Sample records for breeding pellets

  1. The MARINE experiment: Irradiation of sphere-pac fuel and pellets of UO{sub 2−x} for americium breeding blanket concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agata, E., E-mail: [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hania, P.R. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Freis, D.; Somers, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bejaoui, S. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, DEN/DEC, F-13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Charpin, F.F.; Baas, P.J.; Okel, R.A.F.; Til, S. van [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Lapetite, J.-M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Delage, F. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, DEN/DEC, F-13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)


    Highlights: • MARINE is designed to check the behaviour of MABB sphere-pac concept. • MABB sphere-pac are compared with MABB pellet. • Swelling and helium release behaviour will be the main output of the experiment. • An experiment to check sphere-pac MADF fuel behaviour has been already performed. - Abstract: Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and heat production of waste packages to be stored in a repository. The MARINE irradiation experiment is the latest of a series of European experiments on americium transmutation (e.g. EFTTRA-T4, EFTTRA-T4bis, HELIOS, MARIOS, SPHERE) performed in the High Flux Reactor (HFR). The MARINE experiment is developed and carried out in the framework of the collaborative research project PELGRIMM of the EURATOM 7th Framework Programme (FP7). During the past years of experimental works in the field of transmutation and tests of innovative nuclear fuels, the release or trapping of helium as well as swelling have been shown to be the key issues for the design of such kind of fuel both as drivers and even more for Am-bearing blanket targets (due to the higher Am contents). The main objective of the MARINE experiment is to study the in-pile behaviour of uranium oxide fuel containing 13% of americium and to compare the behaviour of sphere-pac versus pellet fuel, in particular the role of microstructure and temperature on fission gas release and He on fuel swelling. The MARINE experiment will be irradiated in 2016 in the HFR in Petten (The Netherlands) and is expected to be completed in spring 2017. This paper discusses the rationale and objective of the MARINE experiment and provides a general description of its design for which some innovative features have been adopted.

  2. Injection of Deuterium Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Andersen, P.; Andersen, S. A.


    to velocities above 1400 m/s, deuterium pellets to velocities above 1300 m/s and neon pellets to velocities above 500 m/s. Finally, a new acceleration method where a pellet should be accelerated by means of a magnetically stabilised electrical discharge is discussed, and a set up for measuring of the pellet...

  3. Pellet plant energy simulator (United States)

    Bordeasu, D.; Vasquez Pulido, T.; Nielsen, C.


    The Pellet Plant energy simulator is a software based on advanced algorithms which has the main purpose to see the response of a pellet plant regarding certain location conditions. It combines energy provided by a combined heat and power, and/or by a combustion chamber with the energy consumption of the pellet factory and information regarding weather conditions in order to predict the biomass consumption of the pellet factory together with the combined heat and power, and/or with the biomass consumption of the combustion chamber. The user of the software will not only be able to plan smart the biomass acquisition and estimate its cost, but also to plan smart the preventive maintenance (charcoal cleaning in case of a gasification plant) and use the pellet plant at the maximum output regarding weather conditions and biomass moisture. The software can also be used in order to execute a more precise feasibility study for a pellet plant in a certain location. The paper outlines the algorithm that supports the Pellet Plant Energy Simulator idea and presents preliminary tests results that supports the discussion and implementation of the system

  4. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Mason


    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  5. The Asian Wood Pellet Markets (United States)

    Joseph A. Roos; Allen Brackley


    This study examines the three major wood pellet markets in Asia: China, Japan, and South Korea. In contrast to the United States, where most wood pellets are used for residential heating with pellet stoves, a majority of the wood pellets in Asia are used for co-firing at coal-fired power plants. Our analysis indicated that Japan is the largest importer of wood pellets...

  6. Modeling pellet impact drilling process


    Kovalev, Artem Vladimirovich; Ryabchikov, Sergey Yakovlevich; Isaev, Evgeniy Dmitrievich; Ulyanova, Oksana Sergeevna


    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling t...

  7. Modeling pellet impact drilling process (United States)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Ulyanova, O. S.


    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling the process of pellet impact drilling, which creates the scientific and methodological basis for engineering design of drilling operations under different geo-technical conditions.

  8. Pelletizing bagasse for fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvet, P.E.; Suzor, N.L.C.


    Prior to 1979, the Davies Hawakua Sugar Co. of Hawaii, burned its bagasse in bulk in large furnaces. Because of storage difficulties, however, the company decided to erect a bagasse - pelletizing plant adjacent to its Hawaii sugar factory. The plant, based on the Woodex process, has been very successful and the net energy gain has been calculated in the order of 41%.

  9. Owl Pellet Paleontology (United States)

    McAlpine, Lisa K.


    In this activity for the beginning of a high school Biology 1 evolution unit, students are challenged to reconstruct organisms found in an owl pellet as a model for fossil reconstruction. They work in groups to develop hypotheses about what animal they have found, what environment it inhabited, and what niche it filled. At the end of the activity,…

  10. Degradation of copepod fecal pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Iversen, Morten


    amount of fecal pellets. The total degradation rate of pellets by the natural plankton community of Oresund followed the phytoplankton biomass, with maximum degradation rate during the spring bloom (2.5 +/- 0.49 d(-1)) and minimum (0.52 +/- 0.14 d(-1)) during late winter. Total pellet removal rate ranged...

  11. Thermal Properties of Lignocellulose Pellets (United States)

    Wachter, Igor; Hirle, Siegfried; Balog, Karol


    This article deals with the characterization of biomass pellets using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We used three types of industrially produced and commercially available pellets as samples: wood pellets containing grass, wood pellet containing bark and wood pellets without bark. Each of the samples were examined using the DSC method. Based on the measurements in atmosphere of air and nitrogen temperature, the changes caused by thermal degradation of various kinds of test fuels were observed. Subsequently, limits of exothermic processes, reaction enthalpy changes and the temperature at which exothermic reactions reached peaks were determined.

  12. Fundamentals of Biomass pellet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens Kai; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Hustad, Johan Einar


    Pelletizing experiments along with modelling of the pelletizing process have been carried out with the aim of understanding the fundamental physico-chemical mechanisms that control the quality and durability of biomass pellets. A small-scale California pellet mill (25 kg/h) located with the Biomass...... Gasification Group at MEK-DTU has been installed for experiments with different types of wood, straw, waste materials and additives such as adhesives and inorganic compounds. A series of pelletizing tests has been performed using a ring die with a compression ratio of 6.5. Pine shavings and beech wood dust has...

  13. Thermal Properties of Lignocellulose Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wachter Igor


    Full Text Available This article deals with the characterization of biomass pellets using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We used three types of industrially produced and commercially available pellets as samples: wood pellets containing grass, wood pellet containing bark and wood pellets without bark. Each of the samples were examined using the DSC method. Based on the measurements in atmosphere of air and nitrogen temperature, the changes caused by thermal degradation of various kinds of test fuels were observed. Subsequently, limits of exothermic processes, reaction enthalpy changes and the temperature at which exothermic reactions reached peaks were determined.

  14. From a single pellet press to a bench scale pellet mill - Pelletizing six different biomass feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Shang, Lei; Sárossy, Zsuzsa


    The increasing demand for biomass pellets requires the investigation of alternative raw materials for pelletizetion. In the present paper, the pelletization process of fescue, alfalfa, sorghum, triticale, miscanthus and willow is studied to determine if results obtained in a single pellet press...

  15. Pelleting of feed for broiler chickens: Factors affecting pellet quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel José Antoniol Miranda


    Full Text Available The efficiency of the pellet can be translated by the quality of the pellet which is defined as the proportion of intact pellets that come to feeders for chickens, i.e., its resistance to breakage between the feed mill and farms. The use of diets with a higher percentage of intact pellets results in better performance of birds when compared with the feed rations. The main factors that affect pellet quality are: characteristics of pelleting, the feed composition, particle size, pelleting temperature, moisture and steam injection. From a nutritional standpoint, one can consider that the smaller the particle size of food increased their contact with the digestive juices, which aids digestion and absorption of nutrients. However, finely ground lead to less stimulation and growth of intestinal ephitellium. But from the standpoint of production of feed, the larger the particle size of ingredients largest economy with energy and greater efficiency (tons / hour milling. Because of this, it is suggested that the particle sizes used vary between 500 and 700 ìm to not to cause loss of performance of the birds, nor the income from the factory. Increased energy, through the addition of oils and fats, have much influence on performance parameters of broilers and the quality of the pellet produced. The presence of oils and / or fat, depending on the amount, on its hydrophoby characteristic, causing damage to the particles aggregation acting as a lubricant between food particles and the matrix of pelleting, decreasing the pelleting pressure and its gelatinization, resulting into poor quality pellets.

  16. Pelletizing properties of torrefied spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.


    analysis revealed a cohesive failure mechanism due to strong inter-particle bonding in spruce pellets as a resulting from a plastic flow of the amorphous wood polymers, forming solid polymer bridges between adjacent particles. Fracture surfaces of pellets made from torrefied spruce possessed gaps and voids...

  17. Pelletizing properties of torrefied spruce (United States)

    Wolfgang Stelte; Craig Clemons; Jens K. Holm; Anand R. Sanadi; Jesper Ahrenfeldt; Lei Shang; Ulrik B. Henriksen


    Torrefaction is a thermo-chemical conversion process improving the handling, storage and combustion properties of wood. To save storage space and transportation costs, it can be compressed into fuel pellets of high physical and energetic density. The resulting pellets are relatively resistant to moisture uptake, microbiological decay and easy to comminute into small...

  18. [Shotgun injury--multiple pellets]. (United States)

    Hejna, P; Pleskot, J


    Both typical and less frequent features of gunshot wounds caused by shotguns are reported in the following article. The pattern of shotgun injury predominantly depends on gauge, choke, number and diameter of used pellets, muzzle-victim distance and on character of the afflicted area of the body. Characteristic ballistic properties of shotgun pellets, their wounding potential and significance in forensic patology are presented.

  19. Handling of Deuterium Pellets for Plasma Refuelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Andersen, Verner


    The use of a guide tube technique to inject pellets in pellet-plasma experiments is described. The effect of the guide tube on the mass and speed of a slowly moving pellet ( nu approximately 150 m s-1) is negligible. To improve the divergence in trajectories of the pellets on leaving the guide tube...

  20. Physical properties of peanut hull pellets. (United States)

    Fasina, O O


    Peanut hull (peanut pods and waste materials from processing of peanuts) was pelleted through a 3/16-in. (4.76 mm) diameter die. The effect of change in moisture content (4.2-21.2%, wet basis) of the pellets (due to exposure of the pellets to low or high humidity storage environments) on physical properties were measured. Pelleting increased the bulk density of the peanut hull from 151 kg/m(3) to more than 600 kg/m(3). Bulk density, particle density and durability of the pelleted peanut hull of pellets were significantly affected by moisture content attained by the pellets during exposure to the low or high humidity environment. Air relative humidity significantly influenced the rate at which the pellets exchange moisture with the environment while air temperature did not. The values of the constants of the GAB model were obtained from moisture sorption isotherm at 25 degrees C.

  1. Performance Optimization of a Cassava Pelleting Machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava pelleting in most developing countries are usually done manually. This process is very laborious, time consuming and unhygienic. A pelleting machine has been recommended because of its low cost, high capacity of providing pelleted cassava as well as relative ease of operation and maintenance. The machine ...

  2. Pellet fired appliances. Market survey. 7. rev. ed.; Pelletheizungen. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The market survey under consideration reports on pellet central heating systems and pellet fired appliances. The main chapters of this market survey are concerned to: (1) Information on wood pellets and pellet fired appliances; (2) Information about the interpretation of the market survey; (3) Survey of all compared pellet fired appliances with respect to the nominal power; (4) Price lists of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems; (5) Type sheets of the compared pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems. Finally, this brochure contains the addresses of the produces and distribution partners of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems.

  3. Power from Pellets Technology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Döring, Stefan


    This book provides a practical description of the technology of pellet production on the basis of renewable sources as well as the utilization of pellets. The author explains what kinds of biomass are usable in addition to wood, how to produce pellets and how to use pellets to produce energy. Starting with the basics of combustion, gasification and the pelletizing process, several different technologies are described. The design, planning, construction and economic efficiency are discussed as well. The appendix gives useful advice about plant concepts, calculations, addresses, conversion tables and formulas.

  4. Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter; Hansen, Hans Ove


    of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the wheat......Combined torrefaction and pelletization are used to increase the fuel value of biomass by increasing its energy density and improving its handling and combustion properties. However, pelletization of torrefied biomass can be challenging and in this study the torrefaction and pelletizing properties...... straw significantly, and the pelletizing analyses have shown that these changes correlate to changes in the pelletizing properties. Torrefaction increase the friction in the press channel and pellet strength and density decrease with an increase in torrefaction temperature....

  5. Simulated Breeding (United States)

    Unemi, Tatsuo

    This chapter describes a basic framework of simulated breeding, a type of interactive evolutionary computing to breed artifacts, whose origin is Blind Watchmaker by Dawkins. These methods make it easy for humans to design a complex object adapted to his/her subjective criteria, just similarly to agricultural products we have been developing over thousands of years. Starting from randomly initialized genome, the solution candidates are improved through several generations with artificial selection. The graphical user interface helps the process of breeding with techniques of multifield user interface and partial breeding. The former improves the diversity of individuals that prevents being trapped at local optimum. The latter makes it possible for the user to fix features he/she already satisfied. These methods were examined through artistic applications by the author: SBART for graphics art and SBEAT for music. Combining with a direct genome editor and exportation to another graphical or musical tool on the computer, they can be powerful tools for artistic creation. These systems may contribute to the creation of a type of new culture.

  6. Ocular injuries from paintball pellets. (United States)

    Thach, A B; Ward, T P; Hollifield, R D; Dugel, P U; Sipperley, J O; Marx, J L; Abrams, D A; Wroblewski, K J; Sonkin, P L; Birdsong, R H; Dunlap, W A


    To evaluate the ocular effects of blunt trauma due to injury from a paintball pellet. Noncomparative case series. Thirteen patients who suffered ocular injury from paintballs are described. The patients presented to six different civilian and military emergency departments in tertiary care medical centers. Patients were treated for the ocular injury. Patients were evaluated for initial and final visual acuity. The reason for persistent loss of vision was delineated. There were 12 males and 1 female with an average age of 21 years (range, 12-33 years). Eleven of the 13 had no ocular protection at the time of the ocular injury. On initial examination, nine patients had a hyphema, nine had a vitreous hemorrhage, six had a retinal tear or detachment, three had corneal or corneal-scleral ruptures, and one had traumatic optic neuropathy. The final visual acuity was 20/40 or better in two patients, 20/50 to 20/150 in three patients, and 20/200 or worse in eight patients. Injuries due to paintball pellets can result in severe ocular damage and significant loss of vision. Eyecare professionals should be aware of the risks of this sport and must strongly advise participants to wear adequate protection when involved in this activity.

  7. Hydrogen Pellet-Rotating Plasma Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard; Øster, Flemming


    Spectroscopic measurements on the interaction between solid hydrogen pellets and rotating plasmas are reported. It was found that the light emitted is specific to the pellet material, and that the velocity of the ablated H-atoms is of the order of l0^4 m/s. The investigation was carried out...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 3, 2012 ... A cassava pelleter comprising of a feed hopper, screw conveyor, barrel, 4hp electric motor, ex- trusion plate and a pelleting knive was designed and developed using ... sorting and weighing the har- vested cassava tubers, washing and peeling with knife to remove the skin which contains hydrogen cyanide.

  9. Pengaruh Penambahan Zeolit pada Proses Pelletizing Limbah Penetasan Terhadap Kandungan Coliform dan Salmonella Produk Pellet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiar Ali Wardana


    Full Text Available ABSTRAK. Penelitian untuk mengkajipengaruh penambahan zeolit pada proses pelletizing limbah penetasan, terhadap total Coliform dan Salmonella,telah dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Teknologi Pakan, Fakultas Peternakan dan Pertanian, Universitas Diponegoro. Zeolit dilaporkan mampu mengikat berbagai senyawa kimia, termasuk senyawa beracun, serta mampu mempengaruhi aktivitas mikrobia. Penambahan zeolit dalam pelletizing limbah penetasan diharapkan mampu menurunkan total Coliform dan Salmonella dalam produk pellet, sehingga dapat meningkatkan keamanan produk pellet sebagai bahan pakan alternatif. Dosis penambahan zeolit pada pembuatan pellet yaitu: 0, 2, 4 dan 6%. Data dianalisis dengan analisis ragam dan dilanjutkan dengan uji jarak berganda Duncan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penambahan zeolit dalam proses Pelletizing limbah penetasan berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01 terhadap penurunan total Coliform. Peningkatan dosis zeolite dapat menurunkan Total Coliform dan bakteri Salmonella tidak terdekteksi pada pellet limbah penetasan. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa pelletizing limbah penetasan dengan dosis zeolit hingga 6% terbuktimampu menurunkan kandungan Coliform dan Salmonella pada produk pellet.    (Effect administering zeolite in the pelletizing of hatchery waste to contents of coliform and salmonella of the pellet products  ABSTRACT. Experiment to study effect of administering zeolite in the pelletizing hatchery wastes on the total Coliform and Salmonella was done in the Laboratory of Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Science and Agriculture, University of Diponegoro. Zeolite has been reported have binding capacity on wide range of chemicals, including toxic compounds, and interfere the activity of microbes. Administration zeolite in the pelletizing of hatchery wastes are expected to reduce the total Coliform and Salmonella in the pellet products, therefore improved the safety of the pellet products as an alternative feed ingredients. Doses of zeolite

  10. Lab and Bench-Scale Pelletization of Torrefied Wood Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Stelte, Wolfgang


    Combined torrefaction and pelletization is used to increase the fuel value of biomass by increasing its energy density and improving its handling and combustion properties. In the present study, a single-pellet press tool was used to screen for the effects of pellet die temperature, moisture...... content, additive addition, and the degree of torrefaction on the pelletizing properties and pellet quality, i.e., density, static friction, and pellet strength. Results were compared with pellet production using a bench-scale pelletizer. The results indicate that friction is the key factor when scaling...... up from single-pellet press to bench-scale pelletizer. Tuning moisture content or increasing the die temperature did not ease the pellet production of torrefied wood chips significantly. The addition of rapeseed oil as a lubricant reduced the static friction by half and stabilized pellet production...

  11. [Controlled release of pseudoephedrine HCl from pellets]. (United States)

    Vertommen, J


    This study describes the development work on a dosage form, which should release the drug pseudoephedrine HCl over twelve hours. Pellets were chosen as the dosage form. The pellets contained 20, respectively, 45 percent pseudoephedrine HCL and were produced using a high shear mixer-granulator. These pellets were coated in a fluidized bed and in a high shear mixer-granulator equipped with a microwave drying installation. The results of the experiments indicate that it is possible to produce pellets in a high shear mixer-granulator. Strong pellets with a narrow size distribution were obtained. A high shear mixer-granulator appears, therefore, to be a valuable alternative to the more commonly used pellet-forming technique of extrusion-sphere formation. The pellets could be coated as well in a fluidized bed as in a high shear mixer-granulator equipped with a microwave drying installation. A major advantage of the high shear mixer-granulator equipped with a microwave drying installation is the possibility to perform several unit operations such as mixing, pellet formation drying, and coating in one piece of equipment. With respect to the requirement of getting a release of pseudoephedrine HCl over twelve hours, the pellets containing 20 percent pseudoephedrine HCl fulfilled this requirement. For pellets containing 45 percent pseudoephedrine HCl it appears to be hard to obtain a sufficient delay in release using the commonly used coating formulations. This can be attributed to the very good solubility of pseudoephedrine HCl in water. Optimization of the coating formulation by changing the nature and concentration of the plasticizer may solve the problem.

  12. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.S.


    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  13. A Review of Pellets from Different Sources. (United States)

    Miranda, Teresa; Montero, Irene; Sepúlveda, Francisco José; Arranz, José Ignacio; Rojas, Carmen Victoria; Nogales, Sergio


    The rise in pellet consumption has resulted in a wider variety of materials for pellet manufacture. Thus, pellet industry has started looking for alternative products, such as wastes from agricultural activities, forestry and related industries, along with the combination thereof, obtaining a broad range of these products. In addition, the entry into force of EN ISO 17225 standard makes wood pellet market (among other types) possible for industry and household purposes. Therefore, wastes that are suitable for biomass use have recently increased. In this study, the main characteristics of ten kinds of laboratory-made pellets from different raw materials were analyzed. Thus, we have focused on the most limiting factors of quality standards that determine the suitability for biomass market, depending on the kind of pellet. The results showed considerable differences among the analyzed pellets, exceeding the limits established by the standard in almost all cases, especially concerning ash content and N and S composition. The requirements of the studied standard, very demanding for certain factors, disable the entry of these densified wastes in greater added value markets.

  14. A Review of Pellets from Different Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Miranda


    Full Text Available The rise in pellet consumption has resulted in a wider variety of materials for pellet manufacture. Thus, pellet industry has started looking for alternative products, such as wastes from agricultural activities, forestry and related industries, along with the combination thereof, obtaining a broad range of these products. In addition, the entry into force of EN ISO 17225 standard makes wood pellet market (among other types possible for industry and household purposes. Therefore, wastes that are suitable for biomass use have recently increased. In this study, the main characteristics of ten kinds of laboratory-made pellets from different raw materials were analyzed. Thus, we have focused on the most limiting factors of quality standards that determine the suitability for biomass market, depending on the kind of pellet. The results showed considerable differences among the analyzed pellets, exceeding the limits established by the standard in almost all cases, especially concerning ash content and N and S composition. The requirements of the studied standard, very demanding for certain factors, disable the entry of these densified wastes in greater added value markets.

  15. Hydrogen Uptake of DPB Getter Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Herberg, J L; Saab, A P; Weigle, J; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; McLean II, W


    The physical and chemical properties of 1,4-diphenylbutadiyne (DPB) blended with carbon-supported Pd (DPB-Pd/C) in the form of pellets during hydrogenation were investigated. A thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) was employed to measure the kinetics of the hydrogen uptake by the DPB getter pellets. The kinetics obtained were then used to develop a semi-empirical model, based on gas diffusion into solids, to predict the performance of the getter pellets under various conditions. The accuracy of the prediction model was established by comparing the prediction models with independent experimental data on hydrogen pressure buildup in sealed systems containing DPB getter pellets and subjected to known rates of hydrogen input. The volatility of the hydrogenated DPB products and its effects on the hydrogen uptake kinetics were also analyzed.

  16. Kinetic depletion model for pellet ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuteev, Boris V. [State Technical Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    A kinetic model for depletion effect, which determines pellet ablation when the pellet passes a rational magnetic surface, is formulated. The model predicts a moderate decrease of the ablation rate compared with the earlier considered monoenergy versions [1, 2]. For typical T-10 conditions the ablation rate reduces by a reactor of 2.5 when the 1-mm pellet penetrates through the plasma center. A substantial deceleration of pellets -about 15% per centimeter of low shire rational q region; is predicted. Penetration for Low Field Side and High Field Side injections is considered taking into account modification of the electron distribution function by toroidal magnetic field. It is shown that Shafranov shift and toroidal effects yield the penetration length for HFS injection higher by a factor of 1.5. This fact should be taken into account when plasma-shielding effects on penetration are considered. (author)

  17. Comment on Li pellet Conditioning in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.V. Budny


    Li pellet conditioning in TFTR results in a reduction of the edge electron density which allows increased neutral beam penetration, central heating, and fueling. Consequently the temperature profiles became more peaked with higher central Ti, Te, and neutron emission rates.

  18. Development of advanced LWR fuel pellet technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kun Woo; Kang, K.W.; Kim, K. S.; Yang, J. H.; Kim, Y. M.; Kim, J. H.; Bang, J. B.; Kim, D. H.; Bae, S. O.; Jung, Y. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, S. H


    A UO{sub 2} pellet was designed to have a grain size of larger than 12 {mu}m, and a new duplex design that UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} is in the core and UO{sub 2}-Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the periphery was proposed. A master mixing method was developed to make a uniform mixture of UO{sub 2} and additives. The open porosity of UO{sub 2} pellet was reduced by only mixing AUC-UO{sub 2} powder with ADU-UO{sub 2} or milled powder. Duplex compaction tools (die and punch) were designed and fabricated, and duplex compacting procedures were developed to fabricate the duplex BA pellet. In UO{sub 2} sintering, the relations between sintering variables (additive, sintering gas, sintering temperature) and pellet properties (density, grain size, pore size) were experimentally found. The UO{sub 2}-U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder which is inherently not sinterable to high density could be sintered well with the aid of additives. U{sub 3}O{sub 8} single crystals were added to UO{sub 2} powder, and homogeneous powder mixture was pressed and sintered in a reducing atmosphere. This technology leads to a large-grained pellet of 12-20 {mu}m. In UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} sintering, the relations between sintering variables (additives, sintering gas) and pellet properties (density, grain size) were experimentally found. The developed technology of fabricating a large-grained UO{sub 2} pellet has been optimized in a lab scale. Pellet properties were investigated in the fields of (1) creep properties, (2) thermal properties, (3) O/M ratios and (4) unit cell lattice. (author)

  19. Temporal Changes in Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni) Diet During the Breeding Season in Southern Spain


    Rodríguez, Carlos; Tapia, Luis; Kieny, Florian; Bustamante, Javier


    We examined changes in diet composition during the breeding period for the endangered Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni). Pellets were collected weekly from the last week of March until the first week of July in a colony located in southwestern Spain. Diet composition was evaluated in terms of frequency of occurrence of different prey, mean prey weight, and prey richness of each pellet. Generalized additive models were used to analyze the predictive ability of calendar w...

  20. Quality of pellets from torrefied biomass and pellets torrefied at different temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Dahl, Jonas; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    facility to do torrefaction before co-firing. In this study, both ways were utilized to produce torrefied pellets. The quality of these pellets have been characterized for higher heating value (HHV), energy consumption during grinding, mechanical durability and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) under...

  1. Studies on preparation of aceclofenac pellets by centrifugal granulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zibin GAO

    Full Text Available To prepare aceclofenac pellets by centrifugal granulation. Using 90~100 g of starch pellets as the core pellets,100 g of aceclofenac mixed with 50 g of microcrystalline cellulose(MCC and 4 g talc, methyl cellulose (HPMC as binder,the aceclofenac pellets were prepared by centrifugal granulation .And evaluate the quality of the pellets. The aceclofenac pellets had high yield and less losses,the pellets had a partical size of 0.70~0.88 mm(18~24 mesh)and had uniform particle size .the moisture ,drug content and dissolution meet the requirement . Aceclofenac pellets were prepared by the process of centrifugal granulation .The preparation prescription and process parameters were optimized by single factor method .and the pellets meet the standard requirements.

  2. Fusible pellet transport and storage of heat (United States)

    Bahrami, P. A.


    A new concept for both transport and storage of heat at high temperatures and heat fluxes is introduced and the first steps in analysis of its feasibility is taken. The concept utilizes the high energy storage capability of materials undergoing change of phase. The phase change material, for example a salt, is encapsulated in corrosion resistant sealed pellets and transported in a carrier fluid to heat source and storage. Calculations for heat transport from a typical solar collector indicate that the pellet mass flow rates are relatively small and that the required pumping power is only a small fraction of the energy transport capability of the system. Salts and eutectic salt mixtures as candidate phase change materials are examined and discussed. Finally, the time periods for melting or solidification of sodium chloride pellets is investigated and reported.

  3. Microbiological survey of birds of prey pellets. (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Bossa, Luigi Maria De Luca; Pace, Antonino; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Caputo, Vincenzo; Fioretti, Alessandro


    A microbiological survey of 73 pellets collected from different birds of prey species housed at the Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center of Napoli (southern Italy) was performed. Pellets were analyzed by culture and biochemical methods as well as by serotyping and polymerase chain reaction. We isolated a wide range of bacteria some of them also pathogens for humans (i.e. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli O serogroups). This study highlights the potential role of birds of prey as asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic bacteria which could be disseminated in the environment not only through the birds of prey feces but also through their pellets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Considerations on the DEMO pellet fuelling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, P.T., E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Day, Ch. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fable, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Igitkhanov, Y. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Köchl, F. [Association EURATOM-Ö AW/ATI, Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Mooney, R. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pegourie, B. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ploeckl, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Wenninger, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); EFDA, Garching (Germany); Zohm, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Considerations are made for a core particle fuelling system covering all DEMO requirements. • Particle deposition beyond the pedestal top is needed to achieve efficient fuelling. • Conventional pellet technology enabling launching from the torus inboard side can be used. • Efforts have been taken for integrating a suitable pellet guiding system into the EU DEMO model. • In addition, further techniques bearing potential for advanced fuelling performance are considered. - Abstract: The Demonstration Fusion Power Reactor DEMO is the step foreseen to bridge the gap between ITER and the first commercial fusion power plant. One key element in the European work plan for DEMO is the elaboration of a conceptual design for a suitable core particle fuelling system. First considerations for such a system are presented in this contribution. Following the well-considered ITER solution, most analysis performed in this study assumes conventional pellet technology will be used for the fuelling system. However, taking advantage of the less compressed time frame for the DEMO project, several other techniques thought to bear potential for advanced fuelling performance are considered as well. In a first, basic analysis all actuation parameters at hand and their implications on the fuelling performance were considered. Tentative transport modeling of a reference scenario strongly indicates only particles deposited inside the plasma pedestal allow for efficient fuelling. Shallow edge fuelling results in an unbearable burden on the fuel cycle. Sufficiently deep particle deposition seems technically achievable, provided pellets are launched from the torus inboard at sufficient speed. All components required for a DEMO pellet system capable for high speed inboard pellet launch are already available or can be developed in due time with reasonable efforts. Furthermore, steps to integrate this solution into the EU DEMO model are taken.

  5. Fuel Pellets Production from Biodiesel Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawalin Chaiyaomporn


    Full Text Available This research palm fiber and palm shell were used as raw materials to produce pelletised fuel, and waste glycerol were used as adhesive to reduce biodiesel production waste. The aim of this research is to find optimum ratio of raw material (ratio of palm fiber and palm shell, raw material size distribution, adhesive temperature, and ratio of ingredients (ratio of raw material, waste glycerol, and water. The optimum ratio of pelletized fuel made only by palm fiber was 50:10:40; palm fiber, water, and waste glycerol respectively. In the best practice condition; particle size was smaller than 2 mm, adhesive glycerol was heated. From the explained optimum ratio and ingredient, pelletizing ratio was 62.6%, specific density was 982.2 kg/m3, heating value was 22.5 MJ/kg, moisture content was 5.9194%, volatile matter was 88.2573%, fix carbon content was 1.5894%, and ash content was 4.2339% which was higher than the standard. Mixing palm shell into palm fiber raw material reduced ash content of the pellets. The optimum raw material ratio, which minimizes ash content, was 80 to 20 palm fiber and palm shell respectively. Adding palm shell reduced ash content to be 2.5247% which was higher than pelletized fuel standard but followed cubed fuel standard. At this raw material ratio, pelletizing ratio was 70.5%, specific density was 774.8 kg/m3, heating value was 19.71 MJ/kg, moisture content was 9.8137%, volatile matter was 86.2259%, fix carbon content was 1.4356%, and compressive force was 4.83 N. Pelletized fuel cost at optimum condition was 1.14 baht/kg.

  6. Presence of plastic litter in pellets from Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) in Ireland. (United States)

    Acampora, Heidi; Berrow, Simon; Newton, Stephen; O'Connor, Ian


    Plastic pollution has been the subject of much research in the last decade. Seabirds can mistake plastic fragments for prey, which can perforate or block the digestive tract and cause ulcers. Most commonly, seabirds accumulate this indigestible matter in their stomachs, obtaining no nutrition and may die from starvation. Certain species of seabirds however, have the ability of regurgitating indigestible matter in the form of pellets. This study aimed to investigate the ingestion of plastics by live seabirds through the examination of regurgitated pellets (n=92) from a Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) breeding colony and a winter roost in Ireland. Plastic prevalence was consistently 3.2% at both sites. The presence of plastic litter highlights the fact that all species of seabird are susceptible to interact with marine litter regardless of feeding habits, although at different rates. More research is needed to understand the driving factors involved in plastic ingestion among different species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  8. Decay rate of reindeer pellet-groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skarin


    Full Text Available Counting of animal faecal pellet groups to estimate habitat use and population densities is a well known method in wildlife research. Using pellet-group counts often require knowledge about the decay rate of the faeces. The decay rate of a faecal pellet group may be different depending on e.g. substrate, size of the pellet group and species. Pellet-group decay rates has been estimated for a number of wildlife species but never before for reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. During 2001 to 2005 a field experiment estimating the decay rate of reindeer pellet groups was performed in the Swedish mountains close to Ammarnäs. In total the decay rate of 382 pellet groups in three different habitat types (alpine heath, birch forest and spruce forest was estimated. The slowest decay rate was found in alpine heath and there the pellet groups persisted for at least four years. If decay was assumed to take place only during the bare ground season, the estimated exponential decay rate was -0.027 pellet groups/week in the same habitat. In the forest, the decay was faster and the pellet groups did not persist more than two years. Performing pellet group counts to estimate habitat use in dry habitats, such as alpine heath, I will recommend using the faecal standing crop method. Using this method makes it possible to catch the animals’ general habitat use over several years. Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Nedbrytningshastighet av renspillningInom viltforskningen har spillningsinventeringar använts under flera årtionden för att uppskatta habitatval och populationstäthet hos olika djurslag. För att kunna använda data från spillningsinventeringar krävs ofta att man vet hur lång tid det tar för spillningen att brytas ner. Nedbrytningshastigheten är olika beroende på marktyp och djurslag. Nedbrytningshastighet på spillning har studerats för bland annat olika typer av hjortdjur, men det har inte studerats på ren (Rangifer tarandus tidigare. I omr

  9. Plastic pellets on the Caranzalem beach sands, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    Postmonsoonal survey of Caranzalem beach, Goa, India indicated the presence of plastic pellets. These pellets varied in shape, size and number, and are considered to be contaminants of marine environment...

  10. [Preparation of tablets containing enteric-coated diclofenac sodium pellets]. (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Le; Zhu, Jia-Bi; Chen, Sheng-Jun


    Fluidized-bed manufactured enteric-coated diclofenac sodium pellets were compressed into tablets. The blend of two aqueous acrylic resins dispersion in different ratios, Eudragit NE30D and Eudragit L30D-55, were used to prepare enteric-coated diclofenac sodium pellets of different particle sizes and coating level. The cushioning pellets with different properties and these enteric-coated pellets were compressed into tablets in different proportions. The drug release of the tablets containing these pellets would be lower than 10% in 2 h in simulated gastric fluid, but reach (83 +/- 2.42)% in 1 h in simulated enteric fluid. The mixture of Eudragit NE30D and Eudragit L30D-55 could be used to prepare enteric pellets which are suitable for compression. The cushioning pellets which were composed of stearic acid/microcrystalline cellulose (4:1, w/w) could avoid rupture of the coating of pellets during the compression.

  11. Co-gasification of pelletized wood residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos A. Alzate; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Arturo Berrio; Javier De La Cruz; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas


    A pelletization process was designed which produces cylindrical pellets 8 mm in length and 4 mm in diameter. These ones were manufactured using a blend of Pinus Patula and Cypress sawdust and coal in proportions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% v/v of coal of rank sub-bituminous extracted from the Nech mine (Amaga-Antioquia). For this procedure, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as binder at three different concentrations. The co-gasification experiments were carried out with two kinds of mixtures, the first one was composed of granular coal and pellets of 100% wood and the second one was composed of pulverized wood and granular coal pellets. All samples were co-gasified with steam by using an electrical heated fluidized-bed reactor, operating in batches, at 850{sup o}C. The main components of the gaseous product were H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} with approximate quantities of 59%, 6.0%, 20%, 5.0%, and 9.0% v/v, respectively, and the higher heating values ranged from between 7.1 and 9.5 MJ/Nm{sup 3}.

  12. Torrefaction of wood pellets: New solutions (United States)

    Zaichenko, V. M.; Shterenberg, V. Ya.


    The current state of the market of conventional and torrefied wood pellets and the trends of its development have been analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of pellets of both types have been compared with other alternative fuels. The consumer segment in which wood pellets are the most competitive has been determined. The original torrefaction technology using exhaust gas heat from a standard gas engine that was developed at the Joint Institute for High Technologies and the scheme of an experimental unit for the elaboration of the technology have been presented. The scheme of the combined operation of a torrefaction unit and a standard hot water boiler, which makes it possible to utilize the heat of exhaust steam-and-gas products of torrefaction with the simultaneous prevention of emissions of harmful substances into the environment, has been proposed. The required correlation between the capacity of the torrefaction unit and the heating boiler house has been estimated for optimal operation under the conditions of the isolated urban village in a region that is distant from the areas of extraction of traditional fuels and, at the same time, has quite sufficient resources of raw materials for the production of wood pellets.

  13. Development of D2 Pellet Injectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Andersen, S. A.; Nordskov Nielsen, A.


    A versatile extrusion-type pneumatic gun is described. The extrusion nozzle/gun barrel system can easily be exchanged to produce pellets in the diameter range 0.4—2.0 mm. Velocities in the range 0.1—1.35 km/s are obtained by adjusting the propeller gas pressure. It is proposed that this gun type ...

  14. Pelletized Asphalt for Airfield Damage Repair (United States)


    14, 2008. Gulf Asphalt Contractor (GAC), Panama City, FL, provided all labor , material (with the exception of pelletized asphalt) and equipment for...produced. Benefits include: reduced transportation, traffic disruption, operating costs, and labor costs, while increased productivity and... Mercado , E. A., A. Epps Martin, E. S. Park, C. Spiegelman, and C. J. Glover, “Factors Affecting Binder Properties between Production and Construction

  15. Quality wood chips - an alternative to pellets; Alternative zu Pellets. Qualischnitzel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keel, A.


    This article takes a look at a new wood-chip product that features wood-chips that are dryer than traditional ones. The new 'quality chips' are also of a calibrated size and are supplied dust-free. Their low water content permits their use in the same areas as wood pellets, where, especially in summer, low water-content is important. The increasing use of pellets and the growing shortages of clean sawdust and shavings for their production is commented on, as is the use of forestry wastes in pellet production. The new wood-chip product is further discussed as being a direct alternative to pellets. The low 'grey energy' content for tree-felling, hacking, transport and the drying of the chips is quoted as being less than 5% of the energy in the chippings.

  16. Effects of carbonization conditions on properties of bamboo pellets (United States)

    Zhijia Liu; Zehui Jiang; Zhiyong Cai; Benhua Fei; Yan Yu; Xing' e Liu


    Bamboo is a biomass material and has great potential as a bio-energy resource of the future in China. Bamboo pellets were successfully manufactured using a laboratory pellet mill in preliminary work. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the effect of carbonization conditions (temperature and time) on properties of bamboo pellets and to evaluate product...

  17. Global Wood Pellet Industry and Trade Study 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thrän, D.; Peetz, D.; Schaubach, K.; Mai-Moulin, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412461021; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Lamers, P.; Visser, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413534839


    The report Global Wood Pellet Industry Market published in 2011 has always been the most downloaded document of IEA Bioenergy Task 40. We have decided to update the report and bring new insights on market trends and trade of the global wood pellets. The global wood pellet market has increased

  18. Transonic ablation flow regimes of high-Z pellets

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyoungkeun; Parks, Paul


    In this letter, we report results of numerical studies of the ablation of argon and neon pellets in tokamaks and compare them with theoretical predictions and studies of deuterium pellets. Results demonstrate the influence of atomic physics processes on the pellet ablation process.

  19. Effect of torrefaction on oil palm empty fruit bunch pelletization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the properties of raw and torrified pellet from EFB by varying different parameters including energy consumption, moisture adsorption, Meyer hardness test and pellet density. To save storage space and transport costs, it can be compressed into fuel pellets of high physical and energetic density.

  20. Optimization of backfill pellet properties AASKAR DP2 - Laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Linus; Sanden, Torbjoern [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)


    Bentonite pellets are planned to be used as a part of the backfill in the Swedish spent nuclear fuel deep repository concept KBS-3. This report describes testing and evaluation of different backfill pellet candidates. The work completed included testing of both pellet material and pellet type. The materials tested were sourced from India (ASHA), Greece (IBECO, 2 products) and Wyoming USA (MX-80 clay). The majority of the tests were completed on the ASHA clay as well as the IBECO-RWC-BF products, with only limited testing of the others. The pellets tested were manufactured using both extrusion and roller compaction techniques and had different sizes and geometries. The following tests have been performed and are presented in this report: 1. General tests. Water content, bulk density and dry density have been determined for both the pellet filling and the individual pellets. The compressibility of the pellet filling was tested with CRS-tests and the strength of the individual pellets was tested with a special compression test. The water content varied from 11.3% to 18.7% and was highest for the extruded pellets. The dry density was somewhat higher for the roller-compacted pellets and their compressibility was lower. The strength of the individual pellets was generally higher for the extruded pellets. 2. Erosion. The pellet filling will be exposed to groundwater inflow when installed in the tunnel. This flow could possibly cause significant erosion on the pellet filling. Erosion tests have been performed with comparisons in erosion resistance made on the various material- and pellet-types. The influence of variations in water salinity and flow rates was also tested. The IBECO extruded 6- and 10- mm diameter rods and the compacted Posiva spec.-A pellet filling seem to have the lowest tendency to erode. It is also the IBECO extruded pellet filling that withstands variations in water salinity and flow rates best. 3. Water storing capacity. The pellet filling

  1. Modeling Dynamic Fracture of Cryogenic Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, Paul [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)


    This work is part of an investigation with the long-range objective of predicting the size distribution function and velocity dispersion of shattered pellet fragments after a large cryogenic pellet impacts a solid surface at high velocity. The study is vitally important for the shattered pellet injection (SPI) technique, one of the leading technologies being implemented at ORNL for the mitigation of disruption damage on current tokamaks and ITER. The report contains three parts that are somewhat interwoven. In Part I we formulated a self-similar model for the expansion dynamics and velocity dispersion of the debris cloud following pellet impact against a thick (rigid) target plate. Also presented in Part I is an analytical fracture model that predicts the nominal or mean size of the fragments in the debris cloud and agrees well with known SPI data. The aim of Part II is to gain an understanding of the pellet fracturing process when a pellet is shattered inside a miter tube with a sharp bend. Because miter tubes have a thin stainless steel (SS) wall a permanent deformation (dishing) of the wall is produced at the site of the impact. A review of the literature indicates that most projectile impact on thin plates are those for which the target is deformed and the projectile is perfectly rigid. Such impacts result in “projectile embedding” where the projectile speed is reduced to zero during the interaction so that all the kinetic energy (KE) of the projectile goes into the energy stored in plastic deformation. Much of the literature deals with perforation of the target. The problem here is quite different; the softer pellet easily undergoes complete material failure causing only a small transfer of KE to stored energy of wall deformation. For the real miter tube, we derived a strain energy function for the wall deflection using a non-linear (plastic) stress-strain relation for 304 SS. Using a dishing profile identical to the linear Kirchkoff-Love profile (for lack

  2. Fuel Pellets from Wheat Straw: The Effect of Lignin Glass Transition and Surface Waxes on Pelletizing Properties (United States)

    Wolfgang Stelte; Craig Clemons; Jens K. Holm; Jesper Ahrenfeldt; Ulrik B. Henriksen; Anand R. Sanadi


    The utilization of wheat straw as a renewable energy resource is limited due to its low bulk density. Pelletizing wheat straw into fuel pellets of high density increases its handling properties but is more challenging compared to pelletizing wood biomass. Straw has a lower lignin content and a high concentration of hydrophobic waxes on its outer surface that may limit...

  3. 46 CFR 148.04-9 - Fishmeal or scrap, ground or pelletized; fishmeal or scrap, ground and pelletized (mixture). (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishmeal or scrap, ground or pelletized; fishmeal or scrap, ground and pelletized (mixture). 148.04-9 Section 148.04-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-9 Fishmeal or scrap, ground or pelletized; fishmeal or...

  4. Multiphysics Model Development and the Core Analysis for In Situ Breeding and Burning Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyi Si


    Full Text Available The in situ breeding and burning reactor (ISBBR, which makes use of the outstanding breeding capability of metallic pellet and the excellent irradiation-resistant performance of SiCf/SiC ceramic composites cladding, can approach the design purpose of ultralong cycle and ultrahigh burnup and maintain stable radial power distribution during the cycle life without refueling and shuffling. Since the characteristics of the fuel pellet and cladding are different from the traditional fuel rod of ceramic pellet and metallic cladding, the multiphysics behaviors in ISBBR are also quite different. A computer code, named TANG, to model the specific multiphysics behaviors in ISBBR has been developed. The primary calculation results provided by TANG demonstrate that ISBBR has an excellent comprehensive performance of GEN-IV and a great development potential.

  5. Development and in vitro evaluation of mesalamine delayed release pellets and tableted reservoir-type pellets. (United States)

    Bendas, Ehab R; Christensen, J Mark; Ayres, James W


    The basic objective of this study was to develop a novel technique that aids in compaction of coated pellets into tablets and obtain a release pattern from compressed pellets resembling the same pattern before compression. Multi-unit dosage forms of mesalamine targeted to the colon were formulated by extrusion-spheronization, and then coated with Eudragit S (30%). These pellets were filled into gelatin capsules or further formulated and compressed into tablets. Tablets for colonic delivery of mesalamine were prepared by mixing the coated beads with cushioning agents like stearic acid and Explotab, or by applying an additional coat of gelatin (4% weight gain) onto the Eudragit S coated pellets, and then compressing into tablets (tableted reservoir-type pellets). Then additional coating of the tablets prepared by the coating technique was applied utilizing Eudragit L 100-55 (5% weight gain). This technique provides additive protection for the coated beads to withstand the compression force during tableting. Excellent in vitro dissolution results were obtained, which were comparable to the results of the release of mesalamine from uncompressed beads filled in capsules. Mesalamine release from the capsules was 0.3% after 2 hours in gastric pH, 0.37% was released after an additional 1 hour in pH 6, and 89% was released after 1.5 hours in colonic pH 7.2. Various formulation and process parameters have to be optimized in order to obtain tableted reservoir-type pellets having the same release properties as the uncompressed pellets. The coating technique delays the release of mesalamine until the beads reach the terminal ileum and colon. Once released in the colon, mesalamine is minimally absorbed and can act locally to treat ulcerative colitis.

  6. An advanced cold moderator using solid methane pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, C.A. [Cryogenic Applications F, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States); Carpenter, J.M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (United States)


    This paper reports developments of the pellet formation and transport technologies required for producing a liquid helium or hydrogen cooled methane pellet moderator. The Phase I US DOE SBIR project, already completed, demonstrated the production of 3 mm transparent pellets of frozen methane and ammonia and transport of the pellets into a 40 cc observation cell cooled with liquid helium. The methane pellets, formed at 72 K, stuck together during the loading of the cell. Ammonia pellets did not stick and fell readily under vibration into a packed bed with a 60% fill fraction. A 60% fill fraction should produce a very significant increase in long-wavelength neutron production and advantages in shorter pulse widths as compared to a liquid hydrogen moderator. The work also demonstrated a method of rapidly changing the pellets in the moderator cell. The Phase II project, just now underway, will develop a full-scale pellet source and transport system with a 1.5 L 'moderator' cell. The Phase II effort will also produce an apparatus to sub-cool the methane pellets to below 20 K, which should prevent the methane pellets from sticking together. In addition to results of the phase I experiments, the presentation includes a short video of the pellets, and a description of plans for the Phase II project. (author)

  7. Quality properties of fuel pellets from forest biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtikangas, P.


    Nine pellet assortments, made of fresh and stored sawdust, bark and logging residues (a mixture of Norway spruce and Scots pine) were tested directly after production and after 5 months of storage in large bags (volume about 1 m{sup 3} loose pellets) for moisture content, heating value and ash content. Dimensions, bulk density, density of individual pellets and durability were also determined. Moreover, sintering risk and contents of sulphur, chlorine, and lignin of fresh pellets were determined. It is concluded that bark and logging residues are suitable raw materials for pellets production, especially regarding durability and if the ash content is controlled. Pellets density had no effect on its durability, unlike lignin content which was positively correlated. The pellets had higher ash content and lower calorific heating value than the raw materials, probably due to loss of volatiles during drying. In general, the quality changes during storage were not large, but notable. The results showed that storage led to negative effects on durability, especially on pellets made of fresh materials. The average length of pellets was decreased due to breakage during storage. Microbial growth was noticed in some of the pellet assortments. Pellets made out of fresh logging residues were found to be weakest after storage. The tendency to reach the equilibrium with the ambient moisture content should be taken into consideration during production due to the risk of decreasing durability.

  8. Reprint of: Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Hansen, Hans Ove


    of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the wheat......Combined torrefaction and pelletization are used to increase the fuel value of biomass by increasing its energy density and improving its handling and combustion properties. However, pelletization of torrefied biomass can be challenging and in this study the torrefaction and pelletizing properties...... straw significantly, and the pelletizing analyses have shown that these changes correlate to changes in the pelletizing properties. Torrefaction increase the friction in the press channel and pellet strength and density decrease with an increase in torrefaction temperature....

  9. High-rate behaviour of iron ore pellet (United States)

    Gustafsson, Gustaf; Häggblad, Hans-Åke; Jonsén, Pär; Nishida, Masahiro


    Iron ore pellets are sintered, centimetre-sized spheres of ore with high iron content. Together with carbonized coal, iron ore pellets are used in the production of steel. In the transportation from the pelletizing plants to the customers, the iron ore pellets are exposed to different loading situations, resulting in degradation of strength and in some cases fragmentation. For future reliable numerical simulations of the handling and transportation of iron ore pellets, knowledge about their mechanical properties is needed. This paper describes the experimental work to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of blast furnace iron ore pellets. To study the dynamic fracture of iron ore pellets a number of split Hopkinson pressure bar tests are carried out and analysed.

  10. Ecological pellets from brown coal and biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Sedláček


    Full Text Available One way of renewable energy sources applications in the Czech republic is a cultivation of biomass plants. After the biomass reformation, it is possible to add it to palletizing mixes with coal and delulfurisative additives. Possibilities of brown coal of palletizing with biomass adds were tested recently. The product represents a new coal-biomass combustible wich can be used in some types of boilers with a low pollutant production level (specially SO2.In the past brown-coal pellets weremade with an addition of melted wood mass (wood fibres, wood wastes and mustard straw. Practical tests have shown of an extension the waste field of coal-pellets utilization.

  11. Ecological pellets from brown coal and biomass


    Pavel Sedláček; Nikolas Mucha; Iva Pečtová; Peter Fečko


    One way of renewable energy sources applications in the Czech republic is a cultivation of biomass plants. After the biomass reformation, it is possible to add it to palletizing mixes with coal and delulfurisative additives. Possibilities of brown coal of palletizing with biomass adds were tested recently. The product represents a new coal-biomass combustible wich can be used in some types of boilers with a low pollutant production level (specially SO2).In the past brown-coal pellets weremade...

  12. Surface properties of beached plastic pellets. (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K


    The presence of pollutants on plastic debris is an emerging environmental hot topic. Understanding the surface alteration of plastics while in the marine environment increases our understanding of the pollutant-plastic debris interaction. Plastic pellets are widely distributed throughout the world oceans. Eroded and virgin polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) pellets were studied for their surface properties to better understand the interaction between plastic and compounds in marine environment. Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, functional groups and acid-base behavior are important factors which affect sorption. Virgin plastic pellets had homogeneous smooth surfaces that do not have any acid-base behavior. Eroded PE demonstrates an altered surface that at seawater pH acquires a negative charge due to ketone groups. The uneven surface and possible functional groups could have been formed from the erosion processes while floating at the sea surface and might explain the interaction of eroded plastics with microbes and metals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail:


    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  14. Pelletizing using forest fuels and Salix as raw materials. A study of the pelletizing properties; Pelletering med skogsbraensle och Salix som raavara. En undersoekning av pelleterbarheten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Lars; Oesterberg, Stefan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)


    Three common forest fuels: light thinning material, cull tree and logging residues as well as energy forest fuel (Salix) has been used as fuel pellet materials. Logging residues and Salix were stacked for approximately 6 and 10 months respectively. Parameters varied for each raw material have been the moisture content and the press length of the die. These parameters have been changed to obtain best possible quality, mainly concerning mechanical durability. Pellets were also produced from bark free shavings in order to use as a reference in this study. Physical as well as chemical properties have been compared. It was comparatively easy to press logging residues and Salix into durable pellets and, even with larger press length, the production of pellets was higher than it was for the other raw materials. The density was equal for all pellets while the mechanical durability was better for all tested raw materials compared with the reference material. The fact that all raw materials besides the reference material contains bark which has an improving effect on the degree of hardness. The quality properties were mainly about the same or better for pellets made of light thinning material and cull tree respectively, compared with the reference pellets. However, the ash content was approximately twice as high compared with the reference pellets. The pellets made of logging residues and Salix respectively were of very good quality concerning duration and density but the ash content was approximately 10 times higher than in the reference pellets. Additionally, the nitrogen content was 6-9 times higher compared with the reference pellets.

  15. Effects of pellet characteristics on L-lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae: pellet morphology, diameter, density, and interior structure. (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Qian; Yin, Long-Fei; Zhu, Hua-Yue; Jiang, Ru; Li, Shuang; Xu, Qing


    The effects of pellet morphology, diameter, density, and interior structure on L-lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae were characterized for different inoculum sizes and concentrations of peptone and CaCO3. Inoculum size was the most important factor determining pellet formation and diameter. The diameter decreased with increasing inoculum size, and larger pellets were observed for lower inoculum sizes. Peptone concentration had the greatest effect on pellet density, which increased with increasing peptone concentration. L-lactic acid production depended heavily on pellet density but not on pellet diameter. Low-density pellets formed easily under conditions of low peptone concentration and often had a relatively hollow structure, with a thin condensed layer surrounding the pellet and an extraordinarily loose biomass or hollow center. As expected, this structure greatly decreased production. The production of L-lactic acid increased until the density reached a certain level (50-60 kg/m(3)), in which the compact part was distributed homogeneously in the thick outer layer of the pellet and loose in the central layer. Homogeneously structured, denser pellets had limited mass transfer, causing a lower overall turnover rate. However, the interior structure remained nearly constant throughout all fermentation phases for pellets with the same density. CaCO3 concentration only had a slight influence on pellet diameter and density, probably because it increases spore germination and filamentous hypha extension. This work also provides a new analysis method to quantify the interior structure of pellets, thus giving insight into pellet structure and its relationship with productivity.

  16. Mycelial pellet formation by edible ascomycete filamentous fungi, Neurospora intermedia. (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J


    Pellet formation of filamentous fungi in submerged culture is an imperative topic of fermentation research. In this study, we report for the first time the growth of filamentous ascomycete fungus, Neurospora intermedia in its mycelial pellet form. In submerged culture, the growth morphology of the fungus was successfully manipulated into growing as pellets by modifying various cultivation conditions. Factors such as pH (2.0-10.0), agitation rate (100-150 rpm), carbon source (glucose, arabinose, sucrose, and galactose), the presence of additive agents (glycerol and calcium chloride) and trace metals were investigated for their effect on the pellet formation. Of the various factors screened, uniform pellets were formed only at pH range 3.0-4.0, signifying it as the most influential factor for N. intermedia pellet formation. The average pellet size ranged from 2.38 ± 0.12 to 2.86 ± 0.38 mm. The pellet formation remained unaffected by the inoculum type used and its size showed an inverse correlation with the agitation rate of the culture. Efficient glucose utilization was observed with fungal pellets, as opposed to the freely suspended mycelium, proving its viability for fast-fermentation processes. Scale up of the pelletization process was also carried out in bench-scale airlift and bubble column reactors (4.5 L).

  17. Occurrence and characterization of Salmonella from chicken nuggets, strips, and pelleted broiler feed. (United States)

    Bucher, O; Holley, R A; Ahmed, R; Tabor, H; Nadon, C; Ng, L K; D'Aoust, J Y


    Raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips have been identified as a significant risk factor in contracting foodborne salmonellosis. Cases of salmonellosis as a result of consuming partly cooked chicken nuggets may be due in part to Salmonella strains originating in broiler feed. This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence and characterize the strains of Salmonella contaminating chicken nuggets, strips, and pelleted feeds, in an attempt to demonstrate whether the same Salmonella strains present in broiler feed could be isolated from raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips available for human consumption. Salmonellae were recovered using the Health Canada MFHPB-20 method for the isolation and identification of Salmonella from foods. Strains were characterized by serotyping, phage typing, antimicrobial resistance typing (R-typing), and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Salmonellae were isolated from 25-g samples in 27% (n=92) of nugget and strip samples, 95% (n=20) of chicken nugget meat samples, and from 9% (n=111) of pelleted feed samples. Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Orion were the most commonly isolated serovars from chicken nuggets and strips, nugget and strip meat, and pelleted broiler feeds, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 13a with PFGE pattern SENXAI.0006 and R-type sensitive as well as Salmonella Enteritidis PT13a with PFGE pattern SENXAI.0068 and R-type sensitive were isolated from pelleted feed, and chicken nugget and strip meat in two separate instances. Data showed that Salmonella strains isolated from broiler feed were indistinguishable from strains isolated from packaged raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips. However, results did not rule out the possibility that breeding stock or contamination during processing may have contributed to chicken meat contamination by Salmonella.

  18. Influence of burner form and pellet type on domestic pellet boiler performance (United States)

    Rastvorov, D. V.; Osintsev, K. V.; Toropov, E. V.


    The study presents combustion and emission results obtained using two serial pellet boilers of the same heating capacity 40 kW. These boilers have been designed by producers for domestic conditions of exploitation. The principal difference between boilers was the type of the burner. The study concerns the efficiency and ecological performance difference between burners of circular and rectangular forms. The features of the combustion process in both types of burners were studied when boiler operated with different sorts of pellets. The results suggest that the burner of circular form excels the rectangular form burner. However, there is some difference of NOx emission between circular and rectangular burners.

  19. Fuel Pellets from Biomass. Processing, Bonding, Raw Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang

    and paper industry are not sufficient to meet future needs. Therefore, new types and sources of biomass will be used more commonly in the future. Although wood pellet production has been an established process for more than 100 years, little research has been conducted about pellet production; it has mainly...... surface at an elevated temperature played an important role. The second study presented a method of how key processing parameters can be estimated, based on a pellet model and a small number of fast and simple laboratory trials using a single pellet press. The third study investigated the bonding...... mechanisms within a biomass pellet, which indicate that different mechanisms are involved depending on biomass type and pelletizing conditions. Interpenetration of polymer chains and close intermolecular distance resulting in better secondary bonding were assumed to be the key factors for high mechanical...

  20. Microstability analysis of pellet fuelled discharges in MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Garzotti, L; Roach, C M; Valovic, M; Dickinson, D; Naylor, G; Romanelli, M; Scannell, R; Szepesi, G


    Reactor grade plasmas are likely to be fuelled by pellet injection. This technique transiently perturbs the profiles, driving the density profile hollow and flattening the edge temperature profile. After the pellet perturbation, the density and temperature profiles relax towards their quasi-steady-state shape. Microinstabilities influence plasma confinement and will play a role in determining the evolution of the profiles in pellet fuelled plasmas. In this paper we present the microstability analysis of pellet fuelled H-mode MAST plasmas. Taking advantage of the unique capabilities of the MAST Thomson scattering system and the possibility of synchronizing the eight lasers with the pellet injection, we were able to measure the evolution of the post-pellet electron density and temperature profiles with high temporal and spatial resolution. These profiles, together with ion temperature profiles measured using a charge exchange diagnostic, were used to produce equilibria suitable for microstability analysis of th...

  1. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter


    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  2. Pellet-plasma interactions in tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C.T.


    confinement time, offset by the accumulation of impurities at the plasma core is brought into focus. A possible remedy is suggested to diminish the effect of the impurities. Plausible arguments are presented to explain the apparent controversial observations on the propagation of a fast cooling front ahead...... of the plasma. The appearance of striations and the curving of the pellet trajectory are discussed in detail. The possibility is described for using these observations to study the plasma current-density distribution as well as the existence of suprathermal electrons....

  3. Diet and foraging habitats of non-breeding white storks (Ciconia ciconia in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchev Boyan


    Full Text Available The diet of non-breeding White Storks was studied by pellet analysis and included mainly insects (99.9%, n=28947 with a predominance of grasshoppers (Orthoptera, 76.1%, and beetles (Coleoptera, 26.1%. The bush crickets Decticus albifrons/verrucivorus were the most numerous prey (29.9% by items, occurring in almost all pellets (98% occurrence in pellets, n=147 and predominating in half of them (49.7%. The grasshopper associations in the pellets specify foraging mainly in mesophytic grasslands that usually replace abandoned fields and overgrown pastures with a low level of grazing. The xerophytic grass-shrubby habitats, not rare on stony terrains, were of less importance, providing around 20% by prey. The typical aquatic inhabitants and the use of carrion around villages were exceptions in the study diet. The number of innutritious materials in the pellets rose when the White Storks hunted on nippy and agile grasshoppers and decreased when the main pray was slower beetles taken from the ground. The roosting of non-breeding White Storks disappeared when their preferred feeding habitats were ploughed up in the following years.

  4. Prolonged release matrix pellets prepared by melt pelletization. I. Process variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L.J.; Schaefer, T.; Sonnergaard, Jørn


    A melt pelletization process was investigated in an 8 litre laboratory scale high shear mixer using a formulation with paracetamol, glyceryl monostearate 40-50, and microcrystalline wax. The effects of jacket temperature, product temperature during massing, product load, massing time and impeller...... to be important process variables. Remarkably low in vitro drug release rates were observed in USP-dissolution tests....

  5. New Pellet Injection Schemes on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P.M.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Jernigan, T.C.; Robinson, J.I.


    The pellet fueling system on DIII-D has been modified for injection of deuterium pellets from two vertical ports and two inner wall locations on the magnetic high-field side (HFS) of the tokamak. The HFS pellet injection technique was first employed on ASDEX-Upgrade with significant improvements reported in both pellet penetration and fueling efficiency. The new pellet injection schemes on DIII-D required the installation of new guide tubes. These lines are {approx_equal}12.5 m in total length and are made up of complex bends and turns (''roller coaster'' like) to route pellets from the injector to the plasma, including sections inside the torus. The pellet speed at which intact pellets can survive through the curved guide tubes is limited ({approx_equal}200-300 m/s for HFS injection schemes). Thus, one of the three gas guns on the injector was modified to provide pellets in a lower speed regime than the original guns (normal speed range {approx_equal}500 to 1000 m/s). The guide tube installations and gun modifications are described along with the injector operating parameters, and the latest test results are highlighted.

  6. Fuel pellets from biomass - Processing, bonding, raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelte, W.


    The present study investigates several important aspects of biomass pelletization. Seven individual studies have been conducted and linked together, in order to push forward the research frontier of biomass pelletization processes. The first study was to investigate influence of the different processing parameters on the pressure built up in the press channel of a pellet mill. It showed that the major factor was the press channel length as well as temperature, moisture content, particle size and extractive content. Furthermore, extractive migration to the pellet surface at an elevated temperature played an important role. The second study presented a method of how key processing parameters can be estimated, based on a pellet model and a small number of fast and simple laboratory trials using a single pellet press. The third study investigated the bonding mechanisms within a biomass pellet, which indicate that different mechanisms are involved depending on biomass type and pelletizing conditions. Interpenetration of polymer chains and close intermolecular distance resulting in better secondary bonding were assumed to be the key factors for high mechanical properties of the formed pellets. The outcome of this study resulted in study four and five investigating the role of lignin glass transition for biomass pelletization. It was demonstrated that the softening temperature of lignin was dependent on species and moisture content. In typical processing conditions and at 8% (wt) moisture content, transitions were identified to be at approximately 53-63 deg. C for wheat straw and about 91 deg. C for spruce lignin. Furthermore, the effects of wheat straw extractives on the pelletizing properties and pellet stability were investigated. The sixth and seventh study applied the developed methodology to test the pelletizing properties of thermally pre-treated (torrefied) biomass from spruce and wheat straw. The results indicated that high torrefaction temperatures above 275 deg

  7. Buffaloes breeding in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bernardes


    Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.

  8. Oxidizing Roasting Performances of Coke Fines Bearing Brazilian Specularite Pellets (United States)

    Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing


    Oxidized pellets, consisting of Brazilian specularite fines and coke fines, were prepared by disc pelletizer using bentonite as binder. The roasting process of pellets includes preheating stage and firing stage. The compressive strength of preheated pellets and fired pellets reached the peak value at 1.5% coke fines dosage. During the initial stage of preheating, some original Fe2O3 was reduced to Fe3O4 because of partial reduction atmosphere in pellet. During the later stage of preheating and firing stage, coke fines were burnt out, and the secondary Fe2O3 (new generation Fe2O3) was generated due to the re-oxidization of Fe3O4, which improved the recrystallization of Fe2O3. Compared with the fired pellets without adding coke fines, fired pellets with 1.5% coke fines exhibited the comparable RSI (reduction swelling index) and RDI+3.15 mm (reduction degradation index), and slightly lower RI (reducibility index).

  9. Rare behaviour of a catalyst pellet catalyst dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Loonen, R.A.; Martens, A.


    Temperature overshoots and undershoots were found for a Pd on alumina catalyst pellet in its course towards a new steady state after a change in concentration of one of the reactants ethylene or hydrogen. When cooling the pellet, after heat-up by reaction, with pure hydrogen a sudden temperature

  10. Ablation of Hydrogen Pellets in Hydrogen and Helium Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L W; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard; Øster, Flemming


    Measurements on the interaction between solid hydrogen pellets and rotating plasmas are reported. The investigations were carried out because of the possibility of refuelling fusion reactors by the injection of pellets. The ablation rate found is higher than expected on the basis of a theory...

  11. Wood pellet market and trade: A global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, C.S.; Cocchi, M.; Junginger, H.M.; Marchal, D.; Thrän, D.; Hennig, C.; Heinimo, J.; Nikolaisen, L.; Schouwenberg, P.P.; Bradley, D.; Hess, R.F.; Jacobson, J.; Ovard, L.; Deutmeyer, M.


    This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high signifi cance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million

  12. Automatic control system for uniformly paving iron ore pellets (United States)

    Wang, Bowen; Qian, Xiaolong


    In iron and steelmaking industry, iron ore pellet qualities are crucial to end-product properties, manufacturing costs and waste emissions. Uniform pellet pavements on the grate machine are a fundamental prerequisite to ensure even heat-transfer and pellet induration successively influences performance of the following metallurgical processes. This article presents an automatic control system for uniformly paving green pellets on the grate, via a mechanism mainly constituted of a mechanical linkage, a swinging belt, a conveyance belt and a grate. Mechanism analysis illustrates that uniform pellet pavements demand the frontend of the swinging belt oscillate at a constant angular velocity. Subsequently, kinetic models are formulated to relate oscillatory movements of the swinging belt's frontend to rotations of a crank link driven by a motor. On basis of kinetic analysis of the pellet feeding mechanism, a cubic B-spline model is built for numerically computing discrete frequencies to be modulated during a motor rotation. Subsequently, the pellet feeding control system is presented in terms of compositional hardware and software components, and their functional relationships. Finally, pellet feeding experiments are carried out to demonstrate that the control system is effective, reliable and superior to conventional methods.

  13. Biosorption of copper (II) from aqueous solution by mycelial pellets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, mycelial pellets of Rhizopus oryzae (MPRO) were investigated as a potential biosorbent for the removal of copper (II) from aqueous solution. The effects of the pellet diameter, solution pH, contact time, initial copper (II) concentration and temperature were studied. The optimum diameter and pH for ...

  14. Colpoda secrete viable Listeria monocytogenes within faecal pellets. (United States)

    Raghu Nadhanan, Rethish; Thomas, Connor J


    Transmission electron microscopy was used to demonstrate that co-cultures of the ciliate Colpoda RR (an environmental isolate) and Colpoda MLS-5 (a food processing environment isolate) with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes DRDC8 resulted in secretion of faecal pellets containing intact DRDC8 cells. A green fluorescent protein expressing variant of DRDC8 was used in co-cultures to confirm that the pellet-associated bacterial cells were L. monocytogenes. Viability was confirmed by plate counts, and assay of microbial respiratory activity-proved DRDC8 cells present within faecal pellets was metabolically active. Following treatment of faecal pellets secreted by Colpoda RR and MLS-5 with gentamycin and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), no loss of viability of the pellet-located DRDC8 cells was observed, indicating that faecal pellet encapsulated DRDC8 cells are resistant to biocidal agents. This work suggests that Colpoda-derived faecal pellets may provide a mechanism for transmission of L. monocytogenes and other pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, bacteria encapsulated by faecal pellets may be resistant to disinfectants and cleaning agents used in food manufacturing and preparation facilities. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Microgasification cookstoves and pellet fuels from waste biomass: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lotter;Msola Hunter;Straub

    relative efficiency and cost of the major urban cooking fuels - charcoal and liquefied natural gas (LNG) .... stoves designed for low-density biomass such as ..... Solid fuels. Pellets were placed in the fuel chamber and ignited with approximately 30 ml of kerosene. The initial amount of pellets was 1 kg except the Philips, whose ...

  16. Animal breeding in organic farming


    Nauta, W.J.; Baars, T. (Theodor); Groen, A.F.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Roep, D.


    After a general introduction into the available breeding techniques for animal breeding and an overview of the organic principles, points for discussion are identified and scenario's for organically accepted breeding methods are discussed.

  17. Paraformaldehyde pellet not necessary in vacuum-pumped maple sap system (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Carter B. Gibbs


    In a study of sugar maple sap collection through a vacuum-pumped plastic tubing system, yields were compared between tapholes in which paraformaldehyde pellets were used and tapholes without pellets, Use of the pellets did not increase yield.

  18. Ocular trauma from paintball-pellet war games. (United States)

    Mason, John O; Feist, Richard M; White, Milton F


    We studied ocular injuries and visual outcome after blunt trauma from paintball pellets. We retrospectively reviewed cases of ocular injury from paintball pellets occurring over 32 months. Ten cases of ocular injury from paintball pellets were recorded. Most patients (9) were injured at home or at a friend's home; only 1 was injured at a war game facility. Six patients had surgery. Final visual acuity was 20/25 or better in 6 patients, 20/30 to 20/50 in 2 patients, 20/60 to 20/100 in 2 patients, and 20/200 in 1 patient. Traumatic maculopathy and epiretinal membrane formation were determinants of worse final visual acuity. Paintball pellet ocular injuries occur more frequently at home than at war game facilities. Advanced surgical techniques offer decreased ocular morbidity and improved visual acuity. Decreasing visual morbidity from paintball pellets requires public education, proper product labeling, and packaging of eye protection with all paintball-related products.

  19. The Self-Reducing Pellet Production from Organic Household Waste (United States)

    Nogueira, Alberto; Takano, Cyro; Mourão, Marcelo; Pillihuaman, Adolfo

    The organic household waste has a growing disposal problem, requiring costly disposal systems. It is necessary to find new applications for these materials; one could be the steelmaking raw material production. In this paper is studied the development of self-reducing pellets from the organic waste pyrolysis, where is generated carbon and condensable and non-condensable volatiles. Non-condensable volatiles were burned and condensable volatiles were recovered. The resulting tar was mixed with iron ore, coal powder and flux (CaO), to then be pelletized together. Compression, falls and tumbler tests were conducted to characterize the pellets before and after heat treatment and reduction processes. The reduction curve and their physical and morphological characterization were measured. The results were as was expected, the fluidized coal create sufficient adhesion that pellets earned resistance with an equivalent resistance of common pellets, showing a good feasibility of this process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac


    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  1. U.S. Pellet Industry Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrie I. Nichol; Jacob J. Jacobsen; Richard D. Boardman


    This report is a survey of the U.S. Pellet Industry, its current capacity, economic drivers, and projected demand for biomass pellets to meet future energy consumption needs. Energy consumption in the US is projected to require an ever increasing portion of renewable energy sources including biofuels, among which are wood, and agrictulrual biomass. Goals set by federal agencies will drive an ever increasing demand for biomass. The EIA projections estimate that renewable energy produced by 2035 will be roughly 10% of all US energy consumption. Further analysis of the biofuels consumption in the US shows that of the renewable energy sources excluding biofuels, nearly 30% are wood or biomass waste. This equates to roughly 2% of the total energy consumption in the US coming from biomass in 2009, and the projections for 2035 show a strong increase in this amount. As of 2009, biomass energy production equates to roughly 2-2.5 quadrillion Btu. The EIA projections also show coal as providing 21% of energy consumed. If biomass is blended at 20% to co-fire coal plants, this will result in an additional 4 quadrillion Btu of biomass consumption. The EISA goals aim to produce 16 billion gal/year of cellulosic biofuels, and the US military has set goals for biofuels production. The Air Force has proposed to replace 50% of its domestic fuel requirements with alternative fuels from renewable sources by 2016. The Navy has likewise set a goal to provide 50% of its energy requirements from alternative sources. The Department of Energy has set similarly ambitious goals. The DOE goal is to replace 40% of 2004 gasoline use with biofuels. This equates to roughly 60 billion gal/year, of which, 45 billion gal/year would be produced from lignocellulosic resources. This would require 530 million dry tons of herbaceous and woody lignocellulosic biomass per year.

  2. Circular economy in drinking water treatment: reuse of ground pellets as seeding material in the pellet softening process. (United States)

    Schetters, M J A; van der Hoek, J P; Kramer, O J I; Kors, L J; Palmen, L J; Hofs, B; Koppers, H


    Calcium carbonate pellets are produced as a by-product in the pellet softening process. In the Netherlands, these pellets are applied as a raw material in several industrial and agricultural processes. The sand grain inside the pellet hinders the application in some high-potential market segments such as paper and glass. Substitution of the sand grain with a calcite grain (100% calcium carbonate) is in principle possible, and could significantly improve the pellet quality. In this study, the grinding and sieving of pellets, and the subsequent reuse as seeding material in pellet softening were tested with two pilot reactors in parallel. In one reactor, garnet sand was used as seeding material, in the other ground calcite. Garnet sand and ground calcite performed equally well. An economic comparison and a life-cycle assessment were made as well. The results show that the reuse of ground calcite as seeding material in pellet softening is technologically possible, reduces the operational costs by €38,000 (1%) and reduces the environmental impact by 5%. Therefore, at the drinking water facility, Weesperkarspel of Waternet, the transition from garnet sand to ground calcite will be made at full scale, based on this pilot plant research.

  3. Comparison of film-coated retarded release pellets manufactured by layering technique or by bed rotor pelletization. (United States)

    Priese, Florian; Frisch, Toni; Wolf, Bertram


    In order to investigate the influence of coatings for controlled active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) release, two types of pellets were used. Microcrystalline pellets were coated with a model API using the Wurster fluidized bed technique in laboratory scale (layered Cellets). Another type of pellets consisting of microcrystalline cellulose and model API was manufactured by fluidized bed rotor pelletization (matrix pellets (MP)). Both kinds of pellets were coated in a Wurster fluidized bed process with a polymer mixture of ethylcellulose to achieve retarded API release. With layered Cellets and an increased thickness of the ethylcellulose layer, the lag-time was increased and the release rate was decreased. In the case of MP, retardation was less pronounced probable due to inhomogeneous polymer film formation as a result of the porous particle surface. To reduce the surface roughness, the MP were coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as an intermediate smoothing layer, in a first trial step by step. In a second trial, pelletization and the coating steps were performed in an uninterrupted process. Intermediate PVP coating improved the ethylcellulose film formation and led to a more pronounced retardation of API release. The uninterrupted process of matrix pellet manufacturing and coating results in a product with only low retarded release.

  4. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter


    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  5. Recent advances in fueling magnetically confined plasmas with pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.


    Pellet injection has been used for many years in a number of magnetic confinement fusion experiments to provide plasma fueling and density profile control. A pellet fueling system for a reactor-sized device will need to supply hydrogenic fuel as deeply into the plasma as possible to replace the deuterium-tritium ions consumed and to provide a density gradient for plasma particle (especially helium ash) flow to the edge. Development of injection systems that can provide deep fueling with sufficient throughput to provide these features remains a high priority in the fusion technology program. Several tokamak devices, including DIII-D, ASDEX-Upgrade, and JET, have recently employed pellet injection from the high magnetic field side (inner wall). Injection from the high field side (HFS) yields improved fuel penetration and fueling efficiency over the usual simpler method of low-field-side injection from the outside midplane. There is a resulting improvement in fueling efficiency and fuel deposition. The improvement is believed to be due to a {del}B drift and curvature-induced drift of the pellet ablatant in the major radius direction. Curved guide tubes must be employed to inject from the inner wall in all current devices requiring slow to moderate pellet speeds to obtain intact pellets. Alternative injection schemes that take advantage of the HFS injection while allowing for high-speed pellet injection are possible using a vertical injection geometry. The technology to produce cryogenic pellets of hydrogenic isotopes has matured to the level of reliable pellet injection devices that produce and accelerate intact pellets at high repetition rates. New technology enhancements to pneumatic guns have been developed for the production of slower-speed pellets that can survive the curved guide tubes required for HFS injection. Centrifugal accelerators have also been operated at the low velocities required for HFS fueling. The understanding of pellet mechanical properties

  6. Birds - Breeding [ds60 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  7. Wallpaper May Breed Toxins (United States)

    ... Wallpaper May Breed Toxins: Study Fungus on the walls might ... 2017 FRIDAY, June 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Wallpaper may contribute to "sick building syndrome," a new study ...

  8. Waterfowl breeding population survey (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2011 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  9. Waterfowl breeding population survey (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2010 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  10. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.


    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual

  11. Consolidated waste forms: glass marbles and ceramic pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treat, R.L.; Rusin, J.M.


    Glass marbles and ceramic pellets have been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the multibarrier concept for immobilizing high-level radioactive waste. These consolidated waste forms served as substrates for the application of various inert coatings and as ideal-sized particles for encapsulation in protective matrices. Marble and pellet formulations were based on existing defense wastes at Savannah River Plant and proposed commercial wastes. To produce marbles, glass is poured from a melter in a continuous stream into a marble-making device. Marbles were produced at PNL on a vibratory marble machine at rates as high as 60 kg/h. Other marble-making concepts were also investigated. The marble process, including a lead-encapsulation step, was judged as one of the more feasible processes for immobilizing high-level wastes. To produce ceramic pellets, a series of processing steps are required, which include: spray calcining - to dry liquid wastes to a powder; disc pelletizing - to convert waste powders to spherical pellets; sintering - to densify pellets and cause desired crystal formation. These processing steps are quite complex, and thereby render the ceramic pellet process as one of the least feasible processes for immobilizing high-level wastes.

  12. Pellet injection in the RFP (Reversed Field Pinch) (United States)

    Wurden, G. A.; Weber, P. G.; Munson, C. P.; Cayton, T. E.; Bunting, C. A.; Carolan, P. G.

    Observation of pellets injected into the ZT-40M Reversed Field Pinch has allowed a new twist on the usual tokamak ablation physics modeling. The RFP provides a strong ohmic heating regime with relatively high electron drift parameter (xi sub drift approx. 0.2), in the presence of a highly sheared magnetic field geometry. In situ photos of the pellet ablation cloud using a grated-intensified CCD camera, as well as two-view integrated photos of the pellet trajectory show substantial modification of the original pellet trajectory, in both direction and speed. Depending on the launch geometry, increases in the initial 500 m/s pellet speed by 50 percent were observed, and a ski jump deflector plate in the launch port has been used to counteract strong poloidal curvature. In contrast to the tokamak, the D sub alpha light signature is strongest near the edge, and weaker in the plasma center. Additional information on ion temperature response to pellet injection with 20 microsec time resolution has been obtained using a 5-channel neutral particle analyzer (NPA). The energy confinement is transiently degraded while the beta is largely unchanged. This may be indicative of pellet injection into a high-beta plasma operating at fixed beta.

  13. Pellet production from sawmill residue : a Saskatchewan perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karwandy, J. [Forintek Canada Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    This paper reported on the results of a project that evaluated the viability of producing pellets in Saskatchewan in order to capture some of this rapid market growth. The objective was to define the supply potential for wood pellets. The production process was described along with technical barriers to producing wood pellets in Saskatchewan. It was shown that Saskatchewan's forest sector generates about 1,188,050 oven dried tonnes of residual material annually. However, not all the residuals are preferred by pellet manufacturers. It is unlikely that the entire amount of raw material would be used at one facility since the cost of transporting the raw materials is very prohibitive. It was concluded that the limits on the type and volume of raw material available in Saskatchewan are significant barriers to the commercial scale production of wood pellets. There is not enough sawdust and shavings to support a world class pelleting facility in the province. It was cautioned that although it is feasible to produce pellets in Saskatchewan, the scale of production would be significantly limited by feedstock availability. 24 refs., 8 tabs., 12 figs., 2 appendices.

  14. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig


    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  15. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho


    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  16. Data analysis on physical and mechanical properties of cassava pellets. (United States)

    Oguntunde, Pelumi E; Adejumo, Oluyemisi A; Odetunmibi, Oluwole A; Okagbue, Hilary I; Adejumo, Adebowale O


    In this data article, laboratory experimental investigation results carried out at National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM) on moisture content, machine speed, die diameter of the rig, and the outputs (hardness, durability, bulk density, and unit density of the pellets) at different levels of cassava pellets were observed. Analysis of variance using randomized complete block design with factorial was used to perform analysis for each of the outputs: hardness, durability, bulk density, and unit density of the pellets. A clear description on each of these outputs was considered separately using tables and figures. It was observed that for all the output with the exception of unit density, their main factor effects as well as two and three ways interactions is significant at 5% level. This means that the hardness, bulk density and durability of cassava pellets respectively depend on the moisture content of the cassava dough, the machine speed, the die diameter of the extrusion rig and the combinations of these factors in pairs as well as the three altogether. Higher machine speeds produced more quality pellets at lower die diameters while lower machine speed is recommended for higher die diameter. Also the unit density depends on die diameter and the three-way interaction only. Unit density of cassava pellets is neither affected by machine parameters nor moisture content of the cassava dough. Moisture content of cassava dough, speed of the machine and die diameter of the extrusion rig are significant factors to be considered in pelletizing cassava to produce pellets. Increase in moisture content of cassava dough increase the quality of cassava pellets.

  17. Data analysis on physical and mechanical properties of cassava pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelumi E. Oguntunde


    Full Text Available In this data article, laboratory experimental investigation results carried out at National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM on moisture content, machine speed, die diameter of the rig, and the outputs (hardness, durability, bulk density, and unit density of the pellets at different levels of cassava pellets were observed. Analysis of variance using randomized complete block design with factorial was used to perform analysis for each of the outputs: hardness, durability, bulk density, and unit density of the pellets. A clear description on each of these outputs was considered separately using tables and figures. It was observed that for all the output with the exception of unit density, their main factor effects as well as two and three ways interactions is significant at 5% level. This means that the hardness, bulk density and durability of cassava pellets respectively depend on the moisture content of the cassava dough, the machine speed, the die diameter of the extrusion rig and the combinations of these factors in pairs as well as the three altogether. Higher machine speeds produced more quality pellets at lower die diameters while lower machine speed is recommended for higher die diameter. Also the unit density depends on die diameter and the three-way interaction only. Unit density of cassava pellets is neither affected by machine parameters nor moisture content of the cassava dough. Moisture content of cassava dough, speed of the machine and die diameter of the extrusion rig are significant factors to be considered in pelletizing cassava to produce pellets. Increase in moisture content of cassava dough increase the quality of cassava pellets.

  18. Fast imaging of intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. (United States)

    Wang, Zhehui; Combs, S K; Baylor, L R; Foust, C R; Lyttle, M S; Meitner, S J; Rasmussen, D A


    Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100-µm- and sub-µs-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of µm to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development.


    Patton, G. Jr.; Zirinsky, S.


    A machine is described for pelletizing powder and bonding agent into spherical pellets of high density and uniform size. In this device, the material to be compacted is added to a flat circular pan which is moved in a circular orbit in a horizontal plane about an axis displaced from that of the pan's central axis without rotating the pan about its central axis. This movement causes the material contained therein to roll around the outside wall of the container and build up pellets of uniform shape, size, and density.

  20. Multibarrel repetitive injector with a porous pellet formation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viniar, I. [Saint-Petersburg State Technical Univ., Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sudo, S.


    New repetitive multibarrel pellet injector for steady-state fueling and diagnostics purposes in large fusion devices has been designed. The injector is intended to apply in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science in Japan. The steady-state operation is provided by ten pipe-guns with unique porous units forming solid hydrogen pellets for 5 - 9 s in every barrel. Over one thousand hydrogen pellets have been formed and accelerated to 1.2 km/s at the different repetitive rates. The injector design and experimental results are presented. (author)

  1. Challenges of Participatory Plant Breeding


    Messmer, Monika


    FiBL Plant breeding strategies - Why participatory plant breeding ? - Level of participation - Principles of participatory research - Challenges of participatory plant breeding - Who to get started - Communication / Common language - Definition of common goals - Long term engagement & Gender aspect - Implementation of PPB & Struggle with on farm trials - Data assessment & sample handling - Legal aspects and financing - Impact of participative plant breeding

  2. Methane rich gasification of wood pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joka Magdalena


    Full Text Available In the work there are shown the results of experimental studies on methane rich gasification of pinewood pellets in Bio-CONOx technology. The experiment was carried out on a laboratory scale gasifier (5 kW, which design features allow producing a high quality gas with a high methane content. In the results there was identified the impact of the quantity of Bio-CONOx on the amount of flammable gas compounds (methane, hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the synthesis gas and the gas calorific value. The additive was added in 10,20,30 and 50% concentrations to the gasifier chamber. It has been shown that increasing the amount of the additive has a positive effect on the calorific value of the synthesis gas (Fig.1,2. Gas with a high content of methane (and high calorific value was obtained from gasification of biomass with a 50% addition of Bio-CONOx. There was also examined the proportion of blowing air (gasifying medium for which the properties of obtained syngas were the best.

  3. Breeding-assisted genomics. (United States)

    Poland, Jesse


    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Overlap in the diets of diurnal raptors breeding at the Michilia biosphere reserve, Durango, Mexico


    Hiraldo, F.; Delibes, M.; Bustamante, Javier; Estrella, Ricardo R.


    We studied the diets of the Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura), Black Hawk (Bnteogallus anthracinns), Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jarnaicensis), Cooper’s Hawk (Acciptier cooperit) and American Kestrel (Falco sparverins) by examining pellets collected during 1981 and 1982 breeding seasons in the reserve of La Michilia, Durango, Mexico. Diet overlap was small. The Turkey Vulture and the Black Hawk had little overlap by feeding on re...

  5. Evaluation of an enteric-coated naproxen pellet formulation. (United States)

    Hardy, J G; Lamont, G L; Evans, D F; Haga, A K; Gamst, O N


    An enteric-coated, pellet formulation of naproxen has been evaluated in eight healthy subjects. Each volunteer was dosed with 153Sm-labelled, enteric-coated pellets on two occasions, once whilst fasted and once after breakfast. Gastrointestinal transit was followed using gamma scintigraphy and drug absorption compared with that from uncoated naproxen pellets dosed on a separate occasion. The pH in the stomach and intestines was monitored using radiotelemetry capsules. Gastric emptying was delayed by dosing after breakfast, but small intestinal transit of the enteric-coated formulation was the same on both occasions. The highest pH recorded from the stomach was 4.0 and in all subjects the pH rose to at least 7.3 in the small intestine. The onset of drug absorption was fastest from the uncoated formulation and slowest from the coated pellets taken after breakfast. The total amount of drug absorbed was the same on all three occasions.

  6. Backfilling of deposition tunnels: Use of bentonite pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, David (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada)); Sanden, Torbjoern (Clay Technology AB (Sweden)); Jonsson, Esther (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Mangaement Co. (Sweden)); Hansen, Johanna (Posiva Oy (Finland))


    The state of knowledge related to use of bentonite pellets as part of backfill or other gap filling components in repository applications is reviewed. How the pellets interact with adjacent sealing materials and the surrounding rock mass is a critical aspect in determining backfill behaviour. The key features and processes that determine how the pellet component of the KBS-3V deposition tunnel backfill will behave are discussed and recommendations related to what additional information needs to be developed are provided. Experiences related to pellet material composition, size, shape, placement options and more importantly, the density to which they can be placed all indicate that there are significant limitations to the achievable as-placed density of bentonite pellet fill. Low as-placed density of the pellet fill component of the backfill is potentially problematic as the outermost regions of tunnel backfill will be the first region of the backfill to be contacted by water entering the tunnels. It is also through this region that initial water movement along the length of the deposition tunnels will occur. This will greatly influence the operations in a tunnel, especially with respect to situations where water is exiting the downstream face of still open deposition tunnels. Pellet-filled regions are also sensitive to groundwater salinity, susceptible to development of piping features and subsequent mechanical erosion by through flowing water, particularly in the period preceding deposition tunnel closure. A review of the experiences of various organisations considering use of bentonite-pellet materials as part of buffer or backfill barriers is provided in this document. From this information, potential options and limitations to use of pellets or pellet-granule mixtures in backfill are identified. Of particular importance is identification of the apparent upper-limits of dry density to which such materials can to be placed in the field. These bounds will

  7. Are owl pellets good estimators of prey abundance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Andrade


    Full Text Available Some ecologists have been skeptics about the use of owl pellets to estimate small mammal’s fauna. This is due to the assumptions required by this method: (a that owls hunt at random, and (b that pellets represent a random sample from the environment. We performed statistical analysis to test these assumptions and to assess the effectiveness of Barn owl pellets as a useful estimator of field abundances of its preys. We used samples collected in the arid Extra-Andean Patagonia along an altitudinal environmental gradient from lower Monte ecoregion to upper Patagonian steppe ecoregion, with a mid-elevation ecotone. To test if owls hunt at random, we estimated expected pellet frequency by creating a distribution of random pellets, which we compared with data using a simulated chi-square. To test if pellets represent a random sample from the environment, differences between ecoregions were evaluated by PERMANOVAs with Bray–Curtis dissimilarities. We did not find evidence that owls foraged non-randomly. Therefore, we can assume that the proportions of the small mammal’s species in the diet are representative of the proportions of the species in their communities. Only Monte is different from other ecoregions. The ecotone samples are grouped with those of Patagonian steppes. There are no real differences between localities in the small mammal’s abundances in each of these ecoregions and/or Barn owl pellets cannot detect patterns at a smaller spatial scale. Therefore, we have no evidence to invalidate the use of owl pellets at an ecoregional scale.

  8. Digestibility of pelleted rations containing diverse potato flour and urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martinele


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate ruminal in situ degradability and in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DM in concentrate supplements containing diverse potato flour pelletized with urea (0%, 4%, 8%, and 12% DM. Samples of feeds were incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48h in the rumen of four fistulated sheep. Level of urea added had no significant effect (P>;0.05 on the soluble fraction (a or potentially degradable fraction (b of the pellets and ranged from 2.1% to 12.2% and 72.9% to 87.5%, respectively. Quadratic effects (P=0.03 of the rate of degradation of fraction "b" ranged from 4.75% h-1to 7.39% h-1; the estimated maximum value at 7.4% h-1was obtained when 5.9% urea was added to the pellet. Quadratic effects (P≤0.02 of the level of urea added to the pellets on the effective degradability (ED of DM were evaluated after considering rumen passage rates of 2.5% h-1and 8% h-1; the maximum values of ED calculated under these rumen passage rates were estimated at 6.3% to 7.3% urea in the pellets. The in vitro digestibility of DM of the pellets showed a quadratic effect (P=0.02 at different levels of urea, with a maximum value of 96.9% achieved when 7.9% urea was added to the pellets. Our results suggest that the addition of 6-8% urea to pelleted feed promotes an increase in the in vitro digestibility and ED of DM.

  9. Carbon Monoxide Off-Gassing From Bags of Wood Pellets. (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Arifur; Rossner, Alan; Hopke, Philip K


    Wood pellets are increasingly used for space heating in the United States and globally. Prior work has shown that stored bulk wood pellets produce sufficient carbon monoxide (CO) to represent a health concern and exceed regulatory standards for occupational exposures. However, most of the pellets used for residential heating are sold in 40-pound (18.1 kg) plastic bags. This study measured CO emission factors from fresh, bagged-wood pellets as a function of temperature and relative humidity. CO concentrations increased with increasing temperature and moisture in the container. CO measurements in a pellet mill warehouse with stored pallets of bagged pellets had 8-h average CO concentrations up to 100 ppm exceeding occupational standards for worker exposure. Thus, manufacturers, distributors, and home owners should be aware of the potential for CO in storage areas and design facilities with appropriate ventilation and CO sensors. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  10. Development of a Tritium Extruder for ITER Pellet Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. Gouge; P.W. Fisher


    As part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plasma fueling development program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has fabricated a pellet injection system to test the mechanical and thermal properties of extruded tritium. Hydrogenic pellets will be used in ITER to sustain the fusion power in the plasma core and may be crucial in reducing first-wall tritium inventories by a process of "isotopic fueling" in which tritium-rich pellets fuel the burning plasma core and deuterium gas fuels the edge. This repeating single-stage pneumatic pellet injector, called the Tritium-Proof-of-Principle Phase II (TPOP-II) Pellet Injector, has a piston-driven mechanical extruder and is designed to extrude and accelerate hydrogenic pellets sized for the ITER device. The TPOP-II program has the following development goals: evaluate the feasibility of extruding tritium and deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixtures for use in future pellet injection systems; determine the mechanical and thermal properties of tritium and D-T extrusions; integrate, test, and evaluate the extruder in a repeating, single-stage light gas gun that is sized for the ITER application (pellet diameter -7 to 8 mm); evaluate options for recycling propellant and extruder exhaust gas; and evaluate operability and reliability of ITER prototypical fueling systems in an environment of significant tritium inventory that requires secondary and room containment systems. In tests with deuterium feed at ORNL, up to 13 pellets per extrusion have been extruded at rates up to 1 Hz and accelerated to speeds of 1.0 to 1.1 km/s, using hydrogen propellant gas at a supply pressure of 65 bar. Initially, deuterium pellets 7.5 mm in diameter and 11 mm in length were produced-the largest cryogenic pellets produced by the fusion program to date. These pellets represent about a 10% density perturbation to ITER. Subsequently, the extruder nozzle was modified to produce pellets that are almost 7.5-mm right circular

  11. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370632656

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  12. Travelling to breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, RJ; Fox, AD; Stahl, J

    Traditionally, investigation of the dynamics of avian migration has been heavily biased towards the autumn return trip to the wintering quarters. Since the migratory prelude to breeding has direct fitness consequences, the European Science Foundation recently redressed the balance and sponsored a

  13. Lettuce and spinach breeding (United States)

    Lettuce and spinach production is beset by numerous biotic an abiotic challenges. This report to the California Leafy Greens Research Program annual meeting provides an update by the ‘Genetic Enhancement of Lettuce, Spinach, Melon, and Related Species’ project at Salinas on the genetics and breeding...

  14. Sugar beet breeding (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  15. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,


    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great

  16. Plant breeding and genetics (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  17. Wood pellets and work environment; Traepiller og arbejdsmiljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov, S.


    The project aim was to evaluate the working environment in the production, transport and use of wood pellets. Furthermore, obtained knowledge and guidelines should be disseminated to relevant audiences. The first aim was achieved by making dust measurements at various relevant locations and analyze the results. Several technical problems regarding the measurements occurred during the project. In general, the manual handling of pellets often is a short-term task, which limits the amount of dust that can be collected on the sampling filter. The solution to this problem could be the use of in situ monitoring equipment, however, this technic did not work well for wood dust. Dissemination is mainly done by publishing the findings and guidelines on the webpage The result shows that there are widespread dust problems associated with the use and handling of pellets. The result may have been expected in the wood pellet industry, which has been reluctant to support this project. Legislation on the working environment has set a threshold limit for the dust concentration in the air on max 1 mg of dust per cubic meters of air over a working day and in over shorter periods this limit may be doubled. These threshold values were exceeded in many cases. Brief overview: The production of pellets takes place in a very dusty working environment, but the specific pelletizing and bagging processes only produce limited amounts of dust. The dust problems are major in the large warehouses where the handling of the raw material for the pellets increases the dust concentration in the air to levels that by far exceeds the legal threshold values. The work is mainly carried out from the cabin of different machines e.g. loaders and bobcats. It turns out that the average dust concentration in these cabins with filters also exceeds the threshold values. The transports of wood pellets include loading, unloading and delivery of loose pellets, all situations that are critical

  18. Method to Produce Durable Pellets at Lower Energy Consumption Using High Moisture Corn Stover and a Corn Starch Binder in a Flat Die Pellet Mill. (United States)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Conner, Craig C; Hoover, Amber N


    A major challenge in the production of pellets is the high cost associated with drying biomass from 30 to 10% (w.b.) moisture content. At Idaho National Laboratory, a high-moisture pelleting process was developed to reduce the drying cost. In this process the biomass pellets are produced at higher feedstock moisture contents than conventional methods, and the high moisture pellets produced are further dried in energy efficient dryers. This process helps to reduce the feedstock moisture content by about 5-10% during pelleting, which is mainly due to frictional heat developed in the die. The objective of this research was to explore how binder addition influences the pellet quality and energy consumption of the high-moisture pelleting process in a flat die pellet mill. In the present study, raw corn stover was pelleted at moistures of 33, 36, and 39% (w.b.) by addition of 0, 2, and 4% pure corn starch. The partially dried pellets produced were further dried in a laboratory oven at 70 °C for 3-4 hr to lower the pellet moisture to less than 9% (w.b.). The high moisture and dried pellets were evaluated for their physical properties, such as bulk density and durability. The results indicated that increasing the binder percentage to 4% improved pellet durability and reduced the specific energy consumption by 20-40% compared to pellets with no binder. At higher binder addition (4%), the reduction in feedstock moisture during pelleting was binder. With 4% binder and 33% (w.b.) feedstock moisture content, the bulk density and durability values observed of the dried pellets were >510 kg/m(3) and >98%, respectively, and the percent fine particles generated was reduced to <3%.

  19. Composite pellets of coal - Binders and high temperature testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, V.


    The present paper is a report on Phase III of Project B1-315, 'Technics for production and combustion of composite pellets', including environmental aspects on the method of application. Recipes were developed and tested for the following four binders: CMC, Slaggcement, water glass, and bentonite. Determinations of softening temperatures shows that all four pellet types are stable in nitrogen-atmosphere up to 1500/sup 0/C. When simulating combustion in air, softening starts at 1050 - 1200/sup 0/C, the best results being achieved with bentonite. Combusiton tests were first performed on separate pellets in order to keep conditions well within control. Very soon it showed that unsufficiently small retention of sulphur was achieved, in spite of low combustion temperature and high Ca/S-relation. As an explanation to this it was suggested that no reaction between SO/sub 2/ and CaO can be expected within pellets which still contain coal. The sulphur is presumable excaping as COS, H/sub 2/ S or elementary sulphur. These compounds do not react with CaO, but they are oxidized outside the pellets forming SO/sub 2/ which later is absorbed by CaO - containing ash. This pattern makes it less interesting to study the combustion of single pellets. So, the test programme was changed and combustion tests with bedded pellets were introduced which gave a better result. At 1050/sup 0/C lower retention was attained, possibly because the combustion was carried out too far. The burning time was long because of the low temperature.

  20. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, R.; Dun, van K.P.M.; Snoo, de B.; Berg, van den M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, de J.P.C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Wijnker, T.G.


    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on

  1. A survey of the pellets sector. 'Interpellets', window of the international pellets industry; Uebersicht rund um Pellets. Interpellets als Schaufenster der internationalen Pelletsbranche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, Joerg [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Sonnenenergie e.V. (DGS) (Germany). Bereich PV-Projektierung und PV-Anlagenbetrieb


    In late October 2008, the 'Interpellets' fair was held at Stuttgart. Parallel to this, Solar Promotion GmbH hosted the expert conference 'Industrieforum Pellets'. At 5,300, public attendance was higher by 14 percent than in the year before, and the congress was attended by 480 experts. (orig.)

  2. Biopellets - Quality assurance - prestudy; Kvalitetssaekring av pellets - inledande studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, S.E.; Cronholm, L.Aa. [AaF Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The purpose of this summary is to specify the quality demands imposed by pellet users on the manufacturers of pellets, the testing methods that are used for manufacturing inspection at factories, and the type of acceptance inspection that is conducted at district heating plants and combined heat and power plants. A further task of the study has been to provide advice and guidelines to pellet users on how to carry out their acceptance inspection. During the course of the study, we have contacted and interviewed 8 Swedish users and 7 Swedish producers of pellets and asked them what type of quality control they employ at their heating plants and factories. The study shows that the users impose relatively stringent demands on pellet producers with regard to pellet quality. The parameters checked include energy content, moisture content, ash content, grain size, grain size distribution, the origin of the raw materials, resistance, weight, chemical bonding, sulphur content, chlorine content and analysis of metal content. Most of the above parameters are checked at various intervals, some every other hour or on each delivery and others several times every year. In the case of those users who only have one fuel supplier, we recommend limited acceptance inspection on the assumption that the supplier conducts the inspection that he has undertaken to perform under the terms of his agreement with the users. Users should, however, check the information and at some time during the year visit the pellet producer to make sure that the agreed procedures are being followed. In the case of those users with many different fuel suppliers, we recommend fairly extensive acceptance inspection. Those parameters that should be checked, but at different intervals, are energy content, moisture content, ash content, grain size, grain size distribution, the origin of raw materials, resistance, weight, chemical bonding, sulphur content, chlorine content and analysis of metal content. As a

  3. Studies on implementation of pellet tracking in hadron physics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyszniak A.


    Full Text Available A system for optical tracking of frozen hydrogen microsphere targets (pellets has been designed. It is intended for the upcoming hadron physics experiment PANDA at FAIR, Darmstadt, Germany. With such a tracking system one can reconstruct the positions of the individual pellets at the time of a hadronic interaction in the offline event analysis. This gives information on the position of the primary interaction vertex with an accuracy of a few 100 µm, which is very useful e.g. for reconstruction of charged particle tracks and secondary vertices and for background suppression. A study has been done at the WASA detector setup (Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany to check the possibility of classification of hadronic events as originating in pellets or in background. The study has been done based on the instantaneous rate a Long Range TDC which was used to determine if a pellet was present in the accelerator beam region. It was clearly shown that it is possible to distinguish the two event classes. Also, an experience was gained with operation of two synchronized systems operating in different time scales, as it will also be the case with the optical pellet tracking.

  4. The prevalence and retention of lead pellets in Japanese quail. (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Hayashi, M; Yoshimura, M; Hayashi, H; Hiratsuka, A; Isii, Y


    Thirty-six Japanese quail (18 control birds, 18 lead-dosed birds) were used. The 18 quail were dosed with #4 lead weight that were orally inserted into the proventriculus. Delta-aminolevulunic acid dehydrase (ALAD) activity in erythrocytes in the dosed quail decreased 90% (p ALAD activity in erythrocytes indicates lead exposure. Radiographics were obtained at 0, 1, 4, 9, 22, and 32 days. The lead pellets remained in the gizzard and became smaller in 4 days. At day 22, after the lead treatment, in 8 quail of the treated quail 12, the lead pellets disappeared. At day 32, all lead pellets disappeared. These findings indicate that the ingested lead pellets are absorbed gradually in the intestine. The lead concentrations in the blood, liver, kidney, and femur of the lead-dosed quail were significantly higher than in the undosed quail until the 6th week. At week 2, the lead concentration of the proventriculus, gizzard, gizzard contents, duodenum, small intestine, and cecum in the dosed quail was significantly higher. Lead concentration of feces was significantly higher at weeks 2 and 4 (p < 0.01). Throughout this study, no lead pellets were found in the feces.

  5. Fertilizing value of broiler litter: effects of drying and pelletizing. (United States)

    López-Mosquera, M E; Cabaleiro, F; Sainz, M J; López-Fabal, A; Carral, E


    The effects of drying and pelletizing on the properties of broiler chicken litter, obtained from a farm in northwest Spain, were investigated. The drying and pelletizing process reduced among-batch variability in dry matter content, electrical conductivity, urea N, and K, S, Na, Fe, Cu and Cd contents, but increased among-batch variability in total N, ammonium N, nitrate N, total P and pH. N form contents in the pelletized product could be estimated with reasonable accuracy on the basis of dry matter content. Cr, Cu and Cd contents were all significantly lower in the dried pelletized product than in fresh litter, whereas Pb content was significantly higher. The dried pelletized product is of course clearly preferable to the fresh product as regards storage and handling, however, our results suggest a need to optimize the production process with the aim of reducing possible contamination during manufacture, and of minimizing variability in N form contents, P content and pH.

  6. Comparative analysis of thermal behavior in hollow nuclear fuel pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Beatriz M. dos; Alvim, Antonio C.M., E-mail:, E-mail: [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear


    The increase in energy demand in Brazil and in the world is a real problem and several solutions are being considered to mitigate it. Maximization of energy generation, within the safety standards of fuel resources already known, is one of them. In this respect, nuclear energy is a crucial technology to sustain energy demand on several countries. Performances of a solid cylindrical and an annular rod have been verified and compared; where it has been proven that the annular rod can reach a higher nominal power in relation to the solid one. In this paper, the temperature profiles of two distinct nuclear fuel pellets, one of them annular and the other in the shape of a hollow biconcave disc (like the cross section of a red blood cell), were compared to analyze the efficiency and safety of both. The finite differences method allowed the evaluation of the thermal behavior of these pellets, where one specific physical condition was analyzed, regarding convection and conduction at the lateral edges. The results show that the temperature profile of the hollow biconcave disc pellet is lower, about 70 deg C below, when compared to the temperature profile of the annular pellet, considering the same simulation parameters for both pellets. (author)

  7. The filamentous fungal pellet and forces driving its formation. (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Jining


    Filamentous fungi play an important role not only in the bio-manufacturing of value-added products, but also in bioenergy and environmental research. The bioprocess manipulation of filamentous fungi is more difficult than that of other microbial species because of their different pellet morphologies and the presence of tangled mycelia under different cultivation conditions. Fungal pellets, which have the advantages of harvest ease, low fermentation broth viscosity and high yield of some proteins, have been used for a long time. Many attempts have been made to establish the relationship between pellet and product yield using quantitative approaches. Fungal pellet formation is attributed to the combination of electrostatic interactions, hydrophobicity and specific interactions from spore wall components. Electrostatic interactions result from van der Waals forces and negative charge repulsion from carboxyl groups in the spore wall structure. Electrostatic interactions are also affected by counter-ions (cations) and the physiologic conditions of spores that modify the carboxyl groups. Fungal aggregates are promoted by the hydrophobicity generated by hydrophobins, which form a hydrophobic coat that covers the spore. The specific interactions of spore wall components contribute to spore aggregation through salt bridging. A model of spore aggregation was proposed based on these forces. Additionally, some challenges were addressed, including the limitations of research techniques, the quantitative determination of forces and the complex information of biological systems, to clarify the mechanism of fungal pellet formation.

  8. Particle transport in pellet fueled JET (Jet European Torus) plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, L.R.


    Pellet fueling experiments have been carried out on the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak with a multi-pellet injector. The pellets are injected at speeds approaching 1400 m/s and penetrate deep into the JET plasma. Highly peaked electron density profiles are achieved when penetration of the pellets approaches or goes beyond the magnetic axis, and these peaked profiles persist for more than two seconds in ohmic discharges and over one second in ICRF heated discharges. In this dissertation, analysis of electron particle transport in multi-pellet fueled JET limiter plasmas under a variety of heating conditions is described. The analysis is carried out with a one and one-half dimensional radial particle transport code to model the experimental density evolution with various particle transport coefficients. These analyses are carried out in plasmas with ohmic heating, ICRF heating, and neural beam heating, in limiter configurations. Peaked density profile cases are generally characterized by diffusion coefficients with a central (r/a < 0.5) diffusivity {approximately}0.1 m{sup 2}/s that increases rapidly to {approximately}0.3 m{sup 2}/s at r/a = 0.6 and then increases out to the plasma edge as (r/a){sup 2}. These discharges can be satisfactorily modeled without any anomalous convective (pinch) flux. 79 refs., 60 figs.

  9. Gyrokinetic simulations of particle transport in pellet fuelled JET discharges (United States)

    Tegnered, D.; Oberparleiter, M.; Nordman, H.; Strand, P.; Garzotti, L.; Lupelli, I.; Roach, C. M.; Romanelli, M.; Valovič, M.; Contributors, JET


    Pellet injection is a likely fuelling method of reactor grade plasmas. When the pellet ablates, it will transiently perturb the density and temperature profiles of the plasma. This will in turn change dimensionless parameters such as a/{L}n,a/{L}T and plasma β. The microstability properties of the plasma then changes which influences the transport of heat and particles. In this paper, gyrokinetic simulations of a JET L-mode pellet fuelled discharge are performed. The ion temperature gradient/trapped electron mode turbulence is compared at the time point when the effect from the pellet is the most pronounced with a hollow density profile and when the profiles have relaxed again. Linear and nonlinear simulations are performed using the gyrokinetic code GENE including electromagnetic effects and collisions in a realistic geometry in local mode. Furthermore, global nonlinear simulations are performed in order to assess any nonlocal effects. It is found that the positive density gradient has a stabilizing effect that is partly counteracted by the increased temperature gradient in the this region. The effective diffusion coefficients are reduced in the positive density region region compared to the intra pellet time point. No major effect on the turbulent transport due to nonlocal effects are observed.

  10. Drug release, preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetics relationships of alginate pellets prepared by melt technology. (United States)

    Bose, Anirbandeep; Harjoh, Nurulaini; Pal, Tapan Kumar; Dan, Shubhasis; Wong, Tin Wui


    Alginate pellets prepared by the aqueous agglomeration technique experience fast drug dissolution due to the porous pre-formed calcium alginate microstructure. This study investigated in vitro drug release, preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetics relationships of intestinal-specific calcium acetate-alginate pellets against calcium-free and calcium carbonate-alginate pellets. Alginate pellets were prepared by solvent-free melt pelletization instead of aqueous agglomeration technique using chlorpheniramine maleate as model drug. A fast in situ calcium acetate dissolution in pellets resulted in rapid pellet breakup, soluble Ca(2+) crosslinking of alginate fragments and drug dissolution retardation at pH 1.2, which were not found in other pellet types. The preclinical drug absorption rate was lower with calcium acetate loaded than calcium-free alginate pellets. In human subjects, however, the extent and the rate of drug absorption were higher from calcium acetate-loaded pellets than calcium-free alginate pellets. The fine, dispersible and weakly gastric mucoadhesive calcium alginate pellets underwent fast human gastrointestinal transit. They released the drug at a greater rate than calcium-free pellets in the intestine, thereby promoting drug bioavailability. Calcium acetate was required as a disintegrant more than as a crosslinking agent clinically to promote pellet fragmentation, fast gastrointestinal transit and drug release in intestinal medium, and intestinal-specific drug bioavailability.

  11. Monitoring and data acquisition of the high speed hydrogen pellet in SPINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Samiran Shanti, E-mail:; Mishra, Jyotishankar; Gangradey, Ranjana; Dutta, Pramit; Rastogi, Naveen; Panchal, Paresh; Nayak, Pratik; Agarwal, Jyoti; Bairagi, Pawan; Patel, Haresh; Sharma, Hardik


    Highlights: • Pellet INjector System with monitoring and data acquisition is described. • A high speed camera was used to view pellet size, and its flight trajectory. • PXI based high speed control system is used data acquisition. • Pellets of length 2–4.8 mm and speed 250–750 m/s were obtained. - Abstract: Injection of solid hydrogen pellets is an efficient way of replenishing the spent fuel in high temperature plasmas. Aiming that, a Single Pellet INjector System (SPINS) is developed at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India, to initiate pellet injection related research in SST-1. The pellet injector is controlled by a PXI system based data acquisition and control (DAC) system for pellet formation, precise firing control, data collection and diagnostics. The velocity of high speed moving pellets is estimated by using two sets of light gate diagnostic. Apart from light gate, a fast framing camera is used to measure the pellet size and its speed. The pellet images are captured at a frame rate of ∼200,000 frames per second at (128 × 64) pixel resolution with an exposure time of 1 μs. Using these diagnostic, various cylindrical pellets of length ranging from 2 to 4.8 mm and speed 250–750 m/s were successfully obtained. This paper describes the control and data acquisition system of SPINS, the techniques for measurement of pellet velocity and capturing images of high speed moving pellet.

  12. Optimization of a multi-parameter model for biomass pelletization to investigate temperature dependence and to facilitate fast testing of pelletization behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens Kai; Stelte, Wolfgang; Posselt, Dorthe


    Pelletization of biomass residues increases the energy density, reduces storage and transportation costs and results in a homogeneous product with well-defined physical properties. However, raw materials for fuel pellet production consist of ligno-cellulosic biomass from various resources...... and error” experiments and personal experience. However in recent years the utilization of single pellet press units for testing the biomass pelletizing properties has attracted more attention. The present study outlines an approach where single pellet press testing is combined with modeling to mimic...

  13. Accelerating plant breeding. (United States)

    De La Fuente, Gerald N; Frei, Ursula K; Lübberstedt, Thomas


    The growing demand for food with limited arable land available necessitates that the yield of major food crops continues to increase over time. Advances in marker technology, predictive statistics, and breeding methodology have allowed for continued increases in crop performance through genetic improvement. However, one major bottleneck is the generation time of plants, which is biologically limited and has not been improved since the introduction of doubled haploid technology. In this opinion article, we propose to implement in vitro nurseries, which could substantially shorten generation time through rapid cycles of meiosis and mitosis. This could prove a useful tool for speeding up future breeding programs with the aim of sustainable food production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exergetic Evaluation of a Pellet Stove in Different Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granada, E.; Alvarez, H.; Moran, J.C.; Porteiro, J.; Miguez, J.L. [Univ. de Vigo (Spain). E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales


    To find best configuration for small co-generation system based in pellet combustion process, exergetic analysis was applied to a small pellet stove. Evaluation is focused in the exergetic balance of a stove, which supply hot water for heating, and in the smoke exergetic content for power generation purpose. Preheated air, secondary air, smoke recirculation and basis configurations were studied. Global exergetic simulation was developed in Matlab at these configurations based on energy and emissions experimental correlations. Influence of pellet feeding rate, excess of air, secondary air and smoke flow were studied. Discussion of results at any configuration was developed and best configuration is presented. Results show that emissions have high influence in smoke exergetic content although if emissions are removed only a slight global exergetic efficiency increase is expected.

  15. Standard specification for sintered (Uranium-Plutonium) dioxide pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This specification covers finished sintered and ground (uranium-plutonium) dioxide pellets for use in thermal reactors. It applies to uranium-plutonium dioxide pellets containing plutonium additions up to 15 % weight. This specification may not completely cover the requirements for pellets fabricated from weapons-derived plutonium. 1.2 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aware of and conform to all applicable international, federal, state, and local regulations pertaining to possessing, processing, shipping, or using source or special nuclear material. Examples of U.S. government documents are Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 50Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities; Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 71Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material; and Code of Federal Regulations Tit...

  16. Development of wood pellets market in South East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko D.


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching wood pellets market in nine countries in South East Europe and Slovakia. Objective of the research was to observe the actual situation regarding the number of producers, size of installed capacities, production volume, foreign trade flows and existing problems and obstacles which significantly limit the sustainable development of wood pellets market in the selected countries. Selection of such an objective results from the fact that according to the stated elements there are no sufficiently reliable data, wherefore this region is a huge gap in numerous reports of international and national organizations and institutions. Results of the conducted research show that in the middle of 2014, 245 producers were engaged in wood pellets production in South East Europe and Slovakia, 116 of which were located in Bulgaria and Serbia. Most of the producers of wood pellets has installed capacities of 1,000-5,000 tons annually, while only 18 factories in the entire region have the installed capacity over 30,000 tons/year. Observed collectively in all stated countries, the total installed capacities for wood pellets production were 2.2 million tons in 2013 and the realized production was 1.36 million tons. The largest part of the produced amounts of wood pellets in this region is exported. 1.06 million tons were exported from the region in 2013, which is 77.9% of the realized production. Such high export is the result of the underdevelopment of the local market (Slovenia is the only exception and the problems which exist and limit its faster development in most countries.

  17. Pellet production from agricultural raw materials - A systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Bernesson, Sven; Hansson, Per-Anders [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden)


    The demand for biofuel pellets has increased considerably in recent years, causing shortage of the traditional raw materials sawdust and wood shavings. In this study, the costs and energy requirements for the production of pellets from agricultural raw materials were analysed. The materials studied were Salix, reed canary grass, hemp, straw, screenings, rape-seed meal, rape cake and distiller's waste. Four production scales were analysed, having an annual output of 80,000, 8000, 800 and 80 tonnes of pellets per year. It was concluded that the raw materials of greatest interest were Salix and reed canary grass. They had competitive raw material costs and acceptable fuel properties and could be mixed with sawdust in existing large-scale pelleting factories. Straw had low production costs but can cause serious ash-related problems and should, as also is the case for screenings, be avoided in small-scale burners. Hemp had high raw material costs and is of less commercial interest, while distiller's waste, rape-seed meal and rape cake had higher alternative values when used as protein feed. The scale of production had a crucial influence on production costs. The machinery was used much more efficiently in large-scale plants, resulting in clear cost savings. Small-scale pelleting, both static and mobile, required cheap raw materials, low labour costs and long utilisation times to be profitable. In most cases, briquetting would be more commercially viable. The energy use in manufacturing pellets from air-dried crops was generally no higher than when moist sawdust was used as the raw material. (author)

  18. Market review. Pellet wood gasification boiler / combination boiler. 8. ed.; Marktuebersicht. Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern


    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  19. Pellet wood gasification boiler / Combination boiler. Market review. 7. ed.; Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern


    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) report on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  20. Investigation for the quality factors on the tablets containing medicated pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Tan


    Full Text Available Sustained and controlled pellets are considered as one of the ideal dosage forms. Due to the large coverage area of pellets, loaded drugs can be absorbed completely in the body and bioavailability is improved correspondingly. Coated pellets-containing tablet is a special oral formulation consisting of various pellets with different release rate. Desired rate of drug release rate can be achieved by adjusting the proportion of pellets. However, this formulation faces strict requirements in the process of preparation. Several factors will influence release behavior of tablets, including pellet cores, coating, and tabletting. Therefore, these factors will be investigated sufficiently in this review to provide valuable information for manufacturing process.

  1. Investigation for the quality factors on the tablets containing medicated pellets. (United States)

    Tan, Xueying; Hu, Jingbo


    Sustained and controlled pellets are considered as one of the ideal dosage forms. Due to the large coverage area of pellets, loaded drugs can be absorbed completely in the body and bioavailability is improved correspondingly. Coated pellets-containing tablet is a special oral formulation consisting of various pellets with different release rate. Desired rate of drug release rate can be achieved by adjusting the proportion of pellets. However, this formulation faces strict requirements in the process of preparation. Several factors will influence release behavior of tablets, including pellet cores, coating, and tabletting. Therefore, these factors will be investigated sufficiently in this review to provide valuable information for manufacturing process.

  2. Pellets for fusion reactor refueling. Annual progress report, January 1, 1976--December 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, R. J.; Kim, K.


    The purpose of this research is to test the feasibility of refueling fusion reactors using solid pellets composed of fuel elements. A solid hydrogen pellet generator has been constructed and experiments have been done to inject the pellets into the ORMAK Tokamak. A theory has been developed to describe the pellet ablation in the plasma, and an excellent agreement has been found between the theory and the experiment. Techniques for charging the pellets have been developed in order to accelerate and control them. Other works currently under way include the development of techniques for accelerating the pellets for refueling purpose. Evaluation of electrostatic acceleration has also been performed.

  3. Quality effects caused by torrefaction of pellets made from Scots pine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Dahl, Jonas


    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of torrefaction on the quality of Scots pine pellets. Pellet samples were torrefied at 230, 250 and 270°C for 1h in nitrogen atmosphere. Higher heating value (HHV) was increased from 18.37MJkg−1 to 24.34MJkg−1. The energy to crush a pellet...... the pellet samples in a bench scale disc mill. Particle size distribution measurements after grinding indicated a significant increase of small particles (diameterca. 2mm). To further analyze the effect on strength, the mechanical durability of pellets was tested according to wood pellet standards, EN 15210...

  4. Heat-resistant bacterial phytase in broiler pelleted diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TC de F Carlos


    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of a heat-resistant bacterial phytase added to pelleted diets on mineral digestibility, live performance, carcass traits, and bone quality of broilers. Three treatments were evaluated: Positive control; negative control, with 0.10 points reduction in calcium level and 0.15 points reduction in available phosphorus level; and negative control + phytase at 500 FTU/kg. Mineral digestibility and bone quality results demonstrated that the evaluated phytase resisted pelleting as it increased the utilization of the minerals present in the diet.

  5. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis (United States)

    Dirks, Rob; van Dun, Kees; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; van den Berg, Mark; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; Voermans, William; Woudenberg, Leo; de Wit, Jack P C; Reinink, Kees; Schut, Johan W; van der Zeeuw, Eveline; Vogelaar, Aat; Freymark, Gerald; Gutteling, Evert W; Keppel, Marina N; van Drongelen, Paul; Kieny, Matthieu; Ellul, Philippe; Touraev, Alisher; Ma, Hong; de Jong, Hans; Wijnker, Erik


    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chromosomes which can be cultured in vitro to generate homozygous doubled haploid plants (DHs). From these DHs, complementary parents can be selected and used to reconstitute the heterozygote in perpetuity. Since the fixation of unknown heterozygous genotypes is impossible in traditional plant breeding, RB could fundamentally change future plant breeding. In this review, we discuss various other applications of RB, including breeding per chromosome. PMID:19811618

  6. Gas-solid reduction kinetic model of MgO-fluxed pellets (United States)

    Gao, Qiang-jian; Shen, Feng-man; Jiang, Xin; Wei, Guo; Zheng, Hai-yan


    The reduction process of MgO-fluxed pellets was investigated and compared with traditional acidic pellets in this paper. Based on the piston flow concept and experimental data, a kinetic model fitting for the gas-solid phase reduction of pellets in tubular reactors (blast furnace, BF) was built up, and the equations of reduction reaction rate were given for pellets. A series of reduction experiments of pellets were carried out to verify the model. As a result, the experimental data and calculated result were fitted well. Therefore, this model can well describe the gas-solid phase reduction process and calculate the reduction reaction rate of pellets. Besides, it can give a better explanation that the reduction reaction rate (reducibility) of MgO-fluxed pellets is better than that of traditional acidic pellets in BF.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephen M. Redpath; Roger Clarke; Mike Madders; Simon J. Thirgood


    Abstract We compared techniques to assess diet at 17 Hen Harrier (Circus cyaneus) nests. Diet was measured directly from observations and compared to estimates from pellets, prey remains and a combination of pellets and remains...

  8. Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, S.


    This report provides an overview of a technical report on an assessment NREL conducted in Greensburg, Kansas, to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region. See NREL/TP-7A2-45843 for the Executive Summary of this report.

  9. The Magnetic Shielding Effect of a Re-Fuelling Pellet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.


    The magnetic shielding effect of a refuelling pellet is considered by first briefly reviewing the existing balloon model. The limitation of the model is pointed out and discussed. Since solid deuterium is an insulator and the ablated plasma is expected to be cold and dense, it is felt...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Gluvakov


    Full Text Available In modern life conditions, when emphasis is on environmental protection and sustainable development, fuels produced from biomass are increasingly gaining in importance, and it is necessary to consider the quality of end products obtained from biomass. Based on the existing European standards, collected literature and existing laboratory methods, this paper presents results of testing individual thermal - chemical properties of biomass energy pellets after extrusion and cooling the compressed material. Analysing samples based on standard methods, data were obtained on the basis of which individual thermal-chemical properties of pellets were estimated. Comparing the obtained results with the standards and literature sources, it can be said that moisture content, ash content and calorific values are the most important parameters for quality analysis which decide on applicability and use-value of biomass energy pellets, as biofuel. This paper also shows the impact of biofuels on the quality of environmental protection. The conclusion provides a clear statement of quality of biomass energy pellets.

  11. performance optimization of nce optimization of a cassava pelleting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    conveyor for conveying the cassava mash through performance optimization of the performance optimization of the system was carrie system was carrie throughput ... le for animal feed and ease rtation. Pelleting of cassava assava to be transported or plifies transport, handling es uniform product which is raw cassava chips.

  12. Pellet in the stomach: Where did it come from?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Dogu Yildiz


    Full Text Available Gunshot might have unexpected findings in the victim owing to the ballistics of the injury. The trajectory of the bullet plays a central role in the surprising findings in gunshot injuries. We are presenting a case with pellets seen in the stomach after a gunshot.

  13. Microgasification cookstoves and pellet fuels from waste biomass: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cooking with wood and wood charcoal is done by over 90% of Africa's population; it has two major challenges: deforestation and indoor air pollution from cooking smoke, the latter being the top risk factor for disease in Tanzania. Microgasification stoves (top lit up draft [TLUD]) that burn pellets produced from agricultural ...

  14. Effects of processing conditions on the hardness of cassava pellets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 1, 2009 ... graduated from 0 to 30 N had been adjusted to zero point and the driven gear box was operated manually to apply force by moving the spherically mounted nose piece closer to each other, the mercury column advanced and stop at the point of crack on the pellet. The force applied was read from the scale ...

  15. Effects of processing conditions on the hardness of cassava pellets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, an experimental rig attached to a Testometrics Universal Testing machine for the purpose of extrusion was used to investigate the effects of processing conditions on hardness property of cassava pellets. The parameters considered were machine speeds of 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 mm/min, die diameters of 6, 8, 10, ...

  16. A contribution from barn owl pellets to known micromammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of barn owl pellets were collected from the Dundee, Estcourt and Kokstad areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, during March 2000 for their micromammalian prey remains. Other material collected from near Pietermaritzburg in 1988/89 by the late J.O.Wirminghaus was also analysed. A minimum of 38 ...

  17. The properties of pellets from mixing bamboo and rice straw (United States)

    Zhijia Liu; Xing' e Liu; Benhua Fei; Zehui Jiang; Zhiyong Cai; Yan Yu


    Rice straw pellets are the main type of biomass solid fuel and have great potential as a bioenergy resource of the future in China. But it also showed important problems because of its high content of ashes and its low gross calorific value, reducing the possibility to be used in domestic heating. It was certified that mixing different types of biomass materials was...


    Lettuce (Latuca sativa L., cv. Buttercrunch) is one of the most common and sensitive test organisms, among plants, used in toxicology and bioavailability studies. Much of the available lettuce seeds in commercial channels are pelleted to allow for precision machine planting. Th...


    Lettuce (Latuca sativa L., cv. Buttercrunch) is one of the most common and sensitive test organisms, among plants, used in toxicology and bioavailability studies. Much of the available lettuce seeds in commercial channels are pelleted to allow for precision machine planting. Th...

  20. Gasification of pelletized biomass in a pilot scale downdraft gasifier. (United States)

    Simone, Marco; Barontini, Federica; Nicolella, Cristiano; Tognotti, Leonardo


    This work presents a pilot-scale investigation aimed at assessing the feasibility and reliability of biomass pellet gasification. Wood sawdust and sunflower seeds pellets were tested in a 200 kW downdraft gasifier operating with air as gasifying agent. The gasification of pelletized biomass led to rather high and unstable pressure drops, reducing the gasifier productivity and stability. Furthermore the generation of fine residues compromised the operation of wet ash removal systems. On the other hand, good syngas compositions (H(2) 17.2%, N(2) 46.0%, CH(4) 2.5%, CO 21.2%, CO(2) 12.6%, and C(2)H(4) 0.4%), specific gas production (2.2-2.4 N m(3) kg(-1)) and cold gas efficiency (67.7-70.0%) were achieved. For these reasons pelletized biomass should be considered only as complementary fuel in co-gasification with other feedstock. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analytical model of neutral gas shielding for hydrogen pellet ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuteev, Boris V.; Tsendin, Lev D. [State Technical Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    A kinetic gasdynamic scaling for hydrogen pellet ablation is obtained in terms of a neural gas shielding model using both numerical and analytical approaches. The scaling on plasma and pellet parameters proposed in the monoenergy approximation by Milora and Foster dR{sub pe}/dt{approx}S{sub n}{sup 2/3}R{sub p}{sup -2/3}q{sub eo}{sup 1/3}m{sub i}{sup -1/3} is confirmed. Here R{sub p} is the pellet radius, S{sub n} is the optical thickness of a cloud, q{sub eo} is the electron energy flux density and m{sub i} is the molecular mass. Only the numeral factor is approximately two times less than that for the monoenergy approach. Due to this effect, the pellet ablation rates, which were obtained by Kuteev on the basis of the Milora scaling, should be reduced by a factor of 1.7. Such a modification provides a reasonable agreement (even at high plasma parameters) between the two-dimensional kinetic model and the one-dimensional monoenergy approximation validated in contemporary tokamak experiments. As the could (in the kinetic approximation) is significantly thicker than that for the monoenergy case as well as the velocities of the gas flow are much slower, the relative effect of plasma and magnetic shielding on the ablation rate is strongly reduced. (author)

  2. 21 CFR 520.1628 - Oxfendazole powder and pellets. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxfendazole powder and pellets. 520.1628 Section 520.1628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), mature and immature pinworms...

  3. Streamwater Contamination After Aerial Application of a Pelletized Herbicide (United States)

    James H. Miller; A.C. Bace


    Concentrations of hexazinone and its metabolites were monitored in a Piedmont stream for 8 months after aerial application of a pelletized formulation (Velpar® Gridball™). Downstream water-users and fish are probably safe from toxic exposure if treatment areas have only small streams (less than 50 cm average channel width) and if labeled rates are not exceeded....

  4. The conditions of pellet production development in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Mikołajczak


    Full Text Available Global trends of increase in prices of conventional energy sources, compatibility with trends for environment protection and the necessity to fulfill EU obligations result in price growth of sawmill by-products – raw material for the production of eco-fuels. Such circumstances create a huge chance for the improvement of efficiency of very often operating on the verge of profitability owners of those by-products – that is plants converting wood, which apart from selling those by-products to chipboard producers, pulp and paper industry or energy sector, should consider the possibility of refining them in the place where they have been created. Converting sawmill by-products into pellet significantly increases their value. However, the decision to launch such conversion involves high costs and entails substantial investments, therefore requiring recognition of the factors having an impact on the success of such venture: prices of sawmill by-products – raw material for pellet production, development prospects of domestic pellet market at the time of growing prices of conventional fuels, as well as the legal regulations imposing on the investors pro-ecological character of activities and analysis of the situation on the European pellet market, taking into consideration its quality demands and possible prices.

  5. Pellet manufacturing by extrusion-spheronization using process analytical technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandler, Niklas; Rantanen, Jukka; Heinämäki, Jyrki


    The aim of this study was to investigate the phase transitions occurring in nitrofurantoin and theophylline formulations during pelletization by extrusion-spheronization. An at-line process analytical technology (PAT) approach was used to increase the understanding of the solid-state behavior...

  6. Physical quality of pelleted feed : a feed model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, M.


    In this study, a review and experimental work is presented on the relation between processing conditions and functional properties of feed constituents with respect to hardness and durability characteristics of pelleted feed. In the first three chapters, a literature overview is presented

  7. Analysis of pellets from a suburban Common Kestrel Falco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet of a Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus in a suburban area of Algiers at El Harrach was determined by pellet analysis over two years. In both years, the hybrid sparrow (Passer domesticus x P. hispaniolensis) was the main prey item, based on relative frequency (22.3% and 58.7% in 1999 and 2000, respectively).

  8. Design, fabrication and evaluation of fish meal pelletizing machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design, fabrication and evaluation of fish meal pelletizing machine. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... Design values of 210 was used for the maximum angle that the hopper wall formed with the vertical in the discharge zone, a critical stress of 1.3kPa of the ground particulate materials, and a density of ...

  9. Production of floating pellets using appropriate methods | Suleiman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated into the use of floating materials like candle wax, yeast and baking powder to achieve pellet buoyancy. Ten diets were formulated with incorporation of floating agents; Diet I-YBCT- (yeast-baking powder in cold water -toasted), Diet II-YBCU- (yeast-baking powder in cold water -untoasted) Diet III ...

  10. Modelling the role of pellet crack motion in the (r-θ) plane upon pellet-clad interaction in advanced gas reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, T.A. [Centre for Nuclear Engineering & Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Rd., London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ball, J.A. [EDF Energy, Barnett Way, Gloucester GL4 3RS (United Kingdom); Wenman, M.R., E-mail: [Centre for Nuclear Engineering & Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Rd., London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Finite element modelling of pellet relocation in the (r-θ) plane of nuclear fuel. • ‘Soft’ and ‘hard’ PCI have been predicted in a cracked nuclear fuel pellet. • Stress concentration in the cladding ahead of radial pellet cracks is predicted. • The model is very sensitive to the coefficient of friction and power ramp duration. • The model is less sensitive to the number of cracks assumed. - Abstract: A finite element model of pellet fragment relocation in the r-θ plane of advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) fuel is presented under conditions of both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ pellet-clad interaction. The model was able to predict the additional radial displacement of fuel fragments towards the cladding as well as the stress concentration on the inner surface resulting from the azimuthal motion of pellet fragments. The model was subjected to a severe ramp in power from both full power and after a period of reduced power operation; in the former, the maximum hoop stress in the cladding was found to be increased by a factor of 1.6 as a result of modelling the pellet fragment motion. The pellet-clad interaction was found to be relatively insensitive to the number of radial pellet crack. However, it was very sensitive to both the coefficient of friction used between the clad and pellet fragments and power ramp duration.

  11. Performance of a domestic pellet boiler as a function of operational loads: Part-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, V.K.; De Ruyck, J. [Department Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Bram, S. [Department Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Department of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Erasmushogeschool Brussel, Nijverheidskaai 170, 1070 Brussel (Belgium); Gauthier, G. [Unite de Thermodynamique et Turbomachines (TERM), Universite Catholique de Louvain (U.C.L.), 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)


    Emissions and efficiency of a pellet boiler (40 kW) at nominal load were compared with emissions and efficiency at reduced load, while fired with six biomass pellets. The pellets include reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), pectin waste from citrus shells (Citrus reticulata), sunflower husk (Helianthus annuus), peat, wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) and wood pellets. The measurements of emissions comprised of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulphur oxides (SO{sub x}) and flue dust mass concentrations (using DINplus and isokinetic sampling techniques). Emissions varied as a function of operational loads, for each type of pellets. The CO emissions were insignificant with reed canary grass (RCG), citrus pectin waste (CPW) and straw pellets at nominal load, however, at reduced load same pellets emitted 1.9, 4.0 and 7.4 times higher CO than wood pellets, respectively. Peat pellets emitted maximum CO at nominal load (4221.1 mgNm{sup -3}, 12.6 times higher than wood pellets) however; at reduced load CO emission was insignificant. The highest NO{sub x} emissions were reported with CPW, which were 3.4 and 4.6 times higher than wood pellets at nominal load and reduced load, respectively. Dust emissions were highest with sunflower husk and lowest with RCG pellets, at both operational modes. The best performance was reported with wood pellets, followed by RCG and pectin pellets, however, wood pellets combustion emitted 1.7 and 2.0 times higher dust{sub DINplus} than RCG at nominal and reduced loads, respectively. Not only fuel specific combustion optimization but also operational load specific optimization is essential for efficient use of agro-pellets in this type of boilers. (author)

  12. An automatic pellet dispenser for precise control of feeding topography in granivorous birds


    Berkhoudt, H.; Van Der Reijden, D.; Heijmans, M.


    Design and construction of an automatic pellet dispenser for granivorous birds are described. The dispenser permits rapid pneumatic delivery of pellets (five pellets per second maximum) to one controlled position and does not interfere with simultaneous electrophysiological recording. In addition, the device continuously indicates presence or absence of a pellet in the delivery position. This automatic dispenser proved very effective in our studies of stereotyped topographies of feeding in gr...

  13. Breed, Sex And Ambient Temperature Effects on Duration of Behavioural Traits of Rabbits (Oryctolagus Cunniculus) Reared in The Humid Tropics




    Breed, sex and ambient temperature effects on the nocturnal and diurnal duration of feed and water intakes, standing and lying down behaviour of rabbits were investigated. Twelve male and female weaner rabbits (New Zealand White, Dutch Black and American Chinchilla, 8 weeks old) were housed individually in cells measuring 51 cm x 51 cm each. They were fed an 18% Crude Protein pelleted diet, forages (Centrosema pubescens, Ipomea batatas and Tridax procumbens) and water ad libitum for 8 weeks. ...

  14. Lightning arrestor connector lead magnesium niobate qualification pellet test procedures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuohig, W. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Mahoney, Patrick A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Wheeler, Jill Susanne


    Enhanced knowledge preservation for DOE DP technical component activities has recently received much attention. As part of this recent knowledge preservation effort, improved documentation of the sample preparation and electrical testing procedures for lead magnesium niobate--lead titanate (PMN/PT) qualification pellets was completed. The qualification pellets are fabricated from the same parent powders used to produce PMN/PT lightning arrestor connector (LAC) granules at HWF&T. In our report, the procedures for fired pellet surface preparation, electrode deposition, electrical testing and data recording are described. The dielectric measurements described in our report are an information only test. Technical reasons for selecting the electrode material, electrode size and geometry are presented. The electrical testing is based on measuring the dielectric constant and dissipation factor of the pellet during cooling from 280 C to 220 C. The most important data are the temperature for which the peak dielectric constant occurs (Curie Point temperature) and the peak dielectric constant magnitude. We determined that the peak dielectric constant for our procedure would be that measured at 1 kHz at the Curie Point. Both the peak dielectric constant and the Curie point parameters provide semi-quantitative information concerning the chemical and microstructural homogeneity of the parent material used for the production of PMN/PT granules for LACs. Finally, we have proposed flag limits for the dielectric data for the pellets. Specifically, if the temperature of the peak dielectric constant falls outside the range of 250 C {+-} 30 C we propose that a flag limit be imposed that will initiate communication between production agency and design agency personnel. If the peak dielectric constant measured falls outside the range 25,000 {+-} 10,000 we also propose that a flag limit be imposed.

  15. The role of sinking fecal pellets in stratified euphotic zones (United States)

    Small, Lawrence F.; Knauer, George A.; Tuel, Merritt D.


    The euphotic zone at the VERTEX II oligotrophic sediment trap station (18°N, 108°W) can be viewed for simplicity a as two-layered system with (1) an upper mixed layer (0-40 m) of relatively high primary production, low chlorophyll concentration, and low zooplankton biomass, and (2) a lower layer (40-100 m) containing the chlorophyll and particulate organic carbon maxima, higher zooplankton biomass, and relatively low primary production. Particle traps at 30 m yielded no particulate carbon flux, while traps at 120 m registered 38 mg C m -2 d -1, with many visible fecal pellets. Zooplankton in the upper layer apparently produced small pellets which were recycled in situ. Fecal pellet carbon production by 200-2000 μm zooplankton in the lower layer, however, was 30% of trap-measured C flux. Tiny pellets produced by 53-200 μm zooplankton were mostly recycled within the euphotic zone, regardless of which euphotic layer the animals were inhabiting when collected. Comparisons are made between the relative contributions of sinking fecal pellets when the VERTEX II euphotic zone is considered as a single uniform layer rather than as a two-layered system. In addition, comparison of the VERTEX II data with data from the eutrophi VERTEX Vc site (35°50'N, 122°30'W) suggests that zooplankton can be more significantly coupled to carbon flux out of the bottom layers of oligotrophic euphotic zones than to carbon flux out of unlayered eutrophic euphotic zones.

  16. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek


    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  17. Charge Breeding Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F


    The numerous newly built and forthcoming post-accelerators for radioactive ions, produced with the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique, all have a need for an efficient method to accelerate the precious primary ions. By increasing the ion charge-to-mass ratio directly after the radioactive ion production stage, a short and compact linear accelerator can be employed. Not only the efficiency, but also the rapidity of such a charge-to-mass increasing process, called charge breeding, is a crucial factor for the often short-lived radioisotopes. The traditional foil or gas stripping technique was challenged some five to ten years ago by novel schemes for charge breeding. The transformation from 1+ to n+ charged ions takes place inside an Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) or Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source/Trap (ECRIS/T) by electron-ion collisions. These charge breeders are located in the low-energy part of the machine before the accelerating structures. Because of the capability of these devices...

  18. European Food Safety Authority; Analysis of the baseline survey of Salmonella in holdings with breeding pigs, in the EU, 2008; Part B: Analysis of factors potentially associated with Salmonella pen positivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    , feed of commercial compound origin or pelleted feed. A tendency towards some Member State group-specific Salmonella serovars was identified, but spatial distribution of other serovars was heterogeneous. S. Typhimurium and S. Derby were widespread and dominant in the EU, in both breeding and production......A European Union-wide Salmonella baseline survey was conducted in 2008 in holdings with breeding pigs. A total of 1,609 randomly selected holdings housing and selling mainly breeding pigs (breeding holdings) and 3,508 holdings housing commercial breeding pigs and mainly selling pigs for fattening...... or slaughter (production holdings) were sampled. In each selected holding, pooled fresh faecal samples were collected from 10 randomly chosen pens of breeding pigs over six months of age, representing the different stages of the breeding herd, and examined for the presence of Salmonella. Analyses at country...

  19. Validation of an image analysis method for estimating coating thickness on pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C.C.; Sonnergaard, Jørn; Bertelsen, P.


    of controlling and monitoring the illumination technique utilised. Calibration of the image analysis equipment was of the highest importance. Using pellets with a high degree of sphericity and narrow size distribution, it was sufficient to use 1000 pellets to estimate the mean pellet size and the coating...

  20. Used Pallets as a Source of Pellet Fuel: Current Industry Status (United States)

    P.B. Aruna; Jan G. Laarman; Philip A. Araman; Edward Coulter; Frederick Cubbage


    U.S. companies discard approximately 4 billion board feet per year of wood pallets and containers. Manufacturing fuel pellets from this wasted wood may be an alternative to disposal. This study traces the development of biomass energy and the wood pellet industry in the United States and considers the production aspects of making pellets from used pallets. In addition...

  1. Influence of apple pomace inclusion on the process of animal feed pelleting. (United States)

    Maslovarić, Marijana D; Vukmirović, Đuro; Pezo, Lato; Čolović, Radmilo; Jovanović, Rade; Spasevski, Nedeljka; Tolimir, Nataša


    Apple pomace (AP) is the main by-product of apple juice production. Large amounts of this material disposed into landfills can cause serious environmental problems. One of the solutions is to utilise AP as animal feed. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of dried AP inclusion into model mixtures made from conventional feedstuffs on pellet quality and pellet press performance. Three model mixtures, with different ratios of maize, sunflower meal and AP, were pelleted. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied when designing the experiment. The simultaneous and interactive effects of apple pomace share (APS) in the mixtures, die thickness (DT) of the pellet press and initial moisture content of the mixtures (M), on pellet quality and production parameters were investigated. Principal component analysis (PCA) and standard score (SS) analysis were applied for comprehensive analysis of the experimental data. The increase in APS led to an improvement of pellet quality parameters: pellet durability index (PDI), hardness (H) and proportion of fines in pellets. The increase in DT and M resulted in pellet quality improvement. The increase in DT and APS resulted in higher energy consumption of the pellet press. APS was the most influential variable for PDI and H calculation, while APS and DT were the most influential variables in the calculation of pellet press energy consumption. PCA showed that the first two principal components could be considered sufficient for data representation. In conclusion, addition of dried AP to feed model mixtures significantly improved the quality of the pellets.

  2. Image Analysis of Pellet Size for a Control System in Industrial Feed Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    When producing aquaculture fish feed pellets, the size of the output product is of immense importance. As the production method cannot produce pellets of constant and uniform size using constant machine settings, there is a demand for size control. Fish fed with feed pellets of improper size are ...

  3. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students


    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der, E.H.


    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR (University and Research Centre).

  4. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der Liesbeth


    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sivrikaya


    Full Text Available The use of conventional bentonite binder is favorable in terms of mechanical and metallurgical pellet properties, however, because of its acid constituents bentonite is considered as impurity especially for iron ores with high acidic content. Therefore, alternative binders to bentonite have been tested. Organic binders are the most studied binders and they yield pellets with good wet strength; they fail in terms of preheated and fired pellet strengths. This study was conducted to investigate how insufficient pellet strengths can be improved when organic binders are used as binder. The addition of a low-melting temperature and slag bonding/strength increasing constituent (free in acidic contents into pellet feed was proposed. Addition of boron compounds such as colemanite, tincal, borax pentahydrate, boric acid together with organic binders such as CMC, starch, dextrin and some organic based binders, into iron oxide pellet was tested. Wet and thermally treated pellet physical-mechanical qualities (balling - moisture content - size - shape - drop number - compressive strengths - porosity - dustiness were determined. The results showed that good quality wet, dry, preheated and fired pellets can be produced with combined binders (an organic binder plus a boron compound when compared with bentonite-bonded pellets. While organic binders provided sufficient wet and dry pellet strengths, the boron compounds provided the required preheated and fired pellet strengths at even lower firing temperature. Especially, the contribution of boron compound addition is most pronounced for hematite pellets which do not have strengthening mechanism through oxidation like magnetite pellets during firing. Therefore, addition of boron compound is beneficial to recover the low physical-mechanical qualities of pellets produced with organic binders through slag bonding mechanism. Furthermore, lowering the firing temperature thanks to low-melting boron compounds will be cost


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sivrikaya


    Full Text Available This study was started to find alternative binders to bentonite and to recover the low preheated and fired pellet mechanical strengths of organic binders-bonded pellets. Bentonite is considered as a chemical impurity for pellet chemistry due to acid constituents (SiO2 and Al2O3. Especially addition of silica-alumina bearing binders is detrimental for iron ore concentrate with high acidic content. Organic binders are the most studied binders since they are free in silica. Although they yield pellets with good wet strength; they have found limited application in industry since they fail to give sufficient physical and mechanical strength to preheated and fired pellets. It is investigated that how insufficient preheated and fired pellet strengths can be improved when organic binders are used as binder. The addition of a slag bonding/strength increasing constituent (free in acidic contents into pellet feed to provide pellet strength with the use of organic binders was proposed. Addition of boron compounds such as colemanite, tincal, borax pentahydrate, boric acid together with organic binders such as CMC, starch, dextrin and some organic based binders, into magnetite and hematite pellet mixture was tested. After determining the addition of boron compounds is beneficial to recover the low pellet physical and mechanical qualities in the first part of this study, in this second part, metallurgical and chemical properties (reducibility - swelling index – microstructure – mineralogy - chemical content of pellets produced with combined binders (an organic binder plus a boron compound were presented. The metallurgical and chemical tests results showed that good quality product pellets can be produced with combined binders when compared with the bentonite-bonded pellets. Hence, the suggested combined binders can be used as binder in place of bentonite in iron ore pelletizing without compromising the pellet chemistry.

  7. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental change....... Perhaps as a consequence, long-distance migratory songbirds are declining rapidly compared to their sedentary counterparts. To understand what is driving these declines in European-Afrotropical migratory bird populations we need to understand the full annual migration cycle of these birds. Recent...... technological advances are currently enabling us to track yet smaller songbirds throughout their migration cycle providing valuable insight into the life cycle of individual birds. However, direct tracking of migratory birds has so far mainly been conducted on single populations and our understanding of entire...

  8. Citrus pulp pellets as an additive for orange bagasse silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Grizotto


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fermentation profile of orange bagasse ensiled with three levels of dry matter (DM using citrus pulp pellets as a moisture-absorbing additive. Thirty experimental silos (3 treatments, 5 storage times, 2 replicates were prepared using 25-liter plastic buckets containing orange bagasse and three levels of pelleted citrus pulp (0, 6% and 20% as additive. A completely randomized design with repeated measures over time was used. The periods of anaerobic storage were 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Natural orange bagasse contained 13.9% DM, which increased to 19.1% and 25.5% with the inclusion of 6% and 20% citrus pulp pellets, respectively. The apparent density was inversely correlated with DM content and a higher level of compaction (982 kg/m3 was observed in the mass ensiled with the lowest DM level (13.9%. Additionally, lower compaction (910 kg/m3 was found in the mass ensiled with the additive. The chemical composition of the mass ensiled with or without citrus pulp pellets did not differ significantly in terms of protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, lignin or in vitro DM digestibility (P≥0.05, as expected. Thus, it was possible to analyze only the effect of the inclusion of citrus pulp pellets on the increase in DM content. The inclusion of 20% of the additive reduced (P<0.01 losses due to effluent (98% less and gas production (81% less compared to the control treatment at the end of the anaerobic storage period. In this treatment, a higher (P≤0.05 log number of lactic acid bacteria (4.61 log CFU/g was also observed compared to the other treatments, indicating that the increase in DM favored the growth of these bacteria. In addition, the low yeast count (about 1 log CFU/g sample and the pH below 4.0, which were probably due to the production of lactic and acetic acids, show that the orange bagasse is rich in fermentable soluble carbohydrates and is indicated for ensiling. In conclusion, orange bagasse can be

  9. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana


    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  10. The Feasibility of Pellet Re-Fuelling of a Fusion Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Jørgensen, L. W.; Nielsen, P.


    The feasibility of re-fuelling a fusion reactor by injecting pellets of frozen hydrogen isotopes is reviewed. First a general look is taken of the dominant energy fluxes received by the pellet, the re-fuelling rate required and the relation between pellet size, injection speed and frequency....... Current available theories of pellet ablation are then discussed. For a given penetration depth inside the reactor, the necessary pellet injection speed is examined in terms of the ablation theory adopted and the temperature and density profiles of the reactor plasma. The interaction between the injected...

  11. Potato breeding in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de H.


    A remarkable feature of potato breeding in the Netherlands is the great number of private breeders who have concentrated their efforts on the improvement of the potato. The author calls attention to some circumstances and measures that have made potato breeding attractive in the Netherlands

  12. A data mining approach to optimize pellets manufacturing process based on a decision tree algorithm. (United States)

    Ronowicz, Joanna; Thommes, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter; Krysiński, Jerzy


    The present study is focused on the thorough analysis of cause-effect relationships between pellet formulation characteristics (pellet composition as well as process parameters) and the selected quality attribute of the final product. The shape using the aspect ratio value expressed the quality of pellets. A data matrix for chemometric analysis consisted of 224 pellet formulations performed by means of eight different active pharmaceutical ingredients and several various excipients, using different extrusion/spheronization process conditions. The data set contained 14 input variables (both formulation and process variables) and one output variable (pellet aspect ratio). A tree regression algorithm consistent with the Quality by Design concept was applied to obtain deeper understanding and knowledge of formulation and process parameters affecting the final pellet sphericity. The clear interpretable set of decision rules were generated. The spehronization speed, spheronization time, number of holes and water content of extrudate have been recognized as the key factors influencing pellet aspect ratio. The most spherical pellets were achieved by using a large number of holes during extrusion, a high spheronizer speed and longer time of spheronization. The described data mining approach enhances knowledge about pelletization process and simultaneously facilitates searching for the optimal process conditions which are necessary to achieve ideal spherical pellets, resulting in good flow characteristics. This data mining approach can be taken into consideration by industrial formulation scientists to support rational decision making in the field of pellets technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Improved Fueling and Transport Barrier Formation with Pellet Injection from Different Locations on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; Gohil, P. [General Atomics; Schmidt, G. L. Schmidt [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Ernst, D. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Greenfield, C. M. [General Atomics; Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics; Houlberg, Wayne A [ORNL; Hsieh, C. [General Atomics; Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Sessions, W. D. [Tennessee Technological University; Staebler, G. M. [General Atomics; Synakowski, E. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)


    Pellet injection has been employed on DIII-D from different injection locations to optimize the mass deposition for density profile control and internal transport barrier formation. Transport barriers have been formed deep in the plasma core with central mass deposition from high field side (HFS) injected pellets and in the edge with pellets that trigger L-mode to H-mode transitions. Pellets injected from all locations can trigger the H-mode transition, which depends on the edge density gradient created and not on the radial extent of the pellet deposition. Pellets injected from inside the magnetic axis from the inner wall or vertical port lead to stronger central mass deposition than pellets injected from the low field side (LFS) and thus yield deeper more efficient fueling.

  14. Wood pellet heating plants. Market survey. 4. upd. ed.; Hackschnitzel-Heizung. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Wood pellets from the agriculture and forestry offer an enormous potential for the development of the use of bio energy in the private area as well as in industry and commerce. Within the market survey 'Wood pellet heating systems', the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reported on the targets and measures of the Federal Government with respect to the heating with biomass, wood pellets as solid biofuels (standardization of solid biofuels, supply, features, evaluation), wood pellet heating plants, economic considerations, market survey on wood pellet heating plants as well as list of addresses for producers of wood pellet heating plants and suppliers of wood pellets.

  15. Facilities for Development of Modified Nitride-Based Fuel Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, T; Ebbinghaus, B; Choi, J


    Facilities to support development of modified nitride-based reactor fuel pellets have been activated and are now in operation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These facilities provide the controls and monitored laboratory conditions required to produce, evaluate, and verify quality of the nitride-based product required for this fuel application. By preserving the high melting point, high thermal conductivity, and high actinide density properties of nitride fuel while enhancing stoichiometry, density, and grain structure, and by applying inert matrix (ZrN) and neutron absorbing (HfN) additives for improved stability and burn-up characteristics, the requirements for a long-life fuel to support sealed core reactor applications may be met. This paper discusses requirements for producing the modified nitride powders for sintering of fuel pellets, translation of these requirements into facility specifications, and implementation of these specifications as facility capabilities.

  16. Binder-free Na-mordenite pellets for tritium processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toci, F. [Safety Technology Inst., JRC, Ispra (Italy); Viola, A. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Cagliari Univ. (Italy); Edwards, R.A.H. [Safety Technology Inst., JRC, Ispra (Italy); Mencarelli, T. [Safety Technology Inst., JRC, Ispra (Italy); Brossa, P. [Safety Technology Inst., JRC, Ispra (Italy)


    Gas separation systems based on adsorption on zeolites are used in various applications involving tritium: air and inert gas detritiation, purification of Q{sub 2} and Q{sub 2}O, and isotope separation. Differential adsorption processes are attractive because efficient separation can be combined with small plant dimensions, low energy consumption and a small tritium inventory. Zeolites are the usual choice for the adsorbate because they combine high adsorption capacity with high selectivity and stability. However, commercial pellets show appreciable tritium retention due to inappropriate activation procedures or the presence of a binder. In this paper we report a research study aimed at producing a pelletized zeolite without binder (self-bound) with low tritium retention. (orig.).

  17. Pellets de trigo e soja produzidos por extrusão Wheat and soybean pellets produced by extrusion-cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Huei Wang


    Full Text Available A mistura de trigo e soja representa uma importante fonte calórico-protéica com proteínas de boa qualidade. Apesar disso, a utilização da soja como ingrediente tem sido limitada pelo seu sabor de feijão cru (beany flavor, o qual é melhorado pelo processo de extrusão. Foram estudados os efeitos de umidade da mistura, Temperatura de Barril (TB e Velocidade de Rotação de Parafuso (VRP, Nº 5 do extrusor no Índice de Expansão (IE, no Índice de Solubilidade em Água (ISA e nas características sensoriais de pellets produzidos com mistura de trigo e soja (90:10, objetivando a otimização deste processo para a obtenção de pellets fritos com melhores qualidades sensoriais. A farinha mista crua foi extrusada em 2 umidades (32 e 35%, 4 TB (60 a 90 °C e 4 VRP (60 a 150 rpm, totalizando 32 tratamentos. O pellet frito, preparado com a farinha mista com 32% de umidade e extrusada em 60 rpm a 80 °C, apresentou o maior IE e as melhores qualidades sensoriais (aparência, sabor e textura, sendo preferido pela equipe de provadores não treinados, tanto com sabor de bacon como com sabor de queijo.The mixture of wheat with soybean represents an important calorie-protein source with good protein quality. In spite of this, the use of soybeans as an ingredient has been limited by their beany flavor, which is improved by the extrusion process. Effects of mixture moisture, Barrel Temperature (BT and Screw-Speed (SS, Nº 5 on Expansion Index (EI, Water Solubility Index (WSI and sensory characteristics of pellets produced with a wheat-soybean (90:10 mixture were studied, in order to optimize this process for obtaining fried pellets with better sensory qualities. Raw mixed flour was extruded at two moisture contents (32 and 35%, four BT (60 to 90 °C and four SS (60 to 150 rpm, totalizing 32 treatments. The fried pellets, prepared with the mixed flour with 32% moisture and extruded at 60 rpm and 80 °C, presented the greatest EI and the best sensory

  18. CAD And Distributed Manufacturing Solutions for Pellet Boiler Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur Mamut


    Full Text Available The paper is summarizing the research activities that had been carried out for defining an appropriate manufacturing concept and the system architecture for a manufacturing plant of pellet boilers. The concept has been validated through the implementation of a solution of computer integrated manufacturing that includes a CAD platform and a CAM facility including laser cutting machines, rolling and welding machines and advanced technologies for assembly, quality control and testing.

  19. Monitoring of O2 and temperature in a pelletizing process (United States)

    Sandstroem, Lars G.; Lundqvist, Stefan H.; Andersson, Torbjoern


    We will show the results from a Tunable Diode Laser (TDL) spectrometer installation monitoring the O2 concentration and the temperature in an olivine pellet production plant. The spectrometer has been operating continuously for more than two years. In the pelletizing process a reduction of magnetite and sintering takes place at a temperature around 1250 degree(s)C. To achieve a high and predictable quality of the produced pellets the oxygen concentration and the temperature has to be measured in-situ inside the process furnace. A specially designed high temperature sensor was mounted on the furnace wall and an optical fiber was used to carry the probing light from the TDL spectrometer to the measurement point. The TDL spectrometer operates at two absorption lines in the near infrared wavelength region to measure the oxygen concentration and the temperature simultaneously. The temperature is measured using the relative intensity of the two absorption lines and the concentration is calculated from the temperature compensated absorbance. The accuracy of the concentration and temperature measurements at 1 s response time was 0.1 vol.% and 50 degree(s)C, respectively. In order to validate the TDL measurements the pelletizing process furnace temperature was varied between 100 degree(s)C up to 1300 degree(s)C while the oxygen and temperature readings from the TDL spectrometer was recorded. The temperature measurements were also correlated with temperature measurements using thermocouples inside the furnace. The O2 absorption line parameters were determined in a controlled laboratory experiment using a heated measurement path. This work shows that it is possible to build and field a TDL spectrometer to measure O2 and temperature in-situ in a steel making process furnace.

  20. Stimulus- and pellet-induced drinking during a successive discrimination


    Minor, Thomas R.


    In three experiments, interim water drinking was examined in rats exposed to a multiple schedule whose two components were extinction and a variable-time 30-s schedule of food delivery. Two different drinking patterns were observed in Experiment 1. Pellet-induced drinking, characterized by high rates of postpellet drinking in the variable-time component, with little or no drinking in extinction, occurred when the acquisition of stable postpellet drinking preceded discrimination training. Stim...

  1. Experiences on Pretreatment and Pelletizing of Forestry Residues in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, L. [Univ. of Vigo (Spain). Dept. of Natural Resources and Environment


    The aim of this work is to assess the technical possibilities in order to use typical wastes from the Spanish forests so that to produce high quality Pellets as well as to study the technical problems in some specific by-products. One of the main barriers the Spanish market faces in order to consolidate the pelletizing technologies is the fact that there are very few industrial experiences of massive production using forestry residues biomass. Instead, industrial wastes such as sawdust and shavings have been more commonly used, to-day. To that purpose, a series of experiences on pretreatment and pelletizing of forestry residues are shown in this work, using to that end typical biomass forestry residues from the Mediterranean countries and making forced-drying studies, granulometric reduction and densifying experiences for the very first time in Spain. The engineering data were obtained from experiences with a trommel type dryer of about 1,000 Kg/h using pine wastes (P. pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and furze (Ulex europeaeus) as a raw material. Besides, the consumption in chipping and milling from wastes obtained from different parts of trees such as coniferous bark, branches, etc., are also analyzed, using to that end a pilot plant about 200 Kg/h. Finally, studies on pelletizing in a plant of 2,500 Kg/h capacity have been carried out. These in-depth studies try to determine the perspectives for forestry biomass management. Likewise, we also aim at pinning down the limits in using hard materials like the eucalyptus bark, as well as to grasp the potential of this type of wastes that have not been used in Spain yet.

  2. The interaction between clothing and air weapon pellets. (United States)

    Wightman, G; Wark, K; Thomson, J


    Comparatively few studies have been carried out on air weapon injuries yet there are significant number of injuries and fatalities caused by these low power weapons because of their availability and the public perception that because they need no licence they are assumed to be safe. In this study ballistic gel was tested by Bloom and rupture tests to check on consistency of production. Two series of tests were carried out firing into unclothed gel blocks and blocks loosely covered by different items of clothing to simulate attire (tee shirt, jeans, fleece, and jacket). The damage to the clothing caused by different shaped pellets when fired at different ranges was examined. The apparent hole size was affected by the shape of pellet (round, pointed, flat and hollow point) and whether damage was predominantly caused by pushing yarn to one side or by laceration of the yarn through cutting or tearing. The study also compared penetration into clothed gel and unclothed gel under identical conditions, and loose clothing greatly reduced penetration. With loose clothing at 9.1 m range clothing reduced penetration to 50-70% of the penetration of unclothed gel but at 18.3m range only 7 out of 36 shots penetrated the gel. This cannot be accounted for by the energy loss at the longer range (3-7% reduction from 9.1 m to 18.3 m range in unclothed gels) and it is suggested that impulse may have a role to play. Shots that did not penetrate the gel were used to estimate the possible stopping time for the pellet (around 75 μs) and force (1700 N) or stress (100 MPa) required to bring the pellet to a halt. Even with these low energy projectiles, cloth fibres were entrained in the gel showing the potential for penetration of the body and subsequent infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-cost carbon pellets for NOx reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Maria Soriano-Mora; Agustin Bueno-Lopez; Avelina Garcia-Garcia; Ron Perry; Colin E. Snape [University of Alicante (Spain). Department of Inorganic Chemistry


    Carbonaceous materials have been proposed as potential inexpensive reducing agents for NOx reduction under suitable operating conditions. Potassium at sufficiently high concentration has been found to be an effective catalyst in the C-NOx reaction, providing high selectivity for NOx reduction compared to O{sub 2} combustion. In the current work, it was decided to explore other low-cost carbon precursors for their suitability and selectivity towards NOx reduction and to incorporate these into pellets. Taking into account the great number of preparation variables previously analyzed as well as reaction variables the analysis of the nature of pelletised carbon feedstocks completes the study of the feasibility of using carbon pellets for NOx reduction under different experimental conditions, providing a survey about the key factors influencing the potassium catalysed NOx carbon reaction. The carbon feedstocks selected included a tyre pyrolysis char (TPC), two petroleum coke fines (CCoke and Pcoke), a Daw Mill low-rank high volatile bituminous coal (BCoal), and Chinese anthracite fines (ACoal). Cashew but shell liquid (CNSL) was substituted for coal-tar formaldehyde resole or humic acid binders used previously. Selective NOx reduction in an O{sub 2} lean gas mixture has successfully been carried out by potassium-containing carbon pellets using several carbon feedstocks as char, different carbon cokes, and coals. The carbon precursor does not significantly affect the selectivity of pellets for NOx reduction over combustion, compared to the loading of catalyst which is the key parameter. With the most selective sample, a selectivity factor of 0.45 was reached, which indicates that 45% of the carbon consumed reacted with NOx. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Airfield Repairs in Austere Locations Using Pelletized Asphalt Technology (Preprint) (United States)


    and on demand to create DGA or SMA paving HMA.       FIGURE 1 Pelletized asphalt consists of asphalt binder, fine aggregate and filler materials...the SMA mixtures. The selected aggregate was limestone due to its availability for the Tyndall AFB field testing. Table 1 includes the aggregate...on the existing concrete runway at the Silver Flag training field at Tyndall AFB, FL. One section was built with the DGA mixture with conventional


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ahmad, K. Javed1 and A. Sattar


    Full Text Available A study of chromosomal analysis for 200 breeding bulls of different breeds of cattle (Jersey, Holstein Friesian, Sahiwal and Cross-bred and Nili-Ravi buffalo, maintained at Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad and Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey (Pattoki was carried out. Micromethod was adopted for leukocyte culture and chromosomes were trapped at metaphase stage. The diploid number of chromosomes in all breeds of cattle was found to be 60 (58 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes: XY, while this number in Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was 50 (48 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes: XY. All the autosomes and sex chromosomes in males of both species were found normal.

  6. The quality analyses of olive cake fuel pellets - mathematical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brlek Tea I.


    Full Text Available This article investigates the effect of processing parameters (conditioning temperature and binder content, on final quality of produced agro-pellets for heat energy generation, obtained from four different olive cultivars using different technological parameters. Technological, physical and chemical properties of pellets (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur content, particle density, abrasion length, moisture, ash content, higher and lower heating values, fixed carbon and volatile matter content have been determined to assess their quality. The performance of Artificial Neural Network (ANN was compared with the performance of second order polynomial (SOP model, as well as with the obtained experimental data in order to develop rapid and accurate mathematical model for prediction of final quality parameters of agro-pellets. SOP model showed high coefficients of determination (r2, between 0.692 and 0.955, while ANN model showed high prediction accuracy with r2 between 0.544 and 0.994. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46005 i br. TR-31055

  7. Optimization of extrusion process for production of nutritious pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Aguilar-Palazuelos


    Full Text Available A blend of 50% Potato Starch (PS, 35% Quality Protein Maize (QPM, and 15% Soybean Meal (SM were used in the preparation of expanded pellets utilizing a laboratory extruder with a 1.5 × 20.0 × 100.0 mm die-nozzle. The independent variables analyzed were Barrel Temperature (BT (75-140 °C and Feed Moisture (FM (16-30%. The effect of extrusion variables was investigated in terms of Expansion Index (EI, apparent density (ApD, Penetration Force (PF and Specific Mechanical Energy (SME, viscosity profiles, DSC, crystallinity by X-ray diffraction, and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM. The PF decreased from 30 to 4 kgf with the increase of both independent variables (BT and FM. SME was affected only by FM, and decreased with the increase in this variable. The optimal region showed that the maximum EI was found for BT in the range of 123-140 °C and 27-31% for FM, respectively. The extruded pellets obtained from the optimal processing region were probably not completely degraded, as shown in the structural characterization. Acceptable expanded pellets could be produced using a blend of PS, QPM, and SM by extrusion cooking.

  8. Standard specification for sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This specification is for finished sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets for use in light-water reactors. It applies to gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets containing uranium of any 235U concentration and any concentration of gadolinium oxide. 1.2 This specification recognizes the presence of reprocessed uranium in the fuel cycle and consequently defines isotopic limits for gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets made from commercial grade UO2. Such commercial grade UO2 is defined so that, regarding fuel design and manufacture, the product is essentially equivalent to that made from unirradiated uranium. UO2 falling outside these limits cannot necessarily be regarded as equivalent and may thus need special provisions at the fuel fabrication plant or in the fuel design. 1.3 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aw...

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hopanes in Plastic Resin Pellets as Markers of Oil Pollution via International Pellet Watch Monitoring. (United States)

    Yeo, Bee Geok; Takada, Hideshige; Hosoda, Junki; Kondo, Atsuko; Yamashita, Rei; Saha, Mahua; Maes, Thomas


    Oil pollution in the marine environment is an unavoidable problem due to chronic input from local sources, particularly in urban areas and oil spills. Oil pollution not only causes immediate physical damages to surrounding wildlife but also some components, including higher molecular weight PAHs, can persist in the environment for many years and pose insidious threats to the ecosystem. Long-term and nontargeted monitoring of oil pollution is important. This paper examines the ability of International Pellet Watch (IPW) for initial identification and monitoring of oil pollution by analysing PAHs and hopanes in plastic pellet samples collected globally by volunteers. PAH concentrations with the sum of 28 parent and methyl PAHs vary geographically, ranging from 0.035 to 24.4 µg/g-pellet, in line with the presence or absence of local oil pollution sources, such as oil refineries or oil spill sites. This suggests that PAHs can be used to monitor petroleum pollution in IPW. A colour-coded categorization for PAH concentrations within IPW monitoring also is established to facilitate data presentation and understanding. PAH concentrations are generally higher in Western Europe, especially around the North Sea shorelines, moderate in East Asia and North America, and lower in South East Asia, Oceania, South America, and Africa. Hopane concentrations, with a smaller spatial variation (1.7-101 µg/g-pellet), showed no spatial pattern. This result and the poor correlation between hopanes and PAHs suggest that hopane concentrations alone are unsuited to identify petroleum pollution. However, hopane compositions can be used for fingerprinting sources of oil pollution. Thus, both PAHs and hopanes in IPW allow for low cost, remote monitoring of global oil pollution.

  10. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.


    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  11. Development of multiple-unit pellet system tablets by employing the SeDeM Expert Diagram System II: pellets containing different active pharmaceutical ingredients. (United States)

    Hamman, Hannlie; Hamman, Josias; Wessels, Anita; Scholtz, Jacques; Steenekamp, Jan


    The SeDeM Expert Diagram System (SeDeM EDS) was originally developed to provide information about the suitability of powders to produce direct compressible tablets. Multiple-unit pellet systems (MUPS) are dosage forms consisting of pellets compressed into tablets or loaded into hard gelatine capsules. The aim of this study was to apply the SeDeM EDS to different size pellets (i.e. 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mm) containing different APIs (i.e. doxylamine, ibuprofen or paracetamol) to determine which properties should be corrected to yield MUPS tablet formulations. The SeDeM parameter tests were conducted on the pellets, selected excipients, intermediate blends and final blends. The study showed that the properties of the pellets depended on the active ingredient and pellet size. The SeDeM compressibility indices indicated that the final pellet blends should be suitable for compression into MUPS tablets. MUPS tablets were prepared from the final blends and evaluated in terms of physico-chemical properties and dissolution profiles. Only three of the MUPS tablet formulations containing ibuprofen and one MUPS tablet formulation containing paracetamol failed content uniformity. The water solubility of the APIs as well as the pellet size (surface area exposed to the dissolution medium) attributed to the difference in drug dissolution rate.

  12. Molecular markers in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treskić Sanja


    Full Text Available Today the marker assisted selection (MAS is being routinely applied in breeding programs of large private companies. However, the implementation of molecular markers for commercial use in small companies and public sec- tor is on a considerably smaller scale. Numerous researches on QTL mapping, theoretical analysis and simulation models for MAS give impetus to new research on the validation of quantitative trait loci and the application of molecular markers in maize breeding. This paper presents basic concepts related to MAS, the principles of QTL mapping, marker-trait association analysis and examples of successful application of markers in breeding for qualitative and quantitative traits.

  13. Measurement of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in plastic resin pellets from remote islands : Toward establishment of baseline level for International Pellet Watch (United States)

    Takada, H.; Heskett, M.; Yamashita, R.; Yuyama, M.; Itoh, M.; Geok, Y. B.; Ogata, Y.


    Plastic resin pellets collected from remote islands in open oceans (Canary, St. Helena, Cocos, Hawaii, Maui Islands and Barbados) were sorted and yellowing polyethylene (PE) pellets were measured for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) by gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCBs were detected from all the pellet samples, confirming the global dispersion of PCBs. Median concentrations of PCBs (sum of 13 congeners : CB-66, CB-101, CB-110, CB-118, CB-105, CB-149, CB-153, CB-138, CB-128, CB-187, CB-180, CB-170, CB-206) in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet. These were one to three orders of magnitude lower than those observed for pellets from industrialized coastal zones (hundreds ng/g in Los Angeles, Boston, Tokyo; Ogata et al., 2009). Because these remote islands are far (>100 km) from industrialized zones, these concentrations (i.e., 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet) can be regarded as global "baseline" level of PCB pollution. Concentrations of DDTs in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 ng/g-pellet. At some locations, DDT was dominant over the degradation products (DDE and DDD), suggesting current usage of the pesticides in the islands. HCHs concentrations were 0.4 - 1.8 ng/g-pellet and lower than PCBs and DDTs, except for St. Helena Island at 18.8 ng/g-pellet where the current usage of the pesticides are of concern. The analyses of pellets from the remote islands provided "baseline" level of POPs (PCBs effects of global distillation, pellet samples from remote islands in higher latitude regions are necessary. From the eco-toxicological point of view, the fact that sporadic high concentrations of POPs were detected in some pellet samples from the remote islands is underscored. Some plastic debris which were contaminated in industrialized coastal zones may have rapidly

  14. Use of coffee (Coffea arabica pulp for the production of briquettes and pellets for heat generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cubero-Abarca


    Full Text Available Coffee bean (Coffea arabica processing generates high amount of residues that are sources of environmental pollution. Therefore, an appropriate solution is needed. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of coffee pulp to produce briquettes and pellets. The study included pulp drying (using air, solar and hot air methods; the production of briquettes and pellets; the evaluation of their energy, physical and mechanical properties; and the evaluation of pellet quality using X-ray densitometry. The results showed that the pulp presented an initial moisture content of 90%, resulting in drying times of 699, 308 and 55 hours for air, solar and hot air drying, respectively, and the calorific values of the pellets and briquettes were 12,501 kJ kg-1 and 11,591 kJ kg-1, respectively. The ash content was 8.68% for the briquettes and 6.74% for the pellets. The density of the briquettes was 1,110 kg m-3, compared with 1,300 kg m-3 for the pellets. The apparent densities were 1,000 kg m-3 and 600 kg m-3 for the briquettes and pellets, respectively, and the water absorptions by the briquettes were 7.90% and 8.10% by the pellets. The maximum horizontal compression effort was 26.86 kg cm-2, measured in the pellets, compared with 4.52 kg cm-2 in the briquettes. The maximum horizontal load was 93.24 kg, measured in the briquettes, compared with 33.50 kg in the pellets. The value of the pellet durability test was 75.54%. X-ray densitometry showed that the pellet was uniform and a few cracks were observed on the pellet surface.

  15. Transport simulation of ELM pacing by pellet injection in tokamak plasmas (United States)

    Kim, Ki Min; Na, Yong-Su; Hong, Sang Hee; Lang, P. T.; Alper, B.; contributors, JET-EFDA


    This paper deals mainly with the numerical simulation on edge localized mode (ELM) pacing by pellet injection that is useful for fuelling and control of plasma profiles to achieve enhanced tokamak operations. The fuelling and pellet-induced ELMs are simulated with a 1.5-dimensional core transport code, which includes a neutral gas shielding model and a grad-B drift model for pellet deposition in H-mode tokamak plasmas. Fuelling and ELM pacing experiments by pellet injections at JET are introduced as a current experimental approach. For the description of ELM triggering by pellet injection based on ideal ballooning mode criteria, three possible models are suggested and discussed on their ELM characteristics, respectively: (i) the density enhanced ELMs in the post-pellet phase, (ii) the modification of the surface averaged pressure profiles in a transport time scale and (iii) the local increase in the pressure (density and/or temperature) gradients perturbed by pellets. Among them, the pellet-induced density perturbation model is adopted, in practice, to carry out an ELM pacing simulation in preparation for future experiments in KSTAR. The numerical simulation shows that the artificially induced ELM by pellets releases the reduced energy bursts, compared with spontaneous ELMs. The energy loss per burst by the pellet-induced ELM turns out to be much smaller than that by the spontaneous ELM as the pellet injection frequency becomes higher in ELM pacing. Based on the simulation results showing good agreement with the general ELM characteristics observed in pellet pacing experiments, the ELM pacing by pellet injection is very promising for mitigating the ELM energy bursts to the divertor by controlling the injection frequency.

  16. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica


    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  17. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  18. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  19. Canine Hip Dysplasia: Breed Effects


    Martin, S W; Kirby, K.; Pennock, P. W.


    This paper is a refinement of previous studies in that only suitably radiographed dogs were included in the data base. The rate of hip dysplasia varied widely by breed from five percent in siberian huskies to eighty-three percent in english bulldogs. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of dysplasia within at least two breeds; golden retrievers and old english sheepdogs. Physical size per se did not appear to be an important determinant of hip dysplasia.

  20. Pellet fuelling of plasmas with ELM mitigation by resonant magnetic perturbations in MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Valovic, M; Garzotti, L; Gurl, C; Kirk, A; Naylor, G; Patel, A; Scannell, R; Thornton, A J


    Shallow fuelling pellets are injected from the high field side into plasmas in which ELMs have been mitigated using external magnetic perturbation coils. The data are compared with ideal assumptions in the ITER fuelling model, namely that mitigated ELMs are not affected by fuelling pellets. Firstly it is shown that during the pellet evaporation an ELM is triggered, during which the amount particle loss could be larger (factor ~1.5) than the particle loss during an ELM which was not induced by pellet. Secondly, a favourable example is shown in which post-pellet particle losses due to mitigated ELMs are similar to the non-pellet case, however unfavourable counter-examples also exist.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrän, Daniela; Peetz, David; Schaubach, Kay; Trømborg, Erik; Pellini, Alessandro; Lamers, Patrick; Hess, J. Richard; Schipfer, Fabian; Hektor, Bo; Olsson, Olle; Bruce, Lena; Stelte, Wolfgang; Proskurina, Svetlana; Heinimo, Jussi; Benedetti, Luca; Mai-Moulin, Thuy; Junginger, Martin; Craggs, Laura; Wild, Michael; Murray, Gordan; Diaz-Chavez, Rocio; Thiermann, Ute; Escobar, F. J.; Goldemberg, J.; Coelho, S. T.


    The wood pellet use in the heating and electricity sector has recorded a steady growth in the last years. IEA bioenergy task 40 carried out an update of the situation on the national pellet markets in the most relevant pellet producing countries and the global development as well. Various country specific data is collected and compiled for more than 30 countries, containing updated information about regulatory framework, production, consumption, price trends, quality standards and trade aspects. The analysis confirmed the positive development in terms of production and consumption of wood pellets in almost all countries. In 2015 more than 26 Mt of wood pellets have been produced and consumed worldwide. Technologies and markets become more mature. Increased international pellet trade needs to be supported by adequate frame condition not only for commerce, but also with regard to sustainability issues.

  2. Carbothermal Reduction of Iron Ore in Its Concentrate-Agricultural Waste Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhulin Liu


    Full Text Available Carbon-containing pellets were prepared with the carbonized product of agricultural wastes and iron concentrate, and an experimental study on the direct reduction was carried out. The experimental results demonstrated that carbon-containing pellets could be rapidly reduced at 1200 to 1300°C in 15 minutes, and the proper holding time at high temperature was 15 to 20 min. The degree of reduction gradually increased with temperature rising, and the appropriate temperature of reducing pellets was 1200°C. The weight loss rate and reduction degree of pellets increased with the rise of carbon proportion, and the relatively reasonable mole ratio of carbon to oxygen was 0.9. A higher content of carbon and an appropriate content of volatile matters in biomass char were beneficial to the reduction of pellets. The carbon-containing pellets could be reduced at high speeds in the air, but there was some reoxidization phenomenon.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Çelik


    Full Text Available The use of biomass fuel pellets is becoming widespread as a renewable and environment-friendly energy. Pellet fuels are produced in various pellet machine types. Pellet machines encounter problems such as pressure irregularities and choke at the initial start for different kinds of biomass feedstock. In this study, disc springs are integrated into a vertical axis pellet machine for a pressure regulation and design optimization. Force-deformation and stress-deformation relations of disc springs are investigated using analytical and finite element methods. Pelletizing pressures were calculated based on disc spring force values using the Hertzian stress formula. Utilized disc springs ensured the pressure regulation, production efficiency increase and damage prevention on the die-roller mechanism.

  4. Pricing in the Market of fuel Agri-pellet in the System of the Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov P. Galperina


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the pricing conditions in the domestic and export market agri-pellet taking into account qualitative characteristics of the fuel market, farm, natural, and institutional and regulatory factors. The comparative characteristic of agri-pellet prices with the prices of other fuels in the context of sustainable development (environmental, sustainability, calorific value, accessibility for the population, as well as energy security. Analyzed the complexity of the formation and development of the internal market demand fuel agri-pellets. The importance of state support for domestic consumption and agropellet determining price targets using the "green" tariff. Priority actions should include: the improvement of the mechanism of the use of "green" tariff for bioenergy, conversion of the CHP in order to use fuel pellets, pellet boilers to provide the municipal sector, stimulating credit policy for establishing pellet boilers in the private sector, tariff policy, explanatory work among the population.

  5. Preparation in high-shear mixer of sustained-release pellets by melt pelletisation. (United States)

    Voinovich, D; Moneghini, M; Perissutti, B; Filipovic-Grcic, J; Grabnar, I


    The preparation of sustained-release pellets by melt pelletisation was investigated in a 10-l high shear mixer and ternary mixtures containing stearic acid as a melting binder, anhydrous lactose as a filler and theophylline as a model drug. A translated Doehlert matrix was applied for the optimisation of process variables and quality control of pellets characteristics. After determination of size distribution, the pellets were characterised with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and porosimetric analysis. Finally, the in vitro release from every single size fraction was evaluated and the release mechanism was analysed. Since the drug release rate decreased when enhancing the pellet size fraction, the 2000-microm fraction, exhibiting a substantially zero-order release, was selected for further in vivo biovailability studies. These data demonstrated that pellets based on the combination of stearic acid and lactose can be used to formulate sustained release pellets for theophylline.

  6. Preparation of gastro-resistant pellets containing chitosan microspheres for improvement of oral didanosine bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Severino


    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to introduce a new concept of coated pellets containing chitosan microspheres loaded with didadosine for oral administration, aiming at reducing the frequency of administration and improving the bioavailability by a suitable release profile. Chitosan microspheres were produced under fluidized bed, followed by extrusion and spheronization to obtain pellets with a mean diameter of about 1 mm. The pellets were then coated with Kollidon® VA64 and Kollicoat® MAE100P in water dispersion to depict a sustained release profile. Conventional hard gelatine capsules were loaded with these pellets and tested in vitro for their release profile of didadosine. Dissolution testing confirmed that chitosan microsphere pellets provides appropriate sustained release up to 2 h behavior for didanosine. Keywords: Didanosine, Pellets, Gastro-resistance, Coating, Microspheres, Chitosan

  7. Image analysis of pellet size for a control system in industrial feed production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Georg Ljungqvist

    Full Text Available When producing aquaculture fish feed pellets, the size of the output product is of immense importance. As the production method cannot produce pellets of constant and uniform size using constant machine settings, there is a demand for size control. Fish fed with feed pellets of improper size are prone to not grow as expected, which is undesirable to the aquaculture industry. In this paper an image analysis method is proposed for automatic size-monitoring of pellets. This is called granulometry and the method used here is based on the mathematical morphological opening operation. In the proposed method, no image object segmentation is needed. The results show that it is possible to extract a general size distribution from an image of piled disordered pellets representing both length and diameter of the pellets in combination as an area.

  8. Multispectral UV imaging for surface analysis of MUPS tablets with special focus on the pellet distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Rades, Thomas


    In the present study the applicability of multispectral UV imaging in combination with multivariate image analysis for surface evaluation of MUPS tablets was investigated with respect to the differentiation of the API pellets from the excipients matrix, estimation of the drug content as well...... as pellet distribution, and influence of the coating material and tablet thickness on the predictive model. Different formulations consisting of coated drug pellets with two coating polymers (Aquacoat(®) ECD and Eudragit(®) NE 30 D) at three coating levels each were compressed to MUPS tablets with various...... amounts of coated pellets and different tablet thicknesses. The coated drug pellets were clearly distinguishable from the excipients matrix using a partial least squares approach regardless of the coating layer thickness and coating material used. Furthermore, the number of the detected drug pellets...

  9. Pellet bed reactor concept for nuclear electric propulsion (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Morley, Nicholas J.; Juhasz, Albert


    For Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) applications, gas cooled nuclear reactors with dynamic energy conversion systems offer high specific power and low total mass. This paper describes the Pellet Bed Reactor (PeBR) concept for potential NEP missions to Mars. The helium cooled, 75-80 MWt PeBR, consists of a single annular fuel region filled with a randomly packed bed of spherical fuel pellets, is designed for multiple starts, and offers unique safety and operation features. Each fuel pellet, about 8-10 mm in diameter, is composed of hundreds of TRISO type fuel microspheres embedded in a graphite matrix for a full retention of fission products. To eliminate the likelihood of a single-point failure, the annular core of the PeBR is divided into three 120° sectors. Each sector is self contained and separate and capable of operating and being cooled on its own and in cooperation with either one or two other sectors. Each sector is coupled to a separate, 5 MWe Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) energy conversion unit and is subcritical for safe handling and launching. In the event of a failure of the cooling system of a core sector, the reactor power level may be reduced, allowing adjacent sectors to convect the heat away using their own cooling system, thus maintaining reactor operation. Also, due to the absence of an internal core structure in the PeBR core, fueling of the reactor can easily be performed either at the launch facility or in orbit, and refueling can be accomplished in orbit as needed to extend the power system lifetime

  10. Breeding phenology of African Black Oystercatchers Haematopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2003/04 breeding season was the shortest and had the lowest breeding productivity. The 2002/03 breeding season had a lower breeding productivity than 2001/02 because of the loss of a large number of nests during storm surge and spring high tides. The start and duration of the egg-laying period are influenced by ...

  11. Agronomic and Nitrate Leaching Impacts of Pelletized versus Granular Urea


    Shah, Sanjay Bikram


    Agronomic and water quality impacts of urea particle size were evaluated through field and laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling. In a two-year field study, corn silage yield, corn nitrogen (N) removal, and nitrate-N (N03-N) leaching from urea pellets (1.5 g each) and granules (0.01-0.02 g each) applied at 184 kg-N/ha were compared. A control treatment (no N) and two other N application rates (110 and 258 kg-N/ha) were also included. Urea particle size impact on dissolution rate...

  12. Demand Side Management in Pellet Production: Internal and External Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigants Haralds


    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a demand side management case study: how to save energy and how research and data analysis help to create an energy management system in a pellet production facility; and shows ways to implement the EU energy efficiency directive in production facilities. The study carried out in this research serves as a far-reaching step that can be taken to improve energy efficiency during the operation mode of technological equipment. The benchmarking methodology is used for analysis of results.

  13. Gunshot (Pellets injury to the maxillofacial complex: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran D.N


    Full Text Available Gunshot injuries are rather serious but uncommon type of trauma in India. A 45-year-old male was presented with gunshot (pellets embedded in the maxillofacial area for 22 years. There is no consensus in the literature whether to attempt their removal or leave them in situ. Our patient had no long-term sequela like infection, fistula formation, carcinogenesis or metal poisoning to date except for chill feeling on cold days. Management of this patient presented a dilemma in treatment in view of the effects of foreign bodies in the maxillofacial area. Key words: Maxillofacial injuries; Wounds, gunshot; Firearms

  14. Microwave Processing of Simulated Advanced Nuclear Fuel Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.E. Clark; D.C. Folz


    Throughout the three-year project funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and lead by Virginia Tech (VT), project tasks were modified by consensus to fit the changing needs of the DOE with respect to developing new inert matrix fuel processing techniques. The focus throughout the project was on the use of microwave energy to sinter fully stabilized zirconia pellets using microwave energy and to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques that were developed. Additionally, the research team was to propose fundamental concepts as to processing radioactive fuels based on the effectiveness of the microwave process in sintering the simulated matrix material.

  15. Effects of sintering atmosphere controlled using carbon pellet on translucency of AlN ceramics (United States)

    Honma, T.; Kamitamari, M.; Kuroki, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Takata, M.


    Translucent AlN ceramics were sintered with a carbon pellet in order to control the CO gas surrounding the sample during sintering. The total transmittance of the ceramics increased by sintering with the carbon pellet because of the decrease of light scattering. One of causes of the light scattering was the presence of calcium aluminates at grain boundaries. The light scattering can be controlled by the CO gas using the carbon pellet.

  16. Pelletized ponderosa pine bark for adsorption of toxic heavy metals from water (United States)

    Miyoung Oh; Mandla A. Tshabalala


    Bark flour from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) was consolidated into pellets using citric acid as cross-linking agent. The pellets were evaluated for removal of toxic heavy metals from synthetic aqueous solutions. When soaked in water, pellets did not leach tannins, and they showed high adsorption capacity for Cu(ll), Zn(ll), Cd(ll). and Ni(ll) under both equilibrium...

  17. Processing of surrogate nuclear fuel pellets for better dimensional control with dry bag isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoggan, Rita E., E-mail:; Zuck, Larry D., E-mail:; Cannon, W. Roger, E-mail:; Lessing, Paul A., E-mail:


    A study of improved methods of processing fuel pellets was undertaken using ceria and zirconia/yttria/alumina as surrogates. Through proper granulation, elimination of fines and vertical vibration (tapping) of the parts bag prior to dry bag isostatic pressing (DBIP), reproducibility of diameter profiles among multiple pellets of ceria was improved by almost an order of magnitude. Reproducibility of sintered pellets in these studies was sufficient to allow pellets to be introduced into the cladding with a gap between the pellet and cladding on the order of 50 μm to 100 μm but not a uniform gap with tolerance of ±12 μm as is currently required. Deviation from the mean diameter along the length of multiple pellets, and deviation from roundness, decreased after sintering. This is not generally observed with dry pressed pellets. Sintered shrinkage was uniform to ±0.05% and thus, as an alternative, pellets may be machined to tolerance before sintering, thus avoiding the waste associated with post-sinter grinding. - Highlights: • Three methods of granule preparation for two different powder sources were outlined and compared using tap density curves. • A dry bag isostatic press was used to fabricate pellets and longer rods. Thus longer pellets could be fabricated by this technique. • Vertical vibrations to pack granules decreased variation in dimensions from pellet to pellet by a factor of nine. • Sintering shrinkage varied by only 0.1% along the length of a rod. Thus green machining prior to sintering could result in tight tolerances.

  18. Tracer-Encapsulated Solid Pellet (TESPEL) injection system for the TJ-II stellarator. (United States)

    Tamura, N; McCarthy, K J; Hayashi, H; Combs, S K; Foust, C; García, R; Panadero, N; Pawelec, E; Hernández Sánchez, J; Navarro, M; Soleto, A


    A tracer-encapsulated solid pellet (TESPEL) injection system for the TJ-II stellarator was recently developed. In order to reduce the time and cost for the development, we combined a TESPEL injector provided by National Institute for Fusion Science with an existing TJ-II cryogenic pellet injection system. Consequently, the TESPEL injection into the TJ-II plasma was successfully achieved, which was confirmed by several pellet diagnostics including a normal-incidence spectrometer for monitoring a tracer impurity behavior.

  19. Tracer-Encapsulated Solid Pellet (TESPEL) Injection System for the TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, N. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; McCarthy, K. J. [EURATOM-CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain; Hayashi, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Garcia, R. [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain; Panadero, N. [CIEMAT, Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Spain; Pawelec, E. [Opole University, Poland; Sanchez, J. Hernandez [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain; Navarro, M. [CIEMAT, Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Spain; Soleto, A. [CIEMAT, Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Spain


    A tracer-encapsulated solid pellet (TESPEL) injection system for the TJ-II stellarator was recently developed. In order to reduce the time and cost for the development, we combined a TESPEL injector provided by National Institute for Fusion Science with an existing TJ-II cryogenic pellet injection system. Consequently, the TESPEL injection into the TJ-II plasma was successfully achieved, which was confirmed by several pellet diagnostics including a normal-incidence spectrometer for monitoring a tracer impurity behavior.

  20. Energy wood. Part 2b: Wood pellets and pellet space-heating systems; Holzenergie Teil 2b: Holzpellets und Pelletheizungen / Energie du bois Partie 2b: Granules de bois et installations de chauffage a granules de bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland)


    The paper gives an overview on pellet utilization including all relevant process steps: Potential and properties of saw dust as raw material, pellet production with drying and pelletizing, standardization of wood pellets, storage and handling of pellets, combustion of wood pellets in stoves and boilers and applications for residential heating. In comparison to other wood fuels, wood pellets show several advantages: Low water content and high heating value, high energy density, and homogeneous properties thus enabling stationary combustion conditions. However, quality control is needed to ensure constant properties of the pellets and to avoid the utilization of contaminated raw materials for the pellet production. Typical data of efficiencies and emissions of pellet stoves and boilers are given and a life cycle analysis (LCA) of wood pellets in comparison to log wood and wood chips is described. The LCA shows that wood pellets are advantageous thanks to relatively low emissions. Hence, the utilization of wood pellet is proposed as a complementary technology to the combustion of wood chips and log wood. Finally, typical fuel cost of wood pellets in Switzerland are given and compared with light fuel oil. (author)

  1. [Prospects of molecular breeding in medical plants]. (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Jun; Mo, Chang-Ming


    The molecular-assisted breeding, transgenic breeding and molecular designing breeding are three development directions of plant molecular breeding. Base on these three development directions, this paper summarizes developing status and new tendency of research field of genetic linkage mapping, QTL mapping, association mapping, molecular-assisted selections, pollen-mediated transformations, agrobacterium-mediated transformations, particle gun-mediated transformations, genome editing technologies, whole-genome sequencing, transcriptome sequencing, proteome sequencing and varietal molecular designing. The objective and existing problem of medical plant molecular breeding were discussed the prospect of these three molecular breeding technologies application on medical plant molecular breeding was outlooked. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Shock and vibration tests of uranium mononitride fuel pellets for a space power nuclear reactor (United States)

    Adams, D. W.


    Shock and vibration tests were conducted on cylindrically shaped, depleted, uranium mononitride (UN) fuel pellets. The structural capabilities of the pellets were determined under exposure to shock and vibration loading which a nuclear reactor may encounter during launching into space. Various combinations of diametral and axial clearances between the pellets and their enclosing structures were tested. The results of these tests indicate that for present fabrication of UN pellets, a diametral clearance of 0.254 millimeter and an axial clearance of 0.025 millimeter are tolerable when subjected to launch-induced loads.

  3. Fast Ignition Thermonuclear Fusion: Enhancement of the Pellet Gain by the Colossal-Magnetic-Field Shells (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander


    The fast ignition fusion pellet gain can be enhanced by a laser generated B-field shell. The B-field shell, (similar to Earth's B-field, but with the alternating B-poles), follows the pellet compression in a frozen-in B-field regime. A properly designed laser-pellet coupling can lead to the generation of a B-field shell, (up to 100 MG), which inhibits electron thermal transport and confines the alpha-particles. In principle, a pellet gain of few-100s can be achieved in this manner. Supported in part by Nikola Tesla Labs, Stefan University, 1010 Pearl, La Jolla, CA 92038-1007.

  4. Pellet Fueling of ELM Mitigated ITER Baseline Scenario Plasmas on DIII-D (United States)

    Baylor, L. R.


    ITER has been designed to employ HFS pellet fueling to operate at high density using pellets that produce less than a 10% density perturbation and that penetrate to just beyond the top of the pedestal. DIII-D ITER-like plasmas with ELM mitigation provided by either pellet ELM pacing or RMPs have been fueled with small shallow penetrating HFS pellets. In DIII-D, large natural ELMs dramatically reduce the effective fueling efficiency of the HFS pellets to nearly 0 within the time scale of a few large ELMs. In the ELM paced plasmas, the pellets trigger ELMs that are no more intense than the paced ELMs and the resulting fueling efficiency is >80%. In RMP ELM mitigated plasmas, the efficient fueling from HFS pellets results in pedestal collisionality increases that can reduce the ELM mitigation. New experiments have shown that edge ECH can decrease pedestal collisionality and will be combined with the HFS pellets to better mimic the ITER fueling scenario. These fueling results from pellet pacing and RMP ELM mitigation will be presented and implications for ITER discussed. Supported by the US DOE under DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC52-07NA27344 & DE-FG02-07ER54917.

  5. SPINS-IND: Pellet injector for fuelling of magnetically confined fusion systems (United States)

    Gangradey, R.; Mishra, J.; Mukherjee, S.; Panchal, P.; Nayak, P.; Agarwal, J.; Saxena, Y. C.


    Using a Gifford-McMahon cycle cryocooler based refrigeration system, a single barrel hydrogen pellet injection (SPINS-IND) system is indigenously developed at Institute for Plasma Research, India. The injector is based on a pipe gun concept, where a pellet formed in situ in the gun barrel is accelerated to high speed using high pressure light propellant gas. The pellet size is decided by considering the Greenwald density limit and its speed is decided by considering a neutral gas shielding model based scaling law. The pellet shape is cylindrical of dimension (1.6 mm ℓ × 1.8 mm φ). For pellet ejection and acceleration, a fast opening valve of short opening duration is installed at the breech of the barrel. A three-stage differential pumping system is used to restrict the flow of the propellant gas into the plasma vacuum vessel. Diagnostic systems such as light gate and fast imaging camera (240 000 frames/s) are employed to measure the pellet speed and size, respectively. A trigger circuit and a programmable logic controller based integrated control system developed on LabVIEW enables to control the pellet injector remotely. Using helium as a propellant gas, the pellet speed is varied in the range 650 m/s-800 m/s. The reliability of pellet formation and ejection is found to be more than 95%. This paper describes the details of SPINS-IND and its test results.

  6. Persistent organic pollutants monitoring in marine coastal environment using beached plastic resin pellets and effective risk communication via International Pellet Watch (IPW) as a tool. (United States)

    Yeo, B. G. M.; Takada, H.; Hosoda, J.


    International Pellet Watch (IPW) is an ongoing global monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) using preproduction plastic resin pellets. These pellets are easily collected and transported allowing the general public worldwide to get involved. Thus, risk communication toward the pellet collectors is a significant part of IPW to ensure continuous effort and interest. The pellet samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Additional pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hopanes were also analyzed for some samples. Analytical results showed distinct patterns with high concentrations (countries. These countries are prone to legacy pollution where PCBs were used extensively before the ban in the late 1980's. Pesticide DDTs instead were found to be higher in developing countries such as Brazil and Vietnam (> 500ng/g-pellet). These countries may still be using DDTs as a vector control mostly to combat malaria. High concentrations of DDTs were also found in Greece, China and Australia (> 100ng/g-pellet) suggesting the possibility of illegal usage as pesticide or anti fouling paint. HCHs concentrations were mostly low due to its low retention in the environment. However, high HCHs concentrations were mostly found in the southern hemisphere. Very high concentration of PAHs in pellet samples can be utilized for early identification of recent oil pollution. High PAHs concentration in Tauranga, New Zealand was found to be caused by local oil spill. Hopanes in pellets can be used for source identification of oil pollution. Global mapping and comparison among IPW data can be used to provide better explanations to IPW volunteers by sorting concentrations into pollution categories. Communication reports are tailor written based on the volunteers familiarity to IPW's issues, educational background, occupation and their potential to

  7. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano P. Marelli


    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  8. Solar heating, wood chips and pellets at Harpsund. An evaluation; Solvaerme, flis och pellets paa Harpsund. Utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Leif; Perers, Bengt


    Harpsund is well-known for being the representation residence for the Swedish prime minister. Besides this function, it is also a production unit for milk and meat, with a livestock of about 500 animals. At Harpsund, a new production plant for heating and domestic hot water with a new distribution net was built by the Swedish authorities. Wood chips from the forests belonging to the estate are used for the heat production, together with wood pellets and solar heat. The old heating system was based on a technique with local production in each building and was in need of modernization. The new plant has been designed very attractively - great care has been taken to make it fit into the atmosphere of the surroundings. The solar collectors are placed on the roof of a garage for farming machines. The heat central contains three burners: one for wood chips with thermal power 250 kW, one 400 kW burner for pellets and one small 25 kW burner for pellets. The smallest unit is intended to support the solar system during the summer season. From the garage with the 327 m{sup 2} Aquasol Big AR solar collectors the solar heated glycol/ water is transported to the heat central in a culvert. The distance is 150 m. At the heat central, there is also a heat accumulator with a volume of 40 m{sup 3} of water. This is used both for the burners and for the solar heat. The monitoring and analysis of the plant show that it has good reliability and it is evident that the production capacity is adequate for all conceivable climate conditions. During one year of monitoring, the heat central produced 1,494 MWh of which 86 % came from wood chips, 9 % from pellets and 5 % from solar heat. It is unfavourable that the solar heat has to work against the return temperature of the heat distribution system. Also, the collector area seems to be somewhat too large for the demand for domestic hot water. The result for the specific investment for solar heat is therefore high: 13.21 SEK/kWh,year. It might

  9. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli


    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  10. Electrical conduction and dielectric studies of ZnO pellets (United States)

    Chaari, Mariem; Matoussi, Adel


    A series of Zinc Oxide pellets sintered at different temperatures was studied by means of dielectric spectroscopy in the wide frequency range of 1-106 Hz and temperature interval from -100 °C to 30 °C. Electrical conductivity was analysed using Jonsher's universal power law, and the values of s were found to decrease with the increase in temperature, which agrees well with the correlation barrier hopping (CBH) model. As the temperature increased, energy activation Edc became less than 0.39 eV and dc conductivity (σdc) values in the range of 1.9×10-14-9.7×10-10 Ω m-1 were observed. The dielectric modulus showed ionic polarisation at the intermediate and high frequencies related to oxygen interstitial Oi, oxygen vacancy VO and Zinc interstitial Zni. At low frequency, it revealed a Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars relaxation with barrier heights of grain boundaries between 0.74 and 0.88 eV for all the studied pellets.

  11. Analysis of combustion efficiency in a pelletizing furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Simões Vieira de Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research is to assess how much the improvement in the combustion reaction efficiency can reduce fuel consumption, maintaining the same thermal energy rate provided by the reaction in a pelletizing furnace. The furnace for pelletizing iron ore is a complex thermal machine, in terms of energy balance. It contains recirculation fan gases and constant variations in the process, and the variation of a single process variable can influence numerous changes in operating conditions. This study demonstrated how the main variables related to combustion in the burning zone influence fuel consumption (natural gas from the furnace of the Usina de Pelotização de Fábrica (owned by VALE S/A, without changing process conditions that affect production quality. Variables were analyzed regarding the velocity and pressure of the fuel in the burners, the temperature of the combustion air and reactant gases, the conversion rate and the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio of the reaction. For the analysis, actual data of the furnace in operation was used, and for the simulation of chemical reactions, the software Gaseq® was used. The study showed that the adjustment of combustion reaction stoichiometry provides a reduction of 9.25% in fuel consumption, representing a savings of US$ 2.6 million per year for the company.

  12. A Comparison of Fueling with Deuterium Pellet Injection from Different Locations on the DIII-D Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Gohil, P.; Houlberg, W.A.; Hsieh, C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Parks, P.B.


    Initial pellet injection experiments on DIII-D with high field side (HFS) injection have demonstrated that deeper pellet fuel deposition is possible even with HFS injected pellets that are significantly slower than pellets injected from the low field side (LFS) (outer midplane) location. A radial displacement of the pellet mass shortly after or during the ablation process is consistent with the observed mass deposition profiles measured shortly after injection. Vertical injection inside the magnetic axis shows some improvement in fueling efficiency over LFS injection and may provide an optimal injection location for fueling with high speed pellets.

  13. Monitoring of carbon monoxide in residences with bulk wood pellet storage in the Northeast United States. (United States)

    Rossner, Alan; Jordan, Carolyn E; Wake, Cameron; Soto-Garcia, Lydia


    The interest in biomass fuel is continuing to expand globally and in the northeastern United States as wood pellets are becoming a primary source of fuel for residential and small commercial systems. Wood pellets for boilers are often stored in basement storage rooms or large bag-type containers. Due to the enclosed nature of these storage areas, the atmosphere may exhibit increased levels of carbon monoxide. Serious accidents in Europe have been reported over the last decade in which high concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) have been found in or near bulk pellet storage containers. The aim of this study was to characterize the CO concentrations in areas with indoor storage of bulk wood pellets. Data was obtained over approximately 7 months (December 2013 to June 2014) at 25 sites in New Hampshire and Massachusetts: 16 homes using wood pellet boilers with indoor pellet storage containers greater than or equal to 3 ton capacity; 4 homes with wood pellet heating systems with outdoor pellet storage; 4 homes using other heating fuels; and a university laboratory site. CO monitors were set up in homes to collect concentrations of CO in the immediate vicinity of wood pellet storage containers, and data were then compared to those of homes using fossil fuel systems. The homes monitored in this study provided a diverse set of housing stock spanning two and a half centuries of construction, with homes built from 1774 to 2013, representing a range of air exchange rates. The CO concentration data from each home was averaged hourly and then compared to a threshold of 9 ppm. While concentrations of CO were generally low for the homes studied, the need to properly design storage locations for pellets is and will remain a necessary component of wood pellet heating systems to minimize the risk of CO exposure. This paper is an assessment of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure from bulk wood pellet storage in homes in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Understanding the CO concentrations

  14. Effects of pellet diameter during and after lactation on feed intake of piglets pre- and postweaning. (United States)

    van den Brand, H; Wamsteeker, D; Oostindjer, M; van Enckevort, L C M; van der Poel, A F B; Kemp, B; Bolhuis, J E


    Effects of 2 pellet diameters for piglets pre- and postweaning on feed intake, BW, and feed-related behavior were studied in 3 experiments. In Exp. 1, 19 litters were provided with pellets of 2 and 12 mm in diameter in a choice-feeding setup from d 4 of lactation onward. From d 4 to 18, piglets preferred the 12-mm diameter pellet over the 2-mm diameter pellet (519 vs. 168 g/pen; P Piglet BW at weaning did not differ between treatments. Treatment × day of lactation interactions were found for time spent eating, interest in eating, and time spent suckling. Time spent eating and interest in eating increased with time. This increase was lower in the litters provided with the 10-mm diameter pellet. Time spent suckling remained the same in litters provided with 2-mm diameter pellets but decreased in time in litters provided the 10-mm diameter pellets. Experiment 3 was set up as a 2 × 2 factorial design with pellet diameter both pre- and postweaning as factors. During lactation, 18 litters were provided creep feed of either 2 or 12 mm in pellet diameter. At weaning, each litter was split into 2 comparable half litters and each half litter was provided with feed of 2 or 12 mm in diameter. Feed intake was higher in the 12-mm diameter pellet litters than in the 2-mm ones from d 4 to 11 of lactation (P weaning did not affect BW gain or feed intake. Piglets provided the 12-mm diameter pellet before weaning, however, had a higher BW gain (2,060 vs. 2,606 g/pig; P = 0.003) and feed intake (2,772 vs. 3,173 g/pig; P = 0.04) and a lower feed conversion ratio (P = 0.03) between d 0 and 10 after weaning than piglets provided the 2-mm diameter pellet before weaning. Postweaning pellet diameter had no effect on BW gain or feed intake. Behavior was not affected by pellet diameter pre- and postweaning. We conclude that young piglets (weaning were higher in piglets provided with a large pellet diameter during lactation, possibly due to the higher creep feed intake in early lactation.

  15. Influence of storage condition on properties of MCC II-based pellets with theophylline-monohydrate. (United States)

    Krueger, Cornelia; Thommes, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter


    Microcrystalline cellulose II (MCC II(1)) is a polymorph of commonly used MCC I; in 2010 it was introduced as new pelletization aid in wet-extrusion/spheronization leading to fast disintegrating pellets. Previous investigations suggested that the storage of the resulting pellets affect the disintegration behavior, the non-hygroscopic substance chloramphenicol that showed no polymorphism or hydrate formation due to relative humidity was used for the investigations. Therefore, theophylline-monohydrate that can dehydrate during storage, but also during manufacturing and drying was used for this study to confirm the results of the previous study and give a more detailed overview of the influence of recrystallization of theophylline monohydrate on disintegration. Storage recommendations should be derived. MCC II-based pellets were prepared of binary mixtures containing 10%, 20% or 50% MCCII as pelletization aid and theophylline-monohydrate as API. These pellets were stored at different relative humidity (0-97%rH; 20°C); the influence on their disintegration and drug release was investigated. The storage conditions had an impact on pellet disintegration. Low relative humidities (⩽ 40%rH) led to a conversion of the monohydrate to the anhydrous form. Newly grown crystals formed a kind of network around the pellet and inhibited the disintegration. High relative humidity (>80%rh) affected the disintegration caused by changes in the MCCII as already seen in the previous study. Due to the changed disintegration behavior also the drug release and release kinetic changed. Therefore, for theophylline containing pellets a storage humidity of 55%rH to 80%rH (20°C) is recommended. All in all, these investigations substantiate the knowledge of MCCII-based pellets providing a better basis for adequate storage conditions of MCCII based pellets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A motorized pellet dispenser to deliver high intensity training of the single pellet reaching and grasping task in rats. (United States)

    Torres-Espín, Abel; Forero, Juan; Schmidt, Emma K A; Fouad, Karim; Fenrich, Keith K


    The single pellet reaching and grasping (SPG) task is widely used to study forelimb motor performance in rodents and to provide rehabilitation after neurological disorders. Nonetheless, the time necessary to train animals precludes its use in settings where high-intensity training is required. In the current study, we developed a novel high-intensity training protocol for the SPG task based on a motorized pellet dispenser and a dual-window enclosure. We tested the protocol in naive adult rats and found 1) an increase in the intensity of training without increasing the task time and without affecting the overall performance of the animals, 2) a reduction in the variability within and between experiments in comparison to manual SPG training, and 3) a reduction in the time required to conduct experiments. In summary, we developed and tested a novel protocol for SPG training that provides higher-intensity training while reducing the variability of results observed with other protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Breed base representation in dairy animals of 5 breeds (United States)

    Inheritance of DNA from different dairy breeds can be determined by genotyping, just as individual ancestors such as parents, grandparents, or even great grandparents can be identified correctly in a high percentage of the cases by genotyping even if not reported or reported incorrectly in pedigrees...

  18. Sport horses : breeding specialist from a single breeding programme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.A.


    Summary The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection,

  19. Health Effects of Operators in the Production of Wood Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstroem, K.; Arvidsson, H.; Bryngelsson, I.L.; Fedeli, C. [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Eriksson, K. [Univ. Hospital of Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Andersson, E. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine


    The environmental and energy policy in Sweden is aiming to replace fossil energy with renewable sources such as biofuels, e.g., wood Pellets produced from shavings and sawdust of pine and spruce. Reported health effects in the wood processing industries are airway, eye and skin irritation, reduced lung function as well as eczema. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of airway and skin symptoms and measure lung function in a population of pellet operators in the Swedish wood industry. Additional reported acute effects from the airways, eyes, nose and skin were recorded. From May 2004 until April 2005 50 blue-collar workers from four Swedish pellet-producing industries were investigated. The study included a questionnaire about skin and airway symptoms (n=50), acute effect questionnaire (n=67; 44 individuals) as well as a test of the lung function (spirometry) before and after work shift (n=118; 39 individuals). Acute effects questionnaire and spirometry were done one to three times per participants and for the acute effects the worker had to assess their symptoms in the airways, eyes, nose and skin between 6 and 8 times during a day. The results from the symptom questionnaires were compared with reference data from other Swedish studies and the lung function data with a European reference material. Statistical tests used were chi-2-test for the questionnaire, t-test for lung function before shift compared expected values, and for difference in lung function between before and after work shift mixed models with subjects as a random factor. No statistical significant difference was seen for the skin and airway symptoms in the questionnaire. Reported acute effects were seen especially for eye and nose symptoms (table 1). Spirometry showed significantly higher forced vital capacity (FVC; p=0.0003) and no difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; p=0.08) before work shift compared to expected values. FVC was 108,1 % and FEV1 was 104

  20. Comparison of arsenic content in pelletized poultry house waste and biosolids fertilizer. (United States)

    Nachman, Keeve E; Mihalic, Jana N; Burke, Thomas A; Geyh, Alison S


    Managers of human biosolids have been incorporating the practice of waste pelletization for use as fertilizer since the mid 1920s, and waste pelletization has recently been embraced by some poultry producers as a way to move nutrients away from saturated agricultural land. However, the presence of arsenic in pelletized poultry house waste (PPHW) resulting from the use of organoarsenical antimicrobial drugs in poultry production raises concerns regarding additional incremental population exposures. Arsenic concentrations were determined in PPHW and pelletized biosolids fertilizer (PBF) samples. Pellets were processed using strong acid microwave digestion and analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. The mean arsenic concentration in PPHW (20.1 ppm) fell within the lower part of the range of previously report arsenic concentrations in unpelletized poultry house waste. Arsenic concentrations in PBF, the source of which is less clear than for PPHW, were approximately a factor of 5 times lower than those in PPHW, with a mean concentration of 4.1 ppm. The pelletization and sale of these biological waste fertilizers present new pathways of exposure to arsenic in consumer populations who would otherwise not come into contact with these wastes. Arsenic exposures in humans resulting from use of these fertilizer pellets should be quantified to avoid potential unintended negative consequences of managing wastes through pelletization.

  1. Bacterial Colonization of Pellet Softening Reactors Used during Drinking Water Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammes, F.; Boon, N.; Vital, M.; Ross, P.; Magic-Knezev, A.; Dignum, M.


    Pellet softening reactors are used in centralized and decentralized drinking water treatment plants for the removal of calcium (hardness) through chemically induced precipitation of calcite. This is accomplished in fluidized pellet reactors, where a strong base is added to the influent to increase

  2. Pelleted biochar: chemical and physical properties show potential use as a substrate in container nurseries (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Juha Heiskanen; Karl Englund; Arja Tervahauta


    We found that peat moss, amended with various ratios of pellets comprised of equal proportions of biochar and wood flour, generally had chemical and physical properties suitable for service as a substrate during nursery production of plants. High ratios of pellets to peat (>50%) may be less desirable because of high C:N, high bulk density, swelling associated with...

  3. An Analysis of Wood Pellets For Export: A Case Study of Sweden as an Importer (United States)

    P.B. Aruna; Jan G. Laarman; Philip A. Araman; Frederick Cubbage


    North America is a major producer of wood pellets, and the principal market for them is domestic residential wood heating. To date, the export market for wood pellets is small. On the other hand , several developments are occurring that may be increasing the foreign demand for biomass fuels. A few North American companies are considering Sweden as a potential export...

  4. Effect of curing time on ph and time dependant coated pellets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METHODS: Theophylline loaded pellets were coated with a non aqueous time and pH dependant eudragit solution. The coated pellets were cured at constant process parameters (45°C) for different time periods (05, 10, or 20 min) and the drug release profile and other characteristics of formulation were evaluated.

  5. Requirements and solutions for future pellet technology; Krav och loesningar foer framtidens pelletsteknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Roennbaeck, Marie; Ryde, Daniel; Laitila, Thomas


    Requirements and solutions for future pellet burning technologies Since 2006, sales of pellet burning technologies to the Swedish residential market have fallen. The main reasons for this decrease are: many of the economically favorable easy conversions from oil to pellets have been made; competition from heat pumps; warm winters; a stable electricity price; and the current structure of heating in residential buildings, where electric heating dominates. To change this falling trend pellets need to become more attractive to consumers. This project aimed to analyze the requirements for the next generation of pellets systems and to develop potential solutions, in collaboration with the pellets industry. More specifically, the study looked at consumers' attitudes toward heating choices and different heating through a survey to 2000 house owners across Sweden. The project included a market analysis of Swedish and international technologies and examines the conditions for Swedish pellet burning technology in different markets. In addition, new solutions and developments for Swedish pellets burning technology are described

  6. Optimization of hot melt extrusion parameters for sphericity and hardness of polymeric face-cut pellets. (United States)

    Alshetaili, Abdullah S; Almutairy, Bjad K; Alshahrani, Saad M; Ashour, Eman A; Tiwari, Roshan V; Alshehri, Sultan M; Feng, Xin; Alsulays, Bader B; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Langley, Nigel; Kolter, Karl; Gryczke, Andreas; Martin, Scott T; Repka, Michael A


    The aim of this study was to formulate face-cut, melt-extruded pellets, and to optimize hot melt process parameters to obtain maximized sphericity and hardness by utilizing Soluplus(®) as a polymeric carrier and carbamazepine (CBZ) as a model drug. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to detect thermal stability of CBZ. The Box-Behnken design for response surface methodology was developed using three factors, processing temperature ( °C), feeding rate (%), and screw speed (rpm), which resulted in 17 experimental runs. The influence of these factors on pellet sphericity and mechanical characteristics was assessed and evaluated for each experimental run. Pellets with optimal sphericity and mechanical properties were chosen for further characterization. This included differential scanning calorimetry, drug release, hardness friability index (HFI), flowability, bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, and fourier transform infrared radiation (FTIR) spectroscopy. TGA data showed no drug degradation upon heating to 190 °C. Hot melt extrusion processing conditions were found to have a significant effect on the pellet shape and hardness profile. Pellets with maximum sphericity and hardness exhibited no crystalline peak after extrusion. The rate of drug release was affected mainly by pellet size, where smaller pellets released the drug faster. All optimized formulations were found to be of superior hardness and not friable. The flow properties of optimized pellets were excellent with high bulk and tapped density.

  7. Radiolysis and corrosion of Pu-doped UO2 pellets in chloride brine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Radiolysis and corrosion of. 238. Pu-doped UO2 pellets in chloride brine. M KELM* and E BOHNERT. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Nukleare Entsorgung, Postfach. 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany e-mail: Abstract. Deaerated 5 M NaCl solution is irradiated in the presence of UO2 pellets.

  8. Effects of rim structure formation on the thermal conductivity of UO{sub 2} pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, Masaki; Hirai, Mutsumi [Global Nuclear Fuel - Japan Co., Ltd., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kaino, Masaru; Hattori, Toshiitsu [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)


    Thermal diffusivities of UO{sub 2} pellets irradiated in a test reactor were measured by using a laser flash method. The maximum burnups of the samples were about 85 GWd/t and some of the samples contained rim structures. Thermal diffusivities of irradiated decreased compared with those of unirradiated and simulated soluble fission products-doped UO{sub 2} pellets. Hysteresis phenomena in the thermal diffusivity of irradiated fuel, which had been reported before, were not clearly observed in UO{sub 2} pellets in which the rim structures had formed. The thermal conductivities for irradiated UO{sub 2} pellets were evaluated from measured thermal diffusivities, specific heat capacities of unirradiated UO{sub 2} pellets and measured sample densities. The thermal conductivities of irradiated UO{sub 2} were compared to those of unirradiated UO{sub 2} pellets. The relative thermal conductivities were normalized to those of 96.5% TD (Theoretical Density). These normalized thermal conductivities of irradiated UO{sub 2} pellets in which significant rim structures had formed tended to be slightly higher than those of irradiated UO{sub 2} pellets in which no rim structure had formed. This may be caused by an effect of recrystallization in rim structures. (author)

  9. Thermal conductivities of irradiated UO{sub 2} and (U, Gd)O{sub 2} pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, Masaki E-mail:; Hirai, Mutsumi; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Ito, Kenichi; Sasaki, Masana; Nomata, Terumitsu; Kamimura, Katsuichiro; Iwasaki, Ryo


    Thermal diffusivities of UO{sub 2} and (U, Gd)O{sub 2} pellets irradiated in a commercial reactor (maximum burnups: 60 GWd/t for UO{sub 2} and 50 GWd/t for (U, Gd)O{sub 2}) were measured up to about 2000 K by using a laser flash method. The thermal diffusivities of irradiated UO{sub 2} and (U, Gd)O{sub 2} pellets showed hysteresis phenomena: the thermal diffusivities of irradiated pellets began to recover above 750 K and almost completely recovered after annealing above 1400 K. The thermal diffusivities after recovery were close to those of simulated soluble fission products (FPs)-doped UO{sub 2} and (U, Gd)O{sub 2} pellets, which corresponded with the recovery behaviors of irradiation defects for UO{sub 2} and (U, Gd)O{sub 2} pellets. The thermal conductivities for irradiated UO{sub 2} and (U, Gd)O{sub 2} pellets were evaluated from measured thermal diffusivities, specific heat capacities of unirradiated UO{sub 2} pellets and measured sample densities. The difference in relative thermal conductivities between irradiated UO{sub 2} and (U, Gd)O{sub 2} pellets tended to become insignificant with increasing burnups of samples.

  10. Ablation of a Deuterium Pellet in a Fusion Plasma Viewed as a Stopping Power Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.


    At present, the most exploited technology to refuel a future fusion reactor is the high speed injection of macroscopic size pellet of solid hydrogen isotopes. The basic idea is that the ablation of a pellet in a fusion reactor is mainly caused by thermal electrons (~ 10 keV) /1/. Due to the low...

  11. proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This study carried out an investigation on the proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues such as palm kernel shell, PKS, palm fibre, PF and empty fruit bunch, EFB using the ASTM standards. The results obtained were compared. The percentage moisture content of the pellets, PKS, PF and EFB ...

  12. A New Four-Barrel Pellet Injection System for the TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; Harris, Jeffrey H [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; McCarthy, K. J. [EURATOM-CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain; Chamorro, M. [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain; Garcia, R. [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain; Hildago, C. [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain; Medrano, M. [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain; Unamuno, R. [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain


    A new pellet injection system for the TJ-II stellarator has been developed/constructed as part of a collaboration between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Centro de Investigaciones Energ ticas, Medioambientales y Tecnol gicas (CIEMAT). ORNL is providing most of the injector hardware and instrumentation, the pellet diagnostics, and the pellet transport tubes; CIEMAT is responsible for the injector stand/interface to the stellarator, cryogenic refrigerator, vacuum pumps/ballast volumes, gas manifolds, remote operations, plasma diagnostics, and data acquisition. The pellet injector design is an upgraded version of that used for the ORNL injector installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). It is a four-barrel system equipped with a cryogenic refrigerator for in situ hydrogen pellet formation and a combined mechanical punch/propellant valve system for pellet acceleration (speeds ~100 to 1000 m/s). On TJ-II, it will be used as an active diagnostic and for fueling. To accommodate the plasma experiments planned for TJ-II, pellet sizes significantly smaller than those typically used for the MST application are required. The system will initially be equipped with four different pellet sizes, with the gun barrel bores ranging between ~0.5 to 1.0 mm. The new system is almost complete and is described briefly here, highlighting the new features added since the original MST injector was constructed. Also, the future installation on TJ-II is reviewed.

  13. Preference by horses for bedding pellets made from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) straw (United States)

    The bedding system used for stalled horses can impact their health and well-being. This study examined the saponin concentration in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) straw, and bedding pellets made from switchgrass straw. Further, this study determined the palatability of bedding pellets made from sw...

  14. Status and prospects for renewable energy using wood pellets from the southeastern United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Parish, Esther S.


    The ongoing debate about costs and benefits of wood-pellet based bioenergy production in the southeastern United States (SE USA) requires an understanding of the science and context influencing market decisions associated with its sustainability. Production of pellets has garnered much attention ...

  15. The effect of concentrate in meal- or pellet form on milk, protein and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inclusion of other essential or non-essential ingredients in the diet. Pelleting also helps to provide a dust-free, palatable material with minimum spillage and rejection by the animals. ('Orskov, 1979). Furthermore, it is well known that dairy cows consume concentrate pellets much quicker than concentrate meal. The main ...

  16. A preliminary survey of micro-organisms in the gut and pellets of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pH of the pellets was slightly acidic and did not change much during the course of decomposition. A succession of micro-organisms was observed on decomposing pellets. Zygomycetes were replaced by Ascomycetes after 20 days of decomposition. Decomposition was significantly affected by temperature. The rate of ...

  17. The European wood pellet markets: current status and prospects for 2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110609913; Steiner, M.; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Hiegl, W.; Hansen, M.T.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X


    The wood pellet market is booming in Europe. The EU 2020 policy targets for renewable energy sources and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction are among the main drivers. The aim of this analysis is to map current European national wood pellet demand and supplies, to provide a comprehensive

  18. Studying Pellet Formation of a Filamentous Fungus Rhizopus oryzae to Enhance Organic Acid Production (United States)

    Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan; Chen, Shulin

    Using pelletized fungal biomass can effectively improve the fermentation performance for most of fugal strains. This article studied the effects of inoculum and medium compositions such as potato dextrose broth (PDB) as carbon source, soybean peptone, calcium carbonate, and metal ions on pellet formation of Rhizopus oryzae. It has been found that metal ions had significantly negative effects on pellet formation whereas soybean peptone had positive effects. In addition PDB and calcium carbonate were beneficial to R. oryzae for growing small smooth pellets during the culture. The study also demonstrated that an inoculum size of less than 1.5×109 spores/L had no significant influence on pellet formation. Thus, a new approach to form pellets has been developed using only PDB, soybean peptone, and calcium carbonate. Meanwhile, palletized fungal fermentation significantly enhanced organic acid production. Lactic acid concentration reached 65.0 g/L in 30 h using pelletized R. oryzae NRRL 395, and fumeric acid concentration reached 31.0 g/L in 96 h using pelletized R. oryzae ATCC 20344.

  19. DNA markers for identifying individual snowshoe hares using field-collected pellets (United States)

    Michael K. Schwartz; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Kevin S. McKelvey; Pilar T. Rivera; Leonard F. Ruggiero


    Snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) abundance has been of interest to wildlife biologists, as hares are essential prey items for many rare and endangered predators. Snowshoe hare abundance has most commonly been estimated through indices such as pellet counts. While pellet counts may be useful in the areas they are developed and when hares are dense,...

  20. Vaporization Mode and State of the Ablatant of a Deuterium Pellet in Tokamak Discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.


    The ablation of a deuterium pellet under prevailing tokamak discharge conditions is shown to be a dynamic phase transition process. An alternative boundary condition at the pellet surface is formulated. Computational results based on the new boundary condition showed that the state of the ablatant...

  1. Analysis of the global production location dynamics in the industrial wood pellet market : an MCDA approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, T. Pieter; Junginger, H. Martin


    Industrial wood pellet demand and international trade have been growing rapidly, requiring producers to build new production facilities. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the trade-offs of different wood pellet production locations across the world within the next ten years and to improve

  2. Plasma Density Measurements on Refuelling by Solid Hydrogen Pellets in a Rotating Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, A. H.


    The authors used laser interferometry to directly measure the increase in plasma density caused by the ablation of a solid hydrogen pellet situated in a rotating plasma.......The authors used laser interferometry to directly measure the increase in plasma density caused by the ablation of a solid hydrogen pellet situated in a rotating plasma....

  3. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle. (United States)

    Kachman, Stephen D; Spangler, Matthew L; Bennett, Gary L; Hanford, Kathryn J; Kuehn, Larry A; Snelling, Warren M; Thallman, R Mark; Saatchi, Mahdi; Garrick, Dorian J; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Pollak, E John


    Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training set, across- and within-breed trained

  4. Wood pellet production costs under Austrian and in comparison to Swedish framework conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thek, Gerold [Bios Bioenergiesysteme GmbH, Graz (Austria); Obernberger, Ingwald [Bios Bioenergiesysteme GmbH, Graz (Austria); Graz Univ. of Technology, Inst. for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems, Graz (Austria)


    Owing to the rapidly increasing importance of pellets as high-quality biomass fuel in Austria and Europe within the last years, many companies, mainly from the wood industry, are thinking of entering this market. The calculation of the production costs before starting a pellet plant is essential for an economic operation. Based on comprehensive investigations within the EU-ALTENER project 'An Integrated European Market for Densified Biomass Fuels', calculations of the pellet production costs loco factory for different framework conditions with basic data based on already realised plants as well as a questionnaire survey of pellet producers in Austria, South Tyrol and Sweden have been performed. The production costs for wood pellets are mainly influenced by the raw material costs and, in the case of using wet raw materials, by the drying costs. Depending on the framework conditions these two parameters can contribute up to one-third of the total pellet production costs. Other important parameters influencing the pellet production costs are the plant utilisation (number of shifts per week) as well as the availability of the plant. For an economic production of wood pellets at least three shifts per day at 5 days per week are necessary. An optimum would be an operation at 7 days per week. A low plant availability also leads to greatly increased pellet production costs. A plant availability of 85-90% should therefore be achieved. The calculations show that a wood pellet production is possible both in small-scale (production rates of some hundred tonnes per year) as well as in large-scale plants (some ten thousand tonnes per year). However, especially for small-scale units it is very important to take care of the specific framework conditions of the producer, because the risk of a non-economic pellet production is considerably higher than for large-scale systems. The direct comparison of typical pellet production costs in Austria and Sweden showed the Swedish

  5. Effect of storage on oxidative quality and stability of extruded astaxanthin-coated fish feed pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Markus Wied; Hjermitslev, Niels Harthøj; Frosch, Stina


    This study examined the stability of extruded and astaxanthin-coated fish feed pellets during storage in a light box at 28°C and 620lx. Seven groups of fish feed pellets were vacuum coated with fish oil that contained levels of astaxanthin ranging from 0 to 100ppm. To equalize differences...... in the conditions for the fish feed pellets inside the light box, the samples were systematically circled during the experimental storage period of 183days. The degradation of astaxanthin was monitored using multi-spectral images, captured 28 times in the course of the storage period. Additionally, samples were...... collected at storage day 8, 15, 22, 92 and 183 for chemical determination of the astaxanthin concentration. The degradation of astaxanthin was shown to primarily be affected by light and limited to occur at the surface of the fish feed pellets, whereas the astaxanthin embedded in the core of the pellets...

  6. Prediction of the mechanical properties of zeolite pellets for aerospace molecular decontamination applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Rioland


    Full Text Available Zeolite pellets containing 5 wt % of binder (methylcellulose or sodium metasilicate were formed with a hydraulic press. This paper describes a mathematical model to predict the mechanical properties (uniaxial and diametric compression of these pellets for arbitrary dimensions (height and diameter using a design of experiments (DOE methodology. A second-degree polynomial equation including interactions was used to approximate the experimental results. This leads to an empirical model for the estimation of the mechanical properties of zeolite pellets with 5 wt % of binder. The model was verified by additional experimental tests including pellets of different dimensions created with different applied pressures. The optimum dimensions were found to be a diameter of 10–23 mm, a height of 1–3.5 mm and an applied pressure higher than 200 MPa. These pellets are promising for technological uses in molecular decontamination for aerospace-based applications.

  7. Monitoring of pellet coating process with image analysis—a feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Esbensen, Kim; Bogomolov, Andrey


    that pellet images, taken with a conventional digital camera, can be used for at-line monitoring of the process course, specifically, the growth of pellets due to the coating. An algorithm for precise counting of pellets has been developed. Combined with the sample weighing, it enables an accurate......Image analysis is an efficient technique used in many areas of science and industry. However, in process analytical applications it tends to be an ancillary tool, used mainly for visual monitoring or measuring some geometrical properties. At the same time, there are many other important aspects...... of the process samples appearance, besides measurable distances, that may be connected to the information of interest. In the present paper, the methods of image analysis were applied to at-line monitoring of fluid bed pellet coating process. The quantitative description of images of pellet samples, taken from...

  8. Die Hard - improving the physical quality of extruded fish feed pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Markus Wied

    The present thesis, Die Hard – Improving the Physical Quality of Extruded Fish Feed Pellets, approaches some of the biggest challenges within production of high-performance feed: Oil leakage and pellet strength. Salmon farmers in the aquaculture industry are requesting high energy dense diets...... with a supreme physical quality. To fulfil the market expectations, feed pellets have to contain 40% fat and tolerate high levels of stress during the transportation to the fish cages – without the pellets crumbling and oil leaking out of the feed. To solve this task, an improved understanding of the pellet...... structure’s impact on the physical quality of the feed is required. Through detailed analyses of the pellets’ microstructure, it was found that the optimal pore structure is defined by a high pore-surface-area to object-volume ratio. To obtain this pore structure, a new generation of dies was developed...

  9. A compact flexible pellet injector for the TJ-II stellarator. (United States)

    McCarthy, K J; Combs, S K; Baylor, L R; Caughman, J B O; Fehling, D T; Foust, C R; McGill, J M; Carmona, J M; Rasmussen, D A


    A compact pellet injector is being built for the TJ-II stellarator. It is an upgraded version of the "pellet injector in a suitcase" developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus where it continues to be used in many plasma experiments. The design aim is to provide maximum flexibility at minimal cost, while allowing for future upgrades. It is a four-barrel system equipped with a cryogenic refrigerator for in situ hydrogen pellet formation, a combined mechanical punch/propellant valve system, pellet diagnostics, and an injection line, destined for use as an active diagnostic and for fueling. In order to fulfill both objectives it will be sufficiently flexible to permit pellets, with diameters from 0.4 to 1 mm, to be fabricated and accelerated to velocities from 150 to approximately 1000 m s(-1).

  10. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.


    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation

  11. Breeding Ecology of Birds -22 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ogy, conservation biology and popular science writing. Keywords. Birds. nesting. territory, coloniality, heronries. ecology, nesting strate- gies. Abdul Jamil Urli. One of the most fascinating aspects in the life of birds is their breeding phase, which is intimately tied to the distri- bution and abundance of food resources in their ...

  12. Plant mutation breeding and biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shu, Q. Y; Forster, Brian P; Nakagawa, H


    ... (FAO / IAEA) Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, with its global coordinating and synergistic roles, that plant mutation breeding became a common tool available to plant breeders worldwide. Since these early days the Joint Division continues to play a considerable role in fostering the use of mutation techni...

  13. CO{sub 2} pellet decontamination technology at Westinghouse Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, T.L.; Aldrich, L.K. II; Bowman, E.V. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)


    Experimentation and testing with CO{sub 2} pellet decontamination technology is being conducted at Westinghosue Hanford Company (WHC), Richland, Washington. There are 1,100 known existing waste sites at Hanford. The sites specified by federal and state agencies are currently being studied to determine the appropriate cleanup methods best for each site. These sites are contaminated and work on them is in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). There are also 63 treatment, storage, and disposal units, for example: groups of waste tanks or drums. In 1992, there were 100 planned activities scheduled to bring these units into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance or close them after waste removal. Ninety-six of these were completed. The remaining four were delayed or are being negotiated with regulatory agencies. As a result of past defense program activities at Hanford a tremendous volume of materials and equipment have accumulated and require remediation.

  14. Invertase immobilization onto radiation-induced graft copolymerized polyethylene pellets (United States)

    de Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar; Vitolo, Michele; de Oliveira, Rômulo Cesar; Higa, Olga Zazuco


    The graft copolymer poly(ethylene-g-acrylic acid) (LDPE-g-AA) was prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) pellets, and characterized by infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of the grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was established. Invertase was immobilized onto the graft polymer and the thermodynamic parameters of the soluble and immobilized enzyme were determined. The Michaelis constant, Km, and the maximum reaction velocity, Vmax, were determined for the free and the immobilized invertase. The Michaelis constant, Km was larger for the immobilized invertase than for the free enzyme, whereas Vmax was smaller for the immobilized invertase. The thermal stability of the immobilized invertase was higher than that of the free enzyme.

  15. An analysis of Apulian micromammal populations by studying owl's pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Bux


    Full Text Available Abstract The study contains data from 3302 preys found in Barn owl pellets from 15 sites within the Provinces of Foggia and Bari (Apulia, Southern Italy. Eleven micromammal species were identified. Microtus savii and Apodemus sylvaticus were the most frequents preys. No specimen of Clethrionomys glareolus and Apodemus flavicollis were found which is probably due to the habitat typology examined (all thermoxerophilous phytocoenosis. The Sorensen Index showed a high faunistic affinity among all the sites studied and other localities of Apulia. However, by applying the index of biocenotic differences (Renkonen a difference in some localities, in relation to Microtus savii and Insectivores abundance, was found.

  16. Small-Scale Pellet Boiler with Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Wilhelm; Friedl, Guenther; Haslinger, Walter [Austrian Bioenergy Centre GmbH, Wieselburg (Austria); Hofbauer, Hermann [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering


    Pellet burners need auxiliary electrical power to provide CO{sub 2}-balanced heat in a comfortable and environment-friendly way. The idea is to produce this and some extra electricity within the furnace in order to save resources and to gain operation reliability and independency. Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) allow the direct conversion of heat to electrical power to a certain extent. They have the advantages of a maintenance-free long life and soundless operation without moving parts or any working fluid. A novel kind of decentralised small-scale biomass-based combined heat and power generation will be developed. The basic system allows grid-independent operation of automatically running biomass furnaces including fuel delivery from storage and circulating the cooling respectively heating water or air. The advanced system also provides electricity for network supply or for other electrical devices and is an additional benefit.

  17. Permanent Ocular Injury Following Paintball Pellet Hit: A Medicolegal Case. (United States)

    Ghazanfari-Nasrabad, Mahdi; Amrollahi-Sharifabadi, Mohammad; Kargar-Bideh, Omidreza; Azizi-Sharifabad, Saeed


    Paintball is a ubiquitous recreation, with severe and occasionally irreversible injuries. In this study, a rare medicolegal case of paintball-related closed globe blunt ocular injury was described. An 18-year-old boy who was hit in his right eye by a paintball pellet presented with severe eye pain and blurred vision. Ophthalmologic examinations showed lid edema, conjunctival hyperemia, conjunctival laceration, subconjunctival hemorrhage, corneal edema, anterior vitreous hemorrhage, congested sclera, commotio retinae, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal hemorrhage, macular edema, and macular hole. After maximum medical improvement, the patient who sustained incurable maculopathy and decreased visual acuity was referred to the legal medicine center for appraisal of the impairment. AMA Guides was used to assess the impairment of the functional vision. Despite his monocular visual defect, the patient was rated in the range of mild vision loss namely AMA class 1 with 22 percentage visual system impairment. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle. (United States)

    Boerner, Vinzent; Johnston, David J; Tier, Bruce


    The major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, Brahman, Belmont Red, Santa Gertrudis and Tropical Composite. This paper presents accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV) that were calculated from these PE in the commercial pure-breed beef cattle seed stock sector. PE derived by the Beef CRC from multi-breed and pure-breed training populations were applied to genotyped Angus, Limousin and Brahman sires and young animals, but with no pure-breed Limousin in the training population. The accuracy of the resulting GEBV was assessed by their genetic correlation to their phenotypic target trait in a bi-variate REML approach that models GEBV as trait observations. Accuracies of most GEBV for Angus and Brahman were between 0.1 and 0.4, with accuracies for abattoir carcass traits generally greater than for live animal body composition traits and reproduction traits. Estimated accuracies greater than 0.5 were only observed for Brahman abattoir carcass traits and for Angus carcass rib fat. Averaged across traits within breeds, accuracies of GEBV were highest when PE from the pooled across-breed training population were used. However, for the Angus and Brahman breeds the difference in accuracy from using pure-breed PE was small. For the Limousin breed no reasonable results could be achieved for any trait. Although accuracies were generally low compared to published accuracies estimated within breeds, they are in line with those derived in other multi-breed populations. Thus PE developed by the Beef CRC can contribute to the implementation of genomic selection in

  19. The influence of plate design on the properties of pellets produced by extrusion and spheronization. (United States)

    Michie, Helen; Podczeck, Fridrun; Newton, John Michael


    The aim of this work was to produce pellets using a standard formulation by means of extrusion and spheronization. Three different spheroniser friction plate patterns (i.e. cross-hatch, radial, striated edge pattern) have been used in order to investigate whether the plate pattern affects physical properties of the pellets such as pellet size distribution, yield, shape, mechanical strength, density and drug dissolution. Extrusion was performed with a screen extruder and the screen size was varied to determine whether the extrudate produced could affect the physical properties of pellets. The plate load was also varied. Diclofenac sodium was chosen as a model drug. The pattern of the friction plate used in the spheronization of extrudates affected the properties of the pellets. Yield values varied by up to 20%, and for an otherwise optimised formulation the use of a striated edge plate appeared advantageous in this respect. However, these pellets had a reduced mechanical strength despite their lower porosity, which might be disadvantageous. In addition, other factors such as the amount of extrudate loaded into the spheroniser, the maintenance of a constant moisture content within the spheroniser and the size of the extruder screen influenced these findings significantly. The only physical property of the pellets that did not respond to the various changes in the manufacturing process of the pellets is the pellet shape, which remained spherical. The dissolution of the drug appeared to be related to the median pellet size and was only marginally affected by changes in the spheronization process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB


    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  1. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.


    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  2. Using DNA to test the utility of pellet-group counts as an index of deer counts (United States)

    T. J. Brinkman; D. K. Person; W. Smith; F. Stuart Chapin; K. McCoy; M. Leonawicz; K. Hundertmark


    Despite widespread use of fecal pellet-group counts as an index of ungulate density, techniques used to convert pellet-group numbers to ungulate numbers rarely are based on counts of known individuals, seldom evaluated across spatial and temporal scales, and precision is infrequently quantified. Using DNA from fecal pellets to identify individual deer, we evaluated the...

  3. Compaction of enteric-coated pellets: influence of formulation and process parameters on tablet properties and in vivo evaluation. (United States)

    Debunne, Ann; Vervaet, Chris; Mangelings, Debby; Remon, Jean-Paul


    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of formulation and compression parameters on the properties of tablets, containing enteric-coated pellets, and on the integrity of the enteric polymer of the individual pellets after compression. In addition the piroxicam plasma concentrations were determined after single and multiple oral administration of powder, pellet and tablet formulations at a dose of 0.3 mg piroxicam/kg bodyweight to dogs. Tablets consisted of enteric-coated pellets (containing 2.5% (w/w) piroxicam in combination with microcrystalline cellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (using Avicel PH 101 and Avicel CL 611 in a ratio of 1-3), cushioning waxy pellets and 10% Kollidon CL (as an external disintegrator). From the D-optimality experimental design it was concluded that the ratio of coated pellets to cushioning pellets (CoP/CuP) affected all tablet properties evaluated. Variation of the pellet size and the CoP/CuP ratio resulted in different in vitro tablet disintegration times. Enteric coating of the pellets or compression of the coated pellets did not have a significant influence (P >0.05) on AUC(0-->72 h). Cmax values obtained after oral administration of coated pellets and compressed coated pellets were significantly lower than for the other formulations. Differences in in vitro tablet disintegration times were not reflected in the onset of the piroxicam plasma concentrations. A dosing interval of 48 h prevented piroxicam accumulation following multiple dose administration.

  4. Effects of extruded pellet and moist pellet on growth performance, body composition, and hematology of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghan Lee


    Full Text Available Abstract A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of two different sizes of extruded pellets (EP (EP1 - 3 mm or EP2 - 5 mm and a moist pellet (MP in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, reared in semi-recirculation system. A total of 450 fish with an average initial weight of 5.0 ± 0.2 g (mean ± SD were fed one of the three experimental diets in triplicate groups. At the end of a 6-week feeding trial, weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed efficiency of fish fed EP diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed MP (P < 0.05. Water quality parameters like turbidity, total ammonia nitrogen, and total phosphorous from tanks of fish fed EP1 and EP2 were significantly lower than those from tanks of fish fed MP. Blood plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glucose concentration were significantly higher in fish fed MP diet compared to fish fed EP diets (P < 0.05. Whole body crude protein contents in fish fed EP diets were higher than those from the fish fed MP diet. Whole body amino acid content like threonine, aspartic acid, serine, tyrosine, and cystine were found to be significantly higher in fish fed EP diets than those in fish fed MP diet. In considering overall performance of olive flounder, EP2 diet could be recommended for the successful aquaculture of this important fish species.

  5. Emperor Penguins Breeding on Iceshelves (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T.; Trathan, Phil N.; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L.


    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin’s reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as “near threatened” in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species. PMID:24416381

  6. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  7. Breeding in a den of thieves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw, de Jimmy; Bom, Roeland A.; Klaassen, Raymond H.G.; Müskens, Gerard J.D.M.; Vries, de Peter P.; Popov, Igor Yu; Kokorev, Yakov I.; Ebbinge, Bart; Nolet, Bart A.


    Breeding success of many Arctic-breeding bird populations varies with lemming cycles due to prey switching behavior of generalist predators. Several bird species breed on islands to escape from generalist predators like Arctic fox Vulpes lagopus, but little is known about how these species

  8. Population structure of ice-breeding seals. (United States)

    Davis, Corey S; Stirling, Ian; Strobeck, Curtis; Coltman, David W


    The development of population genetic structure in ice-breeding seal species is likely to be shaped by a combination of breeding habitat and life-history characteristics. Species that return to breed on predictable fast-ice locations are more likely to exhibit natal fidelity than pack-ice-breeding species, which in turn facilitates the development of genetic differentiation between subpopulations. Other aspects of life history such as geographically distinct vocalizations, female gregariousness, and the potential for polygynous breeding may also facilitate population structure. Based on these factors, we predicted that fast-ice-breeding seal species (the Weddell and ringed seal) would show elevated genetic differentiation compared to pack-ice-breeding species (the leopard, Ross, crabeater and bearded seals). We tested this prediction using microsatellite analysis to examine population structure of these six ice-breeding species. Our results did not support this prediction. While none of the Antarctic pack-ice species showed statistically significant population structure, the bearded seal of the Arctic pack ice showed strong differentiation between subpopulations. Again in contrast, the fast-ice-breeding Weddell seal of the Antarctic showed clear evidence for genetic differentiation while the ringed seal, breeding in similar habitat in the Arctic, did not. These results suggest that the development of population structure in ice-breeding phocid seals is a more complex outcome of the interplay of phylogenetic and ecological factors than can be predicted on the basis of breeding substrate and life-history characteristics.

  9. Vision of breeding for organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.; Groen, A.; Roep, D.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Baars, T.


    Taking the current breeding situation as the starting point, a number of scenarios are described for each animal sector which could gradually lead to a system of breeding which is more organic both in its aims and in the chain-based approach. The naturalness of the breeding techniques is an

  10. Can I compare EPD's across breeds? (United States)

    Proper comparison of the genetic merit of animals across breeds can be difficult and confusion for beef cattle producers. With the advent of a new genetic evaluation system where several breeds are evaluated in the same genetic analysis, confusion on direct comparison of animals across breeds has i...

  11. Effect of mortality rate, breed type and breed on total herd efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composite breed types normally performed well, indicating that use of such breeds in a variety of environments is a good choice. This study also indicated that bio-diversity does exist between breeds and further research is needed on breed characterization, since no framework currently exists for the charucterrzation of ...

  12. Sire breed and breed genotype of dam effects in crossbreeding beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sire breed and breed genotype of dam effects in crossbreeding beef cattle in the subtropics. 1. Birth and ... Simmentaler and Bonsmara cattle, as well as Fl> and two- and three-breed rotational crosses between Afrikaner,. Hereford and Simmentaler were ... ination and semen evaluation of bulls. Breeding lasted from.

  13. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language (United States)

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  14. Effect of Pellet Boiler Exhaust on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from α-Pinene. (United States)

    Kari, Eetu; Hao, Liqing; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Leskinen, Ari; Kortelainen, Miika; Grigonyte, Julija; Worsnop, Douglas R; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Sippula, Olli; Faiola, Celia L; Virtanen, Annele


    Interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and implications for aerosol production, have raised particular scientific interest. Despite active research in this area, real anthropogenic emission sources have not been exploited for anthropogenic-biogenic interaction studies until now. This work examines these interactions using α-pinene and pellet boiler emissions as a model test system. The impact of pellet boiler emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from α-pinene photo-oxidation was studied under atmospherically relevant conditions in an environmental chamber. The aim of this study was to identify which of the major pellet exhaust components (including high nitrogen oxide (NOx), primary particles, or a combination of the two) affected SOA formation from α-pinene. Results demonstrated that high NOx concentrations emitted by the pellet boiler reduced SOA yields from α-pinene, whereas the chemical properties of the primary particles emitted by the pellet boiler had no effect on observed SOA yields. The maximum SOA yield of α-pinene in the presence of pellet boiler exhaust (under high-NOx conditions) was 18.7% and in the absence of pellet boiler exhaust (under low-NOx conditions) was 34.1%. The reduced SOA yield under high-NOx conditions was caused by changes in gas-phase chemistry that led to the formation of organonitrate compounds.

  15. Preparation and Evaluation of Pellets Using Acacia and Tragacanth by Extrusion-Spheronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pirmoradi


    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Extrusion-spheronization is an established technique for the production of pellets for pharmaceutical applications. In this study, the feasibility and influence of the incorporation of acacia, by itself and in combination with tragacanth, on the ability of formulations containing 2 model of drugs (ibuprofen and theophylline to form spherical pellets by extrusion-spheronization was investigated.Material and Methods: Formulations containing different ratios of acacia and tragacanth (8:2, 9:1, and 10:0 and different drug concentrations (20%, 40%, and 60% were prepared, on the basis of a 32 full factorial design. Pellet properties, such as aspect ratio, sphericity (image analysis, crushing strength and elastic modulus (mechanical tests, mean dissolution time, and dissolution profiles were evaluated. The effect of particular factors on responses was determined by linear regression analysis.Results: The sphericity, drug release rate, and the mechanical properties of the pellets were affected by the amounts and types of the drugs, and the ratio of the gums. Acacia, relative to tragacanth, produced pellets with higher mechanical strength and a faster drug release rate. Addition of small amounts of tragacanth to ibuprofen formulations resulted in matrix pellets with slow drug release.Conclusion: The results showed that acacia and tragacanth can be used successfully as 2 natural binders in the pellet formulations.

  16. Pellet microfossils: Possible evidence for metazoan life in Early Proterozoic time. (United States)

    Robbins, E I; Porter, K G; Haberyan, K A


    Microfossils resembling fecal pellets occur in acid-resistant residues and thin sections of Middle Cambrian to Early Proterozoic shale. The cylindrical microfossils average 50 x 110 mum and are the size and shape of fecal pellets produced by microscopic animals today. Pellets occur in dark gray and black rocks that were deposited in the facies that also preserves sulfide minerals and that represent environments analogous to those that preserve fecal pellets today. Rocks containing pellets and algal microfossils range in age from 0.53 to 1.9 gigayears (Gyr) and include Burgess Shale, Greyson and Newland Formations, Rove Formation, and Gunflint Iron-Formation. Similar rock types of Archean age, ranging from 2.68 to 3.8 Gyr, were barren of pellets. If the Proterozoic microfossils are fossilized fecal pellets, they provide evidence of metazoan life and a complex food chain at 1.9 Gyr ago. This occurrence predates macroscopic metazoan body fossils in the Ediacaran System at 0.67 Gyr, animal trace fossils from 0.9 to 1.3 Gyr, and fossils of unicellular eukaryotic plankton at 1.4 Gyr.

  17. Novel fungal pelletization-assisted technology for algae harvesting and wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Zhou, Wenguang; Cheng, Yanling; Li, Yun; Wan, Yiqin; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang; Ruan, Roger


    A novel fungi pelletization-assisted bioflocculation technology was developed for efficient algae harvesting and wastewater treatment. Microalga Chlorella vulgaris UMN235 and two locally isolated fungal species Aspergillus sp. UMN F01 and UMN F02 were used to study the effect of various cultural conditions on pelletization process for fungi-algae complex. The results showed that pH was the key factor affecting formation of fungi-algae pellet, and pH could be controlled by adjusting glucose concentration and fungal spore number added. The best pelletization happened when adding 20 g/L glucose and approximately 1.2E8/L spores in BG-11 medium, under which almost 100% of algal cells were captured onto the pellets with shorter retention time. The fungi-algae pellets can be easily harvested by simple filtration due to its large size (2-5 mm). The filtered fungi-algae pellets were reused as immobilized cells for treatment wastewaters and the nutrient removal rates of 100, 58.85, 89.83, and 62.53 % (for centrate) and 23.23, 44.68, 84.70, and 70.34% (for diluted swine manure wastewater) for ammonium, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand, respectively, under both 1- and 2-day cultivations. The novel technology developed is highly promising compared with current algae harvesting and biological wastewater treatment technologies in the literature.

  18. Lead pellet retention time and associated toxicity in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). (United States)

    Kerr, Richard; Holladay, Steven; Jarrett, Timothy; Selcer, Barbara; Meldrum, Blair; Williams, Susan; Tannenbaum, Lawrence; Holladay, Jeremy; Williams, Jamie; Gogal, Robert


    Birds are exposed to Pb by oral ingestion of spent Pb shot as grit. A paucity of data exists for retention and clearance of these particles in the bird gastrointestinal tract. In the current study, northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were orally gavaged with 1, 5, or 10 Pb shot pellets, of 2-mm diameter, and radiographically followed over time. Blood Pb levels and other measures of toxicity were collected, to correlate with pellet retention. Quail dosed with either 5 or 10 pellets exhibited morbidity between weeks 1 and 2 and were removed from further study. Most of the Pb pellets were absorbed or excreted within 14 d of gavage, independent of dose. Pellet size in the ventriculus decreased over time in radiographs, suggesting dissolution caused by the acidic pH. Birds dosed with one pellet showed mean blood Pb levels that exceeded 1,300 µg/dl at week 1, further supporting dissolution in the gastrointestinal tract. Limited signs of toxicity were seen in the one-pellet birds; however, plasma δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (d-ALAD) activity was persistently depressed, suggesting possible impaired hematological function. © 2010 SETAC.

  19. Simulation of the ELMs triggering by lithium pellet on EAST tokamak using BOUT + + (United States)

    Wang, Y. M.; Xu, X. Q.; Wang, Z.; Sun, Z.; Hu, J. S.; Gao, X.


    A new lithium granule injector (LGI) was developed on EAST. Using the LGI, lithium granules can be efficiently injected into EAST tokamak with the granule radius 0.2-1 mm and the granules velocity 30-110 m/s. ELM pacing was realized during EAST shot #70123 at time window from 4.4-4.7s, the average velocity of the pellet was 75 m/s and the average injection rate is at 99Hz. The BOUT + + 6-field electromagnetic turbulence code has been used to simulate the ELM pacing process. A neutral gas shielding (NGS) model has been implemented during the pellet ablation process. The neutral transport code is used to evaluate the ionized electron and Li ion densities with the charge exchange as a dominant factor in the neutral cloud diffusion process. The snapshot plasma profiles during the pellet ablation and toroidal symmetrization process are used in the 6-field turbulence code to evaluate the impact of the pellets on ELMs. Destabilizing effects of the peeling-ballooning modes are found with lithium pellet injection, which is consistent with the experimental results. A scan of the pellet size, shape and the injection velocity will be conducted, which will benefit the pellet injection design in both the present and future devices. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and this work is supported by the National Natural Science Fonudation of China (Grant No. 11505221) and China Scholarship Council (Grant No. 201504910132).

  20. Physical and chemical characterization of hydrolyzed Napier grass waste for biomass pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangkanok Tanangteerapong


    Full Text Available Utilizing agricultural waste for energy and to conserve the environment has been an active research area recently. In this study, Napier grass waste resulting from its hydrolysis with acids was pelletized and its use was studied as a biomass fuel. An investigation of its physical characteristics, including pellet dimensions and weight, was performed at a laboratory scale. Flat-faced pellets were obtained with enhanced stability necessary for transportation. Chemical characterization of the hydrolyzed waste included determination of its nitrogen, chloride and sulfur content. These values were marginal. After pelletization, experimental determination of its heating values, moisture content and density was examined. It was found that these values exceeded the European standard for biomass pellets. The average of heating value of pelletized biomass was greater than 3500 cal/g. Therefore, a binding material was not necessary. Overall, the investigation revealed that the pellets produced from hydrolyzed Napier grass waste could potentially be exploited as an alternative energy source after some residual chemicals were removed.

  1. Pelletisation Behavior of Fluxed Iron Ore Pellets of Varying Basicities Made with Waste Fines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sarkar


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE The present study deals with the utilization of fines generated from comminution process (crushing, grinding and screening of the Run of Mines into value added products i.e. fluxed iron ore pellets. The study comprises to understand the physical and mechanical behavior of five distinguished chemical compositions of green and dried iron ore pellets with respect to a typical Mini Blast furnace (MBF burden data and furnace operating parameter. The maximum basicity of pellets was calculated 2.37 to make slag neutral when blast furnace runs at 100% high ash coke (avg. ash content= 29%. The crushing strength and drop number of various green pellets were measured. Green Crushing Strength was decreased with increasing lime fines. The addition of lime fines as a burnt lime, which has acicular structure creates less plasticity and brittle like fracture occurred. Due to formation of hard CaCO3 layer on the surface, after increasing lime contain crushing strength was increased in the air and oven dry pellets with respect to acid pellet (0% lime fines addition. [How to cite this article: Sarkar, A., Mandal, A.K., and Sinha, O.P. (2013 Pelletisation Behavior of Fluxed Iron Ore Pellets of Varying Basicities Made with Waste Fines. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,9-14. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.9-14] 

  2. Influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters of spring-piston air guns. (United States)

    Werner, Ronald; Schultz, Benno; Frank, Matthias


    In firearm examiners' and forensic specialists' casework as well as in air gun proof testing, reliable measurement of the weapon's muzzle velocity is indispensable. While there are standardized and generally accepted procedures for testing the performance of air guns, the method of seating the diabolo pellets deeper into the breech of break barrel spring-piston air guns has not found its way into standardized test procedures. The influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters was investigated using ten different break barrel spring-piston air guns. Test shots were performed with the diabolo pellets seated 2 mm deeper into the breech using a pellet seater. The results were then compared to reference shots with conventionally loaded diabolo pellets. Projectile velocity was measured with a high-precision redundant ballistic speed measurement system. In eight out of ten weapons, the muzzle energy increased significantly when the pellet seater was used. The average increase in kinetic energy was 31 % (range 9-96 %). To conclude, seating the pellet even slightly deeper into the breech of spring-piston air guns might significantly alter the muzzle energy. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that this effect is taken into account when accurate and reliable measurements of air gun muzzle velocity are necessary.

  3. Dissolution rate improvement of telmisartan through modified MCC pellets using 32 full factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetal Patel


    Full Text Available Context: Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC is the most widely used excipient for the production of pellets but it retards the release of poorly water soluble drugs. Objective: The present investigation reports incorporation of camphor, cross carmellose sodium (CCS and spray dried lactose (SDL into MCC pellets to enhance the dissolution rate of telmisartan. Materials and methods: A full factorial design (32 was used in the study. Concentration of camphor and CCS was selected as independent variables whereas percentage porosity and percentage drug release at 60 min were selected as dependent variables. Pellets were produced by extrusion–spheronization technique and evaluated for percentage yield, particle size analysis, flow characteristics, percentage porosity, drug content and in vitro drug release. Contour plots and 3-D surface plots were presented for graphical expression of the results. Results and discussion: Pellet formulations exhibited acceptable morphological, flow and mechanical properties. As against to 38.54% drug release after 60 min with MCC pellets, pellets prepared with optimized formulation, composed of proper combination of MCC, SDL, camphor and CCS, released 100% drug after 60 min. Conclusion: Our study underlines the fact that dissolution of telmisartan from MCC pellets can be successfully enhanced by incorporating water soluble excipient, disintegrant and pore formers.

  4. Non-linear MHD simulations of pellet triggered ELM for ITER plasma scenarios (United States)

    Futatani, Shimpei; Huijsmans, Guido; Loarte, Alberto; Mantsinen, Mervi; Pamela, Stanislas; Garzotti, Luca


    The non-linear MHD simulations with the JOREK code have been performed to study the dependence of the pellet size required to trigger an ELM in ITER plasma, and also the dependency of the threshold on the pedestal plasma pressure when the pellet is injected. Based on the observation that the pedestal pressure leading to spontaneous ELM triggering is 150 kPa by JOREK simulation, pedestal pressure of 75 kPa and 112.5 kPa have been studied. The JOREK simulation results show that it is necessary to increase the pellet size by a factor of 1.5 of the number of particles in the pellet to trigger ELMs for a pedestal pressure of 75 kPa compared to 112.5 kPa in ITER 15MA/5.3T plasma. In these simulations it has also been found that the magnitude of the ELM energy loss is strongly correlated with the pedestal plasma pressure rather than with the size of the pellet that is required for triggering. The JOREK simulation shows the toroidally asymmetric profile of the heat flux on the outer divertor target due to the pellet triggered ELM which is consistent with the experiment observation of JET. The work contributes the estimation of the requirement of the pellet injection condition to control ELMs in ITER 15MA operation scenarios. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect either those of the European Commission or those of the ITER Organization.

  5. Differential scanning calorimetry and surface morphology studies on coated pellets using aqueous dispersions. (United States)

    Nisar-ur-Rahman; K H, Yuen; Jia Woei, Wong; Khan, Nurzalina A k


    The present study was conducted to examine the physicochemical changes during passage of drug through polymeric membranes and observe the surface morphology features of the coated pellets using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Drug solution was first sprayed around inert pellets to form drug-layered pellets that were coated with two commercial aqueous dispersions namely, Eudragit NE30 and Kollicoat SR30 using bottom-spray fluidized bed technique. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed that no interactions existed between drug and polymers. Small peak of drug was observed in the DSC thermograms of Eudragit NE30 coated pellets indicating that small amount of drug was still present in the polymeric membrane after dissolution. Views of SEM revealed as the coating levels of two types of aqueous dispersions were increased the surface of the pellets become more uniform and compact. Therefore, the diffusion length for dissolution medium to enter the drug layer and dissolved drug to diffuse out would be increased at higher coating levels. The polymer surface of coated pellets after 12 hours dissolution testing seemed to be shrunk and size of the pellets were also reduced indicating the depletion of reservoir layer.

  6. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo


    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) originated in the Andean region of South America; this species is associated with exceptional grain nutritional quality and is highly valued for its ability to tolerate abiotic stresses. However, its introduction outside the Andes has yet to take off on a large...... scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  7. Genetic analysis, breed assignment and conservation priorities of three native Danish horse breeds. (United States)

    Thirstrup, J P; Pertoldi, C; Loeschcke, V


    A genetic analysis was performed on three indigenous Danish horse breeds using 12 microsatellite markers from a standard kit for parental testing. These three breeds are all considered endangered based on their small population sizes. Genetic variation in these three breeds was comparable to other horse breeds in Europe, and they do not seem to be at immediate danger of extinction caused by genetic deterioration. The Knabstrupper breed had more genetic variation, as measured by expected heterozygosity and allelic richness, than the other two breeds (Frederiksborg and Jutland). F(ST) statistics and population assignments confirmed population differentiation into three distinct breeds. The Frederiksborg and Knabstrupper breeds were closer to each other than to the Jutland breed. When establishing conservation priorities for the breeds, the priorities will depend on the conservation goals. Different methods for establishing conservation priorities are also discussed.

  8. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailer Frank


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic

  9. Does hatching failure breed infidelity?


    Malika Ihle; Bart Kempenaers; Wolfgang Forstmeier


    In socially monogamous species, the reasons for female infidelity are still controversial. It has been suggested that females could seek extra-pair copulations as an insurance against hatching failure caused by male infertility or incompatibility. In species where couples breed repeatedly, females could use previous hatching success as a cue to assess their partner’s infertility (or incompatibility). Hence, it has been predicted that females should increase their infidelity after experiencing...

  10. Effect of differently pelletized digestate on the plant growth of spring wheat (United States)

    Dietrich, Nils; Knoop, Christine; Raab, Thomas


    In Germany, biowaste is used in more than 100 biogas plants and has increasing potential as a fermentation substrate. To optimise waste cycle management organic digestates should be redistributed and innovative products for soil amendment of agricultural areas could be developed. The BMBF-funded VeNGA project seeks to find answers on how to improve the properties of soil amendments produced from fermentation residues. Here, we report findings from our study that focuses on plant growth and soil development. Within a three-month rhizotron experiment, the influence of differently prepared fermentation residues on the root development of summer wheat was investigated. The four variants of the prepared digestate (rolled pellet, pressed pellet, shredded, loose) were tested under constant conditions in the greenhouse on two soils with different textures (sandy and loamy-sand). All fermentation residues originated from the same batch and were composted before the preparation to ensure adequate hygienisation. Depending on preparation type and soil substrate significant differences in root growth and root development have been observed. Plant growth was most intense in the rhizotron experiment with the loose digestate, indicating high nutrient availability due to the large surface area of the organic matter. Plant growth in the substrate with the rolled and pressed pellets was less pronounced, indicating a more persistent stability of the pellets. In rhizotrons applied with rolled and pressed pellets root growth into the mineral fabric was significantly lower in sandy substrate than in the loamy-sand. However, in the sandy substrate root growth within the rolled pellets was more intense than in the substrate with the pressed pellets. Obviously, the different production techniques of the pellets seem to have an influence on the rooting of the pellets and facilitate the long term stability of soil organic carbon. Furthermore, the comparison of the two different textures

  11. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release enteric-coated pellets of budesonide for intestinal delivery. (United States)

    Raval, Mihir K; Ramani, Riddhi V; Sheth, Navin R


    The aim of present work was to develop intestinal-targeted pellets of Budesonide, a potent glucocorticoid, used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease by extrusion and spheronization method. Current available oral formulations of Budesonide have low efficacy because of the premature drug release in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, a pH-controlled intestinal-targeted pellet of budesonide was established using 3(2) full factorial design by giving an enteric coating with Eudragit S100. Budesonide-sustained release pellets were prepared by extruder and spheronization technique using a combination of water-soluble and permeable polymers by applying 3(2) full factorial design. The pellets were coated by spray coating technique using Eudragit S100 as an enteric polymer. The pellets were characterized for its flowability, sphericity, friability, and in vitro drug release. Release behaviour was studied in different pH media. The release profile was studied for the mechanism of drug release. The optimized formulation showed negligible drug release in the stomach followed by release for 12 h in the intestinal pH. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy studies indicated no interaction between drug and polymer. Scanning Electron Microscopy image of coated pellets suggested a uniform and smooth coat over the surface of pellets. Accelerated stability studies showed a stable nature of drug in the formulation. All evaluation parameter showed that pellets were good in spherocity and flowability. Sustained release pellets of Budesonide could be prepared by extrusion and spheronization which released the drug in intestinal pH for an intestine to treat inflammatory bowel disease. A ratio of polymer combination could be decided using a full factorial design.

  12. Behaviour of meat and bonemeal/peat pellets in a bench scale fluidised bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonnell, K.; Desmond, J.; Leahy, J.J.; Howard-Hildige, R.; Ward, S. [University College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland). Agriculture and Food Engineering Department


    As a result of the recent Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy crisis in the European beef industry, safe animal by-product disposal is currently being addressed. One such disposal option is the combustion of by-product material such as meat and bone meal (MBM) in a fluidised bed combustor (FBC) for the purpose of energy recovery. Two short series of combustion tests were conducted on a FBC at the University of Twente, the Netherlands. In the first series, pellets (10 mm in diameter and approximately 10 mm in length) were made from a mixture of MBM and milled peat, at MBM inclusion rates of 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 100%. In the second series of tests, the pellets were commercially made and were 4.8 mm in diameter and between 12 and 15 mm long. These pellets had a weight of about 0.3 g and contained 0%, 25%, 35%, 50% and 100% MBM inclusion with the peat. Both sets of pellets were combusted at 800{degree}C. The residence times in the FBC varied from 300 s (25% MBM inclusion) to 120 s (100% MBM inclusion) for the first series of pellets. Increasing compaction pressure increased the residence time. For the second series of pellets, the residence time varied from about 300 s (25% MBM inclusion) to 100 s (100% MBM inclusion). MBM was found to be a volatile product (about 65%) and co-firing it with milled peat in a pelleted feed format reduces its volatile intensity. Pellets made from 100% bone based meal remained intact within the bed and are thought to have undergone a process of calcination during combustion. A maximum MBM inclusion rate of 35% with milled peat in a pellet is recommended.

  13. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C


    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić


    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  15. Evaluation of the stallion for breeding soundness. (United States)

    Hurtgen, J P


    The breeding soundness evaluation of a stallion is a thorough investigation of a stallion's libido, mating ability, and semen quality. The evaluation should include historical data about the medical aspects of the horse's performance and breeding career, observations and breeding behavior characteristics, collection and evaluation of semen, tests to determine freedom from infectious or contagious disease, and production of foals free of genetic defects. This information should allow the examiner to anticipate the impact of the stallion on the reproductive efficiency of a group of mares. The breeding soundness evaluation should also assist farm management in optimizing stallion, mare, veterinary, and management influences on total herd breeding performance.

  16. Some open Questions Concerning the Neutral-Shielding Model of a Fuelling Pellet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.


    To obtain a better understanding of the implications and assumptions of the idealized neutral shielding model of Parks and Turnbull, the model is reformulated in a self consistent way. Due to the uncertainty of the actual ablation process occuring at the pellet surface, alternative boundary...... conditions are proposed. Their effect on the pellet ablation rate and the state of the ablated flow are examined by numerical analyses. The results show that the ablation rate is not sensitively affected but the ablatant state is markedly influenced by the boundary condition at the pellet surface...

  17. Automatic classification process and device for nuclear fuel pellets; Procede et dispositif de tri automatique de pastilles de combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, M.; Bouvet, P.; Wache, C.


    The device arranges the fuel pellets in several parallel files. The end pellet of each file are then removed and aligned. These pellets are then simultaneously transferred on an optical inspection arrangement and are turned simultaneously for examination. The light signal is analysed to determine if each pellet is correct, acceptable or reject. The pellets are then held by individual grabs which displace to a separation system where the individual grabs are controlled to open in response to the result of the signal analysis. 13 figs.

  18. Pellets from biomass blends from agricultural residues. The alternative to wood; Biomischpellets aus landwirtschaftlichen Reststoffen. Die Alternative zu Holz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rombrecht, Hans-Bernd [BTU Cottbus LS KWT (Germany); Krautz, Gerd [CEBra e.V. (Germany)


    The Centrum fuer Energietechnologie Brandenburg e.V. (Cottbus, Federal Republic of Germany) examines the energetic use of effectively cultivated biomass from regional cultivation. Wood pellets are suitable as fuel, but actually have a price being greater than the price for fuel oil. Under this aspect, bio mixture pellets from agricultural residual substances are discussed as an alternative to wood pellets. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the advantages and disadvantages of bio mixture pellets. The composition and the characteristics of thirteen different mixture pellets also are presented.

  19. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds. (United States)

    Laval, G; Iannuccelli, N; Legault, C; Milan, D; Groenen, M A; Giuffra, E; Andersson, L; Nissen, P H; Jørgensen, C B; Beeckmann, P; Geldermann, H; Foulley, J L; Chevalet, C; Ollivier, L


    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall F(ST)= 0.27), and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.

  20. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foulley Jean-Louis


    Full Text Available Abstract A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall FST = 0.27, and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.

  1. Effect of conventional and extrusion pelleting on in situ ruminal degradability of starch, protein, and fibre in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Ali; Larsen, Mogens; Lund, Peter


    Rumen degradability kinetics was investigated for pelleted compound concentrates differing in physical functional properties of pellets. Six compound concentrate meals were produced containing either 100% wheat, 100% maize, 50% wheat+50% soybean meal (SBM; as is basis), 50% maize+50% SBM, 50% wheat......+50% sugar beet pulp (SBP), or 50% maize+50% SBP. Meals were pelleted by either conventional pelleting, or by cooking extrusion using two distinct settings giving pellets with either high density (HD) or low density (LD). Ruminal degradation of starch, crude protein (CP) and NDF, and intestinal......>Pelleting>Meal). In contradiction, ESD for pure wheat and wheat mixtures was reduced, though differences were minor. Conventional pelleting reduced the effective protein degradability (EPD) for pure wheat, but extrusion did not further affect the EPD. In contrast, the most intense processing with extrusion LD increased EPD...

  2. Diffuse pollution by persistent organic pollutants as measured in plastic pellets sampled from various beaches in Greece. (United States)

    Karapanagioti, H K; Endo, S; Ogata, Y; Takada, H


    Plastic pellets found stranded on beaches are hydrophobic organic materials and thus, they are a favourable medium for persistent organic pollutants to absorb to. In the present study, plastic pellets are used to determine the diffuse pollution of selected Greek beaches. Samples of pellets were taken from these beaches and were analyzed for PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and PAHs. The observed differences among pellets from various sampling sites are related to the pollution occurring at each site. Plastic pellets collected in Saronikos Gulf beaches demonstrate much higher pollutant loading than the ones collected in a remote island or close to an agricultural area. Based on data collected in this study and the International Pellet Watch program, pollution in Saronikos Gulf, Greece, is comparable to other heavily industrialized places of the world. The present study demonstrates the potential of pellet watch to be utilized as a detailed-scale monitoring tool within a single country. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simultaneous determination of compounds in Septalen pellets by derivative spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper, a second-derivative spectrophotometric method of assaying Septalen pellets (Krka, Novo Mesto, Slovenia, which contain lidocaine 1 mg, and cetrimonium bromide 2 mg, is described. Lidocaine, 2-(diethylamino-N-(2,6-dimethyl-phenyl-acetamide, is a local anesthetic with pronounced antiarhythmic and anticonvulsant properties. Cetrimonium bromide, N,N,N-trimethyl-l-hexadecanaminium bromide, is a topical antiseptic and cleansing agent. Lidocaine was determined at 250 nm using the "zero crossing" technique because the signals of centrimonium bromide and the colour ingredient are zero at this wavelength. Cetrimonium bromide was determined by correction of the peak amplitude at 215 nm according to lidocaine. In choosing the optimal magnitudes for the simultaneous determination of both drugs, the following criteria were considered: (1 the linearity of the calibration graphs as given by the correlation coefficients, (2 the intercept, (3 the sensitivity as given by the regression coefficient, (4 the degree of interference in the derivative measurement by the presence of the other compound, as given by the relative percent error and by the relative recovery, and (5 the reproducibility, as given by the coefficient of variation, calculated by recording the second-derivative spectra.

  4. Novel naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium compound pellets based on acid-independent mechanism: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Kan, Shuling; Zhao, Yi; Zhang, Wenli; Liu, Jianping


    The purpose of this study was to develop the novel naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium compound pellets (novel-NAP/EMZ) depending on EMZ acid-independent mechanism which has been proved to be predominate in the mechanism of co-therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The novel-NAP/EMZ compound pellets, composed of NAP colon-specific pellets (NAP-CSPs) and EMZ modified-release pellets (EMZ-MRPs), were prepared by fluid-bed coating technology with desired in vitro release profiles. The resulting pellets were filled into hard gelatin capsules for in vivo evaluation in rats and compared with the reference compound pellets, consisted of NAP enteric-coated pellets (NAP-ECPs) and EMZ immediate-release pellets (EMZ-IRPs). The reference compound pellets were prepared simulating the drug delivery system of VIMOVO(®). In vivo pharmacokinetics, EMZ-MRPs had significantly larger AUC0-t (p pellets, the novel-NAP/EMZ compound pellets did not show distinct differences in histological mucosal morphology. However, biochemical tests exhibited enhanced total antioxidant capacity, increased nitric oxide content and reduced malondialdehyde level for novel-NAP/EMZ compound pellets, indicating that the acid-independent action took effect. The gastric pH values of novel-NAP/EMZ compound pellets were at a low and stable level, which could ensure normal physiological range of human gastric pH. As a result, the novel-NAP/EMZ compound pellets may be a more suitable formulation with potential advantages by improving bioavailability of drug and further reducing undesirable gastrointestinal damages.

  5. Wood pellet milling tests in a suspension-fired power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masche, Marvin; Puig-Arnavat, Maria; Wadenbäck, Johan


    consumption and the differential mill pressure. The size and shape of comminuted pellets sampled from burner pipes were analyzed by dynamic image analysis and sieve analysis, respectively. The results showed that the internal pellet particle size distribution affected both the milling behavior...... at lower mill loads and lower primary airflow rates reduced the mill power consumption, the mill pressure drop, and the classifier cut size. However, this was at the expense of a higher specific grinding energy consumption. Derived 2D shape parameters for comminuted and internal pellet particles were...... similar. Mill operating changes had a negligible effect on the original elongated wood particle shape. To achieve the desired comminuted product fineness (i.e., the classifier cut size) with lower specific grinding energy consumption, power plant operators need to choose pellets with a finer internal...

  6. {beta}-TCP porous pellets as an orthopaedic drug delivery system: ibuprofen/carrier physicochemical interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baradari, Hiba; Damia, Chantal; Dutreih-Colas, Maggy; Champion, Eric; Chulia, Dominique; Viana, Marylene, E-mail: [SPCTS-Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 Rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges CEDEX (France)


    Calcium phosphate bone substitute materials can be loaded with active substances for in situ, targeted drug administration. In this study, porous {beta}-TCP pellets were investigated as an anti-inflammatory drug carrier. Porous {beta}-TCP pellets were impregnated with an ethanolic solution of ibuprofen. The effects of contact time and concentration of ibuprofen solution on drug adsorption were studied. The ibuprofen adsorption equilibrium time was found to be one hour. The adsorption isotherms fitted to the Freundlich model, suggesting that the interaction between ibuprofen and {beta}-TCP is weak. The physicochemical characterizations of loaded pellets confirmed that the reversible physisorption of ibuprofen on {beta}-TCP pellets is due to Van der Waals forces, and this property was associated with the 100% ibuprofen release.

  7. 3D Finite Elements Modelling for Design and Performance Analysis of UO Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo L. Demarco


    Full Text Available The geometry of a fuel pellet is a compromise among the intention to maximize UO2 content and minimize the temperature gradient taking into account the thermomechanical behaviour, the economy, and the safety of the fuel management during and after irradiation. “Dishings”, “shoulders”, “chamfers”, and/or “a central hole” on a cylinder with an improved l/d relation (length of the pellet/diameter are introduced in order to optimize the shape of the pellet. The MeCom tools coupled with the BaCo code constitutes a complete system for the 3D analysis of the stress strain state of the pellet under irradiation. CANDU and PHWR MOX fuel will be used to illustrate the excellent qualitative agreement between experimental data and calculations by using these computational tools.

  8. Diffusion of a freely water-soluble drug in aqueous enteric-coated pellets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guo, HX; Heinämäki, J; Yliruusi, J


    ...%) with an aqueous dispersion of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP). The diffusion of riboflavin sodium phosphate in aqueous enteric-coated pellets was investigated using noninvasive confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM...

  9. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release enteric-coated pellets of budesonide for intestinal delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raval, Mihir K; Ramani, Riddhi V; Sheth, Navin R


    ...) full factorial design by giving an enteric coating with Eudragit S100. Budesonide-sustained release pellets were prepared by extruder and spheronization technique using a combination of water-soluble and permeable polymers by applying 3(2...

  10. A Reappraisal of the Purported Gastric Pellet with Pterosaurian Bones from the Upper Triassic of Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Holgado

    Full Text Available A small accumulation of bones from the Norian (Upper Triassic of the Seazza Brook Valley (Carnic Prealps, Northern Italy was originally (1989 identified as a gastric pellet made of pterosaur skeletal elements. The specimen has been reported in literature as one of the very few cases of gastric ejecta containing pterosaur bones since then. However, the detailed analysis of the bones preserved in the pellet, their study by X-ray microCT, and the comparison with those of basal pterosaurs do not support a referral to the Pterosauria. Comparison with the osteology of a large sample of Middle-Late Triassic reptiles shows some affinity with the protorosaurians, mainly with Langobardisaurus pandolfii that was found in the same formation as the pellet. However, differences with this species suggest that the bones belong to a similar but distinct taxon. The interpretation as a gastric pellet is confirmed.

  11. A Reappraisal of the Purported Gastric Pellet with Pterosaurian Bones from the Upper Triassic of Italy. (United States)

    Holgado, Borja; Dalla Vecchia, Fabio Marco; Fortuny, Josep; Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio


    A small accumulation of bones from the Norian (Upper Triassic) of the Seazza Brook Valley (Carnic Prealps, Northern Italy) was originally (1989) identified as a gastric pellet made of pterosaur skeletal elements. The specimen has been reported in literature as one of the very few cases of gastric ejecta containing pterosaur bones since then. However, the detailed analysis of the bones preserved in the pellet, their study by X-ray microCT, and the comparison with those of basal pterosaurs do not support a referral to the Pterosauria. Comparison with the osteology of a large sample of Middle-Late Triassic reptiles shows some affinity with the protorosaurians, mainly with Langobardisaurus pandolfii that was found in the same formation as the pellet. However, differences with this species suggest that the bones belong to a similar but distinct taxon. The interpretation as a gastric pellet is confirmed.

  12. A life cycle evaluation of wood pellet gasification for district heating in British Columbia. (United States)

    Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T; Sokhansanj, Shahab


    The replacement of natural gas combustion for district heating by wood waste and wood pellets gasification systems with or without emission control has been investigated by a streamlined LCA. While stack emissions from controlled gasification systems are lower than the applicable regulations, compared to the current base case, 12% and 133% increases are expected in the overall human health impacts for wood pellets and wood waste, respectively. With controlled gasification, external costs and GHG emission can be reduced by 35% and 82% on average, respectively. Between wood pellets and wood waste, wood pellets appear to be the better choice as it requires less primary energy and has a much lower impact on the local air quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Standard test methods for analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Section Carbon (Total) by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity Method C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion-Selective Electrode Method C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Gadolinia Content by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry C1456 Test Method for Determination of Uranium or Gadolinium, or Both, in Gadolinium Oxide-Uranium Oxide Pellets or by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Hydrogen by Inert Gas Fusion C1457 Test Method for Determination of Total Hydrogen Content of Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets by Carrier Gas Extraction Isotopic Uranium Composition by Multiple-Filament Surface-Ioni...

  14. Grain growth in thoria and thoria-base fuel pellets (LWBR development program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smid, R.J.


    The kinetics of grain growth in ThO/sub 2/-base sintered compacts were investigated to determine the cause of a nonuniform microstructural cross section. It was concluded that trace impurities which inhibit continuous grain growth at the pellet interior were removed by vaporization at the pellet exterior. This resulted in relatively normal grain growth at the pellet surface and discontinuous grain growth at the pellet interior. Calcining the starting ThO/sub 2/ powder to a slightly higher temperature removed inhibiting impurities but also decreased the driving force for grain growth by reducing the surface area of the powder. Mixing high and low temperature calcined ThO/sub 2/ resulted in improved grain growth. Increased oxygen partial pressure and temperature during sintering increased grain boundary mobility in spite of the inhibiting impurity. The specific inhibiting impurity was not isolated during this investigation.

  15. Lysine reactivity and starch gelatinization in extruded and pelleted canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.; Lin, van C.G.J.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Poel, van der A.F.B.


    Fifteen dry adult canine diets (i.e., dinners, extrudates, pellets) were collected from retailers in Wageningen, The Netherlands, and chemically and physically characterized. Quality measurements were lysine O-methylisourea (OMIU) reactivity and starch gelatinization degree (SGD). In general,

  16. Calculational Method for Neutron Heatingin Dense Plasma Systems, (II) Application to Burning D-T Pellets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    NAKAO, Yasuyuki; HONDA, Takuro; FUJITA, Masaki; NAKASHIMA, Hideki; ODA, Akinori; KUDO, Kazuhiko; OHTA, Masao


    ...). After incorporating these equations into the one-dimensional hydrodynamics code MEDUSA, burn simulations are made for isobaric D-T pellets models compressed to 1, 000 times the liquid density...

  17. More feed efficient sheep produce less methane and carbon dioxide when eating high-quality pellets. (United States)

    Paganoni, B; Rose, G; Macleay, C; Jones, C; Brown, D J; Kearney, G; Ferguson, M; Thompson, A N


    The Australian sheep industry aims to increase the efficiency of sheep production by decreasing the amount of feed eaten by sheep. Also, feed intake is related to methane production, and more efficient (low residual feed intake) animals eat less than expected. So we tested the hypothesis that more efficient sheep produce less methane by investigating the genetic correlations between feed intake, residual feed intake, methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Feed intake, methane, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were measured on Merino ewes at postweaning (1,866 at 223 d old), hogget (1,010 sheep at 607 d old), and adult ages (444 sheep at 1,080 d old). Sheep were fed a high-energy grower pellet ad libitum for 35 d. Individual feed intake was measured using automated feeders. Methane was measured using portable accumulation chambers up to 3 times during this feed intake period. Heritabilities and phenotypic and genotypic correlations between traits were estimated using ASReml. Oxygen (range 0.10 to 0.20) and carbon dioxide (range 0.08 to 0.28) were generally more heritable than methane (range 0.11 to 0.14). Selecting to decrease feed intake or residual feed intake will decrease methane (genetic correlation [] range 0.76 to 0.90) and carbon dioxide ( range 0.65 to 0.96). Selecting to decrease intake ( range 0.64 to 0.78) and methane ( range 0.81 to 0.86) in sheep at postweaning age would also decrease intake and methane in hoggets and adults. Furthermore, selecting for lower residual feed intake ( = 0.75) and carbon dioxide ( = 0.90) in hoggets would also decrease these traits in adults. Similarly, selecting for higher oxygen ( = 0.69) in hoggets would also increase this trait in adults. Given these results, the hypothesis that making sheep more feed efficient will decrease their methane production can be accepted. In addition, carbon dioxide is a good indicator trait for feed intake because it has the highest heritability of the gas traits measured; is cheaper, faster, and

  18. Fluidized bed combustion of pelletized biomass and waste-derived fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirone, R.; Scala, F.; Solimene, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - C.N.R., Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Salatino, P.; Urciuolo, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica - Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy)


    The fluidized bed combustion of three pelletized biogenic fuels (sewage sludge, wood, and straw) has been investigated with a combination of experimental techniques. The fuels have been characterized from the standpoints of patterns and rates of fuel devolatilization and char burnout, extent of attrition and fragmentation, and their relevance to the fuel particle size distribution and the amount and size distribution of primary ash particles. Results highlight differences and similarities among the three fuels tested. The fuels were all characterized by limited primary fragmentation and relatively long devolatilization times, as compared with the time scale of particle dispersion away from the fuel feeding ports in practical FBC. Both features are favorable to effective lateral distribution of volatile matter across the combustor cross section. The three fuels exhibited distinctively different char conversion patterns. The high-ash pelletized sludge burned according to the shrinking core conversion pattern with negligible occurrence of secondary fragmentation. The low-ash pelletized wood burned according to the shrinking particle conversion pattern with extensive occurrence of secondary fragmentation. The medium-ash pelletized straw yielded char particles with a hollow structure, resembling big cenospheres, characterized by a coherent inorganic outer layer strong enough to prevent particle fragmentation. Inert bed particles were permanently attached to the hollow pellets as they were incorporated into ash melts. Carbon elutriation rates were very small for all the fuels tested. For pelletized sludge and straw, this was mostly due to the shielding effect of the coherent ash skeleton. For the wood pellet, carbon attrition was extensive, but was largely counterbalanced by effective afterburning due to the large intrinsic reactivity of attrited char fines. The impact of carbon attrition on combustion efficiency was negligible for all the fuels tested. The size

  19. Preparation and evaluation of duloxetine hydrochloride enteric-coated pellets with different enteric polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kuang


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to prepare duloxetine hydrochloride (DXH enteric-coated pellets using different enteric polymers. Three layers (drug-loaded layer, barrier layer, and enteric-coated layer were applied to the inert core pellets, successively. The optimal formulation was manufactured by employing suspension layering method in fluidized bed processor (FBP with varieties of enteric polymers like Aqoat® AS-LF, Eudragit® L30D55 and HPMCP-HP55. The prepared pellets were measured for physical characterization and the in vitro dissolution profile. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was conducted to observe the morphology of pellets, and different kinetic models were applied to analyze the release mechanism of Cymbalta® and home-made pellets. The coating weight gain of enteric-coated layer containing Eudragit® L30D55, Aqoat® AS-LF and HP-55 were determined to be 35%, 26% and 24%, respectively. The similarity factors (f2 of self-made capsules with above polymers and commercially available capsules (Cymbalta® were above 50 in the dissolution medium of pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solution (PBS. SEM figures showed the smooth surfaces of self-prepared pellets using Eudragit® L30D55 and Aqoat® AS-LF, whereas rough surface was found in the HP-55 pellets at day 0, and an impurity was appearing in the condition of 40 °C/75% relative humidity for 1 month. In conclusion, the pellets prepared by utilizing Eudragit® L30D55 and Aqoat® AS-LF were the optimal preparations based on the dissolution profile and stability.

  20. A proposal for pellet production from residual woody biomass in the island of Majorca (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez


    Full Text Available The use of residual biomass for energy purposes is of great interest in isolated areas like Majorca for waste reduction, energy sufficiency and renewable energies development. In addition, densification processes lead to easy-to-automate solid biofuels which additionally have higher energy density. The present study aims at (i the estimation of the potential of residual biomass from woody crops as well as from agri-food and wood industries in Majorca, and (ii the analysis of the optimal location of potential pellet plants by means of a GIS approach (location-allocation analysis and a cost evaluation of the pellets production chain. The residual biomass potential from woody crops in Majorca Island was estimated at 35,874 metric tons dry matter (t DM per year, while the wood and agri-food industries produced annually 21,494 t DM and 2717 t DM, respectively. Thus, there would be enough resource available for the installation of 10 pellet plants of 6400 t·year−1 capacity. These plants were optimally located throughout the island of Mallorca with a maximum threshold distance of 28 km for biomass transport from the production points. Values found for the biomass cost at the pellet plant ranged between 57.1 €·t−1 and 63.4 €·t−1 for biomass transport distance of 10 and 28 km. The cost of pelleting amounted to 56.7 €·t−1; adding the concepts of business fee, pellet transport and profit margin (15%, the total cost of pelleting was estimated at 116.6 €·t−1. The present study provides a proposal for pellet production from residual woody biomass that would supply up to 2.8% of the primary energy consumed by the domestic and services sector in the Balearic Islands.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of Vinpocetine self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets. (United States)

    Liu, Mengqi; Zhang, Shiming; Cui, Shuxia; Chen, Fen; Jia, Lianqun; Wang, Shu; Gai, Xiumei; Li, Pingfei; Yang, Feifei; Pan, Weisan; Yang, Xinggang


    The main objective of this study was to develop a pH gradient release pellet with self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS), which could not only improve the oral bioavailability of Vinpocetine (VIN), a poor soluble drug, but reduce the fluctuation of plasma concentration. First, the liquid VIN SEDDS formulation was prepared. Then the self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets were prepared by extrusion spheronization technique, and formulation consisted by the liquid SEDDS, absorbent (colloidal silicon dioxide), penetration enhancer (sodium chloride), microcrystalline cellulose, ethyl alcohol, and three coating materials (HPMC, Eudragit L30D55, Eudragit FS30D) were eventually selected. Three kinds of coated pellets were mixed in capsules with the mass ratio of 1:1:1. The release curves of capsules were investigated in vitro under the simulated gastrointestinal conditions. In addition, the oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of VIN self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets, commercial tablets and liquid VIN SEDDS were evaluated in Beagle dogs. The oral bioavailability of self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets was about 149.8% of commercial VIN tablets, and it was about 86% of liquid VIN SEDDS, but there were no significant difference between liquid SEDDS and self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets. In conclusion, the self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets could significantly enhance the absorption of VIN and effectively achieve a pH gradient release. And the self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellet was a promising method to improve bioavailability of insoluble drugs.

  2. Pengaruh Taraf Penyemprotan Air dan Lama Penyimpanan Terhadap Daya Tahan Ransum Broiler Finisher Berbentuk Pellet


    Yuli Retnani; Edo Duanda Putra; Lidy Herawati


    The effect of different water spraying level and storage period on endurance of pellet broiler finisher ABSTRACT. The storage is very important in a farm management, because this activity can take care of feed stability which enough and preferable to be consumed by animal and also strive for animal food availability continuously. The purpose of this research is to know the water spraying level and variation of storage period against the endurance of pellet broiler finisher ration. This re...

  3. Automated fabrication, characterization and transport of ICF pellets. Final report, March 1, 1979-October 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, D W; Boyd, B A; Lilienkamp, R H


    The near-term objectives of the contract were threefold: (1) evaluate techniques for the production of frozen hydrogen microspheres and demonstrate concepts for coating them; (2) develop and demonstrate an optical characterization system which could lead to automated pellet inspection; and (3) develop and demonstrate a preliminary electrostatic pellet transport control system. This report describes the equipment assembled for these experiments and the results obtained.

  4. Plasma fuelling with cryogenic pellets in the stellarator TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, K. J. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Panadero, N. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Velasco, J. L. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Combs, S. K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Caughman, J. B. O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fontdecaba, J. M. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Foust, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); García, R. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Hernández Sánchez, J. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Navarro, M. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pastor, I. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Soleto, A. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)


    Cryogenic pellet injection is a widely used technique for delivering fuel to the core of magnetically confined plasmas. Indeed, such systems are currently functioning on many tokamak, reversed field pinch and stellarator devices. A pipe-gun-type pellet injector is now operated on the TJ-II, a low-magnetic shear stellarator of the heliac type. Cryogenic hydrogen pellets, containing between 3×1018 and 4×1019 atoms, are injected at velocities between 800 and 1200 m s-1 from its low-field side into plasmas created and/or maintained in this device by electron cyclotron resonance and/or neutral beam injection heating. In this paper, the first systematic study of pellet ablation, particle deposition and fuelling efficiency is presented for TJ-II. From this, light-emission profiles from ablating pellets are found to be in reasonable agreement with simulated pellet ablation profiles (created using a neutral gas shielding-based code) for both heating scenarios. In addition, radial offsets between recorded light-emission profiles and particle deposition profiles provide evidence for rapid outward drifting of ablated material that leads to pellet particle loss from the plasma. Finally, fuelling efficiencies are documented for a range of target plasma densities (~4×1018– ~2×1019 m-3). These range from ~20%– ~85% and are determined to be sensitive to pellet penetration depth. Additional observations, such as enhanced core ablation, are discussed and planned future work is outlined.

  5. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård


    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  6. Cradle-to-Gate Life-Cycle Inventory and Impact Assessment of Wood Fuel Pellet Manufacturing from Hardwood Flooring Residues in the Southeastern United States (United States)

    Daniel Reed; Richard Bergman; Jae-Woo Kim; Adam Tayler; David Harper; David Jones; Chris Knowles; Maureen E. Puettmann


    In this article, we present cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) data for wood fuel pellets manufactured in the Southeast United States. We surveyed commercial pellet manufacturers in 2010, collecting annual production data for 2009. Weighted-average inputs to, and emissions from, the pelletization process were determined. The pellet making unit process was...

  7. VOCs Emissions from Multiple Wood Pellet Types and Concentrations in Indoor Air. (United States)

    Soto-Garcia, Lydia; Ashley, William J; Bregg, Sandar; Walier, Drew; LeBouf, Ryan; Hopke, Philip K; Rossner, Alan


    Wood pellet storage safety is an important aspect for implementing woody biomass as a renewable energy source. When wood pellets are stored indoors in large quantities (tons) in poorly ventilated spaces in buildings, such as in basements, off-gassing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can significantly affect indoor air quality. To determine the emission rates and potential impact of VOC emissions, a series of laboratory and field measurements were conducted using softwood, hardwood, and blended wood pellets manufactured in New York. Evacuated canisters were used to collect air samples from the headspace of drums containing pellets and then in basements and pellet storage areas of homes and small businesses. Multiple peaks were identified during GC/MS and GC/FID analysis, and four primary VOCs were characterized and quantified: methanol, pentane, pentanal, and hexanal. Laboratory results show that total VOCs (TVOCs) concentrations for softwood (SW) were statistically (p building air. Occupants of the buildings tested discussed concerns about odor and sensory irritation when new pellets were delivered. The sensory response was likely due to the aldehydes.

  8. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications. (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N; Williams, Orla


    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water.

  9. Mineralization of nitrogen from pelletized sewage sludge - a laboratory incubation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattiez, Anne-Laure


    Nitrogen limits the productivity of most ecosystems, but can also cause environmental problems. With the increasing amount of sludge generated by better wastewater treatment, land application of pelletized sludge appears as a combined solution to waste disposal and plant nitrogen nutrition issues. Six types of sludge pellets/granules, containing different mixtures of sludge, ash and/or lime have been inoculated and incubated for 8 weeks at 20 deg C in the dark, to study N net mineralisation rates. Laboratory results showed no indication of general differences between sludge/ash and sludge/lime mixtures, with respect to N mineralisation and nitrification, but some differences between Umeaa pellets and GaevIe granules were discernible. The higher net N mineralisation rates in pellets appeared to be related to sludge properties. On the contrary pellets had a low level of nitrification, which might be explained by preliminary heat treatment of the sludge and the seemingly slow recolonization of nitrifiers. It is also believed that considerable amounts of N were lost, and that the major route for these losses was ammonia volatilisation. From an economical point of view, sludge pelletisation appears to be the most cost-effective means of disposal. It transforms sludge into a valuable, odourless and storable fertiliser or heat source. Some income could even be expected. The benefits obtained from an increased tree growth could justify forest fertilisation with pelletized sludge, but further research is needed to determine more precisely the possible growth increment and the consequences on the environment.

  10. Influence of formulation and process parameters on pellet production by powder layering technique. (United States)

    Nastruzzi, C; Cortesi, R; Esposito, E; Genovesi, A; Spadoni, A; Vecchio, C; Menegatti, E


    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the formulation and operating conditions on pellet preparation by pan technique. To this end, a new pelletization process, typified by the application of powdered drug on sugar-based cores using the GS coating system was studied. Inert cores were intermittently treated with micronized drug powder and adhesive solution. This treatment led to the formation of multiple layers of drug particles around an inert core resulting in the production of pellets that can further be coated by different polymers to obtain modified release formulations. Different procedures have been used to evaluate a series of important parameters such as initial core weight; speed of powder application; speed, type, and position of the atomizers; atomization degree; temperature; and air cap. Good yield of drug layering was obtained by adjusting the quantity of both the drug powder to apply and the binder solution. Pellets obtained following the optimal operating conditions (defined in a pre-formulation study) were film coated with the acrylic polymer Eudragit L30D in order to produce a model formulation consisting of enteric polymer-coated pellets containing ibuprofen. During its preparation, the formulation showed no degradation of the drug; moreover, a low percentage of residual humidity was obtained, indicating that this system is very efficient for the production of highly stable formulations. This study showed the good performance of the GS automated pan-coating system in obtaining enteric coated pellets prepared by powder layering technique using aqueous solutions.

  11. New composite separator pellet to increase power density and reduce size of thermal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondy, Lisa Ann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine Cardinal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne Mary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Soehnel, Melissa Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barringer, David Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); DiAntonio, Christopher Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chavez, Thomas P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hughes, Lindsey Gloe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, Lindsey R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fitchett, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    We show that it is possible to manufacture strong macroporous ceramic films that can be backfilled with electrolyte to form rigid separator pellets suitable for use in thermal batteries. Several new ceramic manufacturing processes are developed to produce sintered magnesium oxide foams with connected porosities of over 80% by volume and with sufficient strength to withstand the battery manufacturing steps. The effects of processing parameters are quantified, and methods to imbibe electrolyte into the ceramic scaffold demonstrated. Preliminary single cell battery testing show that some of our first generation pellets exhibit longer voltage life with comparable resistance at the critical early times to that exhibited by a traditional pressed pellets. Although more development work is needed to optimize the processes to create these rigid separator pellets, the results indicate the potential of such ceramic separator pellets to be equal, if not superior to, current pressed pellets. Furthermore, they could be a replacement for critical material that is no longer available, as well as improving battery separator strength, decreasing production costs, and leading to shorter battery stacks for long-life batteries.

  12. Weighting analysis of pellet quality attributes using Multi Response Signal to Noise (MRSN) method (United States)

    Parkhan, A.; Widodo, I. D.; Amin, F. N.


    Quality of pellets, one form of animal feed, is not only measured by the nutritional content but also by its physical form. The physical strength of the pellet is determined from crushing and not easily moldy. Both quality characteristics are measured by reliability (pellet durability index) and resistance (water content percentage). In order to improve the quality of pellet, this study applied Multi Response Signal to Noise (MRSN) method. The weight of product quality attributes used will influence the method in determining the selected alternatives. To accommodate the weighting of dynamic product quality attributes, this study also ran weighting sensitivity analysis of product quality attributes. The results showed that the combination of factor level that produced the optimal pellet is A2, B1, C1, D1, E1, F1, G2 or combination of production process run with vapor pressure 1.9 bar, temperature conditioner 80 ° C, 3.5mm pellet diameter mold, cooler temperature 30 ° C, time in cooler 2 minutes, roller distance 1.5 cm, mixing time 175 seconds. This optimum combination can increase PDI percentage by 2.132% and decrease difference to target of water content by 0.234%. The optimum factor level combination will change if the weight for % PDI rises to be more than 0.77228 or decreases to be less than 0.00561, or in other words, the optimum combination will not change if the weight for % PDI is in the range 0.00561 - 0.77228.

  13. Analysis of pharmaceutical pellets: An approach using near-infrared chemical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabin, Guilherme P.; Breitkreitz, Marcia C.; Souza, Andre M. de [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Patricia da; Calefe, Lupercio; Moffa, Mario [Zelus Servicos para Industria Farmaceutica Ltda., Av. Professor Lineu Prestes n. 2242, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Poppi, Ronei J., E-mail: [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    Highlights: {yields} Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging was used for pellets analysis. {yields} Distribution of the components throughout the coatings layers and core of the pellets was estimated. {yields} Classical Least Squares (CLS) was used for calculation of the concentration maps. - Abstract: Pharmaceutical pellets are spherical or nearly spherical multi-unit dosage forms designed to optimize pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics features of drug release. The distribution of the pharmaceutical ingredients in the layers and core is a very important parameter for appropriate drug release, especially for pellets manufactured by the process of layer gain. Physical aspects of the sample are normally evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), but it is in many cases unsuitable to provide conclusive chemical information about the distribution of the pharmaceutical ingredients in both layers and core. On the other hand, methods based on spectroscopic imaging can be very promising for this purpose. In this work, a Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging (NIR-CI) method was developed and applied to the analysis of diclophenac sodium pellets. Since all the compounds present in the sample were known in advance, Classical Least Squares (CLS) was used for calculations. The results have shown that the method was capable of providing chemical information about the distribution of the active ingredient and excipients in the core and coating layers and therefore can be complementary to SEM for the pharmaceutical development of pellets.

  14. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N.; Williams, Orla


    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water. PMID:27293776

  15. Morphological engineering of Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. geldanus: regulation of pellet morphology through manipulation of broth viscosity. (United States)

    O'Cleirigh, C; Casey, J T; Walsh, P K; O'Shea, D G


    Actinomycetes, especially members of the genus Streptomyces, are responsible for producing the majority of known antibiotics. The production of antibiotics by filamentous organisms is often dependent on the morphology and size distribution of the pellet population within the culture. Particle interaction and subsequent pellet formation are primarily dependent on the rate of collision of particles in culture, which is in turn, a function of fluid turbulence. The microbial polysaccharide xanthan gum was used to artificially regulate the apparent viscosity (mu(a)) of S. hygroscopicus fermentation broths with the aim of controlling particle interaction, aggregation and hence pellet formation. An increase in both pellet count and biomass concentration from approximately 2,000 to 8,000 pellets ml(-1) and 0.9-2.1 g l(-1) dry weight of biomass, as well a decrease in the mean pellet volume from 0.014 to 0.004 mm(3) was observed in cultures supplemented with 3 g l(-1) xanthan gum. The addition of xanthan gum significantly alters fluid rheology by increasing the mu(a). Counter-intuitively, an increase in the mu(a) within the experimental range examined resulted in an increase in the rate of gas-liquid mass transfer. This was attributed to the predominantly diffusive nature of oxygen transfer in shake flask cultures.

  16. Effect of pelleting on the recalcitrance and bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison E Ray; Amber Hoover; Gary Gresham


    Background: Knowledge regarding the performance of densified biomass in biochemical processes is limited. The effects of densification on biochemical conversion are explored here. Methods: Pelleted corn stover samples were generated from bales that were milled to 6.35 mm. Low-solids acid pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were performed to evaluate pretreatment efficacy and ethanol yields achieved for pelleted and ground stover (6.35 mm and 2 mm) samples. Both pelleted and 6.35-mm ground stover were evaluated using a ZipperClave® reactor under high-solids, process-relevant conditions for multiple pretreatment severities (Ro), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed, pretreated solids. Results: Monomeric xylose yields were significantly higher for pellets (approximately 60%) than for ground formats (approximately 38%). Pellets achieved approximately 84% of theoretical ethanol yield (TEY); ground stover formats had similar profiles, reaching approximately 68% TEY. Pelleting corn stover was not detrimental to pretreatment efficacy for both low- and high-solids conditions, and even enhanced ethanol yields.

  17. [Progress and countermeasures of Dendrobium officinale breeding]. (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; He, Bo-wei; Yu, Qiao-xian


    The standandized cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials is based on variety. With the rapid development of Dendrobium officinale industry and increasing demand of improved varieties, many studies have concentrated on the variety breeding of D. officinale and subsequently achieved remarkable success. This paper systematically expounds the research progress of D. officinale breeding, e. g. the collection and differentiated evaluation for germplasm, theory and practice for variety breeding, tissue culture and efficient production with low-carbon for germchit, and DNA molecular marker-assisted breeding, and then indicates the main problems of the current breeding of D. officinale. Furthermore, the priorities and keys for the further breeding of D. officinale have been pointed out.

  18. Mechanical properties of geopolymer lightweight brick with styrofoam pellet (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Tahir, Muhammad Faheem Mohd; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Hussin, Kamarudin; Samson, W. Saiful Iskandar W.


    The utilization of fly ash in brick as partial replacement of cement is gaining immense importance today, mainly on account of the improvement in the long-term durability of brick combined with ecological benefits. In this research, the lightweight brick was produced by using fly ash (class F) as a main material to replace Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) in the composition of brick. Class F Fly Ash was mixed with an alkaline activator solution (a mixture of sodium silicate and NaOH), and styrofoam pellet was added to the geopolymer mixture to produce lightweight brick. The brick was prepared in two methods that is wet method and dry method due to different brick composition which is dry method for composition with sand and wet method for composition without sand. The bricks were cured in room temperature at 7 aging days. After 7 days, the compressive strength, water absorption, and density of the brick were investigated, where the optimum ratio for the best bricks has been determined from the lightweight density and has compressive strength more than minimum standard requirement. The best bricks are further produce for curing at 60°C in oven at 28 aging days. Those bricks also were characterized using optical microscope to measure the distribution of styrofoam in brick structure. From the result obtained, the brick that cured at 60°C in oven at 28 aging days has high strength compare to brick that cured in room temperature and at 7 day cured. The water absorption is decreasing as the curing temperature and aging days increased whereas density is increasing.

  19. Hop pellets as an interesting source of antioxidant active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Holubková


    Full Text Available Hop is a plant used by humankind for thousands of years. This plant is one of the main and indispensable raw materials for the beer production. It is used for various dishes preparation in the cuisine. Hop is also used to inhibit bacterial contamination. The hop extracts are used for its sedative, antiseptic and antioxidant properties in medicine, as a part of many phytopharmaceuticals. The present paper have focused on the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from 4 samples of hop pellets varieties of Aurora, Saaz, Lublin and Saphir, on the analyzing of bioactive substances (polyphenolics and flavonoids in prepared extracts and on the determination of antioxidant activity.  The highest content of polyphenolic substances was determined in the sample Lublin (153.06 mg gallic acid (GAE/g and Saaz (151.87 mg GAE/g. The amount of flavonoids in the samples  was descending order Saaz > Saphir > Aurora > Lublin. Hops, as plant, is known by high content of antioxidant active substances. Antioxidant activity was determined using three independent spectrofotometric methods, radical scavenging assays using 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The sample Aurora showed the highest ability to scavenge of ABTS radical cation. Antioxidant activity continued to decline in a row Saphir> Lublin> Saaz. The same trend was also observed by using the FRAP assay. The most effective DPPH radical scavengering activity had the sample Saaz a Saphir (p>0.05.doi:10.5219/270 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  20. Breed structure of Senepol cattle. (United States)

    Williams, A R; Hupp, H D; Thompson, C E; Grimes, L W


    Data were collected by the Virgin Islands Beef Cattle Improvement Program and the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station staff to establish the breed structure of the Senepol cattle. Data for the analysis were limited to the two Virgin Islands Senepol breeders with the most complete and largest set of records, representing approximately 65% of the entire Senepol population. Inbreeding (F) and coancestry relationship coefficients (rAB) and the theoretical inbreeding (FT) were determined from each data set and for the combined data from both farms, for each year, ranging from 1947 to 1984 for Annaly Farms, and from 1967 to 1984 for Castle Nugent Farm. The data sets for both farms were examined for the possibility of separation into families. Actual F within the Senepol population was relatively low, averaging less than 1.00%. Some separation into families occurred within Annaly Farms' cattle. The F and FT decreased (1.6 to 0.7% and 1.0 to 0.2%, respectively) as population numbers increased. The low F was accomplished through the breeding programs and exchanges of animals between farms on the island.

  1. Sunflower breeding for resistance to Fusarium


    Gontcharov S.V.; Antonova T.S.; Saukova S.L.


    Fusarium fungi have grown from a minor pathogen of sunflower crop to a major problem of sunflowers in Russia. The aim of this work was breeding for resistance to this new major pathogen, combining field and laboratory testing in the framework of VNIIMK hybrid sunflower breeding program. Four segregated hybrid combinations selected on the basis of their field resistance to different pathogens were used as breeding material. Three of them were doublecross combinations: F3 R-14 × (VK-591 × VK-53...

  2. Sinkers or floaters? Contribution from salp pellets to the export flux during a large bloom event in the Southern Ocean (United States)

    Iversen, Morten H.; Pakhomov, Evgeny A.; Hunt, Brian P. V.; van der Jagt, Helga; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Klaas, Christine


    Salp fecal pellets are rich in organic matter and have been shown to sink at very high velocities. In recent years, salp abundances have been increasing in the Southern Ocean where they seem to be replacing krill as the dominant grazers on phytoplankton. As salps can form large swarms with high pellet production rates, it has been suggested that they will become increasingly important for the vertical export of particulate organic matter in the Southern Ocean. However, detailed studies combining both investigations of pellet production rates, turnover, and export are still needed in order to determine whether salp pellets are important for export ('sinkers') or recycling ('floaters') of organic matter. Our results suggest that pellets are produced at high rates in the upper few hundred meters of the water column. Although we observed high sinking velocities and low microbial degradation rates of the produced salp pellets, only about one third of the produced pellets were captured in sediment traps placed at 100 m and about 13% of the produced pellets were exported to sediment traps placed at 300 m. The high retention of these fast-settling pellets seems to be caused by break-up and loosening of the pellets, possibly by zooplankton and salps themselves. We measured 3-fold lower size-specific sinking velocities in loosened and fragmented compared to freshly produced intact pellets-. This enhanced the residence times (>1 day) of both small and large pellets in the upper water column. We postulate that the fragile nature of salp pellets make them more important for recycling of organic matter in the upper mesopelagic layer rather than as a conduit for export of particulate organic matter to the seafloor.

  3. Genomic Analyses of Modern Dog Breeds


    Parker, Heidi G.


    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized world-wide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog resulting in a unique gen...

  4. The Design and Performance of a Twenty Barrel Hydrogen Pellet Injector for Alcator C-Mod (United States)

    Urbahn, John A.

    A twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector has been designed, built and tested both in the laboratory and on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak at MIT. The injector functions by firing pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium deep into the plasma discharge for the purpose of fueling the plasma, modifying the density profile and increasing the global energy confinement time. The design goals of the injector are: (1) Operational flexibility, (2) High reliability, (3) Remote operation with minimal maintenance. These requirements have led to a single stage, pipe gun design with twenty barrels. Pellets are formed by in-situ condensation of the fuel gas, thus avoiding moving parts at cryogenic temperatures. The injector is the first to dispense with the need for cryogenic fluids and instead uses a closed cycle refrigerator to cool the thermal system components. The twenty barrels of the injector produce pellets of four different size groups and allow for a high degree of flexibility in fueling experiments. Operation of the injector is under PLC control allowing for remote operation, interlocked safety features and automated pellet manufacturing. The injector has been extensively tested and shown to produce pellets reliably with velocities up to 1400 m/sec. During the period from September to November of 1993, the injector was successfully used to fire pellets into over fifty plasma discharges. Experimental results include data on the pellet penetration into the plasma using an advanced pellet tracking diagnostic with improved time and spatial response. Data from the tracker indicates pellet penetrations were between 30 and 86 percent of the plasma minor radius. Line averaged density increases of up to 300 percent were recorded with peak densities of just under 1 times 10^ {21} / m^3, the highest achieved on C-Mod to date. A comparison is made between the ablation source function derived from tracker data with that predicted by four different variations of the neutral shield model

  5. Effects of pelleting, extrusion, or extrusion and pelleting on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets containing different levels of fiber and fed to growing pigs. (United States)

    Rojas, O J; Vinyeta, E; Stein, H H


    An experiment was conducted to determine effects of pelleting, extrusion, and extrusion and pelleting on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets containing low, medium, or high concentrations of fiber. Three diets were formulated: 1) the low-fiber diet contained corn and soybean meal; 2) the medium-fiber diet contained corn, soybean meal, and 25% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS); and 3) the high-fiber diet contained corn, soybean meal, 25% DDGS, and 20% soybean hulls. Each diet was divided into 4 batches after mixing. One batch was not further processed and was fed in a meal form, one batch was pelleted at 85°C, one batch was extruded at 115°C using a single-screw extruder, and one batch was extruded at 115°C and then pelleted at 85°C. Thus, 12 different diets were produced. Twenty-four growing pigs (26.5 ± 1.5 kg initial BW) had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum and were allotted to the 12 diets in a split-plot design with 8 pigs allotted to the low-fiber diets, the medium-fiber diets, and the high-fiber diets, respectively. Diets were fed to the pigs during four 14-d periods. Within each type of diet, the 8 pigs were fed the diets produced using the 4 processing technologies. Therefore, there were 8 replicate pigs per diet. Pigs were adjusted to their diets for 14 d before the experiment was initiated. Each of the four 14-d periods consisted of 5 d for adaptation, 5 d of fecal collection according to the marker to marker approach, and ileal digesta were collected on d 13 and 14. Results indicated that pelleting, extrusion, or extrusion and pelleting improved ( diets. The apparent total tract digestibility of GE was also improved ( diets was greater ( diets for the low- and medium-fiber diets, but this was not the case for high-fiber diets (interaction, diets that were extruded had greater ME ( diets, but that was not the case for low-fiber diets. These data indicate that energy utilization may be improved by pelleting or extrusion or

  6. Production of wood pellets. Influence of additives on production, quality, storage, combustion and life cycle analysis of wood pellets; Herstellung von Holzpellets. Einfluss von Presshilfsmitteln auf Produktion, Qualitaet, Lagerung, Verbrennung sowie Energie- und Oekobilanz von Holzpellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasler, P.; Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Buerli, J. [Buerli Pellets, Willisau (Switzerland)


    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study concerning the influence of additives on the various factors related to the manufacture of wood pellets and their use. Results of tests concerning the production, storage and combustion of wood pellets with and without additives are presented. Process modifications are discussed. The report shows that for all investigated additives neither energy consumption nor pellet throughput was improved. The influence of additives on the mechanical strength of the pellets is discussed, as are the combustion characteristics of the pellets, which emit significantly lower levels of NO{sub x} and particulate matter than typical wood chips. The authors recommend the application of advanced control technology to ensure optimum combustion conditions. A life-cycle analysis is presented which shows that pellets are ecologically more favourable than wood chips. The ecological potential for improvement in the manufacturing process is discussed, including emission reductions and heat recovery.

  7. Development and evaluation of omeprazole pellets fabricated by sieving-spheronization and extrusion - spheronization process. (United States)

    Karim, Sabiha; Baie, Saringat H; Hay, Yuen Kah; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan


    Pelletized dosage forms can be prepared by different methods which, in general, are time consuming and labor intensive. The current study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of preparing the spherical pellets of omeprazole by sieving-spheronization. An optimized formulation was also prepared by extrusion-spheronization process to compare the physical parameters between these two methods. The omeprazole pellets were consisted of microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone K 30, sodium lauryl sulphate and polyethylene glycol 6000. The omeprazole delay release system was developed by coating the prepared pellets with aqueous dispersion of Kollicoat 30 DP. The moisture content, spheronization speed and residence time found to influence the final properties of omeprazole pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization and sieving-spheronization. The Mann-Whitney test revealed that both methods produced closely similar characteristics of the pellets in terms of, friability (p=0.553), flowability (p=0.677), hardness (p=0.103) and density (bulk, p=0.514, tapped, p=0.149) except particle size distribution (p=0.004). The percent drug release from the coated formulation prepared by sieving-spheronization and extrusion spheronization was observed to be 84.12 ± 1.10% and 82.67 ± 0.96%, respectively. Dissolution profiles of both formulations were similar as indicated by values of f1 and f2, 1.52 and 89.38, respectively. The coated formulation prepared by sieving-spheronization and commercial reference product, Zimore ® also showed similar dissolution profiles (f1=1.22, f2=91.52). The pellets could be prepared using sieving-spheronization. The process is simple, easy, less time- and labor-consuming and economical as compared to extrusion-spheronization process.

  8. Final report of experiments with rock blocks interacting hydraulically with smectitic pellet fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Sweco Infrastructure AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ramqvist, Gunnar [El-Tekno AB, Figeholm (Sweden); Hedin, Mikael [AaF, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The report describes the outcome of the work within the the project 'SU5 08.20 Impact of water inflow in deposition tunnels'. Project decision SKBdoc id 1178871 Version 3.0. Two activity plans have been used for the field work: AP TD SU50820-09-014 and AP TD SU50820-09-031. A problem in backfilling of KBS-3V tunnels with smectitic pellets surrounding highly compacted clay blocks is that water entering the fill have a very substantial effect on the manner in which water moves into or through a pellet-filled region in the period immediately following pellet placement. Channels will be formed that lead much water to the sloping front of the fill in the course of placing it. This can soften the fill and turn it into mud where the water is discharged as demonstrated by large-scale tests. The nature of such channels was investigated in the present study that comprised experiments with rock blocks equipped with nozzles for injecting water into contacting pellet fills at constant flow rates. The purpose was to identify the basic mechanisms in the first phase of hydration of pellet fills and to find out if there is a threshold flow rate for 'piping'. The question if channelling at breakthrough takes place along the contact with the confinement, as indicated by preceding tests with steel and plexiglass instead of rock, was in focus. While the mechanisms of water entering a fill from separate local spots in contacting rock are well understood, prediction of the entire wetting process of a larger pellet volume requires consideration of the interactive function of several inflow spots, representing single or networks of rock fractures. Experiments with pellet fills on a larger scale with simultaneous inflow from a number of fractures would provide further information on the wetting process. Such a test is outlined in the report.

  9. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in beached plastic pellets from Mumbai coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HB Jayasiri


    Full Text Available PAHs are a class of ubiquitous pollutants which consist of two or more fused benzene rings in various arrangements. A number of PAH compounds are known carcinogens and bioaccumulate and biomagnify. These compounds originate naturally as well as anthropogenically through oil spills, incineration of waste and combustion of fossil fuels and wood. The environmental consequence of Plastic pellets is the sorption organic pollutants on their surface from the sea surface microlayer (SML where the hydrophobic contaminants are known to be enriched. The plastic pellets were collected along the recent high tide line from four beaches of Mumbai coast bimonthly during May 2011 - March 2012. A total of 72 pools of plastic pellets were extracted, fractionated and analysed by Gas Chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer to evaluate the extent and sources of 16 PAHs. The mean ΣPAH concentration in pellets was 9202.30±114.89 ng g-1 with a wide range (35.4-46191.58 ng g-1. The concentration of fluorene was found to be the highest (1606.30±251.54 ng g-1 followed by anthracene, chrysene and phenanthrene. The ΣPAH concentration was significantly varied among months and there was no significant difference among sites at  p=0.05. The 2-3 aromatic ring compounds accounted for 60% of the total PAHs in pellets of Mumbai coast while 4 rings and 5-6 rings compounds accounted for 26 and 14%, respectively. The ratio of low and high molecular weight PAHs indicated that the contamination by petrogenic sources was predominant over the pyrogenic ones in plastic pellets suggesting oil pollution in coastal area of Mumbai.Keywords: plastic pellets, PAHs, Mumbai, sources

  10. Lithium pellet injection experiments on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, Darren Thomas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    A pellet enhanced performance mode, showing significantly reduced core transport, is regularly obtained after the injection of deeply penetrating lithium pellets into Alcator C-Mod discharges. These transient modes, which typically persist about two energy confinement times, are characterized by a steep pressure gradient (ℓp ℓ a/5) in the inner third of the plasma, indicating the presence of an internal transport barrier. Inside this barrier, particle and energy diffusivities are greatly reduced, with ion thermal diffusivity dropping to near neoclassical values. Meanwhile, the global energy confinement time shows a 30% improvement over ITER89-P L-mode scaling. The addition of ICRF auxiliary heating shortly after the pellet injection leads to high fusion reactivity with neutron rates enhanced by an order of magnitude over L-mode discharges with similar input powers. A diagnostic system for measuring equilibrium current density profiles of tokamak plasmas, employing high speed lithium pellets, is also presented. Because ions are confined to move along field lines, imaging the Li+ emission from the toroidally extended pellet ablation cloud gives the direction of the magnetic field. To convert from temporal to radial measurements, the 3-D trajectory of the pellet is determined using a stereoscopic tracking system. These measurements, along with external magnetic measurements, are used to solve the Grad-Shafranov equation for the magnetic equilibrium of the plasma. This diagnostic is used to determine the current density profile of PEP modes by injection of a second pellet during the period of good confinement. This measurement indicates that a region of reversed magnetic shear exists at the plasma core. This current density profile is consistent with TRANSP calculations for the bootstrap current created by the pressure gradient. MHD stability analysis indicates that these plasmas are near the n = ∞ and the n = 1 marginal stability limits.

  11. Uji Sifat Fisik Ransum Ayam Broiler Bentuk Pellet yang Ditambahkan Perekat Onggok Melalui Proses Penyemprotan Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Retnani


    Full Text Available The physical characteristic test of broiler ration pelleted that added of onggok as binder with water spraying process ABSTRACT. Pellet is a kind of solidified and mechanically compressed feed. Problem frequently rise is that pellet shape is easily damaged, brittle, and broken during production, transportation and storage processing. The purpose this study was to know the influence of onggok addition as binding agent with 5% water spraying on the physical characteristic of pellet form ration. The data were analyzed by analyzed of variance and the significant experiment results would be examined by orthogonal contrast test. The treatments consist from the first experiment were: A1 = basal ration + 0% spraying water, A2 = basal ration + 5% spraying water, A3 = basal ration + 10% spraying water and A4 = basal ration + 15% spraying water. The best result from the first experiment would be used for the second experiment, the treatments second experiment were: R1 = basal ration + 5% spraying water + 0% onggok, R2 = basal ration + 5% spraying water + 2% onggok, R3 = basal ration + 5% spraying water + 4% onggok and R4 = basal ration + 5% spraying water + 6% onggok. The parameters were water content, water activity, specific gravity, loose bulk density, compressed bulk density, angle of repose, modulus of fineness, average particle sizes and the durability of pellet form. The conclusion of the experiment that added of onggok as binder significant influenced of the characteristic physical pellet, i.e.: increased loose bulk density, compressed bulk density, modulus of fineness, average particle sizes, and durability of pellet, but decreased specific gravity, water content, angle of repose and water activity.

  12. Pengaruh Pengurangan Jagung Sebagai Sumber Pati terhadap Laju Alir Pellet Pada Proses Produksi Berkesinambungan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Retnani


    Full Text Available The effect of reduction of maize as starch source on flow rate of pellet in continuous production process ABSTRACT. This experience was conducted to determine effect of reduction of maize as starch source on flow rate of pellet in continuous production process. Design of the experiment used was a completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 3 replicates. The data is analyzed by using of ANOVA and if there is a significance among treatments would tested using by contrast orthogonal. The variables observed were angle of repose, loose bulk density, compacted bulk density, and flow rate. The results showed that the reduction of maize as starch source did not give the significant effect on the variable that observed. The analyzed angle of repose showed variation 24.200 to 25.690, loose bulk density showed variation 621.6kg/m3 to 658kg/m3, compacted bulk density showed variation 668.3kg/m3 to 676.8kg/m3, and flow rate showed variation 449.69kg/minute to 491.41kg/minute. Based on the result that the reduction of maize as starch source (corn, sorghum, menir did not give the significant effect on flow rate of pellet and the pellet treatment with menir has the fastest pellet production time so flowability pellet from pelleter to material hadling (bucket elevator machine is faster. As higher the values of flow rate, so the time of material movement from bin to the package is shorter.

  13. Preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of esomeprazole magnesium-modified release pellets. (United States)

    Kan, Shu-Ling; Lu, Jing; Liu, Jian-Ping; Zhao, Yi


    To reduce the drug plasma concentration fluctuation without being destroyed by gastric fluid, novel Esomeprazole magnesium modified-release pellets (EMZ-MRPs) with suitable in vitro release profiles and good in vitro and in vivo correlation (IVIVC) were developed. Fluid-bed was used to obtain EMZ-loaded pellets by spraying drug suspension onto blank sugar pellets. The drug-loaded pellets were subsequently coated with Eudragit® RS30D/RL30D (ERS/ERL) aqueous dispersion to achieve sustained-release (SR) characteristics. Furthermore, the SR pellets were coated with Eudragit® L30D-55 (EL-55) aqueous dispersion to achieve enteric properties. Besides, isolated coating film was necessary between drug layer and SR layer, as well as SR and enteric-coated layer to protect from their possible reaction. The resulting pellets were filled into the hard gelatin capsules for in vitro release processing and single-dose pharmacokinetic study in rats. The optimal formulation achieved good SR feature both in vitro and in vivo with a relative bioavailability of 103.50%. A good IVIVC was characterized by a high coefficient of determination (r = 0.9945) by deconvolution method. Compared to those of EMZ enteric-coated pellets (EMZ-ECPs, trade name NEXIUM), the in vivo study make known that the EMZ-MRPs with decreased maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), prolonged peak concentration time (Tmax) and mean residence time (MRT), and similar values both area under concentration-time curve from 0 to t (AUC0-t) and 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞). Collectively, these results manifested EMZ-MRPs had a satisfactory sustained-release behavior, a desired pharmacokinetic property, improved in vivo retention and decreased plasma drug concentration fluctuation.

  14. An evaluation of total starch and starch gelatinization methodologies in pelleted animal feed. (United States)

    Zhu, L; Jones, C; Guo, Q; Lewis, L; Stark, C R; Alavi, S


    The quantification of total starch content (TS) or degree of starch gelatinization (DG) in animal feed is always challenging because of the potential interference from other ingredients. In this study, the differences in TS or DG measurement in pelleted swine feed due to variations in analytical methodology were quantified. Pelleted swine feed was used to create 6 different diets manufactured with various processing conditions in a 2 × 3 factorial design (2 conditioning temperatures, 77 or 88°C, and 3 conditioning retention times, 15, 30, or 60 s). Samples at each processing stage (cold mash, hot mash, hot pelletized feed, and final cooled pelletized feed) were collected for each of the 6 treatments and analyzed for TS and DG. Two different methodologies were evaluated for TS determination (the AOAC International method 996.11 vs. the modified glucoamylase method) and DG determination (the modified glucoamylase method vs. differential scanning calorimetry [DSC]). For TS determination, the AOAC International method 996.11 measured lower TS values in cold pellets compared with the modified glucoamylase method. The AOAC International method resulted in lower TS in cold mash than cooled pelletized feed, whereas the modified glucoamylase method showed no significant differences in TS content before or after pelleting. For DG, the modified glucoamylase method demonstrated increased DG with each processing step. Furthermore, increasing the conditioning temperature and time resulted in a greater DG when evaluated by the modified glucoamylase method. However, results demonstrated that DSC is not suitable as a quantitative tool for determining DG in multicomponent animal feeds due to interferences from nonstarch transformations, such as protein denaturation.

  15. Evaluation of missing pellet surface geometry on cladding stress distribution and magnitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capps, Nathan [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Montgomery, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Sunderland, Dion [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); ANATECH Corp, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Pytel, Martin [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Wirth, Brian D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)


    Highlights: • Stress concentrations are related to pellet defect geometries. • The presence of radial cracks cause increases in stress concentration. • Increasing the size of MPS causes an increase hoop stress concentrations. - Abstract: Missing pellet surface (MPS) defects are local geometric defects in nuclear fuel pellets that result from pellet mishandling or manufacturing. The presence of MPS defects can cause significant clad stress concentrations that can lead to through-wall cladding failure for certain combinations of fuel burnup, and reactor power level or power change. Consequently, the impact of MPS defects has limited the rate of power increase, or ramp rate, in both pressurized and boiling water reactors (PWRs and BWRs, respectively). Improved three-dimensional (3-D) fuel performance models of MPS defect geometry can provide better understanding of the probability for pellet clad mechanical interaction (PCMI), and correspondingly the available margin against cladding failure by stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The Consortium of Advanced Simulations of Light Water Reactors (CASL) has been developing the Bison-CASL fuel performance code to consider the inherently multi-physics and multi-dimensional mechanisms that control fuel behavior, including cladding stress concentrations resulting from MPS defects. This paper evaluates the cladding hoop stress distributions as a function of MPS defect geometry with discrete pellet radial cracks for a set of typical operating conditions in a PWR fuel rod. The results provide a first step toward a probabilistic approach to assess cladding failure during power maneuvers. This analysis provides insight into how varying pellet defect geometries affect the distribution of the cladding stress, as well as the temperature distributions within the fuel and clad; and are used to develop stress concentration factors for comparing 2-D and 3-D models.

  16. Influence of Teflon{sup Registered-Sign} agglutinator on TLD spodumene pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amorim, R.A.P.O., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, P. O. Box 353, 49100-000 Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Teixeira, M.I., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Souza, S.O., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, P. O. Box 353, 49100-000 Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Sasaki, J.M., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, CE (Brazil); Caldas, L.V.E., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    The possibility of using different materials for thermoluminescent dosimetry agglutinating their powder with Teflon{sup Registered-Sign} (a polymer) has been studied in recent years. In this paper the thermoluminescent properties of spodumene-Teflon{sup Registered-Sign} composites were studied exposing them to different doses of a {sup 60}Co radiation source, in comparison to the thermoluminescent properties of crystalline powder and of Teflon. The thermoluminescent emission curve of pure Teflon{sup Registered-Sign} pellets showed two peaks at 200 and 250 Degree-Sign C at doses above 1 kGy, which may influence the dosimetry of high-doses that uses crystals agglutinated with this polymer. Preliminary results show that the Teflon{sup Registered-Sign} causes an increased sensitivity in the TL signal of the pellet compared to the crystalline powder without the polymer, and that even the pure Teflon{sup Registered-Sign} pellet is a material that can be exploited for high-doses dosimetry. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Teflon{sup Registered-Sign} pellet is a material that can be exploited for high-doses dosimetry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pure Teflon{sup Registered-Sign} pellets showed two TL peaks at doses above 1 kGy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-doses dosimetry with pellets agglutinated with Teflon{sup Registered-Sign} may be influenced by it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Teflon{sup Registered-Sign} may cause an increased sensitivity in the TL signal of the pellet.

  17. Pengaruh Taraf Penyemprotan Air dan Lama Penyimpanan Terhadap Daya Tahan Ransum Broiler Finisher Berbentuk Pellet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Retnani


    Full Text Available The effect of different water spraying level and storage period on endurance of pellet broiler finisher ABSTRACT. The storage is very important in a farm management, because this activity can take care of feed stability which enough and preferable to be consumed by animal and also strive for animal food availability continuously. The purpose of this research is to know the water spraying level and variation of storage period against the endurance of pellet broiler finisher ration. This research was designed by a Completely Randomized Design Factorial with two factors (water spraying different level and storage period with four replicates, the significant result were analyzed by orthogonal contras test. On this experiment, the different level of water spraying (0, 3, 6% were conducted during mixing at conditioning process, and then the ration were stored until four weeks to study the endurance of pellet e.g.: water content (%, water activity, specific gravity (ton/m3, pellet durability index (%, attack of insect. The water content, specific gravity, and pellet durability index was very significantly (P<0.01 reduce by water spraying different level, and not significantly on water activity. The storage period showed very significantly (P<0.01 increase the specific gravity, pellet durability index, and the insect attacks, and significantly (P<0.01 decreased the water activity, but not effect on water content. Interaction among spraying level and storage period is very significantly (P<0.01 on the values of water content, water activity, specific gravity and pellet durability.

  18. Alcohol dose dumping: The influence of ethanol on hot-melt extruded pellets comprising solid lipids. (United States)

    Jedinger, N; Schrank, S; Mohr, S; Feichtinger, A; Khinast, J; Roblegg, E


    The objective of the present study was to investigate interactions between alcohol and hot-melt extruded pellets and the resulting drug release behavior. The pellets were composed of vegetable calcium stearate as matrix carrier and paracetamol or codeine phosphate as model drugs. Two solid lipids (Compritol® and Precirol®) were incorporated into the matrix to form robust/compact pellets. The drug release characteristics were a strong function of the API solubility, the addition of solid lipids, the dissolution media composition (i.e., alcohol concentration) and correspondingly, the pellet wettability. Pellets comprising paracetamol, which is highly soluble in ethanol, showed alcohol dose dumping regardless of the matrix composition. The wettability increased with increasing ethanol concentrations due to higher paracetamol solubilities yielding increased dissolution rates. For pellets containing codeine phosphate, which has a lower solubility in ethanol than in acidic media, the wettability was a function of the matrix composition. Dose dumping occurred for formulations comprising solid lipids as they showed increased wettabilities with increasing ethanol concentrations. In contrast, pellets comprising calcium stearate as single matrix component showed robustness in alcoholic media due to wettabilities that were not affected by the addition of ethanol. The results clearly indicate that the physico-chemical properties of the drug and the matrix systems are crucial for the design of ethanol-resistant dosage forms. Moreover, hydrophobic calcium stearate can be considered a suitable matrix system that minimizes the risk of ethanol-induced dose dumping for certain API's. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  20. Genetic analysis, breed assignment and conservation priorities of three native Danish horse breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, J P; Pertoldi, C; Loeschcke, Volker


    horse breeds in Europe, and they do not seem to be at immediate danger of extinction caused by genetic deterioration. The Knabstrupper breed had more genetic variation, as measured by expected heterozygosity and allelic richness, than the other two breeds (Frederiksborg and Jutland). F(ST) statistics...

  1. Breeding programmes for smallholder sheep farming systems: II. Optimization of cooperative village breeding schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Valle-Zarate, A.; Haile, A.; Rischkowsky, B.; Dessie, T.; Mwai, A.O.


    A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as

  2. Modelling the reduction of an iron ore-coal composite pellet with conduction and convection in an axisymmetric temperature field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, J.Y.; Donskoi, E.; McElwain, D.L.S.; Wibberley, L.J. [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). School of Mathematical Science


    A mathematical model of the coal-based direct reduction process of iron ore in a pellet composed of coal and iron ore mixture is investigated using a finite-control volume method. Heat transfer by conduction in the solid, convection by gaseous media inside, and radiation from the surroundings of the pellet are included in the model. The pellet is assumed to be spherical initially and the temperature around the pellet is taken to be symmetric about an axis passing through the centre. The parameters of the process, such as thermal conductivity, specific heats, and heats of the reaction, are all temperature dependent. The shrinkage/swelling of the pellet is also considered. We find that the effect of convection on the temperature and on the overall average reduction is small. However, the effect on the local concentration of the reaction components is significant. We predict that a uniform surrounding temperature field around the pellet yields a better average reduction.

  3. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno


    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  4. Pelletization of catalysts supported on activated carbon. A Case Study : clean synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and CO2


    Orrego Romero, Andrés Felipe; Arbeláez Pérez, Oscar Felipe; Bustamante Londoño, Felipe; Villa Holguín, Aída Luz


    The synthesis of Cu-Ni bimetallic catalyst supported on pellets of activated carbon using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a binder is reported. The effect of preparation conditions, such as binder concentration, AC/binder ratio, temperature, and pyrolysis heating rate on the surface area of the pellets, was evaluated. Cu and Ni metals were incorporated on the pellets by conventional incipient wetness impregnation. The support and the synthesized catalysts were characterized using N2 adsorptio...

  5. Taste Masked Orally Disintegrating Pellets of Antihistaminic and Mucolytic Drug: Formulation, Characterization, and In Vivo Studies in Human


    Taj, Yasmeen; Pai,Roopa S.; V Kusum Devi; Singh, Gurinder


    The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of orally disintegrating pellets (ODPs) as an approach for taste masking of bitter drugs, namely, Ambroxol hydrochloride (A-HCl) and Cetirizine dihydrochloride (C-DHCl). Pellets were prepared by extrusion/spheronization with Eudragit EPO, kyron T-134, Kyron T-314, mannitol, sorbitol, MCC (Avicel PH-101), sucralose, chocolate flavor, and 5% xanthum gum. The prepared pellets were characterized for percentage yield, drug content, pa...

  6. Does Pelletizing Catalysts Influence the Efficiency Number of Activity Measurements? Spectrochemical Engineering Considerations for an Accurate Operando Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Perez-Ferreras, Susana; Banares, Miguel A.


    Porosity is a factor affecting catalyst efficiency in pelletized form. This implies that care should be taken with uncritically relating activity measurements from transmission operando FTIR to final catalyst performance. lithe pelletizing pressure is excessive, a destruction of the pore structur...... and internal pore diffusion properties are considered in this paper for the evaluation of catalyst performance in, for example, operando reactors. Thus, it is demonstrated that with a pelletizing pressure of...

  7. Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Plastic Resin Pellets from Six Beaches on the Accra-Tema Coastline, Ghana


    Irene A. Agbo; Daniel Abaye


    Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are organic compounds, known to be carcinogenic and banned by the Stockholm Convention. PCBs are hydrophobic substances able to accumulate in organic materials, including plastic pellets. Plastic resin pellets are industrial raw materials that are remolded finished products for industrial and domestic use, commonly used for packaging. Plastic resin pellets were chosen as the medium for monitoring hydrophobic contaminants because they are able to ad...

  8. Genetic conservation in applied tree breeding programs. (United States)

    R. Johnson; B. St. Clair; S. Lipow


    This paper reviews how population size and structure impacts the maintenance of genetic variation in breeding and gene resource populations. We discuss appropriate population sizes for low frequency alleles and point out some examples of low frequency alleles in the literature. Development of appropriate breeding populations and gene resource populations are discussed...

  9. Broiler breeding strategies using indirect carcass measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerehdaran, S.; Vereijken, A.L.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Waaij, van der E.H.


    The objective of the current study was to determine the consequences of using indirect carcass measurements on the genetic response and rate of inbreeding in broiler breeding programs. In the base breeding scheme, selection candidates were evaluated based on direct carcass measurements on relatives.

  10. Genetic diversity of 11 European pig breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavall, G.; Iannuccelli, N.; Legault, C.; Milan, D.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Andersson, L.; Fredholm, M.; Geldermann, H.; Foulley, J.L.; Chevalet, C.; Ollivier, L.


    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed

  11. Progress in a Crambe cross breeding programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastebroek, H.D.; Lange, W.


    Crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex Fries) is an annual cruciferous oilseed crop with a high content of erucic acid (55-60%) in the seed oil. Since 1990, a breeding programme in crambe has been carried out at the DLO-Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research. Three accessions, two early

  12. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stephen Baenziger


    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal, followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region beginning with the F6 generation. Yield analyses from replicated trials at two organic breeding sites and 7 conventional breeding sites from F6 through F12 nurseries revealed, using analyses of variance, biplots, and comparisons of selected lines that it is inappropriate to use data from conventional testing for making germplasm selections for organic production. Selecting and testing lines under organic production practices in different ecological regions was also needed and cultivar selections for organic production were different than those for conventional production. Modifications to this breeding protocol may include growing early generation bulks in an organic cropping system. In the future, our selection efforts should also focus on using state-of-the-art, non-transgenic breeding technologies (genomic selection, marker-assisted breeding, and high throughput phenotyping to synergistically improve organic and conventional wheat breeding.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The numbers of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua breeding at subantarctic Marion Island fell by 40% from 1994/95 to 2002/03, from 1 352 pairs to 806 pairs. Apart from a slight increase in 1998/99, there was a steady decrease in numbers breeding between 1995/96 and 2000/01, when the population stabilized. There is ...

  14. Mean EPDs reported by different breeds (United States)

    Beef cattle genetic evaluations result in expected progeny differences (EPDs), which can be used to select animals for growth, productivity, carcass composition, and, most recently, economic value. Breed averages allow producers to compare the genetic value of potential breeding stock against their ...

  15. Relationship between production characteristics and breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... have a negative effect on the breeding potential of a bull. None of the measured reproductive and production traits had a significant effect on libido score and thus, cannot be used to predict the libido of young extensively maintained bulls. Keywords: Bovine, breeding potential, libido, production parameters, semen quality, ...

  16. Genomic analyses of modern dog breeds. (United States)

    Parker, Heidi G


    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized worldwide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog, resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first recorded breeding of kelp gulls Larus dominicanus vetula on Robben Island, Western Cape, South Africa, took place in 2000, when five nests were recorded. In 2001, there were 15 nests and 29 fledglings. The initiation of breeding by kelp gulls on Robben Island is likely a response to the reduction of disturbance ...

  18. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.


    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of

  19. Towards F1 Hybrid Seed Potato Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhout, P.; Meijer, D.A.; Schotte, T.; Hutten, R.C.B.; Visser, R.G.F.; Eck, van H.J.


    Compared to other major food crops, progress in potato yield as the result of breeding efforts is very slow. Genetic gains cannot be fixed in potato due to obligatory out-breeding. Overcoming inbreeding depression using diploid self-compatible clones should enable to replace the current method of

  20. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane


    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...... of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998-2009.......Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim...

  1. Seasonal and diel patterns in sedimentary flux of krill fecal pellets recorded by an echo sounder

    KAUST Repository

    Røstad, Anders


    We used a moored upward-facing 200 kHz echo sounder to address sedimentation of fecal pellets (FPs) from dielly migrating Meganyctiphanes norvegica. The echo sounder was located on the bottom at 150 m depth in the Oslofjord, Norway, and was cabled to shore for continuous measurements during winter and spring. Records of sinking pellets were for the first time observed with an echo sounder. Seasonal patterns of sedimentation of krill FPs were strongly correlated with data from continuous measurement of fluorescence, which illustrate the development of the spring bloom. Sedimenting particles were first observed as fluorescence values started to increase at the end of February and continued to increase until the bloom suddenly culminated at the end of March. This collapse of the bloom was detected on the echo sounder as a pulse of slowly sinking acoustic targets over a 2 d period. Prior to this event, there was a strong diel pattern in sedimentation, which correlated, with some time lag, with the diel migration of krill foraging at night near the surface. Pellet average sinking speeds ranged between 423 m d−1 and 804 m d−1, with a strong relation to pellet target strength, which is an acoustic proxy for size. This novel approach shows that echo sounders may be a valuable tool in studies of vertical pellet flux and, thereby, carbon flux, providing temporal resolution and direct observation of the sedimentation process, which are not obtained from standard methods.

  2. Mathematical model of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst pellet with pointed centers of synthesis (United States)

    Derevich, I. V.; Fokina, A. Yu


    The productivity of Fischer-Tropsch reactors is determined by the efficiency of heat and mass transfer processes inside the catalyst pellets. To reduce the diffusion resistance, the pellet base is made porous. The porous structure of the granules causes a discrete arrangement of cobalt metallic microparticles whose size can reach tens of microns. The distance between these active centres significantly exceeds their characteristic size and the homogeneous catalyst model is incorrect. A mathematical model of heat and mass transfer processes inside a porous spherical pellet with localised active centres is proposed. The heat of the exothermic synthesis reaction is removed from the surface of the granule to the synthesis gas stream washing the catalyst pellet by heat transfer. The components of the synthesis gas enter the granule surface as a result of mass transfer. On the basis of the self-consistent field method, the values of the temperature and concentration of the synthesis gas components at the active centres were determined. It is shown that there is a critical temperature of the synthesis gas washing the granule, exceeding critical temperature leads to a substantial overheating of the active centres. In this case, the surface of the catalyst pellet is superheated slightly. The principal difference between the homogeneous and heterogeneous models in catalytic reactions is discussed.

  3. Compositions of volatile organic compounds emitted from melted virgin and waste plastic pellets. (United States)

    Yamashita, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Ni, Yueyong; Yanagisawa, Yukio


    To characterize potential air pollution issues related to recycling facilities of waste plastics, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from melted virgin and waste plastics pellets were analyzed. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to melt virgin and waste plastic pellets under various temperatures (150, 200, and 250 degrees C) and atmospheres (air and nitrogen [N2]). In the study presented here, low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and the recycled waste plastic pellets were used. The VOCs generated from each plastic pellets were collected by Tenax/Carboxen adsorbent tubes and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS). The result showed the higher temperatures generated larger amounts of total VOCs (TVOCs). The VOCs emitted from the virgin plastic pellets likely originated from polymer degradation. Smaller TVOC emissions were observed in N2 atmosphere than in air atmosphere. In particular, larger amounts of the oxygenated compounds, which are generally hazardous and malodorous, were detected in air than in N2. In addition to the compounds originating from polymer degradation, the compounds originating from the plastic additives were also detected from LDPE and PS. Furthermore, various species of VOCs likely originating from contaminant inseparate polyvinyl chloride (PVC), food residues, cleaning agents, degreasers, and so on were detected from the waste plastic. Thus, melting waste plastics, as is conducted in recycling facilities, might generate larger amounts of potentially toxic compounds than producing virgin plastics.

  4. A new formulation of controlled release amitriptyline pellets and its in vivo/in vitro assessments. (United States)

    Park, Eun-Seok; Lee, Dong-Soo; Kwon, Seok-Young; Chi, Sang-Cheol


    Controlled-release amitriptyline pellets (ATP) were formulated and its oral bioavailability was assessed in human volunteers after oral administration under fasting conditions. Core pellets were prepared using a CF granulator by two different methods (powder layering and solvent spraying) and coated with Eudragit RS or RL 100. Physical characteristics and dissolution rates of core pellets and coated pellets were evaluated to optimize the formulation. Powder layering method resulted in a better surface morphology than solvent spraying method. However, physical properties of the products were poorer when prepared by powder layering method with respect to hardness, friability and density. The dissolution profile of amitriptyline coated with Eudragit RS 100 was comparable to that of commercially available amitriptyline enteric-coated pellets (Saroten retard). After the oral administration of both products at the dose of 50 mg, the mean maximum concentrations (Cmax) were 36.4 and 29.7 ng/mL, and the mean areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC(0-96)) were 1180.2 and 1010.7 ng.h/mL for ATP and Saroten retard, respectively. The time to reach the maximum concentrations (Tmax) was 6 h for both formulations. Statistical evaluation suggested that ATP was bioequivalent to Saroten retard.

  5. Capture-recapture of white-tailed deer using DNA from fecal pellet-groups (United States)

    Goode, Matthew J; Beaver, Jared T; Muller, Lisa I; Clark, Joseph D.; van Manen, Frank T.; Harper, Craig T; Basinger, P Seth


    Traditional methods for estimating white-tailed deer population size and density are affected by behavioral biases, poor detection in densely forested areas, and invalid techniques for estimating effective trapping area. We evaluated a noninvasive method of capture—recapture for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) density estimation using DNA extracted from fecal pellets as an individual marker and for gender determination, coupled with a spatial detection function to estimate density (spatially explicit capture—recapture, SECR). We collected pellet groups from 11 to 22 January 2010 at randomly selected sites within a 1-km2 area located on Arnold Air Force Base in Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee. We searched 703 10-m radius plots and collected 352 pellet-group samples from 197 plots over five two-day sampling intervals. Using only the freshest pellets we recorded 140 captures of 33 different animals (15M:18F). Male and female densities were 1.9 (SE = 0.8) and 3.8 (SE = 1.3) deer km-2, or a total density of 5.8 deer km-2 (14.9 deer mile-2). Population size was 20.8 (SE = 7.6) over a 360-ha area, and sex ratio was 1.0 M: 2.0 F (SE = 0.71). We found DNA sampling from pellet groups improved deer abundance, density and sex ratio estimates in contiguous landscapes which could be used to track responses to harvest or other management actions.

  6. Manufacturing polycrystalline pellets of natural quartz for applications in thermoluminescence dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho Junior, Alvaro Barbosa de; Khoury, Helen Jamil [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Department of Nuclear Energy; Barros, Thiago Fernandes; Guzzo, Pedro Luiz [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Department of Mining Engineering


    This paper describes the manufacturing process of quartz-pellets and shows their potential use as thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) for those applications where low-levels of ionising radiation are present. Two batches of cold-pressed pellets were produced and their resistance were evaluated by vibration tests and weight-loss measurements. The batch manufactured with 75 Multiplication-Sign 150 Micro-Sign m particles showed enough resistance to be employed as TLD. The dosimetric properties of the 310 Degree-Sign C peak appearing in the glow curves of these pellets were characterized together with commercial TLD-100 units using {gamma}- and X-ray beams with different energies. The uncertainties related to reproducibility and stability of the TL signal were better than 10%. The sensitivity and the linearity of the TL response of quartz-pellets were better than that measured for TLD-100 for doses ranging from 0.5 to 200mGy. The energy dependence of the quartz-pellets was higher than that of TLD-100 but it cannot be considered a restriction to their use in clinical procedures and industrial applications. (author)

  7. Evidence against the use of fecal pellet size for age determination in European wild rabbits (United States)

    Rouco, Carlos; Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Moreno, Sacramento


    Techniques for estimating the age of wild animals are crucial to many aspects of the study of population biology. Accurate estimates of the proportion of different age classes in wild rabbit populations would be very useful, and the possibility that it could be obtained from the pellet size holds great appeal. However, this suggestion has created controversy in the literature as this technique has not been validated. This study involved assessment of whether threshold fecal pellet diameters could be used to differentiate adult and juvenile rabbits. The proportion of adults in four wild rabbit populations living in semi-natural conditions was compared with the proportion of animal pellets greater than threshold diameters of 6 mm and 4 mm. Our results suggest that inferring a relationship between the proportion of pellets >6 mm diameter and the proportion of adults in a population is not applicable to European wild rabbits, and that the use of this method could produce erroneous interpretations. The use of a 4 mm pellet diameter threshold appeared to produce even more inaccurate results. Studies that use this technique should include validation, as the results can vary greatly among individuals and populations.

  8. Design, in vitro release characterization and pharmacokinetics of novel controlled release pellets containing levodropropizine. (United States)

    Cao, Qing-Ri; Piao, Yong-Nan; Choi, Jae-Seung; Liu, Yan; Yang, Mingshi; Cui, Jing-Hao


    This study was performed to investigate the in vitro release characteristics of levodropropizine (LDP) from novel dual-coated sustained release (SR) pellets, and evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a novel controlled release (CR) preparation composed of the dual-coated SR pellets and immediate release (IR) LDP pellets. The dual-coated SR pellets composed of a drug-loaded nonpareil core, a sub-coating layer (HPMC 6cps) and an SR-coating layer (Aquacoat® ECD, Eudragit® RS 30D or Kollicoat® SR 30D) were prepared by a bottom-spray fluidized bed-coating method. The drug release from the dual-coated SR pellets coated with Aquacoat® ECD followed a zero-order profile in water, and the drug release was not affected by the coating level of the sub-coating layer and stable under the accelerated storage condition (40 °C, 75% RH) for 6 months. The CR preparation showed significantly decreased values of maximum drug concentration (Cmax) and elimination rate (K) than the reference product (LEVOTUS® SYR) but the similar bioavailability (F = 95.43%). The novel CR preparation presents promising delivery of LDP with an immediate and sustained release manner, with similar clinical effect as the commercial IR product.

  9. Film Coating of Nifedipine Extended Release Pellets in a Fluid Bed Coater with a Wurster Insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Franquelin Gomes de Souza


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the coating process of nifedipine extended release pellets using Opadry and Opadry II, in a fluid bed coater with a Wurster insert. The coating process was studied using a complete experimental design of two factors at two levels for each polymer. The variables studied were the inlet air temperature and the coating suspension flow rate. The agglomerate fraction and coating efficiency were the analyzed response variables. The air temperature was the variable that most influenced the coating efficiency for both polymers. In addition, a study of the dissolution profiles of coated and uncoated pellets using 0.5% sodium lauryl sulfate in simulated gastric fluid without enzymes (pH 1.2 was conducted. The results showed a prolonged release profile for the coated and uncoated pellets that was very similar to the standards established by the U.S. Pharmacopoeia. The drug content and the release profiles were not significantly affected by storage at 40°C and 75% relative humidity. However, when exposed to direct sunlight and fluorescent light (light from fluorescent bulbs, the coated pellets lost only 5% of the drug content, while the uncoated ones lost more than 35%; furthermore, the dissolution profile of the uncoated pellets was faster.

  10. Resin pellets from beaches of the Portuguese coast and adsorbed persistent organic pollutants (United States)

    Antunes, J. C.; Frias, J. G. L.; Micaelo, A. C.; Sobral, P.


    The occurrence of stranded plastic marine debris along the Portuguese coastline was investigated. Number of items m-2 and size range of resin pellets were recorded, corresponding to 53% of total marine debris collected items. In addition, concentrations of adsorbed persistent bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals (PBTC) were determined, PAH - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; PCB - polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT - dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Matosinhos (Mt) and Vieira de Leiria (VL) presented the highest number of items m-2 (362 and 332, respectively). Resin pellets with 4 mm diameter were the most abundant (50%). Contaminants concentration was variable. PAH concentrations recorded values between 53 and 44800 ng g-1, PCB ranged from 2 to 223 ng g-1 and DDT between 0.42 and 41 ng g-1. In general, aged and black pellets recorded higher concentrations for all contaminants. Matosinhos (Mt), Vieira de Leiria (VL) and Sines (Si), near industrial areas and port facilities, were the most contaminated beaches. Research efforts are needed to assess the points of entry of industrial plastic pellets in order to take action and minimize impacts on the ecosystems, in particular, points of transfer during transportation from plastic manufacturers to plastic converters should be identified and controlled so that virgin pellets are contained and will not enter rivers and be carried to the oceans where they can remain for a long time and travel great distances.

  11. Gastric-resistant isoniazid pellets reduced degradation of rifampicin in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Duarte Freire


    Full Text Available Isoniazid and rifampicin are considered the first-line medication for preventing and treating tuberculosis. Rifampicin is degraded in the stomach acidic environment, especially when combined with isoniazid, factor contributing to treatment failure. In this study, gastric-resistant isoniazid pellets were obtained to physical contact of this drug with rifampicin and to bypass the stomach´s acidic environment. The pellets were fabricated using the extrusion-spheronization technique. The coating process was conducted in a fluid spray coater using Acrycoat L 100(r solution as the coating agent. The pellets obtained were submitted to a dissolution test in HCl 0.1 N and phosphate buffer media. The results indicated that optimum gastric-resistance was only attained with the highest amount of coating material, with isoniazid almost fully released in phosphate buffer. The amount of rifampicin released from its mixture with non-coated isoniazid pellets in HCl 0.1 N was less than that released from its mixture with the enteric-coated pellets. Acrycoat L 100(r was shown to be an effective enteric/gastric-resistant coating since the stability of rifampicin appeared to be enhanced when physical contact of this drug with isoniazid was prevented at low pH.

  12. Combustion Gases And Heat Release Analysis During Flame And Flameless Combustion Of Wood Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Jozef


    Full Text Available With the growing prices of fossil fuels, alternative fuels produced of biomass come to the fore. They are made of waste materials derived from the processing of wood and wood materials. The main objective of this study was to analyse the fire-technical characteristics of wood pellets. The study analysed three dust samples acquired from wood pellets made of various types of wood biomass. Wood pellet dust is produced when manipulating with pellets. During this process a potentially hazardous situations may occur. Biomass is chemically composed mostly of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. During straining of the biomass by heat flux, combustion initiation occurs. Also, there was a change in the composition of material throughout combustion gases production, and the amount of heat generated by a flame or flameless combustion. Measurement of fire characteristics was conducted according to ISO 5660-1 standard using a cone calorimeter. Two samples of wood pellet dust were tested under the heat flux of 35 kW.m−2 and 50 kW.m−2. The process of combustion, the time to ignition, the carbon monoxide concentration and the amount of released heat were observed.

  13. Study of transverse crack formation on surface area of UO{sub 2} pellet circumference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dionisia S.; Paneto, Lelia F.P.C.; Souza, Patricia O. de, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Analise Tecnica do Combustivel Nuclear


    Microstructure of a polycrystalline material has a considerable influence on particular properties, such as mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, optical transmission and magnetic susceptibility. The uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) is used in water-cooled nuclear reactors, due to its desirable ceramics characteristics as a nuclear fuel. The UO{sub 2} is used in the form of pellets manufactured by wet route by INB, where they are loaded into fuel rods to build the fuel assemblies used in pressurized water reactors of Angra 1, Angra 2 and future Angra 3 nuclear power plants, for electric energy generated from nuclear power in Brazil. The geometric and structural integrity of these pellets cause direct influence on their performance during the reactor core operating cycle, so pellets presenting surface cracks leading to the phenomenon of pellet cladding interaction-PCI, resulting in failures in the fuel rod and subsequently release of fission products in the reactor coolant. Transverse cracks on surface area of pellet circumference are detected by visual inspection during the manufacturing process. This paper presents the study of these cracks formation by content analysis conducted with the support of electron microscopy. These results here are analyzed from the point of view of materials science through observation of the microstructure, and the pressing process where the defect was probably generated. (author)

  14. The Source of Bacteria Involved in the Break-Down of Gammarus Pulex Faecal Pellets Using Image Analysis (United States)

    Joyce, P.; Wotton, R.


    Bacteria survive passage through the gut of aquatic animals and are implicated in the break-down of POM (such as faecal pellets) in aquatic systems. There is evidence that bacteria that survive gut passage are the cause of the initial break-down of faecal pellets, rather than colonisation by bacteria from the environment. Gammarus is the dominant shredder in lowland permeable catchments ("chalk streams") in England and feeds on allochthonous detritus such as fallen leaves. Gammarus faecal pellets could form important pathways for transfer of organic matter in chalk streams. We incubated Gammarus faecal pellets for 80 days in stream water using combinations of treatments (autoclaving the stream water or pellets; fresh non-autoclaved stream water or pellets; reducing bacterial activity using Gentamicin; combinations of these treatments) to assess the role of surviving and colonising bacteria on the break-down process. Break-down was measured using image analysis. Results show that treatments with fresh pellets show much higher levels of break-down than fully autoclaved controls, treatments with fresh stream water but autoclaved pellets, or treatments with Gentamicin. Bacteria surviving gut passage therefore seem to play a greater role in faecal pellet break-down than those colonising from the environment.

  15. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazuei, E-mail:; Furuichi, Toru


    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  16. Preparation of pellets containing highly soluble drug by extrusion/spheronisation and coating with Kollicoat® SR 30D


    Andreazza,Itamar Francisco; Ferraz,Humberto Gomes


    The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate the pellets, containing a highly soluble drug (ascorbic acid), by the extrusion-spheronization process and coated with a release controlling polymer. The coating (undertaken in a fluid bed) was applied to three batches of the pellets with a dispersion of Kollicoat® SR 30 D, with each batch of pellets receiving a different level of polymer (5.07; 8.26 and 10.35%). The coated pellets were evaluated for sphericity by imaging analysis and comparat...

  17. Genomic breed prediction in New Zealand sheep. (United States)

    Dodds, Ken G; Auvray, Benoît; Newman, Sheryl-Anne N; McEwan, John C


    Two genetic marker-based methods are compared for use in breed prediction, using a New Zealand sheep resource. The methods were a genomic selection (GS) method, using genomic BLUP, and a regression method (Regp) using the allele frequencies estimated from a subset of purebred animals. Four breed proportions, Romney, Coopworth, Perendale and Texel, were predicted, using Illumina OvineSNP50 genotypes. Both methods worked well with correlations of predicted proportions and recorded proportions ranging between 0.91 and 0.97 across methods and prediction breeds, except for the Regp method for Perendales, where the correlation was 0.85. The Regp method gives predictions that appear as a gradient (when viewed as the first few principal components of the genomic relatedness matrix), decreasing away from the breed centre. In contrast the GS method gives predictions dominated by the breeds of the closest relatives in the training set. Some Romneys appear close to the main Perendale group, which is why the Regp method worked less well for predicting Perendale proportion. The GS method works better than the Regp method when the breed groups do not form tight, distinct clusters, but is less robust to breed errors in the training set (for predicting relatives of those animals). Predictions were found to be similar to those obtained using STRUCTURE software, especially those using Regp. The methods appear to overpredict breed proportions in animals that are far removed from the training set. It is suggested that the training set should include animals spanning the range where predictions are made. Breeds can be predicted using either of the two methods investigated. The choice of method will depend on the structure of the breeds in the population. The use of genomic selection methodology for breed prediction appears promising. As applied, it worked well for predicting proportions in animals that were predominantly of the breed types present in the training set, or to put it

  18. Plastic pellets as oviposition site and means of dispersal for the ocean-skater insect Halobates. (United States)

    Majer, A P; Vedolin, M C; Turra, A


    Microplastics are omnipresent in the oceans and generally have negative impacts on the biota. However, flotsam may increase the availability of hard substrates, which are considered a limiting resource for some oceanic species, e.g. as oviposition sites for the ocean insect Halobates. This study describes the use of plastic pellets as an oviposition site for Halobates micans and discusses possible effects on its abundance and dispersion. Inspection of egg masses on stranded particles on beaches revealed that a mean of 24% (from 0% to 62%) of the pellets bore eggs (mean of 5 and max. of 48 eggs per pellet). Most eggs (63%) contained embryos, while 37% were empty egg shells. This shows that even small plastic particles are used as oviposition site by H. micans, and that marine litter may have a positive effect over the abundance and dispersion of this species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduction of Silica from Hematite Ore Concentrate Pellets by Supplementing Bentonite Clay with Starch (United States)

    McDonald, Jacob Eugene Dale

    The replacement of bentonite as the standard iron ore binder is an important factor in the future of iron processing. Bentonite adds 0.7%-1.0% unwanted silica to the final iron product. Bentonite replacement requires an in-depth understanding of how alternative binders affect the agglomeration process. One such alternative binder is starch, which can be modified in a multitude of ways. It has been observed that the use of a highly soluble starch can greatly increase the dry compressive strength of a hematite concentrate pellet. By heating a starch solution or extruding a starch, its solubility can be altered. When using starch along with bentonite, a suitable pellet can be produced that can withstand all aspects of pellet handling. It was observed that at the highest solubility of starch there was a strength increase of approximately 15 lbf.

  20. Development of an eco- and material-efficient pellet production chain. A chemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuokkanen, M.


    According to the EU's strategy and the corresponding Finnish national strategy on waste materials, all kinds of waste must be utilised primarily as material (reuse, recycling) and secondarily as energy, and at the lowest level of waste hierarchy is their disposal using environmentally friendly methods. Today material efficiency is an essential topic in promoting sustainable use of natural resources, industrial by-products and waste material. The present goal proposed by the EU sets the target for the total proportion of renewable energy as high as 38% by 2020 in Finland. Up to 20 million tonnes of waste wood biomass per year are left unused in Finland, mainly in the forests during forestry operations, because supply and demand do not meet. As a consequence of high heat energy prices, the looming threat of climate change, the greenhouse effect and global as well as national demands to considerably increase the proportion of renewable energy, Finland currently has a tremendous interest in increasing decentralised pellet production alongside of large-scale factories. The aim of this thesis is to promote the development of eco-, material- and cost-efficient Nordic wood-based pellet production and utilisation of pellet bio-ash by means of chemical research. Using Finnish wood (sawdust and shavings) as a model raw material, the total functionality of a pilot-scale pellet facility combined with an extensive chemical toolbox was tested in this study to promote development of an eco-, material- and cost-efficient wood-based pellet production chain. The chemical toolbox includes measurements of moisture content, density, heat value, mechanical durability and particle size distribution, TG analysis and elementary analysis, as well as new applications for pellet biodegradation using BOD OxiTop equipment and optical microscopic staining methods. To improve the quality of pellets, considering the profitability of production and occupational safety factors (wood dust


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycon Athayde


    Full Text Available Samarco produces iron ore pellets thermally processed in Travelling Grate furnaces. This process is essential in order to obtain adequate mechanical strength to the pellets transportation and operation in the reduction reactors. All the mechanical properties of the agglomerates are obtained during the stage of firing, being a decisive step to pellet quality. Therefore, the velocity distribution of gas flow within this zone must be homogeneous. For this reason, it was developed a mathematical CFD model to characterize the gas flow in the burning zone, applying the equations of conservation of momentum, mass and energy. The validation of the model was obtained by measuring the temperatures inside the furnace. It was developed a wireless communication system in order to monitor continuously the evolution of the temperatures in the furnace.

  2. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conkle, H.N.


    Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research & Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

  3. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conkle, H.N.


    Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

  4. Surface hydrophobicity of Aspergillus nidulans conidiospores and its role in pellet formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Jens Østergaard; Nielsen, Jens


    on conidiospore agglomeration, pellet formation of an A. nidulans wild type and strains deleted in the conidiospore-wall-associated hydrophobins DewA and RodA was compared at different pH values. From contact angle measurements, RodA was found to be more important for the surface hydrophobicity than Dew......Formation of pellets by Aspergillus nidulans is primarily due to agglomeration of the fungal conidiospores. Although agglomeration of conidiospores has been known for a long time, its mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. To study the influence of the fungal conidiospore wall hydrophobicity...... of electrophoretic mobility, it is concluded that both the electrical charge and hydrophobicity of the conidiospores affects the pellet formation but that the conidiospore agglomeration process cannot be ascribed to these factors alone....

  5. Effect of slag composition on iron nuggets formation from carbon composite pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Eloy Anduze Nogueira


    Full Text Available Iron-carbon nuggets can be obtained by high temperature reduction of iron ore by carbonaceous material when both are agglomerated together as a carbon composite pellet. During this process, the stable oxides contained in the materials will form a slag. This work investigates the effect of this slag composition on iron nugget formation. Pellets were prepared with iron ore and two different carbonaceous materials. Through the addition of Portland® cement, silica and alumina the slag composition was varied to adjust the expected liquidus temperature to 1573 and 2273 K. It has been shown that the formation of iron nuggets is favored for slags presenting low liquidus temperature. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, pellets containing iron powder and carbonaceous material, together with previously prepared slags, were also submitted to high temperature, and it has been shown that iron carburization depends on slag composition.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rodrigues


    Full Text Available The present trial was conducted with the purpose of comparing breeds, sex and feeding systems on carcass characteristics of goat kids. Seventy-eight goats from both sexes, five breeding groups and two management systems were used in this trial: 13 Alpine (7 male and 6 female, 14 Boer x Alpine F1 (7 male and 7 female, 15 ½ Anglo-Nubian x ½ Alpine (9 male and 6 female, 17 Boer x Alpine F2 (7 male and 10 female and 19 ½ Anglo-Nubian x ¼ Alpine x ¼ Boer (9 male and 10 female. The animals were raised under feedlot conditions, weaned at 60 days of age and fed a pelleted diet containing 70% concentrate and 30% hay (S1 = 40 animals or grazing on cultivated Tanzania grass pasture (Panicum maximum (S2 = 38 animals. Animals were slaughtered after reaching 120 days of age. The effects of breed, sex and feeding system on live weight at slaughter (LWS were significant (P < 0.01. Boer x Alpine (F1 presented a higher LWS (P < 0.01 than other breeds, male goat kids were heavier than female goat kids (23.7 vs 20.0 kg and animals from S1 had higher LWS in comparison to animals from S2 (26.0 vs 17.7 kg.  Hot carcass of Boer x Alpine (F1 goat kids was heavier (11.5 kg than Boer x Alpine F2 (9.2 kg, Alpine (9.7 kg, ½ Anglo-Nubian x ¼ Alpine x ¼ Boer (10.4 kg and ½ Anglo-Nubian x ½ Alpine (9.9 kg. Dressing percentage was affected (P < 0.01 by feeding system and was greater (P < 0.01 for S1 (47.0% than for S2 (43.9%. The size of wholesale cuts were affected by breed. Boer x Alpine (F1 goat kids showed better performance with respect to size of leg, loin and rib cuts. In addition, the proportion of all cuts for male and goat kids raised on S1 was found to be greater (P < 0.01 than that of S2 and females. Findings of this study indicated that Boer x Alpine (F1 goat kids had better carcass characteristics than the other breeds.

  7. Drug marker absorption in relation to pellet size, gastric motility and viscous meals in humans (United States)

    Rhie, J. K.; Hayashi, Y.; Welage, L. S.; Frens, J.; Wald, R. J.; Barnett, J. L.; Amidon, G. E.; Putcha, L.; Amidon, G. L.


    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate drug marker absorption in relation to the gastric emptying (GE) of 0.7 mm and 3.6 mm enteric coated pellets as a function of viscosity and the underlying gastric motility. METHODS: Twelve subjects were evaluated in a 3-way crossover study. 0.7 mm caffeine and 3.6 mm acetaminophen enteric coated pellets were concurrently administered with a viscous caloric meal at the levels of 4000, 6000 and 8000 cP. Gastric motility was simultaneously measured with antral manometry and compared to time events in the plasma profiles of the drug markers. RESULTS: Caffeine, from the 0.7 mm pellets, was observed significantly earlier in the plasma than acetaminophen, from the 3.6 mm pellets, at all levels of viscosity. Motility related size differentiated GE was consistently observed at all viscosity levels, however, less variability was observed with the 4000 cP meal. Specifically, the onset of absorption from the of 3.6 mm pellets correlated with the onset of Phase II fasted state contractions (r = 0.929, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The timeframe of drug marker absorption and the onset of motility events were not altered within the range of viscosities evaluated. Rather, the differences in drug marker profiles from the non-digestible solids were most likely the result of the interaction between viscosity and motility influencing antral flow dynamics. The administration of the two sizes of pellets and a viscous caloric meal with subsequent monitoring of drug marker profiles is useful as a reference to assess the influence of motility patterns on the absorption profile of orally administered agents.

  8. Copper pellets simulating oral exposure to copper ammunition: Absence of toxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Lahner, Lesanna L.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Rattner, Barnett A.


    To evaluate the potential toxicity of copper (Cu) in raptors that may consume Cu bullets, shotgun pellets containing Cu, or Cu fragments as they feed on wildlife carcasses, we studied the effects of metallic Cu exposure in a surrogate, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Sixteen kestrels were orally administered 5 mg Cu/g body mass in the form of Cu pellets (1.18–2.00 mm in diameter) nine times during 38 days and 10 controls were sham gavaged on the same schedule. With one exception, all birds retained the pellets for at least 1 h, but most (69%) regurgitated pellets during a 12-h monitoring period. Hepatic Cu concentrations were greater in kestrels administered Cu than in controls, but there was no difference in Cu concentrations in the blood between treated and control birds. Concentration of the metal-binding protein metallothionein was greater in male birds that received Cu than in controls, whereas concentrations in female birds that received Cu were similar to control female birds. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations in kestrels were significantly correlated. Histopathologic alterations were noted in the pancreas of four treated kestrels and two controls, but these changes were not associated with hepatic or renal Cu concentrations, and no lesions were seen in other tissues. No clinical signs were observed, and there was no treatment effect on body mass; concentrations of Cu, hemoglobin, or methemoglobin in the blood; or Cu concentrations in kidney, plasma biochemistries, or hematocrit. Based on the parameters we measured, ingested Cu pellets pose little threat to American kestrels (and presumably phylogenetically related species), although the retention time of pellets in the stomach was of relatively short duration. Birds expected to regurgitate Cu fragments with a frequency similar to kestrels are not likely to be adversely affected by Cu ingestion, but the results of our study do not completely rule out the potential for toxicity in

  9. Obtenção de pellets por extrusão e esferonização farmacêutica. Parte II: avaliação das características física de pellets Production of pellets by pharmaceutical extrusion and spheronisation. Part II: physical characterisation of pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Max Massaranduba Santos


    Full Text Available O processo de peletização, abordado na Parte I, consiste na aglomeração por via úmida de pós de uma substância ativa e excipientes sob a forma de unidades esféricas denominadas por pellets. Os pellets diferem de grânulos não apenas pela técnica utilizada para a produção, mas também no que respeita as características físicas conseguidas. O presente trabalho, o segundo de uma série de dois, apresenta uma revisão das características físicas e das técnicas para a caracterização física de pellets farmacêuticos abordando as principais necessidades posteriores a produção dessas multi-unidades, nomeadamente revestimento com película, enchimento de cápsulas, compressão, manuseamento, armazenamento e transporte.The pelletisation process described in Part I consists of the wet agglomeration of fine powders of a drug substance and excipients into spherical units referred as pellets. Pellets differ from granules in terms of the production process and the physical characteristics. The current work, the second part of a series of two, intends to describe and revise the literature of the evaluation and characterisation of active drug pellets regarding the needs of postproduction of the units namely, film coating, capsule filling, compression, handling, storing and shiping.

  10. Impact of fuel quality and burner capacity on the performance of wood pellet stove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović-Bećirović Sanja B.


    Full Text Available Pellet stoves may play an important role in Serbia in the future when fossil fuel fired conventional heating appliances are replaced by more efficient and environmentally friendly devices. Experimental investigation was conducted in order to examine the influence of wood pellet quality, as well as burner capacity (6, 8 and 10 kW, used in the same stove configuration, on the performance of pellet stove with declared nameplate capacity of 8 kW. The results obtained showed that in case of nominal load and combustion of pellets recommended by the stove manufacturer, stove efficiency of 80.03% was achieved. The use of lower quality pellet caused additional 1.13 kW reduction in heat output in case of nominal load and 0.63 kW in case of reduced load. This was attributed to less favourable properties and lower bulk and particle density of lower quality pellet. The use of different burner capacity has shown to have little effect on heat output and efficiency of the stove when pre-set values in the control system of the stove were not altered. It is concluded that replacement of the burner only is not sufficient to increase/decrease the declared capacity of the same stove configuration, meaning that additional measures are necessary. These measures include a new set up of the stove control system, which needs to be properly adjusted for each alteration in stove configuration. Without the adjustment mentioned, declared capacity of the stove cannot be altered, while its CO emission shall be considerably increased.

  11. The preparation of pellets containing a surfactant or a mixture of mono- and di-gylcerides by extrusion/spheronization. (United States)

    Newton, John Michael; Pinto, Mariana Reis; Podczeck, Fridrun


    The ability to incorporate either of the two components of a self-emulsifying system (polysorbate 80 (PSG80) and a mixture of mono- and di-glycerides (MDG)) separately into pellets prepared by extrusion/spheronization and the properties of any resulting pellets has been investigated. The results have established that it is possible to prepare satisfactory pellets thus adding to the range of ingredients that can be included in pellet formulations. For PS80, it was found possible to prepare pellets containing at least 92% of the surfactant/water mixture, but with a mixture of (MDG) and water, however, it was not possible to prepare pellets, which contained more than 46% of MDG. By analysis of variance significant relationships were established between the ratio of lactose to MCC and the ratio of the PS80 or MDG to water and the properties of the pellets. There were both similarities and differences of the two input factors, which provided relationships for the two materials. The quantity of liquid required, the fluid content of the pellets, the tensile strength and porosity of the pellets provided relationships for both systems, whereas the extrusion force and the median pellet size gave relationships for the PS80 systems, but they did not for the MDG systems. The opposite was true for interquartile range (IQR), the yield in the modal fraction and the shape factor. It was possible to identify global relationships for these systems and those reported previously, when the two components were combined as a self-emulsifying system, by the application of perceptual mapping. It was found that, there were relationships between the size range, expressed as the IQR and the fluid level required to make pellets; the quantity of the non-aqueous component of the fluid and the pellet shape factor; the extrusion force and the tensile strength of the pellets and the yield in the modal fraction and the ratio of the non-aqueous to aqueous content of the fluid used to prepare the

  12. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Soo Jeong


    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB ( provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková


    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  14. Evaluation of ethylcellulose and its pseudolatex (Surelease in preparation of matrix pellets of theophylline using extrusion-spheronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Afrasiabi Garekani


    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study evaluates the effect of substitution of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC with ethylcellulose (EC on mechanical and release characteristics of theophylline pellets. Materials and Methods: The effect of addition of EC was investigated on characteristics of pellets with varying drug content prepared by extrusion-spheronization. Also the effect of type of granulating liquid (water or Surelease was investigated on characteristics of selected pellets. The pellets were characterized for particle size (sieve analysis, mechanical strength, morphology (microscopy, thermal (DSC and dissolution behaviors. Results: The exrtudability of the wet mass was reduced upon inclusion of EC so that complete replacement of MCC was not possible. Increase in EC percentage led to lower production yield and formation of pellets with larger diameter and slightly rough surfaces. Inclusion of EC also affected the mechanical properties of pellets but had negligible effect on drug release profile. The surface of selected pellets became smoother and their production yield increased upon the use of Surelease as granulating liquid. In addition the rate of drug release decreased to some extent when Surelease was used. Conclusion: Preparation of theophylline pellets with EC alone was not possible in process of extrusion-spheronization. Partial replacement of MCC with EC changed physicomechanical properties of pellets but hardly affected drug release. Although the use of Surelease as granulation liquid slightly decreased the rate of drug release, desirable matrix pellets with sustained drug release could not be produced. Despite this outcome however, these pellets could benefit from reduced coating thickness for drug release control.

  15. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal


    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  16. UV imaging of Multiple Unit Pellet System (MUPS) tablets: A case study of acetylsalicylic acid stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Rades, Thomas


    for estimation of the salicylic acid (SA) concentration as degradation product of ASA in the tablets were compared to the SA concentration measured by high performance liquid chromatography with a partial least squares regression resulting in an RMSEP of 4.86% and an R2 of 0.9812. The estimation of the SA......The applicability of multispectral ultraviolet (UV) imaging in combination with multivariate image analysis was investigated to monitor API degradation within multiple unit pellet system (MUPS) tablets during storage. For this purpose, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) layered pellets were coated...

  17. Serum-Free Cryopreservation of Five Mammalian Cell Lines in Either a Pelleted or Suspended State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corsini Joe


    Full Text Available Herein we have explored two practical aspects of cryopreserving cultured mammalian cells during routine laboratory maintenance. First, we have examined the possibility of using a serum-free, hence more affordable, cryopreservative. Using five mammalian lines (Crandell Feline Kidney, MCF7, A72, WI 38 and NB324K, we found that the serum-free alternative preserves nearly as efficiently as the serum-containing preservatives. Second, we compared cryostorage of those cells in suspended versus a pellet form using both aforementioned cryopreservatives. Under our conditions, cells were in general recovered equally well in a suspended versus a pellet form.

  18. Innovative methodology for electrical conductivity measurements and metal partition in biosolid pellets (United States)

    Jordan, Manuel Miguel; Rincón-Mora, Beatriz; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Navarro-Pedreño, José; Gómez-Lucas, Ignacio; Bech, Jaume


    Use of biosolids to improve the nutrient content in a soil is a common practice. The obligation to restore abandoned mine and the correct application of biosolids is guaranteed by the legislation on waste management, biosolids and soil conservation (Jordán et al. 2008). The present research was conducted to determine electrical conductivity in dry wastes (pellets) using a innovative methodology (Camilla and Jordán, 2009). On the other hand, the present study was designed to examine the distribution of selected heavy metals in biosolid pellets, and also to relate the distribution patterns of these metals. In this context, heavy metal concentrations were studied in biosolid pellets under different pressures. Electrical conductivity measurements were taken in biosolid pellets under pressures on the order of 50 to 150 MPa and with currents of 10-15 A. Measurements of electrical conductivity and heavy metal content for different areas (H1, H2, and H3) were taken. Total content of metals was determined following microwave digestion and analysed by ICP/MS. Triplicate portions were weighed in polycarbonate centrifuge tubes and sequentially extracted. The distribution of chemical forms of Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb in the biosolids was studied using a sequential extraction procedure that fractionates the metal into soluble-exchangeable, specifically sorbed-carbonate bound, oxidizable, reducible, and residual forms. The residual, reducible, and carbonate-sorbed forms were dominant. Higher Cr and Ni content were detected in pellets made with biosolids from the H3. The highest Cd and Ni values were detected in the H2. The trends of the conductivity curves were similar for the sludge from the isolation surface (H1) and for the mesophilous area (H2). In the case of the thermophilous area (H3), the electrical conductivity showed extremely high values. This behaviour was similar in the case of the Cr and Ni content. However, in the case of Cd and Pb, the highest values were detected in

  19. Solid pellets for hydrogen storage; Des pastilles solides pour stocker l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, V.


    Five researchers from the technical university of Denmark (DTU) have developed magnesium chloride salt pellets which can absorb ammonia (NH{sub 3}) in hexamine form at ambient temperature and pressure. These pellets can store up to the equivalent of 52% of their mass in ammonia (9% of hydrogen). The release of ammonia is obtained by heating the salt at 300 deg. C. In the presence of an iron-based catalyst, ammonia is transformed into nitrogen and hydrogen. This is probably the safest way invented so far to store hydrogen. Short paper. (J.S.)

  20. The international logistics of wood pellets for heating and power production in Europe: Costs, energy-input and greenhouse gas balances of pellet consumption in Italy, Sweden and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110609913; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Pichler, W.; Hayes, S.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X


    The European wood pellet market is booming: concerns about climate change and renewable energy targets are predominant drivers. The aim of this analysis is to compare typical wood pellet chains from the purchase of the feedstock from sawmills to the conversion into heat or electricity. Cost

  1. Breeding strategies for increasing yield potential in super hybrid rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihua CHENG,Xiaodeng ZHAN,Liyong CAO


    Full Text Available Super hybrid rice breeding is a new breeding method combining semi-dwarf breeding and heterosis breeding using germplasm and gene-environment interactions. This paper reviews the breeding strategies of super hybrid rice breeding in China, focusing on the utilization of heterosis of indica and japonica subspecies, construction of ideal plant architecture and pyramiding of disease resistant genes in restorer lines. To develop super hybrid rice, considerable effort should be made to explore genes related with high yield, good quality, resistance to pests and diseases, tolerance to stresses. Molecular breeding methods in combination with crossing techniques should be adopted in super hybrid rice breeding.

  2. Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated fruit tree, Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae ): Implications for fruit production, selective breeding, and conservation of genetic resources.

  3. New biotechnology enhances the application of cisgenesis in plant breeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hou, Hongwei; Atlihan, Neslihan; Lu, Zhen-Xiang


    .... It can avoid linkage drag, enhance the use of existing gene alleles. This approach combines traditional breeding techniques with modern biotechnology and dramatically speeds up the breeding process...

  4. Breeding behavior of immature mourning doves (United States)

    Irby, H.D.; Blankenship, L.H.


    Some immature mourning doves (Zenaidura mncroura) are capable of breeding in their first (calendar) year of life. The breeding activities of immatures observed in this study included calling, copulating, and nesting. Development of sexual structures such as cloacal papillae, oviduct openings, and gonads was also regarded as evidence of breeding potential. Immatures were identified principally by white-tipped wing coverts. Sexes were distinguished by behavioral characteristics. Males coo, perform flights, carry nest material, and attend nests during the day and females attend nests at night. Immatures were involved in at least ten nestings on two areas near Tucson, Arizona, in 1963. Five young fledged from these nests.

  5. Domestication and Breeding of Jatropha curcas L. (United States)

    Montes, Juan M; Melchinger, Albrecht E


    Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha) has a high, untapped potential to contribute towards sustainable production of food and bioenergy, rehabilitation of degraded land, and reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tremendous progress in jatropha domestication and breeding has been achieved during the past decade. This review: (i) summarizes current knowledge about the domestication and breeding of jatropha; (ii) identifies and prioritizes areas for further research; and (iii) proposes strategies to exploit the full genetic potential of this plant species. Altogether, the outlook is promising for accelerating the domestication of jatropha by applying modern scientific methods and novel technologies developed in plant breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fatal Accidents During Marine Transport of Wood Pellets Due to Off-gassing – Experiences from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Jarleivson Hilduberg, Øssur


    The atmosphere in unventilated wood pellet storage confinements, such as the cargo hold of marine vessels transporting pellets in solid bulk, can be severely oxygen deficient and contain deadly concentrations of harmful gasses, of which the most feared is the poisonous and odour-less carbon monox...

  7. Effects of pellet diameter during and after lactation on feed intake of piglets pre- and post weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Warmsteeker, D.; Oostindjer, M.; Enckevort, van L.C.M.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Kemp, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.


    Effects of two pellet diameters for piglets pre and post weaning on feed intake, BW, and feed-related behaviour were studied in 3 experiments. In experiment 1, 19 litters were provided with pellets of 2 and 12-mm in diameter in a choice-feeding setup from d 4 of lactation onward. From d 4 to 18,

  8. Full-scale Milling Tests of Wood Pellets for Combustion in a Suspension-Fired Power Plant Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masche, Marvin; Puig Arnavat, Maria; Wadenbäck, Johan

    The size reduction of pelletized wood is crucial in suspension-fired power plants, and hence its milling characteristics are of interest to optimize the milling and combustion process. The objective of the study was to compare the size and shape of pellets disintegrated in hot water with that fro...

  9. The economic potential of wood pellet production from alternative, low-value wood sources in the southeast of the US

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Junginger, Martin; Faaij, Andre


    The global demand for wood pellets used for energy purposes is growing. Therefore, increased amounts of wood pellets are produced from primary forestry products, such as pulp wood. The present analysis demonstrates that substantial amounts of alternative, low-value wood resources are available that

  10. Enhanced oral bioavailability of novel mucoadhesive pellets containing valsartan prepared by a dry powder-coating technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Qing-Ri; Liu, Yan; Xu, Wei-Juan


    The aim of this study was to develop novel mucoadhesive pellets containing valsartan (VAL) with enhanced oral bioavailability. Two types of VAL loaded core pellets were prepared by an extrusion/spheronization method, and further dry-coated with a mixture of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and...

  11. Numerical characterization of micro-cell UO{sub 2}−Mo pellet for enhanced thermal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heung Soo [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Joo [LWR Fuel Technology Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Woo [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang-Hyun [LWR Fuel Technology Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Rip, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)


    Metallic micro-cell UO{sub 2} pellet with high thermal conductivity has received attention as a promising accident-tolerant fuel. Although experimental demonstrations have been successful, studies on the potency of current metallic micro-cell UO{sub 2} fuels for further enhancement of thermal performance are lacking. Here, we numerically investigated the thermal conductivities of micro-cell UO{sub 2}−Mo pellets in terms of the amount of Mo content, the unit cell size, and the aspect ratio of the micro-cells. The results showed good agreement with experimental measurements, and more importantly, indicated the importance of optimizing the unit cell geometries of the micro-cell pellets for greater increases in thermal conductivity. Consequently, the micro-cell UO{sub 2}−Mo pellets (5 vol% Mo) with modified geometries increased the thermal conductivity of the current UO{sub 2} pellets by about 2.5 times, and lowered the temperature gradient within the pellets by 62.9% under a linear heat generation rate of 200 W/cm. - Highlights: • Thermal conductivities of micro-cell UO{sub 2}−Mo pellets were numerically studied in terms of their unit cell geometries. • Numerical calculations qualitatively well agreed with experimental measurements. • Optimizing the unit cell geometries of the micro-cell pellets could greatly enhance their thermal conductivities.

  12. Effect of particle size and addition of cocoa pod husk on the properties of sawdust and coal pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Forero Nuñez


    Full Text Available The continuous increase of the world energy demand, the rise of fossil fuels costs, and the strong environmental policies around the globe are some of the reasons for the wood pellets industry increase. However, there are some other available biomass feedstocks capable of being densified for energy production. Among the various options, the use of mixed biomass pellets is becoming remarkable due to the wide variety of species, although more research is needed in order to enhance the mechanical properties of these pellets. This study aims to identify the effect of particle size on the mechanical properties of sawdust and coal pellets when cocoa pod husks are used as an additive. Cocoa pod husks have a similar composition to sawdust and less sulfur and nitrogen than coal. Thus, the use of this additive might decrease the environmental impact during coal pellets combustion. Results show an attractive potential of cocoa pod husks grinds for pellet production, an increase of the durability of coal pellets mixed with this raw material, and similar performance between cocoa pod husks and sawdust pellets. The compression ratio, the compressive and impact resistance varied linearly with the addition of cocoa pod husks.

  13. A non-destructive method for quality control of the pellet distribution within a MUPS tablet by terahertz pulsed imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikova, Anna; Markl, Daniel; Axel Zeitler, J


    Terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was applied to analyse the inner structure of multiple unit pellet system (MUPS) tablets. MUPS tablets containing different amounts of theophylline pellets coated with Eudragit® NE 30 D and with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as cushioning agent were analysed. The...

  14. The Ascent of Cat Breeds: Genetic Evaluations of Breeds and Worldwide Random Bred Populations (United States)

    Lipinski, Monika J.; Froenicke, Lutz; Baysac, Kathleen C.; Billings, Nicholas C.; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Levy, Alon M.; Longeri, Maria; Niini, Tirri; Ozpinar, Haydar; Slater, Margaret R.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Lyons, Leslie A.


    The diaspora of the modern cat was traced with microsatellite markers from the presumed site of domestication to distant regions of the world. Genetic data were derived from over 1100 individuals, representing seventeen random bred populations from five continents and twenty-two breeds. The Mediterranean was reconfirmed to be the probable site of domestication. Genetic diversity has remained broad throughout the world, with distinct genetic clustering in the Mediterranean basin, Europe/America, Asia and Africa. However, Asian cats appeared to have separated early and expanded in relative isolation. Most breeds were derived from indigenous cats of their purported regions of origin. However, the Persian and Japanese Bobtail were more aligned with European/American than Mediterranean basin or Asian clusters. Three recently derived breeds were not distinct from their parental breeds of origin. Pure breeding was associated with a loss of genetic diversity, however, this loss did not correlate with breed popularity or age. PMID:18060738

  15. Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey was initiated experimentally in 1947 and became operational in 1955. It is conducted cooperatively by the U.S....

  16. Tackling the welfare issues of dog breeding. (United States)

    Crispin, Sheila


    Sheila Crispin is chair of the new Advisory Council on the Welfare Issues of Dog Breeding. Here, she describes the background to the Council, outlines its priorities and offers some thoughts on the issues that need to be addressed.

  17. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1986 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1986. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  18. Central Quebec: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Central Quebec during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  19. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1995 Season (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 37 sites along the coast of California. This 7% decrease in breeding population size from 1994 brings to an end the trend since...

  20. Relationship between production characteristics and breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    r = 0.33) was recorded between pre-weaning growth rate and percentage morphologically normal sperm, while a negative correlation (r ... Keywords: Bovine, breeding potential, libido, production parameters, semen quality, spermatozoa ...