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Sample records for breeding program transfer

  1. Cytogenetics and immature embryo culture at Embrapa Trigo breeding program: transfer of disease resistance from related species by artificial resynthesis of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Baggio de Moraes Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell, 2n = 6X = 42, AABBDD breeding programs aim to reorganize genotypes to achieve better yields, environmental adaptation and food quality. The necessary interdisciplinarity for breeding purposes requires an accurate choice of the most appropriate cellular and/or molecular strategies available to be integrated with agronomic approaches in order to overcome the genetic limitation of each cultivated species, at each agroecosystem. Cytogenetics has given a great contribution to wheat genetic studies and breeding, due to viability of chromosomal variants because of homoeology among genomes in this allohexaploid species and the genus Triticum. The level of development of cytogenetic techniques achieved over the last 60 years has set wheat apart from other cereal crops in terms of possibilities to introduce genetic material from other species. Cytogenetic approaches have been extensively used in chromosomal mapping and/or resistance gene transference from tribe Triticeae-related species. Monosomic analysis, entire chromosomes engineered through single additions and/or substitutions, reciprocal translocation through radiation or manipulation of homoeologous pairing, as well as synthesis of new amphiploids to allow homologous recombination by chiasmata evolved considerably since the past decades. The association of tissue culture and molecular biology techniques provides bread wheat breeding programs with a powerful set of biotechnological tools. However, knowledge on genetic system components, cytotaxonomical relationships, cytogenetic structure and evolutionary history of wheat species cannot be neglected. This information indicates the appropriate strategy to avoid isolation mechanisms in interspecific or intergeneric crosses, according to the genome constitution of the species the desired gene is to be transferred from. The development of amphiploids as "bridge" species is one of the available procedures

  2. Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngeno, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the

  3. An Interdistrict Transfer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Norman

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before the May 1974 public hearings of the New York City Commission on Human Rights by the Administrator, Urban-Suburban Transfer Program and Inter district Transfer Program, West Irondequoit School District, New York, reviews a program which began with 25 minority group youngsters from one racially-imbalanced Rochester school…

  4. The value of embryo transfer to cattle breeding in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmut, I; Hume, A

    1978-08-05

    An analysis is made of the maximum expenditure which could be justified in embryo transfer in cattle is used to: increase the rate of genetic improvement of dairy or beef cattle; increase the frequency of twin-pregnancies; and expedite a change of breed. Estimates of maximum justifiable expenditure have been compared with an estimate of the cost of non-surgical transfer. Embryo transfer should be used in elite beef herds to increase selection intensity, particularly if bulls from such herds can be used for artificial insemination. Other commercial applications will not be economically justifiable until the cost of transfer has fallen by 50 to 80 per cent.

  5. Breeding strategies for north central tree improvement programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald P. Overton; Hyun Kang

    1985-01-01

    The rationales and concepts of long-term tree breeding are discussed and compared with those for short-term breeding. A model breeding program is reviewed which maximizes short-term genetic gain for currently important traits and provides genetic resources that can be used effectively in future short-term breeding. The resources of the north-central region are examined...

  6. NOTE - Program R: applications in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alexandre Peternelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the demand for so-called free, or open source software for data analysis as well as the appeal to use it isgreat. An public domain software that has become extremely well-known, with ever-increasing numbers of fans and even coworkers, is Environment R, or simply R. R is extremely useful for data analysis and manipulation in view of a range of tools alreadyimplemented. Also, R is not simply a statistical program, because, by its easy on using internal functions and also creating new ones,statistical procedures applied to data can also be created, manipulated, evaluated and interpreted. R contains numerous libraries(or packages, some already included in the default setting. This course will focus on the application of R in statistical analyses inplant breeding. Explanations on the use of various commands and functions will be illustrated with examples, to facilitate theinterpretation and adaptation to other similar problems.

  7. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stephen Baenziger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal, followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region beginning with the F6 generation. Yield analyses from replicated trials at two organic breeding sites and 7 conventional breeding sites from F6 through F12 nurseries revealed, using analyses of variance, biplots, and comparisons of selected lines that it is inappropriate to use data from conventional testing for making germplasm selections for organic production. Selecting and testing lines under organic production practices in different ecological regions was also needed and cultivar selections for organic production were different than those for conventional production. Modifications to this breeding protocol may include growing early generation bulks in an organic cropping system. In the future, our selection efforts should also focus on using state-of-the-art, non-transgenic breeding technologies (genomic selection, marker-assisted breeding, and high throughput phenotyping to synergistically improve organic and conventional wheat breeding.

  8. Optimisation of selective breeding program for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trong, T.Q.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to optimise the selective breeding program for Nile tilapia in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. Two breeding schemes, the “classic” BLUP scheme following the GIFT method (with pair mating) and a rotational mating scheme with own performance selection and

  9. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Agrawal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry,viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test. Results: The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05 among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p0.05 difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63- 5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens. Conclusion: No significant difference in the rate of transfer of IgY was observed in four breeds studied (viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown and moderate seropositivity was detected for Salmonella-specific antibodies in progeny chicks.

  10. Heat transfer characteristics of breeding zone in TBM of KOREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Dae; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Dong Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In South Korea, lithium, Helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) has been designed to install in ITER and verify the tritium production and the heat extraction. Helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) is composed of four sub-modules and a common back manifold (BM). The HCCR TBM is cooled by a high temperature helium coolant of 300 .deg. C. The breeder, a neutron multiplier and reflector are included in the HCCR TBM. TBM is essential device to verify the tritium production and the heat extraction. The continuous deuterium-tritium (D-T) reaction should occur in order to generate heat and neutrons. The generated neutrons will react with lithium which is breeder. The margin to the allowable temperature for the breeder have a little with the conceptual design model of HCCR-TBM. Some feasible methods was discussed to lower the temperature of the breeding zone. The contact resistance between the wall and pebble beds was main factor to determine the breeder temperature. The installation of the cooling fins was considered to reduce the heat transfer resistance between the wall and the pebble beds. Thermal-hydraulic analysis was performed.

  11. Usefulness of portable near infrared spectroscopy in olive breeding programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Moreno, L.

    2012-11-01

    The usefulness of portable near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a simple and efficient method to determine some of the main selection traits in olive breeding is evaluated in this work. Calibration models were developed and evaluated using partial least squares (PLS) regression from samples collected in different selection steps of the breeding work and under different experimental conditions. The results showed that accurate enough models (values of correlation between actual and predicted constituent higher than 0.9) were obtained for oil and moisture content in both cross validation and prediction results. Portable NIR spectroscopy could be used for selection of genotypes on the basis of these characters, providing similar ranking of genotypes than reference methods both in different selection steps of the breeding process (progenies and selection plots) and different experimental conditions (on-tree or under laboratory conditions). The advantages of this technique to improve the efficiency of the evaluation process in olive breeding programs are discussed. (Author) 21 refs.

  12. Genomic Tools in Cowpea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukar, Ousmane; Fatokun, Christian A.; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A.; Close, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds, and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids, and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS)-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS), promises an increase in the number of improved

  13. Genomic tools in cowpea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousmane eBoukar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS, promises an increase in the number of

  14. BREED: a CDC-7600 computer program for the automation of breeder reactor design analysis (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelore, N.R.; Maher, C.M.

    1985-03-01

    BREED is an executive CDC-7600 program which was developed to facilitate the sequence of calculations and movement of data through a prescribed series of breeder reactor design computer programs in an uninterrupted single-job mode. It provides the capability to interface different application programs into a single computer run to provide a complete design function. The automation that can be achieved as a result of using BREED significantly reduces not only the time required for data preparation and hand transfer of data, but also the time required to complete an iteration of the total design effort. Data processing within a technical discipline and data transfer between technical disciplines can be accommodated. The input/output data processing is achieved with BREED by using a set of simple, easily understood user commands, usually short descriptive words, which the user inserts in his input deck. The input deck completely identifies and controls the calculational sequence needed to produce a desired end product. This report has been prepared to provide instructional material on the use of BREED and its user-oriented procedures to facilitate computer automation of design calculations

  15. Developments in amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Gemma; Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2016-04-01

    Captive breeding and reintroduction remain high profile but controversial conservation interventions. It is important to understand how such programs develop and respond to strategic conservation initiatives. We analyzed the contribution to conservation made by amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction since the launch of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP) in 2007. We assembled data on amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction from a variety of sources including the Amphibian Ark database and the IUCN Red List. We also carried out systematic searches of Web of Science, JSTOR, and Google Scholar for relevant literature. Relative to data collected from 1966 to 2006, the number of species involved in captive breeding and reintroduction projects increased by 57% in the 7 years since release of the ACAP. However, there have been relatively few new reintroductions over this period; most programs have focused on securing captive-assurance populations (i.e., species taken into captivity as a precaution against extinctions in the wild) and conservation-related research. There has been a shift to a broader representation of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians within programs and an increasing emphasis on threatened species. There has been a relative increase of species in programs from Central and South America and the Caribbean, where amphibian biodiversity is high. About half of the programs involve zoos and aquaria with a similar proportion represented in specialist facilities run by governmental or nongovernmental agencies. Despite successful reintroduction often being regarded as the ultimate milestone for such programs, the irreversibility of many current threats to amphibians may make this an impractical goal. Instead, research on captive assurance populations may be needed to develop imaginative solutions to enable amphibians to survive alongside current, emerging, and future threats. © 2015

  16. SHARED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN, JOHN M. HAUT, RICHARD C.

    2008-03-07

    The program established a collaborative process with domestic industries for the purpose of sharing Navy-developed technology. Private sector businesses were educated so as to increase their awareness of the vast amount of technologies that are available, with an initial focus on technology applications that are related to the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (Hydrogen) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the project worked to increase industry awareness of the vast technology resources available to them that have been developed with taxpayer funding. NAVSEA-Carderock and the Houston Advanced Research Center teamed with Nicholls State University to catalog NAVSEA-Carderock unclassified technologies, rated the level of readiness of the technologies and established a web based catalog of the technologies. In particular, the catalog contains technology descriptions, including testing summaries and overviews of related presentations.

  17. The transfer of radiocaesium to ewes through a breeding cycle - an illustration of the pitfalls of the transfer coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk; Mayes, R.W. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Barnett, C.L.; Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    A study to measure the transfer of radiocaesium to adult female sheep through a breeding cycle is described. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle (estimated as the equilibrium transfer coefficient) was significantly lower to pregnant, and especially lactating, animals compared to non-lactating and barren animals. High dry matter intake rates were also associated with significantly lower transfer coefficients. Known relationships between dry matter intake rates and protein turnover could credibly explain some of these differences. However, when described as the concentration ratio, radiocaesium transfer to meat was apparently highest during lactation. The apparent difference in results obtained by the two approaches of determining transfer is the consequence of daily dry matter intake being a denominator within the estimation of transfer coefficient. A wider discussion of transfer coefficients and concentration ratios leads us to suggest that the concentration ratio is the more robust and potentially generic parameter.

  18. The transfer of radiocaesium to ewes through a breeding cycle - an illustration of the pitfalls of the transfer coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Mayes, R.W.; Barnett, C.L.; Howard, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    A study to measure the transfer of radiocaesium to adult female sheep through a breeding cycle is described. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle (estimated as the equilibrium transfer coefficient) was significantly lower to pregnant, and especially lactating, animals compared to non-lactating and barren animals. High dry matter intake rates were also associated with significantly lower transfer coefficients. Known relationships between dry matter intake rates and protein turnover could credibly explain some of these differences. However, when described as the concentration ratio, radiocaesium transfer to meat was apparently highest during lactation. The apparent difference in results obtained by the two approaches of determining transfer is the consequence of daily dry matter intake being a denominator within the estimation of transfer coefficient. A wider discussion of transfer coefficients and concentration ratios leads us to suggest that the concentration ratio is the more robust and potentially generic parameter

  19. Genomic prediction in a breeding program of perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Ashraf, Bilal; Greve-Pedersen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We present a genomic selection study performed on 1918 rye grass families (Lolium perenne L.), which were derived from a commercial breeding program at DLF-Trifolium, Denmark. Phenotypes were recorded on standard plots, across 13 years and in 6 different countries. Variants were identified...... this set. Estimated Breeding Value and prediction accuracies were calculated trough two different cross-validation schemes: (i) k-fold (k=10); (ii) leaving out one parent combination at the time, in order to test for accuracy of predicting new families. Accuracies ranged between 0.56 and 0.97 for scheme (i....... A larger set of 1791 F2s were used as training set to predict EBVs of 127 synthetic families (originated from poly-crosses between 5-11 single plants) for heading date and crown rust resistance. Prediction accuracies were 0.93 and 0.57 respectively. Results clearly demonstrate considerable potential...

  20. ADAM: A computer program to simulate selective-breeding schemes for animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L D; Sørensen, A C; Henryon, M

    2009-01-01

    ADAM is a computer program that models selective breeding schemes for animals using stochastic simulation. The program simulates a population of animals and traces the genetic changes in the population under different selective breeding scenarios. It caters to different population structures......, genetic models, selection strategies, and mating designs. ADAM can be used to evaluate breeding schemes and generate genetic data to test statistical tools...

  1. Repeated embryo collection and interspecies transfer in alpacas and llamas during non-breeding season

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco J; Tollig S; Von Walter AW; Pezo D; Velez V

    2015-01-01

    Sexual behavior evaluation was evaluated, collecting and interspecies embryo transfer inter species in llamas and alpacas during non-breeding season, 10 and 10 donor alpacas llamas, alpacas and 20 receiving 20 llamas, 5 alpacas and 5 llamas males were used. Sexual behavior by libido in males and acceptance of female to male in the presence of a dominant follicle was evaluated, the collection of embryos simple ovulation by non-surgical technique was performed and the fresh embryos are transfer...

  2. Development of meat cattle breeding under respecialization programs in the Gomel area [Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, A.F.; Mostovenko, A.L.; Radchikov, V.F.; Tsaj, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was studied scientific management of introduction of 8 programmes of meat cattle breeding in regions of radioactive pollution in Gomel region. In course of the realized study there were analyzed land areas of the local farms, degree of soil contamination with radionuclides, coefficients of radionuclide transfer into plants and animal husbandry products, rate of production volumes, structure of arable lands and main herds, economic indexes of realized activities, etc. Introduction of programs of development of meat cattle breeding in the polluted areas made it possible to increase both the total and pedigree stock in the Gomel area, to create industrial base for reproduction of livestock and a wide circulation of specialized meat livestock in other farms of the polluted regions

  3. ALTERNATIVES TO IMPROVE HYBRIDIZATION EFFICIENCY IN Eucalyptus BREEDING PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and quick hybridization procedures and ways to keep pollen grains viable for long periods are sought in plant breeding programs to provide greater work flexibility. The presentstudy was carried out to assess the efficiency of pollinations made shortly after flower emasculationand the viability of stored pollen from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla clones cultivated in Northwestern Minas Gerais State. Controlled pollinations were carried out at zero, one,three, five and seven days after emasculation. Hybridization efficiency was assessed by thepercentage of viable fruits, number of seeds produced per fruit, percentage of viable seeds and also bycytological observation of the pollen development along the style. Flower buds from clones of the twospecies were collected close to anthesis to assess the viability of pollen grain storage. Pollen was thencollected and stored in a freezer (-18oC for 1, 2 and 3 months. Pollen assessed was carried out by invitro and in vivo germination tests. The efficiency of the pollinations varied with their delay and alsobetween species. The greatest pollination efficiency was obtained when they were carried out on thethird and fifth day after emasculation, but those performed simultaneously with emasculationproduced enough seeds to allow this practice in breeding programs. The decrease in pollen viabilitywith storage was not sufficiently significant to preclude the use of this procedure in artificialhybridization.

  4. Considering genetic characteristics in German Holstein breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelke, D; Täubert, H; Reinhardt, F; Thaller, G

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several research groups have demonstrated that several haplotypes may cause embryonic loss in the homozygous state. Up to now, carriers of genetic disorders were often excluded from mating, resulting in a decrease of genetic gain and a reduced number of sires available for the breeding program. Ongoing research is very likely to identify additional genetic defects causing embryonic loss and calf mortality by genotyping a large proportion of the female cattle population and sequencing key ancestors. Hence, a clear demand is present to develop a method combining selection against recessive defects (e.g., Holstein haplotypes HH1-HH5) with selection for economically beneficial traits (e.g., polled) for mating decisions. Our proposed method is a genetic index that accounts for the allele frequencies in the population and the economic value of the genetic characteristic without excluding carriers from breeding schemes. Fertility phenotypes from routine genetic evaluations were used to determine the economic value per embryo lost. Previous research has shown that embryo loss caused by HH1 and HH2 occurs later than the loss for HH3, HH4, and HH5. Therefore, an economic value of € 97 was used against HH1 and HH2 and € 70 against HH3, HH4, and HH5. For polled, € 7 per polled calf was considered. Minor allele frequencies of the defects ranged between 0.8 and 3.3%. The polled allele has a frequency of 4.1% in the German Holstein population. A genomic breeding program was simulated to study the effect of changing the selection criteria from assortative mating based on breeding values to selecting the females using the genetic index. Selection for a genetic index on the female path is a useful method to control the allele frequencies by reducing undesirable alleles and simultaneously increasing economical beneficial characteristics maintaining most of the genetic gain in production and functional traits. Additionally, we applied the genetic index to real data and

  5. Repeated embryo collection and interspecies transfer in alpacas and llamas during non-breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco J

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior evaluation was evaluated, collecting and interspecies embryo transfer inter species in llamas and alpacas during non-breeding season, 10 and 10 donor alpacas llamas, alpacas and 20 receiving 20 llamas, 5 alpacas and 5 llamas males were used. Sexual behavior by libido in males and acceptance of female to male in the presence of a dominant follicle was evaluated, the collection of embryos simple ovulation by non-surgical technique was performed and the fresh embryos are transferred directly into the horn left. It was observed that only 40% of alpaca accept the male and female in all cases had to use two males for mating, but all llama males mounted on the first attempt and accepted all females breeding. Embryos were collected at 25 and 60% of alpacas and llamas washes respectively, all were grade 1 embryos transferable; the embryo transfer fertility evaluated by ultrasound at 25 days was 100 and 41.6% respectively for donor alpaca and llama, however ultrasound evaluation at 60 days fertility was 50 and 25% respectively for donor alpaca and llama. We conclude that there is greater reproductive seasonality in alpaca regard to llamas, all were grade 1 embryos collected, fertility evaluated by ultrasound 25 days down to 60 days, demonstrating embryonic mortality, possibly due to the non-breeding season of both species.

  6. Genomic resources in mungbean for future breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue K Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the legume family, mungbean (Vigna radiata has become one of the important crops in Asia, showing a steady increase in global production. It provides a good source of protein and contains most notably folate and iron. Beyond the nutritional value of mungbean, certain features make it a well-suited model organism among legume plants because of its small genome size, short life-cycle, self-pollinating, and close genetic relationship to other legumes. In the past, there have been several efforts to develop molecular markers and linkage maps associated with agronomic traits for the genetic improvement of mungbean and, ultimately, breeding for cultivar development to increase the average yields of mungbean. The recent release of a reference genome of the cultivated mungbean (V. radiata var. radiata VC1973A and an additional de novo sequencing of a wild relative mungbean (V. radiata var. sublobata has provided a framework for mungbean genetic and genome research, that can further be used for genome-wide association and functional studies to identify genes related to specific agronomic traits. Moreover, the diverse gene pool of wild mungbean comprises valuable genetic resources of beneficial genes that may be helpful in widening the genetic diversity of cultivated mungbean. This review paper covers the research progress on molecular and genomics approaches and the current status of breeding programs that have developed to move toward the ultimate goal of mungbean improvement.

  7. Novel optimum contribution selection methods accounting for conflicting objectives in breeding programs for livestock breeds with historical migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bennewitz, Jörn; Wellmann, Robin

    2017-05-12

    breeds with historical introgressions, current breeding programs should focus on increasing genetic gain and controlling inbreeding, as well as maintaining the genetic originality of the breeds and the diversity of native alleles via the inclusion of MC and kinship at native alleles in the OCS process.

  8. Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calingacion, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice

    Mariafe N. Calingacion

    Most rice breeding programs have focused on improving agronomic traits such as yield, while enhancing grain quality traits

  9. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, M; Phocas, F; Gourdine, J-L; Bijma, P; Mandonnet, N

    2013-02-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasite resistance and resilience traits. The overall breeding goal included traits for production, reproduction, and parasite resilience and resistance to ensure a balanced selection outcome. The production traits were BW and dressing percentage (DP). The reproduction trait was fertility (FER), which was the number of doe kiddings per mating. The resistance trait was worm fecal egg count (FEC), which is a measurement of the number of gastro-intestinal parasite eggs found in the feces. The resilience trait was the packed cell volume (PCV), which is a measurement of the volume of red blood cells in the blood. Dressing percentage, BW, and FEC were measured at 11 mo of age, which is the mating or selling age. Fertility and PCV were measured on females at each kidding period. The breeding program accounting for the overall breeding goal and a selection index including all traits gave annual selection responses of 800 g for BW, 3.75% for FER, 0.08% for DP, -0.005 ln(eggs/g) for FEC, and 0.28% for PCV. The expected selection responses for BW and DP in this breeding program were reduced by 2% and 6%, respectively, compared with a breeding program not accounting for FEC and PCV. The overall breeding program, proposed for the Creole breed, offers the best breeding strategy in terms of expected selection responses, making it possible to improve all traits together. It offers a good balance between production and adaptation traits and may present some interest for the selection of other goat breeds in the tropics.

  10. Optimization of dairy cattle breeding programs for different environment with genotype by environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Ducro, B.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bijma, P.

    2006-01-01

    Dairy cattle breeding organizations tend to sell semen to breeders operating in different environments and genotype × environment interaction may play a role. The objective of this study was to investigate optimization of dairy cattle breeding programs for 2 environments with genotype × environment

  11. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunia, M.; Phocas, F.; Gourdine, J.L.; Bijma, P.; Mandonnet, N.

    2013-01-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasites resistance

  12. Genomic selection accuracy using multi-family prediction models in a wheat breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic selection (GS) uses genome-wide molecular marker data to predict the genetic value of selection candidates in breeding programs. In plant breeding, the ability to produce large numbers of progeny per cross allows GS to be conducted within each family. However, this approach requires phenotyp...

  13. Genomic selection needs to be carefully assessed to meet specific requirements in livestock breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Elisabeth; de Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection is a promising development in agriculture, aiming improved production by exploiting molecular genetic markers to design novel breeding programs and to develop new markers-based models for genetic evaluation. It opens opportunities for research, as novel algorithms and lab methodologies are developed. Genomic selection can be applied in many breeds and species. Further research on the implementation of genomic selection (GS) in breeding programs is highly desirable not only for the common good, but also the private sector (breeding companies). It has been projected that this approach will improve selection routines, especially in species with long reproduction cycles, late or sex-limited or expensive trait recording and for complex traits. The task of integrating GS into existing breeding programs is, however, not straightforward. Despite successful integration into breeding programs for dairy cattle, it has yet to be shown how much emphasis can be given to the genomic information and how much additional phenotypic information is needed from new selection candidates. Genomic selection is already part of future planning in many breeding companies of pigs and beef cattle among others, but further research is needed to fully estimate how effective the use of genomic information will be for the prediction of the performance of future breeding stock. Genomic prediction of production in crossbreeding and across-breed schemes, costs and choice of individuals for genotyping are reasons for a reluctance to fully rely on genomic information for selection decisions. Breeding objectives are highly dependent on the industry and the additional gain when using genomic information has to be considered carefully. This review synthesizes some of the suggested approaches in selected livestock species including cattle, pig, chicken, and fish. It outlines tasks to help understanding possible consequences when applying genomic information in breeding scenarios.

  14. Genomic selection needs to be carefully assessed to meet specific requirements in livestock breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eJonas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection is a promising development in agriculture, aiming improved production by exploiting molecular genetic markers to design novel breeding programs and to develop new markers-based models for genetic evaluation. It opens opportunities for research, as novel algorithms and lab methodologies are developed. Genomic selection can be applied in many breeds and species. Further research on the implementation of genomic selection in breeding programs is highly desirable not only for the common good, but also the private sector (breeding companies. It has been projected that this approach will improve selection routines, especially in species with long reproduction cycles, late or sex-limited or expensive trait recording and for complex traits. The task of integrating genomic selection into existing breeding programs is, however, not straightforward. Despite successful integration into breeding programs for dairy cattle, it has yet to be shown how much emphasis can be given to the genomic information and how much additional phenotypic information is needed from new selection candidates. Genomic selection is already part of future planning in many breeding companies of pigs and beef cattle among others, but further research is needed to fully estimate how effective the use of genomic information will be for the prediction of the performance of future breeding stock. Genomic prediction of production in crossbreeding and across-breed schemes, costs and choice of individuals for genotyping are reasons for a reluctance to fully rely on genomic information for selection decisions. Breeding objectives are highly dependent on the industry and the additional gain when using genomic information has to be considered carefully. This review synthesizes some of the suggested approaches in selected livestock species including cattle, pig, chicken and fish. It outlines tasks to help understanding possible consequences when applying genomic information in

  15. Strategies for use of reproductive technologies in genomic dairy cattle breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    A simulation study was performed for testing the effect of using reproductive technologies in a genomic dairy cattle young bull breeding scheme. The breeding scheme parameters: 1) number of donors, 2) number of progeny per donor, 3) age of the donor, 4) number of sires, and 5) reliability...... of genomic breeding values. The breeding schemes were evaluated according to genetic gain and rate of inbreeding. The relative gain by use of reproductive technologies is 11 to 84 percent points depending on the choice of other breeding scheme parameters. A large donor program with high selection intensity...... of sires provides the highest genetic gain. A relatively higher genetic gain is obtained for higher reliability of GEBV. Extending the donor program and number of selected bulls has a major effect of reducing the rate of inbreeding without compromising genetic gain....

  16. 100-year history of the development of bread winter wheat breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. А. Литвиненко

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Review of the main achievements of the Wheat Breeding and Seed ProductionDepartment in the Plant Breeding and Genetic Institute – National Centre of Seed and Cultivar Investigation in the developing theoretical principles of breeding and creation of winter wheat varieties of different types during 100-year (1916–2016 period of breeding programs realization. Results. The main theoretical, methodical developments and breeding achievements of Wheat Breeding and Seed Production Department during 100-year (1916–2016 history have been considered. In the course of the Department activity, the research and metho­dology grounds of bread winter wheat breeding and seed production have been laid, 9 stages of breeding programs development have been accomplished. As a result, more than 130 varieties of different types have been created, 87 of them have been released in some periods or registered in the State registers of plants varieties of Ukraine and other countries and grown in the total sowing area about 220 million hectares.

  17. Genomic Tools in Pea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeh, Nadim; Aubert, Grégoire; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Warkentin, Thomas D.; Burstin, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22–25% protein, complex starch and fiber constituents, and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tons produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel's experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress toward deciphering the pea genome. PMID:26640470

  18. The basic concept of honey bee breeding programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzunov, A.; Brascamp, Pim; Büchler, R.

    2017-01-01

    Selective honey bee breeding is a phenomenon that fascinates beekeepers around the world. They often regard it as one of the most enigmatic and complex aspects of beekeeping. Indeed, according to our experiences participating in many international projects, both beekeepers and bee experts without a

  19. Genomic tools in pea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim eTAYEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22-25 percent protein, complex starch and fibre constituents and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tonnes produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel’s experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress towards deciphering the pea genome.

  20. Program for transfer research and impact studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusnak, J. J.; Freeman, J. E.; Hartley, J. M.; Kottenstette, J. P.; Staskin, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    Research activities conducted under the Program for Transfer Research and Impact Studies (TRIS) during 1972 included: (1) preparation of 10,196 TSP requests for TRIS application analysis; (2) interviews with over 500 individuals concerning the technical, economic, and social impacts of NASA-generated technology; (3) preparation of 38 new technology transfer example files and 101 new transfer cases; and (4) maintenance of a technology transfer library containing more than 2,900 titles. Six different modes of technology utilization are used to illustrate the pervasiveness of the transfer and diffusion of aerospace innovations. These modes also provide a basis for distinguishing the unique characteristics of the NASA Technology Utilization Program. An examination is reported of the ways in which NASA-generated technology is contributing to beneficial social change in five major areas of human concern: health, environment, safety, transportation, and communication.

  1. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of zebu dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-01-01

    In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus) are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically...

  2. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of zebu dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically superior sires in the herds. A major objective of QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and candidate genes is to find genes and markers that can be implemented in breeding programs across marker assisted selection (MAS. In Zebu dairy cattle MAS could be used to pre-select young candidate bulls to progeny testing, thus increasing selection differentials, shortening generation interval and increasing genetic gain

  3. Fruit Phenolic Profiling: A New Selection Criterion in Olive Breeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos; de la Rosa, Raúl

    2018-01-01

    Olive growing is mainly based on traditional varieties selected by the growers across the centuries. The few attempts so far reported to obtain new varieties by systematic breeding have been mainly focused on improving the olive adaptation to different growing systems, the productivity and the oil content. However, the improvement of oil quality has rarely been considered as selection criterion and only in the latter stages of the breeding programs. Due to their health promoting and organoleptic properties, phenolic compounds are one of the most important quality markers for Virgin olive oil (VOO) although they are not commonly used as quality traits in olive breeding programs. This is mainly due to the difficulties for evaluating oil phenolic composition in large number of samples and the limited knowledge on the genetic and environmental factors that may influence phenolic composition. In the present work, we propose a high throughput methodology to include the phenolic composition as a selection criterion in olive breeding programs. For that purpose, the phenolic profile has been determined in fruits and oils of several breeding selections and two varieties ("Picual" and "Arbequina") used as control. The effect of three different environments, typical for olive growing in Andalusia, Southern Spain, was also evaluated. A high genetic effect was observed on both fruit and oil phenolic profile. In particular, the breeding selection UCI2-68 showed an optimum phenolic profile, which sums up to a good agronomic performance previously reported. A high correlation was found between fruit and oil total phenolic content as well as some individual phenols from the two different matrices. The environmental effect on phenolic compounds was also significant in both fruit and oil, although the low genotype × environment interaction allowed similar ranking of genotypes on the different environments. In summary, the high genotypic variance and the simplified procedure of the

  4. Integration of genomic information into sport horse breeding programs for optimization of accuracy of selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, A M; König von Borstel, U; Simianer, H; König, S

    2012-09-01

    Reliable selection criteria are required for young riding horses to increase genetic gain by increasing accuracy of selection and decreasing generation intervals. In this study, selection strategies incorporating genomic breeding values (GEBVs) were evaluated. Relevant stages of selection in sport horse breeding programs were analyzed by applying selection index theory. Results in terms of accuracies of indices (r(TI) ) and relative selection response indicated that information on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes considerably increases the accuracy of breeding values estimated for young horses without own or progeny performance. In a first scenario, the correlation between the breeding value estimated from the SNP genotype and the true breeding value (= accuracy of GEBV) was fixed to a relatively low value of r(mg) = 0.5. For a low heritability trait (h(2) = 0.15), and an index for a young horse based only on information from both parents, additional genomic information doubles r(TI) from 0.27 to 0.54. Including the conventional information source 'own performance' into the before mentioned index, additional SNP information increases r(TI) by 40%. Thus, particularly with regard to traits of low heritability, genomic information can provide a tool for well-founded selection decisions early in life. In a further approach, different sources of breeding values (e.g. GEBV and estimated breeding values (EBVs) from different countries) were combined into an overall index when altering accuracies of EBVs and correlations between traits. In summary, we showed that genomic selection strategies have the potential to contribute to a substantial reduction in generation intervals in horse breeding programs.

  5. Mitigation of inbreeding while preserving genetic gain in genomic breeding programs for outbred plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zibei; Shi, Fan; Hayes, Ben J; Daetwyler, Hans D

    2017-05-01

    Heuristic genomic inbreeding controls reduce inbreeding in genomic breeding schemes without reducing genetic gain. Genomic selection is increasingly being implemented in plant breeding programs to accelerate genetic gain of economically important traits. However, it may cause significant loss of genetic diversity when compared with traditional schemes using phenotypic selection. We propose heuristic strategies to control the rate of inbreeding in outbred plants, which can be categorised into three types: controls during mate allocation, during selection, and simultaneous selection and mate allocation. The proposed mate allocation measure GminF allocates two or more parents for mating in mating groups that minimise coancestry using a genomic relationship matrix. Two types of relationship-adjusted genomic breeding values for parent selection candidates ([Formula: see text]) and potential offspring ([Formula: see text]) are devised to control inbreeding during selection and even enabling simultaneous selection and mate allocation. These strategies were tested in a case study using a simulated perennial ryegrass breeding scheme. As compared to the genomic selection scheme without controls, all proposed strategies could significantly decrease inbreeding while achieving comparable genetic gain. In particular, the scenario using [Formula: see text] in simultaneous selection and mate allocation reduced inbreeding to one-third of the original genomic selection scheme. The proposed strategies are readily applicable in any outbred plant breeding program.

  6. Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding program at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...

  7. Genetic Gain and Inbreeding from Genomic Selection in a Simulated Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zibei Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS provides an attractive option for accelerating genetic gain in perennial ryegrass ( improvement given the long cycle times of most current breeding programs. The present study used simulation to investigate the level of genetic gain and inbreeding obtained from GS breeding strategies compared with traditional breeding strategies for key traits (persistency, yield, and flowering time. Base population genomes were simulated through random mating for 60,000 generations at an effective population size of 10,000. The degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD in the resulting population was compared with that obtained from empirical studies. Initial parental varieties were simulated to match diversity of current commercial cultivars. Genomic selection was designed to fit into a company breeding program at two selection points in the breeding cycle (spaced plants and miniplot. Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs for productivity traits were trained with phenotypes and genotypes from plots. Accuracy of GEBVs was 0.24 for persistency and 0.36 for yield for single plants, while for plots it was lower (0.17 and 0.19, respectively. Higher accuracy of GEBVs was obtained for flowering time (up to 0.7, partially as a result of the larger reference population size that was available from the clonal row stage. The availability of GEBVs permit a 4-yr reduction in cycle time, which led to at least a doubling and trebling genetic gain for persistency and yield, respectively, than the traditional program. However, a higher rate of inbreeding per cycle among varieties was also observed for the GS strategy.

  8. Genetic Gain and Inbreeding from Genomic Selection in a Simulated Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zibei; Cogan, Noel O I; Pembleton, Luke W; Spangenberg, German C; Forster, John W; Hayes, Ben J; Daetwyler, Hans D

    2016-03-01

    Genomic selection (GS) provides an attractive option for accelerating genetic gain in perennial ryegrass () improvement given the long cycle times of most current breeding programs. The present study used simulation to investigate the level of genetic gain and inbreeding obtained from GS breeding strategies compared with traditional breeding strategies for key traits (persistency, yield, and flowering time). Base population genomes were simulated through random mating for 60,000 generations at an effective population size of 10,000. The degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the resulting population was compared with that obtained from empirical studies. Initial parental varieties were simulated to match diversity of current commercial cultivars. Genomic selection was designed to fit into a company breeding program at two selection points in the breeding cycle (spaced plants and miniplot). Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) for productivity traits were trained with phenotypes and genotypes from plots. Accuracy of GEBVs was 0.24 for persistency and 0.36 for yield for single plants, while for plots it was lower (0.17 and 0.19, respectively). Higher accuracy of GEBVs was obtained for flowering time (up to 0.7), partially as a result of the larger reference population size that was available from the clonal row stage. The availability of GEBVs permit a 4-yr reduction in cycle time, which led to at least a doubling and trebling genetic gain for persistency and yield, respectively, than the traditional program. However, a higher rate of inbreeding per cycle among varieties was also observed for the GS strategy. Copyright © 2016 Crop Science Society of America.

  9. Effect of breeding protocols and reproductive tract score on reproductive performance of dairy heifers and economic outcome of breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J L; Rodrigues, J A; Braga, F A; Bitente, S; Dalton, J C; Santos, J E P; Chebel, R C

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of reproductive protocols and reproductive tract score on reproductive performance of dairy heifers and economic outcomes of breeding programs. Holstein heifers (n = 534), 13 +/- 1 mo of age, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 reproductive protocols. On the day of enrollment (d 0), heifers were palpated per rectum and received a score according to the maturity of their reproductive tract (1 = prepubertal; 2 = peripubertal; and 3 = puber-tal). Estrous detection-control heifers (CON, n = 146) received no treatment and were inseminated on detection of estrus for 28 d. Prostaglandin F(2alpha)-treated heifers (PGED, n = 137) received 1 injection of PGF(2alpha) on d 0 and were inseminated on detection of estrus; heifers not in-seminated by d 14 received a second injection of PGF(2alpha) and were observed for estrus and artificial insemination (AI) for an additional 14 d. Heifers enrolled in the estrous detection-timed AI (EDTAI, n = 140) treatment received a controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) insert on d 0, and 7 d later, the CIDR was removed and all heifers received an injection of PGF(2alpha), heifers received AI on detection of estrus, and those not inseminated by 72 h after PGF(2alpha) received an injection of GnRH concurrent with AI. Heifers in the GnRH-timed AI (GTAI, n = 111) treatment received 1 injection of GnRH on d 0, on d 6 heifers received a CIDR insert and injections of GnRH and PGF(2alpha), on d 13 the CIDR was removed and heifers received an injection of PGF(2alpha), and 48 h later all heifers received an injection of GnRH and AI. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 32 +/- 3 and 62 +/- 3 d after AI. Cost of reproductive protocols and their economic outcomes were calculated for a 28 d period beginning at enrollment. Heifers in the PGED treatment were inseminated at a faster rate than CON heifers. A smaller proportion of prepubertal and peripubertal heifers were inseminated within 14 d of enrollment

  10. Tracking the Genetic Stability of a Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Breeding Program With Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Lelania; Beaman, Lorraine

    2017-08-01

    A genetic stock identification (GSI) assay was developed in 2008 to distinguish Russian honey bees from other honey bee stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. Probability of assignment (POA) values have been collected and maintained since the stock release in 2008 to the Russian Honey Bee Breeders Association. These data were used to assess stability of the breeding program and the diversity levels of the contemporary breeding stock through comparison of POA values and genetic diversity parameters from the initial release to current values. POA values fluctuated throughout 2010-2016, but have recovered to statistically similar levels in 2016 (POA(2010) = 0.82, POA(2016) = 0.74; P = 0.33). Genetic diversity parameters (i.e., allelic richness and gene diversity) in 2016 also remained at similar levels when compared to those in 2010. Estimates of genetic structure revealed stability (FST(2009/2016) = 0.0058) with a small increase in the estimate of the inbreeding coefficient (FIS(2010) = 0.078, FIS(2016) = 0.149). The relationship among breeding lines, based on genetic distance measurement, was similar in 2008 and 2016 populations, but with increased homogeneity among lines (i.e., decreased genetic distance). This was expected based on the closed breeding system used for Russian honey bees. The successful application of the GSI assay in a commercial breeding program demonstrates the utility and stability of such technology to contribute to and monitor the genetic integrity of a breeding stock of an insect species. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. APPLICATION OF MOLECULAR METHODS IN SOYBEAN BREEDING PROGRAM AT THE AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTE OSIJEK (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The soybean breeding work at the Agricultural Institute Osijek has focused on the permanently development of high-yielding cultivars with genetic yield potential of 5-6 t/ha, satisfactory grain quality (protein and oil content, high tolerance to the principal diseases (Peronospora manshurica, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Diaporthe/Phomopsis complex, high resistance to lodging, stress conditions over vegetation and pod shattering as well as satisfactory stability in level and quality of grain and wide adaptability. Results of this continued and intensive breeding work are 36 registered cultivars which significantly contributed and contribute to the development, improving and increasing of soybean production in Republic of Croatia. Further genetic improvement of soybean cultivars is based on the modern breeding strategies including combination of conventional breeding methods and recent chemical, biochemical, phytopathology and molecular analyses. Regarding to molecular analyses, in recent years, in the frame of the soybean breeding program has initiated by application of molecular markers technology as criterion for estimation genetic diversity for both soybean germplasm and pathogens from Diaporthe/Phomopsis complex on soybean, as well. The initial fingerprinting of several OS soybean genotypes has performed in collaboration with the University of Guelph (Canada in their biomolecular laboratory using simple sequence repeats (SSR. The obtained results enabled new access in choosing parental pairs. Combining molecular markers technique with pedigree information, phenotypic markers and statistical procedure has provided a useful tool for more accurate and complete evaluation of genetic diversity and its more effective utilization into current soybean breeding program. The detection of pathogens from Diaporthe/Phomopsis complex on soybean on molecular level has performed in collaboration with the Istituto Sperimentale per la Patologia Vegetale (Rome

  12. Fruit Phenolic Profiling: A New Selection Criterion in Olive Breeding Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G. Pérez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Olive growing is mainly based on traditional varieties selected by the growers across the centuries. The few attempts so far reported to obtain new varieties by systematic breeding have been mainly focused on improving the olive adaptation to different growing systems, the productivity and the oil content. However, the improvement of oil quality has rarely been considered as selection criterion and only in the latter stages of the breeding programs. Due to their health promoting and organoleptic properties, phenolic compounds are one of the most important quality markers for Virgin olive oil (VOO although they are not commonly used as quality traits in olive breeding programs. This is mainly due to the difficulties for evaluating oil phenolic composition in large number of samples and the limited knowledge on the genetic and environmental factors that may influence phenolic composition. In the present work, we propose a high throughput methodology to include the phenolic composition as a selection criterion in olive breeding programs. For that purpose, the phenolic profile has been determined in fruits and oils of several breeding selections and two varieties (“Picual” and “Arbequina” used as control. The effect of three different environments, typical for olive growing in Andalusia, Southern Spain, was also evaluated. A high genetic effect was observed on both fruit and oil phenolic profile. In particular, the breeding selection UCI2-68 showed an optimum phenolic profile, which sums up to a good agronomic performance previously reported. A high correlation was found between fruit and oil total phenolic content as well as some individual phenols from the two different matrices. The environmental effect on phenolic compounds was also significant in both fruit and oil, although the low genotype × environment interaction allowed similar ranking of genotypes on the different environments. In summary, the high genotypic variance and the

  13. One size fits all? : optimization of rainbow trout breeding program under diverse preferences and genotype-by-environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sae-Lim, P.

    2013-01-01

    Global fish breeders distribute improved animal material to several continents to be farmed under diverse environments, and for very different market conditions. When establishing a global breeding program, there is a need to assess whether or not a single breeding objective satisfies the

  14. Sort of agricultural species introducing in production resulting of mutation breeding programs in cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Talavera, Susana

    1999-01-01

    Radiomutant varieties of important species used in the Cuban agricultural productions are shown. They were obtained by INIFAT specialists as authors or co-author with the aid of radiomutation techniques in plant breeding programs. Several dates concerning the procedure and some of the features rendering varieties more useful are given. The introduction and acceptability by farmers are also commented. The information was collected from members of the scientific staff involving in the results and from the available literature

  15. Accuracy of Genomic Prediction in a Commercial Perennial Ryegrass Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Fè

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of genomic selection (GS in plant breeding, so far, has been mainly evaluated in crops farmed as homogeneous varieties, and the results have been generally positive. Fewer results are available for species, such as forage grasses, that are grown as heterogenous families (developed from multiparent crosses in which the control of the genetic variation is far more complex. Here we test the potential for implementing GS in the breeding of perennial ryegrass ( L. using empirical data from a commercial forage breeding program. Biparental F and multiparental synthetic (SYN families of diploid perennial ryegrass were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing, and phenotypes for five different traits were analyzed. Genotypes were expressed as family allele frequencies, and phenotypes were recorded as family means. Different models for genomic prediction were compared by using practically relevant cross-validation strategies. All traits showed a highly significant level of genetic variance, which could be traced using the genotyping assay. While there was significant genotype × environment (G × E interaction for some traits, accuracies were high among F families and between biparental F and multiparental SYN families. We have demonstrated that the implementation of GS in grass breeding is now possible and presents an opportunity to make significant gains for various traits.

  16. Genomic Selection Accuracy using Multifamily Prediction Models in a Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot L. Heffner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS uses genome-wide molecular marker data to predict the genetic value of selection candidates in breeding programs. In plant breeding, the ability to produce large numbers of progeny per cross allows GS to be conducted within each family. However, this approach requires phenotypes of lines from each cross before conducting GS. This will prolong the selection cycle and may result in lower gains per year than approaches that estimate marker-effects with multiple families from previous selection cycles. In this study, phenotypic selection (PS, conventional marker-assisted selection (MAS, and GS prediction accuracy were compared for 13 agronomic traits in a population of 374 winter wheat ( L. advanced-cycle breeding lines. A cross-validation approach that trained and validated prediction accuracy across years was used to evaluate effects of model selection, training population size, and marker density in the presence of genotype × environment interactions (G×E. The average prediction accuracies using GS were 28% greater than with MAS and were 95% as accurate as PS. For net merit, the average accuracy across six selection indices for GS was 14% greater than for PS. These results provide empirical evidence that multifamily GS could increase genetic gain per unit time and cost in plant breeding.

  17. Shippingport station decommissioning project technology transfer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquini, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) is to place the Shippingport Atomic Power Station in a long-term radiologically safe condition following defueling of the reactor, to perform decommissioning in such a manner as to demonstrate to the nuclear industry the application of decommissioning procedures to a large scale nuclear power plant, and to provide useful planning data for future decommissioning projects. This paper describes the Technology Transfer Program for collecting and archiving the decommissioning data base and its availability to the nuclear industry

  18. A comprehensive survey on selective breeding programs and seed market in the European aquaculture fish industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, Kasper; Hofherr, Johann

    2016-01-01

    –50 % market share. Only part of the European fish aquaculture industry today fully exploits selective breeding to the best advantage. A larger impact assessment still needs to be made by the remainder, particularly on the market share of fish seed (eggs, larvae or juveniles) and its consequences for hatchery...... of molecular tools is now common in all programs, mainly for pedigree traceability. An increasing number of programs use either genomic or marker-assisted selection. Results related to the seed production market confirmed that for Atlantic salmon there are a few dominant players at the European level, with 30...

  19. Strategies for Selecting Crosses Using Genomic Prediction in Two Wheat Breeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Bettina; Battenfield, Sarah; Guzmán, Carlos; Quincke, Martín; Singh, Ravi P; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Peña, R Javier; Fritz, Allan; Silva, Paula; Poland, Jesse; Gutiérrez, Lucía

    2017-07-01

    The single most important decision in plant breeding programs is the selection of appropriate crosses. The ideal cross would provide superior predicted progeny performance and enough diversity to maintain genetic gain. The aim of this study was to compare the best crosses predicted using combinations of mid-parent value and variance prediction accounting for linkage disequilibrium (V) or assuming linkage equilibrium (V). After predicting the mean and the variance of each cross, we selected crosses based on mid-parent value, the top 10% of the progeny, and weighted mean and variance within progenies for grain yield, grain protein content, mixing time, and loaf volume in two applied wheat ( L.) breeding programs: Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA) Uruguay and CIMMYT Mexico. Although the variance of the progeny is important to increase the chances of finding superior individuals from transgressive segregation, we observed that the mid-parent values of the crosses drove the genetic gain but the variance of the progeny had a small impact on genetic gain for grain yield. However, the relative importance of the variance of the progeny was larger for quality traits. Overall, the genomic resources and the statistical models are now available to plant breeders to predict both the performance of breeding lines per se as well as the value of progeny from any potential crosses. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  20. SNP Polymorphism Survey of the Parental Lines of ISRA Sorghum Breeding Program as Part of the Feed the Future

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Polymorphism of SNP Markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) was assessed on 24 parental lines of the ISRA sorghum breeding program . About 1300 SNP have been used...

  1. The Standardization of the Honeybee Colonies Evaluation Methodology, with Application in Honeybee Breeding Programs, in Romanian Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Eliza Cauia; Adrian Siceanu; Silvia Patruica; Marian Bura; Agripina Sapcaliu; Maria Magdici

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that breeding is based on phenotypic and behavioural performance assessed at the level of each honeybee colony. By selection, the genes responsible for the desired characters have to be favoured, by evaluation and classification of all colonies involved in a breeding program. Generally, in the beekeeping practice, the most applied method of selection is the mass selection regarding the main objective- honey production. Some more elaborated programs use selection simultaneous ...

  2. Comparative analysis of traditional and modern apricot breeding programs: A case of study with Spanish and Tunisian apricot breeding germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Batnini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional plant breeding is based on the observation of variation and the selection of the best phenotypes, whereas modern breeding is characterised by the use of controlled mating and the selection of descendants using molecular markers. In this work, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity in a traditional (Tunisian and a modern (Spanish apricot breeding programme was performed at the phenotypic and molecular level using simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Seven phenotypic traits were evaluated in 42 Tunisian apricot accessions and 30 genotypes from the Spanish apricot programme. In addition, 20 SSR markers previously described as linked to specific phenotypic traits were assayed. Results showed that modern breeding using controlled crosses increases the size of the fruit. The fruit weight average observed in the Tunisian cultivars was of 20.15 g. In the case of traditional Spanish cultivars the average weight was 47.12 g, whereas the average weight of the other progenitors from France, USA and South Africa was 72.85 g. Finally, in the new releases from the CEBAS-CSIC breeding programme, the average weight was 72.82 g. In addition, modern bred cultivars incorporate desirable traits such as self-compatibility and firmness. Cluster and structural analysis based on SSR data clearly differentiates the genotypes according to their geographic origin and pedigree. Finally, results showed an association between some alleles of PaCITA7 and UDP96003 SSR markers with apricot fruit weight, one allele of UDAp407 marker with fruit firmness and one allele of UDP98406 marker with fruit ripening.

  3. Comparative analysis of traditional and modern apricot breeding programs: A case of study with Spanish and Tunisian apricot breeding germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batnini, M.A.; Krichen, L.; Bourguiba, H.; Trifi-Farah, N.; Ruiz, D.; Martínez-Gómez, P.; Rubio, M.

    2016-11-01

    Traditional plant breeding is based on the observation of variation and the selection of the best phenotypes, whereas modern breeding is characterised by the use of controlled mating and the selection of descendants using molecular markers. In this work, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity in a traditional (Tunisian) and a modern (Spanish) apricot breeding programme was performed at the phenotypic and molecular level using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Seven phenotypic traits were evaluated in 42 Tunisian apricot accessions and 30 genotypes from the Spanish apricot programme. In addition, 20 SSR markers previously described as linked to specific phenotypic traits were assayed. Results showed that modern breeding using controlled crosses increases the size of the fruit. The fruit weight average observed in the Tunisian cultivars was of 20.15 g. In the case of traditional Spanish cultivars the average weight was 47.12 g, whereas the average weight of the other progenitors from France, USA and South Africa was 72.85 g. Finally, in the new releases from the CEBAS-CSIC breeding programme, the average weight was 72.82 g. In addition, modern bred cultivars incorporate desirable traits such as self-compatibility and firmness. Cluster and structural analysis based on SSR data clearly differentiates the genotypes according to their geographic origin and pedigree. Finally, results showed an association between some alleles of PaCITA7 and UDP96003 SSR markers with apricot fruit weight, one allele of UDAp407 marker with fruit firmness and one allele of UDP98406 marker with fruit ripening. (Author)

  4. Females of the communally breeding rodent, Octodon degus, transfer antibodies to their offspring during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, María Inés; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; León, Cecilia; Ebensperger, Luis A

    2007-06-01

    Females in numerous rodent species engage in communal nesting and breeding, meaning that they share a nest to rear their young together. One potential benefit to communally nesting mothers is that infants improve their immunocompetence. Thus, suckling from two or more females might provide newborns with a more diverse array of antibodies and defensive cells. As a first step toward testing the immunocompetence hypothesis, we assessed whether female degus (Octodon degus), a communally nesting and breeding caviomorph rodent, transfer immunoglobulins to their young through the yolk sac or placenta while in the uterus and, during lactation, through milk. With this aim, adult degu females were immunized with four antigens, including two mollusk hemocyanins from Concholepas and Megathura (CCH and KLH, respectively), porcine thyroglobulin and tetanus toxoid. Specific antibodies against the experimental antigens were used to track the origin of antibodies in the young. To establish the presence of specific antibodies of IgG and IgA isotypes in sera and milk of animals, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. Degu females produced specific antibodies against antigens not found in their natural environment, and mothers were able to transfer the induced antibodies to their litters during pregnancy (IgG) and during lactation (IgA). However, we recorded only limited evidence of degu offspring acquiring antibodies from lactating mothers other than their own, giving little support to the increased immunocompetence hypothesis.

  5. THE USE THE GENETICALLY DIFFICULTLY INHERITED TRAIT OF PURPLE ROOT COLOR IN BREEDING PROGRAM FOR THE COMPLICATED TRAIT IN RADISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ugarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The understanding the nature of trait inheritance in any crops is that determines the quality of results in breeding program. According to reference on previous publication, it is known that phenotypic manifestation of purple root color in radish was caused by regulatory interrelationship mechanisms of genetic control that is difficult to be used directly in breeding program. From literature sources and on the basis of their own research work the authors have proven the practice to maintain the trait in generations, and implementations of development of purple radish breeding accessions have been presented. At first stage of breeding program the selection of initial breeding accessions was carried out, where 14 varieties (red x white were regarded on the basis of top-crosses to obtain F1 and F2 progenies to be analyzed. Thus, four best combinations from crossing were chosen with 100% of hybridity. Through analysis of hybrids for individual progenies the hybrid population F1 of radish ‘Konfeti’ with different root colors was developed. As result of the individual inbreeding selection on seed plants with pigmented stems and the colored flower rim, the stable breeding accession with purple root was obtained. Thus, in breeding practice in radish it was succeeded to obtain the stably inheriting purple root color in radish accessions, variety ‘Siniiy Iniey’. 

  6. Review. Promises, pitfalls and challenges of genomic selection in breeding programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez-Escriche, N.; Gonzalez-Recio, O.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was to review the main challenges and pitfalls of the implementation of genomic selection in the breeding programs of different livestock species. Genomic selection is now one of the main challenges in animal breeding and genetics. Its application could considerably increase the genetic gain in traits of interest. However, the success of its practical implementation depends on the selection scheme characteristics, and these must be studied for each particular case. In dairy cattle, especially in Holsteins, genomic selection is a reality. However, in other livestock species (beef cattle, small ruminants, monogastrics and fish) genomic selection has mainly been used experimentally. The main limitation for its implementation in the mentioned livestock species is the high geno typing costs compared to the low selection value of the candidate. Nevertheless, nowadays the possibility of using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips of low density to make genomic selection applications economically feasible is under study. Economic studies may optimize the benefits of genomic selection (GS) to include new traits in the breeding goals. It is evident that genomic selection offers great potential; however, a suitable geno typing strategy and recording system for each case is needed in order to properly exploit it. (Author) 50 refs.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW FORMS OF TREE-SHAPED TOMATO AND THEIR USE IN BREEDING PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Rotari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree-shaped plants of tomato have many useful traits, which gain them advantages over common tomato forms. In world plant collection there are over 200 accessions, cultivars and hybrids of tree-shaped tomato. The aim of the study was to develop new initial tomato accessions for breeding program for tree-shaped cultivars and hybrids that are distinguished by a shape, fruit weight and color, improved by interspecific hybridization chemical composition and resistance to the major diseases. The tree-shaped breeding lines: ‘196/12’, ‘374/08’, ‘909/14’, ‘911/14’ and other were observed with the use of interspecific hybridization and selection in the population F2-F4. The selected lines passed the trial in artificially infected condition with Alternaria, viral diseases (MToV, TSWV and phytoplasmas. Among breeding lines assessed the ‘911/14’, ‘374/08’ and‘40/11’ were less affected by complex of pathogens. The lines ‘196/12’ and ‘909/14’ passed an assessment in the nursery for variety trial in naturally and  provocatively infected conditions with major pathogens. Both breeding lines had an advantage over standard accession ‘Laguna’ and ‘Maraphon’ for total yield capacity and standard fruit harvest; it was more by 9.6% and 52.2% and 9.5% and 53.4% respectively. Fruits of lines 196/12 and 909/14 had good taste quality with high content of dry matter (5.8% and 6.8%, sugars (3.3% and 3.1%, vitamin C (22.2 and 24.8 mg/100 grams. The selected tree-shaped accessions have been used to develop heterotic hybrids and to be sources of economically valuable traits.

  8. Genetic and environmental variation in a commercial breeding program of perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Pedersen, Morten Greve; Jensen, Christian S

    2015-01-01

    on forage yield (green and dry matter) and six traits scored by visual inspection (i.e., rust resistance, aftermath heading, spring growth, density, winter hardiness, and heading date). Data were analyzed with linear mixed models, including fixed effects (trial and control varieties, within year...... for future GSbased breeding programs. Forage yield showed family heritabilities of up to 0.30 across locations and up to 0.60 within a location. Similar or moderately lower values were found for the other traits. In particular, the heritabilities of rust resistance and aftermath heading were very promising...

  9. Effect of Chronic Social Stress on Prenatal Transfer of Antitetanus Immunity in Captive Breeding Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammen, Rachelle L; Cohen, Joyce K; Meeker, Tracy L; Crane, Maria M; Amara, Rama R; Hicks, Sakeenah L; Meyer, Jerrold S; Ethun, Kelly F

    2018-05-15

    Because tetanus can cause significant morbidity and mortality in NHP, colonywide vaccination with tetanus toxoid is recommendedfor outdoor breeding colonies of rhesus macaques, with primary immunizations commonly given to infants at 6 mo of age followed by booster vaccines every 10 y. Maternal antibodies are thought to offer protective immunity to infants younger than 6 mo. However, historical colony data from the Yerkes National Primate Research Center show a higher incidence of tetanus among infants (≤ 6 mo old) born to subordinate dams. Whether this higher incidence of infantile tetanus is due to a higher incidence of trauma among subordinate animals or is a stress-induced impairment of maternal antibody protection is unknown. Studies in other NHP species suggest that chronic exposure to social stressors interferes with the receptor-mediated transplacental transfer of IgG. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine whether chronic stress associated with social subordination impairs prenatal transfer of antitetanus immunity in breeding female rhesus macaques. Subjects included 26 high- and 26 low-ranking adult female rhesus macaques that were nearly 5 or 10 y after their initial immunization and their nonimmunized infants. We hypothesized that infants born to subordinate dams that were nearly 10 y after immunization would have the lowest infant-to-dam antibody ratios and thus would be at greatest risk for infection. Results revealed no significant intergroup differences in infant antitetanus IgG levels. However, infant-to-dam IgG ratios against tetanus were significantly lower among subordinate animals compared with dominant macaques, after accounting for the number of years since the dam's initial vaccination. In addition, higher maternal hair cortisol levels predicted lower infant-to-dam tetanus toxoid IgG ratios. Together, these findings suggest that chronic social stress in female rhesus macaques may hamper the prenatal transfer of

  10. Do traditional sheep breeders perform conscious selection? An example from a participatory breeding program of Morada Nova sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandas, Janaina Kelli Gomes; Alves, Ângelo Giuseppe Chaves; Facó, Olivardo; Belchior, Ernandes Barboza; Shiotsuki, Luciana; de Arruda Leite, Paulo Márcio Barbosa; Ribeiro, Maria Norma

    2017-10-01

    The implementation of sustainable breeding programs requires genetic breeding strategies that are appropriate for the reality production systems. It is also essential that the choice of animal selection criteria be based on breeders' knowledge and objectives. This work is an ethno-zootechnical study of the Morada Nova sheep breed and its crossbreeds. The goals of this study were to register and analyze indigenous breeders' knowledge and practices regarding animal selection criteria and to generate technical information to support a participatory breeding program of the breed. This study was conducted in the Morada Nova municipality in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were evaluated using two groups of individuals, purebred Morada Nova sheep breeders (RMN, n = 13) and breeders of Morada Nova crossbreeds (MMN, n = 48). Interview questions were used to identify local selection criteria adopted by each group in the choice of animals for breeding. Data from the interviews were submitted to frequency distribution analysis and the Shapiro-Wilk test to verify their distribution. Later, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the two groups of farmers based on that information, in addition to multivariate statistical analysis and evaluation of Smith salience index. Breeders in the RMN group used selection criteria related to breed standards, such as pelage color. In contrast, breeders of the MMN group used criteria related to productivity, such as body conformation and milk production. Breeders should be engaged in the development of breeding programs, and it is important to consider their preferences and objectives when evaluating breeding animals.

  11. Impacts of Nutrition and Feeding Programs on Farmers’ Management Decisions Affecting the Success of Dairy Farms with Culture Breed Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz Topcu; Mehmet Toparlak; Muhlis Macit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate all the factors determining the milk production and yield decisions with regard to the nutrition and feeding programs affecting the integrated management strategies on the success of the dairy farms with culture breed cattle under the pasture-based and indoor barn-based production systems. For these aims, data obtained from the individual interviews conducted at the dairy farms with 100 culture breed cattle were used for Principal Component and Multiple Reg...

  12. Experimental alternatives for evaluation of progenies and clones in eucalyptus breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Elaine Aparecida de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using augmented block designs and spatial analysis methods for early stage selection in eucalyptus breeding programs was tested. A total of 113 half-sib progenies of Eucalyptus urophylla and eight clones were evaluated in an 11 x 11 triple lattice experiment at two locations: Posto da Mata (Bahia, Brazil and São Mateus (Minas Gerais, Brazil. Four checks were randomly allocated within each block. Plots consisted of 15 m long rows containing 6 plants spaced 3 m apart. The girth at breast height (cm/plant was evaluated at 19 and 26 months of age. Variance analyses were performed according to the following methods: lattice design, randomized complete block design, augmented block design, Papadakis method, moving means method, and check plots. Comparisons among different methods were based on the magnitude of experimental errors and precision of the estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters. General results indicated that augmented block design is useful to evaluate progenies and clones in early selection in eucalyptus breeding programs using moderate and low selection intensities. However, this design is not suitable for estimating genetic and phenotypic parameters due to its low precision. Check plots, nearest neighbour, Papadakis (1937, and moving means methods were efficient in removing the heterogeneity within blocks. These efficiencies were compared to that in lattice analysis for estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters.

  13. Knowledge transfer in pair programming: An in-depth analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plonka, Laura; Sharp, Helen; van der Linden, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Whilst knowledge transfer is one of the most widely-claimed benefits of pair programming, little is known about how knowledge transfer is achieved in this setting. This is particularly pertinent for novice−expert constellations, but knowledge transfer takes place to some degree in all constellati...

  14. Shippingport station decommissioning project technology transfer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKernan, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) decontaminated and dismantled the world's first nuclear-fueled, commercial-size electric power plant. The SSDP programmatic goal direction for technology transfer is documentation of project management and operations experience. The objective is to provide future nuclear facility decommissioning projects with pertinent SSDP performance data for project assessment, planning, and operational implementation. This paper sets out access and availability directions for SSDP technology acquisition. Discusses are technology transfer definition; technology transfer products including topical and other project reports, professional-technical society presentations, other project liaison and media relations, visual documentation, and technology transfer data base; and retrieving SSDP information

  15. Waste sludge resuspension and transfer: development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, H.O.; Mackey, T.S.

    1980-02-01

    The six Gunite waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contain about 400,000 gal of sludge that has precipitated from solution and settled during the 35 years these tanks have been in service. Eventual decommissioning of the tanks has been proposed. The first part of this program is to resuspend the accumulated sludge, to transfer it to new storage tanks in Melton Valley, and to dispose of it by the shale-fracturing process. On the basis of preliminary information, a tentative operational concept was adopted. The sludge in each tank would be resuspended by hydraulic sluicing and pumped from the tank. This resuspended sludge would be treated as necessary to keep the particles in suspension and would be pumped to the new waste-storage tanks. Subsequently the sludge would be pumped from the tanks, combined with a cement-base mix, and disposed of by the shale-fracturing facility. Verification of the feasibility of this concept required development effort on characterization of the sludge and development of techniques for resuspending the sludge and for keeping it in suspension. These development efforts are described in this report. Sections of the report describe both the known properties of the sludge and the tests of grinding methods investigated, discuss tests of various suspenders, describe tests with cement-base mixes, summarize hot-cell tests on actual sludge samples, and describe tests that were made at a mockup of a Gunite tank installation. On the basis of the tests made, it was concluded that reslurrying and resuspension of the sludge is quite feasible and that the suspensions can be made compatible with cement mixes

  16. Enantiostyly in Chamaecrista ramosa (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae): floral morphology, pollen transfer dynamics and breeding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, N M de; Castro, C C de; Leite, A V de Lima; Novo, R R; Machado, I C

    2013-03-01

    Enantiostyly is a form of reciprocal herkogamy, in which floral morphs present reciprocal differences in the position of sexual elements, and occurs in monomorphic and dimorphic forms. This polymorphism maximises cross-pollination and reduces self-pollination, being very common within the subtribe Cassiinae (Fabaceae). Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the functionality of enantiostyly, particularly in this plant group. The present study aimed to investigate enantiostyly and its functionality in Chamaecrista ramosa, a monomorphic enantiostylous shrub, in an area of coastal vegetation in northeast Brazil. Pollen deposition and capture on the body of floral visitors, the relationship of these data with floral biology and breeding system, and morph ratio were evaluated. Pollen deposition and capture occurred in specific sites of the floral visitor body, showing the functionality of enantiostyly. The floral architecture, associated with the floral visitor behaviour, resulted in indirect pollen deposition on the floral visitor body. This occurred through a loop made by the pollen upon the inner petal surface, similar that generally reported for other Cassiinae. Chamaecrista ramosa is self-compatible, although no fruit set was observed through spontaneous self-pollination. The occurrence and number of floral morphs was similar within clumps. Enantiostyly seems to be advantageous for this species, as it results in efficient pollen capture and deposition, reduces the chances of autogamy and maximises intermorph pollen flow. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Shippingport station decommissioning project technology transfer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKernan, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) decommissioned, decontaminated, and dismantled the world's first, nuclear fueled, commercial size, electric power plant. SSDP programmatic goal direction for technology transfer is documentation of project management and operations experience. Objective is to provide future nuclear facility decommissioning projects with pertinent SSDP performance data for project assessment, planning, and operational implementation. This paper presents a working definition for technology transfer. Direction is provided for access and availability for SSDP technology acquisition

  18. Maternal transfer of organohalogen contaminants and metabolites to eggs of Arctic-breeding glaucous gulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verreault, Jonathan; Villa, Rosa A.; Gabrielsen, Geir W.; Skaare, Janneche U.; Letcher, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Eggs of seabirds have routinely been used as indicators of environmental pollution in the Arctic. However, the variability in organohalogen concentration and composition associated with the laying sequence, have not been defined. We examined a suite of PCBs, organochlorine (OC) pesticides and by-products, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and methylsulfonyl- (MeSO 2 ) PCBs in complete 3-egg clutches of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), and plasma samples of the laying females collected from the Norwegian Arctic. ΣPCB, ΣOC and ΣPBDE, but not ΣMeSO 2 -PCB, concentrations in eggs were positively associated, with increasing magnitude and significance from the first through the last-laid egg, with concentrations in female plasma. However, the concentrations of these organohalogen classes fluctuated irrespective of the laying order in the clutch. In general, maternal transfer favored low K ow and/or less persistent compounds, whereas the recalcitrant and/or higher-halogenated compounds were less readily transferred, and consequently more selectively retained in the mother. - Concentrations of organohalogen contaminants and metabolites in eggs of glaucous gulls do not fluctuate with the laying order in a three-egg clutch

  19. Conditional Cash Transfer against Child Labor: Indonesia Program Keluarga Harapan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kye Woo; Hwang, Miae

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze whether subsidies provided by the Indonesian conditional cash transfer against child labor program (Program Keluarga Harapan: PKH) were sufficient for children to stop working and go back to schooling. Ex-post evaluations of the program found that it did not improve children's enrollment rate and reduce child labor…

  20. Remote sensing education in NASA's technology transfer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing is a principal focus of NASA's technology transfer program activity with major attention to remote sensing education the Regional Program and the University Applications Program. Relevant activities over the past five years are reviewed and perspective on future directions is presented.

  1. Estimation of genetic parameters for growth traits in a breeding program for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, G; Gu, W; Bai, Q L; Wang, B Q

    2013-04-26

    Genetic parameters and breeding values for growth traits were estimated in the first and, currently, the only family selective breeding program for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in China. Genetic and phenotypic data were collected for growth traits from 75 full-sibling families with a 2-generation pedigree. Genetic parameters and breeding values for growth traits of rainbow trout were estimated using the derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood method. The goodness-of-fit of the models was tested using Akaike and Bayesian information criteria. Genetic parameters and breeding values were estimated using the best-fit model for each trait. The values for heritability estimating body weight and length ranged from 0.20 to 0.45 and from 0.27 to 0.60, respectively, and the heritability of condition factor was 0.34. Our results showed a moderate degree of heritability for growth traits in this breeding program and suggested that the genetic and phenotypic tendency of body length, body weight, and condition factor were similar. Therefore, the selection of phenotypic values based on pedigree information was also suitable in this research population.

  2. Setting Up Decision-Making Tools toward a Quality-Oriented Participatory Maize Breeding Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mara L.; Brites, Cláudia; Paulo, Manuel; Carbas, Bruna; Belo, Maria; Mendes-Moreira, Pedro M. R.; Brites, Carla; Bronze, Maria do Rosário; Gunjača, Jerko; Šatović, Zlatko; Vaz Patto, Maria C.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported promising differences in the quality of kernels from farmers' maize populations collected in a Portuguese region known to produce maize-based bread. However, several limitations have been identified in the previous characterizations of those populations, such as a limited set of quality traits accessed and a missing accurate agronomic performance evaluation. The objectives of this study were to perform a more detailed quality characterization of Portuguese farmers' maize populations; to estimate their agronomic performance in a broader range of environments; and to integrate quality, agronomic, and molecular data in the setting up of decision-making tools for the establishment of a quality-oriented participatory maize breeding program. Sixteen farmers' maize populations, together with 10 other maize populations chosen for comparison purposes, were multiplied in a common-garden experiment for quality evaluation. Flour obtained from each population was used to study kernel composition (protein, fat, fiber), flour's pasting behavior, and bioactive compound levels (carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic compounds). These maize populations were evaluated for grain yield and ear weight in nine locations across Portugal; the populations' adaptability and stability were evaluated using additive main effects and multiplication interaction (AMMI) model analysis. The phenotypic characterization of each population was complemented with a molecular characterization, in which 30 individuals per population were genotyped with 20 microsatellites. Almost all farmers' populations were clustered into the same quality-group characterized by high levels of protein and fiber, low levels of carotenoids, volatile aldehydes, α- and δ-tocopherols, and breakdown viscosity. Within this quality-group, variability on particular quality traits (color and some bioactive compounds) could still be found. Regarding the agronomic performance, farmers' maize populations

  3. Setting Up Decision-Making Tools toward a Quality-Oriented Participatory Maize Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara L. Alves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported promising differences in the quality of kernels from farmers' maize populations collected in a Portuguese region known to produce maize-based bread. However, several limitations have been identified in the previous characterizations of those populations, such as a limited set of quality traits accessed and a missing accurate agronomic performance evaluation. The objectives of this study were to perform a more detailed quality characterization of Portuguese farmers' maize populations; to estimate their agronomic performance in a broader range of environments; and to integrate quality, agronomic, and molecular data in the setting up of decision-making tools for the establishment of a quality-oriented participatory maize breeding program. Sixteen farmers' maize populations, together with 10 other maize populations chosen for comparison purposes, were multiplied in a common-garden experiment for quality evaluation. Flour obtained from each population was used to study kernel composition (protein, fat, fiber, flour's pasting behavior, and bioactive compound levels (carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic compounds. These maize populations were evaluated for grain yield and ear weight in nine locations across Portugal; the populations' adaptability and stability were evaluated using additive main effects and multiplication interaction (AMMI model analysis. The phenotypic characterization of each population was complemented with a molecular characterization, in which 30 individuals per population were genotyped with 20 microsatellites. Almost all farmers' populations were clustered into the same quality-group characterized by high levels of protein and fiber, low levels of carotenoids, volatile aldehydes, α- and δ-tocopherols, and breakdown viscosity. Within this quality-group, variability on particular quality traits (color and some bioactive compounds could still be found. Regarding the agronomic performance, farmers

  4. Breeding bread wheat cultivars for high protein content by transfer of protein genes from Triticum dicoccoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grama, A.; Gerechter-Amitai, Z.K.; Blum, A.; Rubenthaler, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Triticum dicoccoides sel. G-25, a selection of wild emmer with a protein content of 20.5% and a kernel weight of 31.5 mg, was used as the donor of protein genes. Since this selection is highly resistant to stripe rust, the object of the crossing programme was to transfer this resistance, together with the high protein potential, to durum and bread wheat cultivars susceptible to the disease. In the tetraploid lines obtained from the T. dicoccoides/T. durum cross, the protein values ranged from 17 to 22%. These lines had resistance to stripe rust from the wild emmer and to stem rust from the durum. After two further crosses between these tetraploid lines and T. aestivum cultivars, several lines were selected which combined good yield, high protein level and resistance to rust diseases. These lines attained protein levels of 14 to 19% in the whole grain and 14 to 17% in the flour, combined with yields of 4.5 to 6.0 t/ha. They had also inherited resistance to stem rust, and in some instances also to leaf rust, from the cultivated wheat parental lines. (author)

  5. Leaf physiology and morphology of Castanea dentata (Marsh) Borkh., Castanea mollissima Blume, and three backcross breeding generations planted in the southern Appalachians, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Stacy L Clark; Lauren S. Pile; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2014-01-01

    Backcross breeding programs have been used to transfer disease resistance and other traits from one forest tree species to another in order to meet restoration objectives. Evaluating the field performance of such material is critical for determining the success of breeding programs. In eastern North America, The American Chestnut Foundation has a backcross breeding...

  6. QTL mapping of soybean oil content for marker-assisted selection in plant breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, D C; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Di Mauro, A O; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2016-03-18

    The present study was undertaken to detect and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to soybean oil content. We used 244 progenies derived from a bi-parental cross of the Lineage 69 (from Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"/Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Breeding Program) and Tucunaré cultivar. A total of 358 simple sequence repeat (SSR; microsatellite) markers were used to investigate the polymorphism between the parental lines, and for the polymorphic lines all the F2 individuals were tested. Evaluation of the oil content and phenotype was performed with the aid of a Tango equipment by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy, using single F2 seeds and F2:3 progenies, in triplicate. The data were analyzed by QTL Cartographer program for 56 SSR polymorphic markers. Two oil-content related QTLs were detected on K and H linkage groups. The total phenotypic variation explained by QTLs ranged from 7.8 to 46.75% for oil content. New QTLs were identified for the oil content in addition to those previously identified in other studies. The results reported in this study show that regions different from those already known could be involved in the genetic control of soybean oil content.

  7. Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOWLER, K.D.

    2001-01-01

    The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. The primary goal of the program is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations. The process described involves characterizing waste, comparing characteristics with criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities and documenting the process

  8. Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOWLER, K.D.

    2000-01-01

    The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. The primary goal of the program is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations. The process described involves characterizing waste, comparing characteristics with criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities and documenting the process

  9. Aligning Needs, Expectations, and Learning Outcomes to Sustain Self-Efficacy through Transfer Learning Community Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptien, Jennifer R.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses strengths and difficulties encountered in implementing transfer learning community models and how efficacy is supported through transfer learning community programming. Transfer programming best practices and recommendations for program improvements are presented.

  10. A continuing program for technology transfer to the apparel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingman, W. H.

    1971-01-01

    A six month program has been carried out to investigate various mechanisms for transferring technology to industry. This program has focused on transfer to the apparel industry through the Apparel Research Foundation. The procedure was to analyze the problem, obtain potentially relevant aerospace technology, and then transfer this technology to the industry organization. This was done in a specific case. Technology was identified relevant to stitchless joining, and this technology was transferred to the Apparel Research Foundation. The feasibility and ground rules for carrying out such activities on a broader scale were established. A specific objective was to transfer new technology from the industry organization to the industry itself. This required the establishment of an application engineering program. Another transfer mechanism tested was publication of solutions to industry problems in a format familiar to the industry. This is to be distinguished from circulating descriptions of new technology. Focus is on the industry problem and the manager is given a formula for solving it that he can follow. It was concluded that this mechanism can complement the problem statement approach to technology transfer. It is useful in achieving transfer when a large amount of application engineering is not necessary. A wide audience is immediately exposed to the technology. On the other hand, the major manufacturing problems which require a sophisticated technical solution integrating many innovations are less likely to be helped.

  11. A model technology transfer program for independent operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1996-08-01

    In August 1992, the Energy Research Center (ERC) at the University of Kansas was awarded a contract by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a technology transfer regional model. This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program.

  12. Using Wild Olives in Breeding Programs: Implications on Oil Quality Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo León

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A wide genetic diversity has been reported for wild olives, which could be particularly interesting for the introgression of some agronomic traits and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in breeding programs. However, the introgression of some beneficial wild traits may be paralleled by negative effects on some other important agronomic and quality traits. From the quality point of view, virgin olive oil (VOO from olive cultivars is highly appreciated for its fatty acid composition (high monounsaturated oleic acid content and the presence of several minor components. However, the composition of VOO from wild origin and its comparison with VOO from olive cultivars has been scarcely studied. In this work, the variability for fruit characters (fruit weight and oil content, OC, fatty acid composition, and minor quality components (squalene, sterols and tocopherols content and composition was studied in a set of plant materials involving three different origins: wild genotypes (n = 32, cultivars (n = 62 and genotypes belonging to cultivar × wild progenies (n = 62. As expected, values for fruit size and OC in wild olives were lower than those obtained in cultivated materials, with intermediate values for cultivar × wild progenies. Wild olives showed a remarkably higher C16:0 percentage and tocopherol content in comparison to the cultivars. Contrarily, lower C18:1 percentage, squalene and sterol content were found in the wild genotypes, while no clear differences were found among the different plant materials regarding composition of the tocopherol and phytosterol fractions. Some common highly significant correlations among components of the same chemical family were found in all groups of plant materials. However, some other correlations were specific for one of the groups. The results of the study suggested that the use of wild germplasm in olive breeding programs will not have a negative impact on fatty acid composition, tocopherol content

  13. DOE/EPA sludge irradiation technology transfer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    The cesium-137 sludge irradiation program has successfully progressed through the phases of technology development and pilot plant evaluation and has entered the technology transfer phase. Initial technology transfer activities have identified a growing interest among wastewater engineers and public officials to learn more about the application of irradiation in sludge treatment. As a result, a formal technology transfer program has been developed. As a major activity of this program, it is planned that the US Department of Energy, working with the US Environmental Protection Agency, state and local governments, will support the placement of five to 10 sludge irradiators at selected wastewater treatment facilities throughout the United States. Facilities which may best benefit from this process technology are being identified. Technology transfer will be stimulated as engineers and wastewater officials become familiar with the evaluation and implementation of sludge irradiation at these sites

  14. A comprehensive survey on selective breeding programs and seed market in the European aquaculture fish industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, K.P.E.; Hofherr, Johann; Contini, Franca; Haffray, P.; Komen, J.; Nielsen, E.E.; Bargelloni, L.

    2016-01-01

    The use of selective breeding is still relatively limited in aquaculture species. Information on such activities is sparse, hindering an overall evaluation of their success. Here, we report on the results of an online survey of the major aqua-culture breeding companies operating in Europe. Six main

  15. RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN A MAIZE BREEDING PROGRAM FOR NATIVE RESISTANCE TO WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Brkić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimum allocation of the number of plants sampled per plot and number of locations and years required for screening maize genotypes for reduced root damage caused by western corn rootworm (WCR larvae, major pest of maize in Croatia, Europe and in the USA. Field trials were conducted on two locations Eastern Croatia, a major maize production area with natural WCR occurrence under continuous maize growing conditions. The trials were set as an incomplete lattice block design in two replications in 2007, 2008 and 2009 including 128 genotypes from various maize gene-pools. Our results suggest that the effect of year and respective interactions including year were the most important factors in maize breeding programs for native resistance to WCR. Thus, screening germplasm for WCR resistance should be made in a multi-year experiment, but not necessarily as a multi-location experiment. Resource optimization should be done by reducing number of roots per plot to minimum 4 sampled plants due to small within-plot environmental variance.

  16. Genomic prediction unifies animal and plant breeding programs to form platforms for biological discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hickey, John M.; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Mackay, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The rate of annual yield increases for major staple crops must more than double relative to current levels in order to feed a predicted global population of 9 billion by 2050. Controlled hybridization and selective breeding have been used for centuries to adapt plant and animal species for human...... that unifies breeding approaches, biological discovery, and tools and methods. Here we compare and contrast some animal and plant breeding approaches to make a case for bringing the two together through the application of genomic selection. We propose a strategy for the use of genomic selection as a unifying...... use. However, achieving higher, sustainable rates of improvement in yields in various species will require renewed genetic interventions and dramatic improvement of agricultural practices. Genomic prediction of breeding values has the potential to improve selection, reduce costs and provide a platform...

  17. Genomic prediction unifies animal and plant breeding programs to form platforms for biological discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, John M; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Mackay, Ian; Powell, Wayne

    2017-08-30

    The rate of annual yield increases for major staple crops must more than double relative to current levels in order to feed a predicted global population of 9 billion by 2050. Controlled hybridization and selective breeding have been used for centuries to adapt plant and animal species for human use. However, achieving higher, sustainable rates of improvement in yields in various species will require renewed genetic interventions and dramatic improvement of agricultural practices. Genomic prediction of breeding values has the potential to improve selection, reduce costs and provide a platform that unifies breeding approaches, biological discovery, and tools and methods. Here we compare and contrast some animal and plant breeding approaches to make a case for bringing the two together through the application of genomic selection. We propose a strategy for the use of genomic selection as a unifying approach to deliver innovative 'step changes' in the rate of genetic gain at scale.

  18. Genetic Parameters and the Impact of Off-Types for Theobroma cacao L. in a Breeding Program in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, Ashley; Gezan, Salvador A.; Mustiga, Guiliana; Stack, Conrad; Marelli, Jean-Philippe; Chaparro, José; Livingstone, Donald; Royaert, Stefan; Motamayor, Juan C.

    2017-01-01

    Breeding programs of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) trees share the many challenges of breeding long-living perennial crops, and genetic progress is further constrained by both the limited understanding of the inheritance of complex traits and the prevalence of technical issues, such as mislabeled individuals (off-types). To better understand the genetic architecture of cacao, in this study, 13 years of phenotypic data collected from four progeny trials in Bahia, Brazil were analyzed jointly in a multisite analysis. Three separate analyses (multisite, single site with and without off-types) were performed to estimate genetic parameters from statistical models fitted on nine important agronomic traits (yield, seed index, pod index, % healthy pods, % pods infected with witches broom, % of pods other loss, vegetative brooms, diameter, and tree height). Genetic parameters were estimated along with variance components and heritabilities from the multisite analysis, and a trial was fingerprinted with low-density SNP markers to determine the impact of off-types on estimations. Heritabilities ranged from 0.37 to 0.64 for yield and its components and from 0.03 to 0.16 for disease resistance traits. A weighted index was used to make selections for clonal evaluation, and breeding values estimated for the parental selection and estimation of genetic gain. The impact of off-types to breeding progress in cacao was assessed for the first time. Even when present at <5% of the total population, off-types altered selections by 48%, and impacted heritability estimations for all nine of the traits analyzed, including a 41% difference in estimated heritability for yield. These results show that in a mixed model analysis, even a low level of pedigree error can significantly alter estimations of genetic parameters and selections in a breeding program. PMID:29250097

  19. Zoos through the Lens of the IUCN Red List: A Global Metapopulation Approach to Support Conservation Breeding Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, Dalia A.; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K.; Jones, Owen R.

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threate...

  20. Impacts of Nutrition and Feeding Programs on Farmers’ Management Decisions Affecting the Success of Dairy Farms with Culture Breed Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Topcu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate all the factors determining the milk production and yield decisions with regard to the nutrition and feeding programs affecting the integrated management strategies on the success of the dairy farms with culture breed cattle under the pasture-based and indoor barn-based production systems. For these aims, data obtained from the individual interviews conducted at the dairy farms with 100 culture breed cattle were used for Principal Component and Multiple Regression Analyses. The results of the study highlighted that while there were linear positive relationships among liquid assets of farms value, concentrate feed and fodder intake of dairy cattle, milk sale price, forage crop support, additional feeding and their types at pasture and milk yields per dairy cattle at the dairy farms; there were inverse relationships among hay intake of dairy cattle, lactation period, pasture planning, culture breed cattle support and those. The farmers could increase the successes of the dairy farms by increasing the technical and economic effectiveness under the integrated management pattern approaches at those with culture breed cattle.

  1. Trait-based model development to support breeding programs. A case study for salt tolerance and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, Livia; Movedi, Ermes; Confalonieri, Roberto

    2017-06-28

    Eco-physiological models are increasingly used to analyze G × E × M interactions to support breeding programs via the design of ideotypes for specific contexts. However, available crop models are only partly suitable for this purpose, since they often lack clear relationships between parameters and traits breeders are working on. Taking salt stress tolerance and rice as a case study, we propose a paradigm shift towards the building of ideotyping-specific models explicitly around traits involved in breeding programs. Salt tolerance is a complex trait relying on different physiological processes that can be alternatively selected to improve the overall crop tolerance. We developed a new model explicitly accounting for these traits and we evaluated its performance using data from growth chamber experiments (e.g., R 2 ranged from 0.74 to 0.94 for the biomass of different plant organs). Using the model, we were able to show how an increase in the overall tolerance can derive from completely different physiological mechanisms according to soil/water salinity dynamics. The study demonstrated that a trait-based approach can increase the usefulness of mathematical models for supporting breeding programs.

  2. Production objectives, trait and breed preferences of farmers keeping N'Dama, Fulani Zebu and crossbred cattle and implications for breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, S A; Markemann, A; Reiber, C; Piepho, H P; Valle Zárate, A

    2017-04-01

    Many local livestock breeds in developing countries are being replaced by exotic breeds, leading to a loss of genetic resources. In southern Mali, for the past two decades, a trend towards increasing crossbreeding between the trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle and the trypano-susceptible Fulani Zebu cattle has been taking place. A survey with 160 farmers owning a cattle herd was carried out in southern Mali to investigate their production objectives, as well as trait and breed preferences and correlated socio-economic determinants in order to understand farmers' breeding decisions and to identify comparative advantages of three breed groups (N'Dama, Fulani Zebu and crossbreds) raised in the study area. Data were analyzed using an exploded logit model. The reasons for raising cattle, as well as trait and breed preferences reflected the multiple objectives of the farmers. Draught power and savings were the most important production objectives. Productive traits were ranked highest; farmers reported large body size as the most preferred trait, followed by fertility, draught ability and milk yield. Crossbreds were the favored breed group. Breed preferences were mainly explained by 'resistance to disease' for N'Dama cattle and 'high market price' for Fulani Zebu and crossbred cattle. Production objectives, trait and breed preferences were mainly influenced by farmer group (local farmers and settled transhumants). Local farmers put comparatively more emphasis on livestock functions linked to crop production such as draught power. They had a higher preference for traction ability as a selection trait and preferred N'Dama over Fulani Zebu cattle. Settled transhumants emphasized milk yield as a selection trait and preferred Fulani Zebu over N'Dama. The results indicate that the trend towards more crossbreeding will continue putting the N'Dama breed under high risk of genetic dilution in southern Mali. The N'Dama cattle remain a valuable breed due to their adaptive traits such as

  3. Overview PWR-Blowdown Heat Transfer Separate-Effects Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The ORNL Pressurized Water Reactor Blowdown Heat Transfer Program (PWR-BDHT) is a separate-effects experimental study of thermal-hydraulic phenomena occurring during the first 20 sec of a hypothetical LOCA. Specific objectives include the determination, for a wide range of parameters, of time to CHF and the following variables for both pre- and post-CHF: heat fluxes, ΔT (temperature difference between pin surface and fluid), heat transfer coefficients, and local fluid properties. A summary of the most interesting results from the program obtained during the past year is presented. These results are in the area of: (1) RELAP verification, (2) electric pin calibration, (3) time to critical heat flux (CHF), (4) heat transfer coefficient comparisons, and (5) nuclear fuel pin simulation

  4. Venture Creation Programs: Bridging Entrepreneurship Education and Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackéus, Martin; Williams Middleton, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how university-based entrepreneurship programs, incorporating real-life venture creation into educational design and delivery, can bridge the gap between entrepreneurship education and technology transfer within the university environment. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review…

  5. 77 FR 46855 - Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Chapter I RIN 3245-AF45 Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final policy directive with request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is amending its Small Business...

  6. Screening for Sugarcane Brown Rust in the First Clonal Stage of the Canal Point Sugarcane Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duli Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. brown rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd. was first reported in the United States in 1978 and is still one of the great challenges for sugarcane production. A better understanding of sugarcane genotypic variation in response to brown rust will help optimize breeding and selection strategies for disease resistance. Brown rust ratings were scaled from non-infection (0 to severe infection (4 with intervals of 0.5 and routinely recorded for genotypes in the first clonal selection stage of the Canal Point sugarcane breeding program in Florida. Data were collected from 14,272 and 12,661 genotypes and replicated check cultivars in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Mean rust rating, % infection, and severity in each family and progeny of female parent were determined, and their coefficients of variation (CV within and among families (females were estimated. Considerable variation exists in rust ratings among families or females. The families and female parents with high susceptibility or resistance to brown rust were identified and ranked. The findings of this study can help scientists to evaluate sugarcane crosses and parents for brown rust disease, to use desirable parents for crossing, and to improve genetic resistance to brown rust in breeding programs.

  7. Review of major sweetpotato pests in Japan, with information on resistance breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Akira; Tabuchi, Hiroaki; Kuranouchi, Toshikazu

    2017-01-01

    Sweetpotato ( Ipomoeae batatas (L.) Lam.) is an important food crop affected by several pests throughout the world, especially in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions. Although Japan is relatively free from many serious sweetpotato pests, some pests, especially soil-borne pathogens, viruses, and insects such as plant-parasitic nematodes and weevils, cause severe damage in Japan. In this review, we describe the current status and management options for sweetpotato pests and diseases in Japan and review research related to sweetpotato breeding that can promote resistance to these problems. Furthermore, we describe methods to evaluate resistance to pests and disease used in sweetpotato breeding at the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO).

  8. A review of microsatellite markers and their applications in rice breeding programs to improve blast disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Islam, Kh Nurul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2013-11-14

    Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the large amount of allelic variation at each locus. Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR), and they are typically composed of 1-6 nucleotide repeats. These markers are abundant, distributed throughout the genome and are highly polymorphic compared with other genetic markers, as well as being species-specific and co-dominant. For these reasons, they have become increasingly important genetic markers in rice breeding programs. The evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases as well as the pressures of climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders, who would like to increase rice production by introducing resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances in rice genomics have now made it possible to identify and map a number of genes through linkage to existing DNA markers. Among the more noteworthy examples of genes that have been tightly linked to molecular markers in rice are those that confer resistance or tolerance to blast. Therefore, in combination with conventional breeding approaches, marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to monitor the presence or lack of these genes in breeding populations. For example, marker-assisted backcross breeding has been used to integrate important genes with significant biological effects into a number of commonly grown rice varieties. The use of cost-effective, finely mapped microsatellite markers and MAS strategies should provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yield, blast resistance rice cultivars. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the linkage of microsatellite markers to rice blast resistance genes, as well as to explore the use of MAS in rice breeding

  9. A Review of Microsatellite Markers and Their Applications in Rice Breeding Programs to Improve Blast Disease Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdul Latif

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the large amount of allelic variation at each locus. Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR, and they are typically composed of 1–6 nucleotide repeats. These markers are abundant, distributed throughout the genome and are highly polymorphic compared with other genetic markers, as well as being species-specific and co-dominant. For these reasons, they have become increasingly important genetic markers in rice breeding programs. The evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases as well as the pressures of climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders, who would like to increase rice production by introducing resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances in rice genomics have now made it possible to identify and map a number of genes through linkage to existing DNA markers. Among the more noteworthy examples of genes that have been tightly linked to molecular markers in rice are those that confer resistance or tolerance to blast. Therefore, in combination with conventional breeding approaches, marker-assisted selection (MAS can be used to monitor the presence or lack of these genes in breeding populations. For example, marker-assisted backcross breeding has been used to integrate important genes with significant biological effects into a number of commonly grown rice varieties. The use of cost-effective, finely mapped microsatellite markers and MAS strategies should provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yield, blast resistance rice cultivars. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the linkage of microsatellite markers to rice blast resistance genes, as well as to explore the use of MAS

  10. Genomic prediction in early selection stages using multi-year data in a hybrid rye breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Vasquez, Angela-Maria; Gordillo, Andres; Schmidt, Malthe; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2017-05-31

    The use of multiple genetic backgrounds across years is appealing for genomic prediction (GP) because past years' data provide valuable information on marker effects. Nonetheless, single-year GP models are less complex and computationally less demanding than multi-year GP models. In devising a suitable analysis strategy for multi-year data, we may exploit the fact that even if there is no replication of genotypes across years, there is plenty of replication at the level of marker loci. Our principal aim was to evaluate different GP approaches to simultaneously model genotype-by-year (GY) effects and breeding values using multi-year data in terms of predictive ability. The models were evaluated under different scenarios reflecting common practice in plant breeding programs, such as different degrees of relatedness between training and validation sets, and using a selected fraction of genotypes in the training set. We used empirical grain yield data of a rye hybrid breeding program. A detailed description of the prediction approaches highlighting the use of kinship for modeling GY is presented. Using the kinship to model GY was advantageous in particular for datasets disconnected across years. On average, predictive abilities were 5% higher for models using kinship to model GY over models without kinship. We confirmed that using data from multiple selection stages provides valuable GY information and helps increasing predictive ability. This increase is on average 30% higher when the predicted genotypes are closely related with the genotypes in the training set. A selection of top-yielding genotypes together with the use of kinship to model GY improves the predictive ability in datasets composed of single years of several selection cycles. Our results clearly demonstrate that the use of multi-year data and appropriate modeling is beneficial for GP because it allows dissecting GY effects from genomic estimated breeding values. The model choice, as well as ensuring

  11. Genetic evaluation of the captive breeding program of the Persian wild ass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.K.; Pertoldi, C.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    During the last century, many species have become endangered and conservation in terms of captive breeding has been crucial for their survival. Classical management of captive species is based on recorded genealogies. However, if pedigrees are incomplete or inaccurate, it can bias...

  12. Development and integration of an SSR-based molecular identity database into sugarcane breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane breeding is very difficult and it takes 12 to 14 years to develop a new cultivar for commercial production. This is because sugarcane varieties are highly polyploid, inter-specific hybrids with 100 to 130 chromosomes that may vary across geographical areas. Other obstacles/constraints incl...

  13. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    However, to solve the simultaneous equations the ... The aggregate breeding value represents a fundamental concept, the breeding objective, which is ..... Two properties characterise a linear programming problem. The first is additivity, ...

  14. Genomic prediction unifies animal and plant breeding programs to form platforms for biological discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey, John M; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Mackay, Ian; Powell, Wayne; Implementing Genomic Selection in CGIAR Breeding Programs Workshop Participants

    2017-01-01

    The rate of annual yield increases for major staple crops must more than double relative to current levels in order to feed a predicted global population of 9 billion by 2050. Controlled hybridization and selective breeding have been used for centuries to adapt plant and animal species for human use. However, achieving higher, sustainable rates of improvement in yields in various species will require renewed genetic interventions and dramatic improvement of agricultural practices. Genomic pre...

  15. Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Lynn; Jasper, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)/Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs fund the research, development, and demonstration of innovative technologies that fulfill NASA's needs as described in the annual Solicitations and have significant potential for successful commercialization. The only eligible participants are small business concern (SBC) with 500 or fewer employees or a nonprofit research institute such as a university or a research laboratory with ties to an SBC. These programs are potential sources of seed funding for the development of small business innovations.

  16. Optimization of a genomic breeding program for a moderately sized dairy cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner-Benaim, A; Ezra, E; Weller, J I

    2017-04-01

    Although it now standard practice to genotype thousands of female calves, genotyping of bull calves is generally limited to progeny of elite cows. In addition to genotyping costs, increasing the pool of candidate sires requires purchase, isolation, and identification of calves until selection decisions are made. We economically optimized via simulation a genomic breeding program for a population of approximately 120,000 milk-recorded cows, corresponding to the Israeli Holstein population. All 30,000 heifers and 60,000 older cows of parities 1 to 3 were potential bull dams. Animals were assumed to have genetic evaluations for a trait with heritability of 0.25 derived by an animal model evaluation of the population. Only bull calves were assumed to be genotyped. A pseudo-phenotype corresponding to each animal's genetic evaluation was generated, consisting of the animal's genetic value plus a residual with variance set to obtain the assumed reliability for each group of animals. Between 4 and 15 bulls and between 200 and 27,000 cows with the highest pseudo-phenotypes were selected as candidate bull parents. For all progeny of the founder animals, genetic values were simulated as the mean of the parental values plus a Mendelian sampling effect with variance of 0.5. A probability of 0.3 for a healthy bull calf per mating, and a genomic reliability of 0.43 were assumed. The 40 bull calves with the highest genomic evaluations were selected for general service for 1 yr. Costs included genotyping of candidate bulls and their dams, purchase of the calves from the farmers, and identification. Costs of raising culled calves were partially recovered by resale for beef. Annual costs were estimated as $10,922 + $305 × candidate bulls. Nominal profit per cow per genetic standard deviation was $106. Economic optimum with a discount rate of 5%, first returns after 4 yr, and a profit horizon of 15 yr were obtained with genotyping 1,620 to 1,750 calves for all numbers of bull sires

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities

  18. Genomic Selection for Predicting Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in a Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio P. Arruda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is a breeding method that uses marker–trait models to predict unobserved phenotypes. This study developed GS models for predicting traits associated with resistance to head blight (FHB in wheat ( L.. We used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS to identify 5054 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, which were then treated as predictor variables in GS analysis. We compared how the prediction accuracy of the genomic-estimated breeding values (GEBVs was affected by (i five genotypic imputation methods (random forest imputation [RFI], expectation maximization imputation [EMI], -nearest neighbor imputation [kNNI], singular value decomposition imputation [SVDI], and the mean imputation [MNI]; (ii three statistical models (ridge-regression best linear unbiased predictor [RR-BLUP], least absolute shrinkage and operator selector [LASSO], and elastic net; (iii marker density ( = 500, 1500, 3000, and 4500 SNPs; (iv training population (TP size ( = 96, 144, 192, and 218; (v marker-based and pedigree-based relationship matrices; and (vi control for relatedness in TPs and validation populations (VPs. No discernable differences in prediction accuracy were observed among imputation methods. The RR-BLUP outperformed other models in nearly all scenarios. Accuracies decreased substantially when marker number decreased to 3000 or 1500 SNPs, depending on the trait; when sample size of the training set was less than 192; when using pedigree-based instead of marker-based matrix; or when no control for relatedness was implemented. Overall, moderate to high prediction accuracies were observed in this study, suggesting that GS is a very promising breeding strategy for FHB resistance in wheat.

  19. Diversity and genetic stability in banana genotypes in a breeding program using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A V C; Nascimento, A L S; Vitória, M F; Rabbani, A R C; Soares, A N R; Lédo, A S

    2017-02-23

    Banana (Musa spp) is a fruit species frequently cultivated and consumed worldwide. Molecular markers are important for estimating genetic diversity in germplasm and between genotypes in breeding programs. The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of 21 banana genotypes (FHIA 23, PA42-44, Maçã, Pacovan Ken, Bucaneiro, YB42-47, Grand Naine, Tropical, FHIA 18, PA94-01, YB42-17, Enxerto, Japira, Pacovã, Prata-Anã, Maravilha, PV79-34, Caipira, Princesa, Garantida, and Thap Maeo), by using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Material was generated from the banana breeding program of Embrapa Cassava & Fruits and evaluated at Embrapa Coastal Tablelands. The 12 primers used in this study generated 97.5% polymorphism. Four clusters were identified among the different genotypes studied, and the sum of the first two principal components was 48.91%. From the Unweighted Pair Group Method using Arithmetic averages (UPGMA) dendrogram, it was possible to identify two main clusters and subclusters. Two genotypes (Garantida and Thap Maeo) remained isolated from the others, both in the UPGMA clustering and in the principal cordinate analysis (PCoA). Using ISSR markers, we could analyze the genetic diversity of the studied material and state that these markers were efficient at detecting sufficient polymorphism to estimate the genetic variability in banana genotypes.

  20. Application of genotyping by sequencing technology to a variety of crop breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsoo; Guo, Hui; Kong, Wenqian; Chandnani, Rahul; Shuang, Lan-Shuan; Paterson, Andrew H

    2016-01-01

    Since the Arabidopsis genome was completed, draft sequences or pseudomolecules have been published for more than 100 plant genomes including green algae, in large part due to advances in sequencing technologies. Advanced DNA sequencing technologies have also conferred new opportunities for high-throughput low-cost crop genotyping, based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, a recurring complication in crop genotyping that differs from other taxa is a higher level of DNA sequence duplication, noting that all angiosperms are thought to have polyploidy in their evolutionary history. In the current article, we briefly review current genotyping methods using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. We also explore case studies of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) applications to several crops differing in genome size, organization and breeding system (paleopolyploids, neo-allopolyploids, neo-autopolyploids). GBS typically shows good results when it is applied to an inbred diploid species with a well-established reference genome. However, we have also made some progress toward GBS of outcrossing species lacking reference genomes and of polyploid populations, which still need much improvement. Regardless of some limitations, low-cost and multiplexed genotyping offered by GBS will be beneficial to breed superior cultivars in many crop species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using breed composition, breed differences, selection tools, and new technologies to optimize commercial cattle production and allocation of beef cattle in research programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indicators of breed composition such as hair color and ear length often result in increased or decreased prices of young calves marketed into feedlots. Similarly, feedlot research trials are often initiated with blended cattle from multiple sources with little more than coat color used as a blockin...

  2. Transfer and development of the PC version of ABAQUS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaofeng; Zhu Yuqiao

    1998-01-01

    The transfer and development of the PC version of ABAQUS,a large nonlinear mechanical finite element analysis program, are carried out. Some special problem such as difference of the floating data format in different computers and the computer's unusual dead halt during the data transfer is solved and the visualized I/O capability is added in the redevelopment. Thus, by utilizing the visual capability, the intensity of analysis works is reduced, and the correctness of analysis is ensured. The PC ABAQUS are tested by the standard examples from VAX version of ABAQUS and the calculation results are correct. The results of calculation of stress and deformation for CEFR shell structure with PC ABAQUS and ADINA codes agree very well

  3. A model technology transfer program for independent operators: Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program. The original Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) activities, upon which the KTTM is based, were developed and tested for Kansas and have proved to be effective in assisting independent operators in utilizing technology. Through joint activities of TORP and the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), the KTTM was developed and documented for application in other oil-producing regions. During the course of developing this model, twelve documents describing the implementation of the KTTM were developed as deliverables to DOE. These include: (1) a problem identification (PI) manual describing the format and results of six PI workshops conducted in different areas of Kansas, (2) three technology workshop participant manuals on advanced waterflooding, reservoir description, and personal computer applications, (3) three technology workshop instructor manuals which provides instructor material for all three workshops, (4) three technologies were documented as demonstration projects which included reservoir management, permeability modification, and utilization of a liquid-level acoustic measuring device, (5) a bibliography of all literature utilized in the documents, and (6) a document which describes the KTTM.

  4. Energy from Biomass Research and Technology Transfer Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Dorin

    2015-12-31

    The purpose of CPBR is to foster and facilitate research that will lead to commercial applications. The goals of CPBR’s Energy from Biomass Research and Technology Transfer Program are to bring together industry, academe, and federal resources to conduct research in plant biotechnology and other bio-based technologies and to facilitate the commercialization of the research results to: (1) improve the utilization of plants as energy sources; (2) reduce the cost of renewable energy production; (3) facilitate the replacement of petroleum by plant-based materials; (4) create an energy supply that is safer in its effect on the environment, and (5) contribute to U.S. energy independence.

  5. Use of physical/chemical mutagens in plant breeding program in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Huu Dong; Bui Huy Thuy; Le Van Nha; Nguyen Van Bich [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Among more than 1870 new plant varieties formed by mutation breeding in the world, 44 varieties of different plants were formed by Vietnamese scientists. Research on induced mutation in Vietnam started in 1966, was promoted in Agricultural Institute, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Institute of Food Crop Research, and Agriculture Universities, and has produced varieties of rice, maize, soybean, peanut, tomato, jujuba, green bean etc using physical and chemical mutagens: Irradiation with gamma rays or neutrons, and use of such chemicals as dimethylsulfate (DMS), diethylsulfate (DES), ethyleneimine (EI), N-nitrosomethylurea (NUM), N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), and sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}). In the present report, the results of cytological and genetic effects in M1 plants, the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutants, the mutants obtained and the genetic nature of the next generation are described, particularly for the case of rice. Radiation dose and dose rate used as mutagens are also reported. (S. Ohno)

  6. Use of physical/chemical mutagens in plant breeding program in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Huu Dong; Bui Huy Thuy; Le Van Nha; Nguyen Van Bich

    2001-01-01

    Among more than 1870 new plant varieties formed by mutation breeding in the world, 44 varieties of different plants were formed by Vietnamese scientists. Research on induced mutation in Vietnam started in 1966, was promoted in Agricultural Institute, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Institute of Food Crop Research, and Agriculture Universities, and has produced varieties of rice, maize, soybean, peanut, tomato, jujuba, green bean etc using physical and chemical mutagens: Irradiation with gamma rays or neutrons, and use of such chemicals as dimethylsulfate (DMS), diethylsulfate (DES), ethyleneimine (EI), N-nitrosomethylurea (NUM), N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), and sodium azide (NaN 3 ). In the present report, the results of cytological and genetic effects in M1 plants, the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutants, the mutants obtained and the genetic nature of the next generation are described, particularly for the case of rice. Radiation dose and dose rate used as mutagens are also reported. (S. Ohno)

  7. Evidence of eligibility manipulation for conditional cash transfer programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Firpo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses whether eligibility for conditional cash transfer programs has been manipulated, as well as the impact of this phenomenon on time allocation within households. To perform this analysis, we use data from the 2006 PNAD (Brazilian national household survey and investigate the eligibility manipulation for the Bolsa Família (Family Stipend program during this time period. The program assists families with a monthly per capita income of around R$120.00 (US$60.00. By applying the tests developed by McCrary (2008, we find suggestive evidence that individuals manipulate their income by voluntarily reducing their labor supply in order to become eligible to the program. Moreover, the reduction in labor supply is greater among women, especially single or divorced mothers. This evidence raises some concern about the unintended consequences related to the eligibility criteria utilized by Bolsa Família, as well as the program's impact on individuals living in extreme poverty.

  8. Multidisciplinary training program to create new breed of radiation monitor: the health and safety technician

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, W.F.

    1979-01-01

    A multidiscipline training program established to create a new monitor, theHealth and Safety Technician, is described. The training program includes instruction in fire safety, explosives safety, industrial hygiene, industrial safety, health physics, and general safety practices

  9. A natural variant of NAL1, selected in high-yield rice breeding programs, pleiotropically increases photosynthesis rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Toshiyuki; Adachi, Shunsuke; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Sanoh-Arai, Yumiko; Iwasawa, Norio; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Hirose, Sakiko; Taniguchi, Yojiro; Yamanouchi, Utako; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Ikka, Takashi; Ando, Tsuyu; Kono, Izumi; Ito, Sachie; Shomura, Ayahiko; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Yano, Masahiro; Kondo, Motohiko; Yamamoto, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of leaf photosynthesis is an important strategy for greater crop productivity. Here we show that the quantitative trait locus GPS (GREEN FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) controls photosynthesis rate by regulating carboxylation efficiency. Map-based cloning revealed that GPS is identical to NAL1 (NARROW LEAF1), a gene previously reported to control lateral leaf growth. The high-photosynthesis allele of GPS was found to be a partial loss-of-function allele of NAL1. This allele increased mesophyll cell number between vascular bundles, which led to thickened leaves, and it pleiotropically enhanced photosynthesis rate without the detrimental side effects observed in previously identified nal1 mutants, such as dwarf plant stature. Furthermore, pedigree analysis suggested that rice breeders have repeatedly selected the high-photosynthesis allele in high-yield breeding programs. The identification and utilization of NAL1 (GPS) can enhance future high-yield breeding and provides a new strategy for increasing rice productivity. PMID:23985993

  10. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Colchero, Fernando; Pearce-Kelly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates......Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List...... that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos...

  11. Model-assisted phenotyping by digital images in papaya breeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Marmolejo Cortes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Manual phenotyping for papaya Carica papaya (L breeding purposes limits the evaluation of a great number of plants and hampers selection of superior genotypes. This study aimed to validate two methodologies for the phenotyping of morpho-agronomic plant traits using image analysis and fruit traits through image processing. In plants of the ‘THB’ variety and ‘UENF/Caliman-01’ hybrid two images (A and B were analyzed to estimate commercial and irregularly shaped fruits. Image A was also used in the estimation of plant height, stem diameter and the first fruit insertion height. In ‘THB’ fruits, largest and smallest diameters, length, and volume were estimated by using a caliper and image processing (IP. Volume was obtained by water column displacement (WCD and by the expression of ellipsoid approximation (EA. Correlations above 0.85 between manual and image measurements were obtained for all traits. The averages of the morpho-agronomic traits, estimated by using images, were similar when compared to the averages measured manually. In addition, the errors of the proposed methodologies were low compared to manual phenotyping. Bland-Altman's approach indicated agreement between the volume estimated by WCD and EA using caliper and IP. The strong association obtained between volume and fruit weight suggests the use of regression to estimate this trait. Thus, the expectation is that image-based phenotyping can be used to expand the experiments, thereby maintaining accuracy and providing greater genetic gains in the selection of superior genotypes.

  12. Tritium breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Billone, M.; Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Mori, S.; Kuroda, T.; Maki, K.; Takatsu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Raffray, A.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Simbolotti, G.; Shatalov, G.

    1991-01-01

    The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Cast Metals Coalition Technology Transfer and Program Management Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwyn, Mike

    2009-03-31

    The Cast Metals Coalition (CMC) partnership program was funded to ensure that the results of the Department of Energy's (DOE) metalcasting research and development (R&D) projects are successfully deployed into industry. Specifically, the CMC program coordinated the transfer and deployment of energy saving technologies and process improvements developed under separately funded DOE programs and projects into industry. The transition of these technologies and process improvements is a critical step in the path to realizing actual energy savings. At full deployment, DOE funded metalcasting R&D results are projected to save 55% of the energy used by the industry in 1998. This closely aligns with DOE's current goal of driving a 25% reduction in industrial energy intensity by 2017. In addition to benefiting DOE, these energy savings provide metalcasters with a significant economic advantage. Deployment of already completed R&D project results and those still underway is estimated to return over 500% of the original DOE and industry investment. Energy savings estimates through December 2008 from the Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) portfolio of projects alone are 12 x 1012 BTUs, with a projection of over 50 x 1012 BTUs ten years after program completion. These energy savings and process improvements have been made possible through the unique collaborative structure of the CMC partnership. The CMC team consists of DOE's Office of Industrial Technology, the three leading metalcasting technical societies in the U.S: the American Foundry Society; the North American Die Casting Association; and the Steel Founders Society of America; and the Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), a recognized leader in distributed technology management. CMC provides collaborative leadership to a complex industry composed of approximately 2,100 companies, 80% of which employ less than 100 people, and only 4% of which employ more than 250 people

  14. PWR-blowdown heat transfer separate effects program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The ORNL Pressurized-Water Reactor Blowdown Heat Transfer (PWR-BDHT) Program is an experimental separate-effects study of the relations among the principal variables that can alter the rate of blowdown, the presence of flow reversal and rereversal, time delay to critical heat flux, the rate at which dryout progresses, and similar time-related functions that are important to LOCA analysis. Primary test results are obtained from the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF). Supporting experiments are carried out in several additional test loops - the Forced Convection Test Facility (FCTF), an air-water loop, a transient steam-water loop, and a low-temperature water mockup of the THTF heater rod bundle. The studies to date are described

  15. Recombinants from the crosses between amphidiploid and cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea for pest-resistance breeding programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Ferreira de Paula

    Full Text Available Peanut is a major oilseed crop worldwide. In the Brazilian peanut production, silvering thrips and red necked peanut worm are the most threatening pests. Resistant varieties are considered an alternative to pest control. Many wild diploid Arachis species have shown resistance to these pests, and these can be used in peanut breeding by obtaining hybrid of A and B genomes and subsequent polyploidization with colchicine, resulting in an AABB amphidiploid. This amphidiploid can be crossed with cultivated peanut (AABB to provide genes of interest to the cultivar. In this study, the sterile diploid hybrids from A. magna V 13751 and A. kempff-mercadoi V 13250 were treated with colchicine for polyploidization, and the amphidiploids were crossed with A. hypogaea cv. IAC OL 4 to initiate the introgression of the wild genes into the cultivated peanut. The confirmation of the hybridity of the progenies was obtained by: (1 reproductive characterization through viability of pollen, (2 molecular characterization using microsatellite markers and (3 morphological characterization using 61 morphological traits with principal component analysis. The diploid hybrid individual was polyploidized, generating the amphidiploid An 13 (A. magna V 13751 x A. kempff-mercadoi V 132504x. Four F1 hybrid plants were obtained from IAC OL 4 × An 13, and 51 F2 seeds were obtained from these F1 plants. Using reproductive, molecular and morphological characterizations, it was possible to distinguish hybrid plants from selfed plants. In the cross between A. hypogaea and the amphidiploid, as the two parents are polyploid, the hybrid progeny and selves had the viability of the pollen grains as high as the parents. This fact turns the use of reproductive characteristics impossible for discriminating, in this case, the hybrid individuals from selfing. The hybrids between A. hypogaea and An 13 will be used in breeding programs seeking pest resistance, being subjected to successive

  16. Slave Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Sutch, Richard

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical work on slave breeding in the ante-bellum United States. Slave breeding consisted of interference in the sexual life of slaves by their owners with the intent and result of increasing the number of slave children born. The weight of evidence suggests that slave breeding occurred in sufficient force to raise the rate of growth of the American slave population despite evidence that only a minority of slave-owners engaged in such practices.

  17. Review: importance of establishing and running a breeding program in the developing fish farming industry

    OpenAIRE

    Agim Rexhepi; Kurtesh Sherifi; Hysen Bytyqi; Behlul Behluli

    2013-01-01

    Fish farming in developing countries including the Republic of Kosova is largely based on unimproved fish strains. In aquaculture research the main focus has been on increasing productivity through improvements in management, technology, disease control etc. Anyhow, is accepted worldwide that the full benefits can be obtained thorough genetically improved fish. In many countries are given evidence indicating the potential of genetic improvement programs and a range of selection methods may be...

  18. Optimizing the creation of base populations for aquaculture breeding programs using phenotypic and genomic data and its consequences on genetic progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Á; Sonesson, Anna K; Villanueva, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The success of an aquaculture breeding program critically depends on the way in which the base population of breeders is constructed since all the genetic variability for the traits included originally in the breeding goal as well as those to be included in the future is contained in the initial founders. Traditionally, base populations were created from a number of wild strains by sampling equal numbers from each strain. However, for some aquaculture species improved strains are already available and, therefore, mean phenotypic values for economically important traits can be used as a criterion to optimize the sampling when creating base populations. Also, the increasing availability of genome-wide genotype information in aquaculture species could help to refine the estimation of relationships within and between candidate strains and, thus, to optimize the percentage of individuals to be sampled from each strain. This study explores the advantages of using phenotypic and genome-wide information when constructing base populations for aquaculture breeding programs in terms of initial and subsequent trait performance and genetic diversity level. Results show that a compromise solution between diversity and performance can be found when creating base populations. Up to 6% higher levels of phenotypic performance can be achieved at the same level of global diversity in the base population by optimizing the selection of breeders instead of sampling equal numbers from each strain. The higher performance observed in the base population persisted during 10 generations of phenotypic selection applied in the subsequent breeding program.

  19. Subseabed Disposal Program In-Situ Heat Transfer Experiment (ISHTE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percival, C.M.

    1983-05-01

    A heat transfer experiment is being developed in support of the Subseabed Disposal Program. The primary objectives of this experiment are: to provide information on the in situ response of seabed sediment to localized heating; to provide an opportunity to evaluate theoretical models of the response and to observe any unanticipated phenomena which may occur; and to develop and demonstrate the technology necessary to perform waste isolation oriented experiments on the seafloor at depths up to 6000 m. As presently envisaged, the heat transfer experiment will be conducted at a location in the central North Pacific though it could be performed anywhere that the ocean bottom is of the type deemed suitable for the disposal of nuclear waste material. The experiment will be conducted of the seafloor from a recoverable space-frame platform at a depth of approximately 6000 m. A 400-W isotopic heat source will be implanted in the illite sediment and the subsequent response of the sediment to the induced thermal field evaluated. After remote initiation of the experiment, a permanent record of the data obtained will be recorded on board the platform, with selected information transmitted to a surface vessel by acoustic telemetry. The experiment will be operational for one year, after which the entire platform will be recovered. Current plans call for the deployment of the experiment in 1986. Specific activities which will be pursued during the course of the experiment include: measurement of the thermal field; determination of the effective thermal conductivity of the sediment; measurement of pore pressure; evaluation of radionuclide migration processes; pore water sampling; sediment chemistry studies; sediment shear strength measurements; and coring operations in the immediate vicinity of the experiment for postexperiment analysis

  20. Transcriptome analysis of a breeding program pedigree examines gene expression diversity and reveals target genes for malting quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advanced cycle breeding utilizes crosses among elite lines and is a successful method to develop new inbreds. However, it results in a reduction in genetic diversity within the breeding population. The development of malting barley varieties requires the adherence to a narrow malting quality profile...

  1. Zoos through the Lens of the IUCN Red List: A Global Metapopulation Approach to Support Conservation Breeding Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Dalia A.; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K.; Jones, Owen R.

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful. PMID:24348999

  2. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K; Jones, Owen R

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  3. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia A Conde

    Full Text Available Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23% terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  4. New strategy for evaluating grain cooking quality of progenies in dry bean breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Line Carvalho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The methodology available for evaluating the cooking quality of dry beans is impractical for assessing a large number of progenies. The aims of this study were to propose a new strategy for evaluating cooking quality of grains and to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters using a selection index. A total of 256 progenies of the 13thcycle of a recurrent selection program were evaluated at three locations for yield, grain type, and cooked grains. Samples of grains from each progeny were placing in a cooker and the percentage of cooked grains was assessed. The new strategy for evaluating cooking quality was efficient because it allowed a nine-fold increase in the number of progenies evaluated per unit time in comparison to available methods. The absence of association between grain yield and percentage of cooked grains or grain type indicated that it is possible to select high yielding lines with excellent grain aspect and good cooking properties using a selection index.

  5. 77 FR 46909 - Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... Technology Transfer (STTR) Program Policy Directives AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION...) and Small Business Technology Transfer Program (STTR) Policy Directives. These amendments implement... to Edsel Brown, Assistant Director, Office of Technology, U.S. Small Business Administrator, 409...

  6. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104 Donations...

  7. Technology transfer program at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center: FY 87 program report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.A.; Lessing, K.B.

    1987-10-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), located in Morgantown, West Virginia, is an energy research center of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Fossil Energy. The research and development work is different from research work conducted by other Government agencies. In DOE research, the Government is not the ultimate ''customer'' for the technologies developed; the ''customer'' is business and industry in the private sector. Thus, tehcnology transfer is a fundamental goal of the DOE. The mission of the Fossil Energy program is to enhance the use of the nations's fossil energy resources. METC's mission applies to certain technologies within the broad scope of technologies encompassed by the Office of Fossil Energy. The Government functions as an underwriter of risk and as a catalyst to stimulate the development of technologies and technical information that might otherwise proceed at a slower pace because of the high-risk nature of the research involved. The research programs and priorities are industry driven; the purpose is to address the perceived needs of industry such that industry will ultimately bring the technologies to the commercial market. As evidenced in this report, METC has an active and effective technology transfer program that is incorporated into all aspects of project planning and execution. Technology transfer at METC is a way of life---a part of everyday activities to further this goal. Each person has a charge to communicate the ideas from within METC to those best able to utilize that information. 4 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. Making Conditional Cash Transfer Programs More Efficient : Designing for Maximum Effect of the Conditionality

    OpenAIRE

    de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer programs are now used extensively to encourage poor parents to increase investments in their children's human capital. These programs can be large and expensive, motivating a quest for greater efficiency through increased impact of the programs' imposed conditions on human capital formation. This requires designing the programs' targeting and calibration rules spe...

  9. Exploring the Success of Transfer Programs for Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, Reginald S.; Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2011-01-01

    The state's educational systems must collaborate together to enable transfer students to gain the necessary skills that support degree completion strategies. Given the current economic state, an investment in California community college transfer students in order to provide the best possible university transition would seem wise and fiscally…

  10. US Global Change Research Program Distributed Cost Budget Interagency Funds Transfer from DOE to NSF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhle, Maria [National Science Foundation (NSF), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-22

    These funds were transferred from DOE to NSF as DOE's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program in support of 4 internationalnactivities/programs as approved by the U.S. Global Change Research Program on 14 March 2014. The programs are the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, the DIVERSITAS programme, and the World Climate Research Program. All program awards ended as of 09-23-2015.

  11. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  12. User's Manual for SPECTROM-41: a Finite-Element Heat Transfer Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svalstad, D.K.

    1983-06-01

    This User's Manual addresses SPECTROM-41: A Finite Element Heat Transfer Computer Program. The user is introduced to the program's capabilities and operation, with required user input outlined in detail. Example problems are included to illustrate the use of the various program features, and included to illustrate the use of the various program features, and analytical solutions are presented for four of the examples to provide a measure of program accuracy. Past and ongoing comparative benchmark analyses are highlighted to provide the user with an indication of how SPECTROM-41 predictions compare with other available heat transfer programs

  13. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  14. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life

  15. Alfalfa breeding benefits from genomics of Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žilije Bernadet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available International programs aim at developing knowledge and tools in the model species Medicago truncatula. Genetic resources, DNA sequences, markers, genetic and physical maps are now publicly available. These efforts contribute to improve breeding schemes of crop species such as alfalfa. However, transfer of information from M. truncatula to alfalfa is not straightforward. The article reviews the gain given by the model species to better analyze genetic determinism of breeding traits in alfalfa. It also shows that investments in alfalfa genomics (DNA sequences, SNP development are needed to benefit from the model species.

  16. KASPTM genotyping technology and its use in gene­tic-breeding programs (a study of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Е. Волкова

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review publications relating to the key point of the genotyping technology that is competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (which is called now Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR, KASPTM and its use in various genetic-breeding researching (a study of maize. Results. The essence of KASP-genotyping, its advantages are highlighted. The requirements for matrix DNA are presented, since the success of the KASP-analysis depends on its qua­lity and quantity. Examples of global projects of plant breeding for increasing crop yields using the KASP genoty­ping technology are given. The results of KASP genotyping and their introduction into breeding and seed production, in particular, for determining genetic identity, genetic purity, origin check, marker-assisted selection, etc. are presented using maize as an example. It is demonstrated how geno­mic selection according to KASP genotyping technology can lead to rapid genetic enhancement of drought resistance in maize. Comparison of the effectiveness of creating lines with certain traits (for example, combination of high grain yield and drought resistance using traditional breeding approaches (phenotype selection and molecular genetic methods (selection by markers was proved that it takes four seasons (two years in case of greenhouses in order to unlock the potential of the plant genotype using traditional self-pollination, test-crossing and definitions, while using markers, the population was enriched with target alleles during one season. At the same time, there was no need for a stress factor. Conclusions. KASP genotyping technology is a high-precision and effective tool for modern genetics and breeding, which is successfully used to study genetic diversity, genetic relationship, population structure, gene­tic identity, genetic purity, origin check, quantitative locus mapping, allele mapping, marker-assisted selection, marker-assisted breeding. It is expedient and timely to

  17. U.S. EPA Federal Technology Transfer Program Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), enacted by Congress in 1986 and building on previous legislation, improves access to federal laboratories by non-federal organizations for research and development opportunities.

  18. ROOT VEGETABLES, BREEDING TRENDS, RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of root vegetables is their unique specificity and high economic importance. The benefits and medicinal properties of root vegetables being highly demanded by the market requirements to the commodity are highlighted in the article. The main directions of breeding program for root vegetable crops, including species of Apiaceae family with carrot, parsnips; Chenopodioideae family with red beet; Brassicaceae family with radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga. Initial breeding accessions of carrot, red beet, radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga have been selected out to be used for breeding program for heterosis. The mf and ms breeding lines were developed, and with the use of them the new gene pool was created. Variety supporting breeding program and methods were also proposed. 

  19. Genetic and Environmental Variance Among F2 Families in a Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian Sig

    2013-01-01

    In the joint project “FORAGESELECT”, we aim to implement Genome Wide Selection (GWS) in breeding of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), in order to increase genetic response in important agronomic traits such as yield, seed production, stress tolerance and disease resistance, while decreasing...... of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental variance in the training set composed of F2 families selected from a ten year breeding period. Variance components were estimated on 1193 of those families, sown in 2001, 2003 and 2005 in five locations around Europe. Families were tested together...

  20. Comparison of deterministically predicted genetic gains with those realised in a South African Eucalyptus grandis breeding program

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Verryn, SD

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available breeding endeavours, are essential for modelling and predicting the economic impact of further genetic improvement. Materials and Methods The “South African Population” (plantation origin) breeding lines with the F1 generation (‘SSO’-series), F2 (‘A... trials SSO1 and SSO4, as representatives of the improvement. It was assumed that selective thinning of the ‘male families’ took place at 50%. (Male families are trees which contribute towards the pollen cloud. These families may be selectively thinned...

  1. What's Working: Program Factors Influencing California Community College Basic Skills Mathematics Students' Advancement to Transfer Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiero, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which basic skills program factors were exhibited by successful basic skills programs that helped students advance to transfer-level mathematics. This study specifically examined California community college basic skills programs that assist students who place in mathematics courses 2 levels…

  2. Assessing the impact of cash transfer programs on women's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Tanzania, the Tanzania Social Action Fund provides financial support to poor and vulnerable people. Conditions attached to the funds include sending children to school and accessing basic health care. Recent evidence suggests that cash transfers can contribute to pro-poor growth by: -serving as an effective risk ...

  3. 78 FR 59410 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket Number: 2013-0008] Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs Commercialization Benchmark AGENCY: Small Business... Business Administration (SBA) is reopening the comment period for the Small Business Innovation Research...

  4. 78 FR 48537 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket Number: 2013-0008] Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs Commercialization Benchmark AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Small Business Administration (SBA) is publishing the Small Business...

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-05-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-05-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. The promise and limitations of cash transfer programs for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieno, John; Leclerc-Madlala, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    As the search for more effective HIV prevention strategies continues, increased attention is being paid to the potential role of cash transfers in prevention programming in sub-Saharan Africa. To date, studies testing the impact of both conditional and unconditional cash transfers on HIV-related behaviours and outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa have been relatively small-scale and their potential feasibility, costs and benefits at scale, among other things, remain largely unexplored. This article examines elements of a successful cash transfer program from Latin America and discusses challenges inherent in scaling-up such programs. The authors attempt a cost simulation of a cash transfer program for HIV prevention in South Africa comparing its cost and relative effectiveness--in number of HIV infections averted--against other prevention interventions. If a cash transfer program were to be taken to scale, the intervention would not have a substantial effect on decreasing the force of the epidemic in middle- and low-income countries. The integration of cash transfer programs into other sectors and linking them to a broader objective such as girls' educational attainment may be one way of addressing doubts raised by the authors regarding their value for HIV prevention.

  8. Gas flow environmental and heat transfer nonrotating 3D program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geil, T.; Steinhoff, J.

    1983-01-01

    A complete set of benchmark quality data for the flow and heat transfer within a large rectangular turning duct is being compiled. These data will be used to evaluate and verify three dimensional internal viscous flow models and computational codes. The analytical objective is to select such a computational code and define the capabilities of this code to predict the experimental results. Details of the proper code operation will be defined and improvements to the code modeling capabilities will be formulated.

  9. Trends in genome-wide and region-specific genetic diversity in the Dutch-Flemish Holstein-Friesian breeding program from 1986 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doekes, Harmen P; Veerkamp, Roel F; Bijma, Piter; Hiemstra, Sipke J; Windig, Jack J

    2018-04-11

    In recent decades, Holstein-Friesian (HF) selection schemes have undergone profound changes, including the introduction of optimal contribution selection (OCS; around 2000), a major shift in breeding goal composition (around 2000) and the implementation of genomic selection (GS; around 2010). These changes are expected to have influenced genetic diversity trends. Our aim was to evaluate genome-wide and region-specific diversity in HF artificial insemination (AI) bulls in the Dutch-Flemish breeding program from 1986 to 2015. Pedigree and genotype data (~ 75.5 k) of 6280 AI-bulls were used to estimate rates of genome-wide inbreeding and kinship and corresponding effective population sizes. Region-specific inbreeding trends were evaluated using regions of homozygosity (ROH). Changes in observed allele frequencies were compared to those expected under pure drift to identify putative regions under selection. We also investigated the direction of changes in allele frequency over time. Effective population size estimates for the 1986-2015 period ranged from 69 to 102. Two major breakpoints were observed in genome-wide inbreeding and kinship trends. Around 2000, inbreeding and kinship levels temporarily dropped. From 2010 onwards, they steeply increased, with pedigree-based, ROH-based and marker-based inbreeding rates as high as 1.8, 2.1 and 2.8% per generation, respectively. Accumulation of inbreeding varied substantially across the genome. A considerable fraction of markers showed changes in allele frequency that were greater than expected under pure drift. Putative selected regions harboured many quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated to a wide range of traits. In consecutive 5-year periods, allele frequencies changed more often in the same direction than in opposite directions, except when comparing the 1996-2000 and 2001-2005 periods. Genome-wide and region-specific diversity trends reflect major changes in the Dutch-Flemish HF breeding program. Introduction of

  10. NASA programs in technology transfer and their relation to remote sensing education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Technology transfer to users is a central feature of NASA programs. In each major area of responsibility, a variety of mechanisms was established to provide for this transfer of operational capability to the proper end user, be it a Federal agency, industry, or other public sector users. In addition, the Technology Utilization program was established to cut across all program areas and to make available a wealth of 'spinoff' technology (i.e., secondary applications of space technology to ground-based use). The transfer of remote sensing technology, particularly to state and local users, presents some real challenges in application and education for NASA and the university community. The agency's approach to the transfer of remote sensing technology and the current and potential role of universities in the process are considered.

  11. A real-time transfer function analyser program for PFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliam, D.

    1980-03-01

    A transfer function analyser software package has been produced which is believed to constitute a significant advance over others reported in the literature. The main advantages of the system are its operating speed, especially at low frequencies, which is due to its use of part-cycle integration and its high degree of interactive operator control. The driving sine wave, the return signals and the computed vector diagrams are displayed on TV type visual display units. Data output is by means of an incremental graph plotter or an IBM typewriter. (author)

  12. New York City's First Conditional Cash Transfer Program: What Worked, What Didn't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, James; Miller, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a long-term evaluation of Opportunity NYC--Family Rewards, an experimental, privately funded, conditional cash transfer (CCT) program to help families break the cycle of poverty. Family Rewards was the first comprehensive CCT program in a developed country. Launched in 2007 by New York City's Center for…

  13. Does Information Improve the Health Behavior of Adults Targeted by a Conditional Transfer Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Ciro

    2012-01-01

    We use data from the evaluation sample of Mexico's Food Assistance Program (PAL) to study whether including the attendance at health and nutrition classes among the requirements for receiving a transfer affects the health behavior of adults living in localities targeted by the program. The experimental trial has four different treatment types,…

  14. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs. 630.1015 Section 630.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement...

  15. 77 FR 10373 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Electronics Manufacturing: Revisions to Heat Transfer Fluid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Electronics Manufacturing: Revisions to Heat Transfer Fluid Provisions... technical revisions to the electronics manufacturing source category of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule... final rule will also be available through the WWW on the EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program Web site...

  16. Compartment modelling in nuclear medicine: a new program for the determination of transfer coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallstadius, L.

    1986-01-01

    In many investigations concerning transport/exchange of matter in a natural system, e.g. functional studies in nuclear medicine, it is advantageous to relate experimental results to a model of the system. A new computer program is presented for the determination of linear transfer coefficients in a compartment model from experimentally observed time-compartment content curves. The program performs a least-square fit with the specified precision of the observed values as weight factors. The resulting uncertainty in the calculated transfer coefficients may also be assessed. The application of the program in nuclear medicine is demonstrated and discussed. (author)

  17. Temporal Dynamics and Spatial Patterns of Aedes aegypti Breeding Sites, in the Context of a Dengue Control Program in Tartagal (Salta Province, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Manuel; Weinberg, Diego; Rotela, Camilo H.; Polop, Francisco; Abril, Marcelo; Scavuzzo, Carlos Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2009, Fundación Mundo Sano has implemented an Aedes aegypti Surveillance and Control Program in Tartagal city (Salta Province, Argentina). The purpose of this study was to analyze temporal dynamics of Ae. aegypti breeding sites spatial distribution, during five years of samplings, and the effect of control actions over vector population dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings Seasonal entomological (larval) samplings were conducted in 17,815 fixed sites in Tartagal urban area between 2009 and 2014. Based on information of breeding sites abundance, from satellite remote sensing data (RS), and by the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), spatial analysis (hotspots and cluster analysis) and predictive model (MaxEnt) were performed. Spatial analysis showed a distribution pattern with the highest breeding densities registered in city outskirts. The model indicated that 75% of Ae. aegypti distribution is explained by 3 variables: bare soil coverage percentage (44.9%), urbanization coverage percentage(13.5%) and water distribution (11.6%). Conclusions/Significance This results have called attention to the way entomological field data and information from geospatial origin (RS/GIS) are used to infer scenarios which could then be applied in epidemiological surveillance programs and in the determination of dengue control strategies. Predictive maps development constructed with Ae. aegypti systematic spatiotemporal data, in Tartagal city, would allow public health workers to identify and target high-risk areas with appropriate and timely control measures. These tools could help decision-makers to improve health system responses and preventive measures related to vector control. PMID:27223693

  18. Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    Bogen er den første samlede indføring i transfer på dansk. Transfer kan anvendes som praksis-filosofikum. Den giver en systematisk indsigt til den studerende, der spørger: Hvordan kan teoretisk viden bruges til at reflektere over handlinger i situationer, der passer til min fremtidige arbejdsplads?...

  19. Representational State Transfer a its support in programming language Java

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Dac Ngoc Lam

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on explaining the term Representational State Transfer (REST) and its usage in the programming language Java. The first chapter introduces readers with the theoretical basis of REST, its presence in HTTP protocol and its pros and cons in general. The second chapter is dedicated to the application of principles mentioned in the first chapter. On two different programs, a client and a server, I go through the analysis and programming the REST layer. After this chapt...

  20. Genetic improvement of Eucalyptus grandis using breeding seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis is commercially important in Zimbabwe and a breeding program has been in progress since 1962. A classical breeding strategy was used initially but, in 1981, the Multiple Population Breeding Strategy (MPBS) was implemented and the concept of the Breeding Seedling Orchard (BSO) became central to ...

  1. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga B, P.

    1984-01-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented. (Author)

  2. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  3. NATIONAL PROGRAM FOR IN VITRO FERTILIZATION AND EMBRYO TRANSFER IN ROMANIA: ETHICAL, LEGAL, AND SOCIAL CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela SIMIONESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes aspects regarding the national program for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in Romania, emphasizing on the ethical, legal and social challenges associated with assisted reproduction technologies. Romania is one of the few countries from the European Union that does not have a specific law for human assisted reproduction, but infertile couples in Romania may benefit from the national program for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer although, unfortunately, the allocated public funds are not in line with the demand. There are a series of inclusion criteria when applying for the program and unlike other countries, only one in vitro fertilization (IVF procedure may be publicly funded. Despite the legal, ethical and social challenges, this program, however, represents an extremely important step in aligning our country with the standards of other developed countries.

  4. Culture and Human Capital Investments: Evidence of an Unconditional Cash Transfer Program in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Yanez-Pagans, Monica

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a policy quasi-experiment created by the introduction of an old-age unconditional cash transfer program in Bolivia to study the intra-household income allocation process towards children's educational expenditure by ethnicity and gender of the recipient. Taking advantage of a sharp discontinuity created by the program assignment mechanism, I investigate the heterogeneity in the patterns of allocation within indigenous, multiethnic, and non-indigenous families, conditional on h...

  5. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on further studies on long range energy transfer between curcumine as donor and another thiazine dye, thionine, which is closely related to methylene blue as energy harvester (Figure 1). Since thionine is known to have a higher quantum yield of singlet oxygen sensitization than methylene blue [8], it is ...

  6. Clean energy technology transfer. A review of programs under the UNFCCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Benioff, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the experience and results of programs designed to operationalize the technology transfer provisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These programs share a common goal of demonstrating modalities for developed country parties to fulfill their obligation under the UNFCCC to support technology transfer to developing country parties that facilitates their participation in global efforts to combat climate changes. Several related U.S. bilateral programs and programs supported by the Climate Technology Initiative, a multilateral effort on behalf of a number of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, are included in this review. The discussion highlights a number of common elements of the approaches of many of these programs as well as some differences. It presents case studies that focus on methods and results in China, Mexico, and Southern Africa, and catalogues and describes the implementation activities and results that these programs have achieved. It concludes by assessing the implications of this experience for the international community as it moves forward with the climate change technology transfer enterprise

  7. Learning Together: How Families Responded to Education Incentives in New York City's Conditional Cash Transfer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David; Dechausay, Nadine; Fraker, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, New York City's Center for Economic Opportunity launched Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards, an experimental, privately funded, conditional cash transfer (CCT) program to help families break the cycle of poverty. Family Rewards provided payments to low-income families in six of the city's poorest communities for achieving specific goals…

  8. The Impact of an Unconditional Cash Transfer on Early Child Development: The Zambia Child Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenfeld, David; Prencipe, Leah; Handa, Sudhanshu; Hawkinson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) despite their growing prevalence in Africa, including South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Malawi, Lesotho, and Uganda. In this study, researchers implemented a randomized control trial with over 2,500 households to investigate the impact of Africa's child grant program on…

  9. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  10. Moving empirically supported practices to addiction treatment programs: recruiting supervisors to help in technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Maryann; Storti, Susan A; Larson, Mary Jo

    2010-05-01

    Federal and state funding agencies are encouraging or mandating the use of empirically supported treatments in addiction programs, yet many programs have not moved in this direction (Forman, Bovasso, and Woody, 2001 ; Roman and Johnson, 2002 ; Willenbring et al., 2004 ). To improve the skills of counselors in community addiction programs, the authors developed an innovative Web-based course on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), a widely accepted empirically-supported practice (ESP) for addiction. Federal funding supports this Web course and a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness. Since supervisors often play a pivotal role in helping clinicians transfer learned skills from training courses to the workplace, the authors recruited supervisor-counselor teams, engaging 54 supervisors and 120 counselors. Lessons learned focus on supervisor recruitment and involvement, supervisors' perceptions of CBT, their own CBT skills and their roles in the study, and implications for technology transfer for the addiction field as a whole. Recruiting supervisors proved difficult because programs lacked clinical supervisors. Recruiting counselors was also difficult because programs were concerned about loss of third-party reimbursement. Across the addiction field, technology transfer will be severely hampered unless such infrastructure problems can be solved. Areas for further investigation are identified.

  11. Emergency Food Assistance in Northern Syria: An Evaluation of Transfer Programs in Idleb Governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Tappis, Hannah; Lyles, Emily; Witiw, Joseph; Aken, Vicki

    2017-06-01

    The war in Syria has left millions struggling to survive amidst violent conflict, pervasive unemployment, and food insecurity. Although international assistance funding is also at an all-time high, it is insufficient to meet the needs of conflict-affected populations, and there is increasing pressure on humanitarian stakeholders to find more efficient, effective ways to provide assistance. To evaluate 3 different assistance programs (in-kind food commodities, food vouchers, and unrestricted vouchers) in Idleb Governorate of Syria from December 2014 and March 2015. The evaluation used repeated survey data from beneficiary households to determine whether assistance was successful in maintaining food security at the household level. Shopkeeper surveys and program monitoring data were used to assess the impact on markets at the district/governorate levels and compare the cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of transfer modalities. Both in-kind food assistance and voucher programs showed positive effects on household food security and economic measures in Idleb; however, no intervention was successful in improving all outcomes measured. Food transfers were more likely to improve food access and food security than vouchers and unrestricted vouchers. Voucher programs were found to be more cost-efficient than in-kind food assistance, and more cost-effective for increasing household food consumption. Continuation of multiple types of transfer programs, including both in-kind assistance and vouchers, will allow humanitarian actors to remain responsive to evolving access and security considerations, local needs, and market dynamics.

  12. Technical support to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the boiling water reactor blowdown heat transfer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, R.E.

    1976-09-01

    Results are presented of studies conducted by Aerojet Nuclear Company (ANC) in FY 1975 to support the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the boiling water reactor blowdown heat transfer (BWR-BDHT) program. The support provided by ANC is that of an independent assessor of the program to ensure that the data obtained are adequate for verification of analytical models used for predicting reactor response to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The support included reviews of program plans, objectives, measurements, and actual data. Additional activity included analysis of experimental system performance and evaluation of the RELAP4 computer code as applied to the experiments

  13. A research program on radiative transfer model development in support of the ARM program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to develop radiative transfer models that are consistent with ARM spectral radiance measurements for clear and cloudy atmospheres. Our approach is to develop the model physics and related databases with a line-by-line model in the context of available spectral radiance measurements. The line-by-line model then functions as an intermediate standard to both develop and validate rapid radiative transfer models appropriate to GCM applications. A preprint of an extended abstract for the 1994 AMS volume describing a Quality Measurement Experiment using the ARM spectral data is included as an attachment

  14. Microcomputer based program for predicting heat transfer under reactor accident conditions. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.C.; Groeneveld, D.C.; Leung, L.K.H.; Wong, Y.L.; Nguyen, C.

    1987-07-01

    A microcomputer based program called Heat Transfer Prediction Software (HTPS) has been developed. It calculates the heat transfer for the tube and bundle geometries for steady state and transient conditions. This program is capable of providing the best estimated of the hot pin temperatures during slow transients for 37- and 28-element CANDU type fuel bundles. The program is designed for an IBM-PC AT/XT (or IBM-PC compatible computer) equipped with a Math Co-processor. The following input parameters are required: pressure, mass flux, hydraulic diameter, and quality. For the steady state case, the critical heat flux (CHF), the critical heat flux temperature, the minimum film boiling temperature, and the minimum film boiling heat flux are the primary outputs. With either the surface heat flux or wall temperature specified, the program determines the heat transfer regime and calculates the surface heat flux, wall temperatures and heat transfer coefficient. For the slow transient case, the pressure, mass flux, quality, and volumetric heat generation rate are the time dependent input parameters required to calculate the hot pin sheath temperatures and surface heat fluxes. A simple routine for generating properties has been developed for light water to support the above program. It contains correlations that have been verified for pressures ranging from 0.6kPa to 30 MPa, and temperatures up to 1100 degrees Celcius. The thermodynamic and transport properties that can be generated from this routine are: density, specific volume, enthalpy, specific heat capacity, conductivity, viscosity, surface tension and Prandtl number for saturated liquid, saturated vapour, subcooled liquid for superheated vapour. A software for predicting flow regime has also been developed. It determines the flow pattern at specific flow conditions, and provides a correction factor for calculating the CHF during partially stratified horizontal flow. The technical bases for the program and its

  15. Microcomputer based program for predicting heat transfer under reactor accident conditions. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.C.; Groeneveld, D.C.; Leung, L.K.H.; Wong, Y.L.; Nguyen, C.

    1987-07-01

    A microcomputer based program called Heat Transfer Prediction Software (HTPS) has been developed. It calculates the heat transfer for tube and bundle geometries for steady state and transient conditions. This program is capable of providing the best estimated of the hot pin temperatures during slow transients for 37- and 28-element CANDU type fuel bundles. The program is designed for an IBM-PC AT/XT (or IBM-PC compatible computer) equipped with a Math Co-processor. The following input parameters are required: pressure, mass flux, hydraulic diameter, and quality. For the steady state case, the critical heat flux (CHF), the critical heat flux temperature, the minimum film boiling temperature, and the minimum film boiling heat flux are the primary outputs. With either the surface heat flux or wall temperature specified, the program determines the heat transfer regime and calculates the surface heat flux, wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient. For the slow transient case, the pressure, mass flux, quality, and volumetric heat generation rate are the time dependent input parameters are required to calculate the hot pin sheath temperatures and surface heat fluxes. A simple routine for generating properties has been developed for light water to support the above program. It contains correlations that have been verified for pressures ranging from 0.6kPa to 30 MPa, and temperatures up to 1100 degrees Celcius. The thermodynamic and transport properties that can be generated from this routine are: density, specific volume, enthalpy, specific heat capacity, conductivity, viscosity, surface tension and Prandtle number for saturated liquid, saturated vapour, subcooled liquid of superheated vapour. A software for predicting flow regime has also been developed. It determines the flow pattern at specific flow conditions, and provides a correction factor for calculating the CHF during partially stratified horizontal flow. The technical bases for the program and its structure

  16. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  17. Knowledge Transfer: A Case Study of a Community Nutrition Education Program at a Land-Grant University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Ghaffar Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the process of knowledge transfer. The setting is a health and nutrition educational program at University of Minnesota Extension. The main research question was how is Knowledge Transfer being implemented in Extension, specifically Educational Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program? A case study,…

  18. 20 CFR 667.140 - Does a Local Board have the authority to transfer funds between programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does a Local Board have the authority to... Funding § 667.140 Does a Local Board have the authority to transfer funds between programs? (a) A Local... activities between the two programs. (b) Before making any such transfer, a Local Board must obtain the...

  19. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanfords Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000a), defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of waste transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000b), has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications associated with Interim Stabilization. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning, RPP-6028 Section 3.2.7. Performance Incentive Number ORP-05 requires that all the Single Shell Tanks be Interim Stabilized by September 30, 2003. The Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone M-41-00, enforced by a federal consent decree, requires all the Single Shell Tanks to be Interim stabilized by September 30, 2004. By meeting the Performance Incentive the TPA milestone is met. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment used to transfer waste have a life in excess of the forecasted operational time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer, published literature and calculations. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are the hose material's resistance to the harmful effects of process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, exposure to ionizing radiation and the

  20. Breeds of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.

  1. Efficient Breeding by Genomic Mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Deniz; Sánchez, Julio I

    2016-01-01

    Selection in breeding programs can be done by using phenotypes (phenotypic selection), pedigree relationship (breeding value selection) or molecular markers (marker assisted selection or genomic selection). All these methods are based on truncation selection, focusing on the best performance of parents before mating. In this article we proposed an approach to breeding, named genomic mating, which focuses on mating instead of truncation selection. Genomic mating uses information in a similar fashion to genomic selection but includes information on complementation of parents to be mated. Following the efficiency frontier surface, genomic mating uses concepts of estimated breeding values, risk (usefulness) and coefficient of ancestry to optimize mating between parents. We used a genetic algorithm to find solutions to this optimization problem and the results from our simulations comparing genomic selection, phenotypic selection and the mating approach indicate that current approach for breeding complex traits is more favorable than phenotypic and genomic selection. Genomic mating is similar to genomic selection in terms of estimating marker effects, but in genomic mating the genetic information and the estimated marker effects are used to decide which genotypes should be crossed to obtain the next breeding population.

  2. Evaluation of Closed Adult Nucleus Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer and Conventional Progeny Testing Breeding Schemes for Milk Production from Crossbred Cattle in the Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.; Kahi, A.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The potential benefits of closed adult nucleus multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) and conventional progeny testing (CNS) schemes, and the logistics of their integration into large-scale continuous production of crossbred cattle were studied by deterministic simulation. The latter was

  3. Production system and participatory identification of breeding objective traits for indigenous goat breeds of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Gizaw, S.; Kugonza, D.R.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Kanis, E.

    2018-01-01

    The success of breeding programs in improving indigenous livestock breeds in Uganda has hitherto been limited due to lack of involvement of the key stakeholders. Thus, participatory approaches are being promoted for designing community based improvement programs. The aim of this study was to

  4. Production system and participatory identification of breeding objective traits for indigenous goat breeds of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Gizaw, S.; Kugonza, D.R.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Kanis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The success of breeding programs in improving indigenous livestock breeds in Uganda has hitherto been limited due to lack of involvement of the key stakeholders. Thus, participatory approaches are being promoted for designing community based improvement programs. The aim of this study was to

  5. Conditional cash transfer impact evaluation: an evaluation of the costa rican secondary education program Avancemos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impact of Avancemos, a conditional cash transfer program in Costa Rica. Specifically, this paper measures the impact on student desertion for the first year of the program using a panel created with the Household Surveys for Multiple Purposes for the years 2006 and 2007, elaborated by the National Institute of Statistics and Census. Using econometric tools and quasi-experimental methodologies such as Propensity Score Matching and difference-in-differences, we find a positive impact associated to the program for desertion and reinsertion. Specifically, for between 10 and 16 percent of the students who did not leave high school, it was only due to Avancemos, meaning that without the program they would have abandoned their studies. This is why we can conclude that Avancemos had a positive impact according to its planned objectives of preventing dropouts and ensuring their reinsertion.

  6. The hidden face of income transfer programs for young people in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Pontes Sposito

    Full Text Available Based on a broader analysis of the nature of recent public policies directed at youths in Brazil and on the conflicting orientations inherent in this field, this paper discusses the presuppositions contained in three public programs currently being implemented in the country: the Young Agent Project, the Voluntary Civil Service Program and the Work-Income Allowance Program. After an overview of each of these programs, including various aspects where they diverge, the analysis focuses on the paradoxes and ambiguities underlining their common format: the transfer of income linked to some kind of return commitment by the youngsters, usually a return to or continuation of schooling and the realization of socioeducational or community-type activities. While acknowledging the beneficial side of access to income, the paper warns of the possibility of disseminating new forms of domination based on the adoption of this model in public policies directed at youngsters.

  7. Impact of selective breeding on European aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.; Chavanne, H.; Berentsen, P.; Komen, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the combined market share of breeding companies in aquaculture production in Europe, to describe the main characteristics of breeding companies and their programs, and to provide per species estimates on cumulative genetic gain in growth performance.

  8. Genomic selection strategies in breeding programs: Strong positive interaction between application of genotypic information and intensive use of young bulls on genetic gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Line Hjortø; Sørensen, Morten Kargo; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    We tested the following hypotheses: (i) breeding schemes with genomic selection are superior to breeding schemes without genomic selection regarding annual genetic gain of the aggregate genotype (ΔGAG), annual genetic gain of the functional traits and rate of inbreeding per generation (ΔF), (ii......) a positive interaction exists between the use of genotypic information and a short generation interval on ΔGAG and (iii) the inclusion of an indicator trait in the selection index will only result in a negligible increase in ΔGAG if genotypic information about the breeding goal trait is known. We examined......, greater contributions of the functional trait to ΔGAG and lower ΔF than the two breeding schemes without genomic selection. Thus, the use of genotypic information may lead to more sustainable breeding schemes. In addition, a short generation interval increases the effect of using genotypic information...

  9. Transfer of communication skills to the workplace during clinical rounds: impact of a program for residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Aurore; Merckaert, Isabelle; Libert, Yves; Bragard, Isabelle; Delvaux, Nicole; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Marchal, Serge; Meunier, Julie; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Razavi, Darius

    2010-08-26

    Communication with patients is a core clinical skill in medicine that can be acquired through communication skills training. Meanwhile, the importance of transfer of communication skills to the workplace has not been sufficiently studied. This study aims to assess the efficacy of a 40-hour training program designed to improve patients' satisfaction and residents' communication skills during their daily clinical rounds. Residents were randomly assigned to the training program or to a waiting list. Patients' satisfaction was assessed with a visual analog scale after each visit. Transfer of residents' communication skills was assessed in audiotaped actual inpatient visits during a half-day clinical round. Transcripted audiotapes were analyzed using content analysis software (LaComm). Training effects were tested with Mann-Whitney tests and generalized linear Poisson regression models. Eighty-eight residents were included. First, patients interacting with trained residents reported a higher satisfaction with residents' communication (Median=92) compared to patients interacting with untrained residents (Median=88) (p=.046). Second, trained residents used more assessment utterances (Relative Risk (RR)=1.17; 95% Confidence intervals (95%CI)=1.02-1.34; p=.023). Third, transfer was also observed when residents' training attendance was considered: residents' use of assessment utterances (RR=1.01; 95%CI=1.01-1.02; p=.018) and supportive utterances (RR=0.99; 95%CI=0.98-1.00; p=.042) (respectively 1.15 (RR), 1.08-1.23 (95%CI), ptransfer of residents' communication skills learning to the workplace. Transfer was directly related to training attendance but remained limited. Future studies should therefore focus on the improvement of the efficacy of communication skills training in order to ensure a more important training effect size on transfer.

  10. 75 FR 1685 - HOPE for Homeowners Program; Statutory Transfer of Program Authority to HUD and Conforming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... 90 percent, excluding the upfront premium, may not exceed 31 percent of the mortgagor's monthly gross... regulations for the program are codified in a chapter of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) reserved for... Treasury, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and the Federal Reserve Board. The Board will continue...

  11. A structural model of treatment program and individual counselor leadership in innovation transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, George W; Becan, Jennifer E; Knight, Danica K; Flynn, Patrick M

    2017-03-23

    A number of program-level and counselor-level factors are known to impact the adoption of treatment innovations. While program leadership is considered a primary factor, the importance of leadership among clinical staff to innovation transfer is less known. Objectives included explore (1) the influence of two leadership roles, program director and individual counselor, on recent training activity and (2) the relationship of counselor attributes on training endorsement. The sample included 301 clinical staff in 49 treatment programs. A structural equation model was evaluated for key hypothesized relationships between exogenous and endogenous variables related to the two leadership roles. The importance of organizational leadership, climate, and counselor attributes (particularly counseling innovation interest and influence) to recent training activity was supported. In a subset of 68 counselors who attended a developer-led training on a new intervention, it was found that training endorsement was higher among those with high innovation interest and influence. The findings suggest that each leadership level impacts the organization in different ways, yet both can promote or impede technology transfer.

  12. Transfer of communication skills to the workplace during clinical rounds: impact of a program for residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Liénard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Communication with patients is a core clinical skill in medicine that can be acquired through communication skills training. Meanwhile, the importance of transfer of communication skills to the workplace has not been sufficiently studied. This study aims to assess the efficacy of a 40-hour training program designed to improve patients' satisfaction and residents' communication skills during their daily clinical rounds.Residents were randomly assigned to the training program or to a waiting list. Patients' satisfaction was assessed with a visual analog scale after each visit. Transfer of residents' communication skills was assessed in audiotaped actual inpatient visits during a half-day clinical round. Transcripted audiotapes were analyzed using content analysis software (LaComm. Training effects were tested with Mann-Whitney tests and generalized linear Poisson regression models.Eighty-eight residents were included. First, patients interacting with trained residents reported a higher satisfaction with residents' communication (Median=92 compared to patients interacting with untrained residents (Median=88 (p=.046. Second, trained residents used more assessment utterances (Relative Risk (RR=1.17; 95% Confidence intervals (95%CI=1.02-1.34; p=.023. Third, transfer was also observed when residents' training attendance was considered: residents' use of assessment utterances (RR=1.01; 95%CI=1.01-1.02; p=.018 and supportive utterances (RR=0.99; 95%CI=0.98-1.00; p=.042 (respectively 1.15 (RR, 1.08-1.23 (95%CI, p<.001 for empathy and 0.95 (RR, 0.92-0.99 (95%CI, p=.012 for reassurance was proportional to the number of hours of training attendance.The training program improved patients' satisfaction and allowed the transfer of residents' communication skills learning to the workplace. Transfer was directly related to training attendance but remained limited. Future studies should therefore focus on the improvement of the efficacy of communication skills

  13. The Impact of a Cash Transfer Program on Cognitive Achievement: The "Bono de Desarrollo Humano" of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Juan; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout Latin America, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs play an important role in social policy. These programs aim to influence the accumulation of human capital, as well as reduce poverty. In terms of educational outcomes, a number of impact evaluation studies have shown that such programs have led to an increase in school enrollment,…

  14. Using Incentives to Change How Teenagers Spend Their Time: The Effects of New York City's Conditional Cash Transfer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pamela; Aber, J. Lawrence; Wolf, Sharon; Berg, Juliette

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the results of an innovative study designed to provide a more detailed understanding of how parents and their teenage children were affected by the Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards program, a comprehensive conditional cash transfer program. The three-year program, launched by the Center for Economic Opportunity in the Mayor's…

  15. Organic breeding: New trend in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenji Janoš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic breeding is a new trend in plant breeding aimed at breeding of organic cultivars adapted to conditions and expectations of organic plant production. The best proof for the need of organic cultivars is the existence of interaction between the performances of genotypes with the kind of production (conventional or organic (graph. 1. The adaptation to low-input conditions of organic production by more eddicient uptake and utilization of plant nutrients is especially important for organic cultivars. One of the basic mechanism of weed control in organic production is the competition of organic cultivars and weeds i.e. the enhanced ability of organic cultivars to suppress the weeds. Resistance/tolerance to diseases and pests is among the most important expectations toward the organic cultivars. In comparison with the methods of conventional plant breeding, in case of organic plant breeding limitations exist in choice of methods for creation of variability and selection classified as permitted, conditionally permitted and banned. The use of genetically modified organisms and their derivated along with induced mutations is not permitted in organic production. The use of molecular markers in organic plant breeding is the only permitted modern method of biotechnology. It is not permitted to patent the breeding material of organic plant breeding or the organic cultivars. .

  16. Factors that affect the reproductive efficiency of the recipient within a bovine embryo transfer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Duica A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The embryo transfer is a biotechnological technique that allows increasing the descendant of animals with high genetic value. The positive results, represented in pregnancy after the application of this technique, are affected by some factors that are inherent to the donor, the embryo, the technique, and the recipients which receive a strange embryo in the uterus allowing pregnancy. This review describes some factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of the recipients of bovine embryos within a program of embryo transfer. Its important to evaluate the parameters in this kind of recipients, as race, age, physiological status, health status, weight, reproductive tract integrity and management, and also too monitoring the ovarian structures while the estrus synchronization, and within previous and posterior stages in embryo transfer procedure. Therefore an optimum follicular development will be determinant to corpus luteum formation which generates enough serum progesterone concentrations to offer a right uterine environment allowing the optimum embryo development. Controlling the factors that affect the efficiency of the embryo transfer, it will obtain an increasing of positive results represented in pregnancies and births of individuals come from animals with high genetic value.

  17. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  18. TRIP: a finite element computer program for the solution of convection heat transfer problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagter, W.; Roodbergen, H.A.

    1976-01-01

    The theory and use of the finite element code TRIP are described. The code calculates temperature distributions in three-dimensional continua subjected to convection heat transfer. A variational principle for transport phenomena is applied to solve the convection heat transfer problem with temperature and heat flux boundary conditions. The finite element discretization technique is used to reduce the continuous spatial solution into a finite number of unknowns. The method is developed in detail to determine temperature distributions in coolant passages of fuel rod bundles which are idealized by hexahedral elements. The development of the TRIP code is discussed and the listing of the program is given in FORTRAN IV. An example is given to illustrate the validity and practicality of the method

  19. Impact of Implementation of Direct Cash Transfer Program 2008/2009 on Household Consumption in Central Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subanti, S.; Hakim, A. R.; Hakim, I. M.

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to see the impact of direct cash transfer program for 2008/2009 on household consumption of food, nonfood, education, and health in Central Java Province. The study is expected to provide important findings for the improvement of a similar program in the future. This study findings that (1) the increasing in food and non-food consumption for direct cash transfer recipients than non direct cash transfer recipients; (2) the impact of households expenditure on education for direct cash transfer recipients is higher than non direct cash transfer recipients; (3) the impact of households expenditure on health for direct cash transfer recipients is lower than non direct cash transfer recipients. This study recommended that (1) implementation of direct cash transfer program 2008/2009 must be managed to be better because this program can defend household welfare. It shows from several indicators of well-being such as consumption spending, education, and health; (2) data targets for poor households (very poor, poor, nearly poor) must be updated.

  20. Cash transfer program and education investment: A model for social evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimit, P. H. T.; Monteiro, L. H. A.; Omar, N.

    2014-03-01

    Assume that the households of a country are socially classified according to the monthly total income, and that they can be part of a lower, a middle or an upper class. By using multi-agent systems, here we model and simulate the economic evolution of households which earn a wage, pay taxes and invest in education. The return of the education investment is monthly added to the salary of the family, and it is function of the corresponding grand total put in education along the time. When a family is unemployed, we consider that it receives cash due to a social program made by the government. The time evolution of the percentages of households belonging to each class is investigated by varying the government investment in such a program of cash transfer and the proportion of employed households in the population. We show that the government should invest in the unemployed lower class if it intends a growth of the middle class. We also propose and analyze a mean-field approximation written in terms of ordinary differential equations. In addition, we verify that our model fits real data from Brazil, in the period between 2003 (when the cash transfer program Bolsa Família was launched) and 2011.

  1. Transference of advanced LMFBR control technology to the aerospace power system program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisholm, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Much recent R and D has been devoted to the safety of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's). Part of the resulting technology, especially advanced control systems, appears to be directly transferable to the space nuclear power program. Some of the ideas described herein have been already culminated in successful products that are available for application, e.g. analytical redundancy and fault-tolerant computers. Others, in various stages of R and D, are being developed as elements to support the design goals outlined in the following section, e.g. automated software verification, automated hardware verification, and system validation

  2. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano P. Marelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  3. Genetic resources in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize, wheat and rice are the most important cereals grown in the world. It is predicted that by 2025 maize is likely to become the crop with the greatest production globally. Conservation of maize germplasm provides the main resources for increased food and feed production. Conservation in gene banks (ex-situ is dominant strategy for maize conservation. More than 130 000 maize accessions, e.g. about 40% of total number, are stored in ten largest gene banks worldwide and Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRIZP gene bank, with about 6000 accessions, is among them. Organized collecting missions started in 1961. in the former Yugoslavian territory, and up today, more than 2000 local maize landraces were stored. Pre-breeding activities that refer to identification of desirable traits from unadapted germplasm within genebank, result in materials expected to be included in breeding programs. Successful examples are LAMP, GEM and GENRES projects. At the end of XX century, at MRIZP genebank two pre-breeding activities were undertaken: eco-core and elite-core collections were created and landraces fulfilled particular criteria were chosen. In the last decade, MRIZP genebank collection was used for identification of sources for drought tolerance and improved grain quality. According to agronomic traits and general combining ability, two mini-core collections were created and included in commercial breeding programs.

  4. High genetic diversity and demographic history of captive Siamese and Saltwater crocodiles suggest the first step toward the establishment of a breeding and reintroduction program in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorravis Lapbenjakul

    Full Text Available The Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis and Saltwater crocodile (C. porosus are two of the most endangered animals in Thailand. Their numbers have been reduced severely by hunting and habitat fragmentation. A reintroduction plan involving captive-bred populations that are used commercially is important and necessary as a conservation strategy to aid in the recovery of wild populations. Here, the genetic diversity and population structure of 69 individual crocodiles, mostly members of captive populations, were analyzed using both mitochondrial D-loop DNA and microsatellite markers. The overall haplotype diversity was 0.924-0.971 and the mean expected heterozygosity across 22 microsatellite loci was 0.578-0.701 for the two species. This agreed with the star-like shaped topology of the haplotype network, which suggests a high level of genetic diversity. The mean ratio of the number of alleles to the allelic range (M ratio for the populations of both species was considerably lower than the threshold of 0.68, which was interpreted as indicative of a historical genetic bottleneck. Microsatellite markers provided evidence of introgression for three individual crocodiles, which suggest that hybridization might have occurred between C. siamensis and C. porosus. D-loop sequence analysis detected bi-directional hybridization between male and female individuals of the parent species. Therefore, identification of genetically non-hybrid and hybrid individuals is important for long-term conservation management. Relatedness values were low within the captive populations, which supported their genetic integrity and the viability of a breeding and reintroduction management plan. This work constitutes the first step in establishing an appropriate source population from a scientifically managed perspective for an in situ/ex situ conservation program and reintroduction of crocodile individuals to the wild in Thailand.

  5. Striking the Right Balance: Federal Infrastructure Transfer Programs, 2002–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bev Dahlby

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 13 years, the federal government has helped fund a wide array of infrastructure programs: A total of 8,012 projects across the country between 2002 and 2015, funded to the tune of $20.3 billion. A substantial portion of that was done in the name of recession “stimulus.” But far from all of it. And, for better or worse, federal programs have become a permanent feature of fiscal federalism. The only question now is, whether Ottawa has been spending federal taxpayer money as effectively as possible when it does fund these projects. As it turns out, federal handouts for projects in Canadian provinces and municipalities have been relatively well deployed. An analysis finds that a greater amount of federal matching funds were dedicated to projects where provinces faced a higher marginal cost of public funds than the federal government, helping to at least somewhat minimize the negative economic impacts of the additional tax burden. And that a greater amount of funds was dedicated to projects that enhanced economic productivity, such as transit and roads, which increase the probability for national spillover benefits due to the potential for increased federal tax revenue, unlike quality-oflife projects (such as recreation projects that do not. However, the persistent fiscal imbalance in the provinces’ and the federal government’s marginal cost of raising public funds can only continue to exacerbate the demands from provinces for federal matching funds. Despite federal fiscal equalization programs that provide transfers to provinces with below-average per capita tax bases, there remain notable horizontal fiscal imbalances across the provinces, and a vertical imbalance between lower and higher government levels. Recent estimates calculate the federal government’s marginal cost to be 1.17, compared to a range of 1.41 for Alberta to 3.60 for Ontario, more than three times as high as the federal government’s cost. There are already

  6. CASSAVA BREEDING I: THE VALUE OF BREEDING VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ceballos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials - UYT. This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g. high number of their progenies reaching the UYT, suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05. Breeding value (e.g. average SIN at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g. S1 or S2 genotypes would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0 parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele

  7. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  8. [Transference Focused Psychotherapy for Borderline-Adolescents in a Day Clinic Treatment Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, Maya; Ponton-Rodriguez, Tamara; Gooran, Ghazal Rostami; Bender, Stephan

    2017-07-01

    Transference Focused Psychotherapy for Borderline-Adolescents in a Day Clinic Treatment Program This paper focuses on the concept of transference focused psychotherapy (TFP) modified for juvenile borderline patients. Adolescents with borderline developmental personality disorder (bpd) have an essential deficit in their personality structure that leads to oscillations in their self-esteem and in a "split" perception of the world. They suffer from a variety of symptoms and severe impairments on their own and their families' quality of life. Their fragmented perception of themselves and others make relationships almost unbearable for them. Relationships are mostly marked by severe anxiety of resentment and rejection. For these patients this causes intolerable trouble at school where every day conflicts take place. Self-mutilation and suicidal thoughts often seem the only way out. By now, there is an agreement that an early specialized assessment and treatment is necessary in order to stop the typical consequences of their self-mutilative and dysfunctional behavior. Still, in contrast to adult age, empirical evidence is missing which proves the effectiveness of treating adolescent borderline patients. In this paper we present a research project on the effectiveness of transference focused psychotherapy with adolescent borderline patients (TFP-A) in a day clinic setting, combining TFP with group skills training as known from dialectic behavior therapy (DBT). Furthermore, we give first results on analyzing the effectiveness of our day clinic treatment program based on TFP-A, focusing on improving core symptoms such as affective problems, aggressive behavior against self and others and interpersonal problems.

  9. Aplicação da ultrassonografia colorida doppler em programas de transferência de embriões equinos Potential use of doppler ultrasound in equine embryo transfer programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Camargo Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    distúrbios de fluxo sanguíneo de trato reprodutivo ainda se fazem necessários.Embryo transfer in mares has been commercially used for more than three decades and it is one of most frequently applied biotechnologies on equine reproduction. Ultrasonic doppler exam of donors during the pre and post-breeding and recipients evaluation at the embryo transfer moment is essential for embryo transfer program success. Doppler ultrasonography is a non-invasive technic that allows real-time evaluation of the reproductive system hemodynamics in large animal. For providing anatomical details and blood-flow physiologic information of vessels and tissues, doppler exam can be used for ovulation prognostication, and to evaluate uterine and luteal functional status. Additionally, it can serve as a diagnostic aid of hemodynamic disturbance in reproductive system. Vascularity changes of future ovulatory follicles precede the diameter deviation. Based on this, it is possible to estimate the beginning of the breeding season and the best moment to initiate superovulatory treatments. Moreover, follicular blood flow can be used to decide the most appropriated moment for ovulation induction and breeding of donors mares. Uterine and luteal evaluation using Doppler-mode in mares can be useful to select embryo recipients with satisfactory progesterone production and adequate uterine vascularity for embryo development and maintenance of pregnancy. The maternal recognition of pregnancy also can be evaluated. Although the applicability of the Doppler technology in embryo transfer programs, additional studies are necessary to determine the standards of normality and to characterize different blood-flow disturbances of the reproductive system.

  10. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program perspective on technology transfer: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (DOE LLWMP) perspective in regard to transfer of LLWMP technology to current and potential users in both the commercial and defense sectors is discussed. Past, present, and future opportunities and challenges for the whole nuclear waste management are indicated. Elements considered include: historical and evolutionary events and activities; the purpose of the Program and its inherent opportunities and challenges; achievements and expected accomplishments; supporters and interactors; packaging and delivering technology; implementing and serving potential users; determining and meeting users' needs; and identifying and responding to opportunities and challenges. The low-level waste management effort to improve shallow land burial technology began in FY 1977 and has expanded to include waste treatment and alternative disposal methods. Milestones have been established and are used as principal management control items. This technology, the Program Product, is described and is made available. This year, the Program has drafted criteria for inclusion in a DOE order for radioactive waste management operations at DOE sites

  11. 20 CFR 408.1235 - How does the State transfer funds to SSA to administer its recognition payment program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... administer its recognition payment program? 408.1235 Section 408.1235 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Federal Administration of State Recognition Payments § 408.1235 How does the State transfer funds to SSA to administer its recognition payment program...

  12. Promoting Child Development through Group-Based Parent Support within a Cash Transfer Program: Experimental Effects on Children's Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C. H.; Kagawa, Rose M. C.; Knauer, Heather A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Guerra, Armando Garcia; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2017-01-01

    We examined effects on child development of a group-based parenting support program ("Educación Inicial" - EI) when combined with Mexico's conditional cash transfer (CCT) program ("Prospera," originally 'Oportunidades" and "Progresa"). This cluster-randomized trial included 204 communities (n = 1,113 children in…

  13. Examining the Costs and Benefits of Family Rewards 2.0: A Conditional Cash Transfer Program in Two American Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Timothy; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Greenberg, David

    2016-01-01

    Family Rewards was an innovative approach to poverty reduction in the United States that was modelled on the conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs common in lower- and middle-income countries. The program offered cash assistance to poor families to reduce immediate hardship, provided they met certain criteria related to family health care,…

  14. Effects of a Modified Conditional Cash Transfer Program in Two American Cities: Findings from Family Rewards 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cynthia; Miller, Rhiannon; Verma, Nandita; Dechausay, Nadine; Yang, Edith; Rudd, Timothy; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Honig, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Family Rewards was an innovative approach to poverty reduction in the United States that was modeled on the conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs common in lower- and middle-income countries. The program offered cash assistance to low-income families, provided that they met certain conditions related to family health care, children's education,…

  15. 23 CFR 420.207 - What are the requirements for research, development, and technology transfer work programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for research, development, and..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING AND RESEARCH PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Research, Development and Technology Transfer Program Management § 420.207 What are the requirements for research...

  16. Testes de capacidade de expansão em programas de melhoramento de milho pipoca Popping expansion tests in popcorn breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico de Pina Matta

    2001-12-01

    systems for popping expansion determination in breeding programs. The first was a hot air popcorn pumper and the second was a microwave oven. For the first one an experiment was installed in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and nine levels of kernel weight, and five replications. For the second one, aiming to define an alternative packaging, an experiment was installed also in a completely randomized design, following a factorial scheme, with three replications, involving two times and five packagings. Another experiment was achieved to verify the microwave oven quality for volume expansion determination with a little kernel quantity and the best time to be used. The hot air popcorn pumper is an efficient system, in which 10 g of kernel can be used to evaluate plants and up to 90 g of kernel can be used to evaluate families in the experiments. The microwave oven is equivalent to the hot air popcorn pumper. Kraft paper bags can be used in the microwave oven. For plant evaluation 10 g of kernel with 140 seconds are recommended. To evaluate progenies 30 g to 90 g of kernel with 220 seconds can be used.

  17. Poverty and perceived stress: Evidence from two unconditional cash transfer programs in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelm, Lisa; Handa, Sudhanshu; de Hoop, Jacobus; Palermo, Tia

    2017-03-01

    Poverty is a chronic stressor that can lead to poor physical and mental health. This study examines whether two similar government poverty alleviation programs reduced the levels of perceived stress and poverty among poor households in Zambia. Secondary data from two cluster randomized controlled trials were used to evaluate the impacts of two unconditional cash transfer programs in Zambia. Participants were interviewed at baseline and followed over 36 months. Perceived stress among female caregivers was assessed using the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Poverty indicators assessed included per capita expenditure, household food security, and (nonproductive) asset ownership. Fixed effects and ordinary least squares regressions were run, controlling for age, education, marital status, household demographics, location, and poverty status at baseline. Cash transfers did not reduce perceived stress but improved economic security (per capita consumption expenditure, food insecurity, and asset ownership). Among these poverty indicators, only food insecurity was associated with perceived stress. Age and education showed no consistent association with stress, whereas death of a household member was associated with higher stress levels. In this setting, perceived stress was not reduced by a positive income shock but was correlated with food insecurity and household deaths, suggesting that food security is an important stressor in this context. Although the program did reduce food insecurity, the size of the reduction was not enough to generate a statistically significant change in stress levels. The measure used in this study appears not to be correlated with characteristics to which it has been linked in other settings, and thus, further research is needed to examine whether this widely used perceived stress measure appropriately captures the concept of perceived stress in this population. Copyright © 2017 UNICEF. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of the organizational transfer climate on the use of teacher leadership competences developed in a post-initial Master's program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, M.; Volman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The transfer of learning outcomes of Master's programs for teachers is not self-evident. In this study, 18 teachers who recently graduated and their supervisors were interviewed on the transfer of leadership competences developed during their Master's program and on how the organizational transfer

  19. A computational approach to animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y; Moore, Cristopher; Saia, Jared

    2007-02-07

    We propose a computational model of mating strategies for controlled animal breeding programs. A mating strategy in a controlled breeding program is a heuristic with some optimization criteria as a goal. Thus, it is appropriate to use the computational tools available for analysis of optimization heuristics. In this paper, we propose the first discrete model of the controlled animal breeding problem and analyse heuristics for two possible objectives: (1) breeding for maximum diversity and (2) breeding a target individual. These two goals are representative of conservation biology and agricultural livestock management, respectively. We evaluate several mating strategies and provide upper and lower bounds for the expected number of matings. While the population parameters may vary and can change the actual number of matings for a particular strategy, the order of magnitude of the number of expected matings and the relative competitiveness of the mating heuristics remains the same. Thus, our simple discrete model of the animal breeding problem provides a novel viable and robust approach to designing and comparing breeding strategies in captive populations.

  20. A BASIC program for an IBM PC compatible computer for drawing the weak phase object contrast transfer function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, A.; Skjerpe, P.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes a computer program which is useful in high resolution microscopy. The program is written in EBASIC and calculates the weak phase object contrast transfer function as function of instrumental and imaging parameters. The function is plotted on the PC graphics screen, and by a Print Screen command the function can be copied to the printer. The program runs on both the Hercules graphic card and the IBM CGA card. 2 figs

  1. User's guide to HEATRAN: a computer program for three-dimensional transient fluid-flow and heat-transfer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.N.C.; Cheng, S.K.; Todreas, N.E.

    1982-01-01

    This report provides the HEATRAN user with programming and input information. HEATRAN is a computer program which is written to analyze the transient three dimensional single phase incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer problem. In this report, the programming information is given first. This information includes details concerning the code and structure. The description of the required input variables is presented next. Following the input description, the sample problems are described and HEATRAN's results are presented

  2. Conditional cash transfer programs and the health and nutrition of Latin American children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Segura-Pérez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To 1 describe the benefits, conditions, coverage, funding, goals, governance, and structure of well-established conditional cash transfer programs (CCTs in Latin America and 2 identify their health and nutritional impacts among children under 5 years old. Methods A realist review was conducted. CCTs were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: 1 current national-level program; 2 coverage of at least 50% of the target population; 3 continuous operation at scale for 10+ years; 4 clear description of structure, funding sources, and governance; 5 both health/nutrition- and education-related conditions for participation; and 6 available impact evaluation studies with health, development, and/or nutrition indicators among children under 5 years old. Three CCTs (one each in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico met the criteria. Results There was consistent evidence that the three CCTs selected for review had positive impacts on child health and nutrition outcomes in their respective countries. In all three countries, the programs were scaled up and positive impacts were documented relatively quickly. All three programs had strong political support and clear and transparent governance structures, including accountability and social participation mechanisms, which might explain their success and sustainability. Conclusions CCTs in Latin America have had a positive impact on child health and nutrition outcomes among the poorest families. A key challenge for the future is to reform these programs to help families move out of not only extreme poverty but all poverty in order to lead healthy and productive lives, as called for in the post-2105 Sustainable Development Goals.

  3. Mutation breeding in diffrent types of pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This project was carried out under the collaboration of TAEK, SANAEM, and BATEM within 1999-2005 period. The aim of this project was to create new pepper varieties in Sera Demre 8 (green pepper) and ST59 (green pepper) cultivars which are important greenhouse cultivars by using mutation breeding methods. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED50) was calculated by linear regression analyses. According to results, 166 Gy dose was found as ED50. At the end of the breeding cycle 14 new mutant lines were obtained from mutant population. These mutant lines are still using as genitor for F1 hybrid pepper breeding programs

  4. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits...... it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid...

  5. Trends in genome-wide and region-specific genetic diversity in the Dutch-Flemish Holstein-Friesian breeding program from 1986 to 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doekes, Harmen P.; Veerkamp, Roel F.; Bijma, Piter; Hiemstra, Sipke J.; Windig, Jack J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: In recent decades, Holstein-Friesian (HF) selection schemes have undergone profound changes, including the introduction of optimal contribution selection (OCS; around 2000), a major shift in breeding goal composition (around 2000) and the implementation of genomic selection (GS;

  6. Risk Factors for Gaps in Care during Transfer from Pediatric to Adult Cystic Fibrosis Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Gregory S; Ostrenga, Joshua; Petren, Kristofer; Fink, Aliza K; D'Agostino, Emma; Strassle, Camila; Schechter, Michael S; Rosenfeld, Margaret

    2018-02-01

    With improved survival into adulthood, the number of dedicated adult cystic fibrosis (CF) care programs has expanded in the United States over the past decade. Transfer from pediatric to adult CF programs represents a potential time for lapses in recommended health care. To describe variability in transfer between pediatric and adult CF care programs and to identify factors associated with prolonged gaps in care. Using the U.S. CF Foundation Patient Registry, we identified individuals with CF who transferred care from a pediatric to an adult CF care program during 2007 to 2013. A gap in care was defined as the time in days between the last recorded pediatric encounter and the first recorded adult encounter. A hierarchical multivariable regression model was applied to investigate the effect of program- and patient-level factors on gaps in care. There were 1,946 individuals at 155 pediatric CF programs who transferred to an adult CF program during the analytic period. The mean age at transfer was 21.1 years, with 68% transferring care between ages 18 and 21 years. The mean gap in care during transfer was 183 days (median, 106 d; range, 2-1,843 d); 47% had a less than 100-day gap, and 13% had a greater than or equal to 365-day gap (prolonged gap). Prolonged gaps in care were more likely to occur among those younger than age 18 years (odds ratio, 3.33; 95% confidence interval, 2.06-5.37) at the time of transfer and those who transferred to an adult program that was in a different city from their pediatric or affiliate program (odds ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-3.17). Having any health insurance coverage was associated with decreased likelihood of prolonged gaps (private insurance vs. no insurance [odds ratio, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.23] or any government insurance versus no insurance [odds ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.18]). Lung function, nutritional status, and receipt of intravenous antibiotics in the final year of

  7. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

  8. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE DOIS MEIOS PARA TRANSFERÊNCIA DE EMBRIÕES EM ÉGUAS DA RAÇA MANGALARGA MARCHADOR OMPARISON BETWEEN TWO MEDIUM FOR EMBRYO TRANSFER IN MARES FROM MANGALARGA MARCHADOR BREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Costa Caiado

    2009-09-01

    (EET. The buffers carbonate, phosphate, and zwitterionic are the most used. During the procedures of transference, it is common to keep the embryos into the maintenance solution during a time longer than previewed. This experiment was realized with the objective of comparing the costs and benefits of using two solutions with different buffers for embryo transfer in mares of the breeding Mangalarga Marchador. The solutions are DPBS (phosphate and Embriocare® (zwitterionic. The embryos were divided randomly in two treatment , zwitterionic and phosphate, and kept in the solution for 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes. The results indicate that both solutions are efficient (P > 0.05 in the processes of scanning, washing, maintenance at ambient temperature for different time periods (0 to 120 minutes, and inovulation of equine embryos under tropical conditions. The pregnancy rates using the solution were 65% and 69.7%. The greatest pregnancy rate using DPBS was obtained with embryos kept in the solution for 60 minutes (P < 0.05. Using zwitterionic buffer, the greatest rate of pregnancy was obtained with embryos kept during 30 minutes in the solution (P < 0.05. Since Embriocare® is more expensive, DPBS presented the best cost-benefit ratio.

    KEY WORDS: Embryo transfer, equine, Mangalarga Marchador, phosphate and zwitterionic buffer.

  9. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  10. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  11. indigenous cattle breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received 31 August 1996; accepted 20 March /998. Mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns from representative animals of the Afrikaner and Nguni sanga cattle breeds, indigenous to Southern Africa, were compared to the mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns of the Brahman (zebu) and the Jersey. (taurine) cattle breeds.

  12. PWR blowdown heat transfer separate-effects program: thermal-hydraulic test facility experimental data report for test 104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, D.M.; White, M.D.; Moore, P.A.; Hedrick, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Reduced instrument responses are presented for Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) test 104, which is part of the ORNL Pressurized-Water Reactor (PWR) Blowdown Heat Transfer Separate-Effects Program. The objective of the program is to investigate the thermal-hydraulic phenomenon governing the energy transfer and transport processes that occur during a loss-of-coolant accident in the PWR system. Test 104 was conducted to obtain CHF in bundle 1 under blowdown conditions. The primary purpose of this report is to make the reduced instrument responses during test 104 available

  13. Transfer of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel technology through cooperative programs (1980-1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, V.K.; DiStefano, J.R.; Patriarca, P.

    1986-06-01

    The principal objective of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) 9Cr-1Mo steel development program has been to provide the data and analyses required by designers for use of the alloy in advanced liquid metal reactors to reduce technical tasks and plant capital costs. It was recognized early that designers would not consider use of any material for nuclear applications unless there was a considerable body of experience already established. Toward this end, the plan has been to get the alloy accepted in Section I (Power Boilers), Section II (Materials Specifications), Section VIII (Pressure Vessels), and Section III (Nuclear power Plant Components) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (BPV) Code as logical steps in the process. To achieve this objective, extensive interaction with the industrial community was considered mandatory. Accordingly, an intensive effort to achieve technology transfer was initiated, which resulted in the involvement of many organizations. This report is a compilation of 47 status sheets describing 35 participating organizations and funding sources, purpose of the interactions, material and product forms utilized, summary of the work completed, findings, and appropriate references. These interactions contributed significantly toward the fulfillment of the program goals

  14. Taiwan industrial cooperation program technology transfer for low-level radioactive waste final disposal - phase I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Cochran, John Russell; Arnold, Bill Walter; Jow, Hong-Nian; Mattie, Patrick D.; Schelling, Frank Joseph Jr. (; .)

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan have collaborated in a technology transfer program related to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Phase I of this program included regulatory analysis of LLW final disposal, development of LLW disposal performance assessment capabilities, and preliminary performance assessments of two potential disposal sites. Performance objectives were based on regulations in Taiwan and comparisons to those in the United States. Probabilistic performance assessment models were constructed based on limited site data using software including GoldSim, BLT-MS, FEHM, and HELP. These software codes provided the probabilistic framework, container degradation, waste-form leaching, groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and cover infiltration simulation capabilities in the performance assessment. Preliminary performance assessment analyses were conducted for a near-surface disposal system and a mined cavern disposal system at two representative sites in Taiwan. Results of example calculations indicate peak simulated concentrations to a receptor within a few hundred years of LLW disposal, primarily from highly soluble, non-sorbing radionuclides.

  15. A study of student perceptions of learning transfer from a human anatomy and physiology course in an allied health program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Leigh S.

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First the study was designed to determine student perceptions regarding the perceived degree of original learning from a human anatomy and physiology course, and the student perception of the use of the knowledge in an allied health program. Second, the intention of the study was to establish student beliefs on the characteristics of the transfer of learning including those factors which enhance learning transfer and those that serve as barriers to learning transfer. The study participants were those students enrolled in any allied health program at a community college in a Midwest state, including: nursing, radiology, surgical technology, health information technology, and paramedic. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed from the responses to the survey. A sub-group of participants were chosen to participate in semi-structured formal interviews. From the interviews, additional qualitative data were gathered. The data collected through the study demonstrated student perception of successful transfer experiences. The students in the study were able to provide specific examples of learning transfer experienced from the human anatomy and physiology course in their allied health program. Findings also suggested students who earned higher grades in the human anatomy and physiology course perceived greater understanding and greater use of the course's learning objectives in their allied health program. The study found the students believed the following learning activities enhances the transfer of learning: (1) Providing application of the information or skills being learned during the instruction of the course content enhances the transfer of learning. (2) Providing resource materials and activities which allow the students to practice the content being taught facilitates the transfer of learning. The students made the following recommendations to remove barriers to the transfer of learning: (1

  16. New biotechnology enhances the application of cisgenesis in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei eHou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cisgenesis is genetic modification to transfer beneficial alleles from crossable species into a recipient plant. The donor genes transferred by cisgenesis are the same as those used in traditional breeding. It can avoid linkage drag, enhance the use of existing gene alleles. This approach combines traditional breeding techniques with modern biotechnology and dramatically speeds up the breeding process. This allows plant genomes to be modified while remaining plants within the gene pool. Therefore, cisgenic plants should not be assessed as transgenics for environmental impacts.

  17. Can conditional cash transfer programs generate equality of opportunity in highly unequal societies? Evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Bohn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines whether the state, through conditional cash transfer programs (CCT, can reduce the poverty and extremely poverty in societies marred by high levels of income concentration. We focus on one of the most unequal countries in the globe, Brazil, and analyze the extent to which this country's CCT program - Bolsa Família (BF, Family Grant program - is able to improve the life chances of extremely poor beneficiaries, through the three major goals of PBF: First, to immediately end hunger; second, to create basic social rights related to healthcare and education; finally, considering also complementary policies, to integrate adults into the job market. The analysis relies on a quantitative survey with 4,000 beneficiaries and a qualitative survey comprised of in-depth interviews with 38 program's participants from all the regions of the country in 2008, it means that this study is about the five first years of the PBF. In order to answer the research questions, we ran four probit analyses related: a the determinants of the realization of prenatal care; b the determinants of food security among BF beneficiaries, c the determinants that adult BF recipients will return to school, d the determinants that a BF beneficiary will obtain a job. Important results from the study are: First, those who before their participation on PBF were at the margins have now been able to access healthcare services on a more regular basis. Thus, the women at the margins who were systematically excluded - black women, poorly educated and from the North - now, after their participation in the CCT program, have more access to prenatal care and can now count with more availability of public healthcare network. Second, before entering the Bolsa Família program, 50.3% of the participants faced severe food insecurity. This number went down to 36.8% in very five years. Men are more likely than women; non-blacks more likely than blacks; and South and Centre

  18. Analysis of matters associated with the transferring of object-oriented applications to platform .Net using C# programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsimbayeva, S. M.; Kospanova, K. K.

    2015-11-01

    The article provides the discussion of matters associated with the problems of transferring of object-oriented Windows applications from C++ programming language to .Net platform using C# programming language. C++ has always been considered to be the best language for the software development, but the implicit mistakes that come along with the tool may lead to infinite memory leaks and other errors. The platform .Net and the C#, made by Microsoft, are the solutions to the issues mentioned above. The world economy and production are highly demanding applications developed by C++, but the new language with its stability and transferability to .Net will bring many advantages. An example can be presented using the applications that imitate the work of queuing systems. Authors solved the problem of transferring of an application, imitating seaport works, from C++ to the platform .Net using C# in the scope of Visual Studio.

  19. Technology Transfer: A Case Study of Programs and Practices at NASA, DOD, DOC, and Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology transfer is vital to humanity. It spurs innovation, promotes commerce, and provides technology-based goods and services. Technology transfer is also highly complex and interdependent in nature. This interdependence is exemplified principally by the various technology transfer interactions between government, industry, and academia. …

  20. Educational Impacts and Cost-Effectiveness of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs in Developing Countries: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Sandra; Saavedra, Juan E.

    2017-01-01

    We meta-analyze for impact and cost-effectiveness 94 studies from 47 conditional cash transfer programs in low- and middle-income countries worldwide, focusing on educational outcomes that include enrollment, attendance, dropout, and school completion. To conceptually guide and interpret the empirical findings of our meta-analysis, we present a…

  1. Learning Together: How Families Responded to Education Incentives in New York City's Conditional Cash Transfer Program. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David; Dechausay, Nadine; Fraker, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, New York City's Center for Economic Opportunity launched Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards, an experimental, privately funded, conditional cash transfer (CCT) program to help families break the cycle of poverty. Family Rewards provided payments to low-income families in six of the city's poorest communities for achieving specific goals…

  2. Predicting Workplace Transfer of Learning: A Study of Adult Learners Enrolled in a Continuing Professional Education Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia; Alfred, Mary; Chakraborty, Misha; Johnson, Michelle; Cherrstrom, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to predict transfer of learning to workplace among adult learners enrolled in a continuing professional education (CPE) training program, specifically training courses offered through face-to-face, blended and online instruction formats. The study examined the predictive capacity of trainee…

  3. Transfer of Life Skills in Sport-Based Youth Development Programs: A Conceptual Framework Bridging Learning to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jennifer M.; Wright, Paul M.

    2018-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that many quality sport-based youth development programs promote life skill acquisition (e.g., leadership, self-control) with the ultimate goal of facilitating positive outcomes in youth participants' social and academic environments. Researchers call this "transfer of life skills" (i.e., the idea that physical,…

  4. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  5. Effect of the conditional cash transfer program Oportunidades on vaccination coverage in older Mexican people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Immunization is one of the most effective ways of preventing illness, disability and death from infectious diseases for older people. However, worldwide immunization rates are still low, particularly for the most vulnerable groups within the elderly population. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of the Oportunidades -an incentive-based poverty alleviation program- on vaccination coverage for poor and rural older people in Mexico. Methods Cross-sectional study, based on 2007 Oportunidades Evaluation Survey, conducted in low-income households from 741 rural communities (localities with <2,500 inhabitants) of 13 Mexican states. Vaccination coverage was defined according to three individual vaccines: tetanus, influenza and pneumococcal, and for complete vaccination schedule. Propensity score matching and linear probability model were used in order to estimate the Oportunidades effect. Results 12,146 older people were interviewed, and 7% presented cognitive impairment. Among remaining, 4,628 were matched. Low coverage rates were observed for the vaccines analyzed. For Oportunidades and non-Oportunidades populations were 46% and 41% for influenza, 52% and 45% for pneumococcal disease, and 79% and 71% for tetanus, respectively. Oportunidades effect was significant in increasing the proportion of older people vaccinated: for complete schedule 5.5% (CI95% 2.8-8.3), for influenza 6.9% (CI95% 3.8-9.6), for pneumococcal 7.2% (CI95% 4.3-10.2), and for tetanus 6.6% (CI95% 4.1-9.2). Conclusions The results of this study extend the evidence on the effect that conditional transfer programs exert on health indicators. In particular, Oportunidades increased vaccination rates in the population of older people. There is a need to continue raising vaccination rates, however, particularly for the most vulnerable older people. PMID:23835202

  6. Improving NASA's technology transfer process through increased screening and evaluation in the information dissemination program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laepple, H.

    1979-01-01

    The current status of NASA's technology transfer system can be improved if the technology transfer process is better understood. This understanding will only be gained if a detailed knowledge about factors generally influencing technology transfer is developed, and particularly those factors affecting technology transfer from government R and D agencies to industry. Secondary utilization of aerospace technology is made more difficult because it depends on a transfer process which crosses established organizational lines of authority and which is outside well understood patterns of technical applications. In the absence of a sound theory about technology transfer and because of the limited capability of government agencies to explore industry's needs, a team approach to screening and evaluation of NASA generated technologies is proposed which calls for NASA, and other organizations of the private and public sectors which influence the transfer of NASA generated technology, to participate in a screening and evaluation process to determine the commercial feasibility of a wide range of technical applications.

  7. Characteristics important for organic breeding of vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable development and application of new genetic The Institute for Vegetable Crops possesses a rich germplasm collection of vegetables, utilized as gene resource for breeding specific traits. Onion and garlic breeding programs are based on chemical composition improvement. There are programs for identification and use of genotypes characterized by high tolerance to economically important diseases. Special attention is paid to breeding cucumber and tomato lines tolerant to late blight. As a result, late blight tolerant pickling cucumber line, as well as late blight tolerant tomato lines and hybrids are realized. Research on bean drought stress tolerance is initiated. Lettuce breeding program including research on spontaneous flora is started and interspecies hybrids were observed as possible genetic variability source. It is important to have access to a broad range of vegetable genotypes in order to meet the needs of organic agriculture production. Appreciating the concept of sustainable agriculture, it is important to introduce organic agriculture programs in breeding institutions.

  8. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual

  9. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  10. India's JSY cash transfer program for maternal health: Who participates and who doesn't - a report from Ujjain district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Kristi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India launched a national conditional cash transfer program, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY, aimed at reducing maternal mortality by promoting institutional delivery in 2005. It provides a cash incentive to women who give birth in public health facilities. This paper studies the extent of program uptake, reasons for participation/non participation, factors associated with non uptake of the program, and the role played by a program volunteer, accredited social health activist (ASHA, among mothers in Ujjain district in Madhya Pradesh, India. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to May 2011 among women giving birth in 30 villages in Ujjain district. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 418 women who delivered in 2009. Socio-demographic and pregnancy related characteristics, role of the ASHA during delivery, receipt of the incentive, and reasons for place of delivery were collected. Multinomial regression analysis was used to identify predictors for the outcome variables; program delivery, private facility delivery, or a home delivery. Results The majority of deliveries (318/418; 76% took place within the JSY program; 81% of all mothers below poverty line delivered in the program. Ninety percent of the women had prior knowledge of the program. Most program mothers reported receiving the cash incentive within two weeks of delivery. The ASHA's influence on the mother's decision on where to deliver appeared limited. Women who were uneducated, multiparious or lacked prior knowledge of the JSY program were significantly more likely to deliver at home. Conclusion In this study, a large proportion of women delivered under the program. Most mothers reporting timely receipt of the cash transfer. Nevertheless, there is still a subset of mothers delivering at home, who do not or cannot access emergency obstetric care under the program and remain at risk of maternal death.

  11. "Initiate-build-operate-transfer"--a strategy for establishing sustainable telemedicine programs in developing countries: initial lessons from the balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Merrell, Ronald C; Doarn, Charles R; Hadeed, George J; Bekteshi, Flamur; Lecaj, Ismet; Boucha, Kathe; Hajdari, Fatmir; Hoxha, Astrit; Koshi, Dashurije; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja; Berisha, Blerim; Novoberdaliu, Kadri; Imeri, Arben; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2009-12-01

    Establishing sustainable telemedicine has become a goal of many developing countries around the world. Yet, despite initiatives from a select few individuals and on occasion from various governments, often these initiatives never mature to become sustainable programs. The introduction of telemedicine and e-learning in Kosova has been a pivotal step in advancing the quality and availability of medical services in a region whose infrastructure and resources have been decimated by wars, neglect, lack of funding, and poor management. The concept and establishment of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has significantly impacted telemedicine and e-health services in the Balkans. The success of the IVeH in Kosova has led to the development of similar programs in other Balkan countries and other developing countries in the hope of modernizing and improving their healthcare infrastructure. A comprehensive, four-pronged strategy, "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), may be a useful approach in establishing telemedicine and e-health educational services in developing countries. The development strategy, IBOT, used by the IVeH to establish and develop telemedicine programs, was discussed. IBOT includes assessment of healthcare needs of each country, the development of a curriculum and education program, the establishment of a nationwide telemedicine network, and the integration of the telemedicine program into the healthcare infrastructure. The endpoint is the transfer of a sustainable telehealth program to the nation involved. By applying IBOT, a sustainable telemedicine program of Kosova has been established as an effective prototype for telemedicine in the Balkans. Once fully matured, the program will be transitioned to the national Ministry of Health, which ensures the sustainability and ownership of the program. Similar programs are being established in Albania, Macedonia, and other countries around the world. The IBOT model has been effective in creating

  12. Validation of the use of exogenous gonadotropins (PG600) to increase the efficiency of gilt development programs without affecting lifetime productivity in the breeding herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J; Triemert, E; Gustafson, B; Werner, T; Holden, N; Pinilla, J C; Foxcroft, G

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the use of exogenous gonadotropin (PG600) treatment for stimulating estrus in noncyclic gilts and to compare lifetime productivity of gilts recorded as having natural (NAT) versus PG600-induced (PG600) first estrus in a commercial setting. Prepubertal Camborough gilts ( = 4,489) were delivered to a gilt development unit (GDU) with the goal of delivering known cyclic breeding-eligible females to the sow farm (SF). A boar exposure area (BEAR) was designed to facilitate stimulation and detection of puberty by providing fence line and direct contact (15 min daily) with mature boars over an intensive 28-d period, starting at approximately d 160 (d 0). At d 14, nonpubertal gilts were mixed in new pen groups. At d 23, noncyclic "opportunity" gilts with no record of vulval development and required to meet breeding targets, were eligible for treatment with PG600 to induce puberty. Overall, 77.6% ( = 3,475) of gilts exhibited standing estrus (NAT = 2,654; PG600 = 821) and were eligible for shipping to the SF at approximately 35 d, and 76.6% of gilts that were administered PG600 exhibited the standing reflex within 13 d of treatment. Ultimately, 72.0% of gilts entering the GDU were delivered to the SF as breeding-eligible females. Considering the gilts delivered, a greater proportion of NAT than PG600 gilts were successfully bred ( 0.05) in the proportion of NAT and PG600 gilts farrowing a third litter, but a greater proportion of NAT than PG600 gilts farrowed their fourth litter ( 0.05). A negative correlation ( productivity to parity 4 were not affected by growth rate classification at puberty.

  13. Effect of short- and long-term heat stress on the conception risk of dairy cows under natural service and artificial insemination breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, L-K; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this retrospective study were to examine the effect of heat stress on natural service and artificial insemination (AI) breeding methods. We investigated the influence of short- and long-term heat stress on the conception risk (CR) of dairy cows bred by natural service or by AI with frozen-thawed or fresh semen. In addition, the relationship between breeding method and parity was determined. Cows bred by AI with frozen-thawed semen exposed to long-term heat stress (mean temperature-humidity index ≥73 in the period 21d before breeding) were 63% less likely to get pregnant compared with cows not exposed to heat stress. Cows bred by AI with fresh semen were 80% less likely to get pregnant during periods of short-term heat stress than during periods without heat stress. Furthermore, multiparous cows bred by AI with frozen-thawed or fresh semen were 22 and 67% less likely to get pregnant, respectively, than primiparous cows. No influence of heat stress or parity was noted on the CR of cows bred by natural service. The present study indicates that the likelihood of dairy cows becoming pregnant is reduced by short- and long-term heat stress depending on the type of semen employed. In particular, CR of cows inseminated with fresh semen is negatively affected by short-term heat stress and CR of cows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen is negatively affected by long-term heat stress. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  15. Genomic Analyses Reveal the Influence of Geographic Origin, Migration, and Hybridization on Modern Dog Breed Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi G. Parker

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are nearly 400 modern domestic dog breeds with a unique histories and genetic profiles. To track the genetic signatures of breed development, we have assembled the most diverse dataset of dog breeds, reflecting their extensive phenotypic variation and heritage. Combining genetic distance, migration, and genome-wide haplotype sharing analyses, we uncover geographic patterns of development and independent origins of common traits. Our analyses reveal the hybrid history of breeds and elucidate the effects of immigration, revealing for the first time a suggestion of New World dog within some modern breeds. Finally, we used cladistics and haplotype sharing to show that some common traits have arisen more than once in the history of the dog. These analyses characterize the complexities of breed development, resolving longstanding questions regarding individual breed origination, the effect of migration on geographically distinct breeds, and, by inference, transfer of trait and disease alleles among dog breeds.

  16. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  17. Development and application of programs to measure modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum and detective quantum efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, R; Kotre, C J

    2005-01-01

    This project aimed to produce programs to calculate the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of digital X-ray systems, given a suitable digital image. The MTF was calculated using the edge technique and the NPS was calculated from a flat field image. Both programs require a suitably edited DICOM image as input. The DQE was then calculated from the output of MTF and NPS programs. This required data external to the DQE program to estimate the number of quanta per mm2 in the beam which formed the NPS image. All three programs run independent of each other on a PC and require no special software to be installed. Results for MTF, NPS and DQE for a Philips AC3 CR system are presented. In addition, the results for MTF from a Siemens Duo CT scanner with a specially designed PTFE edge are also shown.

  18. Security Transition Program Office (STPO), technology transfer of the STPO process, tools, and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, J.T.; Forslund, C.R.J.; Underwood, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    In 1990, with the transition from a defense mission to environmental restoration, the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site began a significant effort to diagnose, redesign, and implement new safeguards and security (SAS) processes. In 1992 the Security Transition Program Office (STPO) was formed to address the sweeping changes that were being identified. Comprised of SAS and other contractor staff with extensive experience and supported by staff experienced in organizational analysis and work process redesign, STPO undertook a series of tasks designed to make fundamental changes to SAS processes throughout the Hanford Site. The goal of STPO is to align the SAS work and organization with the new Site mission. This report describes the key strategy, tools, methods, and techniques used by STPO to change SAS processes at Hanford. A particular focus of this review is transferring STPO`s experience to other DOE sites and federal agency efforts: that is, to extract, analyze, and provide a critical review of the approach, tools, and techniques used by STPO that will be useful to other DOE sites and national laboratories in transitioning from a defense production mode to environmental restoration and other missions. In particular, what lessons does STPO provide as a pilot study or model for implementing change in other transition activities throughout the DOE complex? More broadly, what theoretical and practical contributions do DOE transition efforts, such as STPO, provide to federal agency streamlining efforts and attempts to {open_quotes}reinvent{close_quotes} government enterprises in the public sector? The approach used by STPO should provide valuable information to those examining their own processes in light of new mission requirements.

  19. Supporting the Transference of Knowledge about Language within Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Lisl; Endicott, Michele; Quinn, Marie; Humphrey, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Teacher education is effective when pre-service teachers are able to transfer knowledge from content areas to practice. This study investigates the extent to which curriculum and assessment designs, along with teaching practices, supported pre-service teachers to transfer knowledge gained about language from a first-year course into a second-year…

  20. Modeling of Compressible Flow with Friction and Heat Transfer Using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes the verification and validation of a quasi one-dimensional pressure based finite volume algorithm, implemented in Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), for predicting compressible flow with friction, heat transfer and area change. The numerical predictions were compared with two classical solutions of compressible flow, i.e. Fanno and Rayleigh flow. Fanno flow provides an analytical solution of compressible flow in a long slender pipe where incoming subsonic flow can be choked due to friction. On the other hand, Raleigh flow provides analytical solution of frictionless compressible flow with heat transfer where incoming subsonic flow can be choked at the outlet boundary with heat addition to the control volume. Nonuniform grid distribution improves the accuracy of numerical prediction. A benchmark numerical solution of compressible flow in a converging-diverging nozzle with friction and heat transfer has been developed to verify GFSSP's numerical predictions. The numerical predictions compare favorably in all cases.

  1. Research and development projects in the frame of the technology transfer program of the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, J.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of the Technology Transfer Programme carried through by kfk for some years now, a specific technology transfer model has been developed for the purpose of efficient utilization of the spin-off. This model showing means and methods of ensuring a continuous, purposeful and controllable organization of the transfer of know-how, is accompanied by experience in the appropriate contractual activities adjusted to the various conditions encountered, as e.g. cooperation and licence agreements, services, consultative agreements, personnel transfer, selling agreements, committed research agreements, and development contracts. Consuming about 2 p.c. of the annual overall expenses of the kfk, the Technology Transfer Programme belongs to the minor projects of the research centre. (DG) [de

  2. Impact of mimicking natural dispersion on breeding success of captive North American Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Sierra J; Ziegler-Meeks, Karen; Eager, Carol; Tenhundfeld, Thomas A; Shaffstall, Wendy; Stearns, Mary Jo; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of transfer away from natal facility and littermate presence on cheetah breeding success in the AZA Species Survival Plan (SSP) population. Transfer and breeding history data for captive males and females were gathered from seven and four AZA SSP breeding facilities, respectively, to identify factors influencing breeding success. The results indicate that transfer history (p = 0.032), age at transfer (p = 0.013), and female littermate presence/absence (p = 0.04) was associated with breeding success, with females transferred away from their natal facility before sexual maturity and without littermates present accounting for the highest breeding success. Keeping males at their natal facility and/or removing them from their coalitions did not negatively affect their breeding success. Males appeared to demonstrate the same fecundity regardless of transfer history or coalition status, indicating that dispersal away from natal environment was not as critical for the breeding success of males compared with female cheetahs. These results highlight the significance of moving females away from their natal environment, as would occur in the wild, and separating them from their female littermates for optimization of breeding success in the ex situ population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Spatial distribution of potential and positive Aedes aegypti breeding sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Elías Cuartas

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The spatial relationship between positive and potential A. aegypti breeding sites both indoors and outdoors is dynamic and highly sensitive to the characteristics of each territory. Knowing how positive and potential breeding sites are distributed contributes to the prioritization of resources and actions in vector control programs.

  4. Strategies for selecting and breeding EAB-resistant ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; Kathleen Knight; Therese Poland; David W. Carey; Daniel A. Herms; Mary E. Mason

    2011-01-01

    Breeding for pest resistance in forest trees is a proven approach for managing both native and nonnative insects and diseases. A recent study by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reports 255 forest tree breeding programs for insect or disease resistance in 33 diff erent countries (http://www.fao.org/forestry/26445/en/). Advantages to...

  5. Plant mutation breeding for crop improvement. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the final two sessions of the FAO/IAEA Symposium on Plant Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement, focussing on mutation breeding with particular objectives and the methodology of mutation breeding. The individual contributions are indexed separately. Although a wide variety of topics is included, the emphasis is on the use of (mainly gamma) radiation to induce economically useful mutants in cereals and legumes. The results of many conventional plant breeding programs are also presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Plant mutation breeding for crop improvement. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the first two sessions of the FAO/IAEA Symposium on Plant Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement, focussing on mutation breeding in particular countries and crop-specific mutation breeding. The individual contributions are indexed separately. Although a wide variety of topics is included, the emphasis is on the use of (mainly gamma) radiation to induce economically useful mutants in cereals and legumes. The results of many conventional plant breeding programs are also presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. PWR blowdown heat transfer separate-effects program: Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility experimental data report for test 100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.D.; Hedrick, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Reduced instrument responses are presented for Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) test 100, which is part of the ORNL Pressurized-Water-Reactor (PWR) Blowdown Heat Transfer Separate-Effects Program. The objective of the program is to investigate the thermal-hydraulic phenomenon governing the energy transfer and transport processes that occur during a loss-of-coolant accident in a PWR system. Test 100 was conducted to investigate the response of heater rod bundle 1 and instrumented spool pieces with flow homogenizing screens to a double-ended rupture with equal break areas at the test section inlet and outlet. The primary purpose of this report is to make the reduced instrument responses during test 100 available. The responses are presented in graphical form in engineering units and have been analyzed only to the extent necessary to assure reasonableness and consistency

  8. PWR Blowdown Heat Transfer Separate-Effects Program. Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility experimental data report for test 166S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemons, V.D.; White, M.D.; Hedrick, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Reduced instrument responses are presented for Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) test 166S, which is part of the ORNL Pressurized-Water Reactor (PWR) Blowdown Heat Transfer Separate-Effects Program. The objective of the program is to investigate the thermal-hydraulic phenomenon governing the energy transfer and transport processes that occur during a loss-of-coolant accident in a PWR system. Test 166S was conducted to obtain thermal-hydraulic and CHF information in THTF bundle 1 with an intact hot leg. The primary purpose of this report is to make the reduced instrument responses during tests 166S available. These are presented in graphical form in engineering units and have been analyzed only to the extent necessary to ensure reasonableness and consistency

  9. A technology transfer plan for the US Department of Energy's Electric Energy Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Hurwitch, J.W.; Davis, L.J.

    1986-11-01

    The major objective of this study was to develop a technology transfer plan that would be both practical and effective in promoting the transfer of the products of DOE/EES research to appropriate target audiences. The study drew upon several major components of the marketing process in developing this plan: definition/charcterization of the products being produced by the DOE/EES program, identification/characterization of possible users of the products being produced by the program, and documentation/analysis of the methods currently being used to promote the adoption of DOE/EES products. Fields covered include HVDC, new materials, superconductors, electric field effects, EMP impacts, battery storage/load leveling, automation/processing concepts, normal/emergency operating concepts, Hawaii deep water cable, and failure mechanisms.

  10. Top 5 exotic clones for potato breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild and cultivated relatives of potato feature prominently in breeding programs. In this short article, I describe five exotic clones that have promising traits for the future of the US potato industry. They include M6, an inbred line of S. chacoense that provides a source of genes for self-compati...

  11. The Air Force Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH): Technology transfer methodology as exemplified by the radar transmit/receive module program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, Tracy; Ridgely, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Manufacturing Technology program is involved with the improvement of radar transmit/receive modules for use in active phased array radars for advanced fighter aircraft. Improvements in all areas of manufacture and test of these modules resulting in order of magnitude improvements in the cost of and the rate of production are addressed, as well as the ongoing transfer of this technology to the Navy.

  12. Integrative shell of the program complex MARS (Version 1.0) radiation transfer in three-dimensional geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyarev, I.I.; Lokhovitskij, A.E.; Maslov, M.A.; Yazynin, I.A.

    1994-01-01

    The first version of integrative shell of the program complex MARS is written for calculating radiation transfer in the three-dimensional geometries. The integrative shell allows the user to work in convenient form with complex MARS, creat input files data and get graphic visualization of calculated functions. Version 1.0 is adapted for personal computers of types IBM-286,386,486 with operative size memory not smaller than 500K. 5 refs

  13. Genetic characterization of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds and analysis of their relationship to cosmopolitan dog breeds using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, D; Marelli, S P; Randi, E; Polli, M

    2015-12-01

    Very little research into genetic diversity of Italian native dog breeds has been carried out so far. In this study we aimed to estimate and compare the genetic diversity of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds: the Maremma, Bergamasco, Lupino del Gigante and Oropa shepherds. Therefore, some cosmopolitan dog breeds, which have been widely raised in Italy for a long time past, have also been considered to check possible influence of these dog populations on the Italian autochthonous breeds considered here. A total of 212 individuals, belonging to 10 different dog breeds, were sampled and genotyped using 18 autosomal microsatellite loci. We analyzed the genetic diversity of these breeds, within breed diversity, breed relationship and population structure. The 10 breeds considered in this study were clearly genetically differentiated from each other, regardless of current population sizes and the onset of separate breeding history. The level of genetic diversity explained 20% of the total genetic variation. The level of H E found here is in agreement with that found by other studies. The native Italian breeds showed generally higher genetic diversity compared with the long established, well-defined cosmopolitan dog breeds. As the Border Collie seems closer to the Italian breeds than the other cosmopolitan shepherd dogs considered here, a possible utilization of this breed to improve working performance in Italian traditional working shepherd dogs cannot be ignored. The data and information found here can be utilized in the organization of conservation programs planned to reduce inbreeding and to minimize loss of genetic variability.

  14. Molecular genetics: Step by step implementation in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency in plant breeding is determined primarily by the ability to screen for genetic polymorphism, productivity and yield stability early in program. Dependent on the knowledge about the biochemical bases of the trait and nature of its genetic control, trait could be modified either through mutagenesis of genes controlling it or through the transfer of already existing mutant genes, controlling desired trait to different plant genotypes by classic crossing. Objective of this report is to present partly results on the investigation of the possibilities to apply ionizing radiations (fast neutrons, γ -rays and chemical mutagens (EI, iPMS, EMS, ENU to get maize and wheat mutants with increased amount and improved protein quality. Besides this approach in mutation breeding, results on the very early investigation of biochemical background of opaque -2 mutation including use of coupled cell - free RNA and protein synthesis containing components from both wild and opaque - 2 maize genotypes (chromatin, RNA polymerase, microsomall fraction, protein bodies will be presented. Partial results on opaque - 2 gene incorporation in different genetic background are reviewed. Part of report is dealing with different classes of molecular markers (proteins, RFLP, AFLP, RAPD, and SSR application in maize genome polymorphism investigation. Besides application of different molecular markers classes in the investigation of heterosis phenomena they are useful in biochemical pathway of important traits control determination as well. .

  15. A Military and Industry Partnership Program: The Transfer of Military Simulation Technology Into Commercial Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGuire, William

    1997-01-01

    This research thesis is a study through a military commercial industry partnership to seek whether investments in military modeling and simulation can be easily transferred to benefit commercial industry...

  16. Progress and tendency in heavy ion irradiation mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Libin; Li Wenjian; Qu Ying; Li Ping

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the intermediate energy heavy ion biology has been concerned rarely comparing to that of the low-energy ions. In this paper, we summarized the advantage of a new mutation breeding method mediated by intermediate energy heavy ion irradiations. Meanwhile, the present state of this mutation technique in applications of the breeding in grain crops, cash crops and model plants were introduced. And the preview of the heavy ion irradiations in gene-transfer, molecular marker assisted selection and spaceflight mutation breeding operations were also presented. (authors)

  17. "Initiate-build-operate-transfer" - a strategy for establishing sustainable telemedicine programs not only in the developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat

    2011-01-01

    Establishing sustainable telemedicine has become a goal of many developing countries around the world. Yet, despite initiatives from a select few individuals and on occasion from various governments, often these initiatives never mature to become sustainable programs. The introduction of telemedicine and e-learning in the Balkans has been a pivotal step in advancing the quality and availability of medical services in a region whose infrastructure and resources have been decimated by wars, neglect, lack of funding, and poor management. The concept and establishment of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has significantly impacted telemedicine and e-health services in Kosova. The success of the IVeH in Kosova has led to the development of similar programs in other Balkan countries and other developing countries in the hope of modernizing and improving their healthcare infrastructure. A comprehensive, four-pronged strategy developed by IVeH "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), may be a useful approach in establishing telemedicine and e-health educational services not only in developing countries, but in developed countries. The development strategy, IBOT, used by the IVeH to establish and develop telemedicine programs is described. IBOT includes assessment of healthcare needs of each country, the development of a curriculum and education program, the establishment of a nationwide telemedicine network, and the integration of the telemedicine program into the very core of healthcare infrastructure. The end point is the transfer of a sustainable telehealth program to the nation involved. By applying IBOT, a sustainable telemedicine program of Kosova and Albania has been established as an effective prototype for telemedicine in the Balkans. Once fully matured, the program is transitioned to the Ministry of Health, which ensures the sustainability and ownership of the program. Similar programs are being established in Macedonia, Montenegro and other countries

  18. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  19. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great

  20. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental chang...... and provide important information for conservation management of migratory birds....

  1. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  2. Mutation breeding in mangosteen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Mohd Zain

    2002-01-01

    Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)

  3. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  4. Transferência condicionada de renda e segurança alimentar e nutricional Conditional cash transfer programs and food and nutrition security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Burlandy

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as interações entre programas de transferência condicionada de renda (TCR e a segurança alimentar e nutricional (SAN, a partir de uma revisão da literatura. Considera que a TCR impacta os gastos com alimentação, especialmente quando há dinamismo de mercado e os investimentos com outros bens que afetam o bem- estar nutricional das famílias, incluindo a demanda por educação e cuidados com a saúde. No entanto, o impacto no estado nutricional, especialmente no crescimento infantil, não é inequívoco, pois depende de outras ações que afetam este processo, tais como a disponibilidade de serviços de saúde; educação; saneamento; os custos das famílias para acessá-los; o tempo de implementação dos programas; o valor transferido; o tamanho das famílias, além das regras intrafamiliares de alocação de recursos. De igual modo, cabe analisar o processo de implementação dos programas uma vez que podem afetar (positiva ou negativamente os valores, relações e práticas sociais que contribuem para a conformação da pobreza e da SAN. A integração da TCR com outros programas é essencial para garantir seu impacto na SAN e o atual Conselho Nacional de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional constitui espaço estratégico para o planejamento integrado de políticas neste campo.This paper analyses the relationship between Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT programs and Food and Nutrition Security (FNS, based on a review of the literature. CCT programs spur outlays on food, particularly in dynamic markets, as well as investments in other goods affecting the nutritional wellbeing of families, including demands for healthcare and education. However, the impact on children's nutritional status and early childhood growth is not clear, as other factors also affect this process, such as: the availability of public services (healthcare; education; sanitation and the costs of accessing them; duration of the programs; transfer

  5. Federal Research: Preliminary Informaton on the Small Business Technology Transfer Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinhardt, B

    1996-01-01

    .... For this report, GAO reviewed (1) the quality and commercial potential of the STTR Program's research as shown by technical evaluations of the winning proposals in the first year of the program, (2...

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. Index issue no. 11-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. Index issue no. 11-20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  8. Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana pinesnake) Reproduction/breeding phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josh B. Pierce; Craig Rudolph; Christopher A. Melder; Beau B. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Determing the reproductive phenology of snakes is important since it marks a time period where snakes are particularly vulnerable to predation. In addition, knowledge of reproductive phenology may help captive breeding programs specify appropriate times to pair snakes for reproduction.

  9. Substance Abuse-Specific Knowledge Transfer or Loss? Treatment Program Turnover versus Professional Turnover among Substance Abuse Clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T.; Curtis, Sara L.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the extent to which substance abuse (SA) clinician turnover is associated with SA-specific knowledge loss due to change in professions (professional turnover) versus SA-specific knowledge transfer due to movement from one SA clinical setting to another (treatment program turnover). For this study, clinicians had to voluntarily leave their current treatment program. Eligible clinicians completed a quantitative survey while employed and a qualitative post-employment exit interview 1 year later. Compared to those that exited the SA profession (N = 99), clinicians who changed treatment programs (N = 120) had greater SA-specific formal knowledge and were more likely to be personally in recovery. No differences were found between the two groups in terms of SA-specific practical knowledge. PMID:25115318

  10. Analysis on The Roles of Stakeholders in The Management of Integrated Breeding Beef Cattle Farm Program at PT KPC East Kutai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ariansyah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the roles of stakeholders was conducted as a continuity program of Peternakan Sapi Terpadu (PESAT; integrated beef cattle farm following the coal mining deactivation by PT Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC of East Kutai, East Kalimantan. The purpose of this study was to formulate stakeholders relation in the future program. The stakeholders involved in this program were PT KPC, local breeders, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Pertanian (STIPER; Agriculture Academy of East Kutai, and the local government of East Kutai. The stakeholders analysis was based on the variables of the importance and influence from every analyzed stakeholder. The analysis model used here was the model introduced by Reed et al. (2009. According to the result of the stakeholders analysis, PT KPC was in the key-player quadrant, which score is 25 in both of the interest and the influencial level, while the three others, such as, local breeders, STIPER of East Kutai, and the East Kutai Government were in the subject quadrant. Their score were 24 and 7 for Local breeders, 21 and 9 for STIPER of East Kutai, and 16 and 13 for The East Kutai Government. It means, they had high interest but low influence to the program. The conclusion of this analysis shows that PT KPC is still dominating in the PESAT program management, whereas the three other stakeholders are acting merely as program users that have low involvement in the program management.

  11. Engineering Task Plan for Hose-In-Hose Transfer Lines for the Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    The document is the Engineering Task Plan for the engineering, design services, planning, project integration and management support for the design, modification, installation and testing of an over ground transfer (OGT) system to support the interim stabilization of S/SX and U Tank Farms

  12. Articulation Works for Most Community College Transfer Students, But Some Problems Continue. OPPAGA Program Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Legislature, Tallahassee. Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability.

    The Florida legislature has passed several reforms designed to shorten the time it takes students to obtain their degrees. Although the reforms have produced benefits, some articulation problems continue. The problems include the following: (1) One in five (20%) AA transfer students take a semester or more of lower division courses at a…

  13. Engineering Task Plan for Hose-In-Hose Transfer Lines for the Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RUNG, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    This document is the Engineering Task Plan for the engineering, design services, planning, project integration and management support for the design, modification, installation and testing of an over ground transfer (OGT) system to support the interim stabilization of nine tanks in the 241-S/SX Tank Farms

  14. New Findings on New York City's Conditional Cash Transfer Program. Fast Focus. No. 18-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) are long-standing policies that link cash assistance to low-income families to work effort. A new policy being tested in New York City adopts this "conditional cash transfer" principle and extends it to a broader set of family efforts to build their…

  15. Studies of radiant heat transfer problems by the MOXY-program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wennerberg, D.; Thiede, M.

    1988-01-01

    MOXY is a program for calculation of transients at LOCA in a BWR. The program has been enlarged for application to 9 x 9 bundles (earlier only 7 x 7 - and 8 x 8 geometries). The report presents the results of five runs, two cases for 8 x 8 -bundle and three for 9 x 9 bundle. Comparison is made with estimates made by other, similar programs. (O.S.)

  16. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This year seems to be very promising for the Plant Breeding and Genetic sub-Programme. At the demand of geneticists, plant breeders, and more recently molecular geneticists for information on released mutant varieties of specific crops, the FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database (MVD) was transferred to the web site and is now available through Internet under the following URL: http://www-mvd.iaea.org. The idea to collect and transfer information on crop varieties developed with the use of mutation techniques to plant breeders ws conceived at almost the same time as the establishment of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section (PBG), Joint FAO/IAEA Division. The first classified list of induced mutant varieties was presented by Sigurbjoernsson at the Pullman Symposium, and published in 1969. Since the first issue of the MBNL (May, 1972) information on newly released mutant varieties was published at the end of each issue under the title 'List of Mutant Varieties'. The full list of 2252 mutant varieties has been published in the Mutation Breeding Review No. 12 (December 2000) to close this period of collecting data on mutant varieties. Such condensed but full information on mutant varieties should help geneticists, molecular biologists and plant breeders to asses the value of mutation techniques in germplasm enhancement, and stimulate the use of induced variation

  17. Mutation breeding in peas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaranowski, J [Institute of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Academy of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland); Micke, A [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1985-02-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  18. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaranowski, J.; Micke, A.

    1985-01-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  19. HorTILLUS—A Rich and Renewable Source of Induced Mutations for Forward/Reverse Genetics and Pre-breeding Programs in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam E. Szurman-Zubrzycka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes is a strategy used for functional analysis of genes that combines the classical mutagenesis and a rapid, high-throughput identification of mutations within a gene of interest. TILLING has been initially developed as a discovery platform for functional genomics, but soon it has become a valuable tool in development of desired alleles for crop breeding, alternative to transgenic approach. Here we present the HorTILLUS (Hordeum—TILLING—University of Silesia population created for spring barley cultivar “Sebastian” after double-treatment of seeds with two chemical mutagens: sodium azide (NaN3 and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU. The population comprises more than 9,600 M2 plants from which DNA was isolated, seeds harvested, vacuum-packed, and deposited in seed bank. M3 progeny of 3,481 M2 individuals was grown in the field and phenotyped. The screening for mutations was performed for 32 genes related to different aspects of plant growth and development. For each gene fragment, 3,072–6,912 M2 plants were used for mutation identification using LI-COR sequencer. In total, 382 mutations were found in 182.2 Mb screened. The average mutation density in the HorTILLUS, estimated as 1 mutation per 477 kb, is among the highest mutation densities reported for barley. The majority of mutations were G/C to A/T transitions, however about 8% transversions were also detected. Sixty-one percent of mutations found in coding regions were missense, 37.5% silent and 1.1% nonsense. In each gene, the missense mutations with a potential effect on protein function were identified. The HorTILLUS platform is the largest of the TILLING populations reported for barley and best characterized. The population proved to be a useful tool, both in functional genomic studies and in forward selection of barley mutants with required phenotypic changes. We are constantly renewing the HorTILLUS population, which makes it a

  20. A knowledge transfer program for engineering students at master level at the UPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez, G.; Mínguez, E.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Practical tools to improve the NKM in the day by day in their work: • How to make their everyday work to be more traceable: – Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS); • Identify, inside the corporation, the people with critical knowledge (independent of the age!) – Evaluate the risk of losing that knowledge; – Planify the strategy of knowledge transfer; – Avoid that all the critical knowledge of one is concentrated in one person (knowledge islands); • Know the knowledge of your partner

  1. Elephant reproduction: improvement of breeding efficiency and development of a breeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thitaram, C.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of reproduction of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) has become of major concern. Captive breeding programs worldwide have met with limited success and few ex situ elephant populations are self-sustaining. The low birth rate and high mortality cause the captive population to

  2. Effect of mortality rate, breed type and breed on total herd efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing in the National Beef Performance Testing Scheme (1980-1985), was investigated by means of a computer simulation program. Simulation runs were ... developments and computer-based genetic evaluation, the potential for greater ..... 1988), while composite and SangalZebu breed types have superior adaptive capacity.

  3. Potential Transferability of Economic Evaluations of Programs Encouraging Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents across Different Countries—A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Korber

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is an increasing problem. Owing to limited financial resources, one method of getting information on the cost-effectiveness of different types of prevention programs is to examine existing programs and their results. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the transferability of cost-effectiveness results of physical activity programs for children and adolescents to other contexts. Based on a systematic review of the literature, the transferability of the studies found was assessed using a sub-checklist of the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURONHEED. Thirteen studies of different physical activity interventions were found and analyzed. The results for transferability ranged from “low” to “very high”. A number of different factors influence a program’s cost-effectiveness (i.e., discount rate, time horizon, etc.. Therefore, transparency with regard to these factors is one fundamental element in the transferability of the results. A major point of criticism is that transferability is often limited because of lack of transparency. This paper is the first to provide both an overview and an assessment of transferability of economic evaluations of existing programs encouraging physical activity in children and adolescents. This allows decision makers to gain an impression on whether the findings are transferable to their decision contexts, which may lead to time and cost savings.

  4. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    stallions standing at stud. Artificial insemination was offered by 48% of the breeders. Of those that offered artificial insemination, only 2 farms provided frozen semen. Also of interest, 2 farms offered embryo transfer services. Farms spent approximately 13,536/year on advertising and 7,864/year on health care management of the stallions. The majority of farms that bred outside mares (13 of 25) bred fewer than 50 mares per year (n = 10). Outside mares were considered to be those that were transported to the farm for breeding. Some of those remained on the farm for mare care while others returned home after confirmed with foal. Approximately 70% of the farms gave discounts to individuals who bred multiple mares to the same stallion or farm. Over 85% of the farms surveyed provided mare care including breeding and foaling, though the number of days mares received care varied significantly. The average cost for mare care was 18.29 per day. All but one respondent provided a live foal guarantee. Breeding horses in Kentucky has been very important facet of the equine industry. However, many people who consider breeding a horse have little understanding of the costs associated with the process. The data provided by this study will be used to create a spreadsheet to assist people interested in breeding to better understand the financial considerations of this type of enterprise.

  5. O Bolsa Família: problematizando questões centrais na política de transferência de renda no Brasil The Family Allowance Program: reflecting on core issues in Brazil's income transfer policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ozanira da Silva e Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O Programa Bolsa Família foi criado em 2003 com o objetivo de unificar os Programas de Transferência de Renda iniciados em nível municipal, estadual e federal desde 1995. É concebido como uma expressão do processo de desenvolvimento desses programas no Brasil. Transferência de renda é entendida enquanto uma transferência monetária direta efetuada a indivíduos ou a famílias. O pressuposto central é de que articular uma transferência de renda com políticas e programas estruturantes, principalmente no campo da educação, saúde e trabalho, direcionados a famílias pobres, pode interromper o ciclo vicioso da pobreza do presente e sua reprodução no futuro. Portanto, uma articulação entre uma transferência monetária com políticas e programas estruturantes, direcionados a famílias pobres, pode possibilitar a construção de uma política de enfrentamento à pobreza e à desigualdade social. Nesse artigo, é apresentado o desenvolvimento histórico dos Programas de Transferência de Renda, no Brasil, orientado por um esforço problematizador do significado e do alcance desses programas no âmbito das políticas sociais brasileiras, considerando suas potencialidades e limites enquanto política de inclusão social.Introduced in 2003, Brazil's Family Allowance Program was intended to unite several Income Transfer Programs run at the Municipal, State and Federal levels since 1995. Designed as an expression of the development of direct monetary transfers to families or individuals, its key assumption is that linking income transfers to poor families with structural policies and programs (mainly in the fields of education, healthcare and jobs could break through the vicious cycle of poverty in the present and halt its future replication. Linking cash transfers to structuring policies and programs for poor families might well underpin a policy combating poverty and social inequality. This paper presents a retrospective of these Income

  6. Report of cooperative research programs in the field of ion-beam breeding between Japan Atomic Energy Agency and Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Bilateral cooperative research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Zaiton; Oono, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    This report summarizes Bilateral Cooperative Research between Japan Atomic Energy Agency and Malaysian Nuclear Agency (a representative of the Government of Malaysia) implemented from 2002 to 2012 under 'THE IMPLEMENTING ARRANGEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF MALAYSIA AND THE JAPAN ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY ON THE RESEARCH COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF RADIATION PROCESSING'. The research activities in two Cooperative Research Programs, 'Mutation Induction of Orchid Plants by Ion Beams' and 'Generating New Ornamental Plant Varieties Using Ion Beams' performed 2002-2007 and 2007-2012, respectively, are contained. The lists of steering committee meetings, irradiation experiments, and publications/presentations of each program are also attached in the Appendixes. (author)

  7. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified

  8. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as primary blanket materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and secondary blanket materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified. (orig.)

  9. An Evaluation Study of an Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) Program in an Urban City: Examining the Transfer of Knowledge and Leadership Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Lim

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) degree program in terms of transfer of knowledge and leadership practices. Based on a review of literature related to adult learning theories, EMBA programs, the importance of evaluation practices, and leadership practices, this study was designed to…

  10. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  11. Impact of mutation breeding in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutger, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    More cultivars have been developed in rice through the use of mutation breeding than in any other crop. Direct releases of mutants as cultivars began some 30 years ago, and now total 198 cultivars. During the last 20 years, increasing use has been made of induced mutants in cross-breeding programs, leading to 80 additional cultivars. Principal improvements through mutation breeding have been earlier maturity, short stature, and grain character modifications. Rice has been a popular subject of mutagenesis because it is the world's leading food crop, has diploid inheritance, and is highly self-pollinated. In recent years induced mutation has been exploited to develop breeding tool mutants, which are defined as mutants that in themselves may not have direct agronomic application but may be useful genetic tools for crop improvement. Examples include the eui gene, hull colour mutants, normal genetic male steriles, and environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles. The environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles, especially those in which male sterility can be turned on or off by different photoperiod lengths, show promise for simplifying hybrid rice seed production both in China and the USA. Future applications of mutation in rice include induction of unusual endosperm starch types, plant types with fewer but more productive tillers, dominant dwarfs, dominant genetic male steriles, extremely early maturing mutants, nutritional mutants, and in vitro-derived mutants for tolerance to herbicides or other growth stresses. Refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  12. R and D activities on radiation induced mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapade, A.G.; Asencion, A.B.; Santos, I.S.; Grafia, A.O.; Veluz, AM.S.; Barrida, A.C.; Marbella, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the accomplishments, prospects and future plans of mutation breeding for crop improvement at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). Mutation induction has become a proven way creating variation within a crop variety and inducing desired attributes that cannot be found in nature or have been lost during evolution. Several improved varieties with desirable traits were successfully developed through induced mutation breeding at our research institute. In rice, mutation breeding has resulted in the development of new varieties: (1) PARC 2, (2) Milagrosa mutant, (3) Bengawan mutant and (4) Azmil mutant. Mutation breeding in leguminous crops has led to the induction of an improved L 114 soybean mutant that is shorter that the original variety but yield about 40% more. Several PAEC mungbean varieties characterized with long pods that are non-shattering were also induced. In asexually propagated crops, an increase in yield and chlorophyll mutants were obtained in sweet potatos. Likewise, chlorophyll mutant which look-like 'ornamental bromeliads' and a mutant with reduced spines have been developed in pineapple Queen variety. At present, we have started a new project in mutation breeding in ornamentals. Tissue culture is being utilized in our mutation breeding program. In the near future, radiation induced mutagenesis coupled with in vitro culture techniques on protoplast culture and somatic hybridization will be integrated into our mutation breeding program to facilitate the production of new crop varieties. (author)

  13. Analysis of Time-Dependent Tritium Breeding Capability of Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaokang; Pu, Yong; Zhu, Qingjun; Liu, Songlin

    2016-08-01

    Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is an important mission for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) operating on a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel cycle. It is necessary to study the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and breeding tritium inventory variation with operation time so as to provide an accurate data for dynamic modeling and analysis of the tritium fuel cycle. A water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket is one candidate of blanket concepts for the CFETR. Based on the detailed 3D neutronics model of CFETR with the WCCB blanket, the time-dependent TBR and tritium surplus were evaluated by a coupling calculation of the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the fusion activation code FISPACT-2007. The results indicated that the TBR and tritium surplus of the WCCB blanket were a function of operation time and fusion power due to the Li consumption in breeder and material activation. In addition, by comparison with the results calculated by using the 3D neutronics model and employing the transfer factor constant from 1D to 3D, it is noted that 1D analysis leads to an over-estimation for the time-dependent tritium breeding capability when fusion power is larger than 1000 MW. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2015GB108002, and 2014GB119000), and by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  14. Public transfers and living alone among the elderly: A case study of Korea's new income support program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Hye-Won Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the significant implications of older adults' living arrangements for their well-being, it is not clear whether public transfers for the elderly will increase or decrease their independent living. A few natural experiments in the U.S. show that such support increases elders' living alone owing to their preferences for privacy. There has been little quasi-experimental evidence in Asia, where multigenerational coresidence is prevalent and norms and preferences for that form of living arrangement remain strong. Objective: In 2008 the Korean government introduced the Basic Old-Age Pension (BOAP, a means-tested income support program for elders. This article examines how the program affects unmarried Korean elders' likelihood of living alone. Methods: I analyze the 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011 waves of the Korean Retirement and Income Study, a longitudinal survey of nationally representative Koreans. The analysis takes a difference-in-difference approach, which compares changes in the living arrangements of two elderly groups, one that received BOAP benefits and the other that did not. Results: Overall, the program has a negative, not positive, impact on elders' living alone. A closer look reveals that the transfers helped non-coresident elders to continue living alone and prevented coresident elders from forming one-person households. Conclusions: Ambivalent attitudes towards living alone in the transitional Korean society, together with the modest amount of BOAP benefits, appear to explain the mixed results. These findings are particularly relevant to other rapidly changing societies where public elder-support systems are expanding and norms of familial elder support are weakening.

  15. Industry to Education Technology Transfer Program. Composite Materials--Personnel Development. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomezsko, Edward S. J.

    A composite materials education program was established to train Boeing Helicopter Company employees in the special processing of new filament-reinforced polymer composite materials. During the personnel development phase of the joint Boeing-Penn State University project, an engineering instructor from Penn State completed a 5-month, full-time…

  16. Radiation mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected

  17. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  18. Physiological, vascular and nanomechanical assessment of hybrid poplar leaf traits in micropropagated plants and plants propagated from root cuttings: A contribution to breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurkovič, Jaroslav; Husárová, Hana; Javoříková, Lucia; Čaňová, Ingrid; Šuleková, Miriama; Kardošová, Monika; Lukáčik, Ivan; Mamoňová, Miroslava; Lagaňa, Rastislav

    2017-09-01

    Micropropagated plants experience significant stress from rapid water loss when they are transferred from an in vitro culture to either greenhouse or field conditions. This is caused both by inefficient stomatal control of transpiration and the change to a higher light intensity and lower humidity. Understanding the physiological, vascular and biomechanical processes that allow micropropagated plants to modify their phenotype in response to environmental conditions can help to improve both field performance and plant survival. To identify changes between the hybrid poplar [Populus tremula × (Populus × canescens)] plants propagated from in vitro tissue culture and those from root cuttings, we assessed leaf performance for any differences in leaf growth, photosynthetic and vascular traits, and also nanomechanical properties of the tracheary element cell walls. The micropropagated plants showed significantly higher values for leaf area, leaf length, leaf width and leaf dry mass. The greater leaf area and leaf size dimensions resulted from the higher transpiration rate recorded for this stock type. Also, the micropropagated plants reached higher values for chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and for the nanomechanical dissipation energy of tracheary element cell walls which may indicate a higher damping capacity within the primary xylem tissue under abiotic stress conditions. The performance of the plants propagated from root cuttings was superior for instantaneous water-use efficiency which signifies a higher acclimation capacity to stressful conditions during a severe drought particularly for this stock type. Similarities were found among the majority of the examined leaf traits for both vegetative plant origins including leaf mass per area, stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rate, hydraulic axial conductivity, indicators of leaf midrib vascular architecture, as well as for the majority of cell wall nanomechanical traits. This research revealed that

  19. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program: Automated preflight methods concept definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, C. M.; Hertzberg, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of automating preflight engine checkouts on orbit transfer engines is discussed. The minimum requirements in terms of information and processing necessary to assess the engine'e integrity and readiness to perform its mission were first defined. A variety of ways for remotely obtaining that information were generated. The sophistication of these approaches varied from a simple preliminary power up, where the engine is fired up for the first time, to the most advanced approach where the sensor and operational history data system alone indicates engine integrity. The critical issues and benefits of these methods were identified, outlined, and prioritized. The technology readiness of each of these automated preflight methods were then rated on a NASA Office of Exploration scale used for comparing technology options for future mission choices. Finally, estimates were made of the remaining cost to advance the technology for each method to a level where the system validation models have been demonstrated in a simulated environment.

  20. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    A. Blasco

    2008-01-01

    Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries) and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selec...

  1. Accuracy of genomic selection in European maize elite breeding populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Liu, Wenxin; Würschum, Tobias; Maurer, Hans P; Longin, Friedrich H; Ranc, Nicolas; Reif, Jochen C

    2012-03-01

    Genomic selection is a promising breeding strategy for rapid improvement of complex traits. The objective of our study was to investigate the prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values through cross validation. The study was based on experimental data of six segregating populations from a half-diallel mating design with 788 testcross progenies from an elite maize breeding program. The plants were intensively phenotyped in multi-location field trials and fingerprinted with 960 SNP markers. We used random regression best linear unbiased prediction in combination with fivefold cross validation. The prediction accuracy across populations was higher for grain moisture (0.90) than for grain yield (0.58). The accuracy of genomic selection realized for grain yield corresponds to the precision of phenotyping at unreplicated field trials in 3-4 locations. As for maize up to three generations are feasible per year, selection gain per unit time is high and, consequently, genomic selection holds great promise for maize breeding programs.

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions

  3. Results of a psychosomatic training program in China, Vietnam and Laos: successful cross-cultural transfer of a postgraduate training program for medical doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Kurt; Scheib, Peter; Ko, Nayeong; Wirsching, Michael; Kuhnert, Andrea; Hick, Jie; Schüßler, Gerhard; Wu, Wenyuan; Yuan, Shen; Cat, Nguyen Huu; Vongphrachanh, Sisouk; Linh, Ngo Tich; Viet, Ngyuen Kim

    2012-08-29

    With the "ASIA-LINK" program, the European Community has supported the development and implementation of a curriculum of postgraduate psychosomatic training for medical doctors in China, Vietnam and Laos. Currently, these three countries are undergoing great social, economic and cultural changes. The associated psychosocial stress has led to increases in psychological and psychosomatic problems, as well as disorders for which no adequate medical or psychological care is available, even in cities. Health care in these three countries is characterized by the coexistence of Western medicine and traditional medicine. Psychological and psychosomatic disorders and problems are insufficiently recognized and treated, and there is a need for biopsychosocially orientated medical care. Little is known about the transferability of Western-oriented psychosomatic training programs in the Southeast Asian cultural context. The curriculum was developed and implemented in three steps: 1) an experimental phase to build a future teacher group; 2) a joint training program for future teachers and German teachers; and 3) training by Asian trainers that was supervised by German teachers. The didactic elements included live patient interviews, lectures, communication skills training and Balint groups. The training was evaluated using questionnaires for the participants and interviews of the German teachers and the future teachers. Regional training centers were formed in China (Shanghai), Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City and Hue) and Laos (Vientiane). A total of 200 physicians completed the training, and 30 physicians acquired the status of future teacher. The acceptance of the training was high, and feelings of competence increased during the courses. The interactive training methods were greatly appreciated, with the skills training and self-experience ranked as the most important topics. Adaptations to the cultural background of the participants were necessary for the topics of "breaking bad

  4. Results of a psychosomatic training program in China, Vietnam and Laos: successful cross-cultural transfer of a postgraduate training program for medical doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzsche Kurt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the “ASIA-LINK” program, the European Community has supported the development and implementation of a curriculum of postgraduate psychosomatic training for medical doctors in China, Vietnam and Laos. Currently, these three countries are undergoing great social, economic and cultural changes. The associated psychosocial stress has led to increases in psychological and psychosomatic problems, as well as disorders for which no adequate medical or psychological care is available, even in cities. Health care in these three countries is characterized by the coexistence of Western medicine and traditional medicine. Psychological and psychosomatic disorders and problems are insufficiently recognized and treated, and there is a need for biopsychosocially orientated medical care. Little is known about the transferability of Western-oriented psychosomatic training programs in the Southeast Asian cultural context. Methods The curriculum was developed and implemented in three steps: 1 an experimental phase to build a future teacher group; 2 a joint training program for future teachers and German teachers; and 3 training by Asian trainers that was supervised by German teachers. The didactic elements included live patient interviews, lectures, communication skills training and Balint groups. The training was evaluated using questionnaires for the participants and interviews of the German teachers and the future teachers. Results Regional training centers were formed in China (Shanghai, Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City and Hue and Laos (Vientiane. A total of 200 physicians completed the training, and 30 physicians acquired the status of future teacher. The acceptance of the training was high, and feelings of competence increased during the courses. The interactive training methods were greatly appreciated, with the skills training and self-experience ranked as the most important topics. Adaptations to the cultural background of the

  5. Breeding and Selection of New Switchgrass Varieties for Increased Biomass Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taliaferro, C.M.

    2003-05-27

    Switchgrass breeding and genetics research was conducted from 1992-2002 at the Oklahoma State University as part of the national DOE-Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) effort to develop the species as a bioenergy feedstock crop. The fundamental objective of the program was to implement and conduct a breeding program to increase biomass yield capability in switchgrass and develop cultivars for the central and southern United States. Supporting research objectives included: (1) switchgrass germplasm collection, characterization, and enhancement; (2) elucidation of cytogenetic and breeding behavior; and (3) identification of best breeding procedures.

  6. Breeding of a Tomato Genotype Readily Accessible to Genetic Manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, Maarten; Hanhart, Corrie; Jongsma, Maarten; Toma, Ingrid; Weide, Rob; Zabel, Pim; Hille, Jacques

    1986-01-01

    A tomato genotype, superior in regenerating plants from cell cultures, was obtained by transferring regeneration capacity from Lycopersicon peruvianum into L. esculentum by classical breeding. This genotype, MsK93, greatly facilitates genetic manipulation of tomato, as was demonstrated by successful

  7. A research program: The investigation of heat transfer and fluid flow at low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Philbin, Jeffrey S.; Foushee, Fabian C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a multiyear joint research program being conducted at the University of New Mexico (UNM) with support from Sandia National Laboratories and GA Technologies. This research focuses on heat removal and fluid dynamics in flow regimes characterized by low pressure and low Reynolds number. The program was motivated by a desire to characterize and analyze cooling in a broad class of TRIGA-type reactors under: a) typical operating conditions, b) anticipated, new operating regimes, and c) postulated accident conditions. It has also provided experimental verification of analytical tools used in design analysis. The paper includes descriptions of the UNM thermal-hydraulics test facility and the experimental test sections. During the first two years experiments were conducted using single, electrically heated rod in water and air annuli. This configuration provides an observable and serviceable simulation of a fuel rod and its coolant channel. (author)

  8. A regional technology transfer program. [North Carolina Industrial Applications Center for the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The proliferation of online searching capabilities among its industrial clients, changes in marketing staff and direction, use of Dun and Bradstreet marketing service files, growth of the Annual Service Package program, and services delivered to clients at the NASA funded North Carolina Science and Technology Research Center are described. The library search service was reactivated and enlarged, and a survey was conducted on the NC/STRC Technical Bulletin's effectiveness. Several quotations from clients assess the overall value of the Center's services.

  9. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR

  10. Beyond "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" strategy for creating sustainable telemedicine programs: lesson from the first decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Dasho, Erion; Lecaj, Ismet; Latifi, Kalterina; Bekteshi, Flamur; Hadeed, Molly; Doarn, Charles R; Merrell, Ronald C

    2012-06-01

    December 10, 2012 will mark the 10th anniversary of the implementation of telemedicine in the Balkans. This first decade of development and function is due to the passion, creativity, experience, and implementation know-how of the award-winning concept of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) Foundation. The objective of this article is to analyze the results of the IVeH's core strategy, "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), which has been instrumental in establishing telemedicine in the Balkans and has been adopted by many other countries worldwide, and to describe the lessons learned that go beyond IBOT. A retrospective review of the results of IVeH engagement in establishing telemedicine in developing countries was conducted. Using IBOT, the IVeH has successfully established two national programs: one in Kosova and one in Albania. Together, they have connected 16 hospitals. Currently IVeH is in the process of creating such programs in many countries around the world. During the analysis of the first decade, we have identified eight factors that should be considered when establishing telemedicine programs. IBOT has been successful, but further studies are needed to demonstrate its effectiveness in countries beyond the Balkans.

  11. Transfer of communication skills to the workplace: impact of a 38-hour communication skills training program designed for radiotherapy teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckaert, Isabelle; Delevallez, France; Gibon, Anne-Sophie; Liénard, Aurore; Libert, Yves; Delvaux, Nicole; Marchal, Serge; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Bragard, Isabelle; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Scalliet, Pierre; Van Houtte, Paul; Coucke, Philippe; Razavi, Darius

    2015-03-10

    This study assessed the efficacy of a 38-hour communication skills training program designed to train a multidisciplinary radiotherapy team. Four radiotherapy teams were randomly assigned to a training program or a waiting list. Assessments were scheduled at baseline and after training for the training group and at baseline and 4 months later for the waiting list group. Assessments included an audio recording of a radiotherapy planning session to assess team members' communication skills and expression of concerns of patients with breast cancer (analyzed with content analysis software) and an adapted European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer satisfaction with care questionnaire completed by patients at the end of radiotherapy. Two hundred thirty-seven radiotherapy planning sessions were recorded. Compared with members of the untrained teams, members of the trained teams acquired, over time, more assessment skills (P = .003) and more supportive skills (P = .050) and provided more setting information (P = .010). Over time, patients interacting with members of the trained teams asked more open questions (P = .022), expressed more emotional words (P = .025), and exhibited a higher satisfaction level regarding nurses' interventions (P = .028). The 38-hour training program facilitated transfer of team member learned communication skills to the clinical practice and improved patients' satisfaction with care. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  12. A Food Transfer Program without a Formal Education Component Modifies Complementary Feeding Practices in Poor Rural Mexican Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Luzuriaga, María J; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Rivera, Juan A; González de Cosío, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate complementary feeding partially explains micronutrient deficiencies in the first 2 y of life. To prevent malnutrition, the Mexican government implemented the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), which transferred either food baskets containing micronutrient-fortified milk and animal food products or cash to beneficiary families along with educational sessions. This study evaluated the impact of PAL on 2 indicators of complementary feeding: minimum dietary diversity and consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods in children aged 6-23 mo. A secondary analysis of the original PAL evaluation design was conducted through a randomized community trial implemented with 3 intervention groups (food basket with education, food basket without education, and cash transfer with education) and a control. The impact of PAL after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in 2 cross-sectional groups of children aged 6-23 mo at baseline and at follow-up in a panel of 145 communities by using difference-in-difference models. Only children who lived in households and communities that were similar between treatment groups at baseline were included in the analysis. These children were identified by using a propensity score. Of the 3 intervention groups, when compared with the control, only the food basket without education group component increased the consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods by 31.2 percentage points (PP) (P diversity by 21.6 PP (P effective than cash transfers. The fact that the 2 food basket groups differed in the observed impact does not allow for more convincing conclusions to be made about the education component of the program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01304888. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Genome-wide identification of breed-informative single-nucleotide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avhashoni AA. Zwane

    2016-09-20

    Sep 20, 2016 ... ... high temperatures and low-quality grass and for their resistance to ... growth rate, early marketability, grazing performance and good ... development of the Bonsmara breed (Scholtz, 2010). ..... transferability to water buffalo.

  14. Participation of the national industry within a nuclear power plant program by technology transfer from the point of view of the main contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, H.

    1986-04-01

    The broad scope of components needed in a nuclear power plant with various technical requirements offer a big opportunity for the participation of local industries in the construction of such plants. Depending on the existing capability of the industrial enterprises, the scope of national participation can be increased by technology transfer on all technical areas to be applied for the construction of NPPs. Such technology requires as basis a nuclear program of the country determined and supported by the government and the utilities. This program has to be defined as realistic as even possible adjoined to the future energy demand of the country. Furthermore the available capability, existing qualifications and equipment of the national industry have to be considered. On the basis of these fundamental requirements a tailormade technology transfer program has to be elaborated in close cooperation with an experienced main contractor of the plant and his partners for such technology transfer and should be established afterwards. This program has to consider not only the goal to achieve finally the independent production of components and equipment for NPPs or the construction of complete power plant units itself, but also the economic benefit of such a program for the country. The costs of technology transfer and the necessary investment of the national industry required for the manufacture of nuclear components have to be thoroughly investigated, based on the expected scope of products to be manufactured for the nuclear power plants according to the nuclear program. Furthermore the application of the technology transferred for other components e.g. for conventional power stations, mineral-oil or chemical industrial plants has to be considered. By a tailormade nuclear technology transfer program, executed by qualified and experienced partners not only the quality of the products of the national industry for NPPs will be improved, but also the general standard regarding

  15. Heat transfer and fluid flow research relevant to India's nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.K.; Venkatraj, V.

    1988-01-01

    The Indian Nuclear Power Programme envisages three important stages viz., installation of thermal reactors, fast reactors and utilization of Thorium. By the year 2000 AD, it is proposed to have an installed total capacity of nuclear power of about 10,000 MWe. Starting from the present installed capacity of 1330 MWe, the additional contribution will be mainly made by thermal power reactors of the Pressurized Heavy Water type (PHWR). Apart from the reactors presently under construction about 12 numbers of 235 MWe units are planned to be constructed, which will be based on the standardized design of the reactors at Narora Atomic Power Project (NAPP). In addition, 10 units of 500 MWe capacity each, the design for which is currently under progress, will also be installed. The design, construction and operating agency is the Nuclear Power Board (NPB), while the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is responsible for the research and development work required. In addition to the programme on thermal power reactors, a thermal research reactor (DHRUVA) of 100 MWth capacity has been designed, constructed and has been commissioned. Some of the important heat transfer and fluid flow research problems relevant to the Indian nuclear power and research reactors are discussed in this paper

  16. Project description: ORNL PWR blowdown heat transfer separate-effects program, Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The ORNL Pressurized-Water Reactor Blowdown Heat Transfer (PWR-BDHT) Program is an experimental separate-effects study of the relations among the principal variables that can alter the rate of blowdown, the presence of flow reversal and rereversal, time delay to critical heat flux, the rate at which dryout progresses, and similar time-related functions that are important to LOCA analysis. Primary test results will be obtained from the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF), a large nonnuclear pressurized-water loop that incorporates a 49-rod electrically heated bundle. Supporting experiments will be carried out in two additional test loops - the Forced Convection Test Facility (FCTF), a small high-pressure facility in which single heater rods can be tested in annular geometry; and an air-water loop which is used to evaluate two-phase flow-measuring instrumentation

  17. COXPRO-II: a computer program for calculating radiation and conduction heat transfer in irradiated fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, C.A.

    1984-12-01

    This report describes the computer program COXPRO-II, which was written for performing thermal analyses of irradiated fuel assemblies in a gaseous environment with no forced cooling. The heat transfer modes within the fuel pin bundle are radiation exchange among fuel pin surfaces and conduction by the stagnant gas. The array of parallel cylindrical fuel pins may be enclosed by a metal wrapper or shroud. Heat is dissipated from the outer surface of the fuel pin assembly by radiation and convection. Both equilateral triangle and square fuel pin arrays can be analyzed. Steady-state and unsteady-state conditions are included. Temperatures predicted by the COXPRO-II code have been validated by comparing them with experimental measurements. Temperature predictions compare favorably to temperature measurements in pressurized water reactor (PWR) and liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) simulated, electrically heated fuel assemblies. Also, temperature comparisons are made on an actual irradiated Fast-Flux Test Facility (FFTF) LMFBR fuel assembly

  18. Inter-terminal transfer between port terminals. A continuous mathematical programming model to optimize scheduling and deployment of transport units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Fusco, P.; Pedrielli, G.; Zhou, C.; Hay Lee, L.; Peng Chew, E.

    2016-07-01

    In most large port cities, the challenge of inter-terminal transfers (ITT) prevails due to the long distance between multiple terminals. The quantity of containers requiring movement between terminals as they connect from pre-carrier to on-carrier is increasing with the formation of the mega-alliances. The paper proposes a continuous time mathematical programming model to optimize the deployment and schedule of trucks and barges to minimize the number of operating transporters, their makespan, costs and the distance travelled by the containers by choosing the right combination of transporters and container movements while fulfilling time window restrictions imposed on reception of the containers. A multi-step routing problem is developed where transporters can travel from one terminal to another and/or load or unload containers from a specific batch at each step. The model proves successful in identifying the costless schedule and means of transportation. And a sensibility analysis over the parameters used is provided. (Author)

  19. Building Transferable Knowledge and Skills through an Interdisciplinary Polar Science Graduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, L. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Albert, M. R.; Ayres, M.

    2015-12-01

    Modern graduate education must extend beyond disciplinary content to prepare students for diverse careers in science. At Dartmouth, a graduate program in Polar Environmental Change uses interdisciplinary study of the polar regions as a core from which students develop skills and knowledge for tackling complex environmental issues that require cooperation across scientific disciplines and with educators, policy makers, and stakeholders. Two major NSF-funded initiatives have supported professional development for graduate students in this program, including an IGERT (Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship) and leadership of JSEP's (Joint Science Education Project) Arctic Science Education Week in Greenland. We teach courses that emphasize the links between science and the human dimensions of environmental change; host training sessions in science communication; invite guest speakers who work in policy, academia, journalism, government research, etc.; lead an international field-based training that includes policy-focused meetings and a large outreach component; provide multiple opportunities for outreach and collaboration with local schools; and build outreach and education into graduate research programs where students instruct and mentor high school students. Students from diverse scientific disciplines (Ecology, Earth Science, and Engineering) participate in all of the above, which significantly strengthens their interdisciplinary view of polar science and ability to communicate across disciplines. In addition, graduate students have developed awareness, confidence, and the skills to pursue and obtain diverse careers. This is reflected in the fact that recent graduates have acquired permanent and post-doctoral positions in academic and government research, full-time teaching, and also in post-docs focused on outreach and science policy. Dartmouth's interdisciplinary approach to graduate education is producing tomorrow's leaders in science.

  20. Next generation breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabaschi, Delfina; Tondelli, Alessandro; Desiderio, Francesca; Volante, Andrea; Vaccino, Patrizia; Valè, Giampiero; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The genomic revolution of the past decade has greatly improved our understanding of the genetic make-up of living organisms. The sequencing of crop genomes has completely changed our vision and interpretation of genome organization and evolution. Re-sequencing allows the identification of an unlimited number of markers as well as the analysis of germplasm allelic diversity based on allele mining approaches. High throughput marker technologies coupled with advanced phenotyping platforms provide new opportunities for discovering marker-trait associations which can sustain genomic-assisted breeding. The availability of genome sequencing information is enabling genome editing (site-specific mutagenesis), to obtain gene sequences desired by breeders. This review illustrates how next generation sequencing-derived information can be used to tailor genomic tools for different breeders' needs to revolutionize crop improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Over-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Greenhouse Effect has fuzzy parameters, as do the consequences of acid rain, accidental nuclear fallout, deforestation, even the depletion of oil and natural gas reserves, and other threatening calamities. But the consequences of human over-breeding do not fall within fuzzy parameters. Reliable demographic studies predict a world population by the year 2020 of twice the present four billion or so living human beings. Some of us will see that year. But the population will again have doubled by the year 2090: sixteen billion people. The author suggests in this paper some morally permissible steps that might be taken to circumvent what otherwise is most assuredly an impending world tragedy. We have an ethical obligation to future generations. They have the moral right to a qualitatively fulfilling life, not just on allotted number of years. Some of my suggestions will not be palatable to some readers. But I urge those readers seriously to consider and if possible, hopefully, to propose alternatives

  2. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  3. Breeding wheat for disease resistance in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, P.N.; Kinyua, M.G.; Karanja, L.; Maling'a, J.

    2001-01-01

    Yellow rust caused by Puccinia striformis and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis tritici are most destructive diseases in Kenya. In wheat improvement, development of varieties of wheat with resistance to these diseases has been among the foremost contributions in wheat breeding. In breeding programs each disease is considered as a separate problem. Attention has been given to varieties resistant to stem rust, yellow rust and leaf rust among other diseases. In the year 2001 program stem rust and yellow rust were recorded in all the sites where NPT was performed. Breeding for resistance for the two diseases is approached through the Introductions and Hybridisation. The Doubled Haploid Technique is used to quicken the time of homozygous lines production. The introduction and the homozygous lines are then evaluated for yield and disease resistance in the field under preliminary yield trials and the National Performance Trials (NPT) in 2001, 18 lines and 2 check varieties were included in the NPT. The results show that there were some differences in reaction to the three diseases where lines R946, K7972-1 and R899 had the lowest score of the diseases in all sites. In the commercial variety trial the results show that all the varietieshave become susceptible to stem rust and so the need to develop new cultivars which will be resistance to the rusts. Yombi a newly developed variety showed a substantially high level resistance. (author)

  4. Modeling of slab-on-grade heat transfer in EnergyPlus simulation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Aparecida Caieiro da Costa

    Full Text Available Resumo O fluxo de calor entre o piso e o solo de uma edificação térrea é um dos aspectos mais influentes em seu desempenho térmico e energético. No entanto, há ainda um grande número de incertezas e poucos estudos nessa área. Neste trabalho comparam-se diferentes alternativas de modelagem nos programas EnergyPlus (8.5.0 e Slab (.75 dos parâmetros relacionados à transferência de calor entre o piso e o solo, e sua influência no desempenho térmico de uma edificação térrea naturalmente ventilada, localizada em São Carlos, Brasil. A comparação das alternativas de modelagem indicou grande variação nos resultados. Quando comparado ao Slab, o método KusudaAchenbach do objeto Ground Domain apresentou a maior variação, com diferença de 55,2 % no número de horas de desconforto. Observou-se que mesmo a forma de uso do Slab pode causar diferenças significativas nos resultados; por exemplo, a adoção ou não do procedimento de convergência. A condutividade térmica do solo foi um parâmetro de grande impacto, que implicou diferenças de até 57,5 % no desconforto. Tais resultados fornecem indicações da variabilidade e do impacto de uso das diferentes opções de modelagem desse fluxo de calor no EnergyPlus.

  5. The impact of a conditional cash transfer program on the utilization of non-targeted services: Evidence from Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvorapong, Nopphol; Foshanji, Abo Ismael

    2016-03-01

    While existing research suggests that health-related conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have positive impacts on the utilization of CCT-targeted health services, little is known as to whether they also influence the utilization of non-targeted health services-defined as general health services for which program participants are not financially motivated. Based on a sample of 6649 households in a CCT program that took place in May 2009-June 2011 in Afghanistan, we evaluate the impact of the receipt of CCTs on the utilization of non-targeted health services both by women, who were direct beneficiaries of the program, and by members of their households. We estimate the outcomes of interest through four probit models, accounting for potential endogeneity of the CCT receipt and dealing with lack of credible exclusion restrictions in different ways. In comparison with the control group, the receipt of CCTs is found to be associated with an increase in the probability of utilizing non-targeted services among household members across regression models. The results are mixed, with regard to the utilization by women, suggesting that there exist non-economic barriers to health care, unique to women, that are not captured by the data. The results confirm the importance of accounting for direct as well as indirect effects in policy evaluation and suggest that future studies investigate more deeply the role of community health workers in removing non-economic barriers for Afghan women and the possibility of introducing an incentive structure to motivate them to contribute more actively to population health in Afghanistan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...

  7. A Morphometric Survey among Three Iranian Horse Breeds with Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosseini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three Iranian horse breeds, Turkoman, Caspian, and Kurdish, are the most important Iranian horse breeds which are well known in all around of the world because of their beauty, versatility, great stamina, and  intelligence. Phenotypic characterization was used to identify and document the diversity within and between distinct breeds, based on their observable attributes. Phenotypic characterization and body biometric in 23 traits were measured in 191 purebred horses belonging to three breeds, i.e. Turkoman (70 horses, Kurdish (77 horses, and Caspian (44 horses.  Caspian breed was  sampled from the Provinces of Alborz and Gilan. Kurdish breed was sampled from the Provinces of Kurdistan, Kermanshah, and Hamadan. Turkoman breed was sampled from the Provinces of Golestan, Markazi, and Isfahan. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was implemented. In addition, Canonical Discriminate Analysis (CDA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and Custer analysis were executed for assessing the relationship among the breeds. All statistical analysis was executed by SAS statistical program. The results of our investigation represented the breeds classification into 3 different classes (Caspian, Turkoman, and Kurdish based on different morphometrical traits. Caspian breed with smaller size in most variables was detached clearly from the others with more distance than Kurdish and Turkoman breeds. The result showed that the most variably trait for classification was Hind Hoof Length. Adaptation with different environments causes difference in morphology and difference among breeds. We can identify and classify domestic population using PCA, CDA, and cluster analysis.

  8. Production of cloned NIBS (Nippon Institute for Biological Science) and α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase knockout MGH miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer using the NIBS breed as surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatsu, Yoshiki; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Horii, Wataru; Hirakata, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Yuji; Waki, Shiori; Sano, Junichi; Saitoh, Toshiki; Sahara, Hisashi; Shimizu, Akira; Yazawa, Hajime; Sachs, David H.; Nunoya, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Background Nuclear transfer (NT) technologies offer a means for producing the genetically modified pigs necessary to develop swine models for mechanistic studies of disease processes as well as to serve as organ donors for xenotransplantation. Most previous studies have used commercial pigs as surrogates. Method and Results In this study, we established a cloning technique for miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using Nippon Institute for Biological Science (NIBS) miniature pigs as surrogates. Moreover, utilizing this technique, we have successfully produced an α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) miniature swine. Fibroblasts procured from a NIBS miniature pig fetus were injected into 1312 enucleated oocytes. The cloned embryos were transferred to 11 surrogates of which five successfully delivered 13 cloned offspring; the production efficiency was 1.0% (13/1312). In a second experiment, lung fibroblasts obtained from neonatal GalT-KO MGH miniature swine were used as donor cells and 1953 cloned embryos were transferred to 12 surrogates. Six cloned offspring were born from five surrogates, a production efficiency of 0.3% (6/1953). Conclusions These results demonstrate successful establishment of a miniature pig cloning technique by SCNT using NIBS miniature pigs as surrogates. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of successful production of GalT-KO miniature swine using miniature swine surrogates. This technique could help to ensure a stable supply of the cloned pigs through the use of miniature pig surrogates and could expand production in countries with limited space or in facilities with special regulations such as specific pathogen-free or good laboratory practice. PMID:23581451

  9. Technology transfer within the KFA/NUCLEBRAS Cooperative Program 'Thorium utilization in PWRs'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maly, V.; Pinheiro, R.B.

    1986-03-01

    The results of the cooperative R and D program 'Th-Utilization in PWRs' performed by KFA and NUCLEBRAS under participation of KWU and NUKEM are presented. The results show that (Th,U)O 2 and (Th,Pu)O 2 fuel can be inserted in unchanged fuel assemblies in a standard PWR in both 3 and 4 years cycle. The advanced fuel fabrication process based on pellets pressing provides (Th,U)O 2 fuel satisfying PWR specifications. This fuel, under irradiation testing since 1983, shows good irradiation performance in a good agreement with the model predictions. In the field of reprocessing the results on laboratory scale show that PWR thorium fuel can be reprocessed using the known flow sheets. (Author) [pt

  10. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  11. Status of biotechnology with emphasis on molecular techniques for mutation breeding in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapade, A.G.; Nazarea, T.Y.; Veluz, A.M.S.; Marbella, L.J.; Nato, A.Q.; Coloma, C.B. Jr.; Asencion, A.B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Quezon (Philippines)

    2002-02-01

    This paper summarizes the status of biotechnology with emphasis on molecular techniques for plant breeding in the Philippines. Several molecular and in-vitro culture techniques are integrated in plant breeding for crop improvement at PNRI, UPLB, IRRI and PhilRice. At IRRI, PCR techniques, RFLP and RAPD, PCR techniques, RFLP and RAPD were developed to establish high density molecular maps, determine breadth and diversity of germplasm and characterize alien introgression. The molecular maps have identified DNA sequence of resistance genes of HYVs and NPTs to abiotic and biotic stresses, the major achievement is the development of high density molecular maps in rice with at least 2000 markers. The biotechnology program at PhilRice for varietal improvement includes: (1) utilization of molecular marker technology such gene mapping of desired traits in rice, analysis of genetic relationships of germplasm materials and breeding lines through DNA fingerprinting and genetic diversity studies and development and application of marker aided selection for disease resistance (RTD and BLB); (2) application of in-vitro techniques in the development of lines with tolerance to adverse conditions; (3) molecular cloning of important genes for RTD resistance; (4) genetic transformation for male sterility and resistance to sheath blight and stem borers; and (5) transfer of disease resistance from wild species to cultivated varieties. In IPB, molecular markers:microsatellites or SSR, AFLP and RGA are being used for mapping and diversity studies in coconut, mango, banana, mungbean, corn and tomato. Mutation breeding at PNRI using gamma radiation has resulted in the development of crop varieties with desirable traits. The use of AFLP coupled to PCR is being used to study polymorphism in plant variants of radiation-induced mutants of rice, pineapple and ornamentals. (author)

  12. To breed, or not to breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1977-09-01

    Dr. Weinberg, reviewing the development of nuclear energy since his involvement in the Manhattan Project that began in 1942, describes the golden vision that saw the transition to a second phase of unlimited energy provided by breeder reactors. He explains in depth the problem of the self-limiting nature of uranium-based technology and the present dependence on uranium-235-fueled light water reactors. Breeder reactors capable of fueling an expanding nuclear industry are fueled by the more-plentiful uranium 238. The ability of the breeder reactor to produce more energy and eliminate resource uncertainty was assumed to make it more cost-effective and to justify a larger capital investment. Dr. Weinberg gives a general description of breeder research programs, followed by a discussion of the major issues of opponents: proliferation, waste disposal, toxicity, reactor safety, and economics. Recognizing the dilemma entailed, he outlines five steps for proceeding with Phase II. These would involve limiting the land area committed to radioactive operations, restructuring the nuclear industry, imposing heavy security, training a professional cadre, and insuring immortality to the responsible institutions.

  13. Defining the breeding goal for a sheep breed including production and functional traits using market data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridis, A; Ragkos, A; Rose, G; Roustemis, D; Arsenos, G

    2017-11-16

    In this study, the economic values for production and functional traits of dairy sheep are estimated through the application of a profit function model using farm-level technical and economic data. The traits incorporated in the model were milk production, prolificacy, fertility, milking speed, longevity and mastitis occurrence. The economic values for these traits were derived as the approximate partial derivative of the specified profit function. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted in order to examine how potential changes in input and output prices would affect the breeding goal. The estimated economic values of the traits revealed their economic impact on the definition of the breeding goal for the specified production system. Milk production and fertility had the highest economic values (€40.30 and €20.28 per standard genetic deviation (SDa)), while, mastitis only had a low negative value of -0.57 €/SDa. Therefore, breeding for clinical mastitis will have a minor impact on farm profitability because it affects a small proportion of the flock and has low additive variance. The production traits, which include milk production, prolificacy and milking speed, contributed most to the breeding goal (70.0%), but functional traits still had a considerable share (30.0%). The results of this study highlight the importance of the knowledge of economic values of traits in the design of a breeding program. It is also suggested that the production and functional traits under consideration can be categorized as those which can be efficiently treated through genetic improvement (e.g. milk production and fertility) while others would be better dealt with through managerial interventions (e.g. mastitis occurrence). Also, sub-clinical mastitis that affects a higher proportion of flocks could have a higher contribution to breeding goals.

  14. Space benefits: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy. [(information dissemination and technology transfer from NASA programs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Space Benefits is a publication that has been prepared for the NASA Technology Utilization Office by the Denver Research Institute's Program for Transfer Research and Impact Studies, to provide the Agency with accurate, convenient, and integrated resource information on the transfer of aerospace technology to other sectors of the U.S. economy. The technological innovations derived from NASA space programs and their current applications in the following areas are considered: (1) manufacturing consumer products, (2) manufacturing capital goods, (3) new consumer products and retailing, (4) electric utilities, (5) environmental quality, (6) food production and processing, (7) government, (8) petroleum and gas, (9) construction, (10) law enforcement, and (11) highway transportation.

  15. Transfer Entails Communication: The Public Understanding of (Social) Science as a Stage and a Play for Implementing Evidence-Based Prevention Knowledge and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromme, Rainer; Beelmann, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Many social science-based interventions entail the transfer of evidence-based knowledge to the "target population," because the acquisition and the acceptance of that knowledge are necessary for the intended improvement of behavior or development. Furthermore, the application of a certain prevention program is often legitimated by a reference to science-based reasons such as an evaluation according to scientific standards. Hence, any implementation of evidence-based knowledge and programs is embedded in the public understanding of (social) science. Based on recent research on such public understanding of science, we shall discuss transfer as a process of science communication.

  16. Evaluation of fission-product gases in program GAPCON series and FREG-3 to estimate the gap heat transfer coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohki, Naohisa; Harayama, Yasuo; Takeda, Tsuneo; Izumi, Fumio.

    1977-12-01

    In safety evaluation of a fuel rod, estimation of the stored energy in the fuel rod is indispensable. For this estimation, the temperature distribution in the fuel rod is calculated. Most important in determination of the temperature distribution is the gap heat transfer coefficient (gap conductance) between pellet surface and cladding inner surface. Under fuel rod operating condition, the mixed gas in the gap is composed of He, Xe and Kr. He is initial seald gas. Xe and Kr are fission-product gases, of which the quantities depend on the fuel burn-up. In program GAPCON series (GAPCON and GAPCON-THERMAL-1 and -2) and FREG-3, these quantities are given as a function of the irradiation time, power rating and neutron flux in estimation of the thermal conductivity of the mixed gas. The methods of calculating the quantities of Xe and Kr in the programs have been examined. Input of the neutron flux which influences F.P. gas production rates is better than the determination from the fuel-rod power rating. (auth.)

  17. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  18. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M 1 . At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M 1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth

  19. Reproductive efficiency of asymptomatic Theileria equi carriers mares submitted to an embryo transfer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana L. Bezerra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess and evaluate the effects of Theileria equi infection on embryonic recovery, gestation and early embryonic loss. Thirteen Mangalarga Marchador Theileria equi positive donors (diagnosed through nested-PCR and 40 embryos receptors were used. Donors were submitted to two embryo collections in two consecutive estrous cycles (GId; after, the same mares were treated with imidocarb dipropionate (1.2mg/kg IM. in order to collect more embryos in two more estrous cycles (GIId. Receptors were divided into two groups (control and with treated with 20 animals each, where one group was the control (GIr and the other one (GIIr treated with 1.2mg/kg IM of imidocarb dipropionate assessing the gestation rate at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. After 52 embryo collections, the embryonic recovery rates were 53.84% (14/26 and 65.38% (17/26 (p> 0.05 for GId and GIId, respectively. The gestation rate was 70% (14/20 (p>0.05 at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days in group GIr and for GIIr was 85% (17/20 (p>0.05 at 15 days, 80% (16/20 (p>0.05 at 30, 45 and 60 days. The treatment with imidocarb dipropionate did not cause significant improvement in the reproductive efficiency at an ET program.

  20. Turkey BILSAT-1: a Case Study for the Surrey Know-How Transfer and Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Nadeem; Murat Leloglu, Ugur; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    Surrey has established itself over the past 18 years as a world leader in providing hands-on spacecraft engineering training through its Small Satellite Engineering Know-How Transfer and Training (`KHTT') programme. This 18- month course runs alongside the construction of a microsatellite executed through SSTL, and strikes a balance between classroom-based teaching and total immersion within professional engineering teams. Hands-on training is provided covering the entire satellite engineering process, from mission and subsystem design, through module manufacture, assembly and integration, to qualification and flight model environmental tests, launch and commissioning. SSTL's experience in providing the KHTT programme has resulted in a well-defined course structure that yet retains the ability to accommodate individual customer requirements. The programme also takes full advantage of SSTL's intrinsic link with the Surrey Space Centre (`SSC') at the University of Surrey, offering a range of MSc and PhD research programmes pursuing common research interests of both SSTL and the customer, and in many cases complementing the development of either the customer's satellite or their future plans for an evolved space capability. Throughout 2002, three KHTT programmes have run in parallel at SSTL. A team of 11 engineers from the Centre Nationale des Techniques Spatiales in Algeria have now reached completion of their programme with Alsat-1, the first enhanced microsatellite of the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (`DMC'). In December 2001, 15 engineers from the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology in Nigeria arrived at SSTL and are now midway through their programme with Nigeriasat-1, the second enhanced microsatellite of the DMC. Thirdly, arriving slightly earlier in August 2001, a team from Tubitak-Bilten in Turkey commenced their KHTT programme with BILSAT-1, a high-capability enhanced microsatellite also contributing to the DMC, and are due to continue through

  1. Hybrid recreation by reverse breeding in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnker, Erik; Deurhof, Laurens; van de Belt, Jose; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; Blankestijn, Hetty; Becker, Frank; Ravi, Maruthachalam; Chan, Simon W L; van Dun, Kees; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; de Jong, Hans; Dirks, Rob; Keurentjes, Joost J B

    2014-04-01

    Hybrid crop varieties are traditionally produced by selecting and crossing parental lines to evaluate hybrid performance. Reverse breeding allows doing the opposite: selecting uncharacterized heterozygotes and generating parental lines from them. With these, the selected heterozygotes can be recreated as F1 hybrids, greatly increasing the number of hybrids that can be screened in breeding programs. Key to reverse breeding is the suppression of meiotic crossovers in a hybrid plant to ensure the transmission of nonrecombinant chromosomes to haploid gametes. These gametes are subsequently regenerated as doubled-haploid (DH) offspring. Each DH carries combinations of its parental chromosomes, and complementing pairs can be crossed to reconstitute the initial hybrid. Achiasmatic meiosis and haploid generation result in uncommon phenotypes among offspring owing to chromosome number variation. We describe how these features can be dealt with during a reverse-breeding experiment, which can be completed in six generations (∼1 year).

  2. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin’s specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins. PMID:26155072

  3. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  4. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liushuai Hua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin’s specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  5. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  6. Plant breeding with marker-assisted selection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Sussumu Sakiyama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, molecular marker studies reached extraordinary advances, especially for sequencing and bioinformatics techniques. Marker-assisted selection became part of the breeding program routines of important seed companies, in order to accelerate and optimize the cultivar developing processes. Private seed companies increasingly use marker-assisted selection, especially for the species of great importance to the seed market, e.g. corn, soybean, cotton, and sunflower. In the Brazilian public institutions few breeding programs use it efficiently. The possible reasons are: lack of know-how, lack of appropriate laboratories, few validated markers, high cost, and lack of urgency in obtaining cultivars. In this article we analyze the use and the constraints of marker-assisted selection in plant breeding programs of Brazilian public institutes

  7. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  8. Mutation breeding in jute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshua, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Mutagenic studies in jute in general dealt with the morphological abnormalities of the M 1 generation in great detail. Of late, induction of a wide spectrum of viable mutations have been reported in different varieties of both the species. Mutations affecting several traits of agronomic importance such as, plant height, time of flowering, fibre yield and quality, resistance to pests and diseases are also available. Cytological analysis of a large collection of induced mutants resulted in the isolation of seven trisomics in an olitorius variety. Several anatomical parameters which are the components of fibre yield, have also received attention. Some mutants with completely altered morphology were used for interpreting the evolution of leaf shape in Tiliaceas and related families. A capsularis variety developed using mutation breeding technique has been released for cultivation. Several others, including derivatives of inter-mutant hybridization have been found to perform well at different locations in the All India Coordinated Trials. Presently, chemical mutagenesis and induction of mutants of physiological significance are receiving considerable attention. The induced variability is being used in genetic and linkage studies. (author)

  9. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagel, Z.; Tutluer, M. I.; Peskircioglu, H.; Kantoglu, Y.; Kunter, B.

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parent varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 had been used in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight.

  10. Achievements in NS rapeseed hybrids breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is evident on a global scale, but also in Serbia in the last decade. Rapeseed is used primarily for vegetable oil and processing industry, but also as a source of protein for animal feed and green manure. Following the cultivation of varieties, breeding and cultivation of hybrid rapeseed started in the 1990's, to take advantage of heterosis in F1 generation, while protecting the breeder's rights during seed commercialization. The breeding of hybrid oilseed rape requires high quality starting material (lines with good combining abilities for introduction of male sterility. Ogura sterility system is primarily used at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. To use this system, separate lines are modified with genes for cytoplasmic male sterility (cms female line - mother line and restoration of fertility (Rf male lines - father line. In order to maintain the sterility of the mother line it is necessary to produce a maintainer line of cytoplasmic male sterility. Creation of these lines and hybrids at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops was successfully monitored with intense use of cytogenetic laboratory methods. The structure and vitality of pollen, including different phases during meiosis were checked so that cms stability was confirmed during the introduction of these genes into different lines. Rapeseed breeding program in Serbia resulted in numerous varieties through collaboration of researchers engaged in breeding and genetics of this plant species. So far, in addition to 12 varieties of winter rapeseed and two varieties of spring rapeseed, a new hybrid of winter rapeseed NS Ras was registered in Serbia. NS Ras is an early-maturing hybrid characterized by high seed yield and oil content. Average yield of NS Ras for two seasons and three sites was 4256 kg ha-1 of seed and 1704 kg ha-1 of oil. Three promising winter rapeseed hybrids are in the process of

  11. Li2O-pebble type tritium breeding blanket for fusion experimental reactor, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, Tatsuzo; Iida, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Yoshihisa

    1984-01-01

    The fusion experimental reactor is the next stage device in Japan, which is planned to be constructed following the critical plasma experimental device JT-60 being constructed at present. The breeding blanket installed in nuclear fusion reactors is one of most important structures, and it is required to satisfy the fundamental performance of producing and continuously recovering tritium as the nuclear fusion fuel, and other requirement in good coordination. The Li 2 O pebble type breeding blanket that Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. has examined is the concept for resolving the problems of the mass transfer and thermal stress cracking of Li 2 O, which are important in blanket design. In this paper, the concept and characteristics of this breeding blanket are discussed from the viewpoint of the breeding and continuous recovery of tritium, the ease of manufacture and the maintenance of soundness. The breeding blanket is composed of breeding region, tritium purge region, cooling region, plasma stabilizing conductors and blanket container. Li 2 O is excellent in its tritium breeding performance and heat conductivity. The functions required for the breeding blanket, the fundamental structure, the examples of breeding blanket concept, the selection of breeding blanket concept, the characteristics of Li 2 O pebble type blanket and its future prospect are described. (Kako, I.)

  12. Home Range Size and Resource Use of Breeding and Non-breeding White Storks Along a Land Use Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Zurell

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotelemetry is increasingly used to study animal movement at high spatial and temporal resolution and guide conservation and resource management. Yet, limited sample sizes and variation in space and habitat use across regions and life stages may compromise robustness of behavioral analyses and subsequent conservation plans. Here, we assessed variation in (i home range sizes, (ii home range selection, and (iii fine-scale resource selection of white storks across breeding status and regions and test model transferability. Three study areas were chosen within the Central German breeding grounds ranging from agricultural to fluvial and marshland. We monitored GPS-locations of 62 adult white storks equipped with solar-charged GPS/3D-acceleration (ACC transmitters in 2013–2014. Home range sizes were estimated using minimum convex polygons. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess home range selection and fine-scale resource selection by relating the home ranges and foraging sites to Corine habitat variables and normalized difference vegetation index in a presence/pseudo-absence design. We found strong variation in home range sizes across breeding stages with significantly larger home ranges in non-breeding compared to breeding white storks, but no variation between regions. Home range selection models had high explanatory power and well predicted overall density of Central German white stork breeding pairs. Also, they showed good transferability across regions and breeding status although variable importance varied considerably. Fine-scale resource selection models showed low explanatory power. Resource preferences differed both across breeding status and across regions, and model transferability was poor. Our results indicate that habitat selection of wild animals may vary considerably within and between populations, and is highly scale dependent. Thereby, home range scale analyses show higher robustness whereas fine-scale resource

  13. Integrating genomic selection into dairy cattle breeding programmes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, A; Juga, J

    2013-05-01

    Extensive genetic progress has been achieved in dairy cattle populations on many traits of economic importance because of efficient breeding programmes. Success of these programmes has relied on progeny testing of the best young males to accurately assess their genetic merit and hence their potential for breeding. Over the last few years, the integration of dense genomic information into statistical tools used to make selection decisions, commonly referred to as genomic selection, has enabled gains in predicting accuracy of breeding values for young animals without own performance. The possibility to select animals at an early stage allows defining new breeding strategies aimed at boosting genetic progress while reducing costs. The first objective of this article was to review methods used to model and optimize breeding schemes integrating genomic selection and to discuss their relative advantages and limitations. The second objective was to summarize the main results and perspectives on the use of genomic selection in practical breeding schemes, on the basis of the example of dairy cattle populations. Two main designs of breeding programmes integrating genomic selection were studied in dairy cattle. Genomic selection can be used either for pre-selecting males to be progeny tested or for selecting males to be used as active sires in the population. The first option produces moderate genetic gains without changing the structure of breeding programmes. The second option leads to large genetic gains, up to double those of conventional schemes because of a major reduction in the mean generation interval, but it requires greater changes in breeding programme structure. The literature suggests that genomic selection becomes more attractive when it is coupled with embryo transfer technologies to further increase selection intensity on the dam-to-sire pathway. The use of genomic information also offers new opportunities to improve preservation of genetic variation. However

  14. Breeding of cocksfoot cultivars with different maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important criteria in breeding process of perennial grasses is maturity. Cultivars with different maturity play a very important role in utilization of perennial grasses, by providing the ability to create a mixture of different aspects utilization and time. The first grass species in Serbia whose breeding program involved this criterion was cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.. In general cocksfoot is early to medium-early in maturity in comparison with other grasses and legumes, and that is mayor problem since in the optimum phase for cutting, cocksfoot is often earlier then other species in mixtures. As a result of this work, in the previous period, two cultivars of different maturity were released, Kruševačka 24 (K-24 and Kruševačka 25 (K-25. K-24 is medium and K-25 is late in maturity. New material is adapted to local agro-ecological conditions and productive in the same time. In breeding process of both cultivars initial material originated from autochthonous populations collected in eastern and central Serbia. Material from the wild flora is selected based on medium and late maturity which is already adapted and has good productivity. We applied the standard method of phenotypic recurrent selection with the creation of synthetic varieties by polycross.

  15. Effects of Conditional Cash Transfers (CCT in Anti-Poverty Programs. An Empirical Approach with Panel Data for the Mexican Case of PROSPERA-Oportunidades (2002–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odra Angélica Saucedo Delgado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Conditional Cash Transfer Programs (CCT have been implemented in México and Latin America since the late 1990’s. This type of program focuses on providing social government services by way of direct cash transfers to poor families that are often conditioned to the use of public education and health services. Despite the apparent short-term success of these CCT programs in the Latin American context, there still is much debate about whether CCT programs are effective in alleviating poverty. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of conditional cash transfer programs as a long-term incentive in the use of public services—health and education—among beneficiary families of PROSPERA-Oportunidades in Mexico. The Average Effect of Treatment on the Treated (ATT for the time period 2002–2012 is estimated based on data from the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS using Propensity Score Matching (PSM. The results show that the program’s impact on the use of preventive health and education services by poor families cannot be sustained in the long-term, which puts in doubt the effectiveness of this social protection intervention program in combating poverty in Mexico.

  16. Predicting High or Low Transfer Efficiency of Photovoltaic Systems Using a Novel Hybrid Methodology Combining Rough Set Theory, Data Envelopment Analysis and Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Ing Tong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become an important energy source in recent years as it generates less pollution than other energies. A photovoltaic (PV system, which typically has many components, converts solar energy into electrical energy. With the development of advanced engineering technologies, the transfer efficiency of a PV system has been increased from low to high. The combination of components in a PV system influences its transfer efficiency. Therefore, when predicting the transfer efficiency of a PV system, one must consider the relationship among system components. This work accurately predicts whether transfer efficiency of a PV system is high or low using a novel hybrid model that combines rough set theory (RST, data envelopment analysis (DEA, and genetic programming (GP. Finally, real data-set are utilized to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  17. Computer program /P1-GAS/ calculates the P-0 and P-1 transfer matrices for neutron moderation in a monatomic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, G.; Gibson, G.

    1968-01-01

    FORTRAN 4 program /P1-GAS/ calculates the P-O and P-1 transfer matrices for neutron moderation in a monatomic gas. The equations used are based on the conditions that there is isotropic scattering in the center-of-mass coordinate system, the scattering cross section is constant, and the target nuclear velocities satisfy a Maxwellian distribution.

  18. The Impact of a Holistic Conditional Cash Transfer Program in New York City on Parental Financial Investment, Student Time Use, and Educational Processes and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, J. Lawrence; Morris, Pamela; Wolf, Sharon; Berg, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of Opportunity New York City-Family Rewards, the first holistic conditional cash transfer (CCT) program evaluated in the United States, on parental financial investments in children, and high school students' academic time use, motivations and self-beliefs, and achievement outcomes. Family Rewards, launched by the…

  19. Review of the book From transnational language policy transfer to local appropriation: The case of the National Bilingual Program in Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbella Miranda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Usma Wilches, J. A. (2015. From transnational language policy transfer to local appropriation: The case of the National Bilingual Program in Medellín, Colombia. Deep University Press. 158 pages ISBN-10: 1939755204 ISBN-13: 978-1939755209

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted.

  1. Mutation Breeding Newsletter. No. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter contains a brief account of FAO/IAEA meetings held in 1990 on plant breeding involving the use of induced mutations. It also features a list of commercially available plant cultivars produced by such techniques. Refs and tabs

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted.

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects.

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  6. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects

  8. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  9. Mutation breeding in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A T; Menten, J O.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil); Ando, A

    1980-03-01

    How mutation induction is used for plant breeding in Brazil is reported. For upland rice, the combined treatment with gamma-ray and mutagens (ethylene imine or ethylmethane sulfonate) has been used on the variety, Dourado Precoce, and some mutants with shortculm length and/or earliness without altering the productivity have been obtained. A project on the quantitative and qualitative protein improvement in upland rice was also started in 1979. In corn, the effect of gamma-irradiation on heterosis has been analyzed, and it was found that the single hybrids from two parental lines derived from irradiated seeds had increased ear productivity. For beans (Phaseolus yulgaris), gamma-irradiation and chemical mutagens have been used to induce the mutants with different seed color, disease resistance to golden mosaic virus and Xanthomonas phaseoli, earliness, high productivity and high protein content. Some mutants with partly improved characters have been obtained in these experiments. Two varieties of wheat tolerant to aluminum toxicity have been obtained, but the one showed high lodging due to its unfavorable plant height, and the other was highly susceptible to culm rust. Therefore, irradiation experiments have been started to improve these characters. The projects involving the use of gamma-irradiation have been tested to obtain the mutant lines insensitive to photoperiod and resistant to bud-blight in soybean, the mutant lines resistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the photoperiod-insensitive mutants in sorghum, the mosaic virus resistant and non-flowering mutants in sugar cane, and the Fusarium and nematode-resistant mutants in black pepper.

  10. Impact of Molecular Technologies on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Breeding Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is a major food and feed legume because of the high nutritional value of its seeds. The main objectives of faba bean breeding are to improve yield, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, seed quality and other agronomic traits. The partial cross-pollinated nature of faba bean introduces both challenges and opportunities for population development and breeding. Breeding methods that are applicable to self-pollinated crops or open-pollinated crops are not highly suitable for faba bean. However, traditional breeding methods such as recurrent mass selection have been established in faba bean and used successfully in breeding for resistance to diseases. Molecular breeding strategies that integrate the latest innovations in genetics and genomics with traditional breeding strategies have many potential applications for future faba bean cultivar development. Hence, considerable efforts have been undertaken in identifying molecular markers, enriching genetic and genomic resources using high-throughput sequencing technologies and improving genetic transformation techniques in faba bean. However, the impact of research on practical faba bean breeding and cultivar release to farmers has been limited due to disconnects between research and breeding objectives and the high costs of research and implementation. The situation with faba bean is similar to other small crops and highlights the need for coordinated, collaborative research programs that interact closely with commercially focused breeding programs to ensure that technologies are implemented effectively.

  11. Mutation breeding in malting barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Makoto; Sanada, Matsuyoshi

    1984-03-01

    The released varieties of malting barley through mutation breeding is more than ten in number, including foreign varieties. In Japan four varieties has been released so far. We started mutation breeding in 1956 together with cross breeding that we employed before. Until now, Gamma 4, Amagi Nijo 1 and Fuji Nijo 2 have been produced from the direct use of induced mutations and Nirasaki Nijo 8 from the indirect use of them. Mutation breeding has been used mainly in the partial improvement of agronomic characteristics since the selection for malting quality was very complicated. As the variety bred by induced mutation is usually equivalent to the original variety in malting quality, both this new variety and the original one could be cultivated in the same area without any problem on later malt production. Particularly when one farmer cultivates barley in an extensive acreage, he can harvest at the best time according to the different maturing time of each variety. From these points of view, mutation breeding is an efficient tool in malting barley breeding. Mutagens we have used so far are X-rays, ..gamma..-rays, neutron and chemicals such as dES. From our experience in selection, the low dose of radiation and chemical mutagens are more effective in selection of point mutation than the high dose of radiation which tends to produce many abnormal but few practical mutants. (author).

  12. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T. [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1995-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  13. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1996-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  14. Development of heat transfer calculation program for finned-tune heat exchanger of multi-burner boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sae Byul; Kim, Jong Jin; Ahn, Joon

    2009-01-01

    We develop a heat exchanger modules for a multi-burner boiler. The heat exchanger module is kind of a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). This heat recovery system has 8 heat exchanger modules. The 1st module consists of 27 bare tubes due to high temperature exhaust gas and the others consist of 27 finned tubes. The maximum steam pressure of each module is 1 MPa and tested steam pressure is 0.7 MPa. In order to test these heat exchanger modules, we make a 0.5 t/h flue tube boiler (LNG, 40 Nm 3 /h). We tested the heat exchanger module with changing the position of each heat exchanger module. We measured the inlet and outlet temperature of each heat exchanger module and calculated the heat exchange rate. Based on test results, we develop a heat transfer calculation program to predict flue gas. Calculation results show that temperature and temperature difference between measured and calculated flue gas exit temperature is less than 20 .deg. C when flue gas inlet temperature is 620 .deg. C.

  15. Breeding phenology of African Black Oystercatchers Haematopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The timing of the start and duration of breeding and the effect of these on breeding productivity were analysed for African Black Oystercatchers Haematopus moquini on Robben Island, South Africa, over three breeding seasons from 2001 to 2004. African Black Oystercatchers have a long breeding season, from November ...

  16. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  17. Sexual Behavior Among Young Carers in the Context of a Kenyan Empowerment Program Combining Cash-Transfer, Psychosocial Support, and Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L; Selwyn, Beatrice J; Morgan, Robert O; Lloyd, Linda E; Mwongera, Moses; Gitari, Stanley; Keiser, Philip H

    2016-01-01

    This study examined associations between sexual initiation, unprotected sex, and having multiple sex partners in the past year with participation in a three-year empowerment program targeting orphan and vulnerable children (OVC). The Kenya-based program combines community-conditioned cash transfer, psychosocial empowerment, health education, and microenterprise development. Program participants (n = 1,060) were interviewed in a cross-sectional design. Analyses used gender-stratified hierarchical logit models to assess program participation and other potential predictors. Significant predictors of increased female sexual activity included less program exposure, higher age, younger age at most recent parental death, fewer years of schooling, higher food consumption, higher psychological resilience, and lower general self-efficacy. Significant predictors of increased male sexual activity included more program exposure, higher age, better food consumption, not having a living father, and literacy. Findings support a nuanced view of current cash transfer programs, where female sexual activity may be reduced through improved financial status but male sexual activity may increase. Targeting of OVC sexual risk behaviors would likely benefit from being tailored according to associations found in this study. Data suggest involving fathers in sexual education, targeting women who lost a parent at a younger age, and providing social support for female OVC may decrease risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission.

  18. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  19. Breeding for Welfare in outdoor pig production : simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gourdine, J.L.; Greef, de K.H.; Rydhmer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the societal and market attention, to our knowledge, there is no breeding program for outdoor pig production in which improvement in animal welfare is emphasized. In this study, a dam-line selected for an outdoor production system was simulated. The purpose was to investigate the

  20. Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project, supported by IDRC and GAC through the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), will improve food security and nutrition in Tanzania through an integrated breeding and management program that will increase goat milk and meat production. Researchers will test improved cassava and ...

  1. CASE STUDY: North Africa and Middle East — Breeding better ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research was funded by Canada's International Development Centre .... for minor crops neglected by both private and public plant-breeding programs. ... La réforme du droit de la famille changera la réalité des femmes dans onze pays.

  2. Breeding for improved production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to generate knowledge that supports the design of breeding programs for Nile tilapia targeting genetic improvement of body weight and fillet yield to serve the European market. To this end, both the genetic variation and the performance levels of different strains of

  3. Cryogenic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Randall F

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  4. Conceptual and Empirical Themes regarding the Design of Technology Transfer Programs: A Review of Wood Utilization Research in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V. Ellefson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of technologies produced by research is critical to innovation within all organizations. The intent of this paper is to take stock of the conceptual underpinnings of technology transfer processes as they relate to wood utilization research and to identify conditions that promote the successful transfer of research results. Conceptually, research utilization can be viewed from multiple perspectives, including the haphazard diffusion of knowledge in response to vague and imprecise demands for information, scanning of multiple information sources by individuals and organizations searching for useful scientific knowledge, engagement of third parties to organize research results and communicate them to potential users, and ongoing and active collaboration between researchers and potential users of research. Empirical evidence suggests that various types of programs can promote technology transfer (venture capital, angel investors, business incubators, extension services, tax incentives, and in-house entities, the fundamental effectiveness of which depends on research results that are scientifically valid and consistent with the information needs of potential users. Furthermore, evidence suggests preference toward programs that are appropriately organized and governed, suitably led and creatively administered, and periodically evaluated in accordance with clear standards of success.

  5. Interspecific hybrids between Paspalum plicatulum and P. oteroi: a key tool for forage breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Elda Novo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grama-tio-pedro (Paspalum oteroi Swallen is a rare stoloniferous grass of the Plicatula group of Paspalum, well adapted to continuous grazing in areas subject to seasonal flooding in the Pantanal region, in central western Brazil. The species is a facultative apomictic (asexual reproduction by seed tetraploid, sporadically cultivated on Pantanal farms, propagated either by cuttings or seed. Due to its potential for extensive cultivation and forage quality, Grama-tio-pedro appears as a candidate for genetic improvement within the Plicatula group through plant breeding. We used a colchicine-induced sexual autotetraploid genotype of P. plicatulum Michx. to obtain interspecific hybrids using the apomictic species, P. oteroi, as pollen donor. The very similar meiotic chromosome behavior observed in both parents, with main quadrivalent and bivalent associations, suggested that P. oteroi is a natural autotetraploid. The hybrids showed less irregular meiotic behavior with fewer quadrivalents and more bivalents than either parent. Fertility among interspecific hybrids varied from complete sterility in some of them to seed productions in others that were approximately twice as much as for either parent. The great variability of seed set performance may well be a drastic genetic consequence of joining two homologous chromosome sets of P. plicatulum together with two homologous sets of P. oteroi that, in turn, have some homeology between them. Most hybrids reproduce by sexual means, thus, they could be used as female parents in backcrosses and in crosses with other species of the Plicatula group for interspecific gene transferring in breeding programs.

  6. Programmed temperature vaporizing injector to filter off disturbing high boiling and involatile material for on-line high performance liquid chromatography gas chromatography with on-column transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

    2013-03-15

    Insertion of a programmed temperature vaporizing (PTV) injector under conditions of concurrent solvent recondensation (CSR) into the on-line HPLC-GC interface for on-column transfer (such as the retention gap technique with partially concurrent eluent evaporation) enables filtering off high boiling or involatile sample constituents by a desorption temperature adjusted to the required cut-off. Details of this technique were investigated and optimized. Memory effects, observed when transferred liquid was sucked backwards between the transfer line and the wall of the injector liner, can be kept low by a small purge flow rate through the transfer line at the end of the transfer and the release of the liquid through a narrow bore capillary kept away from the liner wall. The column entrance should be within the well heated zone of the injector to prevent losses of solute material retained on the liner wall during the splitless period. The desorption temperature must be maintained until an elevated oven temperature is reached to prevent peak broadening resulting of a cool inlet section in the bottom part of the injector. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cacao breeding in Bahia, Brazil - strategies and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uilson Vanderlei Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cacao was introduced in Bahia in 1756, becoming later the largest producer state in the country. In order to supportthe planting of cacao in the region, a breeding program was established by CEPEC at the beginning of the 1970s. For a long time,the program consisted in testing new hybrids (full-sibs and releasing a mixture of the best ones to farmers. Lately, particularly afterthe witches´ broom arrival in the region, in 1989, recurrent breeding strategies were implemented, aiming mainly the developmentof clones. From 1993 to 2010, more than 500 progenies, accumulating 30 thousand trees, were developed by crossing many parentswith resistance to witches´ broom, high yield and other traits. In this period, more than 500 clones were put in trials and 39 clonesand 3 hybrids were released to farmers. In this paper the strategies and results achieved by the program are reviewed. Overall theprogram has good interface with pathology and genomic programs.

  8. Enhancing genetic gain in the era of molecular breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbi; Li, Ping; Zou, Cheng; Lu, Yanli; Xie, Chuanxiao; Zhang, Xuecai; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Olsen, Michael S

    2017-05-17

    As one of the important concepts in conventional quantitative genetics and breeding, genetic gain can be defined as the amount of increase in performance that is achieved annually through artificial selection. To develop pro ducts that meet the increasing demand of mankind, especially for food and feed, in addition to various industrial uses, breeders are challenged to enhance the potential of genetic gain continuously, at ever higher rates, while they close the gaps that remain between the yield potential in breeders' demonstration trials and the actual yield in farmers' fields. Factors affecting genetic gain include genetic variation available in breeding materials, heritability for traits of interest, selection intensity, and the time required to complete a breeding cycle. Genetic gain can be improved through enhancing the potential and closing the gaps, which has been evolving and complemented with modern breeding techniques and platforms, mainly driven by molecular and genomic tools, combined with improved agronomic practice. Several key strategies are reviewed in this article. Favorable genetic variation can be unlocked and created through molecular and genomic approaches including mutation, gene mapping and discovery, and transgene and genome editing. Estimation of heritability can be improved by refining field experiments through well-controlled and precisely assayed environmental factors or envirotyping, particularly for understanding and controlling spatial heterogeneity at the field level. Selection intensity can be significantly heightened through improvements in the scale and precision of genotyping and phenotyping. The breeding cycle time can be shortened by accelerating breeding procedures through integrated breeding approaches such as marker-assisted selection and doubled haploid development. All the strategies can be integrated with other widely used conventional approaches in breeding programs to enhance genetic gain. More transdisciplinary

  9. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 26, January 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Plant Breeding and Genetics Section (PBGS) in IAEA Headquarters, Vienna and the Plant Breeding and Genetics Laboratory (PBGL) in Seibersdorf are very grateful for the input and support of experts, consultants and lecturers from all the Member States that helped us implement our programmatic activities. We had the honour and the privilege to host 46 trainees, fellows, interns and scientific visitors for a total of 51 training months. Every single one has enriched this programme and we fondly remember our fruitful discussions. The Plant Breeding and Genetics Subprogramme provides technical support to Member States through the development and the promotion of technology packages based on mutation induction and efficiency enhancing molecular and biotechnologies applied to crop improvement through adaptive R and D in our Laboratory and four CRPs. This year, we worked on transferring these technology packages to 96 Member States by providing technical and scientific support through 63 national, regional and interregional Technical Cooperation Projects (TCPs) that are managed by IAEA's Department of Technical Cooperation. This transfer of technologies assists Member States in the implementation of national crop improvement programmes with specific breeding objectives or regional programmes addressing abiotic and/or biotic stresses, which represent serious threats impeding crop productivity in wide areas mostly in the developing world. In this issue, you will find more about services in support of activities in Member States, training and human capacity development and technology development/adaptation in the PBGL, including work on impact of NaCl stress on the biomass and mineral nutrient assimilation in different rice varieties, comparative studies of different mutagens on seed propagated crops, protocols and guidelines for mutation breeding lower cost molecular assays, and targeting deleterious mutations (including positive control kits)

  10. Breeding, genetic and genomic of citrus for disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possibility of an association between biotechnological tools and classical methods of breeding. The use of molecular markers for early selection of zygotic seedlings from controlled crosses resulted in the possibility of selection of a high number of new combination and, as a consequence, the establishment of a great number of hybrids in field experiments. The faster new tools are incorporated in the program, the faster is possibility to reach new genotypes that can be tested as a new variety. Good traits should be kept or incorporate, whereas bad traits have to be excluded or minimized in the new genotype. Scion and rootstock can not be considered separately, and graft compatibility, fruit quality and productivity are essential traits to be evaluated in the last stages of the program. The mapping of QTLs has favored breeding programs of several perennial species and in citrus it was possible to map several characteristics with qualitative and quantitative inheritance. The existence of linkage maps and QTLs already mapped, the development of EST and BAC library and the sequencing of the Citrus complete genome altogether make very demanding and urgent the exploration of such data to launch a wider genetic study of citrus. The rising of information on genome of several organisms has opened new approaches looking for integration between breeding, genetic and genome. Genome assisted selection (GAS involves more than gene or complete genome sequencing and is becoming

  11. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation

  12. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting the situation like this, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic, and the case of applying mutation breeding seems to be many. The present status of the mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation were compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. As the results obtained in Japan, burdocks as an example of gamma ray irradiation to seeds, tomatoes as an example of inducing the compound resistance against disease injury and lettuces as an example of internal beta irradiation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. Induced mutations in sesame breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashri, A.

    2001-01-01

    The scope of induced mutations in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) breeding is reviewed. So far in Egypt, India, Iraq, Rep. of Korea, and Sri Lanka, 14 officially released varieties have been developed through induced mutations: 12 directly and 2 through cross breeding (one using the 'dt45' induced mutant from Israel). For another variety released in China there are no details. The induced mutations approach was adopted primarily in order to obtain genetic variability that was not available in the germplasm collection. The mutagens commonly applied have been gamma rays, EMS and sodium azide. Sesame seeds can withstand high mutagen doses, and there are genotypic differences in sensitivity between varieties. The mutants induced in the above named countries and others include better yield, improved seed retention, determinate habit, modified plant architecture and size, more uniform and shorter maturation period, earliness, resistance to diseases, genic male sterility, seed coat color, higher oil content and modified fatty acids composition. Some of the induced mutants have already given rise to improved varieties, the breeding value of other mutants is now being assessed and still others can serve as useful markers in genetic studies and breeding programmes. (author)

  14. Where does the money go? Assessing the expenditure and income effects of the Philippines' Conditional Cash Transfer Program

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Luz A. Quimbo; Joseph J. Capuno; Aleli D. Kraft; Rhea Molato; Carlos Tan, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation studies on conditional cash transfers (CCT) in the Philippines found small if not insignificantly different from zero effects on household consumption. We use propensity score matching to examine how recipients made use of the money they received, taking into account possible changes in recipient behavior. We find evidence of crowding in - CCT households receive higher transfers from other domestic sources as a positive spillover from becoming CCT beneficiaries Poor CCT households ...

  15. Genomic Selection in Plant Breeding: Methods, Models, and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossa, José; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Cuevas, Jaime; Montesinos-López, Osval; Jarquín, Diego; de Los Campos, Gustavo; Burgueño, Juan; González-Camacho, Juan M; Pérez-Elizalde, Sergio; Beyene, Yoseph; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Singh, Ravi; Zhang, Xuecai; Gowda, Manje; Roorkiwal, Manish; Rutkoski, Jessica; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2017-11-01

    Genomic selection (GS) facilitates the rapid selection of superior genotypes and accelerates the breeding cycle. In this review, we discuss the history, principles, and basis of GS and genomic-enabled prediction (GP) as well as the genetics and statistical complexities of GP models, including genomic genotype×environment (G×E) interactions. We also examine the accuracy of GP models and methods for two cereal crops and two legume crops based on random cross-validation. GS applied to maize breeding has shown tangible genetic gains. Based on GP results, we speculate how GS in germplasm enhancement (i.e., prebreeding) programs could accelerate the flow of genes from gene bank accessions to elite lines. Recent advances in hyperspectral image technology could be combined with GS and pedigree-assisted breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mutation breeding in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study aims to improve the productivity of wheat by using gamma ray (100 - 600 Gy) in mutation breading. Five local varieties were used and the program continued for the Sakha 69 for seven generations. Seeds irradiated with 600 Gy were not germinated in the field, while low doses (100-150 Gy) stimulated the root growth and spike length. The higher doses caused gradual decrease of growth with differences in varieties response. in the second generation, a genetic differences were noticed in most varieties using doses of 100-300 Gy, and the dispike was disappeared when 250 Gy was used. 79 plants from irradiated Sakha 69 were selected according to spike length and the number of grains and planted with the control to test the third generation. differences between the varieties were noticed and 8 mutants with high productivity were selected and evaluated in the fourth and fifth generations with the local variety. The mutants improve the productivity and in particular the mutants Nos.. (19-1), (14-3), and (30-2). The experiment showed the relation between the planting sites and the mutants in the sixth and seven generations

  17. Limits to captive breeding of mammals in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, John

    2015-06-01

    Captive breeding of mammals in zoos is the last hope for many of the best-known endangered species and has succeeded in saving some from certain extinction. However, the number of managed species selected is relatively small and focused on large-bodied, charismatic mammals that are not necessarily under strong threat and not always good candidates for reintroduction into the wild. Two interrelated and more fundamental questions go unanswered: have the major breeding programs succeeded at the basic level of maintaining and expanding populations, and is there room to expand them? I used published counts of births and deaths from 1970 to 2011 to quantify rates of growth of 118 captive-bred mammalian populations. These rates did not vary with body mass, contrary to strong predictions made in the ecological literature. Most of the larger managed mammalian populations expanded consistently and very few programs failed. However, growth rates have declined dramatically. The decline was predicted by changes in the ratio of the number of individuals within programs to the number of mammal populations held in major zoos. Rates decreased as the ratio of individuals in programs to populations increased. In other words, most of the programs that could exist already do exist. It therefore appears that debates over the general need for captive-breeding programs and the best selection of species are moot. Only a concerted effort could create room to manage a substantially larger number of endangered mammals. © 2015, Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Application of molecular markers in wheat breeding: Reality or delusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobiljski Borislav

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional plant breeding use morphological and phenotypic markers for the identification of important agronomic traits. Plant breeders and scientists continuously seek to develop new techniques, which can be used for faster and more accurate introgression of desirable traits into plants. Over the last several years there has been significant increase in the application of molecular markers in the breeding programmes of different species. So far, detected level of polymorphism and informatitivnes of different molecular marker methods applied in MAS (Marker Assisted Selection studies (RFLP, AFLP, etc. were insufficient either to validate their further use or there were very expensive and of huge healthy risk. Fortunately for wheat (and other crops breeders, the new class of molecular markers - microsatellites have prove recently to be most powerful for MAS. But, due to lack of the knowledge, experience, valid informations and even tradition and habits, many breeders have either negative or repulsive attitude towards implementation of MAS in breeding programes. In this paper the relevant facts regarding implementation of MAS in breeding are discussed in general, and for wheat breeding in particular, in order to summarize merits and limitations in application of microsatellites in MAS selection. .

  19. Breeding new improved clones for strawberry production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gonçalves Galvão

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Breeding different strawberry genotypes and plant selection in Brazil could result in new cultivars with better environmental adaptations. The aim was to develop and select new F1 strawberry plants with higher potential yields. Twelve hybrid populations were obtained from breeding the cultivars Aromas, Camarosa, Dover, Festival, Oso Grande, Sweet Charlie and Tudla, and 42 F1 hybrids were obtained from each population. An augmented randomized block design was used. Productive traits were measured and heterosis was calculated for all traits. The breedings Dover x Aromas and Camarosa x Aromas both showed 28.6% of their hybrids with a total fruit mass that was higher than that of cv. Aromas, and 9.5 and 14.3% were higher than that of cv. Camarosa, respectively. The breeding of Camarosa x Aromas produced hybrids with high potential yields and a large average fruit mass that reached the commercial standard. Hybrids MCA12-93, MFA12-443 and MCA12-89 showed high potential yields and can be used as parents in strawberry breeding programs.

  20. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...