WorldWideScience

Sample records for breeding pellets

  1. Pellet injectors for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet injection for the purpose of refuelling and diagnostic of fusion experiments is considered for the parameters of JET. The feasibility of injectors for single pellets and for quasistationary refuelling is discussed. Model calculations on pellet ablation with JET parameters show the required pellet velocity (3). For single pellet injection a light gas gun, for refuelling a centrifuge accelerator is proposed. For the latter the mechanical stress problems are discussed. Control and data acquisition systems are outlined. (orig.)

  2. Wood pellet seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

  3. Injection of Deuterium Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Andersen, P.; Andersen, S. A.; Andersen, Verner; Nielsen, Arne Nordskov; Sass, Bjarne Ove; Weisberg, Knud-Vilhelm

    1984-01-01

    A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Some details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated to velocit...

  4. Wood pellet research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohkansanj, S.; Bi, T. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Wood pellets are composed of waste wood materials such as sawmill residue, municipal landfill waste and grain crops. Due to the high temperature combustion used to form the waste materials into the pellet, no additives or glues are necessary to bind them. The pellets are typically used for home heating; heat and power production; poultry bedding; and in biorefineries. This presentation provided an outline of the University of British Columbia wood pellet research and development program. Research at the university is being conducted to develop new types of pellets. Researchers at the program also analyze the physical and chemical properties of pellets in order to optimize pellet density and heating values. Wood pellet modelling and simulation studies are carried out, and various training and education programs are also offered. Research is currently being conducted to develop a reactor for off-gassing experiments. This presentation also provided details of a study investigating the economics of wood pellet production and transport. Pellet production costs and feedstock costs were compared. A summary of the costs and energy inputs of pellet production included details of product storage; transportation and transfer; handling; and transportation to energy plants. It was concluded that more than 35 per cent of the energy content of biomass is used up in the processing and transport of Canadian wood pellets to Europe. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Wood pellet research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood pellets are composed of waste wood materials such as sawmill residue, municipal landfill waste and grain crops. Due to the high temperature combustion used to form the waste materials into the pellet, no additives or glues are necessary to bind them. The pellets are typically used for home heating; heat and power production; poultry bedding; and in biorefineries. This presentation provided an outline of the University of British Columbia wood pellet research and development program. Research at the university is being conducted to develop new types of pellets. Researchers at the program also analyze the physical and chemical properties of pellets in order to optimize pellet density and heating values. Wood pellet modelling and simulation studies are carried out, and various training and education programs are also offered. Research is currently being conducted to develop a reactor for off-gassing experiments. This presentation also provided details of a study investigating the economics of wood pellet production and transport. Pellet production costs and feedstock costs were compared. A summary of the costs and energy inputs of pellet production included details of product storage; transportation and transfer; handling; and transportation to energy plants. It was concluded that more than 35 per cent of the energy content of biomass is used up in the processing and transport of Canadian wood pellets to Europe. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Tritium pellet injector results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injection of solid tritium pellets is considered to be the most promising way of fueling fusion reactors. The Tritium Proof-of- Principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets. This injector is based on the pneumatic pipe-gun concept, in which pellets are formed in situ in the barrel and accelerated with high-pressure gas. This injector is ideal for tritium service because there are no moving parts inside the gun and because no excess tritium is required in the pellet production process. Removal of 3He from tritium to prevent blocking of the cryopumping action by the noncondensible gas has been demonstrated with a cryogenic separator. Pellet velocities of 1280 m/s have been achieved for 4-mm-diam by 4-mm-long cylindrical tritium pellets with hydrogen propellant at 6.96 MPa (1000 psi). 10 refs., 10 figs

  7. High speed pellet development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced pneumatic propulsion systems have been developed using two stage and arc heater guns. For pellet preparation a freezing cell for condensing the d2-gas is incorporated into the gun barrel. Results on the optimization of condensation parameters to find the mechanical limits of deuterium ice and of accelerations tests using a 2-stage gun with plastic as well as d2-pellets are discussed. It appears that two stage gun systems can provide a rather constant acceleration even in their low pressure regime suitable for pellet injection. The peak acceleration tolerable for d2-pellets, however turned out to be less than 5.106 ms-2 and a serious erosion effect of the pellet makes the use of long gun barrel rather problematic. At present it is concluded that only the sabot technique can overcome the stress and erosion effect limitations

  8. Pellet plant energy simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeasu, D.; Vasquez Pulido, T.; Nielsen, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Pellet Plant energy simulator is a software based on advanced algorithms which has the main purpose to see the response of a pellet plant regarding certain location conditions. It combines energy provided by a combined heat and power, and/or by a combustion chamber with the energy consumption of the pellet factory and information regarding weather conditions in order to predict the biomass consumption of the pellet factory together with the combined heat and power, and/or with the biomass consumption of the combustion chamber. The user of the software will not only be able to plan smart the biomass acquisition and estimate its cost, but also to plan smart the preventive maintenance (charcoal cleaning in case of a gasification plant) and use the pellet plant at the maximum output regarding weather conditions and biomass moisture. The software can also be used in order to execute a more precise feasibility study for a pellet plant in a certain location. The paper outlines the algorithm that supports the Pellet Plant Energy Simulator idea and presents preliminary tests results that supports the discussion and implementation of the system

  9. MULTIPLE UNIT DOSAGE FORM - PELLET AND PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Vikash; Mishra Santosh Kumar; Lather Amit; Vikas; Singh Ranjit

    2011-01-01

    Pellets have been used in the pharmaceutical industry for more than four decades, with the advent of controlled release technology, that the full impact of the inherent advantages of pellets over single unit dosage forms have been realized, not only has focused on refining and optimizing existing pelletization techniques, but also focused on the development of novel approaches and procedures for manufacturing of pellets. The present review outlines the manufacturing and evaluation of pellets....

  10. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Mason

    2009-04-16

    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  11. Detonation drive pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detonation drive pellet injector has been developed and tested. By this method the free piston is not necessary because the pellet accelerated the high pressure shock directly. In the experiment, the Teflon pellet (5 mm dia., 5 mm length) was accelerated by hydrogen, oxygen and dilution gas mixtured detonation. When the gas pressure was only 500 kPa and the mixture rates of hydrogen, oxygen and helium were 3:6:1 or 3:6:0, the Teflon pellet speed was up to 747 m/s. Typical experimental results over 300 kPa of the initial gas pressure range are 78--92% of the one-dimensional calculational values. It showed that the pellet could be accelerated by a relative low pressure gas. When the helium dilution rate is larger than 20%, it was often found the strong detonation of which speed is more than the Chapman-Jouguet speed. Then the pellet speed above 1,100 m/s was obtained

  12. Pelletizing properties of torrefied spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrefaction is a thermo-chemical conversion process improving the handling, storage and combustion properties of wood. To save storage space and transportation costs, it can be compressed into fuel pellets of high physical and energetic density. The resulting pellets are relatively resistant to moisture uptake, microbiological decay and easy to comminute into small particles. The present study focused on the pelletizing properties of spruce torrefied at 250, 275 and 300 °C. The changes in composition were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and chemical analysis. The pelletizing properties were determined using a single pellet press and pellet stability was determined by compression testing. The bonding mechanism in the pellets was studied by fracture surface analysis using scanning electron microscopy. The composition of the wood changed drastically under torrefaction, with hemicelluloses being most sensitive to thermal degradation. The chemical changes had a negative impact, both on the pelletizing process and the pellet properties. Torrefaction resulted in higher friction in the press channel of the pellet press and low compression strength of the pellets. Fracture surface analysis revealed a cohesive failure mechanism due to strong inter-particle bonding in spruce pellets as a resulting from a plastic flow of the amorphous wood polymers, forming solid polymer bridges between adjacent particles. Fracture surfaces of pellets made from torrefied spruce possessed gaps and voids between adjacent particles due to a spring back effect after pelletization. They showed no signs of inter-particle polymer bridges indicating that bonding is likely limited to Van der Waals forces and mechanical fiber interlocking. -- Highlights: ► Thermal degradation of wood polymers increased with torrefaction temperature. ► Utilization of torrefied wood increased the friction in the press channel of a pellet mill. ► Pellets compression stability decreased with increasing

  13. Pelletizing properties of torrefied spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.;

    2011-01-01

    hemicelluloses being most sensitive to thermal degradation. The chemical changes had a negative impact, both on the pelletizing process and the pellet properties. Torrefaction resulted in higher friction in the press channel of the pellet press and low compression strength of the pellets. Fracture surface...... analysis revealed a cohesive failure mechanism due to strong inter-particle bonding in spruce pellets as a resulting from a plastic flow of the amorphous wood polymers, forming solid polymer bridges between adjacent particles. Fracture surfaces of pellets made from torrefied spruce possessed gaps and voids...

  14. Modeling pellet impact drilling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling the process of pellet impact drilling, which creates the scientific and methodological basis for engineering design of drilling operations under different geo-technical conditions.

  15. Fundamentals of Biomass pellet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens Kai; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Hustad, Johan Einar;

    2005-01-01

    Gasification Group at MEK-DTU has been installed for experiments with different types of wood, straw, waste materials and additives such as adhesives and inorganic compounds. A series of pelletizing tests has been performed using a ring die with a compression ratio of 6.5. Pine shavings and beech wood dust has...... been tested individually and combined. Pine dust is relatively easy to pelletize while beech dust is almost impossible to pelletize with the present pellet mill conditions. Additionally, the inorganic part of the beech wood was rich in corrosive alkali chloride salts. With the die used it was possible...... corrosiveness and the sintering ability of the ash residues. It had earlier been observed that straw could be pelletized, but that the pellet quality in general did not appear to be very high. Similar results have been obtained in the present study. The pellets were not as durable as the pine/beech pellets...

  16. Owl Pellet Paleontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Lisa K.

    2013-01-01

    In this activity for the beginning of a high school Biology 1 evolution unit, students are challenged to reconstruct organisms found in an owl pellet as a model for fossil reconstruction. They work in groups to develop hypotheses about what animal they have found, what environment it inhabited, and what niche it filled. At the end of the activity,…

  17. Nuclear fuel pellet collating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a system for collating nuclear fuel pellets. The system consists of: (a) a pellet collating line including serially-arranged pellet input, work and output stations; (b) a plurality of mobile carts, some supporting pellet supply trays and others supporting pellet storage trays, the trays adapted to support pellets in multiple rows thereof, the pellets on a given one tray being of the same enrichment with enrichments of pellets on some trays behind different from on other trays; (c) a tray positioning station located adjacent to the pellet collating line and defining positions in which are lodged the mobile carts; (d) tray transfer robot located between the pellet collating line and the try positioning station, the robot being operable to transfer supply and storage trays one at a time between the respective carts at the tray positioning station and respective input and output stations; (e) an input sweep head disposed adjacent the input station and being operable for sweeping pellets resting in multiple rows on a given one of the supply trays at the input station from the supply tray onto the work station; (f) a gripping and measuring head disposed adjacent the work station and being operable for measuring a desired length of pellets in the multiple rows thereof on the work station and then separating the measured desired length of pellets from the remaining pellets, if there be any; (g) an output sweep head disposed adjacent to the output station and operable for sweeping the measured lengths of pellets from the work station onto a given one of the storage trays at the output station; (h) one the input sweep head, the gripping and measuring head and the output sweep head being operable for sweeping the remaining pellets, if any, in the multiple rows thereof from the work station back onto the given one of the supply trays at the input station

  18. PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Punia Supriya; Bala Rajni; Rana A. C.

    2012-01-01

    In present times, the pelletization technologies are gaining much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of oral drug delivery systems. This is due to the reason that pellets offer many therapeutic, technological as well as biopharmaceutical advantages over the conventional oral dosage forms. Pelletization technique enables the formation of spherical beads or pellets with a mean diameter usually ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm which can be eventually coated for preparation o...

  19. Pneumatic pellet injector for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet injection is a useful tool for plasma diagnostics of tokamaks. Pellets can be applied for investigation of particle, energy and impurity transport, fueling efficiency and magnetic surfaces. Design, operation and control of a single shot pneumatic pellet gun is described in detail including all supplies, the vacuum system and the diagnostics of the pellet. The arrangement of this injector in the torus hall and the interfaces to the JET system and CODAS are considered. A guide tube system for pellet injection is discussed but it will not be recommended for JET. (orig.)

  20. Pellet imaging techniques on ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a USDOE/ASDEX collaboration, a detailed examination of pellet ablation in ASDEX with a variety of diagnostics has allowed a better understanding of a number of features of hydrogen ice pellet ablation in a plasma. In particular, fast gated photos with an intensified Xybion CCD video camera allow in-situ velocity measurements of the pellet as it penetrates the plasma. With time resolution of typically 100 nanoseconds and exposures every 50 microseconds, the evolution of each pellet in a multi-pellet ASDEX tokamak plasma discharge can be followed. When the pellet cloud track has striations, the light intensity profile through the cloud is hollow (dark near the pellet), whereas at the beginning or near the end of the pellet trajectory the track is typically smooth (without striations) and has a gaussian-peaked light emission profile. New, single pellet Stark broadened DαDβ, and Dγ spectra, obtained with a tangentially viewing scanning mirror/spectrometer with Reticon array readout, are consistent with cloud densities of 2 x 1017cm-3 or higher in the regions of strongest light emission. A spatially resolved array of Dα detectors shows that the light variations during the pellet ablation are not caused solely by a modulation of the incoming energy flux as the pellet crosses rational q-surfaces, but instead are a result of a dynamic, non-stationary, ablation process. 20 refs., 4 figs

  1. From a single pellet press to a bench scale pellet mill - Pelletizing six different biomass feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Shang, Lei; Sárossy, Zsuzsa;

    2016-01-01

    (SPP) can be extrapolated to larger scale pellet mills. The single pellet press was used to find the optimum moisture content and die operating temperature for pellet production. Then, these results were compared with those obtained from a bench-scale pellet mill. A moisture content of around 10 wt......The increasing demand for biomass pellets requires the investigation of alternative raw materials for pelletizetion. In the present paper, the pelletization process of fescue, alfalfa, sorghum, triticale, miscanthus and willow is studied to determine if results obtained in a single pellet press.......% was found to be optimal for the six biomass feedstocks. A friction increase was seen when the die temperature increased from room temperature to 60-90 degrees C for most biomass types, and then a friction decrease when the die temperature increased further. The results obtained in the bench...

  2. Degradation of copepod fecal pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Iversen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Copepod fecal pellets are often degraded at high rates within the upper part of the water column. However, the identity of the degraders and the processes governing the degradation remain unresolved. To identify the pellet degraders we collected water from Oresund (Denmark) approximately every...... second month from July 2004 to July 2005. These water samples were divided into 5 fractions (<0.2, <2, <20, <100, <200 mu m) and total (unfractionated). We determined fecal pellet degradation rate and species composition of the plankton from triplicate incubations of each fraction and a known, added...... amount of fecal pellets. The total degradation rate of pellets by the natural plankton community of Oresund followed the phytoplankton biomass, with maximum degradation rate during the spring bloom (2.5 +/- 0.49 d(-1)) and minimum (0.52 +/- 0.14 d(-1)) during late winter. Total pellet removal rate ranged...

  3. Sintering behavior of ceria pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Halim, A.S.; Abdelmonem, N.M.; Abd El-Hamid, G.; Afify, N.A.

    1989-02-01

    The sintering behaviour of ceria pellets was studied to produce dense, sound and crack-free pellets. Ceria is prepared by the precipitation of ammonium cerous carbonate (ACeC). The precipitate of ACeC is dried and then calcined to produce ceria (CeO/sub 2/) powder. The ceria powder is used to fabricate pellets which are sintered at 1200...1500/sup 0/C. It was found that higher density (more than 85% of the theoretical), sound and crack-free ceria pellets can be obtained via calcination of ACeC powders at 600/sup 0/C for 2 h, pressing the obtained ceria powders into pellets at 550 N/mm/sup 2/, and then sintering these pellets at 1500/sup 0/C for 3 h in air.

  4. Pellets direct from the forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes a look at developments in the market for wood pellets and their production from forest wood. The general situation in the booming pellets market is reviewed and the potential of this climate-neutral form of heating is discussed. Figures and prognoses on the use of wood pellets are presented. In particular, the potential for the use of forestry wood supplies to augment the use of wood wastes and sawdust from sawmills is looked at

  5. PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punia Supriya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In present times, the pelletization technologies are gaining much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of oral drug delivery systems. This is due to the reason that pellets offer many therapeutic, technological as well as biopharmaceutical advantages over the conventional oral dosage forms. Pelletization technique enables the formation of spherical beads or pellets with a mean diameter usually ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm which can be eventually coated for preparation of modified release dosage forms. Pelletization leads to an improvement in flowability, appearance and mixing properties thus avoiding generation of excessive dust and reducing segregation, and, generally, eliminating undesirable properties and improving the physical and chemical properties of fine powders. Pellets are produced by various techniques, such as, extrusion/ spheronization, layering, cryopelletization, freeze pelletization, spray congealing, spray drying and compression. Amongst various techniques, Extrusion/Spheronization technique is the most widely utilized technique due to its high efficiency and simple and fast processing. The aim of this paper is to review some general aspects about pellets and pelletization and some common techniques being utilized in the pharmaceutical industry.

  6. Pellet injector development at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL has recently provided a four-shot tritium pellet injector with up to 4-mm-diam capability for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This injector, which is based on the in situ condensation technique for pellet formation, features three single-stage gas guns that have been qualified in deuterium at up to 1.7 km/s and a two-stage light gas gun driver that has been operated at 2.8-km/s pellet speeds for deep penetration in the high-temperature TFTR supershot regime. Performance improvements to the centrifugal pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak are being made by modifying the storage-type pellet feed system, which has been redesigned to improve the reliability of delivery of pellets and to extend operation to longer pulse durations (up to 400 pellets). Two-stage light gas guns and electron-beam (e-beam) rocket accelerators for speeds in the range from 2 to 10 km/s are also under development. A repeating, two-stage light gas gun that has been developed can accelerate low-density plastic pellets at a 1-Hz repetition rate to speeds of 3 km/s. In a collaboration with ENEA-Frascati, a test facility has been prepared to study repetitive operation of a two-stage gas gun driver equipped with an extrusion-type deuterium pellet source. Extensive testing of the e-beam accelerator has demonstrated a parametric dependence of propellant burn velocity and pellet speed, in accordance with a model derived from the neutral gas shielding theory for pellet ablation in a magnetized plasma

  7. ORNL centrifuge pellet fueling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A centrifuge pellet injecter designed and built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is in operation on Tore Supra. This injector has the capability of injecting up to 100 pellets at speeds up to 800 M/s. The solid deuterium pellets can be formed with a variable mass from 3 to 10 torr-L and are fired at a rate of up to 10 pellets per second. The experimental program that is under way combines repetitive pellet fueling with the ergodic divertor and pump limiters to establish and understand long-pulse plasmas in which the pellet fuel source is in balance with the particle exhaust. With lower hybrid current drive, pulse lengths of up to 2 min might be achieved. To prepare for these extended pulse lengths, the pellet source on the centrifuge will be extended to provide a 300- to 500-pellet capability. A similar system extended to steady-state pellet fabrication technology and designed for a radiation and tritium environment would be a candidate for a fueling system for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Analysis of pellet-fueled ITER discharges using the WHIST code shows the potential for controlling the radial fuel deposition point to achieve the desired core density while maintaining the edge density and temperatures so as to minimize the diverter plate erosion. A centrifuge fueling system would have the capability of taking the D-T exhaust directly from the cryopumping systems, recondensing and purifying the fuel, and injecting the reconstituted pellets into the plasma, thereby minimizing the tritium inventory

  8. Programmed laser beams for optimum production of fusion reactions in fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention refers to a thermonuclear reactor in which a pellet of mixed deuterium and tritium, surrounded by a breeding blanket of swirling molten lithium, is ignited by a laser pulse. The invention consists in the use of three pulses: the first of about 1 to 2 J serves to vaporize the pellet and weakly ionize the resultant gas; the second of 200 to 400 J is directed by reflectors below the pellet so as to confine the plasma in a pyramidal shape with lower density at the bottom; and the final pulse, with an energy of about 105 J, produces fusion. (N.D.H.)

  9. Owl Pellets and Crisis Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Describes a press conference that was used as a "teachable moment" when owl pellets being used for instructional purposes were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The incident highlighted the need for safe handling of owl pellets, having a crisis management plan, and the importance of conveying accurate information to concerned parents.…

  10. Physiological breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew; Langridge, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Physiological breeding crosses parents with different complex but complementary traits to achieve cumulative gene action for yield, while selecting progeny using remote sensing, possibly in combination with genomic selection. Physiological approaches have already demonstrated significant genetic gains in Australia and several developing countries of the International Wheat Improvement Network. The techniques involved (see Graphical Abstract) also provide platforms for research and refinement of breeding methodologies. Recent examples of these include screening genetic resources for novel expression of Calvin cycle enzymes, identification of common genetic bases for heat and drought adaptation, and genetic dissection of trade-offs among yield components. Such information, combined with results from physiological crosses designed to test novel trait combinations, lead to more precise breeding strategies, and feed models of genotype-by-environment interaction to help build new plant types and experimental environments for future climates. PMID:27161822

  11. Manufacture, delivery and marketing of wood pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood pellet is a cheap fuel, the use of which can easily bee automated. Pellet heating can be carried out with a stoker or a pellet burner, which can be mounted to oil and solid fuels boiler or to solid fuel boilers. Vapo Oy delivers wood pellet to farms and detached houses via Agrimarket stores. Vapo Oy delivers pellets to large real estates, municipalities, industry, greenhouses and power plants directly as bulk. The pellets are delivered either by trailers or lorries equipped with fan-operated unloaders. The use of wood pellets is a suitable fuel especially for real estates, the boiler output of which is 20 - 1000 kW. Vapo Oy manufactures wood pellets of cutter chips, grinding dust and sawdust. The raw material for Ilomantsi pellet plant is purchased from the province of North Karelia. The capacity of pelletizing plant is 45 000 t of pellets per year, half of which is exported mainly to Sweden and Denmark

  12. Tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

  13. Tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single- stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. A new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

  14. Moving behavior of pellets in a pellet shaft furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁儒全; 赫冀成

    2008-01-01

    The downward moving behavior of pellets in a 8 m2 pellet shaft furnace with an internal vertical air channel and a drying bed was studied by means of a visualized model(1-15) and a top model(1-1).The visualized model experiment shows that the downward movement of pellets can be regarded as plug flow approximately inside the furnace except for the lower region of cooling zone due to the influence of the drained hopper.The top model experiment reveals that the pellet sizes increase along the moving direction because of the percolation phenomenon,which results in a decrease of the resistance coefficient and an increase of the gas flow rate from the furnace wall toward the furnace center.

  15. Pellet injection and toroidal confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of a technical committee meeting on pellet injection and toroidal confinement, held in Gut Ising, Federal Republic of Germany, 24-26 October, 1988, are given in this report. Most of the major fusion experiments are using pellet injectors; these were reported at this meeting. Studies of confinement, which is favorably affected, impurity transport, radiative energy losses, and affects on the ion temperature gradient instability were given. Studies of pellet ablation and effects on plasma profiles were presented. Finally, several papers described present and proposed injection guns. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Pelletizing of sulfide molybdenite concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palant, A. A.

    2007-04-01

    The results of a pelletizing investigation using various binding components (water, syrup, sulfite-alcohol distillery grains, and bentonite) of the flotation sulfide molybdenite concentrate (˜84% MoS2) from the Mongolian deposit are discussed. The use of syrup provides rather high-strength pellets (>3 N/pellet or >300 g/pellet) of the required size (2 3 mm) for the consumption of 1 kg binder per 100 kg concentrate. The main advantage of the use of syrup instead of bentonite is that the molybdenum cinder produced by oxidizing roasting of raw ore materials is not impoverished due to complete burning out of the syrup. This fact exerts a positive effect on the subsequent hydrometallurgical process, decreasing molybdenum losses related to dump cakes.

  17. Handling of Deuterium Pellets for Plasma Refuelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Andersen, Verner

    1982-01-01

    The use of a guide tube technique to inject pellets in pellet-plasma experiments is described. The effect of the guide tube on the mass and speed of a slowly moving pellet ( nu approximately 150 m s-1) is negligible. To improve the divergence in trajectories of the pellets on leaving the guide tube...

  18. Binders for pellets from biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoš, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Pellets from biomass represent an appropriate form of biofuel for combustion. They are characterized by good fuel parameters, they enable efficient storage, transport and handling, and automatic fuel supply to the combustion chamber. Pellet production is quite a complicated and energy-consuming process. During the production it is necessary to ensure that the amount of input energy was the same or even smaller than the energy obtained. To streamline the production and improve thermo-mechanica...

  19. Centrifuge pellet injector for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An engineering design of a centrifuge pellet injector for JET is reported as part of the Phase I contract number JE 2/9016. A rather detailed design is presented for the mechanical and electronic features. Stress calculations, dynamic behaviour and life estimates are considered. The interfaces to the JET vacuum system and CODAS are discussed. Proposals for the pellet diagnostics (velocity, mass and shape) are presented. (orig.)

  20. Physics of inertial confinement pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of inertial confinement fusion pellet physics is given. A discussion is presented of current estimated ICF driver requirements and a couple of pellet examples. The physics of driver/plasma coupling for two drivers which are being considered, namely a laser driver and a heavy ion accelerator driver, is described. Progress towards inertial confinement fusion that has been made using laser drivers in target experiments to date is discussed

  1. Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 1500 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength KEVLAR/epoxy composite. This arbon has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

  2. 46 CFR 148.04-21 - Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets). 148.04-21 Section 148.04-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS... § 148.04-21 Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets). (a) Coconut meal pellets; (1)...

  3. The breeding program of Latxa breed

    OpenAIRE

    Ugarte E

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes the breeding program of Latxa breed in Spain. Latxacs breeding program has been on-going since 1984 and it is focused on increasing milk yield. As a consequence of its implementation, an annual genetic improvement of 3% in milk yield has obtained. Currently, new traits are being considered in the selection breeding goal.

  4. Intelligent Automated Nuclear Fuel Pellet Inspection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time, nuclear pellet inspection is performed manually using naked eyes for judgment and decisionmaking on accepting or rejecting pellets. This current practice of pellet inspection is tedious and subject to inconsistencies and error. Furthermore, unnecessary re-fabrication of pellets is costly and the presence of low quality pellets in a fuel assembly is unacceptable. To improve the quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication plants, an automated pellet inspection system based on advanced techniques is needed. Such a system addresses the following concerns of the current manual inspection method: (1) the reliability of inspection due to typical human errors, (2) radiation exposure to the workers, and (3) speed of inspection and its economical impact. The goal of this research is to develop an automated nuclear fuel pellet inspection system which is based on pellet video (photographic) images and uses artificial intelligence techniques

  5. Pelletization Techniques for Oral Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagan Mohan Kandukuri

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiparticulates are discrete particles that make up a multiple unit system. Although pellets have been used in the pharmaceutical industry for more than four decades, with the advent of controlled release technology, that the full impact of the inherent advantages of pellets over single unit dosage forms have been realized, not only has focused on refining and optimizing existing pelletization techniques, but also focused on the development of novel approaches and procedures for manufacturing of pellets. The present review outlines the manufacturing and evaluation of pellets. The manufacturing techniques include layering, cryopelletization, freeze pelletization, extrusion spheronization and hot melt extrusion have been discussed. Characterization of pellets is discussed with reference to the particle size distribution, surface area, porosity, density, hardness, friability and tensile strength of pellets.

  6. Development of a pellet cutting and loading device for the JT-60 repetitive pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In JT-60, a pellet injector that repetitively injects deuterium pellets is under development to supply fuel to high temperature plasmas and sustain high-density plasmas. The pellet injector generates cubic pellets and accelerates them with a straight-arm rotor by centrifugal force. In this acceleration method, it is important to supply pellets reliably and stably, to prevent pellet orbits from disordering and to stabilize the launching direction. To achieve higher performance of the injector, a pellet cutting and loading device that cuts a deuterium ice rod into cubic pellets and loads them to the pellet injector successively and stably has been developed. The pellet cutting and loading device can cut a deuterium ice rod produced at low temperature of -8 Pam3/s, cutting time of <3 ms, cutting frequency of 1-20 Hz and cutter stroke of 2.5 mm were confirmed in the device test. In the operation test after assembling this device to the centrifugal pellet injector, the operational performance of pellet injection frequency of ∼10 Hz, pellet speed of ∼690 m/s and pellet injection duration time of ∼3.5 s was achieved. Thus, the development of the pellet cutting and loading device contributed to the upgrade of the JT-60 pellet injector. (author)

  7. Method of producing ceramic fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to the evaporation procedure the UO2-ceramic powder, possible to sinter, is mixed with epoxy resin pellets or UO2-gel-pellets and compacted at a pressure between 700 and 2800 kg/cm2. After sintering at 12000 up to 16500C the pellets show a uniform porosity. (RW)

  8. Pellet injection into ASDEX upgrade plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work comprises results obtained using the new centrifuge injection system for the two first years of pellet injection experiments at Asdex Upgrade until the end of the 1995 experimental campaign. The main aim of the pellet injection investigation is to develop scenarios allowing for a more flexible plasma density control means of injection of cryogenic solid hydrogen pellets. Efforts have been made to develop scenarios allowing more flexible plasma density control by injecting cryogenic solid hydrogen pellets. While the injection of pellets during ohmic discharges was found to be most efficient and also improves the plasma performance, increasing the auxiliary heating power causes a detoriation of the pellet fuelling efficiency. A further strong reduction of the pellet fuelling efficiency by an additional process was observed for the more reactor-relevant conditions of shallow particle deposition during H-mode phases. With injection during type I ELMy H-mode phases, each pellet was found to trigger the release of an ELM and therefore cause particle losses mainly from the edge region. In the type I ELMy H-mode, only sufficient pellet penetration allowed noticeable, persistent particle deposition in the plasma by the pellets. Applying adequate pellet injection conditions and favourable scenarios using combined pellet/gas puff refuelling, significant density ramp-up to densities exceeding the empirical Greenwald limit by up to a factor of two was achieved even for strongly heated H-mode plasmas. (orig.)

  9. Pellet fired appliances. Market survey. 7. rev. ed.; Pelletheizungen. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The market survey under consideration reports on pellet central heating systems and pellet fired appliances. The main chapters of this market survey are concerned to: (1) Information on wood pellets and pellet fired appliances; (2) Information about the interpretation of the market survey; (3) Survey of all compared pellet fired appliances with respect to the nominal power; (4) Price lists of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems; (5) Type sheets of the compared pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems. Finally, this brochure contains the addresses of the produces and distribution partners of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems.

  10. Power from Pellets Technology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Döring, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a practical description of the technology of pellet production on the basis of renewable sources as well as the utilization of pellets. The author explains what kinds of biomass are usable in addition to wood, how to produce pellets and how to use pellets to produce energy. Starting with the basics of combustion, gasification and the pelletizing process, several different technologies are described. The design, planning, construction and economic efficiency are discussed as well. The appendix gives useful advice about plant concepts, calculations, addresses, conversion tables and formulas.

  11. IAEA technical committee meeting on pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Pellet Injection, May 10-12, 1993, at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka, Ibaraki-ken, Japan, was held to review the latest results on pellet injection and its effects on plasma confinement. In particular, topics included in the meeting include (i) pellet ablation and particle fueling results, (ii) pellet injection effects on confinement, including improved confinement modes, edge effects, magnetohydrodynamic activity and impurity transport, and (iii) injector technology and diagnostics using pellets. About 30 experts attended and 23 papers were presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Method for fabricating ceramic nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To fabricate ceramic nuclear fuel pellets with ease and efficiently capable of preventing deformation failures in cladding tubes due to thermal deformation of pellets. Method: Nuclear fuel pellets are arranged in one layer while incorporating grinding material in the inner wall of a cylindrical vessel and the end face of the nuclear fuel pellets are rounded to a predetermined shape by rotating the cylindrical vessel. Since the pellets do not form a saddle-like shape (expanded at both ends) upon thermal deformation the surface of the cladding tube less tends to form bamboo node-like ridges, thus to reduce the deformation failure of the cladding tube. (Aizawa, K.)

  13. Effects of Breed and Diet on Growth and Body Composition of Crossbred Boer and Spanish Wether Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty growing 3/4 Boer x 1/4 Spanish (BS) and Spanish (SP) wethers were used to determine influences of diet and breed on growth and body composition. A 50% concentrate pelleted diet (CON) and one based on grass hay (HAY) were fed free-choice. Six wethers of each breed were harvested at 0 wk (tota...

  14. [Effect of pretreatment by solid-state fermentation of sawdust on the pelletization and pellet's properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingjing; Yuan, Xingzhong; Li, Hui; Li, Changzhu; Xiao, Zhihong; Xiao, Zhihua; Jiang, Longbo; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-10-01

    We pretreated sawdust (Castanopsis fissa Rehd.et Wils) by solid state fermentation (SSF) with Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and then compressed it into pellets with the moisture content of 15% and the pressure of 98 MPa, to solve the problem of low density, low Meyer hardness, high water uptake, and short storage period of pellet in the woody pellet industry. We studied the effects of fermentation time on pelletization and pellets's characteristics (including energy consumption, density, Meyer hardness, and hydrophobicity). SSF affected the heating values of pellet. Compared with fresh sawdust, SSF consumed more energy at the maximal value by 6.98% but saved extrusion energy by 32.19% at the maximum. Meanwhile, SSF could improve the density, Meyer hardness and hydrophobicity of pellet. Pellet made of sawdust pretreated by SSF for 48 d had best quality, beneficial for long-term transportation and storage of pellets. PMID:26964334

  15. Energy wood. Part 2b: Wood pellets and pellet space-heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives an overview on pellet utilization including all relevant process steps: Potential and properties of saw dust as raw material, pellet production with drying and pelletizing, standardization of wood pellets, storage and handling of pellets, combustion of wood pellets in stoves and boilers and applications for residential heating. In comparison to other wood fuels, wood pellets show several advantages: Low water content and high heating value, high energy density, and homogeneous properties thus enabling stationary combustion conditions. However, quality control is needed to ensure constant properties of the pellets and to avoid the utilization of contaminated raw materials for the pellet production. Typical data of efficiencies and emissions of pellet stoves and boilers are given and a life cycle analysis (LCA) of wood pellets in comparison to log wood and wood chips is described. The LCA shows that wood pellets are advantageous thanks to relatively low emissions. Hence, the utilization of wood pellet is proposed as a complementary technology to the combustion of wood chips and log wood. Finally, typical fuel cost of wood pellets in Switzerland are given and compared with light fuel oil. (author)

  16. Pellet fuelling in Tore Supra long discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new pellet injector, able to inject continuously hydrogen or deuterium pellets, was installed on Tore-Supra in 2003 and preliminary experiments aiming to fuel long discharges were performed. In combination with lower hybrid (LH) current drive, pure pellet fuelled discharges lasting up to 2 minutes were achieved. The LH power was switched off just before each pellet injection (LH notching) to maintain a relatively deep pellet penetration by reducing the energy of the super-thermal electrons driven by the LH wave. A comparison, based on a particle balance study, between 2 comparable pellet fuelled and gas fuelled discharges has been done. In the 2 cases, the volume average density is the same and the analysis shows that the particle source, the pumped flux and the wall retention are similar and appear to be independent of the fuelling method for the low plasma current and density conditions considered (Ip = 0.6 MA, = 1.5 1019 m-3). (authors)

  17. Pelletization Techniques for Oral Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Jagan Mohan Kandukuri; Venkatesham Allenki; Chandra Mohan Eaga; Vasu Keshetty; Kiran Kumar Jannu

    2009-01-01

    Multiparticulates are discrete particles that make up a multiple unit system. Although pellets have been used in the pharmaceutical industry for more than four decades, with the advent of controlled release technology, that the full impact of the inherent advantages of pellets over single unit dosage forms have been realized, not only has focused on refining and optimizing existing pelletization techniques, but also focused on the development of novel approaches and procedures for manufacturi...

  18. Pellet injector development and experiments at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of pellet injectors for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion experiments has been under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the past 15 years. Recently, ORNL provided a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) based on the in situ condensation technique that features three single-stage gas guns and an advanced two-stage light gas gun driver. In another application, ORNL supplied the Tore Supra tokamak with a centrifuge pellet injector in 1989 for pellet fueling experiments that has achieved record numbers of injected pellets into a discharge. Work is progressing on an upgrade to that injector to extend the number of pellets to 400 and improve pellet repeatability. In a new application, the ORNL three barrel repeating pneumatic injector has been returned from JET and is being readied for installation on the DIII-D device for fueling and enhanced plasma performance experiments. In addition to these experimental applications, ORNL is developing advanced injector technologies, including high-velocity pellet injectors, tritium pellet injectors, and long-pulse feed systems. The two-stage light gas gun and electron-beam-driven rocket are the acceleration techniques under investigation for achieving high velocity. A tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of tritium pellet production and acceleration. A new tritium-compatible, extruder-based, repeating pneumatic injector is being fabricated to replace the pipe gun in the TPOP experiment and will explore issues related to the extrudability of tritium and acceleration of large tritium pellets. The tritium pellet formation experiments and development of long-pulse pellet feed systems are especially relevant to the International Tokamak Engineering Reactor (ITER)

  19. Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter; Hansen, Hans Ove;

    2013-01-01

    of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the...... wheat straw significantly, and the pelletizing analyses have shown that these changes correlate to changes in the pelletizing properties. Torrefaction increase the friction in the press channel and pellet strength and density decrease with an increase in torrefaction temperature....

  20. Screw Extruder for Pellet Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadkumar K. Chhantbar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid hydrogenic pellets are used as fuel for fusion energy reactor. A technique for continuous production of solid hydrogen and its isotopes by a screw extruder is suggested for the production of an unlimited number of pellets. The idea was developed and patented by PELIN laboratories, Inc. (Canada. A Gifford McMahon cryocooler is used for the generation of solid hydrogenic fluid pellets. Requirements of the pellets is depends upon the energy to be produced by tokamak. This review paper focuses on the model for the screw extruder for solidification of hydrogen ice having high injection reliability.

  1. Capabilities of nitrogen admixed cryogenic deuterium pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharov, Igor; Sergeev, Vladimir [SPU, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lang, Peter; Ploeckl, Bernhard; Cavedon, Marco [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kocsis, Gabor; Szepesi, Tamas [Wigner RCP RMI, Budapest (Hungary); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-05-01

    Operation at high core density with high energy confinement - as foreseen in a future fusion reactor like DEMO - is being investigated at ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The efficiency of pellet fuelling from the high-field side usually increases with increasing injection speed. Due to the fragile nature of the deuterium ice, however, the increment of pellet mass losses and subsequent pellet fragmentations take place when the speed is increased. Studies show, that admixing of a small amount of nitrogen (N{sub 2}) into D{sub 2} gas can be favorable for the mechanical stability of pellets. This might be helpful for deeper pellet penetration. Besides, seeding by N{sub 2} can enhance plasma performance due to both increasing the energy confinement time and reducing the divertor heat load in the envisaged ELMy H-mode plasma scenario. Fuelling efficiency of N{sub 2}-admixed solid D{sub 2} pellets and their nitrogen seeding capabilities were investigated. It was found that both the overall plasma density increase and the measured averaged pellet penetration depth were smaller in case of the admixed (1% mol. in the gas resulting in about 0.8% in the ice) pellet fuelling. Possibility of the N{sub 2}-seeding by admixed pellets was confirmed by CXRS measurements of N{sup 7+} content in plasma.

  2. Micromachining for laser fusion pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In laser nuclear fusion, the fusion reaction is induced by irradiating powerful laser beam on the pellets filled with fuel, and compressing and heating the fuel by implosion. At this time, in order to compress it up to high density, it is very important to compress as the spherical symmetry is maintained. The uniformity of the sphericity and wall thickness is required to be more than 98 %. Besides, in order to heighten the efficiency, it is necessary to limit the temperature of main fuel low, to ignite with hot sparks at the center, and to burn remaining fuel with the alpha particles which are generated by the nuclear fusion reaction there. For this purpose, various target structures have been proposed. The cryogenic target for ablative compression, the double shell target and the cannonball target are shown. In order to produce these targets, the development of the fuel spheres which have high uniformity and good sphericity in the required size, the development of the coating process with good surface finish which can do uniform coating at the rate of about 10 μm/h, the development of micromachining technology, the development of cryogenic technology and so on are necessary. Also the levitation of pellets by magnetic suspension method is explained. (K.I.)

  3. Process optimization of DUPIC fuel pellet fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUPIC pellets are remotely fabricated by using DUPIC powder prepared by the OREOX treatment of spent fuel pellets. DUPIC pellets were successfully fabricated using spent PWR fuel material with an average discharge burn-up of 27,300 MWd/tU. Sintered density, grain size and surface roughness of the DUPIC pellets were investigated on the basis of CANDU fuel criteria. In order to optimize the DUPIC pellet manufacturing processes, 3 series of experiments for the pre-qualification and 3 series for the qualification were performed. In these experiments, the sintered densities of the pellets ranged from 10.35 g/cm3(95.7 % of T.D.) to 10.43 g/cm3(96.4 % of T.D.) and the average grain size ranged from 14.6 to 14.9 μm. Based on these results, the optimum manufacturing processes of DUPIC pellets have been established. Then, under the control of the QA program developed with the assistance of AECL, 8 series of production runs have been performed to make DUPIC pellets in a batch size of 1 kg. The sintered densities of the fabricated pellets ranged from 10.26 g/cm3 to 10.43 g/cm3. The surface roughness of the ground pellets was less than Ra 0.8 μm by the dry grinding process. As the results of the production runs, DUPIC fuel pellets meeting the standard CANDU fuel specifications were successfully fabricated by the established processes. (author)

  4. Pellets - A fuel with a future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This special brochure presents a series of articles on the topic of wood pellets as a fuel of the future. Dr. Walter Steinmann, director of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) introduces the topic, stressing that the Swiss Confederation and the Cantons are supporting efforts to increase the sustainable use of wood fuels. Further articles take a closer look at pellets and their form. Pellets-fired heating units are introduced as a viable alternative to traditional oil-fired units. Tips are presented on the various ways of storing pellets. Quality-assurance aspects are examined and manufacturers and distributors of wood pellets are listed. A further article takes a closer look at a large Swiss manufacturer of pellets and describes the production process used as well as the logistics necessary for the transportation of raw materials and finished products. The brochure also presents a selection of pellet ovens and heating systems from various manufacturers. A further article illustrates the use of pellets as a means of heating apartment blocks built to the MINERGIE low-energy-consumption standard. In the example quoted, the classic combination of solar energy for the pre-heating of hot water and pellets for the central heating and hot water supply is used. The use of a buried spherical tank to store pellets - and thus the saving of space inside the building - is described in a further article that takes a look at the refurbishment of the heating system in a single-family home. Finally, various contributions presented at the Pellets Forum held in Berne in November 2003 are summarised in a short article

  5. Injection of pellets into the TCA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents experimental results from the analysis of the ablation process of pellets injected into the TCA tokamak. The determination of scaling laws relating the pellet penetration to the pellet and plasma parameters preceding injection, were used to improve the understanding of the interaction of the pellet with the plasma since a) the pellet and plasma conditions preceding injection were varied over a large range, and b) the estimation of the penetration depth takes into account the influence of striations in the deposition profile. Over 400 pellets with a range of sizes and speeds were injected into a range of plasma parameters in order to create a database from which the scaling laws could be deduced. The ablation characteristics were principally measured with two CCD video cameras, which provided good spatial resolution, and two filtered photomultiplier tubes, which provided good temporal resolution of the light emitted from the pellet ablation cloud. In the text, the traditional methods of analysing these diagnostics are examined with special reference to the presumptions that a) the pellet velocity is constant in the plasma, and b) the light intensity determined from the ablation cloud is proportional to the ablation rate. After successive data reduction from the database, in order to separate the effects of varying different parameters, the main observations were that, a) the pellet penetration varies as the square root of the pellet velocity, b) the scaling laws for the other parameters strongly depend on whether the pellet has sufficient velocity to reach the q=1 rational magnetic surface in the tokamak. (author) 45 refs

  6. Buffaloes breeding in Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    O. Bernardes

    2010-01-01

    Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important a...

  7. Manufacture of wood-pellets doubles. Biowatti Oy started a wood pellet plant in Turenki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood pellets have many advantages compared to other fuels. It is longest processed biofuel with favorable energy content. It is simple to use, transport and store. Heating with wood pellets is cheaper than with light fuel oil, and approximately as cheap as utilization of heavy fuel oil, about 110 FIM/MWh. The taxable price of wood pellets is about 550 FIM/t. Stokers and American iron stoves are equally suitable for combustion of wood pellets. Chip fueled stokers are preferred in Finland, but they are also suitable for the combustion of wood pellets. Wood pellets is an environmentally friendly product, because it does not increase the CO2 load in the atmosphere, and its sulfur and soot emissions are relatively small. The wood pelletizing plant of Biowatti Oy in Turenki was started in an old sugar mill. The Turenki sugar mill was chosen because the technology of the closed sugar factory was suitable for production of wood pellets nearly as such, and required only by slight modifications. A press, designed for briquetting of sugar beat clippings makes the pellets. The Turenki mill will double the volume of wood pellet manufacture in Finland during the next few years. At the start the annual wood pellet production will be 20 000 tons, but the environmental permit allows the production to be increased to 70 000 tons. At first the mill uses planing machine chips as a raw material in the production. It is the most suitable raw material, because it is already dry (moisture content 8-10%), and all it needs is milling and pelletizing. Another possible raw material is sawdust, which moisture content is higher than with planing machine chips. Most of the wood pellets produced are exported e.g. to Sweden, Denmark and Middle Europe. In Sweden there are over 10 000 single-family houses using wood pellets. Biowatti's largest customer is a power plant located in Stockholm, which combusts annually about 200 000 tons of wood pellets

  8. Remote nuclear green pellet processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of fabricating fuel pellets includes apparatus for compacting, granulating, classifying, lubricating and pelletizing the materials is described. The components are arranged below one another, allowing gravity flow, but are offset relative to the preceding stage so that overhead access is provided without interference. (U.K.)

  9. Inspecting fuel pellets for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved method of controlling the inspection, sorting and classifying of nuclear reactor fuel pellets, including a mechanical handling system and a computer controlled data processing system, is described. Having investigated the diameter, length, surface flaws and weights of the pellets, they are sorted accordingly and the relevant data are stored. (U.K.)

  10. Refractory Pellet for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    1 Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,classification,specification,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of refractory pellet for hot blast stove.This standard is applicable to refractory pellet for hot blast stove.

  11. Pellet-plasma interactions in tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    The ablation of a refuelling pellet of solid hydrogen isotopes is governed by the plasma state, especially the density and energy distribution of the electrons. On the other hand, the cryogenic pellet gives rise to perturbations of the plasma temperature and density. Based on extensive experiment...

  12. Pellet production methods for fueling fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the methods developed for producing and positioning hydrogen isotope pellets which are used for filling magnetic confinement machines. Composite pellets used in inertial confinement (i.e. laser fusion) experiments are not considered in this review. (orig.)

  13. Hydrogen Pellet-Rotating Plasma Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard; Øster, Flemming

    1977-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements on the interaction between solid hydrogen pellets and rotating plasmas are reported. It was found that the light emitted is specific to the pellet material, and that the velocity of the ablated H-atoms is of the order of l0^4 m/s. The investigation was carried out with a...

  14. Hydrogen Pellet-Rotating Plasma Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard; Øster, Flemming

    1977-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements on the interaction between solid hydrogen pellets and rotating plasmas are reported. It was found that the light emitted is specific to the pellet material, and that the velocity of the ablated H-atoms is of the order of l0^4 m/s. The investigation was carried out...

  15. Lab and Bench-Scale Pelletization of Torrefied Wood Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Stelte, Wolfgang;

    2013-01-01

    Combined torrefaction and pelletization is used to increase the fuel value of biomass by increasing its energy density and improving its handling and combustion properties. In the present study, a single-pellet press tool was used to screen for the effects of pellet die temperature, moisture...... content, additive addition, and the degree of torrefaction on the pelletizing properties and pellet quality, i.e., density, static friction, and pellet strength. Results were compared with pellet production using a bench-scale pelletizer. The results indicate that friction is the key factor when scaling...... up from single-pellet press to bench-scale pelletizer. Tuning moisture content or increasing the die temperature did not ease the pellet production of torrefied wood chips significantly. The addition of rapeseed oil as a lubricant reduced the static friction by half and stabilized pellet production...

  16. Pellet-plasma interactions in tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    The ablation of a refuelling pellet of solid hydrogen isotopes is governed by the plasma state, especially the density and energy distribution of the electrons. On the other hand, the cryogenic pellet gives rise to perturbations of the plasma temperature and density. Based on extensive experimental...... data, the interaction between the pellet and the plasma is reviewed. Among the subjects discussed are the MHD activity, evolution of temperature and density profiles, and the behaviour of impurities following the injection of a pellet (or pellets). The beneficial effect of density peaking on the energy...... confinement time, offset by the accumulation of impurities at the plasma core is brought into focus. A possible remedy is suggested to diminish the effect of the impurities. Plausible arguments are presented to explain the apparent controversial observations on the propagation of a fast cooling front ahead of...

  17. Technologies for obtaining large grain sintered pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A way to increase fuel burn-up is to use a large grains fuel pellets structure. The paper presents a literature review related to the technologies and the methods for large grains sintered pellets manufacturing. A flowsheet for large grains sintered pellets obtaining by Nb2O5 dopant addition in UO2 sinterable powder, pressing and sintering in H2 atmosphere is showed. In the diagrams are presented the dependency of the main sintered pellets characteristics (pore radius distribution, pores volume, density, grains size) as function of the Nb2O5 dopants concentration, UO2 sinterable powder nature and sintering temperature. Other sintered pellets characteristics (electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, high temperature molar heat capacity and thermomechanical properties) are commented. The beneficial effects resulted from theoretical and practical projects are presented. (author)

  18. Influence of pellet shapes on sheath strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the quest to reduce cladding strain from power ramps and thereby reduce the incidence of fuel defects, various aspects of pellet geometry have been examined experimentally. In parallel, the ELESTRES code has been developed to calculate the expansion and the hourglassing of fuel pellets. This paper presents the predictions of ELESTRES for the influence of pellet shapes on the pellet expansion, and compares them to measurements from two irradiations involving a total of 23 fuel elements. The experiments covered various combinations of pellet lengths, diameters, central holes, chamfer and dishes. The linear heat ratings ranged from 40 to 70 kW/m, with burnups up to 200 MW.h/kgU. The experiments and the predictions show similar trends for strains. Moreover, the predicted strains are generally within the scatter of experimental data. It is concluded that the code is in general agreement with this data

  19. nondestructive characterization of nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural properties of UO2 ceramic pellets used as fuel in water-cooled nuclear power reactors affect their physical behaviours during reactor operation. Density, porosity, grain size and elastic constants are cryptical par meters to obtain a good performance from the pellets. Controlling of these parameters and determining them before preparing the pellets as fuel elements have importance in the optimization of fuel production conditions as well as the increasing of reactor performance. Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation changing by elastic interaction of ultrasonic waves with matter have been used as a basic tool in the characterization of UO2 pellets and ZrO2 pellets which are their simulation. In addition to this, under-water ultrasonic C-scan, microfocus x-graph y and penetrant techniques have been applied in the detecting of the defects, like cracks and laminations

  20. Comparative properties of bamboo and rice straw pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Xianmiao Liu; Zhijia Liu,; Benhua Fei; Zhiyong Cai; Zehui Jiang,; Xing’e Liu

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is a potential major bio-energy resource. Tests were carried out to compare and evaluate the property of bamboo and rice straw pellets, rice straw being the other main source of biomass solid fuel in China. All physical properties of untreated bamboo pellets (UBP), untreated rice straw pellets (URP), carbonized bamboo pellets (CBP), and carbonized rice straw pellets (CRP) met the requirements of Pellet Fuels Institute Standard Specification for Residential/Commercial Densified includin...

  1. Speed of the internal pellet target in CSRm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Pellet target is one of the main candidate targets in CSRm (cooler storage ring’s main ring) for hadron physics studies. Pellet speed is an important physical parameter for the target. Larger pellet speed could shorten the interacting time interval between the pellet and the cyclotron beam, and thus results in a small temperature variation for the pellet. This could make the pellet facility work in a stable condition. A fluid dynamic simulation was carried out for the pellet speed, and it was found that the maximum speed for the target pellet may be restricted to about 100 m/s even if all working parameters were set to their optimal values.

  2. Pellets - the advance of refined bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference paper discusses the role of pellets in the use of bioenergy in Sweden. Pellets (P) have many advantages: (1) P are dry and can be stored, (2) P create local jobs, (3) P burn without seriously polluting the environment, (4) P are made from domestic and renewable resources, (5) P have high energy density, (6) P fit well in an energy system adapted to nature, (6) P are an economical alternative, both on a small scale and on a large scale. Pellets are more laborious to use than oil or electricity and require about three times as much storage space as oil. The Swedish pellets manufacturers per 1997 are listed. Locally pellets are most conveniently transported as bulk cargo and delivered to a silo by means of pressurized air. Long-distance transport use train or ship. At present, pellets are most often used in large or medium-sized heat plants, but equipment exists for use from private houses and up to the size of MW. Pellets may become the most important alternative to the fossil fuels which along with electricity today are dominating the small scale market. 1 fig., 1 table

  3. A centrifuge CO2 pellet cleaning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, C. A.; Fisher, P. W.; Nelson, W. D.; Schechter, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    An advanced turbine/CO2 pellet accelerator is being evaluated as a depaint technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program, sponsored by Warner Robins Air Logistics Center (ALC), Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, has developed a robot-compatible apparatus that efficiently accelerates pellets of dry ice with a high-speed rotating wheel. In comparison to the more conventional compressed air 'sandblast' pellet accelerators, the turbine system can achieve higher pellet speeds, has precise speed control, and is more than ten times as efficient. A preliminary study of the apparatus as a depaint technology has been undertaken. Depaint rates of military epoxy/urethane paint systems on 2024 and 7075 aluminum panels as a function of pellet speed and throughput have been measured. In addition, methods of enhancing the strip rate by combining infra-red heat lamps with pellet blasting and by combining the use of environmentally benign solvents with the pellet blasting have also been studied. The design and operation of the apparatus will be discussed along with data obtained from the depaint studies.

  4. Pellet injector research and development at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of pellet injector designs have been developed at ORNL including single-shot guns that inject one pellet, multiple-shot guns that inject four and eight pellets, machine gun-types (single- and multiple-barrel) that can inject up to >100 pellets, and centrifugal accelerators (mechanical devices that are inherently capable of high repetition rates and long-pulse operation). With these devices, macroscopic pellets (1--6 mm in diameter) composed of hydrogen isotopes are typically accelerated to speeds of ∼1.0 to 2.0 km/s for injection into plasmas of experimental fusion devices. In the past few years, steady progress has been made at ORNL in the development and application of pellet injectors for fueling present-day and future fusion devices. In this paper, we briefly describe some research and development activities at ORNL, including: (1) two recent applications and a new one on large experimental fusion devices, (2) high-velocity pellet injector development, and (3) tritium injector research

  5. A Review of Pellets from Different Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Miranda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rise in pellet consumption has resulted in a wider variety of materials for pellet manufacture. Thus, pellet industry has started looking for alternative products, such as wastes from agricultural activities, forestry and related industries, along with the combination thereof, obtaining a broad range of these products. In addition, the entry into force of EN ISO 17225 standard makes wood pellet market (among other types possible for industry and household purposes. Therefore, wastes that are suitable for biomass use have recently increased. In this study, the main characteristics of ten kinds of laboratory-made pellets from different raw materials were analyzed. Thus, we have focused on the most limiting factors of quality standards that determine the suitability for biomass market, depending on the kind of pellet. The results showed considerable differences among the analyzed pellets, exceeding the limits established by the standard in almost all cases, especially concerning ash content and N and S composition. The requirements of the studied standard, very demanding for certain factors, disable the entry of these densified wastes in greater added value markets.

  6. Wood pellets : is it a reliable, sustainable, green energy option?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wood Pellet Association of Canada was formerly called the BC Pellet Fuel Manufacturers Association, and was renamed and re-organized in January 2006. The association serves as an advocate for the wood pellet industry in addition to conducting research projects. This power point presentation presented an overview of the wood pellet industry in North America and Europe. Canada's 23 pellet plants currently produce just over 1,000,000 tons of wood pellets annually. Pellet producers in the United States produce approximately 800,000 tons annually for the residential bagged market. There are currently 240 pellet plants in Europe, and district heating is the largest growth market for wood pellets in Europe. British Columbia (BC) pellet producers will ship 450,000 tons to European power plants in 2005. Wood pellet specifications were presented, with details of calorific values, moisture and ash contents. An outline of wood pellet production processes was provided. New pellet plants currently under construction were reviewed. Domestic, North American and overseas exports were discussed, along with production estimates for BC for the next 5 years. A chart of world production and consumption of wood pellets between 2000 to 2010 was presented. North American wood pellet technologies were described. The impact of the pine beetle infestation in BC on the wood pellet industry was evaluated, and a worldwide wood pellet production growth forecast was presented. Issues concerning off-gassing, emissions, and torrifracation were also discussed. tabs., figs

  7. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author)

  8. Multiphysics Model Development and the Core Analysis for In Situ Breeding and Burning Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyi Si

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The in situ breeding and burning reactor (ISBBR, which makes use of the outstanding breeding capability of metallic pellet and the excellent irradiation-resistant performance of SiCf/SiC ceramic composites cladding, can approach the design purpose of ultralong cycle and ultrahigh burnup and maintain stable radial power distribution during the cycle life without refueling and shuffling. Since the characteristics of the fuel pellet and cladding are different from the traditional fuel rod of ceramic pellet and metallic cladding, the multiphysics behaviors in ISBBR are also quite different. A computer code, named TANG, to model the specific multiphysics behaviors in ISBBR has been developed. The primary calculation results provided by TANG demonstrate that ISBBR has an excellent comprehensive performance of GEN-IV and a great development potential.

  9. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure the...... thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits, but......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  10. Production and ejection of solid hydrogen-isotope pellet (single pellet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pneumatic gun type pellet injector (single pellet) has been constructed, which is basic type used at ORNL. The pellet in the carrier is 1.65 mm in diameter and 1.65 mm in length, and another is 1 mmD x 1 mmL. Hydrogen pellet velocity of about 900 m/s was observed at propellant gas (He) pressure of 14 kg/cm2. In the injection experiment into a plasma, typical velocity is 714 ∼ 833 m/s. These values are 80 ∼ 95 % of velocity calculated from the ideal gun model. The ejected pellet size is 71 ∼ 90 % of the hole size in the carrier disk (1.65 mmD x 1.65 mmL) and 46 ∼ 56 % (1 mmD x 1 mmL). The spread in the pellet trajectories is about 26 mm in diameter at a plasma center. (author)

  11. UO2 pellet and manufacturing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns an uranium dioxide pellet having a large crystal grain size. The grain size of the pellet is enlarged to increase the distance of an FP gas generated in the crystal grain to reach the grain boundary and, as a result, decrease the releasing speed of the FP gas. A UO2 powder having a specific surface area of from 5 to 50m2/g is used as a starting powder in a step of forming a molding product, and chlorine or a chlorine compound is added in such an amount that the chlorine content in the UO2 pellet is from 3 to 25ppm, in one of a production step, a molding step or a sintering step for UO2 powder. With such procedures, a UO2 pellet having a large crystal grain size can be prepared with good reproducibility. (T.M.)

  12. Pellet injection experiments on the TFR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essential results of the pellet injection experiments carried out on the TFR Tokamak from 1983 until the shut-down of the machine in June 1986, are summarized. Hydrogen and deuterium pellets, occasionally doped with neon, were injected into ohmically and also additionally NB and ECR heated plasmas. Direct observation of the pellet trajectories yields insight in the properties of the ablation clouds. Measurements of the bulk plasma show a rapid temperature evolution during and just after the ablation process. The electron density changes radially on a much longer time scale. Transport simulations in particular for multi-pellet injection leads to the conclusion that the transport coefficients for the density transport are not drastically modified during the density relaxation phase

  13. Comment on Li pellet Conditioning in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li pellet conditioning in TFTR results in a reduction of the edge electron density which allows increased neutral beam penetration, central heating, and fueling. Consequently the temperature profiles became more peaked with higher central Ti, Te, and neutron emission rates.

  14. DURABILITY AND BREAKAGE OF FEED PELLETS DURING REPEATED ELEVATOR HANDLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelleting of animal feeds is important for improved feeding efficiency and for convenience of handling. Pellet quality impacts the feeding benefits for the animals and pellet integrity during handling. To determine the effect of repeated handling on feed pellet breakage and durability, a 22.6-t (100...

  15. Effect of magnesia on the compressive strength of pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-man Shen; Qiang-jian Gao; Xin Jiang; Guo Wei; Hai-yan Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The compressive strength of MgO-fluxed pellets was investigated before and after they were reduced. The porosity and pore size of green pellets, product pellets, and reduced pellets were analyzed to clarify how MgO affects the strength of the pellets. Experimental re-sults show that when the MgO-bearing flux content in the pellets increases from 0.0wt%to 2.0wt%, the compressive strength of the pellets at ambient temperature decreases, but the compressive strength of the pellets after reduction increases. Therefore, the compressive strength of the pellets after reduction exhibits no certain positive correlation with that before reduction. The porosity and pore size of all the pellets (with different MgO contents) increase when the pellets are reduced. However, the increase in porosity of the MgO-fluxed pellets is relatively smaller than that of the traditional non-MgO-fluxed pellets, and the pore size range of the MgO-fluxed pellets is relatively narrower. The re-duction swelling index (RSI) is a key factor for governing the compressive strength of the reduced pellets. An approximately reversed linear relation can be concluded that the lower the RSI, the greater the compressive strength of the reduced pellets is.

  16. The development of the pellets market and of pellets technologies in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for pellets in the residential sector in Austria is presently expanding rapidly. About 30 manufacturers of small-scale pellet furnaces are currently active. An overall number of 21,959 pellet central heating systems with an entire nominal boiler capacity of 404,742 kW have been installed in Austria until the end of 2003. In 2004 15 pellet producers produced 325,000 tons of pellets. For 2005 an increase of the domestic pellets production up to 520,000 tons is forecasted. For 2010 a production capacity of one million tons of pellets is possible. Depending on the oil price a surplus pellets production of 40,000 t to 90,000 tons is forecasted for 2005. In the second half of 2004 the price for pellets was 219 l/ton for small bags (single), 199 l/ton for small bags (on pallet), 167 l/ton for bulk ( 6,000 kg) incl. delivery. (author)

  17. Incorporation of industrial wastes in wood pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Eduardo Campos; Vilarinho, Cândida; De Castro, F.; Pinto, A.; Ferreira, Pedro Tiago; Teixeira, J. C. F.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present work evaluates the incorporation of industrial wastes (Refuse Derived Fuel-RDF) into biomass for pellet production. Its influence on parameters such as pellet production, combustion and gas emissions was studied for up to 10% of residues incorporation. This approach also deals with the diverting of industrial waste from landfills. The main objectives were: increasing the heat value of the final product, diverting industrial residues with energy potential from landfill an...

  18. Development of advanced LWR fuel pellet technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A UO2 pellet was designed to have a grain size of larger than 12 μm, and a new duplex design that UO2-Gd2O3 is in the core and UO2-Er2O3 in the periphery was proposed. A master mixing method was developed to make a uniform mixture of UO2 and additives. The open porosity of UO2 pellet was reduced by only mixing AUC-UO2 powder with ADU-UO2 or milled powder. Duplex compaction tools (die and punch) were designed and fabricated, and duplex compacting procedures were developed to fabricate the duplex BA pellet. In UO2 sintering, the relations between sintering variables (additive, sintering gas, sintering temperature) and pellet properties (density, grain size, pore size) were experimentally found. The UO2-U3O8 powder which is inherently not sinterable to high density could be sintered well with the aid of additives. U3O8 single crystals were added to UO2 powder, and homogeneous powder mixture was pressed and sintered in a reducing atmosphere. This technology leads to a large-grained pellet of 12-20 μm. In UO2-Gd2O3 sintering, the relations between sintering variables (additives, sintering gas) and pellet properties (density, grain size) were experimentally found. The developed technology of fabricating a large-grained UO2 pellet has been optimized in a lab scale. Pellet properties were investigated in the fields of (1) creep properties, (2) thermal properties, (3) O/M ratios and (4) unit cell lattice. (author)

  19. Penetrated Shotgun Pellets: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, M Isa; Polat, Hidayet B.; Ay, Sinan

    2008-01-01

    Shotgun wounds can result in devastating functional and aesthetic consequences for patients. There is no consensus in terms of removing or retaining foreign bodies such as shotgun pellets. In this report a 54-year-old man who suffered from accidental shotgun wounds on the face approximately 26 years ago is presented. Although most of pellets were still present, there were no symptoms such as poisoning, fistula formation, recurrent infections, or secondary hemorrhage to date except feeling col...

  20. Dissolution test for homogeneity of mixed oxide fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed to determine the relationship between fuel pellet homogeneity and pellet dissolubility. Although, in general, the amount of pellet residue decreased with increased homogeneity, as measured by the pellet figure of merit, the relationship was not absolute. Thus, all pellets with high figure of merit (excellent homogeneity) do not necessarily dissolve completely and all samples that dissolve completely do not necessarily have excellent homogeneity. It was therefore concluded that pellet dissolubility measurements could not be substituted for figure of merit determinations as a measurement of pellet homogeneity. 8 figures, 3 tables

  1. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements.

  2. Wood pellets. The cost-effective fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-07-01

    The article is based on an interview with Juhani Hakkarainen of Vapo Oy. Wood pellets are used in Finland primarily to heat buildings such as schools and offices and in the home. They are equally suitable for use in larger installations such as district heating plants and power stations. According to him wood pellets are suitable for use in coal-fired units generating heat, power, and steam. Price-wise, wood pellets are a particularly competitive alternative for small coal-fired plants away from the coast. Price is not the only factor on their side, however. Wood pellets also offer a good environmental profile, as they burn cleanly and generate virtually no dust, an important plus in urban locations. The fact that pellets are a domestically produced fuel is an added benefit, as their price does not fluctuate in the same way that the prices of electricity, oil, coal, and natural gas do. The price of pellets is largely based on direct raw material and labour costs, which are much less subject to ups and downs.

  3. Advanced turbine/CO2 pellet accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced turbine/CO2 pellet accelerator is being evaluated as a depaint technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program, sponsored by Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, has developed a robot-compatible apparatus that efficiently accelerates pellets of dry ice with a high-speed rotating wheel. In comparison to the more conventional compressed air sandblast pellet accelerators, the turbine system can achieve higher pellet speeds, has precise speed control, and is more than ten times as efficient. A preliminary study of the apparatus as a depaint technology has been undertaken. Depaint rates of military epoxy/urethane paint systems on 2024 and 7075 aluminum panels as a function of pellet speed and throughput have been measured. In addition, methods of enhancing the strip rate by combining infra-red heat lamps with pellet blasting have also been studied. The design and operation of the apparatus will be discussed along with data obtained from the depaint studies. Applications include removal of epoxy-based points from aircraft and the cleaning of surfaces contaminated with toxic, hazardous, or radioactive substances. The lack of a secondary contaminated waste stream is of great benefit

  4. Wood pellets. The cost-effective fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article is based on an interview with Juhani Hakkarainen of Vapo Oy. Wood pellets are used in Finland primarily to heat buildings such as schools and offices and in the home. They are equally suitable for use in larger installations such as district heating plants and power stations. According to him wood pellets are suitable for use in coal-fired units generating heat, power, and steam. Price-wise, wood pellets are a particularly competitive alternative for small coal-fired plants away from the coast. Price is not the only factor on their side, however. Wood pellets also offer a good environmental profile, as they burn cleanly and generate virtually no dust, an important plus in urban locations. The fact that pellets are a domestically produced fuel is an added benefit, as their price does not fluctuate in the same way that the prices of electricity, oil, coal, and natural gas do. The price of pellets is largely based on direct raw material and labour costs, which are much less subject to ups and downs

  5. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the world's first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. The experiment was first used to produce hydrogen and deuterium pellets at ORNL. It was then moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the production of tritium pellets. The injector used in situ condensation to produce cylindrical pellets in a 1-m-long, 4-mm-ID barrel. A cryogenic 3He separator, which was an integral part of the gun assembly, was capable of lowering 3He levels in the feed gas to <0.005%. The experiment was housed to a glovebox for tritium containment. Nearly 1500 pellets were produced during the course of the experiment, and about a third of these were pure tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. Over 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the experiment without incident. Tritium pellet velocities of 1400 m/s were achieved with high-pressure hydrogen propellant. The design, operation, and results of this experiment are summarized. 34 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Ultrasonic analysis of sintered alumina pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium dioxide pellets are used as fuel in Pressurized Water Reactors. These pellets require some degree of porosity to accommodate fission products generated during the burning of fuel. It is usual to utilize the Archimedes method to determine the sintered pellet porosity. For the determination of closed pores, samples of pellets need to be analyzed using micrography to calculate the distribution of the pores. The ultrasonic group of the Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) is developing a nondestructive characterization through ultrasonic technique in the frequency domain, this technique will permit to minimize the time for determination of porosity and increase the accuracy of measurement using only one technique, taking into account pores open and closed, and to be capable to analyze 100% of the pellets. Several studies have been conducted in order to validate this method. In this work, the frequency spectrum from alumina pellets were obtained by a 5MHz frequency transducer and by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), it was possible to investigate the interior of the material and to associate its structure to the behavior of the ultrasonic wave. Each sintering temperature showed a characteristic ultrasonic signal that could be associated with the Alumina porosity. This result showed that this method is very sensitive to the pore distribution in the material because, even within the same temperature group, variations occurred according to distribution of pore sizes. (author)

  7. Wood pellets offer a competitive energy option in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for wood pellets in Sweden grew rapidly during the 1990s and production now stands at around 550,000 tonnes/year. More efficient combustion technology, pellet transportation, pellet storage and pellet delivery have also been developed. The pellets, which are produced by some 25 plants, are used in family houses, large-scale district heating plants, and combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Most of the pellets are made from biomass resources such as forest residues and sawdust and shavings from wood mills. Pellet production, the energy content of saw mill by-products, the current market and its potential for future expansion, the way in which the pellets are used in different combustion systems, the theoretical market potential for wood pellet heating installations in small houses and the Swedish P-certificate system for the certification of pellet stoves and burners are described

  8. Trapping of pellet cloud radiation in thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental and theoretical data on radiation trapping in clouds of pellets injected into thermonuclear plasmas are presented. The theoretical modeling is performed in terms of equivalent Stark spectral line widths under condition of LTE (Sakha-Boltzman) in pellet cloud plasmas. It is shown that a domain of blackbody radiation could exist in hydrogen pellet clouds resulting in ''pellet disappearance'' effect which is absent in a case of impurity pellet clouds. Reasons for this difference are discussed. (author)

  9. Ciliates Expel Environmental Legionella-Laden Pellets To Stockpile Food

    OpenAIRE

    Hojo, Fuhito; Sato, Daisuke; Matsuo, Junji; Miyake, Masaki; Nakamura, Shinji; Kunichika, Miyuki; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Mitsutaka; Takahashi, Kaori; Takemura, Hiromu; Kamiya, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    When Tetrahymena ciliates are cultured with Legionella pneumophila, the ciliates expel bacteria packaged in free spherical pellets. Why the ciliates expel these pellets remains unclear. Hence, we determined the optimal conditions for pellet expulsion and assessed whether pellet expulsion contributes to the maintenance of growth and the survival of ciliates. When incubated with environmental L. pneumophila, the ciliates expelled the pellets maximally at 2 days after infection. Heat-killed bact...

  10. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  11. Blackberry breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) improvement has made substantial progress with over 400 cultivars named originating from wild selections to many releases from breeding efforts. Public breeding has been ongoing for over 100 years. The result of these improvements is commercial production ...

  12. Buffaloes breeding in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bernardes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.

  13. Comparative properties of bamboo and rice straw pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianmiao Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a potential major bio-energy resource. Tests were carried out to compare and evaluate the property of bamboo and rice straw pellets, rice straw being the other main source of biomass solid fuel in China. All physical properties of untreated bamboo pellets (UBP, untreated rice straw pellets (URP, carbonized bamboo pellets (CBP, and carbonized rice straw pellets (CRP met the requirements of Pellet Fuels Institute Standard Specification for Residential/Commercial Densified including dimension, density, and strength. The inorganic ash (15.94 % and gross heat value (15375 J/g of rice straw pellets could not meet the requirement of Pellet Fuels Institute Standard Specification for Residential/Commercial Densified (≤6.0% for PFI Utility and the minimum requirement for making commercial pellets of DIN 51731 (>17500 J/g, respectively. Rice straw pellets have been a main type of biomass solid fuel and widely used. Bamboo pellets have better combustion properties compared with rice straw pellets. It is confirmed that bamboo pellets have great potential as biomass solid fuel, especially with respect to development of commercial pellets on an industrial scale in China. The information provided by this research is useful for development and utilization of bamboo resource and pellets.

  14. Thermo-Physical Properties of Micro-Cell UO2 Pellets and High Density Composite Pellets for Accident Tolerant Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the design and fabrication of micro-cell UO2 fuel pellets and high-density fuel pellets and also evaluates their out-of-pile performance. Micro-cell UO2 pellets are characterized by enhanced retention capability of their fission products and/or thermal conductivity. High-density pellets are composite pellets consisting of oxide and nitride components and they are expected to offer enhanced uranium density and thermal conductivity. (author)

  15. A 400-pellet feed system for the ORNL centrifuge pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved and extended pellet fabrication and feed mechanism is being developed for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) centrifuge pellet injector that is presently installed on Tore Supra. This upgrade will extend the number of pellets available for a single-plasma discharge from 100 to 400. In addition, a new pusher and delivery system is expected to improve the performance of the device. As in the original system, deuterium ice is deposited from the gas phase on a liquid-helium-cooled rotating disk, forming a rim of solid deuterium. The rim of ice is machined to a parabolic profile from which pellets are pushed. In the new device, a stack of four ice rims are formed simultaneously, thereby increasing the capacity from 100 to 400 pellets. An improved method of ice formation has also been developed that produces clear ice. The pellet pusher and delivery system utilizes a four-axis, brushless dc servo system to precisely cut and deliver the pellets from the ice rim to the entrance of the centrifuge wheel. Pellets can be formed with sizes ranging from 2.5- to 4-mm diam at a rate of up to 8 per second. The operation of the injector is fully automated by a computer control system. The design and test results of the device are reported

  16. Quality of pellets from torrefied biomass and pellets torrefied at different temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Dahl, Jonas; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Kens Kai; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Stelte, Wolfgang; Thomsen, Tobias; Bach, Lars Stougaard; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    facility to do torrefaction before co-firing. In this study, both ways were utilized to produce torrefied pellets. The quality of these pellets have been characterized for higher heating value (HHV), energy consumption during grinding, mechanical durability and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) under...

  17. Sintering kinetics of mixed carbide pellets and trial production of pellets for irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sintering kinetics of uranium-plutonium mixed carbides were determined, using the carbide powders having different particle size distributions. Single phase monocarbide pellets were fabricated in this experiment and some informations were obtained with regard to the relations between the density of sintered pellets and sintering time, and between shrinkage and sintering time. It was also found that porosity and grain size in the outer part of a pellet were different from those in its center. In addition, a trial production of carbide pellets for irradiation tests was carried and two kinds of pellets having different carbon contents were fabricated. It was observed in the trial production that the precipitates of the sesquicarbide accerelated sintering, while they retarded grain growth. (author)

  18. Swelling clay pellets. Elaboration and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealing structure, used in deep radioactive waste disposal, must prevent the radionuclides to diffuse to the biosphere. The main asset of pellets is their easy put in place. Yet porosity of such structures is higher and the swelling pressure lower in the structure performed with compacted blocks. As at such depth, hydraulic pressure could reach several MPa, the first goal of the study was to demonstrate that such a pressure does not alter the swelling pressure. A bibliographic study on the structural organisation of clayey media and stresses occurring in such media, associated to injection tests with high water pressure, has allowed- to validate the effective stress concept in saturated swelling clays and so to show that hydraulic pressure are not restrictive for using pellets. Different processes have also been studied to produce pellets: all of them give pellets with sizes around 20 mm and dry density higher than 1,90 g/cm3. Nevertheless, soaking test emphasised that porosity between pellets is to high to get a swelling pressure. Two approaches was then adopted to decrease this porosity: (i) mixing pellets with different sizes and (ii) mixing pellets with powder. In the first case, numerical calculation points out that, according to the processes, it would be better to use at least three different sizes to get the right porosity. in the second case, the introduction of pellets in the samples brings a new scale in the structural organisation (layer - particle - aggregate- pellet) in such a way that phenomena are more emphasized in the mixtures. Nevertheless, whatever the medium is like, the decrease of the axial and radial stresses during hydration is due to the decrease simultaneously to the increase of the swelling pressure. Finally, at same homogenized dry density heterogeneous and homogeneous samples have quite the same hydrodynamic and hydro-mechanical properties. That's why, it is suggested to describe heterogeneous media behaviour with modelling based on

  19. Technology and distribution of pellets. Experience about the European network on wood pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood pellets might become the most important alternative to fossil fuels in the near future. As a bio-fuel it has the following characteristics: heat value, min 4.7 kWh/kg; ash fraction less than 1.0 vol. %; humidity less than 10 vol. %; diameter (rod shaped) min 6 mm and volumetric weight about 650 kg/m3. About 2.1 t pellets substitute 1000 l fuel oil. Sweden and Austria have more than 15 year experience in using wood pellets, followed by Germany. They are an environmentally friendly alternative for private houses, for district heating plants and especially suitable for densely built-up and inhabited areas. Having high energy density they can be transported to the areas with high energy requirements. Among their advantages are: low humidity, easy transport and storage, can be produced by renewable raw materials and provide new local jobs, fit for renewable energy systems with closed cycle. Disadvantages include: relatively more expensive for private houses compared to oil and gas and necessity of two times larger storage space than oil. Wood pellets are produced by all kind of paper waste and wood wastes from industry. They are especially suitable for small boiler plants and the oil burner can be replaced by a pellet burner in the same boiler. The leading producer of wood pellets is Sweden, of pellet stoves - USA. Pellet stoves, pellet burners and pellet boilers both for private houses and for heating plants are manufactured also in Sweden, Denmark,Finland, Germany, Austria and Ireland

  20. Mutation breeding in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  1. Railgun pellet injection system for fusion experimental devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Satake, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Kasai, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun 319-11 (Japan); Hasegawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun 319-11 (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    A railgun pellet injection system has been developed for fusion experimental devices. Using a low electric energy railgun system, hydrogen pellet acceleration tests have been conducted to investigate the application of the electromagnetic railgun system for high speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. In the system, the pellet is pre-accelerated before railgun acceleration. A laser beam is used to induce plasma armature. The ignited plasma armature is accelerated by an electromagnetic force that accelerates the pellet. Under the same operational conditions, the energy conversion coefficient for the dummy pellets was around 0.4%, while that for the hydrogen pellets was around 0.12%. The highest hydrogen pellet velocity was 1.4 km s{sup -1} using a 1 m long railgun. Based on the findings, it is estimated that the hydrogen pellet has the potential to be accelerated to 5 km s{sup -1} using a 3 m long railgun. (orig.).

  2. Estimating shot distance from limited pellets pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebe, Alessio; Compagnini, Domenico

    2012-10-10

    Several methods are available for shooting range estimation based on pellets pattern on the target that have a remarkable degree of accuracy. The task is usually approached working under the assumption that the entire distribution of pellets is available for examination. These methods fail, however, when the victim has been hit by a portion of the pattern only. The problem can be solved with reasonable accuracy when there are areas of void in the victim that are adjacent to the area struck by pellets. This study presents a method that can be used in precisely this type of situation, allowing the estimation of shot distance in cases of partial pellet patterns. It is based on collecting distributions in test shots at several distances, and taking samples in the targets, constrained by the shape of the void and the pellet hit areas. Statistical descriptors of patterns are extracted from such samples, and fed into a neural network classifier, estimating shot ranges of distance. PMID:22658795

  3. Diet and foraging habitats of non-breeding white storks (Ciconia ciconia in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchev Boyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of non-breeding White Storks was studied by pellet analysis and included mainly insects (99.9%, n=28947 with a predominance of grasshoppers (Orthoptera, 76.1%, and beetles (Coleoptera, 26.1%. The bush crickets Decticus albifrons/verrucivorus were the most numerous prey (29.9% by items, occurring in almost all pellets (98% occurrence in pellets, n=147 and predominating in half of them (49.7%. The grasshopper associations in the pellets specify foraging mainly in mesophytic grasslands that usually replace abandoned fields and overgrown pastures with a low level of grazing. The xerophytic grass-shrubby habitats, not rare on stony terrains, were of less importance, providing around 20% by prey. The typical aquatic inhabitants and the use of carrion around villages were exceptions in the study diet. The number of innutritious materials in the pellets rose when the White Storks hunted on nippy and agile grasshoppers and decreased when the main pray was slower beetles taken from the ground. The roosting of non-breeding White Storks disappeared when their preferred feeding habitats were ploughed up in the following years.

  4. Shock implosion of a small homogeneous pellet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Y.; Mishkin, E.A.; Alejaldre, C.

    1985-10-01

    A small spherical, or cylindrical, pellet is imploded by an intensive, evenly distributed, short energy pulse. At the surface of the pellet the matter ionizes, its temperature and pressure rapidly rise, and the ablated plasma, by reaction, implodes the inner nucleus of the pellet. The involved structure of the energy absorbing zone is idealized and a sharp deflagration front is considered. With an almost square energy pulse, slightly dropping with time, the solution of the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations of the compressed matter, is self-similar. The differential equation of the nondimensional position of the deflagration front, its integral, and the magnitude and shape of the outside energy pulse are derived. The process of ablation is shown to depend solely on the nondimensional velocity of the gas just ahead of the deflagration front, minus the speed of sound, or the ratio of the gas densities across the deflagration front.

  5. Development of pellet melting temperature measurement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the extended fuel burn-up project of the light water reactor (LWR), the irradiation behavior of high burn-up fuels should be clarified. Data accumulation of thermal properties such as melting point of LWR fuel pellets is quite urgent from the view point of safety evaluation in the normal operation and accident conditions. In the department of Hot Laboratories, several apparatuses have been developed for investigating the irradiation behavior of high burn-up fuels under the consignment of the Science and Technology Agency since 1990. A pellet Melting Temperature measurement apparatus was developed as one of them. This paper describes outline and characteristic test of the apparatus, and measurements of melting point of unirradiated and irradiated UO2 pellets. (author)

  6. Shock implosion of a small homogeneous pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small spherical, or cylindrical, pellet is imploded by an intensive, evenly distributed, short energy pulse. At the surface of the pellet the matter ionizes, its temperature and pressure rapidly rise, and the ablated plasma, by reaction, implodes the inner nucleus of the pellet. The involved structure of the energy absorbing zone is idealized and a sharp deflagration front is considered. With an almost square energy pulse, slightly dropping with time, the solution of the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations of the compressed matter, is self-similar. The differential equation of the nondimensional position of the deflagration front, its integral, and the magnitude and shape of the outside energy pulse are derived. The process of ablation is shown to depend solely on the nondimensional velocity of the gas just ahead of the deflagration front, minus the speed of sound, or the ratio of the gas densities across the deflagration front

  7. Development of pellet injection systems for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing innovative pellet injection systems for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic fusion confinement devices for about 20 years. Recently, the ORNL development has focused on meeting the complex fueling needs of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In this paper, we describe the ongoing research and development activities that will lead to a ITER prototype pellet injector test stand. The present effort addresses three main areas: (1) an improved pellet feed and delivery system for centrifuge injectors, (2) a long-pulse (up to steady-state) hydrogen extruder system, and (3) tritium extruder technology. The final prototype system must be fully tritium compatible and will be used to demonstrate the operating parameters and the reliability required for the ITER fueling application

  8. Method of filling fuel pellets into a fuel can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent a fuel can from deformation due to edges of pellets and occurrence of stress, by rearranging and filling fuel pellets of bad rectangularity into fuel cans. Methof: A plurality of fuel pellets of bad rectangularity are arranged on a arranging plate fitted with a vibrator, and are forced with springs at both ends. The vibrator is energized to vibrate and rotate the pellets so that they are regularly rearranged. Each fuel can is provided with X-Y lines to match the directions of pellets, and rearranged UO2 pellet stack is slided into the can with the directions matched. (Nakamura, S.)

  9. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual ste

  10. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  11. Fuel Pellets Production from Biodiesel Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawalin Chaiyaomporn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research palm fiber and palm shell were used as raw materials to produce pelletised fuel, and waste glycerol were used as adhesive to reduce biodiesel production waste. The aim of this research is to find optimum ratio of raw material (ratio of palm fiber and palm shell, raw material size distribution, adhesive temperature, and ratio of ingredients (ratio of raw material, waste glycerol, and water. The optimum ratio of pelletized fuel made only by palm fiber was 50:10:40; palm fiber, water, and waste glycerol respectively. In the best practice condition; particle size was smaller than 2 mm, adhesive glycerol was heated. From the explained optimum ratio and ingredient, pelletizing ratio was 62.6%, specific density was 982.2 kg/m3, heating value was 22.5 MJ/kg, moisture content was 5.9194%, volatile matter was 88.2573%, fix carbon content was 1.5894%, and ash content was 4.2339% which was higher than the standard. Mixing palm shell into palm fiber raw material reduced ash content of the pellets. The optimum raw material ratio, which minimizes ash content, was 80 to 20 palm fiber and palm shell respectively. Adding palm shell reduced ash content to be 2.5247% which was higher than pelletized fuel standard but followed cubed fuel standard. At this raw material ratio, pelletizing ratio was 70.5%, specific density was 774.8 kg/m3, heating value was 19.71 MJ/kg, moisture content was 9.8137%, volatile matter was 86.2259%, fix carbon content was 1.4356%, and compressive force was 4.83 N. Pelletized fuel cost at optimum condition was 1.14 baht/kg.

  12. Breeding for disease resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Helene

    2013-01-01

    In the context of intensification and specialization of poultry production, next to welfare regulation on animal breeding, animal health issues are of increasing importance to the breeding sector because of the huge related production losses. But animal health and welfare issues are also of importance to the consumers because of potential effects on their own health and their lifestyle choices. Most effective disease control strategies should be developed in an integrated animal health manage...

  13. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  14. Welfare in horse breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, M L H; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes hel...

  15. Breeding programme and infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Zonabend König, Emelie

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study potential breeding strategies for indigenous livestock in Eastern and Southern Africa under low input production systems. The thesis covered a study of the status of supportive infrastructure for use of animal genetic resources. The case of Red Maasai sheep was studied as a model for design of strategies for improvement of an indigenous breed under threat. Studies [I-II] were performed through participatory approaches by use of structured interviews, while ...

  16. Quality control of (Th,Pu)O2 fuel pellet obtained by coated agglomerate pelletization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Th,Pu)O2 fuel pellets were synthesised by coated agglomerate pelletization route and characterized for the chemical quality control. (Th,Pu)O2 pellets were characterized for trace metals by spectrometric methods and non metals by ion chromatographic, spectrophotometric, conductometric and manometric methods. H, F, B and Cd contents were found to be less than 1 ppm while that for V and Cl were found to be less than 10 ppm. The pellets were found to contain Cr, Cu, Mo, Na, Ni and Pb in the range of 10-50 ppm whereas Zn, Al, Ca and C in the range of 50-100 ppm. More than 100 ppm Si, Fe and Mg were found to be present in the (Th,Pu)O2 pellets. The O/M content of the pellets were found to be ∼2.00. A comparative study on (Infrared) I.R. and microwave (microwave) dissolution were also used to ascertain the Th and Pu content in the (Th,Pu)O2 pellets. (author)

  17. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  18. Pellet ablation and ablation model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad survey of pellet ablation is given, based primarily on information presented at this meeting. The implications of various experimental observations for ablation theory are derived from qualitative arguments of the physics involved. The major elements of a more complete ablation theory are then outlined in terms of these observations. This is followed by a few suggestions on improving the connections between theory and experimental results through examination of ablation data. Although this is a rather aggressive undertaking for such a brief (and undoubtedly incomplete) assessment, some of the discussion may help us advance the understanding of pellet ablation. 17 refs

  19. Pellet impact drilling operational parameters: experimental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with the study of particle-impact drilling that is designed to enhance the rate-of-penetration function in hard and tough drilling environments. It contains the experimental results on relation between drilling parameters and drilling efficiency, the experiments being conducted by means of a specially designed laboratory model. To interpret the results properly a high-speed camera was used to capture the pellet motion. These results can be used to choose optimal parameters, as well as to develop enhanced design of ejector pellet impact drill bits

  20. Jute breeding in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution, domestication, variability and adaptation of fibre jutes in Bangladesh are described. Domestication of fibre jutes, in evolutionary terms, is recent and the spectrum of variability within them is narrow. Yield improvement by breeding has been minimal and the reasons for this are suggested. Recent germplasm collecting expeditions to the eastern hill tracts of Bangladesh have revealed wide-spectrum diversity among the vegetable jutes grown there. Variability among the vegetable types can be utilized to improve the fibre types and to this end various hybridization schemes have now been initiated by the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute. The initial breeding priority is yield per se but ideotype characteristics have been delineated. The objectives of the breeding programme are likely to become more specific as the agronomic worth of these characteristics becomes more clearly defined. The rationale for mutation breeding in jute has been the narrow-spectrum diversity within the fibre types; the wide-spectrum diversity among the hill tract vegetable jutes should, however, be exploited in imaginative hybridization programmes before resorting to large-scale mutation breeding programmes. Mutation breeding may, however, be a valuable tool for inducing changes in fibre quality characteristics when technologists identify new uses for jute and specify their requirements. At present, however, quality is assessed subjectively. (author)

  1. Wood pellets in a power plant - mixed combustion of coal and wood pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews in his presentation the development of Turku Energia, the organization of the company, the key figures of the company in 2000, as well as the purchase of energy in 2000. He also presents the purchase of basic heat load, the energy production plants of the company, the sales of heat in 2000, the emissions of the plants, and the fuel consumption of the plants in 2000. The operating experiences of the plants are also presented. The experiences gained in Turku Energia on mixed combustion of coal and wood pellets show that the mixing ratios, used at the plants, have no effect on the burning properties of the boiler, and the use of wood pellets with coal reduce the SO2 and NOx emissions slightly. Simultaneously the CO2 share of the wood pellets is removed from the emissions calculations. Several positive effects were observed, including the disappearance of the coal smell of the bunker, positive publicity of the utilization of wood pellets, and the subsidies for utilization of indigenous fuels in power generation. The problems seen include the tendency of wood pellets to arc the silos, especially when the pellets include high quantities of dust, and the loading of the trucks and the pneumatic unloading of the trucks break the pellets. Additionally the wood pellets bounce on the conveyor so they drop easily from the conveyor, the screw conveyors designed for conveying grain are too weak and they get stuck easily, and static electricity is easily generated in the plastic pipe used as the discharge pipe for wood pellet (sparkling tendency). This disadvantage has been overcome by using metal net and grounding

  2. Decay rate of reindeer pellet-groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skarin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Counting of animal faecal pellet groups to estimate habitat use and population densities is a well known method in wildlife research. Using pellet-group counts often require knowledge about the decay rate of the faeces. The decay rate of a faecal pellet group may be different depending on e.g. substrate, size of the pellet group and species. Pellet-group decay rates has been estimated for a number of wildlife species but never before for reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. During 2001 to 2005 a field experiment estimating the decay rate of reindeer pellet groups was performed in the Swedish mountains close to Ammarnäs. In total the decay rate of 382 pellet groups in three different habitat types (alpine heath, birch forest and spruce forest was estimated. The slowest decay rate was found in alpine heath and there the pellet groups persisted for at least four years. If decay was assumed to take place only during the bare ground season, the estimated exponential decay rate was -0.027 pellet groups/week in the same habitat. In the forest, the decay was faster and the pellet groups did not persist more than two years. Performing pellet group counts to estimate habitat use in dry habitats, such as alpine heath, I will recommend using the faecal standing crop method. Using this method makes it possible to catch the animals’ general habitat use over several years. Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Nedbrytningshastighet av renspillningInom viltforskningen har spillningsinventeringar använts under flera årtionden för att uppskatta habitatval och populationstäthet hos olika djurslag. För att kunna använda data från spillningsinventeringar krävs ofta att man vet hur lång tid det tar för spillningen att brytas ner. Nedbrytningshastigheten är olika beroende på marktyp och djurslag. Nedbrytningshastighet på spillning har studerats för bland annat olika typer av hjortdjur, men det har inte studerats på ren (Rangifer tarandus tidigare. I omr

  3. Jet pellet ablation studies and projections for CIT and ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet penetration in JET is analyzed and compared with predictions of the neutral gas and plasma shielding (NGPS) model for pellet ablation. The model is then used to evaluate pellet penetration in CIT and ITER. A simplified scaling law is derived for pellet penetration when the shielding is dominated by the cold ablatant plasma. Comparison with a similarly derived scaling law for the original neutral gas shielding (NGS) model shows that pellet size and plasma electron temperature dependences are similar, but velocity scaling is reduced or completely absent in the NGPS model. We show that projected penetration for higher-velocity pellets may be erroneous with the NGPS model. If the neutral gas shield dominates, as it probably does if the neutral gas shield is elongated along the magnetic field, pellet penetration in JET, CIT, and ITER can be significantly enhanced with higher pellet velocities. 13 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Production and injection of hydrogen-deuterium mixed pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixed solid pellet of hydrogen and deuterium could be produced in the single pellet injector. The pellet is used to examine an improvement of plasma confinement in ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) wave heated discharges. The mixed pellets were maken from the mixed gas with the different ratio of hydrogen to mixed gas (H + D). The composition of the pellet is not equal to that of the mixed gas before freezing. The in-flight mixed pellets with about 769 m/s keep their cylindrical shape, e.g. the pellets are not broken. The present results will indicate the possibility of pellet mixed deuterium and tritium, which will be necessary to in future thermonuclear fusion reactor. (author)

  5. Production of wood pellets. Research and development and standardisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the rapidly increasing market of wood pellets new standards and certification systems especially for high quality pellets have been developed in Austria and Germany. An overview about the most important standards and about the market situation are given. Apart from national standardization activities on European level 28 standards for solid biofuels are being elaborated. At Holzforschung Austria a four year research project on wood-pellets deals with specifically influencing parts of the pellet production process: preconditioning of raw material (storage conditions, drying, softening of lignin), alternative pressing aids, cooling of pellets and post-treatment with coating substances in order to increase pellet quality. The main objective is to improve abrasion resistance and hygroscopicity of the pellets. The tests have been mainly carried out with a ring-die laboratory pellet press. (authors)

  6. Alpha particle diagnostics using impurity pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have proposed using impurity injection to measure the energy distribution of the fast confined alpha particles in a reacting plasma. The ablation cloud surrounding the injected pellet is thick enough that an equilibrium fraction Fo∞(E) of the incident alphas should be neutralized as they pass through the cloud. By observing neutrals created in the large spatial region of the cloud which is expected to be dominated by the helium-like ionization state, e.g., Li+ ions, we can determine the incident alpha distribution dnHe2+/dE from the measured energy distribution of neutral helium atoms. Initial experiments were performed on TEXT in which we compared pellet penetration with our impurity pellet ablation model, and measured the spatial distribution of various ionization states in carbon pellet clouds. Experiments have recently begun on TFTR with the goal of measuring the alpha particle energy distribution during D-T operation in 1993--94. A series of preliminary experiments are planned to test the diagnostic concept. The first experiments will observe neutrals from beam-injected deuterium ions and the high energy 3He tail produced during ICH minority heating on TFTR interacting with the cloud. We will also monitor by line radiation the charge state distributions in lithium, boron, and carbon clouds

  7. New Results with the Ignitor Pellet Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattolillo, A.; Migliori, S.; Podda, S.; Bombarda, F.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Foust, C. R.; Meitner, S.; Fehling, D.; Roveta, G.

    2011-10-01

    The Ignitor Pellet Injector (IPI) has been developed in collaboration between ENEA and ORNL to provide greater control over the density time evolution and the density peaking in plasmas produced by the Ignitor device. The four barrel, two stage injector has been designed to reach speeds up to 4 km/s, for effective low field side injection into ignited plasmas (Te ≅Ti ≅ 11 keV). The present arrangement accomodates both a two-stage gun and a standard propellant valve on each barrel, allowing seamless switching between standard and high speed operation on any or all gun barrels. The cryostat is actively cooled by a pulse tube refrigerator, equipped with supplemental cooling from a liquid He dewar. The injector has shown very good repeatability; however, intact pellets were not observed over 2 km/s, possibly due to a spinning effect on the pellets at higher speed. The cross sections of the guiding tubes have been increased and other design improvements have been implemented, aimed in particular at reducing leak rates and reducing the dispersion of the pellet trajectories, in preparation of the experimental campaign reported here. Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy, and by the U.S. D.O.E.

  8. Pellet injection experiments on the TFR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single pellet injection experiments have been carried out on TFR with the aim to improve the experimental knowledge of ablation physical processes and also to get a better description of the heat and matter transport during and after pellet evaporation. Ablation clouds have been photographed, providing experimental penetration depths in rough agreement with the neutral shielding model. Observation of striations in the cloud has led to an experimental determination of the safety factor profile. Parameters of the plasma in the ablation cloud have been spectroscopically determined. Fast heat transport has been evidenced during pellet evaporation (∼ 100 μs) which exhibits some features of minor or major disruptions (appearance of a m = 1, n = 1 island on the q = 1 surface, bursts of density fluctuations, comparable heat diffusivity, ...). Matter transport takes place on a larger time scale (∼ 10 ms). This long temporal relaxation is well accounted for by the 1D-MAKOKOT computer code without changing the transport coefficients after pellet injection. Heat and matter transport are affected by the presence of the m = 1, n = 1 island on the q = 1 surface

  9. Development of D2 Pellet Injectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Andersen, S. A.; Nordskov Nielsen, A.;

    1985-01-01

    A versatile extrusion-type pneumatic gun is described. The extrusion nozzle/gun barrel system can easily be exchanged to produce pellets in the diameter range 0.4—2.0 mm. Velocities in the range 0.1—1.35 km/s are obtained by adjusting the propeller gas pressure. It is proposed that this gun type...

  10. Co-gasification of pelletized wood residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos A. Alzate; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Arturo Berrio; Javier De La Cruz; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas

    2009-03-15

    A pelletization process was designed which produces cylindrical pellets 8 mm in length and 4 mm in diameter. These ones were manufactured using a blend of Pinus Patula and Cypress sawdust and coal in proportions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% v/v of coal of rank sub-bituminous extracted from the Nech mine (Amaga-Antioquia). For this procedure, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as binder at three different concentrations. The co-gasification experiments were carried out with two kinds of mixtures, the first one was composed of granular coal and pellets of 100% wood and the second one was composed of pulverized wood and granular coal pellets. All samples were co-gasified with steam by using an electrical heated fluidized-bed reactor, operating in batches, at 850{sup o}C. The main components of the gaseous product were H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} with approximate quantities of 59%, 6.0%, 20%, 5.0%, and 9.0% v/v, respectively, and the higher heating values ranged from between 7.1 and 9.5 MJ/Nm{sup 3}.

  11. Experiences with RDF pellets in a gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreasing dependence upon landfills means MSW recycling and organic diversion programs grow but there is still waste remaining. A community near Toronto is turn the residuals into pellets augmented with high calorific value industry wastes. The pellet fuel has reduced ash, trace metal, and halogen concentrations when compared to MSW. Some of these pellets are being used to heat a greenhouse in southwestern Ontario using a chain grate gasifier and boiler system. This paper discusses some of the results of the initial operation and testing of a pair of these units. The gasifier has evolved and is currently rated at 20.2 GJ/h, consuming up to 940 kg/h of RDF pellets or the thermal equivalent in wood pellets. Twounits, with hot water storage tanks, are sufficient to satisfy the greenhouses 50 GJ/hr heating needs. The units boiler exhausts are treated with powdered lime before passing through separate fabric filter systems. One fabric filter was equipped with REMEDIA bags for PCDD/F removal, the other had a typical fibreglass filter. A combination of recirculated flue gas and fresh combustion air is blown up through the grate and fuel bed, into three independently controlled combustion zones. Under fire air oxygen levels are used to control temperatures within the gasification chamber. A smaller unit, 3.78 GJ/h capacity, was tested twice in 2008 and the current version was tested in early 2009. More tests are planned for the spring of 2010. While the tests have generally shown excellent emission performance, mercury, chlorine, and PCDD/F have been higher than anticipated. The finding of elevated levels of Cl2 in the exhaust gasses has been suggested as the main reason for the unusually high PCDD/F emissions. The findings related to chlorine and PCDD/F in this process is the main thrust of the paper. (author)

  12. Transonic ablation flow regimes of high-Z pellets

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyoungkeun; Parks, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we report results of numerical studies of the ablation of argon and neon pellets in tokamaks and compare them with theoretical predictions and studies of deuterium pellets. Results demonstrate the influence of atomic physics processes on the pellet ablation process.

  13. Development and problems of pellet markets in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood pellets became into Austrian markets in 1994. Up to then the Austrian industry had manufactured pellet fireplaces for export, but none was sold into Austria, because there were not pellets available in the Austrian markets. In spite of significant problems in the beginning and unfavourable economic conditions (decrease of oil prices) the pellet markets in Austria have increased since 1996 dynamically. Annual pellet deliveries have increased from 15 000 t/a to present 45 000 t/a. Customers and Austrian industry are interested in pellets and they believe in the future. The pellet manufacturing capacity increases continuously. In 1999 the capacity of 12 companies was 120 000 t. In 2003 the annual pellet consumption is estimated to over 100 000 tons and in 2010 about 200 000 tons. Main portion of the pellet manufactures in Austria is also used in the country by detached houses and small real estate houses. The pellet markets for large real estates are developing after the boiler manufacturers have started to produce pellet-fired equipment. The number of pellet-fired devices in 1997, sold to detached houses was 425, and in 2000 the number was 3500

  14. Results of pellet injection experiments in JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents recent experimental results of pellet injection to joule plasma and heating experiments of pellet injected plasma by NB, LHRF, and ICRF. Especially clear improvement in confinement has been obtained in NB heating of pellet injected plasma up to 10-15 MW in Ip = 1.5-1.8 MA lower-side X-point divertor configuration. (author)

  15. Fuel Pellets from Wheat Straw: The Effect of Lignin Glass Transition and Surface Waxes on Pelletizing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.;

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of wheat straw as a renewable energy resource is limited due to its low bulk density. Pelletizing wheat straw into fuel pellets of high density increases its handling properties but is more challenging compared to pelletizing woody biomass. Straw has a lower lignin content and a...... high concentration of hydrophobic waxes on its outer surface that may limit the pellet strength. The present work studies the impact of the lignin glass transition on the pelletizing properties of wheat straw. Furthermore, the effect of surface waxes on the pelletizing process and pellet strength are...... effect is observed at elevated temperatures. Fuel pellets made from extracted wheat straw have a slightly higher compression strength which might be explained by a better interparticle adhesion in the absence of hydrophobic surface waxes....

  16. Optimization of backfill pellet properties AASKAR DP2 - Laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Linus; Sanden, Torbjoern [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    Bentonite pellets are planned to be used as a part of the backfill in the Swedish spent nuclear fuel deep repository concept KBS-3. This report describes testing and evaluation of different backfill pellet candidates. The work completed included testing of both pellet material and pellet type. The materials tested were sourced from India (ASHA), Greece (IBECO, 2 products) and Wyoming USA (MX-80 clay). The majority of the tests were completed on the ASHA clay as well as the IBECO-RWC-BF products, with only limited testing of the others. The pellets tested were manufactured using both extrusion and roller compaction techniques and had different sizes and geometries. The following tests have been performed and are presented in this report: 1. General tests. Water content, bulk density and dry density have been determined for both the pellet filling and the individual pellets. The compressibility of the pellet filling was tested with CRS-tests and the strength of the individual pellets was tested with a special compression test. The water content varied from 11.3% to 18.7% and was highest for the extruded pellets. The dry density was somewhat higher for the roller-compacted pellets and their compressibility was lower. The strength of the individual pellets was generally higher for the extruded pellets. 2. Erosion. The pellet filling will be exposed to groundwater inflow when installed in the tunnel. This flow could possibly cause significant erosion on the pellet filling. Erosion tests have been performed with comparisons in erosion resistance made on the various material- and pellet-types. The influence of variations in water salinity and flow rates was also tested. The IBECO extruded 6- and 10- mm diameter rods and the compacted Posiva spec.-A pellet filling seem to have the lowest tendency to erode. It is also the IBECO extruded pellet filling that withstands variations in water salinity and flow rates best. 3. Water storing capacity. The pellet filling

  17. Optimization of backfill pellet properties AASKAR DP2-Laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentonite pellets are planned to be used as a part of the backfill in the Swedish spent nuclear fuel deep repository concept KBS-3. This report describes testing and evaluation of different backfill pellet candidates. The work completed included testing of both pellet material and pellet type. The materials tested were sourced from India (ASHA), Greece (IBECO, 2 products) and Wyoming USA (MX-80 clay). The majority of the tests were completed on the ASHA clay as well as the IBECO-RWC-BF products, with only limited testing of the others. The pellets tested were manufactured using both extrusion and roller compaction techniques and had different sizes and geometries. The following tests have been performed and are presented in this report: 1. General tests. Water content, bulk density and dry density have been determined for both the pellet filling and the individual pellets. The compressibility of the pellet filling was tested with CRS-tests and the strength of the individual pellets was tested with a special compression test. The water content varied from 11.3% to 18.7% and was highest for the extruded pellets. The dry density was somewhat higher for the roller-compacted pellets and their compressibility was lower. The strength of the individual pellets was generally higher for the extruded pellets. 2. Erosion. The pellet filling will be exposed to groundwater inflow when installed in the tunnel. This flow could possibly cause significant erosion on the pellet filling. Erosion tests have been performed with comparisons in erosion resistance made on the various material- and pellet-types. The influence of variations in water salinity and flow rates was also tested. The IBECO extruded 6- and 10- mm diameter rods and the compacted Posiva spec.-A pellet filling seem to have the lowest tendency to erode. It is also the IBECO extruded pellet filling that withstands variations in water salinity and flow rates best. 3. Water storing capacity. The pellet filling's ability to

  18. Precision animal breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, A.P.F.; WOOLLIAMS, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    We accept that we are responsible for the quality of life of animals in our care. We accept that the activities of man affect all the living things with which we share this planet. But we are slow to realize that as a result we have a duty of care for all living things. That duty extends to the breeding of animals for which we are responsible. When animals are bred by man for a purpose, the aim should be to meet certain goals: to improve the precision with which breeding outcomes can be predi...

  19. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and...

  20. Simulation of peeling-ballooning modes with pellet injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. Y. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, J.; Sun, T. T.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Wang, Z. H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-11-15

    The influence of pellet ablation on the evolution of peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes is studied with BOUT++ code. The atoms coming from pellet ablation can significantly reshape the plasma pressure profile, so the behaviors of P-B modes and edge localized mode (ELM) are modified dramatically. This paper shows that the energy loss associated with an ELM increases substantially over that without the pellet, if the pellet is deposited at the top of the pedestal. On the contrary, for pellet deposition in the middle of the pedestal region the ELM energy loss can be less.

  1. Simulation of peeling-ballooning modes with pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of pellet ablation on the evolution of peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes is studied with BOUT++ code. The atoms coming from pellet ablation can significantly reshape the plasma pressure profile, so the behaviors of P-B modes and edge localized mode (ELM) are modified dramatically. This paper shows that the energy loss associated with an ELM increases substantially over that without the pellet, if the pellet is deposited at the top of the pedestal. On the contrary, for pellet deposition in the middle of the pedestal region the ELM energy loss can be less

  2. Pelletization processes for pharmaceutical applications: a patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Stavros N; Rekkas, Dimitrios M

    2011-01-01

    Pellets exhibit major therapeutic and technical advantages which have established them as an exceptionally useful dosage form. A plethora of processes and materials is available for the production of pellets, which practically allows inexhaustible configurations contributing to the flexibility and versatility of pellets as drug delivery systems. The scope of this review is to summarize the recent literature on pelletization processes for pharmaceutical applications, focusing on the awarded and pending patents in this technical field. The first part of the article provides an overview of innovation in pelletization processes, while the second part evaluates their novel applications. PMID:21143125

  3. Development of Advanced Pellet Injector Systems for Plasma Fueling

    OpenAIRE

    SAKAMOTO, Ryuichi; Yamada, Hiroshi; LHD Experimental Group

    2009-01-01

    Two types of solid hydrogen pellet injection systems have been developed, and plasma refueling experiments have been performed using these pellet injectors. One is an in-situ pipe-gun type pellet injector, which has the simplest design of all pellet injectors. This in-situ pipe-gun injector has 10 injection barrels, each of which can independently inject cylindrical solid hydrogen pellets (3.4 and 3.8mm in diameter and length, respectively) at velocities up to 1,200m/s. The other is a repetit...

  4. Pelletizing and combustion of wood from thinning; Pelletering och foerbraenning av gallringsvirke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oerberg, Haakan; Thyrel, Mikael; Kalen, Gunnar; Larsson, Sylvia

    2007-12-14

    This work has been done in order to find new raw material sources for an expanding pellet industry, combined with finding a use for a forest product that has no market today. The raw material has been forest from early thinning in two typical stands in Vaesterbotten. The purpose has been to evaluate this material as a raw material for producing pellets. Two typical stands have been chosen. One stand with only pine trees and one mixed stand dominated by birch. The soil of these stands was poor. Half of the trees were delimbed by harvest and half of the trees were not delimbed. This formed four different assortments that were handled in the study. After harvesting the assortments were transported to an asphalt area to be stored. Half of the material was stored during one summer and half of the material was stored during one year and one summer. The different assortments were upgraded to pellets and test combusted in the research plant BTC at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, in Umeaa. The upgrading process contains of the following steps: 1.Chipping by a mobile chipper. 2.Low temperature drying (85 deg C). 3. Coarse shredding ({phi}15 mm). 4. Fine shredding ({phi}4-6 mm) and 5. Pelletizing (Die: {phi}8). Samples for fuel analysis were taken during the chipping. Analyses shows that the net calorific value for delimbed assortments are about 0,3 MJ/kg DM higher than for limbed assortments. Pellets made of the assortments Mixed limbed and Pine limbed has shown a net calorific value comparable to stem wood pellets. Pellets made of Birch delimbed show a net calorific value 0,4 MJ/kg DM lower than stem wood pellets. Analyses show that ash contents of the assortment Mixed delimbed was 1 %-unit higher compared to stem wood pellets. The assortment Pine delimbed and Birch delimbed has showed an ash contents comparable with stem wood pellets. The ash melting characteristics can reduce the value of a raw material. Low ash melting temperature for a fuel might cause

  5. Quality properties of fuel pellets from forest biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtikangas, P.

    1999-07-01

    Nine pellet assortments, made of fresh and stored sawdust, bark and logging residues (a mixture of Norway spruce and Scots pine) were tested directly after production and after 5 months of storage in large bags (volume about 1 m{sup 3} loose pellets) for moisture content, heating value and ash content. Dimensions, bulk density, density of individual pellets and durability were also determined. Moreover, sintering risk and contents of sulphur, chlorine, and lignin of fresh pellets were determined. It is concluded that bark and logging residues are suitable raw materials for pellets production, especially regarding durability and if the ash content is controlled. Pellets density had no effect on its durability, unlike lignin content which was positively correlated. The pellets had higher ash content and lower calorific heating value than the raw materials, probably due to loss of volatiles during drying. In general, the quality changes during storage were not large, but notable. The results showed that storage led to negative effects on durability, especially on pellets made of fresh materials. The average length of pellets was decreased due to breakage during storage. Microbial growth was noticed in some of the pellet assortments. Pellets made out of fresh logging residues were found to be weakest after storage. The tendency to reach the equilibrium with the ambient moisture content should be taken into consideration during production due to the risk of decreasing durability.

  6. An advanced cold moderator using solid methane pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, C.A. [Cryogenic Applications F, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States); Carpenter, J.M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (United States)

    2001-03-01

    This paper reports developments of the pellet formation and transport technologies required for producing a liquid helium or hydrogen cooled methane pellet moderator. The Phase I US DOE SBIR project, already completed, demonstrated the production of 3 mm transparent pellets of frozen methane and ammonia and transport of the pellets into a 40 cc observation cell cooled with liquid helium. The methane pellets, formed at 72 K, stuck together during the loading of the cell. Ammonia pellets did not stick and fell readily under vibration into a packed bed with a 60% fill fraction. A 60% fill fraction should produce a very significant increase in long-wavelength neutron production and advantages in shorter pulse widths as compared to a liquid hydrogen moderator. The work also demonstrated a method of rapidly changing the pellets in the moderator cell. The Phase II project, just now underway, will develop a full-scale pellet source and transport system with a 1.5 L 'moderator' cell. The Phase II effort will also produce an apparatus to sub-cool the methane pellets to below 20 K, which should prevent the methane pellets from sticking together. In addition to results of the phase I experiments, the presentation includes a short video of the pellets, and a description of plans for the Phase II project. (author)

  7. High-rate behaviour of iron ore pellet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Gustaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron ore pellets are sintered, centimetre-sized spheres of ore with high iron content. Together with carbonized coal, iron ore pellets are used in the production of steel. In the transportation from the pelletizing plants to the customers, the iron ore pellets are exposed to different loading situations, resulting in degradation of strength and in some cases fragmentation. For future reliable numerical simulations of the handling and transportation of iron ore pellets, knowledge about their mechanical properties is needed. This paper describes the experimental work to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of blast furnace iron ore pellets. To study the dynamic fracture of iron ore pellets a number of split Hopkinson pressure bar tests are carried out and analysed.

  8. Mutation breeding in mangosteen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)

  9. Recent tritium breeding experiments with lithium titanate mock-ups irradiated with DT neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments with breeding blanket mock-ups composed of layers of beryllium, ferritic steel F82H and 6Li enriched lithium titanate, Li2TiO3 are currently under investigation at Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) of JAERI. Pellets of Li2TiO3 were used as detectors for the tritium production rate inside the tritium breeding layer. A method for direct measurement of low concentrations of tritium in Li2TiO3 was developed. After irradiation, the pellets were dissolved in concentrated hydrochloric acid and the tritium activity in the sample solution was measured by liquid scintillation counting. This method was applied to several mock-up experiments and the experiments analyzed with three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations. In some cases the tritium production rate was found to be overestimated by the calculations. (author)

  10. On the pelletizing of sulfide molybdenite concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation results are discussed on the process of pelletizing with the use of various binders (water, syrup, sulfite-alcoholic residue and bentonite) for flotation sulfide molybdenite concentrate (∼84 % MoS2) of the Mongolian deposit. It is established that with the use of syrup rather strong pellets (>300 g/p) of desired size (2-3 mm) can be obtained at a binder flowrate of 1 kg per 100 kg of concentrate. The main advantage of using syrup instead of bentonite lies in the fact that in this instance no depletion of a molybdenum calcine obtained by oxidizing roasting of raw ore takes place due to syrup complete burning out. This affects positively subsequent hydrometallurgical conversion because of decreasing molybdenum losses with waste cakes

  11. Tritium pellet injection sequences for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium pellet injection into neutral deuterium, beam heated deuterium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is shown to be an attractive means of (1) minimizing tritium use per tritium discharge and over a sequence of tritium discharges; (2) greatly reducing the tritium load in the walls, limiters, getters, and cryopanels; (3) maintaining or improving instantaneous neutron production (Q); (4) reducing or eliminating deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron production in nonoptimized discharges; and (5) generally adding flexibility to the experimental sequences leading to optimal Q operation. Transport analyses of both compression and full-bore TFTR plasmas are used to support the above observations and to provide the basis for a proposed eight-pellet gas gun injector for the 1986 tritium experiments

  12. Deuterium pellet injection in the TFR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injecting fresh fuel deep inside the plasma of a thermonuclear reactor appears to be necessary; the only way to do that is to inject fast solid deuterium pellets. The existing theoretical, technical and experimental aspects of this method are presented. The experiments on TFR have confirmed that injecting pellets is technically feasible; a new kind of injector is presented. The injection does not degrade stability nor confinement of the plasma. The study of the transient phenomena occuring during the injection has proved to be an efficient way to investigate particles and energy transport in the discharge; in particular, a fast transport phenomenon, similar to those occuring during disruptions, has been studied in details. Conclusions about disruptions are drawn. (Ref 101)

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities

  14. Summary of fueling by pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model-based studies were presented which indicated in all cases that shielding will occur, but there was not total agreement in these studies on the mechanism of the shielding. The data from the pellet ablation experiment on ORMAK was explained by considering the plasma electron flux, incident on the pellet surface, to create an ablated neutral cloud which self-consistently attenuates the incident electron flux. The lack of total agreement in the studies comes about when extending this to tokamak reactor plasmas. Various groups contended either that this mechanism would continue to dominate in reactor plasmas, or that it would be modified by a comparable heat flux from alphas, or that it would be modified somewhat by electrostatic shielding because of electron flux induced charge buildup on the pellet, or that it would be modified by ionization of the neutral cloud yielding a plasma cloud shield, or that this same plasma cloud would exclude magnetic field causing deflection of the incident electron flux and therefore additional shielding

  15. Method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellets. As nuclear fuel materials, uranium oxide such as uranium dioxide, plutonium oxide and thorium oxide, etc. are used alone or as a mixture of two or more of them. At first, reactivity of raw material powders is increased to higher than a predetermined level by a pulverizing and pelletizing treatment. Next, U3O8 or an organic material which decomposes at a high temperature is added to by 0.1 to 2.0 % by weight as a pore former to the pulverization and pelletization product. Then, press-molding is applied within a range of pressure from 1.0 to 5.0 ton/cm3, to provide a molding density of higher than 6.0 g/cc. Then, heat treatment is applied under the condition at a temperature of 800 to 1100degC in a non-reducing atmosphere such as in Ar, N2, He or CO2, to remove the pore former added. Then sintering is applied at 1400 to 1800degC in H2 or a mixed atmosphere of H2 and N2. This can improve the production efficiency. (I.N.)

  16. Method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To effectively absorb the swelling at the central portion of a pellet, as well as obtain a sufficient creep velocity and reduce the release of gaseous fission products in fuel pellets for use in BWR type reactors. Method: A pellet is divided into a central region and outer peripheral region. The crystal grain size and the porosity in the central region are made greater than those in the outer peripheral region. In the central region, the O/U ratio for the UO2 powder is set to 2.10 - 2.30, material for increasing crystal grain size (TiO2, Nb2O5, Cr2O3, etc.) is mixed as additives and the specific surface area is made to 3 - 8 g/cm3. Further, in the outer peripheral region, O/U ratio for the UO2 powder is set to 2.00 - 2.100, and material for increasing sintering density (Al(OH)3, Al, etc.) is mixed as additives and the specific surface area is set to 3 g/cm3. Thus, the increase in the inner pressure and the elevation of temperature for the fuel can in the fuel rod can effectively be suppressed to prevent stress corrosion cracking in the fuel can. (Ikeda, J.)

  17. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  18. Production of hydrogen, nitrogen and argon pellets with the Moscow-Juelich pellet target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targets of frozen droplets ("pellets") from various liquefiable gases like H2, D2, N2, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe are very promising for high luminosity experiments with a 4π detector geometry at storage-rings. High effective target densities (> 1015atoms/cm2), a small target size (⊘ ≈ 20–30 μm), a low gas load and a narrow pellet beam are the main advantages of such targets. Pioneering work on pellet targets has been made at Uppsala, Sweden. A next generation target has been built at the IKP of FZJ in collaboration with two institutes (ITEP and MPEI) from Moscow, Russia. It is a prototype for the future pellet target at the PANDA experiment at FAIR/HESR (supported by INTAS 06-1000012-8787, 2007/08) and makes use of a new cooling and liquefaction method, based on cryogenic liquids instead of cooling machines. The main advantages of this method are the vibration-free cooling and the possibility for cryogenic jet production from various gases in a wide range of temperatures. Different regimes of pellet production from H2, N2 and Ar have been observed and their parameters have been measured. For the first time, mono-disperse and satellite-free droplet production was achieved for cryogenic liquids from H2, N2 and Ar. (author)

  19. A comparison of three methods for assessing raptor diet during the breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S.B.; Fuller, Mark R.; Titus, K.

    2004-01-01

    Video recording of prey deliveries to nests is a new technique for collecting data on raptor diet, but no thorough comparison of results from traditional methods based on collections of prey remains and pellets has been undertaken. We compared data from these 3 methods to determine relative merits of different methods for assessing raptor diet as part of a study of the breeding-season diet of northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) in Southeast Alaska. We applied these methods to 5 nests during each of the northern goshawk breeding seasons of 1998 and 1999 and identified 1,540 prey from deliveries, 209 prey from remains, and 209 prey from pellets. The proportions of birds and mammals varied among techniques, as did relative proportions of prey groups and age groups. Prey remains and pellets gave the least-similar diet descriptions. Over 2-day intervals during which data were collected using all 3 methods, prey-delivery data gave more individual prey and prey categories than the 2 other sources of information. We found that prey were not directly tracked in either prey remains or pellets compared with prey delivery videography. Analysis of prey-delivery videography provided the most complete description of diet, and we recommend that studies attempting to describe diet use this technique, at least as part of their methodology.

  20. Rice breeding problems in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with general rice production in Korea and the problems encountered. The history of rice growing and breeding in Korea is outlined and a description of recent advances in rice breeding is given, including a discussion of some uses of radiation treatments in the breeding programme during the last few years. (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Investigation of pellet acceleration by an arc heated gas gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes work on pellet acceleration by means of an arc heated gas gun. The work is a continuation of the work described in RISO-M-2536. The aim of the work is to obtain velocities well above 2 km/s for 3.2 mm diameter deuterium pellets. By means of a cryogenic arc chamber in which the hydrogen propellant is pre-condensed, extruded deutetrium pellets are accelerated up to a maximum velocity of 1.93 km/s. When increasing the energy input to the arc in order to increase the pellet velocity further the heat input to the extrusion/punching pellet loading mechanism was found to be critical: preparation of pellets became difficult and cooling times between shots became inconveniently long. In order to circumvent this problems the concept of a room temperature hydrogen propellant pellet fed arc chamber was proposed. Preliminary results from acceleration of polyurethane pellets with this arc chamber are described as well as the work of developing of feed pellet guns for this chamber. Finally the report describes design consideration for a high pressure propellant pellet fed arc chamber together with preliminary results obtained with a proto-type arc chamber. (author)

  2. Mycelial pellet formation by edible ascomycete filamentous fungi, Neurospora intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    Pellet formation of filamentous fungi in submerged culture is an imperative topic of fermentation research. In this study, we report for the first time the growth of filamentous ascomycete fungus, Neurospora intermedia in its mycelial pellet form. In submerged culture, the growth morphology of the fungus was successfully manipulated into growing as pellets by modifying various cultivation conditions. Factors such as pH (2.0-10.0), agitation rate (100-150 rpm), carbon source (glucose, arabinose, sucrose, and galactose), the presence of additive agents (glycerol and calcium chloride) and trace metals were investigated for their effect on the pellet formation. Of the various factors screened, uniform pellets were formed only at pH range 3.0-4.0, signifying it as the most influential factor for N. intermedia pellet formation. The average pellet size ranged from 2.38 ± 0.12 to 2.86 ± 0.38 mm. The pellet formation remained unaffected by the inoculum type used and its size showed an inverse correlation with the agitation rate of the culture. Efficient glucose utilization was observed with fungal pellets, as opposed to the freely suspended mycelium, proving its viability for fast-fermentation processes. Scale up of the pelletization process was also carried out in bench-scale airlift and bubble column reactors (4.5 L). PMID:27103628

  3. A fuel pellet injector for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlike other fueling systems for magnetically confined fusion plasmas, a pellet injector can deliver many fuel gas particles to the core of the plasma, enhancing plasma confinement. We installed a new pellet injector on the MTX (formerly Alcator-O) to provide a plasma with a high core density for experiments both with and without ultrahigh-power microwave heating. Its four-barrel pellet generator is the first to be designed and built at LLNL. Based on 'pipe-gun'' technology originated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), it incorporates our structural and thermal engineering innovations and a unique control system. The pellet transport, differential vacuum-pumping stages, and fast-opening propellant valves are reused parts of the Impurity Study EXperiment (ISX) pellet injector built by ORNL. We tailored designs of all other systems and components to the MTX. Our injector launches pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium into the MTX, either singly or in timed bursts of up to four pellets at velocities of up to 1000 m/s. Pellet diameters range from 1.02 to 2.08 mm. A diagnostic stage measures pellet velocities and allows us to photograph the pellets in flight. We are striving to improve the injector's performance, but its operations is already very consistent and reliable

  4. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOMASS PELLETIZATION – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Stelte,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has resulted in a strong growth of biomass utilization for heat and power production. Attempts to overcome the poor handling properties of biomass, i.e. its low bulk density and inhomogeneous structure, have resulted in an increasing interest in biomass densification technologies, such as pelletization and briquetting. The global pellet market has developed quickly, and strong growth is expected for the coming years. Due to an increase in demand for biomass, the traditionally used wood residues from sawmills and pulp and paper industry are not sufficient to meet future needs. An extended raw material base consisting of a broad variety of fibrous residues from agriculture and food industries, as well as thermal pre-treatment processes, provides new challenges for the pellet industry. Pellet production has been an established process for several decades, but only in the past five years has there been significant progress made to understand the key factors affecting pelletizing processes. A good understanding about the pelletizing process, especially the processing parameters and their effect on pellet formation and bonding are important for process and product optimization. The present review provides a comprehensive overview of the latest insights into the biomass pelletization processes, such as the forces involved in the pelletizing processes, modeling, bonding, and adhesive mechanisms. Furthermore, thermal pretreatment of the biomass, i.e. torrefaction and other thermal treatment to enhance the fuel properties of biomass pellets are discussed.

  5. Prolonged release matrix pellets prepared by melt pelletization. I. Process variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L.J.; Schaefer, T.; Sonnergaard, Jørn;

    1993-01-01

    A melt pelletization process was investigated in an 8 litre laboratory scale high shear mixer using a formulation with paracetamol, glyceryl monostearate 40-50, and microcrystalline wax. The effects of jacket temperature, product temperature during massing, product load, massing time and impeller...... speed were investigated by means of factorially designed experiments. The maximum yield of pellets in the range of 500-1400 μm was found to approx. 90%. For process conditions preventing deposition of moist mass, the process was found to be reproducible. Impeller speed and massing time were found to be...

  6. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  7. Studies of hydrogen pellet acceleration with fuseless electromagnetic railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuseless circular-bore electromagnetic railgun specifically designed for injection of high-velocity hydrogen pellets was constructed and tested. Hydrogen pellets were first accelerated to medium velocities (∼ 500 m/s) using a gas gun and then injected into the railgun. Once a pellet entered the railgun, a plasma arc was initiated by electrically breaking down the propellant gas which followed the pellet from the gas gun into the railgun. Utilizing the propulsive force of this plasma arc armature, further acceleration of the hydrogen pellet was achieved. Using a 60 cm long railgun, proof-of-principle experiments were performed on hydrogen pellets, 1.6 mm, in diameter and 2.15 mm in length, producing velocities exceeding 1.5 km/s. Encouraged by this preliminary success, more extensive studies are in progress to further improve the performance and capabilities of the current system

  8. MULTIPARTICULATE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: PELLETIZATION THROUGH EXTRUSION AND SPHERONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuli Sharma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical invention and research are increasingly focusing on delivery systems which enhance desirable therapeutic objectives while minimising side effects. Recent trends indicate that multiparticulate drug delivery systems are especially suitable for achieving controlled or delayed release oral formulations with low risk of dose dumping, flexibility of blending to attain different release patterns as well as reproducible and short gastric residence time. Pelletization is a technique used to prepare fine powders into pellets used as multiparticulate drug delivery systems. There are different pelletization techniques used to prepare pellets. Extrusion and spheronization is one of them used to prepare pellets drug loaded beads/pellets for extended release or sustained release oral formulations such as tablets and capsules.

  9. New ceramic fuel pellet for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These ceramic fuel pellets, for nuclear fuel elements with a metal cladding tube and which are axisymmetrical, are characterized in that their diameter at each end is less than the diameter midway from the ends. They are based on at least one fissile or fertile compound. Each end area is truncated in shape. The generating line of the truncated area is slanted in relation to the axis of the pellet at an angle of 0.2 to 30. They have a cylindrical area included between the end areas. The difference between the maximum and minimum diameters of the pellet is around one to ten times the initial transversal play between the pellet and the cladding tube wall in the area of maximum pellet diameter. These new pellets make it possible to avoid the risks of cladding cracks and hence the premature shut-down of the reactor

  10. Pellet injectors for the tokamak fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The repeating pneumatic injector is a device from the ORNL development program. A new eight-shot deuterium pellet injector has been designed and constructed specifically for the TFTR application and is scheduled to replace the repeating injector this year. The new device combines a cryogenic extruder and a cold wheel rotary mechanism to form and chamber eight pellets in a batch operation; the eight pellets can then be delivered in any time sequence. Another unique feature of the device is the variable pellet size with three pellets each of 3.0 and 3.5 mm diam and two each of 4.0 mm diam. The experience and technology that have been developed on previous injectors at ORNL have been utilized in the design of this latest pellet injection system

  11. Microstability analysis of pellet fuelled discharges in MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Garzotti, L; Roach, C M; Valovic, M; Dickinson, D; Naylor, G; Romanelli, M; Scannell, R; Szepesi, G

    2014-01-01

    Reactor grade plasmas are likely to be fuelled by pellet injection. This technique transiently perturbs the profiles, driving the density profile hollow and flattening the edge temperature profile. After the pellet perturbation, the density and temperature profiles relax towards their quasi-steady-state shape. Microinstabilities influence plasma confinement and will play a role in determining the evolution of the profiles in pellet fuelled plasmas. In this paper we present the microstability analysis of pellet fuelled H-mode MAST plasmas. Taking advantage of the unique capabilities of the MAST Thomson scattering system and the possibility of synchronizing the eight lasers with the pellet injection, we were able to measure the evolution of the post-pellet electron density and temperature profiles with high temporal and spatial resolution. These profiles, together with ion temperature profiles measured using a charge exchange diagnostic, were used to produce equilibria suitable for microstability analysis of th...

  12. Application of Pellet Injection to Mitigate Transient Events in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, Larry

    2015-11-01

    The injection of cryogenic pellets has been shown to be useful for mitigation of ELMs and disruptions, which are potentially damaging transient events that can to lead to reduced operating time in ITER. The triggering of small ELMs by pellets has been demonstrated as a method to prevent large ELMs that can erode plasma facing components. D2 pellets 25mm in size of neon, argon, and D2 mixtures are planned to mitigate disruptions. Shattered pellets have been shown to successfully mitigate thermal and current quenches in DIII-D with higher assimilation than massive gas injection. A flexible multi-barrel system for shattered pellet injection is now being designed for disruption mitigation in ITER. The technology and the physics of the pellet plasma interactions for these systems on ITER will be discussed. This work supported by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the US DOE under DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  13. Oxidation and pulverization of UO2 and MOX pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents in plutonium processing plants due to the combustion of kerosene may involve the oxidation and pulverization of nuclear fuel pellets. Hence, some simulation experiments were performed in a glove box to study the behaviour of pellets of different composition (UO2/PuO2, i.e. MOX) and preparation conditions (sintered or green pellets with or without binding agent) as a function of temperature, time and oxidation atmosphere, especially in relation to the formation of coarse and respirable particles. (orig.)

  14. Methods of Nitrogen Oxide Reduction in Pellet Boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Žandeckis, A; Blumberga, D; Rochas, C.; Veidenbergs, I; Siliņš, K

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to create and test technical solutions that reduce nitrogen oxide emissions in low-capacity pellet boiler. During the research, wood pellets were incinerated in a pellet boiler produced in Latvia with a rated capacity of 15 kW. During the research two NOx emission reduction methods were tested: secondary air supply in the chamber and recirculation of flue gases. Results indicated a drop of NOx concentration only for flue gas recirculation methods. Maximum re...

  15. Portuguese pellets market: Analysis of the production and utilization constrains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As opposite in Portugal, the wood pellets market is booming in Europe. In this work, possible reasons for this market behavior are foreseen according to the key indicators of biomass availability, costs and legal framework. Two major constrains are found in the Portuguese pellets market: the first one is the lack of an internal consumption, being the market based on exportations. The second one is the shortage of raw material mainly due to the competition with the biomass power plants. Therefore, the combination of the biomass power plants with pellet production plants seems to be the best option for the pellets production in the actual Portuguese scenario. The main constrains for pellets market has been to convince small-scale customers that pellets are a good alternative fuel, mainly due to the investment needed and the strong competition with natural gas. Besides some benefits in the acquisition of new equipment for renewable energy, they are insufficient to cover the huge discrepancy of the investment in pellets heating. However, pellets are already economic interesting for large utilizations. In order cover a large amount of households, additional public support is needed to cover the supplementary costs of the pellets heating systems. - Highlights: ► There is a lack of internal consumption being the pellets market based on exportation. ► The shortage of raw material is mainly due to the biomass power plants. ► Combining pellet plants with biomass power plants seems to be a wise solution. ► The tax benefits of renewable energy equipments are not enough to cover the higher investment. ► Pellets are already economic interesting for large utilizations in the Portuguese scenario.

  16. In vivo cellular uptake of bismuth ions from shotgun pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Stoltenberg, M; Locht, L.; Larsen, Agnete; Jensen, D.

    2003-01-01

    Shotgun pellets containing bismuth (Bi) are widely used and may cause a rather intense exposure of some wild animals to Bi. A Bi shotgun pellet was implanted intramuscularly in the triceps surae muscle of 18 adult male Wistar rats. Another group of 9 animals had a Bi shotgun pellet implanted intracranially in the neocortex. Eight weeks to 12 months later the release of Bi ions was analysed by autometallography (AMG) of tissue sections from different organs (bra...

  17. Depth profiling of irradiated alanine-polymer pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alanine-polyethylene (PE) pellet is used as an alanine/electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimeter in radiation facilities. Using the unique depth profiling capability of Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FT-IR/PAS), the chemical structure of the alanine-PE pellet and its fading reaction after γ-ray irradiation have been studied. It was found that PE concentration of the alanine-PE pellet in a surface or near surface is larger that in a bulk. The products resulting from fading were observed in the bulk alanine-PE pellet irradiated and stored for 6 months at room temperature. (author)

  18. Standard specification for nuclear-grade aluminum oxide pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification applies to pellets of aluminum oxide that may be ultimately used in a reactor core, for example, as filler or spacers within fuel, burnable poison, or control rods. In order to distinguish between the subject pellets and “burnable poison” pellets, it is established that the subject pellets are not intended to be used as neutron-absorbing material. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

  19. A standard procedure for measuring pellet hardness of rodent diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, J E; Locklear, J; Romines, C; Taylor, K A; Yearby, W; Stokes, W S

    1993-10-01

    A Chatillon Model TCM-200 test stand with exchangeable flat horizontal or concave receptacle bases and a DFI-200 gauge load cell with multiple types of upper exchangeable test jaws (large round-flat, medium round-flat, chisel, bullet, and cone-shaped) were compared by using preautoclaved and autoclaved NIH-31 rodent diet pellets to determine which type of hardness testing system would give the most accurate and reproducible results for measuring pellet hardness. The type and size of the contact area of the upper jaws significantly affected the force required to break the pellets. Significant differences were observed between the flat-horizontal and concave receptacle bases in the force required to break the pellets when using the two round-flat upper jaws. In contrast, similar results were obtained with both bases when the bullet, chisel, or cone-shaped upper jaws were used. Autoclaved pellets were 69.4% (range, 49 to 94%) harder than preautoclaved pellets. These results suggest that different testing systems can be used for measuring pellet hardness and that a standard procedure must be used in order to compare pellet hardness results between different testing laboratories. It was concluded that the flat-horizontal base and the larger round-flat end upper jaw gave the most reproducible results for measuring pellet hardness. PMID:8277732

  20. Pellet X-ray spectra for laser fusion reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculated X-ray energy contents, spectra and pulse lengths for a range of simple target designs that include deuterium-tritium fuel surrounded by mercury are given. The calculations start with a compressed pellet core at the time of ignition and the evolution of the burning pellet is followed by using a plasma hydrodynamic-thermonuclear burn-radiative transfer computer code. It is shown that the pellet-released radiation energy contents, spectra and pulse lengths depend upon pellet mass, density and material structure, and total yield. (author)

  1. Fuel compliance model for pellet-cladding mechanical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes two aspects of fuel pellet deformation that play significant roles in determining maximum cladding hoop strains during pellet-cladding mechanical interaction: compliance of fragmented fuel pellets and influence of the pellet end-face design on the transmission of axial compressive force in the fuel stack. The latter aspect affects cladding ridge formation and explains several related observations that cannot be explained by the hourglassing model. An empirical model, called the fuel compliance model and representing the above aspects of fuel deformation, has been developed using the results from two Halden experiments and incorporated into the FRAP-T6 fuel performance code

  2. Characteristics of an electron-beam rocket pellet accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electron-beam rocket pellet accelerator has been designed, built, assembled, and tested as a proof-of-principle (POP) apparatus. The main goal of accelerators based on this concept is to use intense electron-beam heating and ablation of a hydrogen propellant stick to accelerate deuterium and/or tritium pellets to ultrahigh speeds (10 to 20 km/s) for plasma fueling of next-generation fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER). The POP apparatus is described and initial results of pellet acceleration experiments are presented. Conceptual ultrahigh-speed pellet accelerators are discussed. 14 refs., 8 figs

  3. Characteristics of an electron-beam rocket pellet accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.C.; Foster, C.A.; Schechter, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    An electron-beam rocket pellet accelerator has been designed, built, assembled, and tested as a proof-of-principle (POP) apparatus. The main goal of accelerators based on this concept is to use intense electron-beam heating and ablation of a hydrogen propellant stick to accelerate deuterium and/or tritium pellets to ultrahigh speeds (10 to 20 km/s) for plasma fueling of next-generation fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER). The POP apparatus is described and initial results of pellet acceleration experiments are presented. Conceptual ultrahigh-speed pellet accelerators are discussed. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Status of the JET high frequency pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► JET pellet injection system operational for plasma fuelling and ELM pacing. ► Good reliability of the system for Low Field Side injection of fuelling size pellets. ► ELM triggered by small pellets at up to 4.5 times the intrinsic ELM frequency. ► Pellet parameters range leading to a high probability to trigger ELM identified. -- Abstract: A new high frequency pellet injector, part of the JET programme in support of ITER, has been installed on JET at the end of 2007. Its main objective is the mitigation of the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), responsible for unacceptable thermal loads on the wall when their amplitude is too high. The injector was also required to have the capability to inject pellets for plasma fuelling. To reach this double goal, the injector has to be capable to produce and accelerate either small pellets to trigger ELMs (pace making), allowing to control their frequency and thus their amplitude, or large pellets to fuel the plasma. Operational since the beginning of the 2009 JET experimental campaign, the injector, based on the screw extruder technology, suffered from a general degradation of its performance linked to extrusion instability. After modifications of the nozzle assembly, re-commissioning on plasma has been undertaken during the first half of 2012 and successful pellet ELM pacing was achieved, rising the intrinsic ELM frequency up to 4.5 times

  5. EFFECT OF POLYMERS ON DISSOLUTION PROFILE OF VENLAFAXINE HYDROCHLORIDE PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devarajan Krishnarajan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present invention concerns with the development of modified release capsules of Venlafaxine hydrochloride which are designed to modify the drug release by sustained release action.The present study was carried out by advanced pelletization technique. Sustained release capsules of Venlafaxine hydrochloride were formulated by using the pelletization process by drug layering on inert sugar pellets by using sucrose and Hypermellose 606 as a binder. The drug layered pellets were coated by using the HPMC, CMC & with Eudragit grades as a coating material, P.E.G-6000 as a plasticizer, aerosil and magnesium stearate as a glidant & Isopropyl alcohol and water used as solvent materials to sustain the drug release.Formulation of venlafaxine hydrochloride pellets has been done by two stages drug loading and coating. Loading of pellets has been done by coating pan method and the coating has been done by FBC. The coated pellets size and shape is observed during processing.The coated pellets is filled in capsules size no.2 and these pellets were evaluated for appearance ,angle of repose, compressibility, Hausner’s ratio, Friability test, sieve analysis disintegration and dissolution test were performed & capsules were also evaluated for assay, weight variation, content uniformity, disintegration and in-vitro dissolution tests and observed & they are within range. There is no physicochemical interaction between drug and excipient's.

  6. Entrapment of Andrographolide in Cross- Linked Aliginate Pellets: II. Physicochemical Characterization to Study the Pelletization of Andrographolide

    OpenAIRE

    Shariff, Arshia; Manna, PK; Paranjothy, KLK; Manjula, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the characterization of pellets containing andrographolide in two parts. The first part deals with characterization of the pellets to ascertain the identity and integrity of andrographolide. Part two involves characterization of the pellets containing Andrographis paniculata extract (33.3%) prepared in the paper I for their micromeritic properties like Particle size, Particle size distribution, Sphericity measurements like Shape ratio and Aspect ratio, Tapped density, Co...

  7. Breeding tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Jank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd and is the main beef exporter in the world. Cultivated pastures arethe basis for the Brazilian beef production, and occupy an area of 101.4 million hectares. However, very few forage cultivars arecommercially available, and the majority of these are of apomictic reproduction, thus genetically homogeneous. Tropical foragebreeding is at its infancy, but much investment and efforts have been applied in the last three decades and some new cultivars havebeen released. In this paper, origin of different species, modes of reproduction, breeding programs and targets are discussed andthe resulting new cultivars released are presented.

  8. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified

  9. Fuel pellets from biomass - Processing, bonding, raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelte, W.

    2011-12-15

    The present study investigates several important aspects of biomass pelletization. Seven individual studies have been conducted and linked together, in order to push forward the research frontier of biomass pelletization processes. The first study was to investigate influence of the different processing parameters on the pressure built up in the press channel of a pellet mill. It showed that the major factor was the press channel length as well as temperature, moisture content, particle size and extractive content. Furthermore, extractive migration to the pellet surface at an elevated temperature played an important role. The second study presented a method of how key processing parameters can be estimated, based on a pellet model and a small number of fast and simple laboratory trials using a single pellet press. The third study investigated the bonding mechanisms within a biomass pellet, which indicate that different mechanisms are involved depending on biomass type and pelletizing conditions. Interpenetration of polymer chains and close intermolecular distance resulting in better secondary bonding were assumed to be the key factors for high mechanical properties of the formed pellets. The outcome of this study resulted in study four and five investigating the role of lignin glass transition for biomass pelletization. It was demonstrated that the softening temperature of lignin was dependent on species and moisture content. In typical processing conditions and at 8% (wt) moisture content, transitions were identified to be at approximately 53-63 deg. C for wheat straw and about 91 deg. C for spruce lignin. Furthermore, the effects of wheat straw extractives on the pelletizing properties and pellet stability were investigated. The sixth and seventh study applied the developed methodology to test the pelletizing properties of thermally pre-treated (torrefied) biomass from spruce and wheat straw. The results indicated that high torrefaction temperatures above 275 deg

  10. Indian single pellet injection system for plasma fuelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single barrel hydrogen pellet injection system is developed at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India. The injector is able to produce 1.6 mm length × 1.8 mm diameter pellets. The achieved velocity of pellet is in the range of 700 to 900 m/s and is controlled by regulating the propellant pressure. The size and speed of pellet are decided by considering the neutral gas shielding model (NGS) based calculations. The injector is an in-situ pipe gun type injector, in which, a solid hydrogen pellet is formed at the freezing zone maintained at a temperature < 10 K and is accelerated to high speed using high pressure propellant gas. A GM cycle based cryocooler is used to maintain temperature at freezing zone. Proper care has been taken to minimize heat load on freezing zon using MLI. Pellet formed at the freezing zone is dislodged and accelerated to higher speed by using high pressure helium propellant gas through a fast opening valve of (opening duration < 2 millisecond). A three-stage differential pumping system is employed to remove propellant gas from injection line. Appropriate diagnostics is used to measure pellet parameters. Speed of pellet is measured by time of flight measurement using light gate diagnostic system. Pellet quality and its size, and also speed are measured using fast camera based imaging system. A Labview based GUI is used to communicate between control system and Pellet injector. The reliability of pellet formation and injection in present experimental system is greater than 95 %. (author)

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions

  12. Mutation Breeding in Sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present position of sugar industry particularly cane sugar production in the world has been discussed. The role of African Countries which can contribute more than the present 11% to world cane sugar production is presented. The breeding methods employed in cane growing court-tries indicate the biparental crossing and selection in F1 has been the major method used to develop varieties. Due to cytogenetical peculiarities, thousands of seedlings are grown to select the desirable genotype. Mutations or sports has been a source of variation for selection in nature. Induced mutations have only enhanced the mutation rate and has enabled the plant breeders to get better variation for selection. Though many mutagens have been used gamma rays have been most effective. Induced mutations for nonflowering, spineless leaf-sheath, higher sugar content, yield md resistance to diseases like smut and downy mildew have been reported. The methods of making mutated tissues express itself have been indicated. Mutation breeding holds out promise in sugarcane in that the basic variety or genotype can be kept intact and a few characters changed as desired by the plant breeder provided proper selection methods are employed. (author)

  13. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  14. Radiation mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected

  15. The current profile modification in JT-60 pellet injection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current profile modification by the pellet injection has been numerically investigated on JT-60 Tokamak using the diffusion equation of the poloidal magnetic field. The results suggests q(0)<1 during the sawtooth-free phase obtained by high power NB heating of pellet injected plasmas. (author)

  16. Experimental study of curved guide tubes for pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of curved guide tubes for transporting frozen hydrogen pellets offers great flexibility for pellet injection into plasma devices. While this technique has been previously employed, an increased interest in its applicability has been generated with the recent ASDEX Upgrade experimental data for magnetic high-field side (HFS) pellet injection. In these innovative experiments, the pellet penetration appeared to be significantly deeper than for the standard magnetic low-field side injection scheme, along with corresponding greater fueling efficiencies. Thus, some of the major experimental fusion devices are planning experiments with HFS pellet injection. Because of the complex geometries of experimental fusion devices, installations with multiple curved guide tube sections will be required for HFS pellet injection. To more thoroughly understand and document the capability of curved guide tubes, an experimental study is under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In particular, configurations and pellet parameters applicable for the DIII-D tokamak and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were simulated in laboratory experiments. Initial test results with nominal 2.7- and 10-mm-diam deuterium pellets are presented and discussed

  17. Automatic defect identification on PWR nuclear power station fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a new automatic identification technique of structural failures in nuclear green fuel pellet. This technique was developed to identify failures occurred during the fabrication process. It is based on a smart image analysis technique for automatic identification of the failures on uranium oxide pellets used as fuel in PWR nuclear power stations. In order to achieve this goal, an artificial neural network (ANN) has been trained and validated from image histograms of pellets containing examples not only from normal pellets (flawless), but from defective pellets as well (with the main flaws normally found during the manufacturing process). Based on this technique, a new automatic identification system of flaws on nuclear fuel element pellets, composed by the association of image pre-processing and intelligent, will be developed and implemented on the Brazilian nuclear fuel production industry. Based on the theoretical performance of the technology proposed and presented in this article, it is believed that this new system, NuFAS (Nuclear Fuel Pellets Failures Automatic Identification Neural System) will be able to identify structural failures in nuclear fuel pellets with virtually zero error margins. After implemented, the NuFAS will add value to control quality process of the national production of the nuclear fuel.

  18. Ablation of Hydrogen Pellets in Hydrogen and Helium Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L W; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard; Øster, Flemming

    1975-01-01

    Measurements on the interaction between solid hydrogen pellets and rotating plasmas are reported. The investigations were carried out because of the possibility of refuelling fusion reactors by the injection of pellets. The ablation rate found is higher than expected on the basis of a theory...

  19. Numerical analysis of the influence of the fuel pellet shape on the pellet-cladding contact condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the problems of greater concern in nuclear fuels operation is that of pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), since it may be cause of fuel failure. In unfailed claddings, the occurrence of contact with the pellet is generally evidenced by a typical deformation pattern known as bamboo effect. In the present work different pellets' shapes are proposed, all of them with a chamfer next to the top and bottom surfaces. The performance of these pellets design is simulated with a numerical code, DIONISIO, previously developed in this working group, which makes use of the finite elements method. It provides the temperature, stress and strain distribution and the inventory of fission gases by analyzing phenomena like thermal expansion, elasticity, plasticity, creep, irradiation growth, PCI, swelling and densification. The pellets' design tested are grouped into two types: those with a straight chamfer running from the central pellet plane to both extremes (R-type pellets) and those with the chamfer occupying one quarter of the pellet's height leaving a central ring of the standard, cylindrical shape (M-type pellets). Different chamfer depths were numerically tested. It was found that the gap increase associated with the introduction of a deep chamfer is responsible for a significant temperature increment. But chamfers which leave a gap of 110 to 150 μm (assuming a normal fuel element with a gap 90 μm thick) gave place to pellets with an adequate thermal response and, moreover, the disappearance of the bamboo effect or even the appearance of an inverse effect, that is, pellets which make contact with the cladding in the region around its middle plane. (author)

  20. Advanced Doped UO2 Pellets in LWR Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry strives to reduce the fuel cycle cost, enhance flexibility and improve the reliability of operation. This can be done by both increasing the fuel weight and optimizing rod internal properties that affect operational margins. Further, there is focus on reducing the consequences of fuel failures. To meet these demands Westinghouse has developed ADOPT (Advanced Doped Pellet Technology) UO2 fuel containing additions of chromium and aluminium oxides. This paper presents results from the extensive investigation program which covered examinations of doped and reference standard pellets both in the manufactured and irradiated states. The additives facilitate pellet densification during sintering and enlarge the pellet grain size. The final manufactured doped pellets reach about 0.5% higher density within a shorter sintering time and a five fold larger grain size compared with standard UO2 fuel pellets. The physical properties of the pellets, including heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, melting temperature, thermal diffusivity, have been investigated and differences between the doped and standard UO2 pellets are small. The in-reactor performance of the ADOPT pellets has been investigated in pool-side and hot cell Post Irradiation Examinations (PIEs), as well as in the Studsvik R2 test reactor. The investigations have identified three areas of improved operational behaviour: Reduced fission gas release, improved PCI performance thanks to increased pellet plasticity and higher resistance against post-failure degradation. Fuel segments have been exposed to ramp tests and enhanced power steady-state operation in the Studsvik R2 reactor after base-irradiation to above 30 MWd/kgU in a commercial BWR. ADOPT reveals up to 50% lower fission gas release than standard UO2 pellets. The fuel degradation behaviour has been studied in two oxidizing tests, a thermal-microbalance test and an erosion test under irradiation. The tests show that ADOPT pellets

  1. Calculation of density profiles in tandem mirrors fueled by pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have modified the LLNL radial transport code TMT to model reactor regime plasmas, fueled by pellets. The source profiles arising from pellet fueling are obtained from existing pellet ablation models. Because inward radial diffusion due to inverted profiles must compete with trapping of central cell ions in the transition region for tandem mirrors, pellets must penetrate fairly far into the plasma. In fact, based on our radial calculations, a pellet with a velocity of 10 km/sec cannot sustain the central flux tubes; a velocity more like 100 km/sec will be necessary. We also find that the central cell radial diffusion must exceed classical by about a factor of 100

  2. Straw pellets as fuel in biomass combustion units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreasen, P.; Larsen, M.G. [Danish Technological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    In order to estimate the suitability of straw pellets as fuel in small combustion units, the Danish Technological Institute accomplished a project including a number of combustion tests in the energy laboratory. The project was part of the effort to reduce the use of fuel oil. The aim of the project was primarily to test straw pellets in small combustion units, including the following: ash/slag conditions when burning straw pellets; emission conditions; other operational consequences; and necessary work performance when using straw pellets. Five types of straw and wood pellets made with different binders and antislag agents were tested as fuel in five different types of boilers in test firings at 50% and 100% nominal boiler output.

  3. Method for sampling nuclear fuel pellets with a robot gripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a method of gently burrowing angularly displaced gripping fingers into a stack of nuclear fuel pellets and grasping a pellet located at a predetermined depth in the stack. It comprises: lowering the fingers into the stack of pellets toward the predetermined depth therein; rotating the fingers in a first direction relative to the stack and at a first predetermined speed concurrently as the fingers are being lowered into the stack; pausing the lowering of the fingers; rotating the fingers in a second direction opposite to the first direction relative to the stack and at a second predetermined speed faster than the first speed concurrently as the fingers are paused; repeating first four steps until the desired predetermined depth is reached; and closing the fingers upon reaching the predetermined depth to grasp a pellet located at the depth in the stack of pellets

  4. Finite Element Modeling of Pellet-Clat Mechanical Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet-clad interaction is one of the operational problems encountered in nuclear industry. Failure of fuel elements due to pellet-clad interactions in a significant release of radioactivity to coolant. This in turn may be cause more serious safety problems. Nuclear industry is seeking solution to avoid such problems. On the other hand mechanisms for the development of pellet-clad interactions are not well understood. In this study, mechanical part of pellet-clad interaction is analyzed with a simple model based on finite element analysis. General Electric BWR/6 fuel element is used to provide model parameters. Coupled thermal and mechanical analyses of fuel element are performed using a general purpose finite element software ANSYS. In the model, pellet-clad interactions are created by considering certain contact points with various sizes. local parameters such as temperature, strain, and stress are calculated. Results are used to make an essessment of operational conditions

  5. Ablation of hydrogen ice pellet in JT-60 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablation of hydrogen ice pellet in the JT-60 plasma was calculated by ORNL pellet ablation code, which employs a neutral gas shielding model. An optimum scheme to produce central peaked ne profile of ne(O) = 2 X 10∼3 and ne(O)/e> ∼ 3 in the ohmic discharge appears to be a pellet injection with the pellet size of 3.4 mm diameter and velocity of 2 km/s. Under the assumption of electron heat diffusivity Xe = 2 x 1019/ne (m2/s), the 1-D tokamak code (LIBRARY) predicts ∼ 30 % increment of fusion multiplication (Q) for pellet fueled peaked density profile compared with gas fueled discharge. (author)

  6. A pellet tracking system for hadron physics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyszniak A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Frozen microspheres of hydrogen (pellets are used as targets in the hadron physics experiment WASA (Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany [1] and will also be used in the future PANDA experiment at FAIR (GSI, Darmstadt, Germany [2]. The interaction region is defined by the overlap of the pellet stream and the accelerator beam and has a size of a few millimeters. One would like to know the interaction point more precisely, to have better possibility to reconstruct particle tracks and events. One would also like to suppress background events that do not originate in a pellet, but e.g. may occur in residual gas in the beam pipe. A solution is provided by the presented pellet tracking system, for which a prototype [3] has been developed in Uppsala. The goal is to track individual pellets in order to know their position at the time of an interaction. The design of such a system, simulation techniques and results are presented.

  7. Upgrade of JT-60 pellet injector for higher velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet injection experiments have been performed to improve the plasma performance by the JT-60 tokamak from June, 1988. From the results of the experiments, it was found that the plasma confinement time increased up to 40% with pellet injection (velocity over 1.5 km/s), in which was obtained with 10 MW neutral beam injection highly peaked electron density profile. The experimental results suggested that improvement of the plasma confinement time depends on the penetration depth of the pellet into the plasma column, especially into 'q2 to 100 kg/cm2 and from 80degC to 200degC respectively. The upgraded pellet injector can inject, independently, four pellets, two of which are 3.0 mm in diameter x 3.0 mm in length and the other two of which are 4.0 mm in diameter x 4.0 mm in length. (author)

  8. Improved pellet charge exchange measurements in Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pellet charge exchange technique (PCX), which is a combination of the compact neutral particle analyzer and an impurity pellet, is a unique method to observe the radial energetic particle distribution. There are not only charge exchange reactions between the hydrogen in the pellet and a proton, but also between the partially ionized carbon in the pellet and the proton. The neutralization factor from energetic ion to neutral particle could be deduced from the electron temperature and the electron density of the pellet cloud. The radial profiles of energetic particle distribution were measured and compared in various ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICH) plasmas. The energetic particle flux significantly increased at the resonance layer created by the ICH. PCX provides more precise information about the resonance layer than conventional neutral particle diagnostics. (author)

  9. Method for solidification and disposal of radioactive pellet waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To form radioactive waste into pellet, which is impregnated with plastic monomer for polymerization, and then packed into a drum can to have gaps between composites filled with cement, mortar, and molten asphalt, thus increasing water resistance and strength. Structure: Radioactive powdery bodies discharged from a thin film scaraping drier are formed into pellets in the desired shape. The thus pelletized radioactive solid waste is impregnated with a fluid plastic monomer such as styrene monomer and methacrylacidmethyl, and a polymerization accelerator is added thereto for polymerization. As a consequence, a composite pellet of powdery solid waste and plastic may be obtained. This is packed into the drum can container, into which cement paste, cement mortar or molten asphalt are put to fill the space between the plastic pellet composites, thus obtaining a solidified body integral with the drum can. (Taniai, N.)

  10. ["Piggyback" shot: ballistic parameters of two simultaneously discharged airgun pellets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Matthias; Schönekess, Holger C; Grossjohann, Rico; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Bockholdt, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Green and Good reported an uncommon case of homicide committed with an air rifle in 1982 (Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol. 3: 361-365). The fatal wound was unusual in that two airgun pellets were loaded in so-called "piggyback" fashion into a single shot air rifle. Lack of further information on the ballistic characteristics of two airgun pellets as opposed to one conventionally loaded projectile led to this investigation. The mean kinetic energy (E) of the two pellets discharged in "piggyback" fashion was E = 3.6 J and E = 3.4 J, respectively. In comparison, average kinetic energy values of E = 12.5 J were calculated for conventionally discharged single diabolo pellets. Test shots into ballistic soap confirmed the findings of a single entrance wound as reported by Green and Good. While the ballistic background of pellets discharged in "piggyback" fashion could be clarified, the reason behind this mode of shooting remains unclear. PMID:24855739

  11. Tritium pellet injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma phase. An existing deuterium pellet injector (DPI) was modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed for frozen pellets ranging in size from 3 to 4 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at tritium pellet speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were also made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI has been installed and operated on TFTR in support of the CY-92 deuterium plasma run period. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and tritium gloveboxes and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

  12. Emissions from small scale combustion of pelletized wood fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combustion of wood pellets in small scale heating systems with an effect below 20 kW has increased. During the winter season 1995/96 1500 small plants for heating houses are estimated to be in operation. Stack emissions from three pellet burners and two pellet stoves have been studied at laboratory. Different pellet qualities were tested. When the fraction of fines increased also the NOx emissions increased with about 10 %. As reference fuel 8 mm pellets was used. Tests with 6 mm pellets gave, in most cases, significant lower emissions of CO and THC. Eleven stoves, burners and boilers were studied in a field test. The results show that all the plants generally have higher emissions in the field than during conditions when the plants are adjusted with a stack gas monitoring instrument. A conclusion is that it is difficult for the operator to adjust the plant without a monitoring instrument. The emissions from the tested plants give an estimation of stack gas emissions from small scale pellet plants. The difference between the 'best' and 'worst' technologies is big. The span of emissions with the best technology to the worst is given below. The interval is concerning normal combustion . During abnormal conditions the emissions are on a significant higher level: * CO 80-1 000 mg/MJ; * Tar 0,3-19 mg/MJ; * THC (as methane equivalents) 2-100 mg/MJ; * NOx 50-70 mg/W;, and * Dust emissions 20-40 mg/MJ. Emissions from pellets heating are lower than from wood combustion and the best technology is close to the emission from oil burners. Wood and pellets have the same origin but the conditions to burn them in an environmental friendly way differ. Combustion of pellets could be improved through improved control of the air and fuel ratio that will create more stable conditions for the combustion

  13. Dissolution experiments of unirradiated uranium dioxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to measure the dissolution rate of uranium from unirradiated uranium dioxide pellets in deionized water and natural groundwater. Moreover, the solubility limit of uranium in natural groundwater was measured. Two different temperatures, 25 and 60 deg C were used. The low oxygen content of deep groundwater was simulated. The dissolution rate of uranium varied from 10-7 to 10-8 g cm-2 d-1. The rate in reionized water was one order of magnitude lower than in groundwater. No great difference was observed between the natural groundwaters with different composition. Temperature seems to have effect on the dissolution rate. The solubility limit of uranium in natural groundwater in reducing conditions, at 25 deg C, varied from 20 to 600 μg/l and in oxidizing conditions, at 60 deg C, from 4 to 17 mg/l

  14. Method of fabricating nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To use uranium tetraoxide as a pore forming agent thereby to produce UO2 nuclear fuel pellets having stable pores almost not liable to shrink by heat or radiation during the operation of the reactor. Method: UO2 powder, alone or added with a Gd2O3 powder up to 6% of the former as a neutron absorber, is mixed with 5 to 15% based on mixed powder of UO4, nH2O powder of 10 to 325 meshes. Thus obtained mixed powder is pressed, formed, and sintered. In the sintering process, UO4.nH2O gradually loses its crystal water, and is converted into UO2, it shrinks and pores remain in the sintered body. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Confirmation methods of radioactive wastes of the type of pellet-granule and pellet solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, low-level radioactive wastes generated from the nuclear power plants are packed into 200-litter drums and conveyed and stored at the underground disposal facility of Rokkasho Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant. The waste drums generally contain homogeneously solidified waste materials which have been prepared from concentrated radionuclide solutions by adding cement, asphalt, or plastics. Before disposal the content must be confirmed and checked up according to the authorized standardization and disposal criteria. The present report describes some guidelines for the case of waste type of pellet-granule and pellet solid. The confirmation method for the utility of Scaling Factors is discussed and described on the ground of investigation at the technical task committee. (S. Ohno)

  16. Review: study of single-pellet injection experiments and development of pellet injector in JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single pellet injector developed for JFT-2M and the improvement of plasma characteristics in the auxiliary-heated discharges by single-pellet injection are reviewed for the period 1982 - 1986. The pellet injector is a pneumatic type and the designed pellet size is 1.65 mmD x 1.65 mmL and 1 mmD x 1 mmL. The hydrogen, deuterium and mixed (H2 + D2) pellets can be produced with good reproducibility. Maximum pellet velocity is about 970 m/s (pellet is deuterium and propellant gas is hydrogen). In the pellet injection experiments into auxiliary-heated (NB, ICRF) divertor or limiter discharges, the plasma confinement time is improved by a factor of 1.4 - 1.7 compared with the confinement time in the Ohmic discharges. The achieved confinement time is longer than that on the high confinement mode (H-mode) in gas fueled discharges, although the phenomena are transient. (author)

  17. Mutation breeding of ornamental plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1988-03-01

    The outline of registered ornamental cultivars bred up by mutation breeding, the applied methods, and the radiosensitivity of air-dried seeds among ornamental plants are described. The mutation breeding of ornamental plants has not yet become a familiar means like cross breeding or line separation. But the number of the cultivars bred up by mutation breeding reached more than 270, and took a relatively large proportion of about 40 % of the agronomic cultivars bred up by mutation breeding in the world. The number of the species to which those improved cultivars belong is only 22. Considering the abundance of ornamental plant species and the successful results of mutation breeding in this field, mutation breeding techniques will be applied to many species which remain in the rudimentary stage or have never tried them. It is hoped that the information presented in this paper contributes to the promising future of ornamental plant breeding as the suggestion. Especially in ornamental plants, many spontaneously occurred novel mutants have been sought and treasured for a long time. Such mutants actually enriched the variety of flower colors, shapes and many other important characters required for being ornamentally valuable. (Kako, I.).

  18. Over-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Greenhouse Effect has fuzzy parameters, as do the consequences of acid rain, accidental nuclear fallout, deforestation, even the depletion of oil and natural gas reserves, and other threatening calamities. But the consequences of human over-breeding do not fall within fuzzy parameters. Reliable demographic studies predict a world population by the year 2020 of twice the present four billion or so living human beings. Some of us will see that year. But the population will again have doubled by the year 2090: sixteen billion people. The author suggests in this paper some morally permissible steps that might be taken to circumvent what otherwise is most assuredly an impending world tragedy. We have an ethical obligation to future generations. They have the moral right to a qualitatively fulfilling life, not just on allotted number of years. Some of my suggestions will not be palatable to some readers. But I urge those readers seriously to consider and if possible, hopefully, to propose alternatives

  19. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  20. Post irradiation examination experience of hollow pellets for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to increase flexibility of the reactor operation mode, a high performance fuel has ben investigated in Japan. Hollow fuel pellets are adopted as a design improvement for the mitigation of pellet cladding interaction (PCI) by decreasing the fuel pellet temperature during irradiation. The high performance 17x17 B type PWR fuel was supplied by Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. (NFI) and achieved a burnup of 34.3 GWd/t after 2 cycles of irradiation under normal operating conditions in Ohi Unit 2 of the Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc. (Kansai). The irradiation test program of the high performance fuel was conducted by Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) under sponsorship of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) from 1981 to 1993. After completion of irradiation, the high performance fuel assembly was transported to the hot cell facility at Japan Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in Tokai-mura. Nondestructive and destructive examinations were performed on standard and improved fuel rods. In order to evaluate the ridging deformation, the cladding outer diameter profile of these fuel rods was measured. Ridging deformation of the hollow fuel pellets was smaller than in the standard fuel pellets. Gamma scanning was performed by measuring the total γ-ray intensity and specific nuclides' intensity. The axial distribution of the γ-ray intensity was fairly flat within the measured active region of each fuel rod. The puncture test was performed for the evaluation of fission gas release (FGR) and fuel rod internal pressure. The FGR of fuel pellets showed no significant difference between the two types of fuel pellets, but the internal pressure increase in the hollow pellet fuel rods was slightly lower than that of the standard ones. This is due to the greater free volume in the hollow pellet fuel rods as fabricated. The density change and microstructure of the hollow fuel pellets after irradiation were compared to the standard pellets. There was

  1. Numerical investigations of the WASA pellet target operation and proposal of a new technique for the PANDA pellet target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varentsov, Victor L., E-mail: v.varentsov@gsi.de [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-01

    The conventional nozzle vibration technique of the hydrogen micro-droplet generation that is supposed to be used for internal pellet target production for the future PANDA experiment at the international FAIR facility in Darmstadtfor is described. The operation of this technique has been investigated by means of detailed computer simulations. Results of calculations for the geometry and operation conditions of the WASA pellet generator are presented and discussed. We have found that for every given pellet size, there is a set of operation parameters where the efficiency of the WASA hydrogen pellet target operation is considerably increased. Moreover, the results of presented computer simulations clearly show that the future PANDA pellet target setup can be realized with the use of much smaller (and cheaper) vacuum pumps than those used at present in the WASA hydrogen pellet target. To qualitatively improve the PANDA hydrogen pellet target performance we have proposed the use of a novel flow focusing method of Ganan-Calvo and Barreto (1997,1999) combined with the use of conventional vacuum injection capillary. Possibilities of this approach for the PANDA pellet target production have been also explored by means of computer simulations. The results of these simulations show that the use of this new approach looks very promising and in particular, there is no need here to use of expensive ultra-pure hydrogen to prevent nozzle clogging or freezing up due to impurities and it will allow simple, fast, smooth and a wide range of change of pellet sizes in accordance with requirements of different experiments at the PANDA detector. In this article we also propose and describe the idea of a new technique to break up a liquid microjet into microdroplets using a process of liquid jet evaporation under pulsed laser beam irradiation. This technique should be experimentally checked before it may be used in the design of the future PANDA pellet target setup.

  2. Numerical investigations of the WASA pellet target operation and proposal of a new technique for the PANDA pellet target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional nozzle vibration technique of the hydrogen micro-droplet generation that is supposed to be used for internal pellet target production for the future PANDA experiment at the international FAIR facility in Darmstadtfor is described. The operation of this technique has been investigated by means of detailed computer simulations. Results of calculations for the geometry and operation conditions of the WASA pellet generator are presented and discussed. We have found that for every given pellet size, there is a set of operation parameters where the efficiency of the WASA hydrogen pellet target operation is considerably increased. Moreover, the results of presented computer simulations clearly show that the future PANDA pellet target setup can be realized with the use of much smaller (and cheaper) vacuum pumps than those used at present in the WASA hydrogen pellet target. To qualitatively improve the PANDA hydrogen pellet target performance we have proposed the use of a novel flow focusing method of Ganan-Calvo and Barreto (1997,1999) combined with the use of conventional vacuum injection capillary. Possibilities of this approach for the PANDA pellet target production have been also explored by means of computer simulations. The results of these simulations show that the use of this new approach looks very promising and in particular, there is no need here to use of expensive ultra-pure hydrogen to prevent nozzle clogging or freezing up due to impurities and it will allow simple, fast, smooth and a wide range of change of pellet sizes in accordance with requirements of different experiments at the PANDA detector. In this article we also propose and describe the idea of a new technique to break up a liquid microjet into microdroplets using a process of liquid jet evaporation under pulsed laser beam irradiation. This technique should be experimentally checked before it may be used in the design of the future PANDA pellet target setup.

  3. Numerical investigations of the WASA pellet target operation and proposal of a new technique for the PANDA pellet target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varentsov, Victor L.

    2011-08-01

    The conventional nozzle vibration technique of the hydrogen micro-droplet generation that is supposed to be used for internal pellet target production for the future PANDA experiment at the international FAIR facility in Darmstadtfor is described. The operation of this technique has been investigated by means of detailed computer simulations. Results of calculations for the geometry and operation conditions of the WASA pellet generator are presented and discussed. We have found that for every given pellet size, there is a set of operation parameters where the efficiency of the WASA hydrogen pellet target operation is considerably increased. Moreover, the results of presented computer simulations clearly show that the future PANDA pellet target setup can be realized with the use of much smaller (and cheaper) vacuum pumps than those used at present in the WASA hydrogen pellet target. To qualitatively improve the PANDA hydrogen pellet target performance we have proposed the use of a novel flow focusing method of Gañán-Calvo and Barreto (1997,1999) [28,30] combined with the use of conventional vacuum injection capillary. Possibilities of this approach for the PANDA pellet target production have been also explored by means of computer simulations. The results of these simulations show that the use of this new approach looks very promising and in particular, there is no need here to use of expensive ultra-pure hydrogen to prevent nozzle clogging or freezing up due to impurities and it will allow simple, fast, smooth and a wide range of change of pellet sizes in accordance with requirements of different experiments at the PANDA detector. In this article we also propose and describe the idea of a new technique to break up a liquid microjet into microdroplets using a process of liquid jet evaporation under pulsed laser beam irradiation. This technique should be experimentally checked before it may be used in the design of the future PANDA pellet target setup.

  4. Organic Plant Breeding: Achievements, Opportunities, and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Horneburg, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to highlight some successful approaches to organic plant breeding and to encourage the organic movement to engage in an increasing number of organic breeding and organic breeding research projects.

  5. Hybrid pellets: an improved concept for fabrication of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of fabricating fuel pellets using gel-derived microspheres as press feed was evaluated. By using gel-derived microspheres as press feed, the potential exists for eliminating dusty operations like milling, slugging, and granulation, from the pelleting process. The free-flowing character of the spheres should also result in limited dust generation during powder transport and pressing operations. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that fuel pellets can be successfully fabricated on a laboratory scale using UO2 gel microspheres as press feed. Under moderate sintering conditions, 1,5000C for 4 h in Ar-4% H2, UO2 pellets with densities up to 96% TD were fabricated. A range of pellet microstructures and densities were achieved depending on sphere forming and calcining conditions. Based on these results, a set of necessary sphere properties are suggested: O/U less than 2.20, crystallite size less than 500 A, specific surface area greater than 8 m2/g, and sphere size 200 and 400 μm. Preliminary attempts to fabricate ThO2 and ThO2-UO2 pellets using microspheres were unsuccessful because the requisite sphere properties were not achieved. Areas requiring additional development include: demonstration of the process on scaled-up equipment suitable for use in a remote fuel fabrication facility and evaluation of the irradiation performance of pellet fuels from gel-spheres

  6. Consolidated waste forms: glass marbles and ceramic pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass marbles and ceramic pellets have been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the multibarrier concept for immobilizing high-level radioactive waste. These consolidated waste forms served as substrates for the application of various inert coatings and as ideal-sized particles for encapsulation in protective matrices. Marble and pellet formulations were based on existing defense wastes at Savannah River Plant and proposed commercial wastes. To produce marbles, glass is poured from a melter in a continuous stream into a marble-making device. Marbles were produced at PNL on a vibratory marble machine at rates as high as 60 kg/h. Other marble-making concepts were also investigated. The marble process, including a lead-encapsulation step, was judged as one of the more feasible processes for immobilizing high-level wastes. To produce ceramic pellets, a series of processing steps are required, which include: spray calcining - to dry liquid wastes to a powder; disc pelletizing - to convert waste powders to spherical pellets; sintering - to densify pellets and cause desired crystal formation. These processing steps are quite complex, and thereby render the ceramic pellet process as one of the least feasible processes for immobilizing high-level wastes

  7. Consolidated waste forms: glass marbles and ceramic pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treat, R.L.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-05-01

    Glass marbles and ceramic pellets have been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the multibarrier concept for immobilizing high-level radioactive waste. These consolidated waste forms served as substrates for the application of various inert coatings and as ideal-sized particles for encapsulation in protective matrices. Marble and pellet formulations were based on existing defense wastes at Savannah River Plant and proposed commercial wastes. To produce marbles, glass is poured from a melter in a continuous stream into a marble-making device. Marbles were produced at PNL on a vibratory marble machine at rates as high as 60 kg/h. Other marble-making concepts were also investigated. The marble process, including a lead-encapsulation step, was judged as one of the more feasible processes for immobilizing high-level wastes. To produce ceramic pellets, a series of processing steps are required, which include: spray calcining - to dry liquid wastes to a powder; disc pelletizing - to convert waste powders to spherical pellets; sintering - to densify pellets and cause desired crystal formation. These processing steps are quite complex, and thereby render the ceramic pellet process as one of the least feasible processes for immobilizing high-level wastes.

  8. Production and Innovative Applications of Cryogenic Solid Pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over two decades Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing cryogenic pellet injectors for fueling hot, magnetic fusion plasmas. Cryogenic solid pellets of all three hydrogen isotopes have been produced in a size range of 1- to 10-mm diameter and accelerated to speeds from <100 to ∼3000 m/s. The pellets have been formed discretely by cryocondensation in gun barrels and also by extrusion of cryogenic solids at mass flow rates up to ∼0.26 g/s and production rates up to ten pellets per second. The pellets traverse the hot plasma in a fraction of a millisecond and continuously ablate, providing fresh hydrogenic fuel to the interior of the plasma. From this initial application, uses of this technology have expanded to include (1) cryogenic xenon drops or solids for use as a debris-less target in a laser plasma source of X-rays for advanced lithography systems, (2) solid argon and carbon dioxide pellets for surface cleaning or decontamination, and (3) methane pellets in a liquid hydrogen bath for use as an innovative moderator of cold neutrons. Methods of production and acceleration/transport of these cryogenic solids will be described, and examples will be given of their use in prototype systems

  9. Laser driven pellet refuelling for JET (and reactor) uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published estimates of pellet sizes and velocities required to refuel JET and post-JET experiments are summarized. Possible advantages and difficulties of accelerating solid, unconstrained hydrogenic (and also jacketed) pellets to these velocities using laser techniques are then discussed. An essential problem to be solved is adequate axial guidance of the pellet during its acceleration, since laser pulse durations of many sound-transit times (in the solid D2) are necessary to avoid shock-heating the pellet. It is shown that Culham's multikilojoule CO2 TROJAN laser facility is well suited to testing many of the concepts proposed. In particular it is shown that successful verification, and subsequent optimization, of such (novel) techniques would permit single shot tests of contemporary pellet ablation theories by the injection of approximately 1 mm diameter D2 pellets at velocities 6 cm s-1 into the JET plasma. Means for scaling these techniques to repetition rates of order 10 Hz, and to the 1 cm pellet diameters possibly required in a working Tokamak reactor, are also discussed. (author)

  10. Pellet-Clad Mechanical Interaction Analysis with ANSYS Mechanical Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet-Clad Mechanical Interaction (PCMI) has been known as a potential threat in fuel cladding integrity during power ramp conditions and high burn-up scenario. As the fuel outer surface contact with clad inner surface, the local stress become increased. Moreover, fuel pellet have much higher temperature in operation and have much greater expansion effects than clad, which occur additional contact pressure on clad inner surface, the cladding pellet deforms into a shape reflecting that of the pellet. This mechanical interaction between fuel pellet and clad depends on gap size, burn-up, friction coefficient between clad and pellet. Moreover, recent field result shows that nearly PCI-induced failures are thought to have developed at a missing pellet surface (MPS), where the tangential stress has its maximum and the cladding temperature has its minimum. For the additional study on PCMI, it is very important and valuable to find geometric parameters of MPS which make critical safety issue on cladding material safety. Followings are result and conclusion of the parametric studies

  11. Fecal Pellet Flux in the Mesopelagic Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koweek, D.; Shatova, O.; Conte, M. H.; Weber, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Oceanic Flux Program (OFP), located 75km SE of Bermuda, is the longest running sediment trap time-series of its kind, continually collecting deep sea particle flux since 1978. Recent application of digital microphotography to the size-fractionated OFP sediment trap material has generated a wealth of new quantitative visual information on particle flux composition, its changes with depth, and its temporal variability. We examined the fecal pellet flux at 1500m depth using image analysis of digital archives, in conjunction with data on the overlying surface ocean from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM) and the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) programs, to investigate the role of mesoscale physical forcing on mesopelagic particle flux variability. During 2007, a productive cyclonic eddy, a mode water eddy and an anticyclonic eddy passed over the OFP site. Fecal pellet flux was enhanced during passage of both the cyclonic and mode water eddies. Total mass flux (TMF) was also enhanced during the productive cyclonic eddy, but was not influenced by the passage of the mode water eddy. No increase in fecal pellet flux or TMF was apparent during passage of the anticyclonic eddy despite indications of increased zooplankton abundance from ADCP backscatter intensity. Fecal pellet size frequency distributions indicate the presence of two, and sometimes three, distinct size classes. No seasonal trend in mean size of fecal pellets was observed for any size class, implying that the size distribution of the zooplankton populations producing the pellets is relatively constant throughout the year. We also investigated fecal pellet flux changes with depth at 500, 1500 and 3200m. Fecal pellet flux, and the fecal pellet contribution to TMF, were greatest at 500m and decreased with depth. The use of quantitative image analysis holds great potential as a powerful analytical tool in studies of marine particulate flux.

  12. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M1. At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth

  13. Pelleted waste form for high-level ICPP wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulated zirconia-type calcined waste is pelletized on a 41-cm diameter disc pelletizer using 5% bentonite, 2% metakaolin, and 2% boric acid as a solid binder and 7M phosphoric plus 4M nitric acid as a liquid binder. After heat treatment at 8000C for 2 hours the pellets are impact resistant and have a leach resistance of 10-4 g/cm2 . day, based on Soxhlet leaching for 100 hours at 950C with distilled water. An integrated pilot plant is being fabricated to verify the process. 1 figure, 4 tables

  14. Nuclear fuel pellets which can be axially aligned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal concerns the shaping of nuclear fuel pellets which are applied as a fuel column, piled up one upon the other in a tube-shaped nuclear fuel can. As damages may occur at the junctions of the fuel material, if the particles are not perfectly aligned, there are made proposals according to the invention concerning the shaping of the opposite end surfaces of the nuclear fuel pellets, which are to facilitate a correct axial alignment. In 48 sub-claims and 22 drawings there is mentioned a multitude of designs which mostly have got an elevated region of convex shape in the center of the end surface of the pellet. (UA)

  15. Mutation breeding by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zengliang; Deng, Jianguo; He, Jianjun; Huo, Yuping; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Xuedong; Lui, Guifu

    1991-07-01

    Ion implantation as a new mutagenic method has been used in the rice breeding program since 1986, and for mutation breeding of other crops later. It has been shown, in principle and in practice, that this method has many outstanding advantages: lower damage rate; higher mutation rate and wider mutational spectrum. Many new lines of rice with higher yield rate; broader disease resistance; shorter growing period but higher quality have been bred from ion beam induced mutants. Some of these lines have been utilized for the intersubspecies hybridization. Several new lines of cotton, wheat and other crops are now in breeding. Some biophysical effects of ion implantation for crop seeds have been studied.

  16. Safflower: genetics and breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of genetic studies related to the breeding of improved cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) indicated that it was possible to modify the following over a wide range: duration of the rosette stage, stem length, branching habit, degree of spininess, head number, head size, flower morphology, mating system, seed size, hull thickness and thereby oil and protein contents, and fatty acid composition of the oil. Safflower breeders have concentrated most of their efforts on identifying and evaluating the great range of variability in cultivated safflower and its closely related wild species, and not on exploring means to increase variability. Limited experiments with gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate indicated that additional variability could be induced. Mutagenic agents should be used to obtain the following: resistance to foliar diseases where resistant germplasm is not available, increased levels of resistance to Phytophthora root rot, resistance to dodder and orobanche, resistance to insect pests, earlier maturity, and additional modifications in the fatty acid composition of the oil. (author)

  17. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parent varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 had been used in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight.

  18. Gas Flow Distribution in Pelletizing Shaft Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jiu-ju; DONG Hui; WANG Guo-sheng; YANG Jun

    2006-01-01

    Through thermal test, cold state experiment, analysis and simulation of thermal process, the gas flow distribution in pelletizing shaft furnace (PSF) was discussed. The results show that there are five flowing trends; among them, the downward roasting gas and the upward cooling gas are the most unsteady, which influence flow distribution greatly. Among the operating parameters, the ratio of inflow is a key factor affecting the flow distribution. The roasting and cooling gases will entirely flow into the roasting zone and internal vertical air channels (IVAC), respectively, if the ratio of inflow is critical. From such a critical operating condition increasing roasting gas flow or decreasing cooling gas flow, the roasting gas starts flowing downwards so as to enter the inside of IVAC; the greater the ratio of inflow, the larger the downward flowrate. Among constructional parameters, the width of roasting zone b1, width of IVAC b2 and width of cooling zone b3, and the height of roasting zone h1, height of soaking zone h2 and height of cooling zone h3 are the main factors affecting flow distribution. In case the ratio of b2/b1, or h3/h2, or h1/h2 is increased, the upward cooling gas tends to decrease while the downward roasting gas tends to increase with a gradual decrease in the ratio of inflow.

  19. ECOLOGY OF NON-BREEDING AND BREEDING CRESTED CARACARAS (CARACARA CHERIWAY) IN FLORIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Dwyer, James Fitzgerald

    2010-01-01

    Like many species, Floridaâ s population of Northern Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway, hereafter â caracaraâ ) is likely declining due to loss of breeding habitat. Consequently, management-oriented restrictions on landscape modification are applied where breeding occurs, but management rarely is extended beyond breeding areas. Focusing management on breeding areas can be effective if all caracaras occupy breeding areas, all breeding areas are detected, and no intermittent breeding oc...

  20. Energetic ion diagnostics using neutron flux measurements during pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron measurements during injection of deuterium pellets into deuterium plasmas on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) indicate that the fractional increase in neutron emission about 0.5 msec after pellet injection is proportional to the fraction of beam-plasma reactions to total fusion reactions in the unperturbed plasma. These observations suggest three diagnostic applications of neutron measurements during pellet injection: (1) measurement of the beam-plasma reaction rate in deuterium plasmas for use in determining the fusion Q in an equivalent deuterium-tritium plasma, (2) measurement of the radial profile of energetic beam ions by varying the pellet size and velocity, and (3) measurement of the ''temperature'' of ions accelerated during wave heating. 18 refs., 3 figs

  1. Nuclear fuel, pellet inspection using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel must be of high quality before being placed into service in a reactor. Fuel vendors currently use manual inspection for quality control of fabricated nuclear fuel pellets. In order to reduce workers' exposure to radiation and increase the inspection accuracy and speed, the feasibility of automation of fuel pellet inspection using artificial neural networks (ANNs) is studied in this paper. Three kinds of neural network architectures are examined for evaluation of the ANN performance in proper classification of good versus bad pellets. Two supervised neural networks, backpropagation and fuzzy ARTMAP, and one unsupervised neural network called ART2-A are applied. The results indicate that a supervised ANN with adequate training can achieve a high success rate in classification of fuel pellets. (orig.)

  2. Backfilling of deposition tunnels: Use of bentonite pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of knowledge related to use of bentonite pellets as part of backfill or other gap filling components in repository applications is reviewed. How the pellets interact with adjacent sealing materials and the surrounding rock mass is a critical aspect in determining backfill behaviour. The key features and processes that determine how the pellet component of the KBS-3V deposition tunnel backfill will behave are discussed and recommendations related to what additional information needs to be developed are provided. Experiences related to pellet material composition, size, shape, placement options and more importantly, the density to which they can be placed all indicate that there are significant limitations to the achievable as-placed density of bentonite pellet fill. Low as-placed density of the pellet fill component of the backfill is potentially problematic as the outermost regions of tunnel backfill will be the first region of the backfill to be contacted by water entering the tunnels. It is also through this region that initial water movement along the length of the deposition tunnels will occur. This will greatly influence the operations in a tunnel, especially with respect to situations where water is exiting the downstream face of still open deposition tunnels. Pellet-filled regions are also sensitive to groundwater salinity, susceptible to development of piping features and subsequent mechanical erosion by through flowing water, particularly in the period preceding deposition tunnel closure. A review of the experiences of various organisations considering use of bentonite-pellet materials as part of buffer or backfill barriers is provided in this document. From this information, potential options and limitations to use of pellets or pellet-granule mixtures in backfill are identified. Of particular importance is identification of the apparent upper-limits of dry density to which such materials can to be placed in the field. These bounds will

  3. Research Progress and Development Trend of Mycelial Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycelial pellets are generated by the fermentation of microorganisms as a particle, it has good biological activity, rapid subsidence performance and simple solid-liquid separation technology, so that it can better be used in fermentation production, wastewater treatment and as biological carrier. The researches of using mycelial pellets to ferment production, treat some kinds of wastewater as biological adsorbent and enhance efficiency of treatment wastewater as bio-carrier, were discussed in detail. Development trend of mycelial pellets was presented at end of the article. It was also pointed out that the mycelial pellets as bio-carrier or biological adsorbent will be considered as a wide range of application prospects in wastewater treatment.

  4. Modeling of thermal conductivity of stainless-steelmaking dust pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭兵; 彭及; 余笛

    2004-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of stainless-steelmaking dust pellets, an important parameter for the direct recycling of the dust, is naturally of interest to metallurgists. The measurement of central temperature and surface temperature was taken in a furnace. The physical model and calculation model for the heating process were set up to check the thermal conductivity of the dust pellets. The physical structure parameters δ and λ of the basic unit are 0.92 and 0.45 based on the calculation. The temperature in the pellet can be expressed in a linear equation a5 Tp =a1 TN +a2 TM +a4. This is convenient to determine the central temperature of a pellet in the direct recycling process.

  5. UO2 fuel pellet characterization: density and porosity measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most commonly used fuel in nuclear power plants is UO2. UO2 is a ceramic material and is produced by powder metallurgy techniques. The densities of the material produced can never reach the theoretical densities because of the production technology. The porosity allows the gas fission products, generated under power plant working conditions, to escape and therefor is required. Direct measurement of density which is an application of the Archimedes principle, is based on replacement of liquids. Replacement fluid is m-xylene. Density measurement are made by weighing the dry pellets in air, then weighing the m-xylene impregnated pellets in air and m-xylene impregnated pellets in air and m-xylene. UO2 pellets densities, total porosities and open porosities can be calculated from the collection data

  6. Backfilling of deposition tunnels: Use of bentonite pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, David (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada)); Sanden, Torbjoern (Clay Technology AB (Sweden)); Jonsson, Esther (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Mangaement Co. (Sweden)); Hansen, Johanna (Posiva Oy (Finland))

    2011-02-15

    The state of knowledge related to use of bentonite pellets as part of backfill or other gap filling components in repository applications is reviewed. How the pellets interact with adjacent sealing materials and the surrounding rock mass is a critical aspect in determining backfill behaviour. The key features and processes that determine how the pellet component of the KBS-3V deposition tunnel backfill will behave are discussed and recommendations related to what additional information needs to be developed are provided. Experiences related to pellet material composition, size, shape, placement options and more importantly, the density to which they can be placed all indicate that there are significant limitations to the achievable as-placed density of bentonite pellet fill. Low as-placed density of the pellet fill component of the backfill is potentially problematic as the outermost regions of tunnel backfill will be the first region of the backfill to be contacted by water entering the tunnels. It is also through this region that initial water movement along the length of the deposition tunnels will occur. This will greatly influence the operations in a tunnel, especially with respect to situations where water is exiting the downstream face of still open deposition tunnels. Pellet-filled regions are also sensitive to groundwater salinity, susceptible to development of piping features and subsequent mechanical erosion by through flowing water, particularly in the period preceding deposition tunnel closure. A review of the experiences of various organisations considering use of bentonite-pellet materials as part of buffer or backfill barriers is provided in this document. From this information, potential options and limitations to use of pellets or pellet-granule mixtures in backfill are identified. Of particular importance is identification of the apparent upper-limits of dry density to which such materials can to be placed in the field. These bounds will

  7. Cell Electrofusion in Centrifuged Erythrocyte Pellets Assessed by Dielectric Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Koji

    2016-04-01

    We have characterized cell electrofusion in cell pellets by dielectric spectroscopy. Cell pellets were formed from horse erythrocyte suspensions by centrifugation and were subjected to intense AC pulses. The dielectric spectra of the pellets were measured over a frequency range of 10 Hz to 10 MHz. The application of AC pulses caused low-frequency (LF) dielectric relaxation below about 100 kHz. The LF dielectric relaxation was markedly affected not only by pretreatment of cells at 50 °C, which disrupts the spectrin network of erythrocytes, but also by the parameters of the AC pulses (frequency of the sine wave and repeat count of the pulses). The occurrence of the LF dielectric relaxation was qualitatively accounted for by modeling fusion products in the pellet by prolate spheroidal cells whose long axes run parallel to the applied electric field. PMID:26407874

  8. Wall conditioning with impurity pellet injection on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid lithium and boron pellets have been injected into TFTR plasmas to improve plasma performance by coating the graphite inner wall bumper limiter with a small amount of lower Z pellet material, which reduces the influx of carbon from the walls and reduces the edge electron density. This new wall conditioning technique has been applied successfully when continued He conditioning discharges, which are normally used for wall conditioning, no longer significantly reduce the carbon and deuterium influxes. The results show that both Li and B pellets significantly improve wall conditioning and lead to 15-20% improvements in supershot plasma performance when injected ≥1 s prior to neutral beam injection in supershot target plasmas. Neutral beam penetration calculations indicate that the lower edge densities resulting from Li or B pellet wall conditioning lead to improved beam penetration. Sputtering yield calculations confirm that the addition of small amounts of Li on a graphite target can significantly reduce the C sputtering yield. (orig.)

  9. Solvent-free cleaning using a centrifugal cryogenic pellet accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, J.R.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    An advanced centrifuge that accelerates frozen CO{sub 2} pellets to high speeds for surface cleaning and paint removal is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The centrifuge-based accelerator was designed, fabricated, and tested under a program sponsored by the Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia. In comparison to the more conventional compressed air ``sandblast`` pellet accelerators, the centrifugal accelerator system can achieve higher pellet speeds, has precise speed control, and is more than ten times as energy efficient. Furthermore, the use of frozen CO{sub 2} pellets instead of conventional metal, plastic, sand, or other abrasive materials that remain solid at room temperature, minimizes the waste stream. This apparatus has been used to demonstrate cleaning of various surfaces, including removal of paint, oxide coatings, metal coatings, organic coatings, and oil and grease coatings from a variety of surfaces. The design and operation of the apparatus is discussed.

  10. Role of shielding in modelling cryogenic deuterium pellet ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the better characterization of pellet ablation, the numerical LLP code has been enhanced by combining two relevant shielding mechanisms: that of the spherically expanding neutral cloud surrounding the pellet and that of the field elongated ionized material forming a channel flow. In contrast to our expectation the presence of the channel flow can increase the ablation rate although it reduces the heat flux travelling through it. The contribution of the different shielding effect in the ablation process is analysed for several pellet and plasma parameters and an ablation rate scaling is presented based on simple regression in the ASDEX Upgrade pellet and plasma parameter range. Finally the simulated results are compared with experimental data from typical ASDEX Upgrade discharges

  11. Improved model of two fuel pellets with closed canning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our recent model (see 23rd ETAN Conf.) of thermal and deformation state of fuel elements, only one reactor fuel pellet with its canning tube ring has been considered. in this way obtained stress results are valid for fuel pellet, while in the canning material deviation occur due to the problem of boundary conditions at the cut of the canning tube from the whole stack. To avoid this trouble, a new finite element model has been built, consisting of two fuel pellets and its interacting tube with end steal. this yields valid stress results in the lower pellet (away from the end) and its part of the canning, while the remaining results could be used in case if the analysis takes into account axially dependent power generation and associated phenomena of conduction, convection and radiative heat transfer at discontinuities of fuel rods. (author)

  12. Experimental modelling of a pilot lignocellulosic pellets stove plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-scale stoves, producing heat and hot water, are suited for domestic purposes. In order to optimise their efficiency when using lignocellulosic pellets, an important task is to do research on their real performance. The general behaviour depends on many operational factors (air flow and humidity, pressure, etc), dimension and pellet characteristics (moisture, size, raw material, density, friability, etc). In this paper, the first results and general performance of a 24 kW pellet fixed bed stove pilot plant are presented. The plant has been designed to study pellet combustion in the laboratory. The main targets are to reduce emissions of pollutants and to improve energy efficiency. Different situations can be simulated and tested due to its flexible design. Temperatures, pressures, flows and emissions are measured and analysed. An extensive study of different load conditions is presented through the application of both an experiment design technique and the later statistical analysis of the results. Fuel characterisation is also presented. (Author)

  13. The influence of pellets quality on the growth of sterlet, in recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Sion

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects regarding the influence of food quality on the breeding of sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758, in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS. The experiment took place over 30 days, in four pilot breeding units type aquaria of 300 liters in volume. Two kind of variants were compared, with repetition, V1 with 46% crude protein and V2 with 30% crude protein, respectively. The stocking density was of 14 fish/unit. The same feeding level of 8 g/kg metabolic weight (1.5% from total biomass was used in every unit. The technological indicators that showed up at the end of the experiment revealed the following: the mean biomass gain in V1 was of 0.74 kg/m3 compared to 0.39 kg/m3in V2; this was nearly perfectly correlated with the food quality. The growth rate (GR variated from 6.70 to 8.13 g/day in V1 and 3.63-4.17 g/day in V2; the specific growth rate (SGR, calculated as a mean value of the two repetitions of each variant, was of 1.11 g%/day in V1 and 0.63 g%/day in V2; the feed conversion ratio (FCR, calculated as the mean value of the two repetitions from the two variants, was of 1.49 in V1 and of 2.81 in V2. The parameters of fish breeding showed that changing the quality of fodder, the fish growing was positively influenced. This experiment showed also that sterlet is a sturgeon with a moderate growth rate and it is possible to obtain an increase of fish biomass using pellets with 30-46 % crude protein.

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Mutation Breeding of Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive programme on experimental mutagenesis was started in 1956 for both genetic research and mutation breed ing at the Nuclear Center. Remarkable efforts were produced on durum wheat over the past 20 years and a lot of knowledge was gained on several aspects of this crop: radiobiology, mutagenesis, cytology and cytogenetics, genetics and breeding. This review concern: radiogenetical studies, isolation of useful mutations, agronomic evaluation of mutant lines and use of mutations in hybridization programs. Details are given on the genetic contribution of mutagenesis to the evolution of new cultivars in durums and on the economic evaluation of the cultivars obtained by mutation breeding. An economic return on mutation breeding of durum wheat is attempted. (author)

  16. Illinois’ 2000 breeding season report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the 2000 breeding season for grassland birds in Illinois. The report begins by summarizing weather conditions throughout the season and...

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  16. Mutation Breeding Newsletter. No. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains a brief account of FAO/IAEA meetings held in 1990 on plant breeding involving the use of induced mutations. It also features a list of commercially available plant cultivars produced by such techniques. Refs and tabs

  17. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Feed Pellet and Corn Durability and Breakage During Repeated Elevator Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelleting of animal feeds is important for improved feeding efficiency and for convenience of handling. Pellet quality impacts the feeding benefits for the animals and pellet integrity during handling. To determine the effect of repeated handling on feed pellet breakage and durability, a 22.6-t (100...

  14. Formulation and characterization of self emulsifing pellets of carvedilol

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Bhandari; Amelia Avachat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of present study was aimed at developing self emulsifying drug delivery system in liquid and then in pellet form that would result in improved solubility, dissolution and permeability of the poorly water soluble drug carvedilol. Pellets were prepared using extrusion-spheronization technique incorporating liquid SEDDS (carvedilol, capmul MCM EP, cremophore EL, tween 20, propylene glycol), adsorbents ( and crospovidone), microcrystalline cellulose and binder (povidone K-30). Ternary...

  15. Radiation analysis of the ITER pellet injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of neutronics calculations for the pellet injection system of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are described. Hands-on maintenance of components in the pellet injection room results in a considerable simplification of maintenance support equipment and in greater system availability. The basic configuration of the pellet injection system includes small-diameter guide tubes with which the pellet may have several small-angle collisions before reaching the plasma. The pellet injector port through which the guide tubes pass will be shared with ITER plasma diagnostics, so the calculation takes into account penetrations to accommodate numerous channels for a neutron spectrometer and neutron and gamma-ray cameras. The conservative assumption of steady-state operation of ITER for 1000 days was taken as the baseline for calculating the activation of components in the pellet injection room. The plasma configuration is based on the current ITER guidelines, the first wall configuration is based on the most recently updated configuration, and the blanket configuration is based on the US proposal for the blanket. The plasma, coils, and blanket regions were analyzed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The transport of neutrons through the penetrations was also performed with MCNP. The pellet injection room was modeled with the two-dimensional discrete ordinates code DORT, which was also used for the transport of neutrons during operation and of gamma rays caused by activation. The activation calculations were carried out with the REBATE code. Results from this study indicate that restricted personnel access to the pellet injection room is possible, so limited hands-on maintenance can be performed on the majority of the components in the room

  16. Pelletering och brikettering av jordbruksråvaror

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Daniel; Bernesson, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Use of processed biofuels (pellets, briquettes) has greatly increased in Sweden in recent decades, mainly to replace fossil fuels in large boilers, e.g. in coal powder boilers. More recently, the demand from private households and residential heating systems has also increased, mainly due to conversion from fossil heating oil. This increased interest in pellets and briquettes for heating is beginning to cause a shortage of the traditional raw materials, sawdust and wood shavings, and therefor...

  17. Digestibility of pelleted rations containing diverse potato flour and urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martinele

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate ruminal in situ degradability and in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DM in concentrate supplements containing diverse potato flour pelletized with urea (0%, 4%, 8%, and 12% DM. Samples of feeds were incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48h in the rumen of four fistulated sheep. Level of urea added had no significant effect (P>;0.05 on the soluble fraction (a or potentially degradable fraction (b of the pellets and ranged from 2.1% to 12.2% and 72.9% to 87.5%, respectively. Quadratic effects (P=0.03 of the rate of degradation of fraction "b" ranged from 4.75% h-1to 7.39% h-1; the estimated maximum value at 7.4% h-1was obtained when 5.9% urea was added to the pellet. Quadratic effects (P≤0.02 of the level of urea added to the pellets on the effective degradability (ED of DM were evaluated after considering rumen passage rates of 2.5% h-1and 8% h-1; the maximum values of ED calculated under these rumen passage rates were estimated at 6.3% to 7.3% urea in the pellets. The in vitro digestibility of DM of the pellets showed a quadratic effect (P=0.02 at different levels of urea, with a maximum value of 96.9% achieved when 7.9% urea was added to the pellets. Our results suggest that the addition of 6-8% urea to pelleted feed promotes an increase in the in vitro digestibility and ED of DM.

  18. Research Progress and Development Trend of Mycelial Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Lixin Li; Fang Ma; Zhiwei Song; Ting Li; Erkui Tang

    2015-01-01

    Mycelial pellets are generated by the fermentation of microorganisms as a particle, it has good biological activity, rapid subsidence performance and simple solid-liquid separation technology, so that it can better be used in fermentation production, wastewater treatment and as biological carrier. The researches of using mycelial pellets to ferment production, treat some kinds of wastewater as biological adsorbent and enhance efficiency of treatment wastewater as bio-carrier, were discussed i...

  19. Interstellar propulsion using a pellet stream for momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pellet-stream concept for interstellar propulsion is described. Small pellets are accelerated in the solar system and accurately guided to an interstellar probe where they are intercepted and transfer momentum. This propulsion system appears to offer orders-of-magnitude improvements in terms of engineering simplicity and power requirements over any other known feasible system for transport over interstellar distance in a time comparable to a human lifespan

  20. Key Formulation Variables in Tableting of Coated Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy Dwibhashyam V.S.N; Ratna J

    2008-01-01

    Multiple unit controlled release dosage forms offer various advantages over their single unit counterparts. Most of these advantages are associated with the uniform distribution of multiparticulates throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Though coated pellets can be filled into hard gelatin capsules, tablet formulation is the preferred one because of various advantages associated with it. However, compression of coated pellets is a challenging task necessitating the optimization of various fo...

  1. Are owl pellets good estimators of prey abundance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Andrade

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Some ecologists have been skeptics about the use of owl pellets to estimate small mammal’s fauna. This is due to the assumptions required by this method: (a that owls hunt at random, and (b that pellets represent a random sample from the environment. We performed statistical analysis to test these assumptions and to assess the effectiveness of Barn owl pellets as a useful estimator of field abundances of its preys. We used samples collected in the arid Extra-Andean Patagonia along an altitudinal environmental gradient from lower Monte ecoregion to upper Patagonian steppe ecoregion, with a mid-elevation ecotone. To test if owls hunt at random, we estimated expected pellet frequency by creating a distribution of random pellets, which we compared with data using a simulated chi-square. To test if pellets represent a random sample from the environment, differences between ecoregions were evaluated by PERMANOVAs with Bray–Curtis dissimilarities. We did not find evidence that owls foraged non-randomly. Therefore, we can assume that the proportions of the small mammal’s species in the diet are representative of the proportions of the species in their communities. Only Monte is different from other ecoregions. The ecotone samples are grouped with those of Patagonian steppes. There are no real differences between localities in the small mammal’s abundances in each of these ecoregions and/or Barn owl pellets cannot detect patterns at a smaller spatial scale. Therefore, we have no evidence to invalidate the use of owl pellets at an ecoregional scale.

  2. Remote fabrication of pellet fuels for United States breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goal of the program is to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating breeder fuel in a remotely operated and maintained mode by 1985. Development for pellet fuel fabrication is in the engineering stage with much of the equipment for ceramic unit operations in final design or currently under testing. Results to date confirm that remote fabrication of pellet fuels is feasible. Several of the processes and equipment items are described in this report

  3. Pellet-clad interaction in water reactor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this seminar is was to draw up a comprehensive picture of the pellet clad interaction and its impact on the fuel rod. This document is a detailed abstract of the papers presented during the following five sessions: industrial goals, fuel material behaviour in PCI situation, cladding behaviour relevant to PCI, in pile rod behaviour and modelling of the mechanical interaction between pellet and cladding. (A.L.B.)

  4. Pellet-clad interaction in water reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this seminar is was to draw up a comprehensive picture of the pellet clad interaction and its impact on the fuel rod. This document is a detailed abstract of the papers presented during the following five sessions: industrial goals, fuel material behaviour in PCI situation, cladding behaviour relevant to PCI, in pile rod behaviour and modelling of the mechanical interaction between pellet and cladding. (A.L.B.)

  5. Determination of organochlorine pesticides adsorbed on plastic pellets

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In the past years, several studies have revealed the presence of organic contaminants at concentrations from sub ng g–1 to mg g–1 on/in plastic pellets found in coastal environment worldwide [1,2,3]. Plastic pellets are actually industrial raw material, typically in the shape of small granules with a diameter of a few mm. They are categorized as microplastics (< 5 mm). They can be unintentionally lost in the environment during manufacturing and transport. They can subsequently ...

  6. Nuclear fuel pellet quality control using artificial intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaolong

    Inspection of nuclear fuel pellets is a complex and time-consuming process. At present, quality control in the fuel fabrication field mainly relies on human manual inspection, which is essentially a judgement call. Considering the high quality requirement of fuel pellets in the nuclear industry, pellet inspection systems must have a high accuracy rate in addition to a high inspection speed. Furthermore, any inspection process should have a low rejection rate of good pellets from the manufacturer point of view. It is very difficult to use traditional techniques, such as simple image comparison, to adequately perform the inspection process of the nuclear fuel pellet. Knowledge-based inspection and a defect-recognition algorithm, which maps the human inspection knowledge, is more robust and effective. A novel method is introduced here for pellet image processing. Three artificial intelligence techniques are studied and applied for fuel pellet inspection in this research. They are an artificial neural network, fuzzy logic, and the decision tree method. A dynamic reference model is located on each input fuel pellet image. Then, those pixels that belong to the abnormal defect are enhanced with high speed and high accuracy. Next, the content-based features for the defect are extracted from those abno1mal pixels and used in the inspection algorithm. Finally, an automated inspection prototype system---Visual Inspection Studio---which combines machine vision and these three AI techniques, is developed and tested. The experimental results indicate a very successful system with a high potential for on-line automatic inspection process.

  7. Rice Breeding with Induced Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plant breeder may utilize the genetic variability from available natural resources, he may build up variability through hybridization, he can induce variability through mutagen treatments or he may use a combination of any of the three for the improvement of crop plants. A number of improved varieties of rice have been developed through mutation breeding. It is shown, how a breeder may utilize mutation induction to achieve successfully his breeding objectives. (author)

  8. Canine Hip Dysplasia: Breed Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, S W; Kirby, K.; Pennock, P W

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a refinement of previous studies in that only suitably radiographed dogs were included in the data base. The rate of hip dysplasia varied widely by breed from five percent in siberian huskies to eighty-three percent in english bulldogs. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of dysplasia within at least two breeds; golden retrievers and old english sheepdogs. Physical size per se did not appear to be an important determinant of hip dysplasia.

  9. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-01-01

    The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigatin...

  10. Genetic Traceability of Chicken Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massino De Marchi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims of this study were to apply AFLP markers to assess the genetic diversity and to define a marker-assisted traceability system in local chicken breeds. Data were based on 107 cocks of three different local chicken breeds from Veneto region (Italy: Robusta (PRR: n=54, Pepoi (PPP: n=33 and Padovana (PPD: n=20. Chickens were individually identified at birth with wing tag and reared in four different herds using a free-range system. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and AFLP analysis was performed according to the protocol described in Barcaccia et al. (1998. Values of expected heterozygosity (H and polymorphism information content (PIC at AFLP loci were calculated for each breed. Genetic similarities of all possible pairs of genotypes were estimates using a Jaccard index; the values obtained were subsequently used in a factorial analysis in order to define latent variables which explain the whole genetic similarity relation system between individuals. The average PIC index within breed was generally low: 24.1% for PRR, 23.6% for PPD and 17.2% for PPP. The average heterozygosities of the three breeds for all markers were 29.5% for PRR and PPD and 21.3% for PPP. In the majority of cases (from 90% to 100% of individuals within breed, marker-assisted traceability system used in this research correctly identified the breed of cocks. Hence, results are promising to identify biological tissue (meat, gamets, embryo, etc. from these local chicken breeds. However, the method used in this study should be improved in terms of cost reduction for single sample, work effort, reproducibility and accuracy of results obtained.

  11. Heat losses and thermal performance of commercial combined solar and pellet heating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, Frank; Persson, Tomas; Bales, Chris; Nordlander, Svante

    2004-01-01

    Various pellet heating systems are marketed in Sweden, some of them in combination with a solar heating system. Several types of pellet heating units are available and can be used for a combined system. This article compares four typical combined solar and pellet heating systems: System 1 and 2 two with a pellet stove, system 3 with a store integrated pellet burner and system 4 with a pellet boiler. The lower efficiency of pellet heaters compared to oil or gas heaters increases the primary en...

  12. Mutation breeding in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How mutation induction is used for plant breeding in Brazil is reported. For upland rice, the combined treatment with gamma-ray and mutagens (ethylene imine or ethylmethane sulfonate) has been used on the variety, Dourado Precoce, and some mutants with shortculm length and/or earliness without altering the productivity have been obtained. A project on the quantitative and qualitative protein improvement in upland rice was also started in 1979. In corn, the effect of gamma-irradiation on heterosis has been analyzed, and it was found that the single hybrids from two parental lines derived from irradiated seeds had increased ear productivity. For beans (Phaseolus yulgaris), gamma-irradiation and chemical mutagens have been used to induce the mutants with different seed color, disease resistance to golden mosaic virus and Xanthomonas phaseoli, earliness, high productivity and high protein content. Some mutants with partly improved characters have been obtained in these experiments. Two varieties of wheat tolerant to aluminum toxicity have been obtained, but the one showed high lodging due to its unfavorable plant height, and the other was highly susceptible to culm rust. Therefore, irradiation experiments have been started to improve these characters. The projects involving the use of gamma-irradiation have been tested to obtain the mutant lines insensitive to photoperiod and resistant to bud-blight in soybean, the mutant lines resistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the photoperiod-insensitive mutants in sorghum, the mosaic virus resistant and non-flowering mutants in sugar cane, and the Fusarium and nematode-resistant mutants in black pepper. (Kaihara, S.)

  13. Roll pelleting. Evaluation of a new technique for producing pellets from bioash suitable for forest nutrient; Valspelletering. Utvaerdering och uppfoeljning av pilotprojekt omfattande ny teknik foer framstaellning av pellets foer aaterfoering av bioaska till skogsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windelhed, Kjell [Sycon Teknikkonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-05-01

    Roll pelleting has earlier been tested in laboratory scale as a technique for processing wood ash to a product suitable to be spread into forest and thereby returning mineral nutrients to forest soils. The roll pelleting technique for producing pellets has, in this project, been evaluated in full scale. A container-based pelleting machine has been tested during nine months in AssiDomaen Froevi and Stora Enso Fors. Totally about 1500 tons of pellets were produced. The project started with a laboratory leach study. This study showed that pellets produced in a laboratory pelleting machine has a very low leach rate, in fact so low that the pellets seems possible to be spread on clearcuts. The pelleting machine was designed for a capacity of 5 tons per hour but the test indicated that production of 10 tons per hour was possible. The evaluation showed that this technique is suitable for producing pellets intended for returning nutrients to forest soils. However, it is important to start with a well humidified wood ash and to connect the control system for the humidification mixer with the pelleting machine to get an automatic system. Further, spreading of the pellets with a common disc spreader has been tested. The test turned out successful.

  14. Formulation and characterization of self emulsifing pellets of carvedilol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Bhandari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was aimed at developing self emulsifying drug delivery system in liquid and then in pellet form that would result in improved solubility, dissolution and permeability of the poorly water soluble drug carvedilol. Pellets were prepared using extrusion-spheronization technique incorporating liquid SEDDS (carvedilol, capmul MCM EP, cremophore EL, tween 20, propylene glycol, adsorbents ( and crospovidone, microcrystalline cellulose and binder (povidone K-30. Ternary phase diagram was constructed to identify different oil-surfactant-cosurfactant mixtures according to the proportion of each point in it. The optimal CAR-SEDDS pellets showed a quicker redispersion with a droplet size of the reconstituted microemulsion being 160.47 nm, which was almost unchanged after solidification. SEM analysis confirmed good spherical appearance of solid pellets; DSC and XRD analysis confirmed that there was no crystalline carvedilol in the pellets. Pellets were then capable of transferring lipophilic compounds into the aqueous phase and significantly enhancing its release with respect to pure drug.

  15. Effect of aluminum oxide on the compressive strength of pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-liang Zhang; Zhen-yang Wang; Xiang-dong Xing; Zheng-jian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Analytical-reagent-grade Al2O3 was added to magnetite ore during the process of pelletizing, and the methods of mercury intru-sion, scanning electron microscopy, and image processing were used to investigate the effect of Al2O3 on the compressive strength of the pellets. The results showed that, as the Al2O3 content increased, the compressive strength of the pellets increased slightly and then decreased gradually. When a small amount of Al2O3 was added to the pellets, the Al2O3 combined with fayalite (2FeO·SiO2) and the aluminosilicate (2FeO·2Al2O3·5SiO2) was generated, which releases some iron oxide and reduces the inhibition of fayalite to the solid phase of consolidation. When Al2O3 increased sequentially, high melting point of Al2O3 particles hinder the oxidation of Fe3O4 and the recrystallization of Fe2O3, making the internal porosity of the pellets increase, which leads to the decrease in compressive strength of the pellets.

  16. Angular response of alanine samples: From powder to pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanine radicals produced by irradiation can be observed through the ESR measurement of powder or in a pellet with an angular response. There are five main peaks in the ESR alanine spectrum. Usually, the central peak amplitude (A1) is chosen to perform dose measurements because it is the largest. Looking at the angular response it seems that the peak amplitude (A2) shows lower maximal deviation and standard deviations. The angular response exists from the first step of the process as powder through the granular form until the final compact pellet form. Results about the angular response on pure alanine powders and its evolution during the manufacturing process of homemade pellets, as well as commercial pellets from different suppliers are presented. The evolution of the angular response with time gives information about the stability of radicals. The manufacturing process of pellet also influences the stabilization of the radicals produced by irradiation; therefore pellet reproducibility. This study raises questions and makes proposals for a better approach to reduce measurement uncertainties for high and low doses measurements

  17. Design of a tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TFTR tritium pellet injector (TPI) is designed to provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3 km/s-range for the TFTR D-T phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector is being modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a fourshot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns a two -stage light gas gun driver. The pipe gun concept has been qualified for tritium operation by the tritium proof-of-principle injector experiments conducted on the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In these experiments, tritium and D-T pellets were accelerated to speeds near 1.5 km/s. The TPI is being designed for pellet sizes in the range from 3.43 to 4.0 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation will be controlled by a programmable logic controller. 7 refs., 4 figs

  18. Design of a tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the TFTR tritium pellet injector (TPI) designed to provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1-to 3 km/s-range for the TFTR D-T phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) is being modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The pipe gun concept has been qualified for tritium operation by the tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) injector experiments conducted on the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In these experiments, tritium and D-T pellets were accelerated to speeds near 1.5 km/s. The TPI is being designed for pellet sizes in the range from 3.43 to 4.0 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation will be controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC)

  19. Determination of gas residues in uranium dioxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of low amounts of residual gases, excluding water, in ceramic grade uranium dioxide pellets, using high temperature vacuum extraction technique, is dealt with. The high temperature extraction gas analysis apparatus was designed and assembled for sequential analysis of up to eight uranium dioxide pellets by run. The system consists of three major units, namely outgassing unit, transfer unit and analytical unit. The whole system is evacuated to a final pressure of less then 10-5 torr. A weighed pellet is transfered into the outgassing unit for subsequent dropping into a Platinum-Rhodium crucible which is heated inductively up to 16000C during 30 minutes. The released gases are imediately transfered from the outgassing to analytical unit passing through a cold trap at -950C to remove water vapor. The gases are transfered to previously calibrated volumetric bulb where the total pressure and temperature are determined. An estimate of the gas content in the pellets at STP condition is obtained from the measured volume, pressure and temperature of the gas mixture by applying ideal gases equation. Analysis to two lots (fourteen samples) of uranium dioxide pellets by the method described here indicated a mean gas content of 0,060cm3/g UO2. The lower limit of this technique is 0,03cm3/g UO2 (STP). The time required for the analysis of eight pellets is about 9 hours

  20. Properties of tritium inferred from pellet injector experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment, designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the worlds first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. Many parameters measured during the course of the experiment have been used to evaluate the physical properties of solid tritium. Pellet size was measured as a function of equilibrium fill pressure. a model was developed to predict this information form values of thermal conductivity, vapor pressure, and density reported in the literature. Good agreement between theory and experiment was found for both deuterium and tritium pellets. Evaluation of breakaway pressure data for deuterium pellets indicates that the shear strength of deuterium is about equal to its ultimate tensile strength. Tritium shear strength appears to be about twice that of deuterium at temperatures around 8K. The reduction in pellet diameter due to barrel erosion for deuterium was about twice that for tritium pellets at a given velocity. This about also indicative of the greater strength of tritium relative to deuterium

  1. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene on polypropylene pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes of radiation-induced in polypropylene (PP) pellets exposed to gamma irradiation in inert atmosphere were investigated in correlation with the applied doses (10 and 50 kGy). Also, results from the grafting of styrene onto PP pellets using simultaneous irradiation at the same doses are presented. The grafting reaction was carried out using toluene as solvent, under nitrogen atmosphere and at room temperature. The properties of the irradiated and grafted PP pellets were studied using Melt Flow Index, thermal analysis (TG and DSC), and ATR-IR. The degree of grafting (DOG) for the grafted pellets was gravimetrically determined. The results showed that radiation-induced graft polymerization on pellets were successfully obtained and the influence of dose irradiated did not change the thermal properties in spite of the increase in the MFI and consequently this increase in the viscosity results an decrease the molecular mass. The MFI for grafted pellets was not achievable because the high degree of viscosity of polymer, even arising the test temperature, the polymer was not flow enough. (author)

  2. New fabrication process of large grain pellet for LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Oxidation-sintering pellets' and 'Al2O3/SiO2 additive pellets' were developed. Both pellets will be used for high burnup due to their good FGR and PCI properties. In the 'oxidation-reduction sintering process', U3O8 powder is added to UO2 powder as a source of oxygen to produce U4O9 and to get large grain pellets. Atmosphere of the oxidation sintering process is O2+N2 and the sintering temperatures for both the oxidation and the reduction processes are relatively low compared with that for the standard sintering process. In Al2O3/SiO2 addition, Al2O3/SiO2 covers UO2 grain and enhances its grain growth. Contents of Al2O3 and SiO2 are very low (∼50,50 PPM), therefore there is little impact on a reprocessing process. Both type of pellets are under irradiation in test reactors and a commercial reactor as demonstration fuels. We will choose one type of pellet after PIE, and will use it for high burnup (55 GWd/t) as commercial fuels. (author)

  3. Key formulation variables in tableting of coated pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Dwibhashyam V.S.N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple unit controlled release dosage forms offer various advantages over their single unit counterparts. Most of these advantages are associated with the uniform distribution of multiparticulates throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Though coated pellets can be filled into hard gelatin capsules, tablet formulation is the preferred one because of various advantages associated with it. However, compression of coated pellets is a challenging task necessitating the optimization of various formulation and process variables. The key formulation variables include composition, porosity, size, shape and density of the pellets; type and amount of polymer coating; nature, size and amount of tableting excipients. The pellet core should be strong with some degree of plasticity. It should be highly porous, small, with an irregular shape. The critical density to achieve prolonged release was reported to lie between 2.4 and 2.8 g/cm 3 . Acrylic polymer films are more flexible and more suitable for the coating of pellets to be compressed into tablets. Thicker coatings offer better resistance to frictional forces. Solvent based coatings are more flexible and have a higher degree of mechanical stability than the aqueous based ones. The tableting excipients should have cushioning property. They should not be significantly different in size and density from those of the pellet cores in order to avoid segregation. Addition of 30%-60% of tableting excipients is necessary to avoid any damage to the polymer coat and to retain its functional property.

  4. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF METAPROLOL SUCCINATE EXTENDED RELEASE PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahishek Perumalla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim and of the present study is to develop a pharmaceutically stable and quality improved formulation of Metoprolol succinate extended release pellets. To achieve this goal various prototype formulation trials were formulated and the evaluated with respect to the various quality controls such as dissolution, assay and stability studies will be under taken. Metoprolol succinate is used in the treatment of hyper tension, angina pectoris (chest pain and myocardial infarction. The study was undertaken with an aim to formulate Metoprolol succinate extended release pellets. The optimized batch MSER CF7 is made up of 7% wetting agent and 4.5% binder. The evaluation tests that were conducted for the pellets also showed satisfactory results.The best trial was optimized by comparing the drug release profile with the innovator and the MSER F7 showed better results compared to the other formulations and the evaluation studies were conducted for the MSER F7. It showed good results in formulation of stable dose.The pellets were evaluated for the flow properties, sieve analysis and accelerated stability studies for 3months. The pellets showed good flow properties and also showed uniform size which indicates uniform coating.Finally we concluded that the Metoprolol succinate pellets MSER F7 are prepared and these showed good physico-chemical properties and the dissolution results showed satisfactory results when compared with the innovator drug.

  5. Modeling operation mode of pellet boilers for residential heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years the consumption of wood pellets as energy source for residential heating lias increased, not only as fuel for stoves, but also for small-scale residential boilers that, produce hot water used for both space heating and domestic hot water. Reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (CO, dust., HC) is an obvious target of wood pellet boiler manufacturers, however they are also quite interested in producing low- maintenance appliances. The need of frequent maintenance turns in higher operating costs and inconvenience for the user, and in lower boiler efficiency and higher emissions also. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical model able to simulate the dynamic behavior of a pellet boiler. The model takes into account many features of real pellet boilers. Furthermore, with this model, it is possible to pay more attention to the influence of the boiler control strategy. Control strategy evaluation is based not only on pellet consumption and on total emissions, but also on critical operating conditions such as start-up and stop or prolonged operation at substantially reduced power level. Results are obtained for a residential heating system based on a wood pellet boiler coupled with a thermal energy storage. Results obtained so far show a weak dependence of performance in terms of fuel consumption and total emissions on control strategy, however some control strategies present some critical issues regarding maintenance frequency

  6. Fabrication and Resintering of Annular UO2 Pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel is one of the most important components in a PWR affecting its safety and economy. The traditional PWR fuel pellet has a shape of cylindrical tablets of about 800 μm in diameter with a chamfer and dishes. A significant reduction in its failure rate has resulted from the improvements in fuel and cladding quality. Enhanced fuel assembly design allowed appreciable power density increases. However, it is difficult to achieve a significant increase of a power density under the current fuel pin design. Recently, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has proposed an annular UO2 fuel with an internal cooling of each fuel rod. Annular fuel pellets with a voided central region have been used in VVER reactors without an internal cooling. Annular fuels with both internal and external cooling have been proposed for high temperature gas cooled reactors. However, commercial PWR reactors have not used such annular internally and externally cooled fuel rods, yet. There must be a lot of considerations in the various fields to introduce an annular internally and externally cooled fuel to commercial PWR reactors. The dimension tolerance and the thermal stability of a pellet are very important from the viewpoint of fabrication technology, because they have an influence on the size of the gap between the pellet and the inner/outer claddings. In this study, annular UO2 pellets with various densities were fabricated and then a resintering test was conducted. The changes of dimension and density of the sintered pellets were characterized

  7. Potential greenhouse gas benefits of transatlantic wood pellet trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power utility companies in the United Kingdom are using imported wood pellets from the southern region of the United States for electricity generation to meet the legally binding mandate of sourcing 15% of the nation’s total energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. This study ascertains relative savings in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a unit of electricity generated using imported wood pellet in the United Kingdom under 930 different scenarios: three woody feedstocks (logging residues, pulpwood, and logging residues and pulpwood combined), two forest management choices (intensive and non-intensive), 31 plantation rotation ages (year 10 to year 40 in steps of 1 year), and five power plant capacities (20–100 MW in steps of 20 MW). Relative savings in GHG emissions with respect to a unit of electricity derived from fossil fuels in the United Kingdom range between 50% and 68% depending upon the capacity of power plant and rotation age. Relative savings in GHG emissions increase with higher power plant capacity. GHG emissions related to wood pellet production and transatlantic shipment of wood pellets typically contribute about 48% and 31% of total GHG emissions, respectively. Overall, use of imported wood pellets for electricity generation could help in reducing the United Kingdom’s GHG emissions. We suggest that future research be directed to evaluation of the impacts of additional forest management practices, changing climate, and soil carbon on the overall savings in GHG emissions related to transatlantic wood pellet trade. (paper)

  8. Arresting and supplying apparatus for increasing pellet impact drilling speed per run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Isaev, Ye D.; Veryevkin, A. V.; Gorbenko, V. M.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which might be used to increase the drilling rate and the penetration rate of hard and tough rock drilling. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets having high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are recirculated in the bottom of the bore hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The arresting and supplying apparatus is supposed to increase speed per run in pellet impact drilling, as it not only replenishes the pellets but also supplies and then picks up the pellets from the bottom hole. The paper presents the design of the pellet-supplying component which ensures a portion of pellets supply to the bottom hole.

  9. Direct dissolution and supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from UO2 powder, granule, green pellet and sintered pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, direct dissolution and extraction of UO2 from the solid rejects various stages of fuel fabrication viz. powder granules green pellet and, sintered pellet has been studied. Powder and granules could be easily dissolved in TBP-HNO3 complex at 50 deg C., whereas in case of green and sintered pellets at elevated temperature at raised to 80 deg C in TBP-HNO3 complex. With supercritical (SC) CO2 alone the efficiency was ∼70%. But with SC CO2 +2.5% TBP, the efficiency was ∼95% for powder and granules, and ∼60% for green and sintered pellets. Nearly complete extraction (∼99%) was achievable for SC CO2+ 2.5 % TTA in all cases. The method has distinct advantage of elimination of acid usage and minimization of liquid waste generation. (author)

  10. Development of a Tritium Extruder for ITER Pellet Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. Gouge; P.W. Fisher

    1998-09-01

    As part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plasma fueling development program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has fabricated a pellet injection system to test the mechanical and thermal properties of extruded tritium. Hydrogenic pellets will be used in ITER to sustain the fusion power in the plasma core and may be crucial in reducing first-wall tritium inventories by a process of "isotopic fueling" in which tritium-rich pellets fuel the burning plasma core and deuterium gas fuels the edge. This repeating single-stage pneumatic pellet injector, called the Tritium-Proof-of-Principle Phase II (TPOP-II) Pellet Injector, has a piston-driven mechanical extruder and is designed to extrude and accelerate hydrogenic pellets sized for the ITER device. The TPOP-II program has the following development goals: evaluate the feasibility of extruding tritium and deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixtures for use in future pellet injection systems; determine the mechanical and thermal properties of tritium and D-T extrusions; integrate, test, and evaluate the extruder in a repeating, single-stage light gas gun that is sized for the ITER application (pellet diameter -7 to 8 mm); evaluate options for recycling propellant and extruder exhaust gas; and evaluate operability and reliability of ITER prototypical fueling systems in an environment of significant tritium inventory that requires secondary and room containment systems. In tests with deuterium feed at ORNL, up to 13 pellets per extrusion have been extruded at rates up to 1 Hz and accelerated to speeds of 1.0 to 1.1 km/s, using hydrogen propellant gas at a supply pressure of 65 bar. Initially, deuterium pellets 7.5 mm in diameter and 11 mm in length were produced-the largest cryogenic pellets produced by the fusion program to date. These pellets represent about a 10% density perturbation to ITER. Subsequently, the extruder nozzle was modified to produce pellets that are almost 7.5-mm right circular

  11. Communal pellet deposition sites of himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) and associated vegetation composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Bhakta Bahadur

    2012-01-01

    The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster), found in the sub-alpine and alpine vegetation of the Himalayan region, is one of the endangered deer species of Nepal. This study conducted in the Langtang National Park, Nepal analyzed how the musk deer select their communal pellet deposition sites, compared vegetation at the pellet deposition sites with adjacent sites (5-10m from a pellet site) and control sites (30 m from pellet site without pellet groups) and explored the potential role o...

  12. Roasting Properties of Pellets With Iron Concentrate of Complex Mineral Composition%Roasting Properties of Pellets With Iron Concentrate of Complex Mineral Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jian-jun; QIU Guan-zhou; JIANG Tao; GUO Yu-feng; CAI Mei-xia

    2011-01-01

    Investigation was conducted on roasting properties of pellets with an iron concentrate of complex mineral composition. The results indicated that the pellets of complex mineral composition concentrate required higher pre- heating temperature and longer pr

  13. Developments in MOX fuel pellet fabrication technology: Indian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is interested in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel technology for better utilisation of its nuclear fuel resources. In view of this, a programme involving MOX fuel design, fabrication and irradiation in research and power reactors has been taken up. A number of experimental irradiations in research reactors have been carried out and a few MOX assemblies of ''All Pu'' type have been loaded in our commercial BWRs at Tarapur. An island type of MOX fuel design is under study for use in PHWRs which can increase the burn-up of the fuel by more than 30% compared to natural UO2 fuel. The MOX fuel pellet fabrication technology for the above purpose and R and D efforts in progress for achieving better fuel performance are described in the paper. The standard MOX fuel fabrication route involves mechanical mixing and milling of UO2 and PuO2 powders. After detailed investigations with several types of mixing and milling equipments, dry attritor milling has been found to be the most suitable for this operation. Neutron Coincident Counting (NCC) technique was found to be the most convenient and appropriate technique for quick analysis of Pu content in milled MOX powder and to know Pu mixing is homogenous or not. Both mechanical and hydraulic presses have been used for powder compaction for green pellet production although the latter has been preferred for better reproducibility. Low residue admixed lubricants have been used to facilitate easy compaction. The normal sintering temperature used in Nitrogen-Hydrogen atmosphere is between 1600 deg. C to 1700 deg. C. Low temperature sintering (LTS) using oxidative atmospheres such as carbon dioxide, Nitrogen and coarse vacuum have also been investigated on UO2 and MOX on experimental scale and irradiation behaviour of such MOX pellets is under study. Ceramic fibre lined batch furnaces have been found to be the most suitable for MOX pellet production as they offer very good flexibility in sintering cycle, and ease of maintainability under

  14. Wood pellets and work environment; Traepiller og arbejdsmiljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov, S.

    2012-07-01

    The project aim was to evaluate the working environment in the production, transport and use of wood pellets. Furthermore, obtained knowledge and guidelines should be disseminated to relevant audiences. The first aim was achieved by making dust measurements at various relevant locations and analyze the results. Several technical problems regarding the measurements occurred during the project. In general, the manual handling of pellets often is a short-term task, which limits the amount of dust that can be collected on the sampling filter. The solution to this problem could be the use of in situ monitoring equipment, however, this technic did not work well for wood dust. Dissemination is mainly done by publishing the findings and guidelines on the webpage www.fyrmedpiller.dk. The result shows that there are widespread dust problems associated with the use and handling of pellets. The result may have been expected in the wood pellet industry, which has been reluctant to support this project. Legislation on the working environment has set a threshold limit for the dust concentration in the air on max 1 mg of dust per cubic meters of air over a working day and in over shorter periods this limit may be doubled. These threshold values were exceeded in many cases. Brief overview: The production of pellets takes place in a very dusty working environment, but the specific pelletizing and bagging processes only produce limited amounts of dust. The dust problems are major in the large warehouses where the handling of the raw material for the pellets increases the dust concentration in the air to levels that by far exceeds the legal threshold values. The work is mainly carried out from the cabin of different machines e.g. loaders and bobcats. It turns out that the average dust concentration in these cabins with filters also exceeds the threshold values. The transports of wood pellets include loading, unloading and delivery of loose pellets, all situations that are critical

  15. Diagnostics and camera strobe timers for hydrogen pellet injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen pellet injectors have been used to fuel fusion experimental devices for the last decade. As part of developments to improve pellet production and velocity, various diagnostic devices were implemented, ranging from witness plates to microwave mass meters to high speed photography. This paper will discuss details of the various implementations of light sources, cameras, synchronizing electronics and other diagnostic systems developed at Oak Ridge for the Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA), a system built for the Oak Ridge Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF), and the Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI) built for the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Although a number of diagnostic systems were implemented on each pellet injector, the emphasis here will be on the development of a synchronization system for high-speed photography using pulsed light sources, standard video cameras, and video recorders. This system enabled near real-time visualization of the pellet shape, size and flight trajectory over a wide range of pellet speeds and at one or two positions along the flight path. Additionally, the system provides synchronization pulses to the data system for pseudo points along the flight path, such as the estimated plasma edge. This was accomplished using an electronic system that took the time measured between sets of light gates, and generated proportionally delayed triggers for light source strobes and pseudo points. Systems were built with two camera stations, one located after the end of the barrel, and a second camera located closer to the main reactor vessel wall. Two or three light gates were used to sense pellet velocity and various spacings were implemented on the three experiments. Both analog and digital schemes were examined for implementing the delay system. A digital technique was chosen

  16. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  17. Pellet-clad mechanical interactions: Pellet-clad bond failure and strain relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of pellet-clad mechanical interaction would be expected to be particularly severe in the presence of bonding between the fuel and the cladding. However, such bonding is observed far more frequently than is corresponding cladding damage. It has recently been shown that the radial stress in the bond during power changes is very large and tensile, and thus likely to cause failure of the bond. In this paper the likely azimuthal extent of this de-bonding is considered, and the relief of hoop stress which this offers is assessed. It is shown that the magnitude of this relief is such as to provide an explanation of the low cladding failure rate observed. (orig.)

  18. Pyrolysis Model of Single Biomass Pellet in Downdraft Gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛爱军; 潘继红; 田茂诚; 伊晓璐

    2016-01-01

    By coupling the heat transfer equation with semi-global chemical reaction kinetic equations, a one-dimensional, unsteady mathematical model is developed to describe the pyrolysis of single biomass pellet in the pyrolysis zone of downdraft gasifier. The simulation results in inert atmosphere and pyrolysis zone agree well with the published experimental results. The pyrolysis of biomass pellets in pyrolysis zone is investigated, and the results show that the estimated convective heat transfer coefficient and emissivity coefficient are suitable. The mean pyro-lysis time is 15.22%, shorter than that in inert atmosphere, and the pellet pyrolysis process in pyrolysis zone belongs to fast pyrolysis. Among the pyrolysis products, tar yield is the most, gas the second, and char the least. During pyrolysis, the temperature change near the center is contrary to that near the surface. Pyrolysis gradually moves inwards layer by layer. With the increase of pyrolysis temperature and pellet diameter, the total pyrolysis time, tar yield, char yield and gas yield change in different ways. The height of pyrolysis zone is calculated to be 1.51—3.51 times of the characteristic pellet diameter.

  19. Development of automatic surface defect inspection of fuel pellets, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic surface defect inspection of nuclear fuel pellets at the last stage of pellet fabrication process has been recently requested in order to reduce the radiation dose of operators. Especially, nuclear fuel such as PuO2-UO2 pellets must be set apart when they do not meet certain standards. Most of the fuel pellets are cylindrical sintered bodies with flat ends. The cracks, chips and fissures of these finished products have been inspected with eyes so far. However, such inspection is not accurate enough to find defects. Moreover, since fuel pellets are radioactive, mechanization of the inspection process is highly desirable in view of safety. At first, the inspection method with optical appliances was inadequate in the reliability and efficiency. In this paper, detection principle, inspection apparatus such as visual inspection machine, cylindrical-chip inspection unit, corner inspection device and cylindrical surface inspection device, and some experimental results, for example, correlation between defective areas and output pressure in corner inspection device, correlation between number of chips at the corner and output pressure, and correlation between output power and defective area on the pneumatic inspection method are reported. (Nakai, Y.)

  20. Chemisorption of uranium hexa-fluoride on sodium fluoride pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper comprises kinetics of chemical reaction or rather chemisorption of uranium hexafluoride gas on sodium fluoride pellets. The chemisorption is essentially irreversible at room temperature, while the process reverses at high temperature above 280 deg C. This chemisorption process was experimentally conducted in static condition at room temperature and its kinetics was studied. In the experiments, practically pure UF6 was used and the effects of gas pressure and weight of NaF pellets, were studied. In this heterogenous reaction, in which diffusion through ash layer is followed by chemical reaction, the reaction part is instantaneous and is first order with respect to gas concentration. Since the process of chemisorption is not only pure chemical reaction but also gas diffusion through ash layer, the rate constant depreciates with the percentage loading of UF6 on NaF pellets. The kinetic equation for the above process has been established for a particular size of NaF pellets and pellet porosity. (author)

  1. Studies on implementation of pellet tracking in hadron physics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyszniak A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for optical tracking of frozen hydrogen microsphere targets (pellets has been designed. It is intended for the upcoming hadron physics experiment PANDA at FAIR, Darmstadt, Germany. With such a tracking system one can reconstruct the positions of the individual pellets at the time of a hadronic interaction in the offline event analysis. This gives information on the position of the primary interaction vertex with an accuracy of a few 100 µm, which is very useful e.g. for reconstruction of charged particle tracks and secondary vertices and for background suppression. A study has been done at the WASA detector setup (Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany to check the possibility of classification of hadronic events as originating in pellets or in background. The study has been done based on the instantaneous rate a Long Range TDC which was used to determine if a pellet was present in the accelerator beam region. It was clearly shown that it is possible to distinguish the two event classes. Also, an experience was gained with operation of two synchronized systems operating in different time scales, as it will also be the case with the optical pellet tracking.

  2. Characterization of grape pomace and pyrenean oak pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One possibility for the elimination of the by-products generated in the viticulture industry can be their densification for subsequent use as a solid biofuel. In this work, washed grape pomace has been considered due to its thermal characteristics. Since it could show problems in the densification process, other by-products such as pyrenean oak residues, with good pelleting properties and available in this region, are also used. So that, samples of different concentrations from both residues were densified by means of a flat die pelletizer, obtaining pellets of 6 mm diameter. The densified samples were characterized in terms of the proximate and ultimate analyses, heating value and physical characteristics such as durability or bulk density. Also, the combustion profile of the pellets was studied by thermogravimetry and inorganic emissions such as sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide were considered, by means of coupled mass spectrometry (TG-MS). The results obtained showed that both residues show good characteristics for their densification and manufacture in pellets. Also, they show good physical and thermal properties for its use as biofuel, as well as its different blends. Therefore, it is possible to give a more efficient energetic use to both residues. (author)

  3. Characterization of grape pomace and pyrenean oak pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, M.T.; Arranz, J.I.; Roman, S.; Rojas, S.; Montero, I.; Lopez, M.; Cruz, J.A. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Mechanical, Energetic and Materials Engineering

    2011-02-15

    One possibility for the elimination of the by-products generated in the viticulture industry can be their densification for subsequent use as a solid biofuel. In this work, washed grape pomace has been considered due to its thermal characteristics. Since it could show problems in the densification process, other by-products such as pyrenean oak residues, with good pelleting properties and available in this region, are also used. So that, samples of different concentrations from both residues were densified by means of a flat die pelletizer, obtaining pellets of 6 mm diameter. The densified samples were characterized in terms of the proximate and ultimate analyses, heating value and physical characteristics such as durability or bulk density. Also, the combustion profile of the pellets was studied by thermogravimetry and inorganic emissions such as sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide were considered, by means of coupled mass spectrometry (TG-MS). The results obtained showed that both residues show good characteristics for their densification and manufacture in pellets. Also, they show good physical and thermal properties for its use as biofuel, as well as its different blends. Therefore, it is possible to give a more efficient energetic use to both residues. (author)

  4. Pellet injector development at ORNL [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The general approach is that of producing and accelerating frozen hydrogenic pellets to speeds in the kilometer-per-second range by either pneumatic (light-gas gun) or mechanical (centrifugal force) techniques. ORNL has recently provided a centrifugal pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak and a new, simplified, eight-shot pneumatic injector for the Advanced Toroidal Facility stellarator at ORNL. Hundreds of tritium and DT pellets were accelerated at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly facility at Los Alamos in 1988--89. These experiments, done in a single-shot pipe-gun system, demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets at low 3He levels. A new, tritium-compatible extruder mechanism is being designed for longer-pulse DT applications. Two-stage light-gas guns and electron beam rocket accelerators for speeds of the order of 2--10 km/s are also under development. Recently, a repeating, two-stage light-gas gun accelerated 10 surrogate pellets at a 1-Hz repetition rate to speeds in the range of 2--3 km/s; and the electron beam rocket accelerator completed initial feasibility and scaling experiments. ORNL has also developed conceptual designs of advanced plasma fueling systems for the Compact Ignition Tokamak and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

  5. Microstructure of gel-pelletized (ThU)O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ThO2-2% UO2 pellets, prepared from gel microspheres, should have a high density (> 94% T.D.) and a microstructure consisting of uniformly distributed porosity, mostly in the size range of 2 to 5 μm, and large grains (> 10 μm). However, the pellets often do not meet these requirements and are found to have a 'blackberry structure' due to densification only within and not between the microspheres during sintering. Different batches of press-feed microspheres, green pellets and sintered pellets were characterized by SEM, optical microscope and image analyzer. The gel microspheres containing ≅ 0.4% CaO sintering aid and ≅ 5% carbon black pore former on air-calcination at 973 K for 24 h led to soft and porous microspheres which could be easily compacted into pellets at 350 MPa (green density around 52% T.D.) and sintered to high density (> 94% T.D.) at 1773 K. (orig.)

  6. Blower Gun pellet injection system for W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreseen to serve for the new stellarator W7-X for pellet investigations, the former ASDEX Upgrade Blower Gun was revised and revitalized in a test bed. The gun is able now to launch cylindrical pellets of 2 mm diameter and 2 mm length, produced from frozen Deuterium (D2) or Hydrogen (H2). Pellets are accelerated by a short pulse of pressurized helium propellant gas to velocities in the range of 100-250 m/s. Delivery reliabilities at the launcher exit close to unity are achieved. For pellet transfer to the plasma vessel a first mock up guiding tube version was investigated. Transfer through this S-shaped (inner diameter 8 mm; length 6 m) stainless steel guiding tube containing two 1 m curvature radii was investigated for both H2 and D2 pellets. Tests were performed applying repetition rates from 2 Hz to 50 Hz and propellant gas pressures ranging from 1 bar to 6 bar. For both H2 and D2, low overall delivery efficiencies were observed at slow repetition rates, but stable efficiencies of about 90% above 10 Hz.

  7. Assessment of wood pellet combustion in a domestic boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood pellet is a densified and homogeneous fuel to have better transport, storage and feeding capabilities than the original biomass for various domestic and industrial uses. A wood pellet boiler or stove needs to achieve complete combustion and high energy efficiency, which is often not easy for domestic application due to the design requirement for compact furnace and heat exchangers. This paper presents the design assessment of a 35 kW wood pellet boiler for domestic heating using experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. For wood pellets with a lower heating value of 18 MJ/ kg and diameter 8 mm, the gas composition, temperatures and ash characteristics were measured from different parts of the boiler for various operational load, air flow rate and furnace configurations. The effects of other key parameters on the performance of the boiler were analyzed by CFD, which include furnace shapes, flow distribution and directions of secondary/ tertiary air. The results show that introducing simple measures to enhance gaseous mixing and reactions can greatly improve the combustion efficiency in a compact furnace. The findings can be applied to wood pellet boilers with difference capacities. (author)

  8. Particle transport in pellet fueled JET [Jet European Torus] plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet fueling experiments have been carried out on the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak with a multi-pellet injector. The pellets are injected at speeds approaching 1400 m/s and penetrate deep into the JET plasma. Highly peaked electron density profiles are achieved when penetration of the pellets approaches or goes beyond the magnetic axis, and these peaked profiles persist for more than two seconds in ohmic discharges and over one second in ICRF heated discharges. In this dissertation, analysis of electron particle transport in multi-pellet fueled JET limiter plasmas under a variety of heating conditions is described. The analysis is carried out with a one and one-half dimensional radial particle transport code to model the experimental density evolution with various particle transport coefficients. These analyses are carried out in plasmas with ohmic heating, ICRF heating, and neural beam heating, in limiter configurations. Peaked density profile cases are generally characterized by diffusion coefficients with a central (r/a 2/s that increases rapidly to ∼0.3 m2/s at r/a = 0.6 and then increases out to the plasma edge as (r/a)2. These discharges can be satisfactorily modeled without any anomalous convective (pinch) flux. 79 refs., 60 figs

  9. Radial voidage variation in fixed beds of fuel wood pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fixed beds of fuel wood are commonly found in numerous processes: storage and transportation, drying and thermal conversion such as combustion or gasification. Pellets in particular are mostly used as fuel for domestic heating boilers. The characterization of spatial voidage distribution is of great importance for flow and reactor modelling. The present study focuses on the radial porosity variations of cylindrical beds of commercially available wood pellets. The experimental procedure is based on the classical technique of consolidating packed beds with a resin. The radial voidage distribution of three different cylindrical beds is determined by image analysis of sections of the solidified packing. The results are discussed and summarized in a mathematical expression correlating the radial voidage distribution depending on packing core porosity and dimensionless distance from the tube wall. -- Highlights: ► Packing characteristics for commercially available wood pellets were investigated. ► Radial porosity variations of cylindrical pellets beds were investigated. ► Epoxy resin consolidated packings were investigated by image analysis. ► Mathematical term for radial voidage distribution of pellet packing was derived.

  10. The influence of compacting pressure on green pellet density in UO2 pelletizing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally compacting pressure on UO2 powder in pelletizing process can affect the green density. There are many correlation models presented this effect, derived from the basic phenomena and empiric (experiment) as well In the other hand, those correlation have many limitation on validation due to their assumptions, material conditions and equipment conditions as well. Based on those limitations this research was performed. It was performed with utilizing two different UO2 powder, i.e. UO2 powder resulted from granulation of pre-compacted powder with the compaction force of 2.5 tons, and the other with the compaction force of 3.0 tons. The compaction force was seven times variated within the range between five tons up to 18 tons, with ten replication for each. The green pellets wen visually observed to see the defect and their density were geometrically measured. The data were statistically proceed to prove the hypotheses and to formulate the correlation. The result showed that hypotheses was accepted. It resulted five correlations model formulas within the accepted range. Fifth correlation model showed better correlation than the others, and was able to describe tile phenomena of compaction process. It was a new model as an improvement on the forst model Although, this model had limited validation. It was only valid for compaction force in the range of 5 to 18 tons. The third and fourth models were able to describe the mechanical characteristic of material. It was prove by various comparation, and it complied with their phenomena. The obtained characteristic were strength of material and compressability factor

  11. Present and future trends in pellet markets, raw materials, and supply logistics in Sweden and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood pellets have become an important fuel in heat and power production, and pellet markets are currently undergoing rapid development. In this paper, the pellet markets, raw materials and supply structures are analyzed for Sweden and Finland, based on a database of the current location and production capacity of the pellet producers, complemented with existing reports and literature. In Sweden, a total of 94 pellet plants/producers were identified, producing 1.4 million tonnes of pellets, while the domestic consumption was 1.7 million tonnes, and about 400,000 t of pellets were imported to fulfil the demand in 2007. In Finland, 24 pellet plants/producers were identified and the production was around 330,000 t while the domestic consumption was 117,000 t in 2007. In Finland, pellet market has been long time export oriented, whereas domestic consumption has been growing mainly in the small scale consumer sector, estimated 15,000 households had pellet heating systems in 2008. In the future, the increasing number of pellet users will require a reliable delivery network and good equipment for bulk pellet deliveries. Provision of new raw materials and ensuring the good quality of pellets through the whole production, delivery and handling chain will be fundamental in order to increase the use of pellets and sustain the ability to compete with other fuels. (author)

  12. Present and future trends in pellet markets, raw materials, and supply logistics in Sweden and Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkimaeki, Mari; Mola-Yudego, Blas [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, Yliopistokatu 6, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111 FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Roeser, Dominik; Prinz, Robert [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, Yliopistokatu 6, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Sikanen, Lauri [University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111 FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2010-12-15

    Wood pellets have become an important fuel in heat and power production, and pellet markets are currently undergoing rapid development. In this paper, the pellet markets, raw materials and supply structures are analyzed for Sweden and Finland, based on a database of the current location and production capacity of the pellet producers, complemented with existing reports and literature. In Sweden, a total of 94 pellet plants/producers were identified, producing 1.4 million tonnes of pellets, while the domestic consumption was 1.7 million tonnes, and about 400,000 t of pellets were imported to fulfil the demand in 2007. In Finland, 24 pellet plants/producers were identified and the production was around 330,000 t while the domestic consumption was 117,000 t in 2007. In Finland, pellet market has been long time export oriented, whereas domestic consumption has been growing mainly in the small scale consumer sector, estimated 15,000 households had pellet heating systems in 2008. In the future, the increasing number of pellet users will require a reliable delivery network and good equipment for bulk pellet deliveries. Provision of new raw materials and ensuring the good quality of pellets through the whole production, delivery and handling chain will be fundamental in order to increase the use of pellets and sustain the ability to compete with other fuels. (author)

  13. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  14. Control System of Pellet Injector on the HT-7 Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the control system of the pellet injector is introduced in detail and the system mainly includes two parts: the present and the remote control system. The present control system controls the injector and provides the interface to the remote system. And the remote control system has acquired present signals with analog input card and perform the actions through digit output card, it also has an interface for Windows programming easily used by the operators when carrying out the pellet injection experiments. Through several HT-7 campaigns, the remote control system has been validated to be feasible and reliable and has made successful shots for studying the interactions between the pellets and plasma.

  15. Investigation of pellet acceleration by an arc heated gas gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes work on pellet acceleration by means of an arc heated gas gun. Preliminary results were described in Riso-M-2536 and in Riso-M-2650. This final report describes the work carried out from 1987.03.31 to 1988.09.30. An arc heated hydrogen gas source, for pneumatic acceleration of deuterium pellets to velocities above 2 km/s, was developed. Experiments were performed with an arc chamber to which different methods of hydrogen supply were possible, and to which the input of electrical power could be programmed. Results in terms of pressure transients and acceleration curves are presented. Maximum pellet velocities approaching 2 km/s were obtained. This limit is discussed in relation to the presented data. Finally this report contains a summary and a conclusion for the entire project. (author) 34 ills., 3 refs

  16. Standard specification for sintered (Uranium-Plutonium) dioxide pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers finished sintered and ground (uranium-plutonium) dioxide pellets for use in thermal reactors. It applies to uranium-plutonium dioxide pellets containing plutonium additions up to 15 % weight. This specification may not completely cover the requirements for pellets fabricated from weapons-derived plutonium. 1.2 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aware of and conform to all applicable international, federal, state, and local regulations pertaining to possessing, processing, shipping, or using source or special nuclear material. Examples of U.S. government documents are Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 50Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities; Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 71Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material; and Code of Federal Regulations Tit...

  17. Upper bound to the thermal conductivity of carbon nanotube pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalopin, Yann; Volz, Sebastian; Mingo, Natalio

    2009-04-01

    Using atomistic Green's function calculations, we find that the phonon thermal conductivity of pellets composed of ˜μm long carbon nanotubes has an upper bound of a few W/m K. This is in striking contrast with the extremely high thermal conductivity of individual nanotubes (˜3000 W/m K). We show that, at room temperature, this upper bound does not depend on the nanotube diameter. Conversely, for low temperatures, an inverse proportionality with nanotube diameter is predicted. We present concrete results as a function of nanotube length and chirality, pellet density, and temperature. These results imply that carbon nanotube pellets belong to the category of thermal insulators, contrasting with the good conducting properties of parallel nanotube arrays, or individual nanotubes.

  18. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE PELLETS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskara Haripriya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to develop and evaluate a better sustained release multiple unit pellets (MUP formulation of Tramadol hydrochloride. Dissolution and diffusion controlled systems have classically been of primary importance in oral delivery of medication because of their relative ease of production and cost compared with other methods of sustained or controlled delivery. Most of these systems are solids, although a few liquids and suspension have been recently introduced. The present work aimed at developing SR pellets of Tramadol HCl by Wurster process. FTIR studies showed no unacceptable extra peaks which confirm the absence of chemical interaction between the drug and polymer. Angle of repose, tapped density, bulk density values for the formulations were within the range which indicates that pellets prepared by Wurster process were satisfactory for further studies. The percentage drug content of Tramadol was determined by extraction with methanol and analyzed by using UV-visible spectrophotometer at 271nm.

  19. Blood concentrations of chlortetracycline in macaws fed medicated pelleted feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, K; Cassidy, D R; Landgraf, W W; Ross, P F

    1989-01-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the suitability of using a pelleted diet containing chlortetracycline (CTC) for treatment of chlamydiosis in macaws. Macaws, normally fed seed and fruit diets in captivity, are notoriously difficult to treat with CTC-medicated mash diets. Healthy macaws fed a pelleted diet containing 1% or 1.5% CTC for 30 or 45 days maintained adequate food intake and mean blood concentrations of 1-2 CTC micrograms/ml blood throughout the treatment period. There were no significant differences between blood concentrations induced by the different dietary CTC concentrations. Blood concentrations of 1 microgram/ml are considered therapeutic, so it is likely that 1% CTC-medicated pellets will be adequate for treating chlamydiosis in these species. PMID:2930403

  20. Pellet wood gasification boiler / Combination boiler. Market review. 7. ed.; Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2010-08-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) report on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  1. Market review. Pellet wood gasification boiler / combination boiler. 8. ed.; Marktuebersicht. Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2012-01-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  2. STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF COMPLEMENTARY HYDRATION ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SELF-REDUCING PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felippe de Oliveira Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has investigated how different methods and time of complementary hydration affects the cold strength of self-reducing pellets. Identical pellets had been made by the addition of pellet feed, coal, cement and lime and have been subjected to hydration by water immersion or in a moist chamber for different periods. A group of non-hydrated pellets was used as reference for evaluation the effect of hydration. The pellets were then characterized by mechanical tests of compression and tumbling strength. The results have shown an increase in the mechanical properties of pellets and have proved that the hydration by moist chamber was the most efficient method.

  3. A new centrifuge pellet injector with a screw extruder for steady state fuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new conceptual design of a centrifuge injector for steady state plasma refuelling by solid hydrogen isotope pellets is presented and discussed. The apparatus has three new components: a screw extruder for continuous pellet production, a new rotating curved barrel for pellet acceleration, whose entrance section is placed on the axis of the centrifuge rotor, and a new pellet chopping unit. In preliminary tests, the screw extruder with the pellet chopping unit delivered a series of about 10,000 deuterium pellets of 2 mm in size (at the range up to 15 Hz and velocities 100-150 m/s) into the curved barrel with a 99% reliability. (author)

  4. Formation of particulate matter monitoring during combustion of wood pellete with additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacka, Matej; Holubčík, Michal; Vician, Peter; Jandačka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    Application additives into the material for the production of wood pellets achieve an improvement in some properties such as pellets ash flow temperature and abrasion resistance. Additives their properties influence the course of combustion, and have an impact on the results of issuance. The experiment were selected additives corn starch and dolomite. Wood pellets were produced in the pelleting press and pelletizing with the additives. Selected samples were tested for the production of particulate matter (PM) during their direct burn. The paper analyzing a process of producing wood pellets and his effect on the final properties.

  5. Can adult and juvenile European rabbits be differentiated by their pellet sizes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Rouco, Carlos; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2009-03-01

    Recently, a new method for differentiating juvenile and adult rabbits based on faecal pellet size was published. According to this method, pellets >6 mm diameter are inferred to be deposited by adults, while those test the accuracy of this methodology. Twelve adult rabbits were housed in individual outdoor cages and their pellets were removed every day for 10 consecutive days. Pellets were separated using a sieve according to their size and counted. Results showed that adult rabbits produce pellets >6 mm diameter in the same proportion as those 6 mm, whereas others deposit mostly pellets animals in the absence of validating studies.

  6. Initial performance and characteristics of the PBX-M pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Princeton Beta Experiment-Modified (PBX-M) Pellet Injector Project provides for the fabrication, installation and operation of a pellet injector fueling system on the PBX-M tokamak experiment. The system consists of an eight barrel pellet gun, a pellet transport facility and a control system. The gun is an eight-shot pneumatic assembly designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The pellet transport and control facilities were designed, fabricated and installed by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The integrated pellet injector system has been installed on PBX-M and is operational for use in plasma experiments. 1 ref., 7 figs

  7. Pellet production from agricultural raw materials - A systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Bernesson, Sven; Hansson, Per-Anders [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    The demand for biofuel pellets has increased considerably in recent years, causing shortage of the traditional raw materials sawdust and wood shavings. In this study, the costs and energy requirements for the production of pellets from agricultural raw materials were analysed. The materials studied were Salix, reed canary grass, hemp, straw, screenings, rape-seed meal, rape cake and distiller's waste. Four production scales were analysed, having an annual output of 80,000, 8000, 800 and 80 tonnes of pellets per year. It was concluded that the raw materials of greatest interest were Salix and reed canary grass. They had competitive raw material costs and acceptable fuel properties and could be mixed with sawdust in existing large-scale pelleting factories. Straw had low production costs but can cause serious ash-related problems and should, as also is the case for screenings, be avoided in small-scale burners. Hemp had high raw material costs and is of less commercial interest, while distiller's waste, rape-seed meal and rape cake had higher alternative values when used as protein feed. The scale of production had a crucial influence on production costs. The machinery was used much more efficiently in large-scale plants, resulting in clear cost savings. Small-scale pelleting, both static and mobile, required cheap raw materials, low labour costs and long utilisation times to be profitable. In most cases, briquetting would be more commercially viable. The energy use in manufacturing pellets from air-dried crops was generally no higher than when moist sawdust was used as the raw material. (author)

  8. Control System for the NSTX Lithium Pellet Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sichta; J. Dong; R. Gernhardt; G. Gettelfinger; H. Kugel

    2003-10-27

    The Lithium Pellet Injector (LPI) is being developed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The LPI will inject ''pellets'' of various composition into the plasma in order to study wall conditioning, edge impurity transport, liquid limiter simulations, and other areas of research. The control system for the NSTX LPI has incorporated widely used advanced technologies, such as LabVIEW and PCI bus I/O boards, to create a low-cost control system which is fully integrated into the NSTX computing environment. This paper will present the hardware and software design of the computer control system for the LPI.

  9. Control System for the NSTX Lithium Pellet Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lithium Pellet Injector (LPI) is being developed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The LPI will inject ''pellets'' of various composition into the plasma in order to study wall conditioning, edge impurity transport, liquid limiter simulations, and other areas of research. The control system for the NSTX LPI has incorporated widely used advanced technologies, such as LabVIEW and PCI bus I/O boards, to create a low-cost control system which is fully integrated into the NSTX computing environment. This paper will present the hardware and software design of the computer control system for the LPI

  10. Nonisothermal Behavior of Oxidation of Natural Ilmenite Pellet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The nonisothermal behavior of the oxidation of natural ilmenite pellets was interpreted in the light of a nonisothermal kinetic model which fits the experimental results very well.The rate of the overall oxidation was predominantly controlled by the intrapellet diffusion of oxygen and the rate of heat transfer was mainly limited by the heat conduction through the product layer.The oxidation of natural ilmenite pellet can not be treated as an isothermal reaction system within the temperature range of 1073~ 1173K unless the concentration of oxygen in the gaseous reactants is less than 10 mol%.

  11. Modelling of pellet-cladding interaction in PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pellet-cladding interaction that can occur in a PWR fuel rod design is modelled with the computer codes FRAPCON-1 and ANSYS. The fuel performance code FRAPCON-1 analyses the fuel rod irradiation behavior and generates the initial conditions for the localized fuel rod thermal and mechanical modelling in two and three-dimensional finite elements with ANSYS. In the mechanical modelling, a pellet fragment is placed in the fuel rod gap. Two types of fuel rod cladding materials are considered: Zircaloy and austenitic stainless steel. (author)

  12. First in China Caprolactam Pelletizing Line Put on Stream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In August 2008 the caprolactam palletizing section at the Shijiazhuang Chemical Fiber Company was put on stream successfully at the first attempt during feeding of process streams. It is told that this is the only one caprolactam pel-letizing facility in China, which is imported from Germany rated at a production capacity of 56 kt/a. Compared to the caprolactam chips, the caprolactam pellets are not prone to moisture pickup and oxidation and can improve the packag-ing environment thanks to its minor amount of pulverized fines to fundamentally prevent safety hazards.

  13. Quality of Pelleted Olive Cake for Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Brlek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olive cake is by-product of olive oil production. This material cannot be stored in original condition for a long time because it has high water content and relatively high portion of oil that causes rapid deterioration. Thus it is necessary to investigate possible methods of remediation of such by-product, where utilization for energy generation presents a useful option. Several studies have been conducted on energy generation from olive cake, however not one that includes pelleting as a pre-treatment. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to determine the chemical composition of different cultivars of olive cake, to produce pellets, and determine their basic quality parameters. The pellets obtained from olive cake had mainly satisfactory results regarding their quality in comparison to standards for fuel pellets. It should be kept in mind that these standards are manly for wood pellets, and therefore some lower criteria could be applied for olive cake and such biomass. The highest amount of residual oil and the lowest amount of protein was found in cultivar ‘Buža’ and produced pellets had the smallest abrasion index (8.15%. Other cultivars had lower oil and higher protein content, and abrasion index

  14. Vision guided robotic handling for density measurement of fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handling and inspection of fuel pellets are routine requirements in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. In order to minimize human exposure to hazards of radioactivity and to eliminate worker involvement in repetitive and monotonous tasks, it is desirable to deploy robots to perform these tasks. A robot-based system is potentially safe, reliable, consistent and accurate in measurements compared to a manually managed system. This paper describes the development of a vision guided robotic system for the measurement of density of fuel pellets. The system is capable of locating, picking, placing and finally computing density by using immersive technique. (author)

  15. BIOLOGIAL TRAITS IN WALNUT BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balapanov I. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a review of biological traits that could be useful for selection of the walnut in diverse conditions of its growth. The most important aspects of species biology are described as they are of primary importance for breeding programs in the countries with walnut crops

  16. USDA lettuce breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lettuce industry of California requires continued development of improved, adapted cultivars to meet new disease and insect problems, changes in the market, and changes in growing procedures. The USDA lettuce breeding and genetics project aims to incorporate valuable traits into crisphead, mixed...

  17. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting the situation like this, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic, and the case of applying mutation breeding seems to be many. The present status of the mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation were compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. As the results obtained in Japan, burdocks as an example of gamma ray irradiation to seeds, tomatoes as an example of inducing the compound resistance against disease injury and lettuces as an example of internal beta irradiation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  18. Induced mutations in sesame breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of induced mutations in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) breeding is reviewed. So far in Egypt, India, Iraq, Rep. of Korea, and Sri Lanka, 14 officially released varieties have been developed through induced mutations: 12 directly and 2 through cross breeding (one using the 'dt45' induced mutant from Israel). For another variety released in China there are no details. The induced mutations approach was adopted primarily in order to obtain genetic variability that was not available in the germplasm collection. The mutagens commonly applied have been gamma rays, EMS and sodium azide. Sesame seeds can withstand high mutagen doses, and there are genotypic differences in sensitivity between varieties. The mutants induced in the above named countries and others include better yield, improved seed retention, determinate habit, modified plant architecture and size, more uniform and shorter maturation period, earliness, resistance to diseases, genic male sterility, seed coat color, higher oil content and modified fatty acids composition. Some of the induced mutants have already given rise to improved varieties, the breeding value of other mutants is now being assessed and still others can serve as useful markers in genetic studies and breeding programmes. (author)

  19. 1993 Waterfowl Breeding Pair Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Refuge breeding pair survey was conducted on the evening of April 29 from 5:40 pm until sunset at 7:40 pm. Weather consisted of clear skies, cool temperatures,...

  20. Nowitna NWR breeding pair survey, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a waterfowl breeding pair survey taken on Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge in 1988. The breeding pair survey was conducted 31...

  1. Ecological problems in horse-breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Y. V. Zachinyaew; A. A. Anischenko

    2005-01-01

    In the article is represented general information devoted to environmental problems in the horse- breeding. The concept of development of ecological explorations in the horse-breeding is considered as well.

  2. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB;

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  3. In-Reactor Densification of Dual Cooled Annular Fuel Pellet during Irradiation Test at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Dong Joo; Kwon, Hyoung Mun; Kim, Keon Sik; Kim, Jong Hun; Oh, Jang Soo; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    These advantages result in a considerably low pellet centerline temperature. Because of this considerably low pellet temperature, in-reactor behavior of an annular pellet, such as densification and swelling may be significantly different from that of the conventional PWR solid pellet. Since the pellet temperature of an annular fuel rod is lower than that of a PWR solid fuel rod by several hundred degrees, the in-reactor densification and swelling of a dual cooled annular fuel pellet might be considered as athermal phenomena due to a low pellet temperature. In order to investigate the in-reactor behavior of the annular UO{sub 2} pellet, HANARO irradiation test was planned and conducted for annular pellets with 5 different types. Post irradiation test is being carried out in the KAERI's PIE facility. In this study, we are going to report the preliminary results of PIE test on the inreactor densification behavior of a dual cooled annular fuel pellet. Irradiation test of dual cooled annular UO{sub 2} pellet was conducted at the OR-4 hole in HANARO by using a non-instrumented test rig. The preliminary results of PIE test on the in-reactor densification behavior showed that the irradiated pellets densified much more than expected values based on MATPRO relations of inreactor densification at low temperature in the annular pellet with low initial sintered density. It might be attributed to the higher fission rate during HANARO irradiation.

  4. ELM mitigation with pellet ELM triggering and implications for PFCs and plasma performance in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, L.R., E-mail: BaylorLR@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37830-8050 (United States); Lang, P.T. [Max Plank Institute für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association., Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Allen, S.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Combs, S.K.; Commaux, N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37830-8050 (United States); Evans, T.E. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Huijsmans, G. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Jernigan, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37830-8050 (United States); Lasnier, C.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Maingi, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Maruyama, S. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Meitner, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37830-8050 (United States); Moyer, R.A. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The triggering of rapid small edge localized modes (ELMs) by high frequency pellet injection has been proposed as a method to prevent large naturally occurring ELMs that can erode the ITER plasma facing components (PFCs). Deuterium pellet injection has been used to successfully demonstrate the on-demand triggering of edge localized modes (ELMs) at much higher rates and with much smaller intensity than natural ELMs. The proposed hypothesis for the triggering mechanism of ELMs by pellets is the local pressure perturbation resulting from reheating of the pellet cloud that can exceed the local high-n ballooning mode threshold where the pellet is injected. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the pellet ELM triggering show destabilization of high-n ballooning modes by such a local pressure perturbation. A review of the recent pellet ELM triggering results from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), DIII-D, and JET reveals that a number of uncertainties about this ELM mitigation technique still remain. These include the heat flux impact pattern on the divertor and wall from pellet triggered and natural ELMs, the necessary pellet size and injection location to reliably trigger ELMs, and the level of fueling to be expected from ELM triggering pellets and synergy with larger fueling pellets. The implications of these issues for pellet ELM mitigation in ITER and its impact on the PFCs are presented along with the design features of the pellet injection system for ITER.

  5. Pellet market, raw materials, handling and logistics in Northern Periphery. PELLETime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkimaeki, M.; Prinz, R.; Mola-Yudego, B.; Roeser, D. email: dominik.roser@metla.fi

    2010-07-01

    Wood pellets have become an important fuel in heat and power production. The pellet market and supply structures are currently undergoing rapid development. Ensuring the quality of pellets through the whole production, delivery and handling chain is important in order to increase the use of pellets and sustain its ability to compete with other fuels. This study focuses on the development of the pellet market, raw materials and supply structures mainly in Sweden and Finland. Sweden has a highly developed pellet market, where fuel taxation has promoted the use of wood pellets especially in large scale boilers of >2MW, where more than half of the pellets are combusted. There are about 120 000 households using pellet heating systems in addition to the 20 000 households using pellet stoves. Sweden is the world's largest producer and consumer of pellets. In 2007 a total of 94 pellet plants/producers were producing 1.4 million tonnes of pellets, while at the same time the consumption was 1.7 million tonnes. In addition, about 400 000 tonnes of pellets were imported to meet domestic demand. In Finland, pellet production has been growing steadily despite the fact that domestic consumption has remained relatively small until recently. Today there are 24 pellet plants/producers. In 2007 production was around 330 000 tonnes while the domestic consumption was 117 000 tonnes. The pellet market in Finland has long been export oriented; with 75% and 58% of production being exported in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Domestic consumption has been growing mainly in the small scale consumer sector; it is estimated that 15 000 households had pellet heating systems in 2008. Concerning supply structures, Sweden has well established pellet distribution networks, for domestic household consumers pellets are mainly delivered in sacks (80%) directly from the plant or through extensive network of retailers while bulk deliveries are less common (20%). In Finland pellets are delivered to

  6. Selective Breeding in Organic Dairy Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding programmes. This thesis focuses on the possibilities for breeding in organic dairy farming. This thesis starts with describing the basic backgrounds of organic dairy farming and the results of a study ...

  7. Genetic diversity and structure of livestock breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the genetic characterisation of livestock breeds, a key aspect of the long-term future breed preservation and, thus, of primary interest for animal breeders and management in the industry. First, the genetic diversity and structure of breeds were investigated. The application of individual-based population genetic approaches at characterising genetic structure was assessed using the British pig breeds. All approaches, except for Principle Component Anal...

  8. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  9. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  10. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Mila; Dimitrijević Vladimir; Trailović Ružica; Vegara Mensur; Dimitrijević Blagoje; Bečkei Žolt; Petrujkić Branislav; Cojkić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties). Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest im...

  11. Preparing Bulls for the Breeding Season

    OpenAIRE

    Bagley, Clell V., DVM

    1997-01-01

    With proper care prior to and during the breeding season, cattlemen can increase the breeding capacity of bulls. Breeding soundness evaluations and trichomoniasis testing are tools which can aid a herd manager as he makes critical decisions for next year’s calf crop.

  12. Considerations related to breed or biological type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenennaam, Alison L

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the literature on breed, biological type, and breeding system and their impact on female fertility, especially as they relate to heifer development. The attributes of different breeding systems and their appropriate use is discussed. In addition, the extant and emerging selection tools that are available for replacement heifer selection are reviewed. PMID:24182431

  13. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding program

  14. Comments on Pellet Ablation in Hot Plasmas and the Problem of Magnetic Shielding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.

    1979-01-01

    Clarifications are provided concerning the consistency of a previously formulated magnetic nozzle model in connection with pellet ablation.......Clarifications are provided concerning the consistency of a previously formulated magnetic nozzle model in connection with pellet ablation....

  15. Pellet manufacturing by extrusion-spheronization using process analytical technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandler, Niklas; Rantanen, Jukka; Heinämäki, Jyrki;

    2005-01-01

    the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) during pelletization. Raman spectroscopy, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were used in the characterization of polymorphic changes during the process. Samples were collected at the end of each processing stage (blending...

  16. Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, S.

    2010-05-01

    This report provides an overview of a technical report on an assessment NREL conducted in Greensburg, Kansas, to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region. See NREL/TP-7A2-45843 for the Executive Summary of this report.

  17. Model analysis for combustion characteristics of RDF pellet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fundamental studies of the combustion characteristics and the de-HCl behavior of a single refuse-derived fuel(RDF) pellet were carried out to explain the de-HCl phenomena of RDF during fluidized bed combustion and to provide data for the development of high efficiency power generation technology using RDF previously. For further interpreting the devolatilization and the char combustion processes of RDF quantitatively, an unsteady combustion model for single RDF pellet, involving reaction rates, heat transfer and oxygen diffusion in the RDF pellet, was developed. Comparisons of simulation results with experimental data for mass loss of the RDF samples made from municipal solid waste, wood chips and poly-propylene when they were heated at 10K/min or put into the furnace under 1073K show the verifiability of the model. Using this model, the distributions of the temperature and the reaction ratio along the radius of RDF pellet during the devolatilization process and the char combustion process were presented, and discussion about the inference of heating rate on the combustion characteristics were performed.

  18. USE OF PELLETED LETTUCE SEEDS IN BIOABAILABILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Latuca sativa L., cv. Buttercrunch) is one of the most common and sensitive test organisms, among plants, used in toxicology and bioavailability studies. Much of the available lettuce seeds in commercial channels are pelleted to allow for precision machine planting. Th...

  19. USE OF PELLETED LETTUCE SEEDS IN BIOAVAILABILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Latuca sativa L., cv. Buttercrunch) is one of the most common and sensitive test organisms, among plants, used in toxicology and bioavailability studies. Much of the available lettuce seeds in commercial channels are pelleted to allow for precision machine planting. Th...

  20. Reprint of: Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Hansen, Hans Ove;

    2013-01-01

    of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the...

  1. Analytical model of neutral gas shielding for hydrogen pellet ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuteev, Boris V.; Tsendin, Lev D. [State Technical Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2001-11-01

    A kinetic gasdynamic scaling for hydrogen pellet ablation is obtained in terms of a neural gas shielding model using both numerical and analytical approaches. The scaling on plasma and pellet parameters proposed in the monoenergy approximation by Milora and Foster dR{sub pe}/dt{approx}S{sub n}{sup 2/3}R{sub p}{sup -2/3}q{sub eo}{sup 1/3}m{sub i}{sup -1/3} is confirmed. Here R{sub p} is the pellet radius, S{sub n} is the optical thickness of a cloud, q{sub eo} is the electron energy flux density and m{sub i} is the molecular mass. Only the numeral factor is approximately two times less than that for the monoenergy approach. Due to this effect, the pellet ablation rates, which were obtained by Kuteev on the basis of the Milora scaling, should be reduced by a factor of 1.7. Such a modification provides a reasonable agreement (even at high plasma parameters) between the two-dimensional kinetic model and the one-dimensional monoenergy approximation validated in contemporary tokamak experiments. As the could (in the kinetic approximation) is significantly thicker than that for the monoenergy case as well as the velocities of the gas flow are much slower, the relative effect of plasma and magnetic shielding on the ablation rate is strongly reduced. (author)

  2. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMASS ENERGY PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Gluvakov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern life conditions, when emphasis is on environmental protection and sustainable development, fuels produced from biomass are increasingly gaining in importance, and it is necessary to consider the quality of end products obtained from biomass. Based on the existing European standards, collected literature and existing laboratory methods, this paper presents results of testing individual thermal - chemical properties of biomass energy pellets after extrusion and cooling the compressed material. Analysing samples based on standard methods, data were obtained on the basis of which individual thermal-chemical properties of pellets were estimated. Comparing the obtained results with the standards and literature sources, it can be said that moisture content, ash content and calorific values are the most important parameters for quality analysis which decide on applicability and use-value of biomass energy pellets, as biofuel. This paper also shows the impact of biofuels on the quality of environmental protection. The conclusion provides a clear statement of quality of biomass energy pellets.

  3. Thermal characterization of (U, Dy)O2 pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal diffusivity of (U,Dy)O2 pellets were determined in the temperature range 250 K to 1600 K measured by the laser flash method. The dependence of thermal with temperature and dysprosium content was studied and found in good agreement with physical models available (author)

  4. Analytical model of neutral gas shielding for hydrogen pellet ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kinetic gasdynamic scaling for hydrogen pellet ablation is obtained in terms of a neural gas shielding model using both numerical and analytical approaches. The scaling on plasma and pellet parameters proposed in the monoenergy approximation by Milora and Foster dRpe/dt∼Sn2/3Rp-2/3qeo1/3mi-1/3 is confirmed. Here Rp is the pellet radius, Sn is the optical thickness of a cloud, qeo is the electron energy flux density and mi is the molecular mass. Only the numeral factor is approximately two times less than that for the monoenergy approach. Due to this effect, the pellet ablation rates, which were obtained by Kuteev on the basis of the Milora scaling, should be reduced by a factor of 1.7. Such a modification provides a reasonable agreement (even at high plasma parameters) between the two-dimensional kinetic model and the one-dimensional monoenergy approximation validated in contemporary tokamak experiments. As the could (in the kinetic approximation) is significantly thicker than that for the monoenergy case as well as the velocities of the gas flow are much slower, the relative effect of plasma and magnetic shielding on the ablation rate is strongly reduced. (author)

  5. Standard specification for nuclear-Grade boron carbide pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This specification applies to boron carbide pellets for use as a control material in nuclear reactors. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

  6. Impurity injection by use of multiple-shell pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of the three-layered multiple-shell pellet is studied in order to apply to the impurity injection experiment. The mass dependence of the ablation is examined by employing the neutral-cloud shielding model. The localization width of the impurity is estimated. (author)

  7. Small-Scale Pellet Heating Systems from Consumer Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A questionnaire survey of 1,500 detached house owners was carried out in the autumn of 2004 to find out the factors influencing the adoption and diffusion of pellet heating systems in the Swedish residential sector. The results revealed that most of the respondents had no plans to install new heating systems as they were satisfied with their existing ones. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors in the respondents' choice of heating system while environmental factors were of less importance. Therefore, internalizing external costs, such as environmental costs, might be effective in influencing house owners to adopt environmentally benign heating systems. Installers were the most important source of information on heating systems. Hence, it is important that they could inform the consumers comprehensively and accurately about different heating systems. Respondents perceived the relative advantage of pellet boilers over oil or electricity-based heating systems, but bedrock heat pump system was ranked higher than pellet heating system in every aspect except for investment cost. Pellet heating system has advantage over district heating system with respect to investment cost and annual cost of heating. District heating system was considered as most functionally reliable and automatic

  8. quality assurance calculation in UO2 pellet manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process qualification plan is prepared for preparation of quality assurance documentation in accordance with ISO-9000 series of standards, for sintered UO2 pellets manufactured in the Nuclear Fuel Technology Department. The objectives of this plan are to determine quantitatively and statistically process capability of the pellet production, to check product properties (are) in conformance with specifications at the pre-( ) confidence levels, to prepare necessary documents and to assess the results. The product properties taking into account are chemical composition, cracks, density, microstructure and grain size. The statistical parameters used for qualification element of quality assurance are calculated.Statistical values for sintered pellets are: LENGTH/WEIGHT/DIAMETER/DENSITY/%TD: MEAN:13,395/16,808/12,293/10,679/97,400 STD:0,1651/ 0,252/0,0212/0,015/0,140. It was seen that sintered pellets manufactured in the Nuclear Fuel Technology Department meet the criteria within 95% confidence level. In this paper specifications, criteria and calculations will be explained in detail

  9. Automatic failure identification of the nuclear power plant pellet fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposed the development of an automatic technique for evaluating defects to help in the stage of fabrication of fuel elements. Was produced an intelligent image analysis for automatic recognition of defects in uranium pellets. Therefore, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was trained using segments of histograms of pellets, containing examples of both normal (no fault) and of defectives pellets (with major defects normally found). The images of the pellets were segmented into 11 shares. Histograms were made of these segments and trained the ANN. Besides automating the process, the system was able to obtain this classification accuracy of 98.33%. Although this percentage represents a significant advance ever in the quality control process, the use of more advanced techniques of photography and lighting will reduce it to insignificant levels with low cost. Technologically, the method developed, should it ever be implemented, will add substantial value in terms of process quality control and production outages in relation to domestic manufacturing of nuclear fuel. (author)

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF CLOZAPINE PELLETS FOR CONTROLLED RELEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Gowda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This research work was done to design oral controlled release matrix pellets of water insoluble drug Clozapine, using blend of Hydroxypropyl cellulose and glyceryl palmito stearate as as matrix polymers, methyl crystalline cellulose as spheronizer enhancer,sodium lauryl sulphate as pore forming agent. Clozapine formulations developed by the pellitization technique by drug loaded pellets were characterized with regard to the drug content, size distribution, Scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Xray Diffraction study. Stability studies were carried out on the optimized formulation for aperiod of 90 days, 40 ± 2 oC and 75 ± 5% relative humidity. The drug content was in the range of 95.34 – 98.12 %. The mean particle size of drug loaded pellets was in the range 1018 to 1065 mm. SEM photographs and calculated sphericity factor confirms that the prepared formulations were spherical in nature. The drug loaded pellets were stable and compatible as confirmed by DSC and FTIR studies. XRD patterns revealed the crystalline nature of pure clozapine. Loose surface crystal study indicated that crystalline clozapine was observed in all formulation and more clear in formulation A5. Higher amount of clozapine released was observed from formulation A5 and Syclop® 25 mg tablet as compared to all other formulations and mechanism of drug release followed Fickian diffusion. It can be concluded that formulation A5 is an ideal formulation for once a day administration.

  11. High-performance supershots in TFTR with lithium pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the amount of lithium pellet injection during the supershot conditioning procedures has enabled reliable enhancement of supershot confinement at higher plasma currents. Some shots have exceptionally good performance, with peak global parameters up to τE=205 ms, Sn=5.6 x 1016n/s and QDD=2. 1 x 10-3

  12. The Magnetic Shielding Effect of a Re-Fuelling Pellet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic shielding effect of a refuelling pellet is considered by first briefly reviewing the existing balloon model. The limitation of the model is pointed out and discussed. Since solid deuterium is an insulator and the ablated plasma is expected to be cold and dense, it is felt that the ex...

  13. The sensitivity theory for inertial confinement pellet fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitivity theory for inertial confinement pellet fusion system is developed based on a physical model similar to that embodied in the laser fusion code MEDUSA. The theory presented here can be an efficient tool for estimating the effects of many alternations in the data field. Our result is different from Greenspan's work in 1980. (author)

  14. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  15. Combustion Gases And Heat Release Analysis During Flame And Flameless Combustion Of Wood Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth Jozef; Wachter Igor; Balog Karol

    2015-01-01

    With the growing prices of fossil fuels, alternative fuels produced of biomass come to the fore. They are made of waste materials derived from the processing of wood and wood materials. The main objective of this study was to analyse the fire-technical characteristics of wood pellets. The study analysed three dust samples acquired from wood pellets made of various types of wood biomass. Wood pellet dust is produced when manipulating with pellets. During this process a potentially hazardous si...

  16. Characterization of Fe/KClO4 heat powders and pellets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Frederick William; Guidotti, Ronald Armand; Odinek, Judy Gail

    2005-04-01

    Pellets of Fe/KClO{sub 4} mixtures are used as a heat source for thermally activated ('thermal') batteries. They provide the energy necessary for melting the electrolyte and bringing the battery stack to operating temperature. The effects of morphology of the Fe and the heat-pellet density and composition on both the physical properties (flowability, pelletization, and pellet strength) and the pyrotechnic performance (burn rate and ignition sensitivity) were examined using several commercial sources of Fe.

  17. Fabrication of uranium dioxide ceramic pellets with controlled porosity from oxide microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, E. [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Picart, S., E-mail: sebastien.picart@cea.fr [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Delahaye, T. [Fuel Cycle Technology Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Jobelin, I. [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Dugne, O. [Fuel Cycle Technology Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Bisel, I. [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Blanchart, P. [Heterogeneous Materials Research Group, Centre Européen de la Céramique, F-87068 Limoges (France); Ayral, A. [Institut Européen des Membranes, UMR 5635 CNRS-ENSCM-UM2, University of Montpellier, F-34095 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)

    2014-05-01

    This study concerns the fabrication of uranium oxide pellets using the powder-free process called Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP). Details are given about oxide microsphere synthesis and particularly about loading operation and heat treatments. The fabrication of ceramic pellets is also described and discussed. Results showed that this process allows the preparation of either dense or porous pellets by mixing U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and UO{sub 2}-like microspheres before pressing and sintering.

  18. Performance of a domestic pellet boiler as a function of operational loads: Part-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, V.K.; De Ruyck, J. [Department Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Bram, S. [Department Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Department of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Erasmushogeschool Brussel, Nijverheidskaai 170, 1070 Brussel (Belgium); Gauthier, G. [Unite de Thermodynamique et Turbomachines (TERM), Universite Catholique de Louvain (U.C.L.), 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2011-01-15

    Emissions and efficiency of a pellet boiler (40 kW) at nominal load were compared with emissions and efficiency at reduced load, while fired with six biomass pellets. The pellets include reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), pectin waste from citrus shells (Citrus reticulata), sunflower husk (Helianthus annuus), peat, wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) and wood pellets. The measurements of emissions comprised of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulphur oxides (SO{sub x}) and flue dust mass concentrations (using DINplus and isokinetic sampling techniques). Emissions varied as a function of operational loads, for each type of pellets. The CO emissions were insignificant with reed canary grass (RCG), citrus pectin waste (CPW) and straw pellets at nominal load, however, at reduced load same pellets emitted 1.9, 4.0 and 7.4 times higher CO than wood pellets, respectively. Peat pellets emitted maximum CO at nominal load (4221.1 mgNm{sup -3}, 12.6 times higher than wood pellets) however; at reduced load CO emission was insignificant. The highest NO{sub x} emissions were reported with CPW, which were 3.4 and 4.6 times higher than wood pellets at nominal load and reduced load, respectively. Dust emissions were highest with sunflower husk and lowest with RCG pellets, at both operational modes. The best performance was reported with wood pellets, followed by RCG and pectin pellets, however, wood pellets combustion emitted 1.7 and 2.0 times higher dust{sub DINplus} than RCG at nominal and reduced loads, respectively. Not only fuel specific combustion optimization but also operational load specific optimization is essential for efficient use of agro-pellets in this type of boilers. (author)

  19. To breed or not to breed: a seabird's response to extreme climatic events

    OpenAIRE

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Doherty, Paul F.; Schreiber, E. A.; Gimenez, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent breeding is an important life-history strategy that has rarely been quantified in the wild and for which drivers remain unclear. It may be the result of a trade-off between survival and reproduction, with individuals skipping breeding when breeding conditions are below a certain threshold. Heterogeneity in individual quality can also lead to heterogeneity in intermittent breeding. We modelled survival, recruitment and breeding probability of the red-footed booby (Sula sula), usin...

  20. Lightning arrestor connector lead magnesium niobate qualification pellet test procedures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuohig, W. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Mahoney, Patrick A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Wheeler, Jill Susanne

    2009-02-01

    Enhanced knowledge preservation for DOE DP technical component activities has recently received much attention. As part of this recent knowledge preservation effort, improved documentation of the sample preparation and electrical testing procedures for lead magnesium niobate--lead titanate (PMN/PT) qualification pellets was completed. The qualification pellets are fabricated from the same parent powders used to produce PMN/PT lightning arrestor connector (LAC) granules at HWF&T. In our report, the procedures for fired pellet surface preparation, electrode deposition, electrical testing and data recording are described. The dielectric measurements described in our report are an information only test. Technical reasons for selecting the electrode material, electrode size and geometry are presented. The electrical testing is based on measuring the dielectric constant and dissipation factor of the pellet during cooling from 280 C to 220 C. The most important data are the temperature for which the peak dielectric constant occurs (Curie Point temperature) and the peak dielectric constant magnitude. We determined that the peak dielectric constant for our procedure would be that measured at 1 kHz at the Curie Point. Both the peak dielectric constant and the Curie point parameters provide semi-quantitative information concerning the chemical and microstructural homogeneity of the parent material used for the production of PMN/PT granules for LACs. Finally, we have proposed flag limits for the dielectric data for the pellets. Specifically, if the temperature of the peak dielectric constant falls outside the range of 250 C {+-} 30 C we propose that a flag limit be imposed that will initiate communication between production agency and design agency personnel. If the peak dielectric constant measured falls outside the range 25,000 {+-} 10,000 we also propose that a flag limit be imposed.

  1. Response to Delibes-Mateos et al. : Pellet size matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Marta; Rebollo, Salvador; Gálvez-Bravo, Lucía

    2009-05-01

    In Rueda et al. [Rueda, M., Rebollo, S., Gálvez-Bravo, L., 2008. Age and season determine European rabbit habitat use in Mediterranean ecosystems. Acta Oecol. 34, 266-273] we used a threshold of 6 mm faecal pellet diameter to differentiate between adult and juvenile European rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) habitat use. Delibes-Mateos et al. designed a housing experiment with 12 adult rabbits and criticised the choice of 6 mm as a threshold to separate adult and juvenile rabbit pellets, claiming that adults can produce pellets both larger and smaller than 6 mm in similar proportions. In response to their criticism we argue the following. The selection of a 6 mm threshold has a bibliographic basis, it is not a new method developed by Rueda et al. and produces consistent results when applied in the field. Assuming that Delibes-Mateos et al. results are accurate, we should have found a greater number of 6 mm, overall and seasonally, which is not the case. We believe that the use of commercial pelleted food, keeping animals isolated in small cages for over a year, and the use of adult rabbits only, makes the experimental design used by these authors not suitable to refute the usefulness of separating rabbit pellets smaller and larger than 6 mm diameter as indicators of changes in the relative abundance of juvenile and adult rabbits in the field. Finally, we agree with the authors that the use of indirect methods of animal aging would require case-specific validation studies; however, we believe these studies should be correctly designed.

  2. Quality effects caused by torrefaction of pellets made from Scots pine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Dahl, Jonas; Stelte, Wolfgang; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai; Thomsen, Tobias; Henriksen, Ulrik B.

    2012-01-01

    for grinding the pellet samples in a bench scale disc mill. Particle size distribution measurements after grinding indicated a significant increase of small particles (diameterca. 2mm). To further analyze the effect on strength, the mechanical durability of pellets was tested according to wood pellet...

  3. Twin-Screw Extruder and Pellet Accelerator Integration Developments for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Maruyama, So [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France

    2011-01-01

    The ITER pellet injection system consisting of a twinscrew frozen hydrogen isotope extruder, coupled to a combination solenoid actuated pellet cutter and pneumatic pellet accelerator, is under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A prototype extruder has been built to produce a continuous solid deuterium extrusion and will be integrated with a secondary section, where pellets are cut, chambered, and launched with a single-stage pneumatic accelerator into the plasma through a guide tube. This integrated pellet injection system is designed to provide 5 mm fueling pellets, injected at a rate up to 10 Hz, or 3 mm edge localized mode (ELM) triggering pellets, injected at higher rates up to 20 Hz. The pellet cutter, chamber mechanism, and the solenoid operated pneumatic valve for the accelerator are optimized to provide pellet velocities between 200-300 m/s to ensure high pellet survivability while traversing the inner wall fueling guide tubes, and outer wall ELMpacing guide tubes. This paper outlines the current twin-screwextruder design, pellet accelerator design, and the integrationrequired for both fueling and ELM pacing pellets.

  4. Fabrication of ThO2, UO2, and PuO2-UO2 pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication of ThO pellets for EBR-II irradiation testing and fabrication of UO2 and PuO2-UO2 pellets for United Kingdom Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) irradiation testing is discussed. Effect of process parameters on density and microstructure of pellets fabricated by the cold press and sinter technique is reviewed

  5. Remote visual inspection of nuclear fuel pellets with fiber optics and video image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has designed and is constructing a nuclear fuel fabrication process line for the Department of Energy. This process line includes a pellet surface inspection system that remotely inspects the cylindrical surface of nuclear fuel pellets for surface spots, flaws, or discoloration. The pellets are inspected on a 100 percent basis after pellet sintering. A feeder will deliver the pellets directly to a fiber optic inspection head. The inspection head will view one pellet surface at a time. The surface image of the pellet will be imaged to a closed-circuit color television camera (CCTV). The output signal of the CCTV will be input to a digital imaging processor that stores approximately 25 pellet images at a time. A human operator will visually examine the images of the pellet surfaces on a high resolution monitor and accept or reject the pellets based on visual standards. The operator will use a digitizing tablet to record the location of rejected pellets, which will then be automatically removed from the product stream. The system is expandable to automated disposition of the pellet surface image

  6. Adsorption of trace metals to plastic resin pellets in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastic production pellets collected from beaches of south west England contain variable concentrations of trace metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) that, in some cases, exceed concentrations reported for local estuarine sediments. The rates and mechanisms by which metals associate with virgin and beached polyethylene pellets were studied by adding a cocktail of 5 μg L−1 of trace metals to 10 g L−1 pellet suspensions in filtered seawater. Kinetic profiles were modelled using a pseudo-first-order equation and yielded response times of less than about 100 h and equilibrium partition coefficients of up to about 225 ml g−1 that were consistently higher for beached pellets than virgin pellets. Adsorption isotherms conformed to both the Langmuir and Freundlich equations and adsorption capacities were greater for beached pellets than for virgin pellets. Results suggest that plastics may represent an important vehicle for the transport of metals in the marine environment. - Highlights: ► Beached plastic production pellets contain considerable concentrations of trace metals. ► In laboratory experiments trace metals are shown to adsorb to both virgin and beached pellets. ► Metal adsorption is greater on aged pellets. ► Pellets may represent an important vehicle for metal transport in the marine environment. - Trace metals accumulate on plastic resin pellets in the marine environment through adsorption to the polymer and to chemical and biological attritions thereon.

  7. The Feasibility of Pellet Re-Fuelling of a Fusion Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Jørgensen, L. W.; Nielsen, P.;

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of re-fuelling a fusion reactor by injecting pellets of frozen hydrogen isotopes is reviewed. First a general look is taken of the dominant energy fluxes received by the pellet, the re-fuelling rate required and the relation between pellet size, injection speed and frequency...

  8. Current trends in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current world population is 6 billion and it is likely to reach 7 billion in 2010 and 8 billion 2025. Sufficient food must be produced for the ever increasing human population. The available suitable land for intensive agriculture is limited. We have to produce more food from less land, pesticide, labour and water resources. Hence, increase in crop productivity are essential to feed the world in the next century. Plant breeding provides the avenue to increase the food production to feed the growing world population. Development of a cultivar involves (I) Construction of a genetic model (II) creating a gene pool (III) selection among plants and (IV) testing the selected genotypes for adaptation to the biotic and abiotic environments (Frey, 1999). This paper discusses the trends in plant breeding using the oil palm as a model. It covers (i) genetic resources (ii) physiological traits (III) exploitation of genotype x environment interaction (IV) oil palm clones, and (v) biotechnology application. (Author)

  9. ITER reference breeding blanket design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, M. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy); Bianchi, A. [EFET, Ansaldo Ricerche, Genova (Italy); Celentano, G. [ENEA, ERG-FUS, Centro di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi, 27, P.O. Box 65, I-00044, Frascati (IT)] [and others

    1999-11-01

    The ITER reference breeding blanket design is water-cooled and is characterised by the use of the neutronic multiplier and breeder materials in the form of pebbles. Besides the achievement, with margin, of the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) minimum requirement, it exhibits an internal layout allowing it to withstand properly electromagnetic loads during plasma disruption and vertical displacement events, and pressure loads in case of rupture of an internal cooling channel (i.e. in-box LOCA). During the first part of 1998, the design has been optimised improving the performance in terms of TBR, enlarging the design margins with respect to the dimensioning loads and investigating in detail the global behaviour of the system during normal and off-normal conditions. (orig.)

  10. ITER reference breeding blanket design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER reference breeding blanket design is water-cooled and is characterised by the use of the neutronic multiplier and breeder materials in the form of pebbles. Besides the achievement, with margin, of the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) minimum requirement, it exhibits an internal layout allowing it to withstand properly electromagnetic loads during plasma disruption and vertical displacement events, and pressure loads in case of rupture of an internal cooling channel (i.e. in-box LOCA). During the first part of 1998, the design has been optimised improving the performance in terms of TBR, enlarging the design margins with respect to the dimensioning loads and investigating in detail the global behaviour of the system during normal and off-normal conditions. (orig.)

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue contains a number of contributions from readers describing experiments in plant breeding (the individual items are indexed separately) and a report on the 30th Gamma-Field Symposium held in Tsukuba, Japan in July 1991. Also included is a list of officially released mutant varieties of seed-propagated crops taken from the FAO/IAEA database of mutant varieties. It is planned to organize a database on available crop plant mutant variety germplasm collections. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains short descriptions of research methods for the use of radiation to induce mutations and facilitate plant breeding. This method is used to develop species of plants that can survive in harsh climates and thus provide a food supply for humans and animals. Some of the mutants discussed include a salt tolerant barley, a disease resistant shrub, a cold tolerant chickpea, a highly productive Canavalia virosa and productive tomato. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Breeding vegetatively propagated horticultural crops

    OpenAIRE

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2011-01-01

    Horticulture is an important part of agriculture with many important crops being vegetatively propagated. Theobjectives of this work were to discuss some of the most important characteristics of vegetatively propagated crops and the breedingstrategies to develop and propagate new cultivars. Vegetative propagation enables to fix favorable combinations of important traits,very specific chemical compositions, superior genetic variance interactions and high levels of heterozygosity. Breeding new ...

  14. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-01-01

    The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breedingfocuses recent progress in our understanding of thegenetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book isdivided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I,Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advancesin molecular biology and laboratory procedures thathave been developed recently to manipulate DNA.Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomicsapproaches form as a powerful tool for investigatingthe molecular mechanisms of the...

  15. Breeding for sustainable milk production

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen Axelsson, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of the research reported in this thesis was to investigate ways to mitigate deterioration in functional traits and reduce the environmental impact of milk production. The more specific objectives were to obtain new information about the selection of bull dams for functional traits in an open nucleus herd, to monitor ongoing genetic trends in functional traits, and to examine a breeding program with genomic selection and contractor herds that records specific indicator traits c...

  16. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The conclu...

  17. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  18. The confirmation method of disposal about the pellet and granular solid wastes and the pellet solid wastes (Revised edition 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of pellet solid wastes are scheduled in Fukushima Daiichi and Tokai Daini power plants. The propriety of the disposal confirmation method of these wastes was examined in this issue. Further the outline of the confirmation method of waste disposal was partially improved. (M.H.)

  19. Confirmation method of disposal about the pellet and granular solid wastes and the pellet solid wastes (Revised edition 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of pellet solid wastes is scheduled in Fukushima Daiichi and Tokai Daini power plants. The propriety of the disposal confirmation method of these wastes was examined in this issue. Further the outline of the confirmation method of waste disposal was partially improved. (M.H.)

  20. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  1. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  2. Effect of pelleting process variables on physical properties and sugar yields of ammonia fiber expansion pretreated corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amber N. Hoover; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Farzaneh Teymouri; Garold L. Gresham; Janette Moore

    2014-07-01

    Pelletization process variables including grind size (4, 6 mm), die speed (40, 50, 60 Hz), and preheating (none, 70 degrees C) were evaluated to understand their effect on pellet quality attributes and sugar yields of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreated biomass. The bulk density of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was three to six times greater compared to untreated and AFEX-treated corn stover. Also the durability of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was >97.5% for all pelletization conditions studied except for preheated pellets. Die speed had no effect on enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yields of pellets. Pellets produced with preheating or a larger grind size (6 mm) had similar or lower sugar yields. Pellets generated with 4 mm AFEX-treated corn stover, a 60 Hz die speed, and no preheating resulted in pellets with similar or greater density, durability, and sugar yields compared to other pelletization conditions.

  3. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of use of Norwegian wood pellets: a sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid growth in wood pellet consumption in Europe has promoted an increase in imports from other continents. In this study, we analyse: (i) the resource use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the life cycle of wood pellets produced in Western Europe, (ii) the net GHG emission effects of replacing the fossil fuels lignite, hard coal and paraffin with these pellets, (iii) the most important factors impacting on GHG emissions, and (iv) the costs of replacing these fossil fuels with the pellets compared to changes in the net GHG emissions. Over the life cycle of wood pellets, starting from wood harvesting, total emissions amount to 236 kg CO2eq/tonne pellets (43 kg CO2eq/GJ energy output), but can vary between 113 and 482 kg CO2eq/tonne pellets. Substituting lignite in power plants can reduce GHG emissions by about 298 kg CO2eq/GJ energy output (1620 kg CO2eq/tonne pellets), but only by 58 kg CO2eq/GJ energy output in the “Min. substitution effect” scenario where the emissions in the pellet production chain were high and paraffin replaced. The criteria for carbon neutrality are discussed. Including all CO2 emissions from pellet combustion but not carbon sequestration in forest, GHG emissions from the use of pellets are slightly less than from the replaced lignite. The results of our sensitivity analyses indicate the importance of utilizing bioenergy efficiently. Including all or no CO2 emissions from combustion are both simplifications, and, depending on the conditions, net CO2 emissions from pellets lie somewhere between the two. Simple cost estimates suggest that reducing GHG emissions by replacing lignite and hard coal with pellets costs about 60–70 €/tonne CO2eq. Replacement of paraffin with pellets has however positive net returns due to the higher market prices for paraffin than for pellets.

  4. The Swedish fuel pellets industry: Production, market and standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, Jonas

    2008-03-15

    The production and demand for wood-based fuel pellets has increased considerably both in Sweden and internationally the recent years. Today Sweden is one of the leading nations when it comes to production and use of fuel pellets. Despite the favorable development great challenges wait. The all time high production of saw mill by-products is not enough to satisfy the growing demand for by-products, resulting in increasing raw material prices and competition. Seen in a historic context, the pellet industry has been characterized by fluctuations in supply and demand and uncertainty about how changes in governmental subsidies and the development of competitive substitutes will affect the situation. This study presents a broad overview of the Swedish pellet industry. The study had three purposes; to analyze the business situation for the producers, to examine to what extent product standards and environmental certification instruments were used within the industry, and to make an estimate on future potentials and possibilities for the pellet industry. The study was conducted in the form of a questionnaire survey to the manufacturers of fuel pellets in Sweden and the results are based on answers from 55 % of the producers, accounting for 86 % of the total production capacity. The results indicate a rapidly expanding production capacity and at the same time a strained raw material situation. The production increased with as much as 260 % from 2001 to 2007, and the planned capacity expansion totals 708 000 annual tonnes, or over 40 % of the capacity for 2007. During the same period, the competition for raw materials was getting more intense; one third of the producers experience the raw material situation as the largest threat to the production and the majority of firms have evaluated alternative raw materials in response to the increased competition. Among the alternatives examined are for example roundwood and pulp wood. The majority (47 %) of the production go to small

  5. Design considerations for single-stage and two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors is compared with several models for one-dimensional, compressible fluid flow. Agreement is quite good for models that reflect actual breech chamber geometry and incorporate nonideal effects such as gas friction. Several methods of improving the performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors in the near term are outlined. The design and performance of two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors are discussed, and initial data from the two-stage pneumatic pellet injector test facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Finally, a concept for a repeating two-stage pneumatic pellet injector is described. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Ablation of a Deuterium Pellet in a Fusion Plasma Viewed as a Stopping Power Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    sublimation energy of hydrogen isotopes, shortly after the direct impact of the electrons, a dense cloud forms around the pellet. This cloud of ablated material then serves as a stopping medium for the incoming electrons, thus prolongs the pellet life-time. As a result, the deep penetration of the pellet into......At present, the most exploited technology to refuel a future fusion reactor is the high speed injection of macroscopic size pellet of solid hydrogen isotopes. The basic idea is that the ablation of a pellet in a fusion reactor is mainly caused by thermal electrons (~ 10 keV) /1/. Due to the low...

  7. "Proposed High Speed Pellet Injection System ""HIPEL"" for Large Helical Device"

    OpenAIRE

    Sudo, S.; Kanno, M.; Kaneko, H.; Saka, S.; Shirai, T; Baba, T

    1993-01-01

    "From the results of the simulation study including pellet ablation and 1-D transport code, it is found that a high speed pellet injector with pellet velocity of more than 3 km/s is necessary for the penetration of the pellet with diameter of 3 mm into the core region under the expected plasma condition of Large Helical Device (LHD) of heliotron/stellarator type with superconducting coils at NIFS in Japan. Therefore, a two stage pellet injector was constructed and tested successfully in order...

  8. Proposed High Speed Pellet Injection System "HIPEL" for Large Helical Device

    OpenAIRE

    Sudo, S.; Kanno, M.; Kaneko, H.; Saka, S.; Shirai, T; Baba, T

    1993-01-01

    From the results of the simulation study including pellet ablation and 1-D transport code, it is found that a high speed pellet injector with pellet velocity of more than 3 km/s is necessary for the penetration of the pellet with diameter of 3 mm into the core region under the expected plasma condition of Large Helical Device (LHD) of heliotron/stellarator type with superconducting coils at NIFS in Japan. Therefore, a two stage pellet injector was constructed and tested successfully in order ...

  9. The Feasibility of Pellet Re-Fuelling of a Fusion Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Jørgensen, L. W.; Nielsen, P.; Lengyel, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of re-fuelling a fusion reactor by injecting pellets of frozen hydrogen isotopes is reviewed. First a general look is taken of the dominant energy fluxes received by the pellet, the re-fuelling rate required and the relation between pellet size, injection speed and frequency....... Current available theories of pellet ablation are then discussed. For a given penetration depth inside the reactor, the necessary pellet injection speed is examined in terms of the ablation theory adopted and the temperature and density profiles of the reactor plasma. The interaction between the injected...

  10. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blasco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selection is not exhausting genetic variability (there are several experiments showing that, and genetic variability within breeds is large. We need reasons to keep breeds in danger in extinction. A breed is a tool, and we can decide to keep it when it is useful because it is specially adapted to some environments (although in this case it should not be in danger of extinction, it can be useful in crossbreeding to shorten the way of obtaining response to selection, or it has some extreme values for traits that may be useful in the future (in this case we have to define clearly which traits and how we expect the future to be. We can add cultural reasons when we have money enough to spend in culture.

  11. A data mining approach to optimize pellets manufacturing process based on a decision tree algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronowicz, Joanna; Thommes, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter; Krysiński, Jerzy

    2015-06-20

    The present study is focused on the thorough analysis of cause-effect relationships between pellet formulation characteristics (pellet composition as well as process parameters) and the selected quality attribute of the final product. The shape using the aspect ratio value expressed the quality of pellets. A data matrix for chemometric analysis consisted of 224 pellet formulations performed by means of eight different active pharmaceutical ingredients and several various excipients, using different extrusion/spheronization process conditions. The data set contained 14 input variables (both formulation and process variables) and one output variable (pellet aspect ratio). A tree regression algorithm consistent with the Quality by Design concept was applied to obtain deeper understanding and knowledge of formulation and process parameters affecting the final pellet sphericity. The clear interpretable set of decision rules were generated. The spehronization speed, spheronization time, number of holes and water content of extrudate have been recognized as the key factors influencing pellet aspect ratio. The most spherical pellets were achieved by using a large number of holes during extrusion, a high spheronizer speed and longer time of spheronization. The described data mining approach enhances knowledge about pelletization process and simultaneously facilitates searching for the optimal process conditions which are necessary to achieve ideal spherical pellets, resulting in good flow characteristics. This data mining approach can be taken into consideration by industrial formulation scientists to support rational decision making in the field of pellets technology. PMID:25835791

  12. Improved fueling and transport barrier formation with pellet injection from different locations on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet injection has been employed on DIII-D from different injection locations to optimize the mass deposition for density profile control and internal transport barrier formation. Transport barriers have been formed deep in the plasma core with central mass deposition from high field side (HFS) injected pellets and in the edge with pellets that trigger L-mode to H-mode transitions. Pellets injected from all locations can trigger the H-mode transition, which depends on the edge density gradient created and not on the radial extent of the pellet deposition. Pellets injected from inside the magnetic axis from the inner wall or vertical port lead to stronger central mass deposition than pellets injected from the low field side (LFS) and thus yield deeper more efficient fueling. (author)

  13. Proposed high speed pellet injection system 'HIPEL' for Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the results of the simulation study including pellet ablation and 1-D transport code, it is found that a high speed pellet injector with pellet velocity of more than 3 km/s is necessary for the penetration of the pellet with diameter of 3 mm into the core region under the expected plasma condition of Large Helical Device (LHD) of heliotron/stellarator type with superconducting coils at NIFS in Japan. Therefore, a two stage pellet injector was constructed and tested successfully in order to obtain the pellet velocity range of 3 km/s. Based upon the above results, a high speed flexible multiple-pellet injection system 'HIPEL' for LHD is proposed. HIPEL consists of independent (1) 10 two-stage gun barrels and (2) 10 single-stage gun barrels. It has multi purposes such as refueling and flexible density profile control, diagnostics and the other functions. (author)

  14. Plasma confinement of large-size-pellet DT fuel in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss a concept of a large-size-pellet ion-beam inertial confinement fusion (ICF) in which a DT fuel pellet is more than several tens mg. In the large-size-pellet ICF the fuel is compressed to less than 1000 times the solid density, for example about 100 times the solid density in order to realize ρR > 1 - 3g/cm2. Because of the low compression ratio, constraints required for the uniform fuel implosion are relaxed compared with those for a high-compression implosion of a small pellet. This concept of the large-size-pellet implosion may present another approach to ICF. In this paper we present a simple estimation for the concept and one-dimensional numerical analyses for the large-size-pellet implosion. A simple linear estimation for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability presents that the fuel pellet may not be destroyed by the instability. (author)

  15. Ammonia-pellet generation system for the Baseball II-T target plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of a small pellet by a pulsed laser is one method of producing a startup target plasma for plasma experiments employing neutral-beam injection. A system for generating charged, uniformly sized, solid-ammonia, 150-μm-diam, spherical pellets having a charge-to-mass ratio of 10-4 C/kg is described. These pellets are electrostatically guided at a speed of 32 m/sec (over a distance of several meters) to a laser focal zone. This complete system (pellet generation and pellet guidance) has been successfully operated on a 3-m test stand where 250-μm-diam pellets were regularly irradiated by a pulsed, 30-J CO2 laser. The system is now installed on the Baseball II-T experiment; in preliminary tests, several 150-μm-diam pellets were irradiated with the pulsed 300-J CO2 laser

  16. Dry bag isostatic pressing for improved green strength of surrogate nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry bag isostatic pressing is proposed for mass production of nuclear fuel pellets. Dry bag isostatically pressed rods of a fuel surrogate (95% CeO2-5% HfO2) 200 mm long by 8 mm diameter were cut into pellets using a wire saw. Four different binders and CeO2 powder obtained from two different sources were investigated. The strength of the isostatically pressed pellets for all binder systems measured by diametral compression was about 50% higher than pellets produced by uniaxial dry pressing at the same pressure. It was proposed that the less uniform density of uniaxially pressed pellets accounted for the lower strength. The strength of pellets containing CeO2 powder with significantly higher moisture content was five times higher than pellets containing CeO2 powder with a low moisture content even though they were 25% less dense. Capillary pressure of the moisture was thought to supply the added binding strength.

  17. Wood pellet heating plants. Market survey. 4. upd. ed.; Hackschnitzel-Heizung. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    Wood pellets from the agriculture and forestry offer an enormous potential for the development of the use of bio energy in the private area as well as in industry and commerce. Within the market survey 'Wood pellet heating systems', the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reported on the targets and measures of the Federal Government with respect to the heating with biomass, wood pellets as solid biofuels (standardization of solid biofuels, supply, features, evaluation), wood pellet heating plants, economic considerations, market survey on wood pellet heating plants as well as list of addresses for producers of wood pellet heating plants and suppliers of wood pellets.

  18. The CIT [compact ignition tokamak] pellet injection system: Description and supporting research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) will use an advance, high-velocity pellet injection system to achieve and maintain ignited plasmas. Two pellet injectors are provided: a moderate-velocity (1-to 1.5-km/s), single-stage pneumatic injector with high reliability and a high-velocity (4- to 5-km/s), two-stage pellet injector that uses frozen hydrogenic pellets encased in sabots. Both pellet injectors are qualified for operation with tritium feed gas. Issues such as performance, neutron activation of injector components, maintenance, design of the pellet injection vacuum line, gas loads to the reprocessing system, and equipment layout are discussed. Results and plans for supporting research and development (R and D) in the areas of tritium pellet fabrication and high-velocity, repetitive two-stage pneumatic injectors are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Boerner, Vinzent; David J Johnston; Tier, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    International audience AbstractBackgroundThe major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, B...

  20. Preparation of Fluidization Feed of UO2 Pellets by Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of oxidation of uranium dioxide (UO2) pellets to thetri uranium octoxide (U3O8) powder had been carried. Several factor suchtemperature, time of oxidation and the concentration of air are important.The oxidation of UO2 pellet are carried out on electric furnace atatmosphere as media. The oxidation temperature started at 300 oC, 400 oC,500 oC, and 600 oC along 1 hour. The time oxidation removed to 2 hours and3 hours. The efficiency of oxidation are the ratio of the weight of thepowder product are the uranium content, true density, and specific surfacearea. Result the optimum temperature are 500 oC along 3 hours, uraniumcontent : 84.78%, true density: 8.8293 g/cm3 and specific surface area :0.389071 m2/g. (author)

  1. The heat exchanger of small pellet boiler for phytomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mičieta, Jozef; Lenhard, Richard; Jandačka, Jozef

    2014-08-01

    Combustion of pellets from plant biomass (phytomass) causes various troubles. Main problem is slagging ash because of low melting temperature of ash from phytomass. This problem is possible to solve either improving energetic properties of phytomass by additives or modification of boiler construction. A small-scale boiler for phytomass is different in construction of heat exchanger and furnace mainly. We solve major problem - slagging ash, by decreasing combustion temperature via redesign of pellet burner and boiler body. Consequence of lower combustion temperature is also lower temperature gradient of combustion gas. It means that is necessary to design larger heat exchanging surface. We plane to use underfed burner, so we would utilize circle symmetry heat exchanger. Paper deals design of heat exchanger construction with help of CFD simulation. Our purpose is to keep uniform water flux and combustion gas flux in heat exchanger without zone of local overheating and excess cooling.

  2. Simulation analysis of JT-60 pellet injection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of pellet fuelled plasmas in JT-60 has been investigated with a predictive tokamak transport code. The inward pinch of ∼0.2 m/sec at the half plasma radius and the reduced particle diffusion coefficient in the central region of 0.1 m2/s are necessary to explain the peaked density profile observed in the pellet fuelled plasma. These particle transport properties yield the improved energy confinement in the plasma with the strong particle source in the hot core region under the sawtooth suppression condition. The plasma current dependence of the improved stored energy can be explained by the assumption that the particle confinement is good within the q = 1 surface. (author)

  3. Fabrication characteristics of DUPIC fuel pellets at DFDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, based on the simulated DUPIC fuel fabrication experiment and DUPIC fuel characterization experiment at PIEF, DUPIC fuel manufacturing technologies and processes have been developed at DFDF(DUPIC Fuel Development Facility, IMEF M6). Using DUPIC powder prepared by the oxidation and reduction processes, the DUPIC fuel pellets were fabricated and characterized in terms of the process parameters such as the burn-up of spent fuel, compaction pressure, sintering temperature, and sintering time. As a result of the experiment, DUPIC pellets were characterized by 10.02 ∼ 10.43 g/cm3 of sintered density, 7.26 ∼ 9.48μm of grain size, and less than Ra 0.8μm of surface roughness at hot cell. The optimum DUPIC processes have been established based on the results of the experiment

  4. A device for stacking cylindrical pellets into a column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The machine according to the invention is characterized by two parallel shafts, slightly spaced apart for forming a track, said shafts being drived by a system of gears and forming an angle of e.g. 10 degrees with respect to the horizontal, in order that the pellets move downwardly along said track while rolling about themselves so as to form a column which is stopped by a movable stop-means, the latter being removed, whenever said columns has reached the desired height, so as to allow said column to be pushed into a receiver tube. Such a machine is suitable in particular for introducing pellets into the sheath of a fuel rod or element in a nuclear reactor

  5. Aiming for market leadership - from electricity utility to pellets manufacturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short article describes the plans of a small Swiss electricity utility to break out of its traditional role in power generation and the distribution of electricity and go into the production of wood pellets. The pellets, which are to be made from waste wood available from a wood processing facility in the utility's own region, are to be produced on a scale which can be described as being quite large for Switzerland. The article discusses this unusual approach for a Swiss power utility, which also operates a wood-fired power station and has diversified into other areas such as electrical house installations and overland power lines. The markets being aimed for are described, including modern low-energy-consumption housing projects

  6. Pellet bed reactor for multi-modal space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of forthcoming space power needs for both civil and military missions indicates that power requirements will be in tens of megawatts. It is envisioned that the electrical power requirements will be two-fold; long-duration low power will be needed for station keeping, communications and/or surveillance, while short-duration high power will be required for pulsed power devices. These power characteristics led to authors to propose a multi-modal space power reactor using a pellet bed design. Characteristics desired for such a multi-megawatt reactor power source are the following: standby, alert and pulsed power modes; high thermal output heat source (around 1000 MWt peak power); long lifetime standby power (10-30 yrs); high temperature output (1500-1750 K); rapid burst power transition; high reliability (>95%); and meets stringent safety requirements. The proposed pellet bed reactor concept is designed to satisfy these characteristics

  7. Analysis of Pelletizing of Granulometric Separation Powder from Cork Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Montero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cork industries generate a considerable amount of solid waste during their processing. Its management implies a problem for companies that should reconsider its reuse for other purposes. In this work, an analysis of pelletizing of granulometric separation powder, which is one of the major wastes in cork industries and which presents suitable properties (as an raw material for its thermal use, is studied. However, its characteristic heterogeneity, along with its low bulk density (which makes its storage and transportation difficult are restrictive factors for its energy use. Therefore, its densified form is a real alternative in order to make the product uniform and guarantee its proper use in boiler systems. Thus, the cork pellets (from granulometric separation powder in the study met, except for ash content specification, the specifications in standard European Norm EN-Plus (B for its application as fuel for domestic use.

  8. preparation of powders and pellets for UO2 fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the commercial nuclear power plants use uranium dioxide (UO2) as fuel due to physical and chemical properties of UO2. UO2 is a ceramic material it has low thermal conductivity and high melting point and therefore can be used in nuclear power plants. The nuclear grade uranium compounds are produced at Nuclear Fuel Technology Department of CNRTC using the following route: desolution and purification of yellow cake and precipitation of ammonium diuranate (ADU), calcination of ADU in air and reduction in hydrogen atmosphere to UO2. The UO2 powder characterized by specific surface area,particle size and O/U determinations. 0.2 % stearic acid is added to the UO2 powder and green pellets of 15 mm diameter are pressed. Hydraulic press with a floating die system and double pressing action is used. The gree pellets are then sintered

  9. Density gradients in ceramic pellets measured by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Density gradients are of fundamental importance in ceramic processing and computed tomography (CT) can provide accurate measurements of density profiles in sintered and unsintered ceramic parts. As a demonstration of this potential, the density gradients in an unsintered pellet pressed from an alumina powder were measured by CT scanning. To detect such small density gradients, the CT images must have good density resolution and be free from beam-hardening effects. This was achieved by measuring high-contrast (low-noise) images with the use of an Ir-192 isotopic source. A beam-hardening correction was applied. The resulting images are discussed relative to the transmission of forces through the powder mass during the pelletizing process

  10. Pellets de trigo e soja produzidos por extrusão Wheat and soybean pellets produced by extrusion-cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Huei Wang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A mistura de trigo e soja representa uma importante fonte calórico-protéica com proteínas de boa qualidade. Apesar disso, a utilização da soja como ingrediente tem sido limitada pelo seu sabor de feijão cru (beany flavor, o qual é melhorado pelo processo de extrusão. Foram estudados os efeitos de umidade da mistura, Temperatura de Barril (TB e Velocidade de Rotação de Parafuso (VRP, Nº 5 do extrusor no Índice de Expansão (IE, no Índice de Solubilidade em Água (ISA e nas características sensoriais de pellets produzidos com mistura de trigo e soja (90:10, objetivando a otimização deste processo para a obtenção de pellets fritos com melhores qualidades sensoriais. A farinha mista crua foi extrusada em 2 umidades (32 e 35%, 4 TB (60 a 90 °C e 4 VRP (60 a 150 rpm, totalizando 32 tratamentos. O pellet frito, preparado com a farinha mista com 32% de umidade e extrusada em 60 rpm a 80 °C, apresentou o maior IE e as melhores qualidades sensoriais (aparência, sabor e textura, sendo preferido pela equipe de provadores não treinados, tanto com sabor de bacon como com sabor de queijo.The mixture of wheat with soybean represents an important calorie-protein source with good protein quality. In spite of this, the use of soybeans as an ingredient has been limited by their beany flavor, which is improved by the extrusion process. Effects of mixture moisture, Barrel Temperature (BT and Screw-Speed (SS, Nº 5 on Expansion Index (EI, Water Solubility Index (WSI and sensory characteristics of pellets produced with a wheat-soybean (90:10 mixture were studied, in order to optimize this process for obtaining fried pellets with better sensory qualities. Raw mixed flour was extruded at two moisture contents (32 and 35%, four BT (60 to 90 °C and four SS (60 to 150 rpm, totalizing 32 treatments. The fried pellets, prepared with the mixed flour with 32% moisture and extruded at 60 rpm and 80 °C, presented the greatest EI and the best sensory

  11. Manufacturing of nuclear fuel pellets by using re-oxidized U3O8 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a commercial UO2 fuel pellets manufacturing process, defective UO2 pellets which do not meet the fuel specifications of density and diameter may be produced. Defective UO2 pellets should be reused in manufacturing new UO2 pellets. It is a common recycling method that defective UO2 pellets are oxidized in air at about 450 .deg. C to make U3O8 powder and then added to UO2 powder. Because the recycled U3O8 powder has very low sintering activity compared to the UO2 powder, it tends to decrease the density of UO2 pellets. Other pellet properties such as grain size and open porosity are a little degraded by the addition of the U3O8 powder. So the amount of the recycled U3O8 powder is generally not higher than 10 wt% in UO2 powder. There has been a series of work to deal with the heat treatments of the recycled U3O8 powder in order to improve its sintering activity. This paper deals with the recycling process of defective UO2 pellets or scraps. The defective UO2 pellets are oxidized to U3O8 powders at conventional temperature of 350 .deg. C and 450 .deg. C in air. Those powders are pressed into green pellets and then sintered at 1700 .deg. C in H2 flowing gas. Sintered pellets are reoxidized to U3O8 at 450 .deg. C in air. Re-oxidized powders are added to virgin UO2 powders to fabricate UO2 pellets. This paper shows that the re-oxidized U3O8 powder sizes and the BET surface areas are greatly dependent on the sintered density of UO2 pellets before oxidation. The re-oxidized U3O8 powders having a large BET surface area significantly promote a grain growth of UO2 pellets

  12. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  13. EMISSIONS CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESIDENTIAL PELLET BOILER AND A STOVE

    OpenAIRE

    Win, Kaung Myat; Persson, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from a residential pellet boiler and a stove are measured at a realistic 6-day operation sequence and during steady state operation. The aim is to characterize the emissions during each phase in order to identify when the major part of the emissions occur to enable actions for emission reduction where the savings can be highest. The characterized emissions comprised carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), total organic carbon (TOC) and particulate matter (...

  14. Design and Evaluation of Self-Nanoemulsifying Pellets of Repaglinide

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, N S; Nagarsenker, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of study was to develop self-nanoemulsifying pellets (SNEP) for oral delivery of poorly water soluble drug, repaglinide (RPG). Solubility of RPG in oily phases and surfactants was determined to identify components of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). The surfactants and cosurfactants were screened for their ability to emulsify oily phase. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify nanoemulsification area for the selected systems. SNEDDS formulations with glo...

  15. Heating system of pellet samples integrated with terahertz spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterczewski, L. A., E-mail: lukasz.sterczewski@pwr.edu.pl; Grzelczak, M. P.; Plinski, E. F. [Department of Electronics, Wroclaw University of Technology, 27 Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego St., 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2016-01-15

    This article describes automation of temperature-dependent terahertz spectroscopic experiments. The proposed dual-heater temperature controller based on a cascade proportional-integral-derivative algorithm provides smooth temperature changes in the polyethylene-based pharmaceutical pellet samples. The device has been integrated with a terahertz time-domain spectrometer. Thermodynamic experiments can now be performed without any probe inserted into the measured sample. Selected results of temperature-induced evolution in terahertz spectra are presented.

  16. Zooplankton fecal pellets link fossil fuel and phosphate deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, K.G.; Robbins, E.I.

    1981-01-01

    Fossil zooplankton fecal pellets found in thinly bedded marine and lacustrine black shales associated with phosphate, oil, and coal deposits, link the deposition of organic matter and biologically associated minerals with planktonic ecosystems. The black shales were probably formed in the anoxic basins of coastal marine waters, inland seas, and rift valley lakes where high productivity was supported by runoff, upwelling, and outwelling. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  17. Assessment of mechanical properties of pellets produced from biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závada, J.; Nadkanská, H.; Bouchal, T.; Šašek, Petr; Smatanová, N.

    Volume 1, Book 4. Sofie: International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference & EXPO SGEM, 2014, s. 33-40. ISBN 978-619-7105-15-5. ISSN 1314-2704. [International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference. Albena (BG), 20140619] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : pellets * biomass * biofuel * strength Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling http://www.sgem.org/sgemlib/spip.php?article4625&lang=en

  18. Analysis of Pelletizing of Granulometric Separation Powder from Cork Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Montero; Teresa Miranda; Francisco José Sepúlveda; José Ignacio Arranz; Sergio Nogales

    2014-01-01

    Cork industries generate a considerable amount of solid waste during their processing. Its management implies a problem for companies that should reconsider its reuse for other purposes. In this work, an analysis of pelletizing of granulometric separation powder, which is one of the major wastes in cork industries and which presents suitable properties (as an raw material) for its thermal use, is studied. However, its characteristic heterogeneity, along with its low bulk density (which makes ...

  19. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF METAPROLOL SUCCINATE EXTENDED RELEASE PELLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahishek Perumalla; Manivannan, R.; Nelluri Rama Rao; M. Radhakrishna; Devareddy Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    The aim and of the present study is to develop a pharmaceutically stable and quality improved formulation of Metoprolol succinate extended release pellets. To achieve this goal various prototype formulation trials were formulated and the evaluated with respect to the various quality controls such as dissolution, assay and stability studies will be under taken. Metoprolol succinate is used in the treatment of hyper tension, angina pectoris (chest pain) and myocardial infarction. The study was...

  20. Quality of Pelleted Olive Cake for Energy Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Tea Brlek; Neven Voća; Tajana Krička; Đuro Vukmirović; Radmilo Čolović

    2012-01-01

    Olive cake is by-product of olive oil production. This material cannot be stored in original condition for a long time because it has high water content and relatively high portion of oil that causes rapid deterioration. Thus it is necessary to investigate possible methods of remediation of such by-product, where utilization for energy generation presents a useful option. Several studies have been conducted on energy generation from olive cake, however not one that includes pelleting as a pre...