10% of vertebrates. The structure of such systems varies greatly, from pairs with helpers-at-the-nest to communal breed

  19. The use of clones in dairy cattle breeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to determine a breeding scheme that optimally uses large scale production of genetically identical individuals (clones) in dairy cattle. Such a breeding scheme should optimize the continuous genetic improvement of the breeding population (genetic response), and the selecti

  20. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WHOLE GRAINS IN COMMON BEANS LANDRACES AND BREEDING GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Antonio Peripolli Bevilaqua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The common bean has been object of breeding programs aiming the development of new cultivars adapted to varied production system and shown differentiated nutritional characteristics. Due a genetic diversity existent the landraces can be used directly for cropping, for present characteristics desirable. Little information exists about mineral content and other quality traits for those bean landraces. The aim of this paper was to verify the variability for grain nutricional caracters in breeding cultivars and landraces of bean from Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in 2009/2010 in Experimental Station Cascata, of Embrapa Temperate Agriculture. In whole grain of 54 bean genotypes with black and no black coat were determined macroelements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, calcium, magnesium and sulfur, oligoelements (iron, manganese, zinc and cuprum, protein and ash content, insoluble fiber, digestive nutrient and antioxidant astragalina. The results shown that the landraces varieties presents nutritional composition of macro and oligoelements, fibers, protein and ash contents in whole grain similar than that of breeding lines and cultivars. The black coat grain from breeding programs showed better nutritional quality for macro and oligoelements content than coloured grain, highlighting TB 02-04 e TB 01-01. The landraces with coloured grains TB 02-26, TB 02-24 and TB 03-13 showed the high levels of astragaline.